V14 N3 Summer 1987 The 'Oneonta' in the Columbia Gorge, circa 1870

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VOL. 14


NO. 3

THE ONEONTA IN THE COLUMBIA GORGE, CIRCA 1870 Dr. Jonathan M. Williams, M.D., from Bethesda, Maryland, provided a copy of this photograph to the Museum earlier this year. His grandfather, John Charles Williams, was the Oneonta's purser. We were very pleased with this addition to our photo archive, both because such comparatively early views are rare, and because it depicts the vessel in a different configuration than shown by other photographs of her. The

original print was by the Portland photographic studio of Buchtel and Stolte. The Oneonta was built in 1863 to be the Oregon Steam Navigation Company's crack boat on the middle Columbia. The Columbia was then still in its wild, natural state, and navigation of the river was broken into three distinct sections by the {continued on page 4/

BURLINGTON NORTHERN DONATIONS Just as this issue goes to the printer, it was announced that Burlington Northern, Inc. has donated their railroad depot, valued at $238,000, to the Museum. The matter has been under negotiation since last year. The depot is located just east of the Museum and includes surrounding property that will provide land vitally needed for any future growth of the Museum, including long range goals that have already been set. You can expect soon to receive further information concerning this major development and the Museum's plans for the depot buildings. In an earlier development, the Museum received a $10,000 grant to our general fund from the Burlington Northern Foundation during May. Needless to say, we are profoundly grateful for Burlington's generosity. From left: Representative Hanlon, Steve Recken, Governor Goldschmidt, and Mayor Hennigsgaard.

UPCOMING EVENTS SCHEDULE GOVERNOR SIGNS BICENTENNIAL RESOLUTION AT MUSEUM A resolution of the Oregon Legislature, calling for Oregon to join with Washington in staging a bicentennial commemoration in 1992 of the 200th ahniversary of the discovery of the Columbia River, was ceremonially signed in the Museum by Governor Neil Goldschmidt on June 29th. He was joined for the event by State Senator Joan Dukes, State Representative Tom Hanlon, and Astoria Mayor Edith Henningsgaard. Although no funding has yet been approved. the resolution calls for appointment of a committee of four to plan Oregon's participation. Two members each are to represent this museum and the Oregon Historical Society on the committee. Representative Hanlon was the sponsor of the resolution, which our former director, Michael Naab, helped draft during the previous legislative session. It is expected that events held for the commemoration, such as visits by historic sailing ships, might have a very significant positive impact on tourism in the Northwest. The Columbia River was first entered by a ship of a civilized nation on May 11, 1792. The river was discovered in the course of a fur trading voyage by the ship Columbia Rediviva (for which the river was named) of Boston, commanded by Captain Robert Gray. This event laid the earliest basis for any claim by the United States to territory in the Pacific Northwest, as well as opening for commercial use the largest river flowing into the Pacific from the Americas.

Lower Columbia Regatta Row-In August 15 (Saturday), 10:00 a.m. Please join our fun gettogether for all types of human-powered small craft, from kayaks and canoes to sizeable pulling boats. There will be a race, for those who wish to compete, with classes for all types of boats and the option of a 1.5 or 3-mile course. There is no entry fee . Ribbons will be awarded during a buffet lunch for participants afterwards. Our thanks to the Astoria Red Lion Inn, Anchor Graphics, and the Astoria Mooring Basins for helping sponsor the event. Contact Bruce Weilepp at the Museum for forms or more information.

Journeys Under the Sea August 22, 29 & September 5 (all Saturdays), 3:30-4:30 p.m. David Barrett, professional storyteller from Forest Grove, Oregon, will recount colorful folktales of the Japanese, Chinese, and the Indians of Oregon, British Columbia, and Alaska. All his stories will share the common theme of journeys in which people, often transformed into creatures of the deep, travel to undersea realms. The programs will be given in the Kern Room and are covered under the price of general admission to the Museum (free for members).

Band Concert August 23 (Sunday), 3:00 p.m. The North Coast Symphonic Band, conducted by James Smith of Cannon Beach, will conclude a series of free concerts. The performance will take place on the Museum plaza (weather permitting) .

Northwest Sentinels Revisited

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Arrangements for the visits of the Golden Hinde and Columbia Gorge at the Museum this spring would not have been possible without assistance from a number of organizations and individuals. We offer our sincere thanks for services and equipment provided by: Bergerson Enterprises, Gene Itzen, Knappton Corporation and the crew of the Irene, Lovell Auto Company, Esther Pernu, the Port of Astoria, and Wadsworth Electric, Inc.

September 6 (Sunday), 8:30 a.m. The Museum and the Oregon State University Sea Grant program will co-sponsor a repeat of the very popular all-day tour of our local light stations. The Columbia River "super buoy" will be included, as well as the former lighthouse at Tillamook Rock, Oregon and the operating lighthouses at Cape Disappointment and North Head, Washington. The cost is expected to be $55 per person for non-members and $45 for members. Space is strictly limited by boat capacity, so early action is advised. Call Carol Puderbaugh at (503) 325-2323 to make reservations.

CORPORATE MEMBERSHIP DRIVE The First Interstate Bank became our first corporate member a couple of years ago, after our board created a set of new corporate membership categories. A corporate membership drive is now under way, spearheaded by a committee of trustees chaired by John Altstadt. Thanks to the vigorous efforts of our trustees, several companies have recently joined, including Northwest Natural Gas, Portland General Electric, the U.S. National Bank of Oregon, and Western Transportation Company. The corporate membership program and the current recruiting drive promise to add a significant source of new funding that is vitally needed, if the Museum is to continue growing and improving. Our thanks for the generosity of the companies and the hard work of our recruiters!

PARK SERVICE DIVERS TO VISIT The Submerged Cultural Resources Team of the National Park Service is presently scheduled to work in the Columbia from August 20th to August 27th. If conditions on the site permit, they will dive on the Sand Island wreck, which we believe to be the Isabella. They intend to experiment with the use of a sophisticated mapping system that uses computer technology, due to the poor underwater visibility prevalent on the site. The team will also be working at Fort Vancouver National Historic Site, investigating the location of the fort's original Hudson's Bay Company wharf.

• THE FLYING FINN EXHIBITED The Flying Finn, an 11.3-foot outboard hydroplane, was exhibited by the Museum in a special display at the 1987 Wooden Boat Show at the World Forestry Center in Portland on the weekend of July 25-26. Constructed mostly of spruce and mahogany, the little racer was designed and built, about 1929, by Levi Sarajarvi. The Morning Astorian of September 18, 1929 described her first racing performance this way: Cutting through the water at a speed that sent the spray flying for yards, his boat now and then bounding high in the air, Levi Sarajarvi, Astoria, yesterday morning

The Flying Finn racing at the Port of Astoria

Levi Sarajarvi in the Flying Finn

drove his hydroplane the "Flying Finn" to victory in both the Class Band the free-for-all outboard races at the county fair. It was Sarajarvi's ability to handle his craft at the turns and in rough water that contributed largely to his winning the race. His boat was only slightly more speedy, if any at all, than several of the others. He had little difficulty in winning the Class B event, finishing almost a quarter of a mile in front of his nearest competitor. The final heat of the free-for-all was a race all the way. The boats started well with the "Webfoot" taking an early lead and the "Flying Finn" in second place . Before half a lap had been covered Jack Hallberg had forced his "Felix" into second place and the "Flying Finn" and the "Pancake" driven by Axel Englund were about neck and neck in third place. At the end of the first lap the order was the same with the exception that the "Pancake" had fallen a little behind. The other three boats held their places until the far end of the course was reached on the second lap. Then Sarajarvi put the propeller to his "Flying Finn" and roared past "Felix" and into a close race with "Webfoot." At the first turn at the outer end of the course SaraJarvi had been forced out of the course by the tide and had lost some headway. This time Olsen was forced out, although not so far as Sarajarvi had been before, and this gave the "Flying Finn" the opportunity to gain a slight lead by the time the boats reached the smooth water of the slip. Then both opened the throttles wide and roared down the home stretch, Sarajarvi finishing about half a length in the lead. The "Flying Finn" was equipped with a 16 h.p. Johnson motor in both races.

In 1930 Sarajarvi' s boat went on to finish first in a 4.5-mile outboard race near Spokane, Washington, win the Class Band free-for-all races at the Cathlamet Regatta, and take both Class B events at the Clatsop County Fair. Credit for preservation of the Flying Finn goes to Mr. Elmer Raitanen, who found it languishing in a Youngs River barn. He purchased the boat and eventually gave it to the Museum in 1984.

THE ONEONTA (CONTINUED) impassable rapids at Celilo and the Cascades. Below the Cascades was the lower Columbia, the long section above Celilo comprised the upper river, and the relatively short stretch between the rapids in the Gorge area was the middle Columbia. All passengers and freight bound upriver had to leave one boat, at a landing just below the Cascades, to be portaged around the rapids on a short railway, after which they were reloaded on another boat above the Cascades. This same laborious and expensive procedure had to be repeated at another portage around Celilo Falls-and, of course, downriver traffic went through it all in reverse order. But there was no other practical transportation option at that time, since significant railroads and highways did not yet exist in the Northwest. Samuel Forman built the Oneonta under the supervision of famed Columbia River steamboat designer Jacob Kamm. She was big: 497 tons, 165 feet long, 30 feet broad, 7.2-foot depth in hold, powered by steam engines of 18-inch bore and 72-inch stroke. The boat approached the luxurious style of Mississippi River packet construction more closely than other steamers on the Columbia: As originally built, she carried twin smokestacks set well forward of her pilothouse and was driven by sidewheels, which were soon to be virtually abandoned on the Columbia, where it was found that a sternwheel provided greater power and maneuverability in the swift currents and narrow, rocky channels. Apparently as a concession to Northwest weather, however, there was a full-length cabin deck, and the freight deck was housed over out to the guards. Not only was the Oneonta beautiful and comfortable, she was very expensive to operate. That did not matter much, however, when she was built, for the Oregon Steam Navigation Company had been fortunate enough to incorporate in 1860, just in time to capitalize on the great mining boom then starting in the inland areas of the Pacific Northwest. The rush was on, and the O.S.N. had the only good way to get to the big strikes! Transportation rates soared and the Oregon Steam Navigation Company made enormous profits, by the standards of the time. John McNulty was the Oneonta's first captain and remained in command until 1869, during which year she was rebuilt at Collins Landing by John Gates, Chief Engineer of the O.S.N. It must have been at this time that her twin smokestacks were removed and replaced by a single stack behind the pilothouse (as shown in the photo) in the style typical for steamboats of the Far West. By 1870, the Northwest boom was rapidly waning, as the richer veins of gold were mined out, and there was no longer enough business to keep the O.S.N. boats busy. Their profits fell because freight rates and passenger fares had to be lowered as the demand dropped. Consequently, the company instituted a policy of retrenchment in 1870. It withdrew from Puget Sound, retired a few old steamboats, and brought several others down from the upper reaches of the river system. This was carried out by the spectacular expedient of shooting the rapids during high water, when many of the dangerous rocks were submerged. Two small steamers were brought through Cabinet Rapids on the Clark Fork to Pend Oreille Lake in Idaho. The Shoshone, incredibly, made it down Hells Canyon

on the Snake River and then, like the Nez Perce Chief, shot Celilo Falls to run on the middle Columbia. On June 29, 1870, Captain John C. Ainsworth, President of the Oregon Steam Navigation Company, personally took command of the Oneonta and safely piloted her through the boiling rapids of the Cascades to the lower river. The Oneonta was then placed on the route between Portland and the Cascades. Her new captain was German-born John H. Wolf, who remained in command until 1877. During the Oneonta's first year on the lower river, a rate war took place with a rival company on the Portland-Vancouver run. Freight charges fell to $ 1.00 per ton, and passengers were carried for free! The working life of most steamboats was not long, as they wore out quickly, due to their light construction. The Oneonta had already exceeded the average career, therefore, when her reconstruction as a barge commenced in 1877, but her demise as a steamer was probably hastened by the expense of running her and the reduced profitability of steamboating. Even her diminished role as a barge soon came to an end, as she was officially abandoned January 24, 1880.




COMPUTER PROJECT UNDER WAY The Museum ventured into the realm of modern computer technology earlier this year with the purchase of a Cordata PC400 microcomputer, complete with hard disk data storage unit, printer, and necessary programs. Office Manager Carol Puderbaugh and Office Assistant John Capps are presently well into the big task of entering data for automating the processing of our memberships and memorials. The success of these programs has grown to the point where continuing to maintain accurate manual records is excessively cumbersome. The computerization will eliminate a great deal of needless retyping of the same information, ease the process of getting out mailings, and enable us to compile useful statistics that were never practicable to extract manually. Some mistakes will doubtless be made, but every effort is being made to design a system that will not annoy our members and donors with the kind of errors that tend to occur when a "dumb" computer is allowed to replace human decision making. Therefore, we expect to make a fairly smooth transition to the new system during the upcoming quarter. Meanwhile, an Amiga computer donated last year by Bioproducts, Inc. is being used extensively for word processing. In fact, the articles for this and the previous two issues of the Quarterdeck Review have been written on the Amiga, which has greatly facilitated the speed and ease of making editorial changes.


Row-In: Bruce Weilepp's Vancouver gig in foreground

Betty Phillips gives concert on Len Vernon's 1923 calliope (mounted on his 1916 Oldsmobile ¾-ton truck).

Volunteers from seamanship program at Tongue Point Job Corps Center give breeches buoy drill.

Young visitors participate in Bill Barrett's rope-making demonstration.

NEW MEMBERS, INCREASED SUPPORT(*), APRIL 1 - JUNE 30, 1987 CORPORATE STEWARD Northwest Natural Gas LIFE Mr. & Mrs. Robley L. Mangold* Mr. David Osburn Mr. Jerry Zebor PILOT Dr. Stephen L. Recken • Mr. & Mrs. L.F. Van Dusen SUSTAINING Mr. & Mrs. John R. Brooke* The Daily Astorian SUPPORTING Mr. & Mrs. Robert W. Gamble* Mr. & Mrs. James E. Hamil, Aurora, CO Mr. & Mrs. Marsh Hoffman* Mr. & Mrs. Bob Jones* Dr. & Mrs. Robert Neikes* Mr. James A. Ochal, Kent, WA Mr. Charles B. Saucy* Mr. & Mrs. Robert Scheve* CONTRIBUTING Mr. & Mrs. Robert C. Anderson• Dr. & Mrs. Philip Bales Mr. & Mrs. Jerry Boisvert• Mr. & Mrs. Kay Bredleau

Mr. George Exum - Ms. Carol Carver, Cathlamet, WA* Mr. & Mrs. Robert E. Frame* Capt. A.G. Graham, Victoria, B.C. • Mr. Hank Harrison* Ms. Dorothy R. Mickelson• Mr. John Niemi, Jr., San Francisco, CA• Mr. & Mrs. Donald 0. Nelson Miss Jane Robinson Mr. & Mrs. Anton Sistek Mr. & Mrs. Prentice L. Wallace Mr. Bruce W. Weir, Vancouver, WA• Mr. Bill White Rev. & Mrs. Bernard Young• ANNUAL Mr. William J. Allen Mr. & Mrs. Fred Bicagalupi Mr. & Mrs. Robert Caspell Mr. & Mrs. Tom Caspell Mr. V.J. Davidson, Moscow, ID Mr. & Mrs. Michael Davis Mr. Thomas Downer, Ocean Park, WA Dr. & Mrs. Charles Dyer Mr. Richard A. Ecker Electric Norm Mr. & Mrs. Don Glenz Mr. & Mrs. David Haskell Mr. & Mrs. William Hawks Mr. Russ Helmeid M.P. Hernandez

Mrs. Donna Hitchman Miss Barbara E. Hosier Mr. & Mrs. Charles Hughes, Maitland, FL Mr. & Mrs. John R. Kalander Mr. & Mrs. Gary Katz C.C. Knudsen, Seattle, WA Mr. Robert N. Kussman, Tacoma, WA Mrs. Louise Larson Mr. & Mrs. Gary Lenhard Mr. & Mrs. Mike Mahnke Mr. Gerald W. Markel Mrs. Bernice Mathre Miss Lorrie McLaughlin, Spokane, WA Mr. & Mrs. Donald Merila Mr. & Mrs. John Morris Mr. & Mrs. William A. Nerenberg Mr. & Mrs. Lloyd Roalsens Mr. & Mrs. Wayne Robbins Mrs. Pat Samuelson Mr. & Mrs. James Servino Mr. Frank Tarabochia Mr. Blaine L. Vernon Mr. William L. Vernon Ms. Colleen M. Warren Mr. & Mrs. Tom White Ms. Delia Whitfield, Issaquah, WA Mr. & Mrs. Lane Wintermute Mr. & Mrs. Nicholas Zorich, Jr. STUDENT Master Jeffrey Paul Smith


RUTH CALDERWOOD Mrs. Wilma A. Berg Mr. & Mrs. A.J. L' Amie

Mr. & Mrs. Andrew E. Grove Mr. & Mrs. Herbert L. Hansen Mr. Carl Hanson Mrs. Mabel Herold Mr. & Mrs. Einar Hjorten Mr. & Mrs. Mel Hjorten Mr. & Mrs. Howard Hughes Mr. & Mrs. David Isakson Mrs. Violet Isakson Mrs. Agnes M. Jeppesen Mr. & Mrs. Carl Johnson Mr. Raymond V. Johnson Ms. Jeanette Knipsel Mrs. Fannie Lampi Mr. & Mrs. Harry Larson Mr. & Mrs. William U. Malmberg Mr. & Mrs. Robert Miller Mr. R. Owen Oja Mr. & Mrs. Richard Oja Mr. Gary L. Ordway Mr. & Mrs. Carl Paronen Mr. Emil J. Perkins Mr. & Mrs. David Pretzer Mr. & Mrs. Ray Raihala Mr. Mrs. Frank E. Ross Ms. Virginia Shepherd Ms. C. Bernice Simonsen Mr. & Mrs. Truman Slotte Mr. & Mrs. Ron Smith Mr. & Mrs. Richard S. Sorenson Mr. & Mrs. Carl Tolonen Mr. & Mrs. Stanley Wahl Mr. & Mrs. F.A. Waisanen Mr. & Mrs. Bob Wartelle Mr. & Mrs. Jon Westerholm Randy & Dale Yackley

MARGARET CURNOW Mr. & Mrs. Norman Forney

ELFRIEDA FAIRLEY Mrs. Edith L. Randall

IVAN "SKIP" DAHLGREN Capt. & Mrs. James Lessard

PEARL GIEB Ms. Virginia Goodrich

KENYON DAVIDSON Mr. & Mrs. Carroll Seabold

SVEN ANDERS GIMRE Mr. & Mrs. Roy Duoos Mr. & Mrs. A.J. L'Amie

ROBERT V. ALTO Mr. & Mrs. James O'Connor MAUREEN LUTHE ANDRADE Mr. & Mrs. Ken W. Luthe CLIFFORD Mr. & Mrs. Mr. & Mrs. Mr. & Mrs.

W. ANET Arnold Seeborg Denny Thompson Dick Thompson

GARDA M. ANGEVINE Ms. Hilda Andersen Ms. Ragna M. Brown Mr . & Mrs. Alf Dahl Mr. & Mrs. Frank E. Ross MARY LOUISE BARRETT Mr. & Mrs. Eugene Lowe CHUCK BATES Knappton Corporation FRANK & JOSEPHINE BAUMAN Mr. Frank Bauman, II JENNIE M. BOWLSBY Mr. & Mrs. Carl H. Tolonen Mrs. Helen Utli

FAYE DICKINSON Mr. & Mrs. J.R. Thompson DALE ESTOOS Mr. & Mrs. Richard Adams & Family Mr. & Mrs. Joseph S. Addison Mr. & Mrs. Elton Anderson Mr. & Mrs. Robert Anderson Mrs. Joy R. Black Mr. & Mrs. Arne Bohm Mr. Henry M. Boyle Brownsmead Grange #822 Mr. & Mrs. Steven G. Burke Columbia Memorial Hospital Nursing Staff Mr. & Mrs. Lyman Cornish Mr. & Mrs. Paul Dessen & Family Mr. & Mrs. James A. Elliott Mr. & Mrs. George Emken Mr. & Mrs. Arthur Fick Mr. & Mrs. Arthur J. Filliger Mrs. Lucy Gerttula Mr. & Mrs. J.E. Griffith

CHARLES OWEN GULLICKSON Mr. & Mrs. Leonard Truitt HAROLD L. HADDAN Mr . & Mrs. Lloyd Halsan KEN HALL Mr. Allan J. Bernhoff Mr. Clarence Johnson Lt. Col. HOLLAND Wm . HANKEL Mr. & Mrs. Charles Hansen HOLDEN HAUKE Mrs. Donovan Hoy ANNE E. HILDEBRAND Mrs. Jeanne F. Knutsen Mr. Harvey C. Rones LEMP! E. HILL Mr. & Mrs. Clarence Dreyer

JOHN "CAL" HOIKKA Mr. & Mrs. Donald Brunner D.V. HOLMAN Honeyman-Brink Co. BERNARD HOWE Buddy Hoell/Rae Goforth Dr. & Mrs. Robert Heikes DONOVAN "BILL" HOY Mrs. Donovan Hoy RICHARD "DICK" HUGHES Buddy Hoell/Rae Goforth AMANDA HUMBERG Mr. & Mrs. George Emken Mr. Henry Hummasti Mr. & Mrs. Elmer Johnson Ms. Hazel Kujala Mrs. Bertha K. Lee Mr. & Mrs. Jeff Lynn Ms. Saima Neimenen Mr. & Mrs. Roy Salmi Mr. Niilo Salminen TED IVARIE Mr. & Mrs. James O'Connor Mr. & Mrs. Bob Palmrose BLANCHE JENSEN Mr. & Mrs. Wm. R. Whitten, Sr. LILA JOHNSON Mr. & Mrs. Jon Bue Mr. & Mrs. Harry Johns Mr. & Mrs. A.J. Matson Mr. & Mrs. Arvi Ostrom Mr. & Mrs. Mike Riva Ms. Ann Roberts ADOLPHE J. KERBEL The Gulls Investment Club Mr. & Mrs. Denny Thompson Mr. & Mrs. L.F. Van Dusen MARY HILJA KIISKI Ms. Mary Autio Ms. Edith Dahl BETTY KING Ms. Irene Ochal Ms. Theresa Wilson RICHARD B. KNOTTS Mr. & Mrs. Roderick Gramson Mr. & Mrs. Carl H. Tolonen ALFRED LAWRENCE Mr. & Mrs. James O'Connor Karl, Lolly & Gladys Salo ALBERT P. MAGNUSON Mr. & Mrs. James O'Connor BERT MATTSON Mr. & Mrs. George Andresen Mrs. Donovan Hoy

CARTER MEYER Mr. & Mrs. George Blinco Knappton Corporation Sunrise Shipping Agency VIDA MILLER Ms. Joan Jacer DYMON MOOERS Mrs. Dale Estoos RALPH MORROW Mr. George Abrahamsen Mr. & Mrs. Howard Anderson Mr. & Mrs. Warren E. Bechtolt Mr. & Mrs. Ernest Brown Mr. & Mrs. Don Brunner Mrs. Nora Bue Mr. & Mrs. Howard Burns Mrs. Vera Craig Ms. Judith A. Dean Capt. & Mrs. Dale Dickinson Mr. & Mrs. Don Doran Mr. & Mrs. Trygve Duoos Ms. Ethelyn Erbe Mr. & Mrs. George Fulton Robert, Sharon & Kristina Garabeldian Mr. & Mrs. Roderick Gramson Mr. & Mrs. John Hill Mrs. Frances Hoare The Huckestein Family Mr. & Mrs. Richard Jackson Mrs. Elsie Jarvinen Mr. & Mrs. Gunnar Johanson Mr. & Mrs. Ragnor 0. Johnson Mr. & Mrs. James Kindred Mr. & Mrs. Elmer Koskelo Mr. & Mrs. A.J. L' Amie Mr. & Mrs. Don Landwehr Ms. Loraine Leahy Mr. & Mrs. Eugene Lowe Mr. & Mrs. Ed Lundholm Mr. & Mrs. Ken W. Luthe Ms. Rosemary Malen Mr. & Mrs. Loran Mathews Mr. & Mrs. Loran Mattson Mrs. Clara E. Miles Dr. & Mrs. R.P. Moore Mr. & Mrs. R.A. Mund Mr. & Mrs. Steve Mund Capt. & Mrs. Kenneth McAlpin Mr. Michael Naab Dr. & Mrs. Robert Neikes Mrs. J.E. Niemi Lt. Col. & Mrs. Victor Nunenkamp Mr. & Mrs. Eldred Olson Mr. & Mrs. Arthur Olsvick The Palo Family Mr. & Mrs. Richard Paulsen Mr. & Mrs. Osmo Perkiomaki Ms. Leona A. Perkins Mr. & Mrs. Larry Peterson Mrs. Hazel Riswick Mr. Harvey C. Rones Mr. & Mrs. Frank E. Ross Mr. & Mrs. Hugh Seppa Mr. & Mrs. Harold Snow Mr. & Mrs. James Stacy Mrs. Jordis Tetli Mr. & Mrs. Frank Thorsness Mr. & Mrs. Carl Tolonen

Mr. & Mrs. J. Dan Webster Mr. & Mrs . Fleming Wilson Mr. & Mrs. Lyle Wolford CAPT. WILLIAM G. McCALLUM Mr. & Mrs. H.E. Churchley Condolidated Freightways Mrs. Hazel Drake Mr. & Mrs. Richard Eby Mrs. Lyle Keeler Mr. & Mrs . Norbert Keim Dorance A. Soule DICK McCARTER Mr. James T. Clune Mr. & Mrs. Eric Hauke, III BERNICE McCRUM Mrs. Wilma A. Berg Buddy Hoell/Rae Goforth Mr. & Mrs. James O'Connor JOHN EDWARD NIEMI Mr. & Mrs. Ken W. Luthe RILEY B. OSBORN Andrew Young & Family BIRGER F. OSTERLUND Mr. & Mrs. Irving Iverson Mrs.' Jordis Tetli MARY REGIS POELL Mr. & Mrs. Ralph Abrahamson Mrs. Jeanne Knutsen Mr. & Mrs. A.J. L' Amie Mr. & Mrs. Charles Mestrich Capt. & Mrs. Kenneth McAlpin Dr. & Mrs. Robert Neikes Mr. & Mrs. Martin Nygaard Herb & Dave Palmberg GEORGE PALMROSE Mr. & Mrs. John Palmrose IDA S. POIKILA Mr. & Mrs. Karlo Karna WILLIAM RAIHALA Mr. & Mrs. Alf Dahl Mr. & Mrs. Carl Tolonen EDWARD ROGERS Buddy Hoell/Rae Goforth Mr. Ernest Kairala Mr. & Mrs. A.J. L' Amie Mrs. Elsie C. Osterlund ARVI SEVERSON Mr. & Mrs. Alan Takalo TOIVO SIMENSON Mr. & Mrs. Carl Tolonen JOHN C. SNIDECOR Mrs. J.C. Snidecor JOHN C. SPITZER, USN, Ret. Buddy Hoell/Rae Goforth

DONALD STACY Pacific Carbide & Alloys Co. MARSHALL STANGELAND Florence E. Jacobson JAMES D. STRACHAN Mr. George Abrahamsen Mr. James T. Clune RUTH MELSOME TAYLOR P.L. Cosovich MARIA SOPHIA THOMPSON Mr. & Mrs. Ken W . Luthe PAUL DENNIS "CASEY" THOMPSON Mr. & Mrs . Ken W. Luthe


EMMETT TOWLER Mr. & Mrs. Clarence Dreyer "ONEY" HERRIK UTTERBERG Buddy Hoell/Rae Goforth Mrs. Elsie Osterlund Mr. & Mrs. Carl Paronen RICHARD "RIP" VAN WINKLE Ms. Lou Ann Aldrich Mr. & Mrs. Victor Berger Mr. & Mrs. David Beugli Ms. Eleanor Caples Mr. James T. Clune Mr. & Mrs. Trygve Duoos Mrs. Grace V. Eliasen Mr. & Mrs. Don R. Fisher Ms. Myrtle Fletcher Mr. Leonard J. Hansen Mr. Gene Jaques Mr. & Mrs. Curt Johnson Mr. & Mrs. Myron E. Jones Mrs. Ila Rae Juola Mr. & Mrs. A.J. L' Amie Mr. & Mrs. Robert Lovell Mr. & Mrs. William Maki Mr. & Mrs. Gilbert Marxen Mayer Bros. Jan Morris & Family Netel Grange #410 Mr. & Mrs. Dale Osborn Pacific Grange #413 Mr. Harvey C. Rones Mr. & Mrs. Wesley Shaner Mr. Richard Sorenson Mrs. Dorothy E. Spiker Mr. & Mrs. Philip Stuart Mr. & Mrs. Carl H. Tolonen Mr. & Mrs. Travis Tyrrell Mr. & Mrs. Ed Weber Mr. & Mrs. Gordon Wolfgram Mr. Andrew Young NAHUM "SHORTY" WARD Buddy Hoell ROBERT N. WILLIAMSON Mr. & Mrs. Arnold Curtis ROBERT WIRKKALA Mrs. Dale Estoos





SPECIAL GIFTS APRIL 1 -JUNE 30, 1987 Burlington Northern Foundation Mr. & Mrs. Edward Rosenfeld Pacific Northwest Bell The Wheeler Foundation



$500 per year


$250 per year


$100 per year

$1,000 single payment

□ Supporting □ Contributing

$50 per year

□ Annual □ Student

$15 per year

$25 per year

$7.50 per year

NAME _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

ADDRESS_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __


CITY _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

STATE _ _ _ __

ZIP _ _ _ __

Mrs. A.A. Honeyman

GIFT SHOP HOLDS THE FORT Our gift shop currently is stocking three books pertaining to the subject of coastal defense. Those interested in making purchases by mail should contact Patricia Longnecker, Shop Manager. Two prices are cited for each work; the lower one reflects the discount price offered to our members only. The Cape Forts: Guardians of the Columbia, by Marshall Hanft. Oregon Historical Society Press, revised edition, 1973. Paperback, $3.95/$3.55 (members). Mr. Hanft's work deals with the history of the three forts built to guard the mouth of the Columbia River from enemy attack: Fort Stevens, Oregon, Fort Canby, Washington, and Fort Columbia, Washington. The book is very strong on the early history and design of these forts, especially Fort Stevens, but deals with later developments rather sketchily. Seacoast Fortifications of the United States: An Introductory History, by Emanuel R. Lewis. Presidio Press, 2nd ed., 1979.




ISSN 0891-2661

Paperback, $9.95/$8.95 (members). This is the only history covering coast defense forts throughout the United States and its territories. Lewis deals not only with the design and armament of the forts from 1794 through World War II, but also explains the strategic and political concepts involved in the nation's extensive programs of coastal fortification. Silent Siege: Japanese Attacks Against North America in World War II, by Bert Webber. Ye Galleon Press, 1984. Hardcover, $22.50/$20.25 (members). Webber presents a detailed account of Japan's little-known direct attacks on North America by means of submarines, seaplane bombers, incendiary balloons, etc., and the defensive measures adopted by the U.S. and Canada. Much of this story has never been widely told because it was shrouded in security restrictions until the war ended, and was then largely forgotten.

Non-Profit Organization U.S. POSTAGE

PA ID Astoria, Oregon Permit No. 209

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