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@7::a=8\>5<49=>87!*!(.!62#!68(.200#!0#%$&!)#+!6t!2+&!6*%(*!'(!*6$*%+&.($7!0#6($(8*!*! +*/&$(8*B! R;&'#3(#+*! '*(! +*$u#%H! )#1*! 1#'*..#! (10.()&! '*..*! $2%S#.*+3*l! )A*! 0#66#+#!/*+*%*&%*!*!6#6$*+*%*!2+#!6$&$#!'(!12$&1*+$#Q)%(6(!)#+$(+2#B!=%*'#!)A*! 6(&!0*%!q2*6$#!)A*!(.!%()#%6#!&.!$*%1(+*!5=I>:J9=>87!o!$&+$#!'(5526#!*!0*%!)*%$(!8*%6(! /(26$(5()&$#\B! c2&+'#! 6(! 8&.2$&! (.! 0#$*+3(&.*! '*..*! %*$(! '&.! 02+$#! '(! 8(6$&! '*/.(! /.(! &$$#%(! )A*! *+$%&+#! &! 5&%+*! 0&%$*l! 6(! 0&%.&! '(! 7A67584:=6G' 3>A=6=I7[! &'! *6*10(#! o! 2+! 8&.#%*! .&! 1#.$(0.()&3(#+*! *60#+*+3(&.*! '*..*! 0#66(S(.($7! '(! )#++*$$*%6(! &'! &.$%(! 1*1S%(n! *6$*%+&.($7! 0#6($(8&! o! .;&))*66#! &! 2+&! 1#.$*0.()($7! '(! %(6#%6*! j)&0($&.*! 21&+#! )#+! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 3

La rete diventa come l’acqua, una risorsa di base e auspicabilmente un bene comune, la tecnologia abilitante che può innescare spirali virtuose per la crescita di un Paese. Purtroppo un esempio di miopia di governo nell’uso delle reti nel Nord del mondo viene proprio dall’Italia: nonostante che nel nostro Paese non ci sia stata una politica di incentivo di alcun tipo, dal 2005 al 2009 l’economia digitale ha contribuito per il 14% alla crescita del PIL e negli ultimi 15 anni ha creato in autonomia circa 700.000 nuovi posti di lavoro collegati al Web (al netto degli impieghi persi un contributo di 320.000 unità). Al vertice della classifica dell’indice di “prontezza sulle reti” c’è come prevedibile la Svezia (5,94) che precede Singapore (5,86) e Finlandia (5,81). Attualmente l’economia digitale costituisce per l’Italia solo il 2% del PIL, mentre ad esempio in Francia pesa oltre il 3%. Si stima che L’economia digitale italiana possa arrivare a contribuire fino al 4% del PIL con un impatto indiretto, calcola lo studio, di ulteriori 20 miliardi di euro. [da una ricerca condotta da Ericsson, Arthur D. Little e dalla Chalmers University of Technology]

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Definita da Robert Metcalfe, l'ideatore delle reti Ethernet, la Legge di Metcalfe afferma che "L'utilità e il valore di una rete sono pari ad n^2 - n dove n è il numero degli utenti"

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PN!

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Relazione della banca d'investimenti Goldman Sachs del 2003 - Dreaming with BRICs: The Path to 2050; « Global Economics. Paper» n. 99, The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc., 1st October 2003. 6 PIIGS=Portogallo, Irlanda, Italia, Grecia, Spagna: sono i Paesi europei caratterizzati da una scarsa competitività dell'economia nazionale che rende la capacità di ripagare l’elevato debito pubblico mettendo a rischio la stabilità dell’economia. mondiale 7 Naomi Klein, Shock economy, Rizzoli editore, 2007.

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8 IATE, banca dati multilingue dell'UE. digital divide(en)-divario digitale (it)!! 9 Discorso di Al Gore, 10 ottobre 1996 , Knoxville, Tennessee) 10 http://punto-informatico.it/3065529/PI/News/cina-un-anno-grande-muraglia-digitale.aspx

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“Un learning object è ogni risorsa digitale che può essere riutilizzata per supportare l’apprendimento” (D. A. Wiley). Si possono definire sono risorse per l’apprendimento di tipo modulare, autoconsistenti, riusabilità in diversi contesti e con diversi dispositivi, e la loro diffusione si è dovuta alle esigenze di risparmio di tempi e costi nella fase di progettazione e produzione dei materiali didattici 12 http://www.moodle.org 13 http://www.google.com/apps/intl/it/edu/

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Evidence Based Education: orientamento della ricerca educativa mutuato dallâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;ambito medico che si fonda sul saper utilizzare, comparare e sintetizzare i risultati di una ricerca scientifica per produrre una sintesi delle conoscenze su un certo problema (Calvani 2011a). 15

Wikipedia. (2011). Khan Academy. Educational Technology. Retrieved from http://www.khanacademy.org

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Nel quadro del "Project 10 to the 100 " http://www.google.com/onceuponatime/project10tothe100/

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“[…] Khan Academy is not education reform and it is nothing special or new. It is actually bad pedagogy. Learning needs to be interactive and student centered. Video lectures are neither.”19 ?+! %*&.$7! q2*6$&! )%($()&! +#+! $(*+*! )#+$#! '*..;&60*$$#! 0(p! (++#8&$(8#! '*.! 6(6$*1&! VA&+!)A*!$%#8&!*60%*66(#+*!+*.!'#1(+(#!'*..&!1&$*1&$()&B!L.$%*!&..*!8('*#!.*3(#+(! 6#+#! 0%*6*+$(! 62.! 6($#! 2+&! 6*%(*! '(! *6*%)(3(! &./#%($1()(! )#%%*.&$(! &(! :7458=8H'>;r7D6! $%&61*66(! 8(&! G#2$2S*B! c2*6$(! *6*%)(3(! 6#+#! '(! $(0#! &'&$$(8#! *! 0%#/%*66(8#! *! 6#+#! 6$%2$$2%&$(! )#+! 2+! 6(6$*1&! '(! 0%*1(! *! %()#10*+6*! 6(1S#.()A*! jA>D=4:' ;4@H7Ak! )A*! )#+5(/2%&+#!/.(!*6*%)(3(!)#1*!2+!I=@7>H4<7'A>D=4:7B!?+!$&.*!&1S(*+$*!(+$*%&$$(8#!.#! 6$2'*+$*! o! (10*/+&$#! (+! 2+&! 0%#/%*66(#+*! (+$*%&$$(8&! *! '(+&1()&! $%&! .*3(#+(! *'! *6*%)(3(l!1&!+#+!o!6#.#!'(!5%#+$*!&.!8('*#B!M;!)#<0%*6*+$*!)#+!.2(!2+;(+$*%&!)#12+($7! '(! 62#(! 0&%(! )A*! 6(! 65('&! (+! 2+! /(#)#! %*&.1*+$*! &! /2&'&/+#! )#+'(8(6#! '#8*! (.! %()#+#6)(1*+$#!6#)(&.*!'*..;(+$*..(/*+3&!*!'*(!0%#/%*66(!o!(.!0%(1#!0%*1(#!(+!0&.(#B!?.! 8&.#%*! '*..&! VA&+! J)&'*1G! +#+! )#+6(6$*! +*..#! 60(+/*%*! /.(! 6$2'*+$(! &.! 6#.(06(61#! *'2)&$(8#! #! &'! *8($&%*! .&! %*.&3(#+*! 5%#+$&.*! )#+! 0&%(! *! (+6*/+&+$(n! &.! )#+$%&%(#! (! :7458=8H'>;r7D6! '(! VA&+! 0#66#+#! *66*%*! 2$(.(33&$(! prima della lezione a casa o in classe come 486=D=346>5='i%JAJ;7:'0RZFj )#+!52+3(#+*!'(!6)&55#.'(+/NO!)#/+($(8&!0*%! 5&)(.($&%*!.;&00%*+'(1*+$#!*!%*+'*%*!0(p!*55()&)*!.&!.*3(#+*!/2('&$&!'&.!'#)*+$*l!#%&! 0(p!.(S*%#!'(!(+'(8('2&.(33&%*!.;&3(#+*!'('&$$()&!0*%!(!62#(!6$2'*+$(B! !

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Le “Open educational resources” (OER) sono materiali didattici e risorse offerte gratuitamente e in formato open a chiunque che può usarli, modificarli, migliorarli e ridistribuirli. Comprendono materiale didattico e Learning Objects fino ad includere pratiche didattiche, cioè nuovi modi di agire nei confronti degli studenti, nuovi tipi di relazione fra insegnanti e allievi. Questa la defizione delle OER dell’OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development): 1)Open courseware and content; 2)Open

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!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! software tools; 3)Open material for e-learning capacity building of faculty staff; 4)Repositories of learning objects; 5)free educational courses. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Open_educational_resources

! NP!


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http://www.laptop.org http://www.intel.com/content/www/us/en/company-overview/world-ahead.html

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https://edutechdebate.org/archive/olpc-in-peru/ http://blogs.iadb.org/educacion/2012/04/13/olpc-peru-aprendiendo-desde-la-experiencia/ 33 Oscar Becerra è stato il Direttore Educational Technologies presso il Ministero peruviano della Pubblica Istruzione tra settembre 2007 e luglio 2011 34 IDB WORKING PAPER SERIES No. IDB-WP-304 - Technology and Child Development: Evidence from the One Laptop per Child Program 32

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The sods must be crazy: OLPC to drop tablets from helicopters to isolated villages What Do OLPC Peru Results Mean for ICT in Education?AMOS CRUZ https://edutechdebate.org/olpc-in-peru/what-do-olpc-peru-results-mean-for-ict-in-education/ 39

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! Figura 1-3 La schermata iniziale di Sugar: la sua organizzazione grafica richiama immediatamente lâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;idea dellâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;ambiente centrato sul bambino

! Figura 1-4 Neighborhood: il vicinato e i gruppi di lavoro (cerchie)

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Un widget è un componente grafico di una interfaccia utente di un programma, che ha lo scopo di facilitare all'utente l'interazione con il programma stesso; può essere una vera e propria miniapplicazione o semplicemente un riquadro interattivo che riporta informazioni in tempo reale dal web (es.: meteo, ultimi messaggi Facebook, chat). 46 Sistema operativo estremamente personalizzabile ed open source lanciato dai Google Labs come piattaforma per telefoni e tablet

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Per quanto riguarda tali competenze è interessante il contributo di Jenkins (2009) tra le quali annovera il gioco (problem solving) la simulazione, la perfomance, lâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;appropriazione (attitudine al collage cognitivo), il multitasking, la conoscenza distribuita, lâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;intelligenza collettiva, il giudizio (valutazione critica), navigazione transmediale, networking e negoziazione.

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“Teorie dell’apprendimento” a cura di Centro Studi e Progettazione http://www.pgava.net/leggi/ENDOFAPTeorieApprendimento.pdf

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Luca Rosati, L’Information Design come «disciplina della comprensione» http://lucarosati.it/blog/linformation_design_come_disciplina_della_comprensione 52 Dirk Knemeyer, Information Design: The Understanding Discipline http://www.boxesandarrows.com/archives/information_design_the_understanding_discipline.php NT!V-3.305.<!W&X&>!(!=:-7+.7-3!4/.1*!+0!4:-=8.7<!:*=0:+.54>!%##Y!

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! Figura 2-6 Esempio di tavola che integra diversi dispositivi infografici54

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Le domande che si deve porre il content designer (infografico) per inquadrare i vari aspetti del problema/fenomeno La tipologia di informazione da tradurre in visuale I dispositivi infografici più idonei, ovvero l’espressione diagrammatica più consona alla visualizzazione di quello specifico dominio del sapere.

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Richard E. Mayer è uno psicologo e pedaogista dell’Università di Santa Barbara in California. Human Information Processing


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Figura 2-7 Schematizzazione del modello cognitivo dell’apprendimento multimediale elaborato da Mayer. Da sinistra verso destra, le informazioni multimediali provenienti dall’esterno vengono elaborate da memoria sensoriale, memoria di lavoro e infine confrontate con le pre-conoscenze al fine di elaborare il modello integrato60.

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######################################################## 60

Schema rielaborato da Alessandro Magni nella sua tesi di laurea dal titolo: “PROGETTARE MATERIALI DIGITALI PER L’APPRENDIMENTO Multimedialità e ipermedia a contatto con vecchi e nuovi stili di apprendimento”, Università Milano Bicocca 2010

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Figura 2-9 Risultati deli primi esperimenti sull’efficacia dei principi di Multimedia Learning Mayer, R. E., Gallini, J. K. (1990)!

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P'1#.+(..1#%-+2&1#+(*+%*+2#31#&152*3-&&(#%3#-*%#/('15(#.1*+(.1#'%#+(2&1%#3('#A[#52*#'%# W`$#j#W2*%#31#`61'-442#$&2..1)%'(OS#@Y192+0b]#CKK"D#(#.2++2'1*(%*2#':1)42&+%*0%#31# &(92'%&(#1*#8%.(#%'#'16(''2#31#4&(4%&%012*(#3(''2#.+-3(*+(## • •

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[%# W`$# 4(&# -*# 3%+2# '16(''2# 31# ak4(&+1.(# &%991-*+2# 3%''2# .+-3(*+(# 52*.1.+(# 3-*,-(# *(''%#31//(&(*0%#+&%#1'#9&%32#31#31//152'+N#5=(#'2#.+-3(*+(#4-g#%//&2*+%&(#.(*0%#9-13%# &1.4(++2#%''%#52)4'(..1+N#3('#+%.b#5=(#4-g#&1.2'6(&(#.(#9-13%+2#52*#,-%'5=(#/2&)%#31# +-+2&1*9;# ######################################################## 62 Teorie dell’istruzione e carico cognitivo, A.Calvani, Erickson, 2009 63

Nella teoria di Lev Vygotskij la zona di sviluppo prossimale (ZSP) è un concetto fondamentale che serve a spiegare come l'apprendimento del bambino si svolga con l'aiuto degli altri. La ZSP è definita come la distanza tra il livello di sviluppo attuale e il livello di sviluppo potenziale, che può essere raggiunto con l'aiuto di altre persone, che siano adulti o dei pari con un livello di competenza maggiore.

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######################################################## 64

Il termine usabilità non si riferisce a una caratteristica intrinseca dello strumento, quanto al processo di interazione tra classi di utenti, prodotto e finalità. È però d'uso comune - per estensione - l'uso di questo termine in forma di aggettivo (es: questo strumento è particolarmente usabile). Il problema dell'usabilità si pone quando il modello del progettista (ovvero le idee di questi riguardo al funzionamento del prodotto, che trasferisce sul design del prodotto stesso) non coincide con il modello dell'utente finale (ovvero l'idea che l'utente concepisce del prodotto e del suo funzionamento). Il grado di usabilità si innalza proporzionalmente all'avvicinamento dei due modelli (modello del progettista, e modello dell'utente). 65

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# Tabella 2-4 Dimensioni e fattori della UX per Antonella De Angeli

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Sono tratti e adattati da un ebook di James Hom (1998), The Usability Methods Toolbox Handbook; http://www.idemployee.id.tue.nl/g.w.m.rauterberg/lecturenotes/UsabilityMethodsToolboxHandbook.pdf

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http://hci.ilikecake.ie/eval_codiscoverylearning.htm

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######################################################## 70 Il progetto Olpc, acronimo di One Laptop per Child, è iniziato nel 2005 all’Mit-Media Lab di Boston da un’idea di Nicholas Negroponte e di Seymour Papert. Il loro obiettivo era la costruzione di un pc portatile a basso costo (sotto i 100$) da portare nelle scuole dei Paesi in via di sviluppo. Le macchine che hanno preso vita dall’impulso di questa iniziativa non sono frutto di un progetto solo tecnologico perché finalizzate a promuovere l’apprendimento dei bambini secondo i principi derivati dal costruzionismo, e dal costruttivismo sociale. Il progetto Olpc è stato implementato in diverse nazioni in via di sviluppo, tuttavia solo in Uruguay si è raggiunto il cosiddetto obiettivo di “saturazione” del progetto, ovvero la distribuzione dei laptop all’intera popolazione scolare. 71 Mangiatordi, Andrea, and Magda Pischetola. Sustainable Innovation Strategies in Education: OLPC Case Studies in Ethiopia and Uruguay. In M. Lytras et al., Organizational, Business, and Technological Aspects of the Knowledge Society, pages 94-104, Springer, 201

Dal 2007 attraverso l’iniziativa CEIBAL “Conectividad Educativa de Informática Básica para el Aprendizaje en línea” sono stati distribuiti gratuitamente alle scuole primarie circa 400.000 laptop e dopo più di due anni di sperimentazione l’Uruguay si configura come un immenso laboratorio di ricerca “a cielo aperto”, dove è possibile disporre di un campione vasto, uniforme e unico al mondo proprio grazie alla saturazione della tecnologia che è stata inserita nel contesto sociale partendo dalle scuole primarie. 72 Per i bambini e gli adolescenti uruguaiani, grazie al Plan Ceibal l’accesso alla tecnologia e alle risorse informative non è più un problema. Gli studenti ne sono realmente padroni (e proprietari!) e il fatto che il possesso dell’oggetto laptop sia universale per tutta la popolazione studentesca determina la trasparenza della tecnologia che diviene variabile accessoria. Per questo ho pensato di potermi dedicare ai contenuti (learning object=unità didattiche multimediali) piuttosto che sui contenitori (i laptop). Spesso mi viene chiesto, perché proprio l’Uruguay…e generalmente rispondo con la stessa domanda: quale posto migliore dell'Uruguay per testare i principi del multmedia learning?

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######################################################## 73 Nel luglio del 2010 ero in Uruguay e avevo appena terminato la parte della mia ricerca relativa all'osservazione diretta in aula dell'impatto del progetto OLPC in Montevideo. Ho avuto la fortuna di vivere per due settimane con Christoph Derndorfer della redazione di OLPC News che ha raccolto numerose informazioni relative all'implementazione del progetto e alle criticità correlate condensandole in una serie di interventi molto dettagliati sul sito www.edutechdebate.com. Di seguito vengono riportati degli estratti del suo report sul plan Ceibal arricchiti dai contributi aggiornati provenienti dal documento ufficiale del Ministero dell'educazione uruguayano Evaluación del Plan Ceibal 2010 “Preferencias de uso en Internet”.

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Questa sezione relativa al Plan Ceibal si basa sulle informazioni raccolte e condivise sul campo con Christoph Derndorfer, una vera e propria autorità del mondo OLPC in quanto editor principale della testata non ufficiale (e apertamente critica) http://www.olpcnews.com

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http://www.americasquarterly.org/node/370 Christoph Derndorfer 2012, OLPC in Uruguay: Impressions of Plan Ceibalâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Primary School XO Laptop Saturation. https://edutechdebate.org/olpc-in-south-america/olpc-in-uruguay-impressions-of-plan-ceibal/ 76

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Programma per la valutazione internazionale dell'allievo (Programme for International Student Assessment, meglio noto con l'acronimo PISA), è una indagine internazionale promossa dall'OCSE nata con lo scopo di valutare con periodicità triennale il livello di istruzione degli adolescenti dei principali paesi industrializzati. I test PISA esplorano i livelli di performance degli studenti quindicenni negli ambiti di alfabetizzazione letteraria, matematica e scientifica sono coperti non soltanto in termini di padronanza del programma di studi della scuola, ma in termini di conoscenze ed abilità applicate nella vita pratica. Nel ciclo PISA 2003 è stato introdotto un ambito supplementare relativo alla soluzione dei problemi, volto ad un esame interdisciplinare delle competenze. http://www.pisa.oecd.org/

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La mia scelta, effettuata dopo numerose visite in diverse realtà educative di Montevideo è ricaduta sulle scuole di contesto critico perché i ragazzi che le frequentano sono anche quelli che hanno un accesso più limitato alle opportunità della scuola formale, i più esposti al rischio di marginalità e per i quali l’autoformazione attraverso i multimedia può essere una reale opportunità di riscatto.

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S;I "#$%&$',+$!)(1,%)*!)$!#$&*#&,! Essenziale è stato restringere il campo di ricerca a due aree. La prima area è relativa all’instructional content design, ovvero la progettazione di oggetti didattici multimediali (LO)81. Come dichiarato dai maestri, spesso viene richiesto ai ragazzi lo studio in autonomia del materiale didattico prima di iniziare attività collaborative in piccoli gruppi o in plenaria. Vorrei scoprire se esistano dei “format” più efficaci di altri per migliorare l’apprendimento individuale e collaborativo in classe. E assumendo la prospettiva del Multimedia Learning e della CLT mi sono chiesto: quali sono le condizioni per meglio gestire il carico cognitivo in autoapprendimento? Cosa cambia variando il supporto di erogazione, optando ad esempio per un libro illustrato piuttosto che per una presentazione digitale? E se si modificano il grado di multimedialità o la modalità di presentazione del materiale (testo scritto Vs audio; immagini statiche Vs ######################################################## 81

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Mosley, P. (2005). A taxonomy for learning object technology. British Journal of Educational Technology, 36(3), 702-703.

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animazioni)? Quanto influisce il livello di interattività, quanto il grado di controllo della presentazione e quanto la possibilità di manipolazione dell’informazione? La seconda area trattata dalla ricerca riguarda il learning setting. Vorrei che attraverso la sperimentazione emergessero criteri pratici che indichino ai media educator come e quando usare il multimedia in classe. Ad esempio: quando e come è più corretto adottare l’autoapprendimento con contenuti multimediali? Quando prediligere l’apprendimento cooperativo e quando l’apprendimento eterodiretto? Esiste una strategia più efficace delle altre in termini di performance generali e di soddisfazione per gli studenti?

S;O L*?&#$:$(%*!?$%-*-$&,!)*++,!#$&*#&,!?'*#$1*%-,+*! ^242# %6(&# .5('+2# '(# .5-2'(# 1*# %552&32# (# 52''%82&%012*(# 52*# 1'# >1*1.+(&2# 3('':(3-5%012*(#(#%6(&#.('(012*%+2#1'#5%)412*(#.2*2#.+%+(#%//&2*+%+(#'(#.(9-(*+1#/%.1;# VA[AB E&*+-,!)*+!-*1,!*!)*;$%$:$(%*!)*.+$!(>$*--$<$!)$),--$&$! H*#%552&32#52*#1#CO#1*.(9*%*+1#L#.+%+2#.5('+2#-*#+()%#/%5(*+(#4%&+(#3('#4&29&%))%# .52'%.+152#)1*1.+(&1%'(#4(&#1'#Oy#9&%32#5=(#4(&#'(#.-(#5%&%++(&1.+15=(#1*+&1*.(5=(#.1# 4&(.+%..(# %3# -*%# 6%'-+%012*(# 3('':%44&(*31)(*+2# 1*# +(&)1*1# 31# &152&327# 52)4&(*.12*(#(#5%4%51+N#31#&1.26(&(#4&28'()1#52&&('%+1#%'#52*+(*-+2#4&(.(*+%+2;# $(&#,-(.+2#.1#L#52''(91%')(*+(#3(51.2#31#.('(012*%&(#-*%#&2.%#31#+()1#.51(*+1/151#4(&#1# ,-%'1# /2..(# /2*3%)(*+%'(# '%# 52)4&(*.12*(# 3(1# '&33)- 7#03#@&88&++,- @`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k2*2)?7# Z*3(&.2*# B""CD# (# '(# A2*+(*+# $(&/2&)%*5(# >%+&1k# 31# >(&&1''# (# A'%&b#5=(#6(&&%**2#1''-.+&%+(#+&%#8&(6(;## `1%)2#1*/1*(#%44&23%+1#%''%#5&(%012*(#31#-*%#)%+&15(#52*+(*-+1M4&(.+%012*1#%3#=25# *(''%# ,-%'(# 9'1# 281(++161# 3(&16%*2# 3('':%''1*(%)(*+2# +&%# 1'# +)$,- ()- 7,',37&'4## 3%#

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%44&(*3(&(#@/%++1M52*5(++1M4&25(..1D#(#1'#+142#31#7,*$)+,-7,1')+)5,#5=(#L#&15=1(.+2#%'# 31.5(*+(#@&152&32M%44'15%012*(M%.+&%012*(D;# T(''%#.-%#.()4'151+N#+%'(#)%+&15(#L#4(&/(++%)(*+(#/-*012*%'(#%''%#6%'-+%012*(#3(''%# 5%4%51+N#31#&152&327#52)4&(*.12*(#(#&1.2'-012*(#3(1#4&28'()1#&1.4(++2#%'#+()%#3(''%# 5%+(*%#%'1)(*+%&(#(3#L#-*:18&13%012*(#3('':2&191*%'(#A2*+(*+#$(&/2&)%*5(#>%+&1k#31# ^;>(&&1''#@\%8#S;CD#(#3(''%#.-%#6(&.12*(#)231/15%+%#3%#<;A'%&b#@B""dD#&%44&(.(*+%+%# 1*#\%8;#S;B;# Tabella 3-1 Content/Performance Matrix adattata per la sperimentazione (Serenelli, Ruggeri, Mangiatordi 2011b) FACTS

CONCEPTS

PROCESSES

REMEMBER

O1 - Remember specific data and facts.

O2 - Remember and understand definitions

-

APPLY

-

O3 - Apply and transfer the concepts classifying new, unknown examples

O4 -Solve a problem by relating the acquired concepts in the right way

FIND

-

-

O5 - Reorganize existing concepts to derive a new abstract scheme

# [(#1*/2&)%012*1#52*+(*-+(#*(1#)%+(&1%'1#313%++151#.2*2#.+%+1#.-33161.(#1*E# • • •

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# Tabella 3-2 Content Performance Matrix originale di D.Merrill; divide in due livelli di performance la capacitĂ  di ricordare esempi e generalitĂ  (instance/generality)

# Tabella 3-3 Content Performance Matrix modificata da R.Clark; semplifica i livelli di applicazione eliminando lâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;astrazione (find) ma introduce il livello dei principi (principles) nel tipo di conoscenza da apprendere

#

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# Tabella 3-4- versione modificata per la sperimentazione che include la descrizione degli obiettivi e le modalitĂ  per valutare il loro raggiungimento


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$ Figura 3-1 Tavole tratte LO1 - Dispensa Infografica cartacea

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DI

LEARNING

LO2 – MULTIMEDIA PASSO-PASSO

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INTERAZIONE E GRADO DI MANIPOLAZIONE DEL MATERIALE DA PARTE DEL DISCENTE

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$ Figura 3-2 Due passaggi chiave in LO2: 1) lo schema di riepilogo della dieta carnivora 2) la costruzione passo passo di una catena complessa

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DI

LEARNING

LO3 – LEARNING-GAME

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Figura 3-3 Progressione di task e fading in LO3

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Un’esperienza di alta concentrazione su una situazione, caratterizzata dal coinvolgimento dinamico e completo di tutta la persona che, fortemente motivata, ha accesso a tutte le sue potenzialità, ha una concentrazione totale e prova un forte senso d’autoefficacia. In questo caso vi è una perdita della dimensione temporale ed una focalizzazione attentiva sul presente che esclude tutti gli stimoli non connessi al compito. Una condotta a motivazione intrinseca di questo tipo può favorire la condizione ottimale per il conseguimento di prestazioni eccellenti (Csikszentmihalyi 1990).

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Figura 3-4 Tre passaggi chiave di LO3: la spiegazione del gioco, classifica la dieta animale, costruisci la catena alimentare

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Seductive Details: elementi grafici o parti di informazione che deviano l’attenzione dal compito di apprendimento in quanto competono in modo aggressivo con l’integrazione delle informazioni rilevanti.

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$ Tabella 3-13 Descrizione dettagliata delle tipologie di Learning Object progettati

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$ Tabella 3-14 Descrizione dettagliata delle variabili di Instructional Design

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Tabella 3-15 Descrizione dettagliata delle variabili di Multimedia Learning Design

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$ Tabella 3-16 Descrizione dettagliata delle variabili di Interaction Design

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Tabella 3-18 Test di Comprensione - si propone di misurare i livelli di comprensione dei principali concetti attraverso la capacità di classificare nuovi esempi

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Cuestión 5

Clasifica los siguientes seres vivos escribiendo sus nombres en la columna correcta PRODUCTORES

CONS. PRIMARIOS

CONS. SECUNDARIOS

CONS.TERCIARIOS

DESCOMPONEDORES

Alga

Canguro

Garza

Pantera

Bacteria

Arce

Jirafa

zorro

cocodrilo

hongos

krill

pingüino

orca

URRACA: como insectos que se nutren de hojas y abas/bayas

ALGA CORALINA: soy un vegetal marino y parezco un coral

CANGURO: todo el día busco hierba fresca.

ABEJA: soy un insecto y como el polen de las flores. Me defiendo con mi aguijón.

JIRAFA: como hojas y arbustos. Los felinos son mis predadores

BACTERIAS: somos microorganismos y nos comemos los restos de animales y plantas

ZORRO: me alimento de animales pequeños como conejos. Tengo miedo de las águilas y del hombre

PANTERA: como principalmente grandes herbívoros. No conozco enemigos naturales.

COCODRILO: como peces mamíferos, aves, reptiles y otros animales. No tengo miedo de nadie.

*KRILL: somos la especie más numerosa del mundo; comemos plantas microscópicas que se llaman fitoplancton

PINGÜINO EMPERADOR: comemos krill *(ver cuadro) y peces pequeños

HONGOS: ayudamos a reducir restos de animales y plantas muertas

ORCA: soy un depredador que se alimenta de peces, tortugas, aves, focas y tiburones. No conozco enemigos naturales.

ARCE: soy un árbol bastante alto y vivo en Europa y en América del Norte

$

Figura 3-7 Comprehension test: si richiede agli studenti la classificazione di essere viventi sconosciuti secondo la tassonomia dei livelli trofici, basandosi sulla dieta descritta in ogni cella.

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Le 4 funzioni base del modello sono: semplificazione, visualizzazione, ragionamento analogico e simulazione; tutte valutate attraverso la classificazione e la creazione di catene alimentari con elementi e contesti sconosciuti

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Tabella 3-19 Test di Problem Solving - chiede allo studente di trasferire il modello di catena alimentare in contesti ambientali sconosciuti

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# Cuestión 7.3 Completa el siguente esquema de cadena alimenticia elegiendo y ordenando 6 organismos de la siguiente tabla. Por cada anillo debes escribir el nombre del organismo correspondiente ! ATENCIÓN! hay 2 consumidores terciarios

!

SARDINA: Yo soy un pez pequeño y me gustan los herbívoros, pero los que no tienen espinas!

BACTERIAS: somos microorganismos y nos comemos los restos de animales y plantas

PARGO: Yo soy un gran pez y como los peces pequeños. Pero hay peces más grandes que yo, y tengo que escapar!

CANGREJO: soy uno de los pocos crustáceos que pueden comer erizos de mar.

DELFÍN: como peces carnìvoros excepto el tiburòn

CAMARÒN: a veces voy a comer en la superficie para encontrar los vegetales más pequeños.

TIBURÓN TIGRE: Soy más grande que el delfín, pero no lo como, prefiero otros grandes peces.

ALGA MARINA: soy una larga y delgada alga marina

DIATOMEA: Somos algas microscópicas que flotan en la superficie del agua.

TRIGLIA: los crustáceos son una parte importante de mi dieta.

ERIZOS DE MAR: vivo en el fondo marino y me gustan las algas de profundidad.

Figura 3-8 Problem Solving Test: gli studenti devono costruire una catena alimentare funzionante dimostrando la comprensione dei nessi relazionali tr a i suoi elementi consecutivi.!

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Cuesti贸n 6 Completa el modelo de cadena alimenticia c铆clica usando las palabras claves que encuentras a la derecha.

Figura 3-9 Problem Solving Test: In questa domanda si chiede di riorganizzare i concetti appresi per ricavare un nuovo schema astratto di sintesi.

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Figura 3-11 Il Setting sperimentale: le dimensioni delle condizioni sperimentali e le cinque combinazioni di Learning Setting/Learning Object studiate

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! Figura 3-12 Descrizione sintetica del Test pilota, del protocollo adottato, dei cinque esperimenti

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Figura 4-7 Esperimento 1: medie ottenute nei 5 obiettivi

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Figura 4-10 Esperimento 1: differenze di effect size per obiettivo didattico

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B/(,$!@.2'$ Tabella 4-11Exp.3 Anova per i 4 test Exp3 Beta/Eta

COMPL,% 0,05777

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Figura 4-68 Exp. 4: Effect size per i 4 test differenziato per sottogruppi

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