NOBEL PHYSICISTS AND THEIR DISCOVERIES

Page 1


AN INTRODUCTION OF NOBEL PRIZE The Nobel Prize in Physics is awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences to scientists in the various fields of Physics. It is one of the five Nobel Prizes established by the 1895 will of Alfred Nobel (who died in 1896), awarded for outstanding contributions in Physics. As dictated by Nobel's will, the award is administered by the Nobel Foundation and awarded by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. The award is presented in Stockholm at an annual ceremony on 10 December, the anniversary of Nobel's death. Each recipient receives a medal, a diploma and a monetary award prize that has varied throughout the years. The first Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded in 1901 to Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen of Germany, who received 150,782 SEK (Swedish krona) on his wonderful discovery of X-rays. John Bardeen is the only laureate to win the prize twice—in 1956 and 1972 for his discovery of Transistor and Superconductivity which played vital role in Electronics world. Maria Skłodowska-Curie also won two Nobel Prizes, for Physics in 1903 and Chemistry in 1911. William Lawrence Bragg was until October 2014, the youngest ever Nobel laureate; he won the prize in 1915 at the age of 25. He remains the youngest recipient of the Physics Prize. Three women have won the prize: Curie, Maria Goeppert-Mayer (1963), and Donna Strickland (2018). As of 2019, the prize has been awarded to 212 individuals. There have been six years for which the Nobel Prize in Physics was not awarded (1916, 1931, 1934, 1940–1942). There were also eight years for which the Nobel Prize in Physics was delayed for one year. The Prize was not awarded in 1917, as the Nobel Committee for Physics decided that none of that year's nominations met the necessary criteria but was awarded to Charles Glover Barkla in 1918 and counted as the 1917 prize. This precedent was followed for the 1918 prize awarded to Max Planck in 1919, the 1921 prize awarded to Albert Einstein in 1922, the 1924 prize awarded to Manne Siegbahn in 1925, the 1925 prize awarded to James Franck and Gustav Hertz in 1926, the 1928 prize awarded to Owen Richardson in 1929, the 1932 prize awarded to Werner Heisenberg in 1933, and the 1943 prize awarded to Otto Stern in 1944. I have collected all Nobel Laureates of Physics up to 2021 in this book that is brief but comprehensive information of each Nobel Physicist. Total 218 Physicists have got the highest prize ( the Nobel Prize) from 1901 to date.

1


PREFACE This book is intended as an assistant for Students , teachers and researchers to get information and development in Physics. Physics which is the study of natural science and gives all about natural happenings in the universe. It is human natural to seek information , to move forward and to struggle for best. This book is a little effort for readers, so slight. A reader can take not only the information of human struggle in this field but it is also tool for developing the passion of looking forward. This world is open for every one who thinks for the benefit of mankind and want to do research in this field. The book may also be of interest for the large number of professional Physicists, who in their daily occupations deal with any field of Physics and have a need to improve their understanding All the Physicists have a common desire to improve their knowledge of the Physics and its application in our practical life. This book contains a brief information of each Nobel award holder in the field of Physics. It is one page information of each Physicist except two i.e The legend Albert Einstein and other one belong to Pakistan Dr. Abdul Salam. Actually my aim was to compile the information of all Nobel Physicists in a book shape to make it easy for any reader or researcher to get benefit as and when he needs. I hope the book will be liked and create interest for students and teachers as well. I started this work an year before but due to busy schedule in College could not complete but in the days of Quarantine due to Corona-virus I completed and will be available for the book lovers soon. During lockdown it was also deeply observed that we are as a nation so far away from new new technology and research and having no such research laboratories for sudden incidence like pandemic Diseases (Corona-virus). We should have research laboratories under the supervision of highly qualified Scientists and Engineers and in these laboratories young scientists , Doctors and Engineers should do research to uplift my country Pakistan in the field of Science and Technology. My aim to publish this book is also to promote the interest in Science and practical work which is the need of this modern era otherwise we can not survive in this modern world and can not compete with modern societies. I hope the book will be liked by book lovers which will give me more inspiration for next to write more and more for our students and teachers.

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NOBEL LAUREATES IN PHYSICS

Page #

Year

Laureate

Country

1901

Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen

Germany

11

Hendrik Lorentz

Netherlands

12

Pieter Zeeman

Netherlands

13

Antoine Henri Becquerel

France

14

Pierre Curie

France

15

Maria Skłodowska-Curie

Poland

16

1904

Lord Rayleigh

United Kingdom

17

1905

Philipp Eduard Anton von Lenard

Austria-Hungary Germany

18

1906

Joseph John Thomson

United Kingdom

19

1907

Albert Abraham Michelson

United States Poland

20

1908

Gabriel Lippmann

France

21

Guglielmo Marconi

Italy

22

Karl Ferdinand Braun

Germany

23

1910

Johannes Diderik van der Waals

Netherlands

24

1911

Wilhelm Wien

Germany

25

1912

Nils Gustaf Dalén

Sweden

26

1913

Heike Kamerlingh-Onnes

Netherlands

27

1914

Max von Laue

Germany

28

William Henry Bragg

United Kingdom

29

William Lawrence Bragg

Australia United Kingdom

30

1917

Charles Glover Barkla

United Kingdom

31

1918

Max Planck

Germany

32

1919

Johannes Stark

Germany

33

1920

Charles Édouard Guillaume

Switzerland

34

1921

Albert Einstein

Germany Switzerland

35-36

1922

Niels Bohr

Denmark

1902

1903

1909

1915 1916

37 3


Page #

Year

Laureate

Country

1923

Robert Andrews Millikan

United States

38

1924

Manne Siegbahn

Sweden

39

James Franck

Germany

40

Gustav Hertz

Germany

41

Jean Baptiste Perrin

France

42

Arthur Holly Compton

United States

43

Charles Thomson Rees Wilson

United Kingdom

44

1928

Owen Willans Richardson

United Kingdom

45

1929

Louis Victor Pierre Raymond, 7th Duc de France Broglie

1930

Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman

India

47

Werner Heisenberg

Germany

48

Erwin Schrödinger

Austria

49

Paul Dirac

United Kingdom

50

James Chadwick

United Kingdom

51

Victor Francis Hess

Austria

52

Carl David Anderson

United States

53

Clinton Joseph Davisson

United States

54

George Paget Thomson

United Kingdom

55

1938

Enrico Fermi

Italy

56

1939

Ernest Lawrence

United States

57

1943

Otto Stern

United States Germany

58

1944

Isidor Isaac Rabi

United States Poland

59

1945

Wolfgang Pauli

Austria

60

1946

Percy Williams Bridgman

United States

61

1947

Edward Victor Appleton

United Kingdom

62

1925 1926 1927

46

1931 1932 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937

1940 1941 1942

4


Page #

Year

Laureate

Country

1948

Patrick Maynard Stuart Blackett

United Kingdom

63

1949

Hideki Yukawa

Japan

64

1950

Cecil Frank Powell

United Kingdom

65

John Douglas Cockcroft

United Kingdom

66

Ernest Thomas Sinton Walton

Ireland

67

Felix Bloch

Switzerland United States

68

Edward Mills Purcell

United States

69

Frits Zernike

Netherlands

70

Max Born

West Germany

71

Walther Bothe

West Germany

72

Willis Eugene Lamb

United States

73

Polykarp Kusch

United States Germany

74

John Bardeen

United States

75

Walter Houser Brattain

United States

76

William Bradford Shockley

United States

77

Tsung-Dao Lee

Republic of China

78

Chen-Ning Yang

Republic of China

79

Pavel Alekseyevich Cherenkov

Soviet Union

80

Ilya Frank

Soviet Union

81

Igor Yevgenyevich Tamm

Soviet Union

82

Emilio Gino Segrè

Italy United States

83

Owen Chamberlain

United States

84

Donald Arthur Glaser

United States

85

Robert Hofstadter

United States

86

Rudolf Ludwig Mössbauer

West Germany

87

Lev Davidovich Landau

Soviet Union

88

Eugene Paul Wigner

Hungary United States

89

Maria Goeppert-Mayer

United States

90

J. Hans D. Jensen

West Germany

91

Nicolay Gennadiyevich Basov

Soviet Union

92

1951

1952 1953 1954

1955

1956

1957

1958

1959 1960 1961 1962

1963

1964

5


Page #

Laureate

Country

Alexander Prokhorov

Soviet Union

93

Charles Hard Townes

United States

94

Richard Phillips Feynman

United States

95

Julian Schwinger

United States

96

Shin'ichirō Tomonaga

Japan

97

1966

Alfred Kastler

France

98

1967

Hans Albrecht Bethe

United States Germany

99

1968

Luis Walter Alvarez

United States

100

1969

Murray Gell-Mann

United States

101

Hannes Olof Gösta Alfvén

Sweden

102

Louis Néel

France

103

Dennis Gabor

Hungary United Kingdom

104

John Bardeen

United States

105

Leon Neil Cooper

United States

106

John Robert Schrieffer

United States

107

Leo Esaki

Japan

108

Ivar Giaever

United States Norway

109

Brian David Josephson

United Kingdom

110

Martin Ryle

United Kingdom

111

Antony Hewish

United Kingdom

112

Aage Bohr

Denmark

113

Ben Roy Mottelson

Denmark

114

Leo James Rainwater

United States

115

Burton Richter

United States

116

Samuel Chao Chung Ting

United States

117

Philip Warren Anderson

United States

118

Nevill Francis Mott

United Kingdom

119

John Hasbrouck Van Vleck

United States

120

Pyotr Leonidovich Kapitsa

Soviet Union

121

Arno Allan Penzias

United States

122

Year

1965

1970 1971

1972

1973

1974

1975

1976

1977

1978

6


Year

1979

1980

1981

1982 1983

1984 1985 1986

1987

1988

1989

1990 1991

Page #

Laureate

Country

Robert Woodrow Wilson

United States

123

Sheldon Lee Glashow

United States

124

Abdus Salam

Pakistan

Steven Weinberg

United States

127

James Watson Cronin

United States

128

Val Logsdon Fitch

United States

129

Nicolaas Bloembergen

Netherlands United States

130

Arthur Leonard Schawlow

United States

131

Kai Manne Börje Siegbahn

Sweden

132

Kenneth G. Wilson

United States

133

Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar

India United States

134

William Alfred Fowler

United States

135

Carlo Rubbia

Italy

136

Simon van der Meer

Netherlands

137

Klaus von Klitzing

West Germany

138

Ernst Ruska

West Germany

139

Gerd Binnig

West Germany

140

Heinrich Rohrer

Switzerland

141

Johannes Georg Bednorz

West Germany

142

Karl Alexander Müller

Switzerland

143

Leon Max Lederman

United States

144

Melvin Schwartz

United States

145

Jack Steinberger

United States

146

Norman Foster Ramsey

United States

147

Hans Georg Dehmelt

United States Germany

148

Wolfgang Paul

West Germany

149

Jerome I. Friedman

United States

150

Henry Way Kendall

United States

151

Richard E. Taylor

Canada

152

Pierre-Gilles de Gennes

France

153

125-126

7


Page #

Year

Laureate

Country

1992

Georges Charpak

France Poland

154

Russell Alan Hulse

United States

155

Joseph Hooton Taylor Jr.

United States

156

Bertram Brockhouse

Canada

157

Clifford Glenwood Shull

United States

158

Martin Lewis Perl

United States

159

Frederick Reines

United States

160

David Morris Lee

United States

161

Douglas D. Osheroff

United States

162

Robert Coleman Richardson

United States

163

Steven Chu

United States

164

Claude Cohen-Tannoudji

France

165

William Daniel Phillips

United States

166

Robert B. Laughlin

United States

167

Horst Ludwig Störmer

Germany

168

Daniel Chee Tsui

Republic of China United States

169

Gerard 't Hooft

Netherlands

170

Martinus J. G. Veltman

Netherlands

171

Zhores Ivanovich Alferov

Russia

172

Herbert Kroemer

Germany

173

Jack St. Clair Kilby

United States

174

Eric Allin Cornell

United States

175

Carl Edwin Wieman

United States

176

Wolfgang Ketterle

Germany

177

Raymond Davis Jr.

United States

178

Masatoshi Koshiba

Japan

179

Riccardo Giacconi

Italy United States

180

Alexei Alexeyevich Abrikosov

Russia United States

181

Vitaly Lazarevich Ginzburg

Russia

182

Anthony James Leggett

United Kingdom

183

1993 1994 1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

8


Year

Laureate

Country

Page #

United States 2004

2005

2006 2007

2008

2009

David J. Gross

United States

184

Hugh David Politzer

United States

185

Frank Wilczek

United States

186

Roy J. Glauber

United States

187

John L. Hall

United States

188

Theodor W. Hänsch

Germany

189

John C. Mather

United States

190

George F. Smoot

United States

191

Albert Fert

France

192

Peter Grünberg

Germany

193

Makoto Kobayashi

Japan

194

Toshihide Maskawa

Japan

195

Yoichiro Nambu

Japan United States

196

Charles K. Kao

Hong Kong United Kingdom United States

197

Willard S. Boyle

Canada United States

198

George E. Smith

United States

199

Andre Geim

Russia United Kingdom Netherlands

200

Konstantin Novoselov

Russia United Kingdom

201

Saul Perlmutter

United States

202

Brian P. Schmidt

Australia United States

203

Adam G. Riess

United States

204

Serge Haroche

France

205

David J. Wineland

United States

206

François Englert

Belgium

207

Peter Higgs

United Kingdom

208

Isamu Akasaki

Japan

209

Hiroshi Amano

Japan

210

2010

2011

2012 2013 2014

9


Year

2015

2016

2017

2018

2019

2020

2021

Page #

Laureate

Country

Shuji Nakamura

Japan United States

211

Takaaki Kajita

Japan

212

Arthur B. McDonald

Canada

213

David J. Thouless

United Kingdom

214

F. Duncan M. Haldane

United Kingdom Slovenia

215

John M. Kosterlitz

United Kingdom United States

216

Rainer Weiss

Germany United States

217

Kip Thorne

United States

218

Barry Barish

United States

219

Arthur Ashkin

United States

220

Gérard Mourou

France

221

Donna Strickland

Canada

222

James Peebles

Canada United States

223

Michel Mayor

Switzerland

224

Didier Queloz

Switzerland

225

Roger Penrose

United Kingdom

226

Reinhard Genzel

Germany

227

Andrea Ghez

United States

228

Klaus Hasselmann

Germany

229

Syukuro Manabe

Japan

230

Giorgio Parisi

Italy

231

REFERENCES

232

10


Born

Rontgen, Wilhelm Conrad was a 27 March 1845 Lennep, Rhine German physicist who was a recipient of Province,German Confederation

Died

10 February 1923 (aged 77) Munich, Bavaria, Germany

Nationality

German/Dutch

Institutions

University of Strassburg University of Hohenheim University of Giessen University of Würzburg University of Munich

Alma mater

ETH Zurich , University of Zurich

Doctoral advisor

August Kundt

Doctoral students

Herman March Abram Ioffe Ernst Wagner Rudolf Ladenburg

Known for

X-rays

Notable awards

Matteucci Medal (1896) Rumford Medal (1896) Elliott Cresson Medal (1897) Barnard Medal (1900) Nobel Prize in Physics (1901)

the first Nobel Prize for Physics, in 1901, for his discovery of X rays, which heralded the age of modern physics and revolutionized diagnostic medicine. In view of its uncertain nature, he called the phenomenon X-radiation, though it also became known as Rontgen radiation. The roentgen or röntgen is a legacy unit of measurement for the exposure of X-rays and gamma rays up to several mega electron volts.

He took the first X-ray photographs, of the interiors of metal objects and of the bones in his wife's hand.

Backdrop for presentation of the discovery and recognition of roentgenium at GSI Darmstadt

11


Born

18 July 1853 Arnhem, Netherlands

Died

4 February 1928 (aged 74) Haarlem, Netherlands

Nationality Netherlands Alma mater University of Leiden

Formula on a wall in Leiden University Leiden University Libraryin 1610

Doctoral advisor

Pieter Rijke

Doctoral students

Geertruida L. de Haas-Lorentz Adriaan Fokker Leonard Ornstein Hendrika Johanna van Leeuwen

Known for

Lorentz transformation Theory of EM radiation Lorentz force Lorentz contraction

Notable awards

ForMemRS (1905) Rumford Medal (1908) Franklin Medal (1917) Copley Medal (1918)

Hendrik Antoon Lorentz was a Dutch physicist who shared the 1902 Nobel Prize in Physics with Pieter Zeeman for the discovery and theoretical explanation of the Zeeman effect. He also derived thetransformation equations which formed the basis of the special relativity theory of Albert Einstein

Prize motivation “in recognition of the extraordinary service they rendered by their researches into the influence of magnetism upon radiation phenomena”

12


Born

25 May 1865 Zonnemaire, Netherlands

Died

9 October 1943 (aged 78) Amsterdam, Netherlands

Nationality

Netherlands

Alma mater

University of Leiden

Doctoral advisor

Heike Kamerlingh Onnes

Known for

Zeeman effect

Notable awards

Nobel Prize for Physics (1902) Matteucci Medal (1912) Henry Draper Medal (1921) ForMemRS (1921) Rumford Medal (1922) Franklin Medal (1925)

Spouse

Johanna Elisabeth Lebret (1895–1943)

Dutch physicist who observed that an intense magnetic field would split single spectral lines into three components, an observation known as the Zeeman effect. Zeeman shared the 1902 Nobel Prize in physics with his teacher Lorentz for his discovery. The spectral lines of mercury vapor lamp at wavelength 546.1 nm, showing anomalous Zeeman effect. (A) Without magnetic field. (B) With magnetic field, spectral lines split as transverse Zeeman effect. (C) With magnetic field, split as longitudinal Zeeman effect. The spectral lines were obtained using a Fabry–Pérot interferometer.

Einstein visiting Pieter Zeeman in Amsterdam, with

Leiden Observatory of the university

his friend Ehrenfest (1920)

13


Born

15 December 1852 Paris, France

Died

25 August 1908 (aged 55) Le Croisic, Brittany, France

Nationality

French

Institutions

Conservatoire des Arts et Metiers École Polytechnique Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle

Alma mater

École Polytechnique École des Ponts et Chaussées

Doctoral students

Marie Skłodowska-Curie

Known for

Discovery of Radioactivity

Notable awards

Rumford Medal (1900) Nobel Prize in Physics (1903) Barnard Medal (1905)

Antoine Henri Becquerel was a French physicist, Nobel laureate, and the first person to discover evidence of radioactivity. For work in this field he, along with Marie Skłodowska-Curie and Pierre Curie, received the 1903 Nobel Prize in Physics. The SI unit for radioactivity, the becquerel (Bq), is named after him.

Image of Becquerel's photographic plate which has been fogged by exposure to radiation from a uranium salt. The shadow of a metal Maltese Cross placed between the plate and the uranium salt is clearly visible.

14


1903

Born

PIERRE CURIE

15 May 1859 Paris, France

Died

19 April 1906 (aged 46) Paris, France

Nationality

French

Alma mater

University of Paris

Doctoral advisor

Gabriel Lippmann

Doctoral students

Paul Langevin André-Louis Debierne Marguerite Catherine Perey

Known for

Radioactivity Curie's law

Notable awards

Davy Medal (1903) Nobel Prize in Physics (1903) Matteucci Medal (1904) Elliott Cresson Medal (1909)

Pierre Curie’s two main scientific partners throughout his career were his wife, Marie, and his brother, Jacques. Together with Jacques, Curie explored crystallography, through which he discovered piezoelectric effects. Curie showed that the magnetic properties of a given substance change at a specific temperature—a level now known as the Curie point. Curie conducted his studies of radioactive substances with his wife, and the pair overcame the challenges posed by inadequate lab equipment and heavy teaching schedules to succeed in isolating the elements of radium and polonium (Marie Curie named polonium after her native country, Poland). The Curies went on to describe many of the novel properties of radium, which would form the basis of subsequent research in the fields of nuclear physics and chemistry. Pierre Curie died in an accident in Paris, France, on April 19, 1906. Curie lost his footing while crossing the street and fell beneath the wheels of a horse-drawn vehicle, suffering a fatal skull fracture. He was 46 years old.

15


1903

MARIE SKTODOWSKA CURIE

Born

Maria Salomea Skłodowska 7 November 1867 Warsaw, Kingdom of Poland, then part of Russian Empire

Died

4 July 1934 (aged 66) Passy, Haute-Savoie, France

Citizenship

Poland (by birth) France (by marriage)

Fields

Physics, chemistry

Institutions

University of Paris Curie Institute (Paris)French Academy of Medicine

Alma mater

University of Paris

Doctoral advisor

Gabriel Lippmann

Doctoral students

André-Louis Debierne Óscar Moreno Marguerite Perey Émile Henriot

Known for

Radioactivity Polonium Radium

Notable awards

Nobel Prize in Physics (1903) Davy Medal (1903) Albert Medal (1910) Nobel Prize in Chemistry (1911) Willard Gibbs Award (1921)

She was a Polish and naturalized-French physicist and chemi st who conducted pioneering research on radioactivity. She was the first woman to win a Nobel Prize, the first person and only woman to win twice, the only person to win a Nobel Prize in two different sciences, and was part of the Curie family legacy of five Nobel Prizes. She was also the first woman to become a professor at the University of Paris, and in 1995 became the first woman to be entombed on her own merits in the Panthéon in Paris.

Curie died in 1934, aged 66, at a sanatorium in Sancellemoz (Ha ute-Savoie), France, due to aplastic anemia brought on by exposure to radiation while carrying test tubes of radium in her pockets during research, and in the course of her service in World War I mobile X-ray units that she had set up.

16


1904

Born

Died

LORD JOHN WILLIAM STRUTT RAYLEIGH

12 November 1842 Langford Grove, Maldon, Essex,England, UK 30 June 1919 (aged 76) Terling Place, Witham, Essex, England, UK

Nationality

English

Fields

Physics

Institutions

Trinity College, Cambridge

Academic advisors

Edward John Routh

Notable students

J. J. Thomson Jagdish Chandra Bose

Known for

Discovery of argon Rayleigh waves Rayleigh scattering Sound theory Rayleigh flow Rayleigh–Jeans law Rayleigh's equation

Notable awards

1865 Smith's Prize 1882 Royal Medal 1890 De Morgan Medal 11899 Copley Medal 1904 Nobel Prize for Physics 1914 Rumford Medal

Argon is an inert, colorless

and

odorless

element

— one of the Noble gases.

Used

fluorescent

in

lights

and in welding, this element gets its name from the Greek word for "lazy," an homage to how little it reacts to form compounds.

On Earth, the vast majority of argon is the isotope argon-40, which arises from the radioactive decay of potassium-40, according to Chemicool. But in space, argon is made in stars, when a two hydrogen nuclei, or alpha-particles, fuse with silicon-32. The result is the isotope argon-36. (Isotopes of an element have varying numbers of neutrons in the nucleus.)

17


1905

PHILIPP EDUARD ANTON LENARD

Born

7 June 1862 Pressburg, Kingdom of Hungary,Austrian Empire

Died

20 May 1947 (aged 84) Messelhausen (de), Germany

Citizenship

Austria-Hungary (1862–1907), German (1907–1947)

Nationality

Carpathian German

Institutions

University of Budapest University of Breslau University of Aachen University of Heidelberg University of Kiel

Alma mater

University of Heidelberg

Doctoral advisor

R. Bunsen, G. H. Quincke

Known for

Cathode rays

Notable awards

Matteucci Medal (1896) Rumford Medal (1896) Nobel Prize for Physics (1905)

As a physicist, Lenard's major contributions were in the study of cathode rays, which he began in 1888. Prior to his work, cathode rays were produced in primitive tubes which are partially evacuated glass tubes that have metallic electrodes in them, across which a high voltage can be placed. Cathode rays were difficult to study because they were inside sealed glass tubes, He was able to conveniently detect the rays and measure their intensity by means of paper sheets coated with phosphorescent materials. As a result of his Crookes tube investigations, he showed that the rays produced by radiating metals in a vacuum with ultraviolet light were similar in many respects to cathode rays. His most important observations were that the energy of the rays was independent of the light intensity, but was greater for shorter wavelengths of light.

Eclectic University Library of Eötvös Loránd University

18


1906

SIR JOSEPH JOHN THOMSON

Born

18 December 1856 Cheetham Cathode Rays Tube (CRT) Hill, Manchester,England In his first experiment, he investigated

Died

30 August 1940 (aged 83) Cambridge, England

Citizenship

British

Nationality

English

Institutions

Trinity College, Cambridge

Alma mater

Owens College Trinity College, Cambridge

Academic advisors

John Strutt (Rayleigh) Edward John Routh

Notable students

Charles Glover Barkla Charles T. R. Wilson Ernest Rutherford Francis William Aston William Henry Bragg Paul Langevin Niels Bohr George Paget Thomson

Known for

Discovery of electron Discovery of isotopes Mass spectrometer invention First e/m measurement Thomson scattering Thomson (unit)

Notable awards

Smith's Prize (1880) Royal Medal (1894) Albert Medal (1915) Franklin Medal (1922) Faraday Medal (1925)

whether or not the negative charge could be separated from the cathode rays by means of magnetism. In his second experiment, he investigated whether or not the rays could be deflected by an electric field. In his third experiment, Thomson measured the charge-to-mass ratio of the cathode rays by measuring how much they were deflected by a magnetic field and how much energy they carried. "in recognition of the great merits of his theoretical and experimental investigations on the conduction of electricity by gases“ he was awarded Nobel Prize in 1906.

Replica of J.J. Thomson's third mass spectrometer

19


1907

Born

Died

ALBERT ABRAHAM MICHELSON

December 19, 1852 Strzelno, Kingdom of Prussia(modern Poland) May 9, 1931 (aged 78) Pasadena, California

Nationality United States Institutions Case Western Reserve University Clark University University of Chicago Alma mater United States Naval Academy University of Berlin Doctoral advisor

Hermann Helmholtz Alfred Cornu

Doctoral students

Robert Millikan

Known for

Speed of light Michelson–Morley experiment

Notable awards

Nobel Prize in Physics (1907) Copley Medal (1907) Elliott Cresson Medal (1912) Henry Draper Medal (1916) Albert Medal (1920) Franklin Medal (1923)

Albert Abraham Michelson (Surname pronunciation anglicized as "Michael-son", was an American physicist known for his work on the measurement of the speed of light and especially for the Michelson–Morley experiment. In 1907 he received the Nobel Prize in Physics. He became the first American to receive the Nobel Prize in sciences. Albert A. Michelson served in the U.S. Navy as Lt. Cmdr. He rejoined the U.S. Navy in World War I

20


1908

GABRIEL LIPPMANN

Born

16 August 1845 Bonnevoie/Bouneweg, Luxembourg (since 1921 part of Luxembourg City)

Died

13 July 1921 (aged 75) SS France, Atlantic Ocean

Nationality

France

Institutions

Sorbonne

Alma mater

École Normale Supérieure

Doctoral advisor

Gustav Kirchhoff

Other academic advisors

Hermann von Helmholtz

Known for

Lippmann colour photography Integral 3-D photography Lippmann electrometer

Notable awards

Nobel Prize for Physics(1908)

Lippmann, of original and independent mind, made many valuable fundamental contributions to many different branches of physics, especially electricity, thermodynamics, optics and photo chemistry. In Heidelberg he studied the relationship between electrical and capillary phenomena: this led to the development, amongst other instruments, of his extraordinarily sensitive capillary electrometer. He was awarded Nobel Prize in 1908 for his method of reproducing colours photographically based on the phenomenon of interference. A colour photograph made by Lippmann in the 1890s. It contains no pigments or dyes of any kind.

Drawing of a Lippmann electrometer

21


1909

Born

GUGLIELMO MARCONI

25 April 1874 Palazzo Marescalchi, Bologna, Italy

Guglielmo Marconi, an Italian inventor,

20 July 1937 (aged 63) Rome, Italy

he

Residence

Italy

was

Nationality

Italian

successful transatlantic radiotelegraph

Alma mater

University of Bologna

Academic advisors

Augusto Righi

Known for

Radio

Notable awards

Matteucci Medal (1901) Albert Medal (1914) Franklin Medal (1918) IEEE Medal of Honor (1920) John Fritz Medal (1923)

Died

proved

the

feasibility

of

radio

communication. He sent and received his first radio signal in Italy in 1895. By 1899, flashed

the

first

wireless

signal

across the English Channel and two years later received the letter "S," which telegraphed

Newfoundland.This

from was

England the

to first

message in 1902.

Marconi's first transmitter incorporating a monopole antenna. It consisted of an elevated copper sheet(top) connected to a Righi

spark

gap

(left)

powered

by

an induction coil (center) with a telegraph key (right) to switch it on and off to spell out text messages in Morse code.

Area above Bologna's old city centre 22


1909

KARL FERDINAND BRAUN

Born

6 June 1850 Fulda, Electorate of Hessen,Germany

Died

20 April 1918 (aged 67) Brooklyn, New York, U.S.

Nationality

German

Institutions

University of Karlsruhe, University of Marburg, University of Strassburg, University of Tübingen, University of Würzburg

Alma mater

University of Marburg, University of Berlin

Doctoral advisor

A. Kundt, G. H. Quincke

Doctoral students

L. I. Mandelshtam, A. Schweizer

Known for

Cathode ray tube, Cat's whisker diode

Notable awards

Nobel Prize in Physics (1909)

Braun's first investigations were concerned with oscillations of strings and elastic rods, especially with regard to the influence of the amplitude and environment of rods on their oscillations. Other studies were based on thermodynamic principles, such as those on the influence of pressure on the solubility of solids.

The above-mentioned and many other discoveries led to the 1897 invention of the famous German physicist Karl Ferdinand Braun (who played also an important role in developing of semiconductor devices), when he built the first cathode-ray tube (CRT) and cathode ray tube oscilloscope Braun shared the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1909 with Guglielmo Marconi for the development of wireless telegraphy. However, he is still best know for his invention of the cathode ray tube and the first oscilloscope.

23


1910

JOHANNES DIDERIK VAN DER WAALS

Born

23 November 1837 Leiden, Netherlands

Died

8 March 1923 (aged 85) Amsterdam, Netherlands

Nationality

Dutch

Institutions

University of Amsterdam

Alma mater

University of Leiden

Doctoral advisor

Pieter Rijke

Doctoral students

Diederik Korteweg Willem Hendrik Keesom

Known for

van der Waals forces Real gas law (van der Waals equation of state) van der Waals radius van der Waals molecule

Influences

Rudolf Clausius , Ludwig Boltzmann Josiah Willard Gibbs, Thomas Andrews

Influenced

Heike Kamerlingh Onnes Willem Hendrik Keesom Peter Debye James Dewar Fritz London

Notable awards

Nobel Prize for Physics (1910)

Johannes Diderik van der Waals was a Dutch scientist famous "for his work on the equation of state for gases and liquids", for which he won a Nobel Prize in 1910.

24


1911

WILHELM WIEN

Born

Wilhelm Carl Werner Otto Fritz Franz Wien 13 January 1864 Gaffken near Fischhausen, Province of Prussia

Died

30 August 1928 (aged 64) Munich, Germany

Nationality

German

Institutions

University of Giessen University of Würzburg University of Munich RWTH Aachen Columbia University

Alma mater

University of Göttingen University of Berlin

Doctoral advisor

Hermann von Helmholtz

Doctoral students

Karl Hartmann Gabriel Holtsmark Eduard Rüchardt

Known for

Blackbody radiation Wien's displacement law

Notable awards

Nobel Prize for Physics (1911)

Spouse

Luise Mehler (1898)

Wilhelm Wien, German physicist Professor at the universities of Giessen (1899), WUrzburg (1900–1920), and Munich (from 1920). He received the 1911 Nobel Prize in Physics for his studies on the radiation of heat from black objects. He is noted also for his work on hydrodynamics, X rays, and the radiation of light.

25


1912

NILS GUSTAF DALEN

Born

Nils Gustaf Dalén 30 November 1869 Stenstorp, Sweden

Died

9 December 1937 (aged 68) Lidingö, Stockholm, Sweden

Nationality

Swedish

Institutions

AGA

Alma mater

Chalmers University of Technology, Polytechnikum,Zürich

Known for

Sun valve and other lighthouse regulators

Notable awards

Nobel Prize in Physics (1912)

Sun valve designed by Gustaf Dalen, 1912, TM34299 - Tekniska museum - Stockholm

Nils Gustaf Dalén was awarded Nobel Prize in 1912 for his invention of

automatic regulators for use in conjunction with gas accumulators for illuminating lighthouses and buoys.

Gustaf Dalén as a young engineer with his bicycle in the photo studio 1895

26


1913

HEIKE KAMERLINGH ONNES

Born

21 September 1853 Netherlands

Died

21 February 1926 (aged 72) Leiden, Netherlands

Nationality

Netherlands

Institutions

University of Leiden

Alma mater

Heidelberg University University of Groningen

Liquid helium cooled below the Lambda

Doctoral advisor

Rudolf Adriana Meese

of super fluidity at standard pressure, the

Other academic advisors

Robert Bunsen Gustav Kirchhoff

Doctoral students Jacob Clay Pieter Zeeman Known for

Liquid helium Onnes-effect Superconductivity

Influences

Johannes Diderik van der Waals

Notable awards

Rumford Medal (1912) Nobel Prize in Physics (1913)

Liquid helium point,

where

chemical

it

element

exhibits helium

properties exists

in

a liquid form only at the extremely low temperature of −270 °C (about 4 K or −452.2 °F). Its boiling point and critical point depend on which isotope of helium is

present:

isotope

the

helium-4

or

common the

rare

isotope helium-3. These are the only two stable isotopes of helium. See the table below for the values of these physical quantities. The density of liquid helium-4 at its boiling point and a pressure of one

atmosphere(101.3

kilopascals)

is

about 0.125 grams per cm3, or about 1/8th the density of liquid water.

27


1914

MAX VON LAUE

Born

9 October 1879 Empire

Prussia, German

Died

24 April 1960 (aged 80) West Berlin, West Germany

Nationality

German

Alma mater

University of Strasbourg University of Göttingen University of Munich University of Berlin

Known for

Diffraction of X-rays

Awards

Nobel Prize for Physics (1914) Matteucci Medal (1914) Max Planck Medal (1932)

Doctoral advisor

Max Planck Arnold Sommerfeld

Doctoral students

Friedrich Beck Max Kohler

Other notable students

Fritz London

Max Theodor Von Laue

He was a German physicist who won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1914 for his discovery of the diffraction of X-rays by crystals. In addition to his scientific endeavors with contributions in optics, crystallography, quantum theory, superconductivity, and the theory of relativity, he had a number of administrative positions which advanced and guided German scientific research and development during four decades. A strong objector to National Socialism, he was instrumental in re-establishing and organizing German science after World War II.

28


1915

WILLIAM HENRY BRAGG

Born

2 July 1862 Wigton, Cumberland, United Kingdom

Died

12 March 1942 (aged 79) London, United Kingdom

Residence

England

Nationality

British

Alma mater

Trinity College, Cambridge

Known for

X-ray diffraction Bragg peak

Awards

Nobel Prize in Physics (1915) Barnard Medal (1915) Matteucci Medal (1915) Rumford Medal (1916) Copley Medal (1930) Faraday Medal (1936) John J. Carty Award (1939)

Institutions

University of Adelaide University of Leeds University College London Royal Institution

He is the father of Lawrence Bragg. Father and son jointly won the Nobel Prize in 1915.

Academic advisors J. J. Thomson Notable students

W. L. Bragg Kathleen Lonsdale William Thomas Astbury John Desmond Bernal John Burton Cleland

X-ray spectrometer developed by Bragg

29


1915

WILLIAM LAWRENCE BRAGG

Born

31 March 1890 Adelaide, South Australia

Died

1 July 1971 (aged 81) Waldringfield, Ipswich, Suffolk, England

Nationality

British

Education

St Peter's College, Adelaide

Alma mater

University of Adelaide Trinity College, Cambridge

Known for

X-ray diffraction , Bragg's law

Awards

Nobel Prize in Physics (1915) Barnard Medal (1915) Matteucci Medal (1915) Fellow of the Royal Society (1921) Hughes Medal (1931) Royal Medal (1946) Roebling Medal (1948) Copley Medal (1966)

Institutions

University of Manchester University of Cambridge

Academic advisors

J. J. Thomson W. H. Bragg

Doctoral students

John Crank Ronald Wilfred Gurney Alex Stokes

He was the son of W. H. Bragg. The PhD did not exist at Cambridge until 1919, and so J. J. Thomson and W. H. Bragg were his equivalent mentors. Bragg was knighted in 1941. As of 2018, he is the youngest ever Nobel laureate in physics, having received the award at the age of 25 years. Bragg was the director of the Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge, when the discovery of the structure of DNA was reported by James D. Watson and Francis Crick in February 1953.

30


1917

CHARLES GLOVER BARKLA

Born

7 June 1877 Widnes, Lancashire, England

Died

23 October 1944 (aged 67) Edinburgh, Scotland

Nationality

United Kingdom

Alma mater

University College Liverpool Trinity College, Cambridge King's College, Cambridge

Known for

X-ray scattering X-ray spectroscopy

Awards

Nobel Prize in Physics (1917) Hughes Medal of the Royal Society

Institutions

University of Cambridge University of Liverpool King's College London University of Edinburgh

Academic advisors

J. J. Thomson Oliver Lodge

This is an X-ray diffraction pattern formed when X-rays are focused on a crystalline material, in this case a protein. Each dot, called a reflection, forms from the coherent interference of scattered X-rays passing through the crystal.

Abercromby Square, University of Liverpool

31


1918

MAX PLANCK

Born

23 April 1858 Kiel, Duchy of Holstein

Died

4 October 1947 (aged 89) Göttingen, Lower Saxony, Germany

Nationality

German

Alma mater Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich Known for

Planck constant , Planck postulate Planck's law of black body radiation Fokker–Planck equation Nernst–Planck equation Third law of thermodynamics

Awards

Foreign Associate of the National Academy of Sciences (1926) Lorentz Medal (1927) Copley Medal (1929) Max Planck Medal (1929) Goethe Prize (1945)

Max Planck's signature at ten years of age

Institutions University of Kiel University of Göttingen Kaiser Wilhelm Society Doctoral advisor

Alexander von Brill Gustav Kirchhoff Hermann von Helmholtz

Doctoral students

Erich Kretschmann Gustav Ludwig Hertz Julius Edgar Lilienfeld Max Abraham , Max von Laue Walther Bothe , Walther Meissner Richard Becker , 32


1919

Born

JOHANNES STARK

15 April 1874 Schickenhof, German Empire

The Stark effect is the shifting and splitting of spectral lines of atoms and molecules due to the presence of an external electric field. It is the electric-field analogue of the Zeeman

Died

21 June 1957 (aged 83) Traunstein, West Germany

Nationality

Germany

Alma mater

University of Munich

Known for

Stark effect Doppler effect in canal rays spectral lines in electric fields

Awards

Matteucci Medal (1915) Nobel Prize in Physics (1919)

Institutions

University of Göttingen Technische Hochschule, Hannover Technische Hochschule, Aachen University of Greifswald University of Würzburg

Doctoral advisor

Eugen von Lommel

effect, where a spectral line is split into several components due to the presence of the magnetic field.

Continuous spectrum of an incandescent lamp (mid) and discrete spectrum lines of a fluorescent lamp (bottom)

33


1920

CHARLES EDOUARD GUILLAUME

Born

15 February 1861 Fleurier, Switzerland

Died

13 May 1938 (aged 77) Sèvres, France

Nationality Swiss Alma mater ETH Zurich Known for

Invar and Elinvar

Awards

John Scott Medal (1914) Nobel Prize in Physics (1920) Duddell Medal and Prize (1928)

Institutions Bureau International des Poids et Mesures, Sèvres

CHARLES EDOUARD GUILLAUME is known for his discovery of nickel-steel alloys he named invar and elinvar. Invar has a near-zero coefficient of thermal expansion, making it useful in constructing precision instruments whose dimensions need to remain constant in spite of varying temperature. Elinvar has a near-zero thermal coefficient of the modulus of elasticity, making it useful in constructing instruments with springs that need to be unaffected by varying temperature, such as the marine chronometer. Elinvar is also non-magnetic, which is a secondary useful property for antimagnetic watches.

Publications

1896: The Temperature of Space 1894: Units and Standards 1898: Investigations on Nickel and its Alloys 1904: Applications of Nickel-Steels 1913: Recent progress in the Metric System

Samples of Invar 34


1921

ALBERT EINSTEIN

Born

14 March 1879 Ulm, Kingdom of Württemberg, German Empire

Died

18 April 1955 (aged 76) Princeton, New Jersey, United States

Residence

Germany, Italy, Switzerland, Austria (present-day Czech Republic), Belgium, United States

Citizenship

German Empire (1879–1896) Stateless (1896–1901) Citizen of Switzerland (1901–1955) Citizen of the United States (1940–1955) Einstein's matriculation certificate at

the age of 17, showing his final

Education

Federal polytechnic school (1896–1900; grades from the Argovian cantonal school (Aargauische Kantonsschule, B.A., 1900) on a scale of 1–6, with 6 being the University of Zurich (Ph.D., 1905)

Known for

General relativity , Special relativity Photoelectric effect E=mc2 (Mass–energy equivalence) E=hf (Planck–Einstein relation) Theory of Brownian motion Einstein field equations Bose–Einstein statistics Bose–Einstein condensate Gravitational wave , Cosmological constant Unified field theory , EPR paradox Ensemble interpretation

highest possible mark). He scored: German 5; French 3; Italian 5; History 6; Geography 4; Algebra 6; Geometry

6; Descriptive Geometry 6; Physics 6; Chemistry 5; Natural History 5; Art and Technical Drawing 4.

35


Awards

Barnard Medal (1920) Nobel Prize in Physics (1921) Matteucci Medal (1921) ForMemRS (1921) Copley Medal (1925) Max Planck Medal (1929) Time Person of the Century (1999)

Institutions

Swiss Patent Office (Bern) (1902–1909) University of Bern (1908–1909) University of Zurich (1909–1911) Charles University in Prague (1911–1912) ETH Zurich (1912–1914) Prussian Academy of Sciences (1914–1933) Humboldt University of Berlin (1914–1933) Kaiser Wilhelm Institute (director, 1917–1933) German Physical Society (president, 1916–1918) Leiden University (visits, 1920) Institute for Advanced Study (1933–1955) Caltech (visits, 1931–1933) University of Oxford (visits, 1931–1933)

Thesis

Eine neue Bestimmung der Moleküldimensionen (A New Determination of Molecular Dimensions) (1905)

Doctoral advisor

Alfred Kleiner

Other academic advisors

Heinrich Friedrich Weber

Influences

Arthur Schopenhauer , Bernhard Riemann , David Hume Ernst Mach , Hendrik Lorentz Hermann Minkowski, Isaac Newton James Clerk Maxwell , Michele Besso Moritz Schlick , Thomas Young

Influenced

Virtually all modern physics

The mass–energy equivalence formula was displayed on Taipei 101 during the event of the World Year of Physics 2005

36


1922

NIELS HENRIK DAVID BOHR

Born

7 October 1885 Copenhagen, Denmark

Died

18 November 1962 (aged 77) Copenhagen, Denmark

Resting place

Assistens Cemetery

Alma mater

University of Copenhagen

Known for

Bohr Atomic Model

Awards

Nobel Prize in Physics (1922) more accolades

Institutions

Trinity College University of Copenhagen Victoria University of Manchester

Thesis

The Bohr model of the hydrogen atom. A negatively charged electron, confined to an atomic orbital, orbits a small, positively charged nucleus; a quantum jump between orbits is

Studies on the Electron Theory of accompanied by an emitted or Metals (1911) absorbed amount of electromagnetic

Doctoral advisor Christian Christiansen Other academic advisors

J. J. Thomson Ernest Rutherford

Doctoral students

Hendrik Kramers

Other notable students

Lev Landau

Influences

Ernest Rutherford Harald Høffding

Influenced

Werner Heisenberg Wolfgang Pauli Paul Dirac Lise Meitner Max Delbrück

radiation.

The evolution of atomic models in the 20th century: Thomson, Rutherford, Bohr, Heisenberg/Schrödinger

The Niels Bohr Institute 37


1923

ROBERT ANDREWS MILLIKAN

Born

March 22, 1868 Morrison, Illinois, U.S.

Died

December 19, 1953 (aged 85) San Marino, California, U.S.

Nationality

United States

Alma mater

Oberlin College , Columbia University

Known for

Oil drop experiment measuring the charge of the electron Photoelectric effect , Cosmic ray physics

Awards

Institutions Doctoral advisor Other academic advisors Doctoral students

Comstock Prize (1913) IEEE Edison Medal (1922) Faraday Lectureship Prize (1924) Franklin Medal (1937) Oersted Medal (1940)

ROBERT ANDREWS MILLIKAN 1st President of California Institute of Technology

Millikan's original oil-drop apparatus, circa 1909–1910

Millikan's

experiment is

important because it established the charge on an electron. Millikan used a very simple a very simple apparatus in which University of Chicago he balanced the actions of California Institute of Technology gravitational, electric, and (air) drag forces. Using this apparatus, Ogden Nicholas Rood he was able to calculate that the Mihajlo Pupin , Albert A. charge on an electron was 1.60 × Michelson , Walther Nernst 10-19 C. Chung-Yao Chao , Robley D. Evans , Harvey Fletcher

Military career Service/branch

United States Army

Years of service

1917–1918

Rank

Lieutenant Colonel

Unit

Aviation Section, U.S. Signal Corps 38


1924

KARL MANNE GEORG SIEGBAHN

Born

3 December 1886 Örebro, Sweden

Died

26 September 1978 (aged 91) Stockholm, Sweden

Nationality

Swedish

Alma mater

University of Lund

He is the father of Nobel laureate

Kai Siegbahn

In 1916 Siegbahn discovered a new group of

Known for

X-ray spectroscopy

Awards

Björkénska priset (1919) Nobel Prize for Physics (1924) Hughes Medal (1934) Rumford Medal (1940) ForMemRS (1954) Duddell Medal and Prize (1948)

wavelengths, the M series, in X-ray emission spectra.

He

developed

equipment

and

techniques that allowed him and subsequent researchers to determine accurately the wavelengths of X rays.He developed a convention for naming the different spectral lines that are characteristic to elements in X-ray spectroscopy, the Siegbahn notation. Siegbahn's precision measurements drove many developments in quantum theory and

Institutions

University of Lund University of Uppsala University of Stockholm

atomic physics.

39


1925

JAMES FRANCK

Born

26 August 1882 Hamburg, German Empire

Died

21 May 1964 (aged 81) Göttingen, West Germany

Nationality

German

Citizenship

Germany United States

Alma mater

University of Heidelberg University of Berlin

Known for

Franck–Condon principle Franck–Hertz experiment Franck Report

Awards

Institutions

James Franck was a physicist

whose experimental work with atoms and electrons proved Niels Bohr's theory that atoms are Iron Cross, 2nd Class (1915) quantized—that they transmit and Hanseatic Cross (1916) absorb energy in discrete Iron Cross, 1st Class (1918) quantities or packages. Along Max Planck Medal (1951) with collaborator Gustav Hertz, Rumford Prize (1955) he was awarded the 1925 Nobel Fellow of the Royal Society (1964) Prize in physics. University of Berlin University of Göttingen Johns Hopkins University University of Chicago Metallurgical Laboratory

Doctoral advisor

Emil Gabriel Warburg

Doctoral students

Wilhelm Hanle Arthur R. von Hippel Theodore Puck

40


1925

GUTAV LUDWIG HERTZ

Born

22 July 1887 Free Hanseatic city of Hamburg, German Empire

Died

30 October 1975 (aged 88) East Berlin, East Germany

Nationality

German

Alma mater

Humboldt University of Berlin

Known for

Franck–Hertz experiment

Awards

Nobel Prize in Physics (1925) Max Planck Medal (1951)

Institutions

Halle University Technical University of Berlin

Doctoral advisor

Heinrich Rubens Max Planck

Doctoral students

Heinz Pose

Father of Carl Hellmuth Hertz, co-inventor of echocardiography. Grandfather of Hans Hertz, inventor of the metal-jet-anode microfocus X-ray tube

41


1926

JEAN BAPTISTE PERRIN

Born

30 September 1870 Lille, France

Died

17 April 1942 (aged 71) New York City, USA

Nationality France Alma mater École Normale Supérieure University of Paris Known for

Nature of cathode rays Brownian motion Avogadro constant Sedimentation equilibrium Perrin friction factors

Awards

Matteucci Medal (1911) Nobel Prize in Physics (1926)

BROWNIAN MOTION

Institutions École Normale Supérieure University of Paris

42


1927

ARTHUR HOLLY COMPTON

Born

September 10, 1892 Wooster, Ohio, US

Died

March 15, 1962 (aged 69) Berkeley, California, US

Alma mater

College of Wooster Princeton University

Known for

Compton scattering Compton wavelength Compton–Getting effect Compton generator

Awards

Nobel Prize for Physics (1927) Matteucci Medal (1930) Franklin Medal (1940) Hughes Medal (1940) Medal for Merit (1946)

Institutions

Washington University in St. Louis University of Chicago University of Minnesota

Doctoral advisor

Hereward L. Cooke

Doctoral students

Luis Walter Alvarez Winston H. Bostick Robert S. Shankland Wu Youxun

The Compton Gamma Ray Observatory released into Earth's orbit in 1991

Compton on the cover of Time magazine on January 13, 1936, holding his cosmic ray detector

43


1927

CHARLES THOMSON REES WILSON

Born

14 February 1869 Glencorse, Scotland

Died

15 November 1959 (aged 90) Carlops, Scotland

Nationality

Scottish

Alma mater

Owens College Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge

Known for

Cloud chamber Atmospheric electricity

Awards

Royal Medal (1922) Howard N. Potts Medal (1925) FRS (1900) Nobel Prize in Physics (1927) Franklin Medal (1929) Duddell Medal and Prize (1931)

Institutions

Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge

Academic advisors

J. J. Thomson

Doctoral students

Cecil Frank Powell Philip Dee

" Charles Thomson Wilson was awarded Nobel Prize in 2027 for his method of making the paths of electrically charged particles visible by condensation of vapour"

Wilson's Cloud Chamber at AEC's Brookhaven National Laboratory

44


1928

Born

OWEN WILLANS RICHARDSON

Owen Willans Richardson 26 April 1879 Dewsbury, Yorkshire, England

Died

15 February 1959 (aged 79) Alton, Hampshire, England

Nationality

United Kingdom

Education

Batley Grammar School

Alma mater

Trinity College, Cambridge University College London

Known for

Richardson's law

Awards

FRS (1913) Royal Medal (1930) Nobel Prize in Physics (1928) Hughes Medal (1920)

Institutions

University of Cambridge Princeton University King's College London

Doctoral advisor

J. J. Thomson

Doctoral students

Karl Taylor Compton Clinton Davisson Alan Tower Waterman

The insignia of a knight bachelor devised in 1926

45


1929

LOUIS DE BROGLIE

Born

15 August 1892 Dieppe, France

Died

19 March 1987 (aged 94) Louveciennes, France

Nationality

French

Alma mater

University of Paris (ΒΑ in History, 1910; BA in Sciences, 1913; PhD in physics, 1924)

Known for

Wave nature of electrons De Broglie–Bohm theory de Broglie wavelength

Awards

Nobel Prize in Physics (1929) Henri Poincaré Medal (1929) Albert I of Monaco Prize (1932) Max Planck Medal (1938) Kalinga Prize (1952)

Institutions

University of Paris (Sorbonne)

Thesis

Recherches sur la théorie des quanta("Research on Quantum Theory") (1924)

Doctoral advisor

Paul Langevin

Doctoral students

Cécile DeWitt-Morette Bernard d'Espagnat Jean-Pierre Vigier Alexandru Proca Marie-Antoinette Tonnelat

46


1930

CHANDRASEKHARA VENKATA RAMAN

Born

7 November 1888 Thiruvanaikoil, Madras (Tamil Nadu, India)

Died

21 November 1970 (aged 82) Bangalore, Mysore State, India

Nationality

Indian

Alma mater

Presidency College University of Madras (B.A., M.Sc.)

Known for

Raman effect

Awards

Matteucci Medal (1928) Knight Bachelor (1929) Hughes Medal (1930) Bharat Ratna (1954) Lenin Peace Prize (1957) Fellow of the Royal Society

Institutions

Indian Finance Department University of Calcutta Banaras Hindu University Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science Indian Institute of Science Raman Research Institute

Doctoral students

G. N. Ramachandran Vikram Ambalal Sarabhai Shivaramakrishnan Pancharatnam

Other notable Kariamanickam Srinivasa students K. R. Ramanathan

Energy level diagram showing the states involved in Raman signal

Bust of Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman which is placed in the garden of Birla Industrial & Technological Museum

47


1932

WERNER KARL HEISENBERG

Born

5 December 1901 Würzburg, Kingdom of Bavaria, German Empire

Died

1 February 1976 (aged 74) Munich, Bavaria, West Germany

Nationality

German

Alma mater

University of Munich University of Göttingen

Known for

Uncertainty Principle

Awards

Matteucci Medal (1929) Barnard Medal for Meritorious Service to Science (1930) Nobel Prize in Physics (1932) Max Planck Medal (1933)

Institutions

University of Göttingen University of Copenhagen University of Leipzig University of Berlin University of Munich

Doctoral advisor

Arnold Sommerfeld

Doctoral students

Felix Bloch , Edward Teller Ivan Supek , Erich Bagge Hermann Arthur Jahn Karl Ott , Bary F. Malik

A visual representation of an induced nuclear fission event where a slow-moving neutron is absorbed by the nucleus of a uranium-235 atom, which fissions into two fast-moving lighter elements

(fission

products)

and

additional

neutrons. Most of the energy released is in the form of the kinetic velocities of the fission products and the neutrons

Other notable William Vermillion Houston students Guido Beck , Ugo Fano Ettore Majorana , Herbert Wagner 48


1933

ERWIN SCHRÖDINGER

Born

12 August 1887 Vienna, Austria-Hungary

Died

4 January 1961 (aged 73) Vienna, Austria

Nationality

Austrian

Citizenship

Austria Ireland (from 1948)

Alma mater

University of Vienna

Known for

Schrödinger Equation

Awards

Matteucci Medal (1927) Nobel Prize in Physics (1933) Max Planck Medal (1937)

Institutions

University of Breslau University of Zürich Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität, Berlin University of Oxford University of Graz Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies Ghent University

Thesis

On the conduction of electricity on the surface of insulators in humid air (1910)

Doctoral advisor

Friedrich Hasenöhrl

Other acade Franz S. Exner mic advisors

Schrödinger is known for his theories Schrödingerequation Schrödinger's cat Schrödinger method Schrödinger functional Schrödinger group Schrödinger picture Schrödinger field Rayleigh-Schrödinger perturbation Schrödinger logics Schrödinger's pure-affine theory Coherent states Energy level Entropy and life Interpretations of quantum mechanics Quantum biology Quantum superposition

Annemarie and Erwin Schrödinger's gravesite

Schrödinger's quantum mechanical wave equation is inscribed

iℏΨ =HΨ

49


1933

PAUL DIRAC

Born

8 August 1902 Bristol, England

Died

20 October 1984 (aged 82) Tallahassee, Florida, U.S.

Nationality

Swiss (1902–19) British (1919–84)

Alma mater Awards

Institutions

Doctoral advisor Doctoral students

Influences

   University of Bristol   University of Cambridge  Nobel Prize in Physics (1933)  Royal Medal (1939)   Copley Medal (1952) Max Planck Medal (1952)  Fellow of the Royal Society   (1930)   University of Cambridge  University of Miami  Florida State University   Ralph Fowler   Homi J. Bhabha   Harish Chandra Mehta  Dennis Sciama  Fred Hoyle[3]  Behram Kurşunoğlu  John Polkinghorne   John Stuart Mill   

Dirac is famous as the creator of the complete theoretical formulation of quantum mechanics. He offered the following theories Dirac algebra Dirac bracket Dirac comb Dirac constant Dirac delta function Dirac equation Dirac fermion Dirac field Dirac gauge Dirac hole theory Dirac matrices Dirac measure Dirac membrane Dirac monopole Dirac notation Dirac operator Dirac picture Dirac spectrum Dirac spinor Dirac string Dirac's string trick Exchange interaction First class constraint Fermi–Dirac integral Fermi–Dirac statistics Kapitsa–Dirac effect Negative probability Primary constraint

Quantum electrodynamics

& so many others

50


1935

JAMES CHADWICK

Born

20 October 1891 Bollington, Cheshire, England

Died

24 July 1974 (aged 82) Cambridge, England

Nationality

English

Alma mater

University of Manchester University of Cambridge

Known for

Discovery of the neutron MAUD Committee Report Manhattan Project

Awards

Fellow of the Royal Society (1927) Hughes Medal (1932) Knight Bachelor (1945) Melchett Medal (1946) Copley Medal (1950) Faraday Medal (1950) Franklin Medal (1951) Guthrie Medal and Prize (1967) Companion of Honour (1970)

Institutions

Physikalisch-Technische Reichsanstalt University of Liverpool Gonville and Caius College, Manhattan Project

Doctoral advisor

Ernest Rutherford

Doctoral students

Étienne Biéler Charles Drummond Ellis Ernest C. Pollard Maurice Goldhaber

Chadwick’s Neutron chamber

The James Chadwick Building at The University of Manchester is a new facility for the School of Engineering and Analytical Science.

51


1936

VICTOR FRANCIS HESS

Born

24 June 1883 Schloss Waldstein, Peggau, Austria-Hungary

Died

17 December 1964 (aged 81) Mount Vernon, New York, USA

Nationality

Austro-Hungarian, Austria, United States

Alma mater

University of Graz

Known for

Discovery of cosmic rays

Awards

Nobel Prize in Physics (1936)

Institutions

University of Graz Austrian Academy of Sciences University of Innsbruck Fordham University

Victor Hess working with scientific equipment

52


1936

CARL DAVID ANDERSON

Born

September 3, 1905 New York City, New York, U.S.

Died

January 11, 1991 (aged 85) San Marino, California, U.S.

Nationality

American

Alma mater

California Institute of Technology (B.S. and Ph.D)

Known for

Discovery of the positron Discovery of the muon

Awards

Nobel Prize in Physics (1936) Elliott Cresson Medal (1937)

Institutions

California Institute of Technology

Thesis

Space-distribution of x-ray photoelectrons ejected from the K and L atomic energy-levels (1930)

Doctoral advisor

Robert A. Millikan

Other academic William Smythe advisors Doctoral students

Donald A. Glaser Seth Neddermeyer James C. Fletcher

Other notable students

Cinna Lomnitz

Carl David Anderson working in Lab

53


1937

CLINTON JOSEPH DAVISSON

Born

October 22, 1881 Bloomington, Illinois, USA

Died

February 1, 1958 (aged 76) Charlottesville, Virginia, USA

Nationality

United States

Alma mater

University of Chicago (B.S., 1908) Princeton University (Ph.D, 1911)

Known for

Electron diffraction The Davisson-Germer Experiment

Awards

Comstock Prize in Physics (1928) Elliott Cresson Medal (1931) Hughes Medal (1935) Nobel Prize in Physics (1937)

Institutions

Princeton University Carnegie Institute of Technology Bell Labs

Doctoral advisor

Owen Richardson

Influenced

Joseph A. Becker Mervin Kelly William Shockley

Princeton University Chapel

54


1937

GEORGE PAGET THOMSON

Born

3 May 1892 Cambridge, England

Died

10 September 1975 (aged 83) Cambridge, England

Nationality

British

Alma mater

Trinity College, Cambridge

Known for

Electron diffraction

Awards

Howard N. Potts Medal (1932) Nobel Prize in Physics (1937) Hughes Medal (1939) Royal Medal (1949) Faraday Medal (1960)

Institutions

University of Aberdeen Corpus Christi College, Cambridge Imperial College London

Academic advisors

J. J. Thomson

Father & Son J J Thomson & G P Thomson

55


1938

ENRICO FERMI

Born

29 September 1901 Rome, Italy

Died

28 November 1954 (aged 53) Chicago, Illinois, United States

Citizenship Italian (1901–44) American (1944–54) Alma mater Scuola Normale Superiore Known for

Awards

Self-sustaining nuclear chain reaction Fermi–Dirac statistics Fermi's golden rule , Fermi paradox Fermi method , Fermi theory of beta decay

Beta decay. A neutron decays into a proton, and an electron is emitted. In order for the total energy in the system to remain the same, Pauli and Fermi postulated that a neutrino was also emitted.

Matteucci Medal (1926),Hughes Medal (1942) Medal for Merit (1946), Franklin Medal (1947) ForMemRS (1950), \Rumford Prize (1953) Max Planck Medal (1954)

Institutions Scuola Normale Superiore University of Göttingen Leiden University, University of Florence Columbia University, University of Chicago

Diagram of Chicago Pile-1, the first nuclear reactor

to

achieve

a

self-sustaining

chain

reaction. Designed by Fermi, it consisted of uranium and uranium oxide in a cubic lattice

Academic advisors

Luigi Puccianti , Max Born , Paul Ehrenfest

Doctoral students

Harold Agnew , Edoardo Amaldi Owen Chamberlain ,Geoffrey Chew Mildred Dresselhaus , Jerome Friedman Richard Garwin , Marvin Goldberger Tsung-Dao Lee ,Ettore Majorana

Other notable students

Jack Steinberger Chen Ning Yang

embedded in graphite.

56


1939

ERNEST ORLANDO LAWRENCE

Born

August 8, 1901 Canton, South Dakota, U.S.

Died

August 27, 1958 (aged 57) Palo Alto, California, U.S.

Nationality

American

Alma mater

University of South Dakota, B.A. University of Minnesota, M.A. Yale University, Ph.D.

Known for

Invention of the cyclotron Manhattan Project

Awards

Member of the National Academy of Sciences (1934) Hughes Medal (1937) Elliott Cresson Medal (1937) Comstock Prize in Physics (1938) Duddell Medal and Prize (1940) Holley Medal (1942) Medal for Merit (1946) Officer de la Legion d'Honneur (1948) William Procter Prize (1951) Faraday Medal (1952) Enrico Fermi Award (1957) Sylvanus Thayer Award (1958)

Institutions

University of California, Berkeley Yale University

Doctoral advisor

William Francis Gray Swann

Doctoral students

Edwin McMillan , Chien-Shiung Wu Milton S. Livingston Kenneth Ross MacKenzie John Reginald Richardson

Diagram of cyclotron operation from Lawrence's 1934 patent

57


1943

OTTO STERN

Born

17 February 1888 Sohrau, Kingdom of Prussia (today Żory, Poland)

Died

17 August 1969 (aged 81) Berkeley, California, United States

Nationality

Germany, United States

Alma mater University of Breslau University of Frankfurt Known for

Stern–Gerlach experiment Spin quantization Molecular beam Stern–Volmer relationship

Awards

Nobel Prize in Physics (1943)

Institutions University of Rostock University of Hamburg Carnegie Institute of Technology University of California, Berkeley

58


1944

ISIDOR ISAAC RABI

Born

July 29, 1898 Rymanów, Galicia, Austria-Hungary (now Poland)

Died

January 11, 1988 (aged 89) New York City, New York, U.S.

Citizenship

United States

Alma mater

Cornell University Columbia University

Known for

Nuclear magnetic resonance Rabi cycle Rabi problem Rabi resonance method

Awards

Newcomb Cleveland Prize (1939) Elliott Cresson Medal (1942) Nobel Prize in Physics (1944) Medal for Merit (1948) Barnard Medal (1960) Atoms for Peace Award (1967) Oersted Medal (1982) Public Welfare Medal (1985) Vannevar Bush Award (1986)

Institutions

Columbia University MIT

Doctoral advisor

Albert Potter Wills

Doctoral students

Julian Schwinger Norman F. Ramsey Martin L. Perl Harold Brown

Cornell Botanic Gardens, located adjacent to the Ithaca campus, is used for conservation research and for recreation by Cornellians

The Library at Columbia University, ca. 1900

Medical MRI 59


1945

WOLFGANG ERNST PAULI

Born

25 April 1900 Vienna, Austria-Hungary

Died

15 December 1958 (aged 58) Zurich, Switzerland

Citizenship

Austria-Hungary Switzerland United States

Alma mater

Ludwig-Maximilians University

Known for

Pauli exclusion principle Pauli–Villars regularization Pauli matrices , Pauli effect Pauli equation , Pauli group Pauli repulsion Pauli paramagnetism

Awards

Haitinger Prize (1918) Lorentz Medal (1931) ForMemRS (1953)[2] Matteucci Medal (1956) Max Planck Medal (1958)

Institutions

University of Göttingen University of Copenhagen University of Hamburg

Doctoral advisor

Arnold Sommerfeld

Doctoral students

Nicholas Kemmer Felix Villars

His godfather was Ernst Mach. He is not to be confused with Wolfgang Paul, who called Pauli his "imaginary part", a pun with the imaginary unit i.

Other notable Markus Fierz students Sigurd Zienau Hans Frauenfelder 60


1946

PERCY WILLIAMS BRIDGMAN

Born

21 April 1882 Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States

Died

20 August 1961 (aged 79) Randolph, New Hampshire, United States

Cause of death

Suicide

The Bridgman effect (named after P. W. Bridgman), also called the internal Peltier effect, is a phenomenon that occurs when an electric current passes through an anisotropic crystal – there is an absorption or liberation of heat because of the non-uniformity in current distribution. The Bridgman effect is observable in geology. It describes slip-stick behavior of materials under very high pressure.

Nationality United States Alma mater Harvard University Known for

High-pressure physics Operationalism Operational definition

Awards

Rumford Prize (1917) Elliott Cresson Medal (1932) Comstock Prize (1933) Fellow of the Royal Society (1949) Bingham Medal (1951)

Bridgman Thermodynamics equation

Institutions Harvard University Doctoral advisor

Wallace Clement Sabine

Doctoral students

Francis Birch Gerald Holton John C. Slater John Hasbrouck Van Vleck

Harvard Yard 61


1947

EDWARD VICTOR APPLETON

Born

6 September 1892 Bradford, West Riding of Yorkshire, England, UK

Died

21 April 1965 (aged 72) Edinburgh, Scotland, UK

Nationality

English

Alma mater St John's College, Cambridge Known for

Ionospheric Physics Appleton layer Demonstrating existence of Kennelly–Heaviside layer

Awards

Nobel Prize in Physics (1947) Fellow of the Royal Society (1927) Hughes Medal (1933) Faraday Medal (1946) Chree Medal (1947) Royal Medal (1950) Albert Medal (1950) IEEE Medal of Honor (1962)

Institutions

Bradford College King's College London University of Cambridge University of Edinburgh Cavendish Laboratory

Academic advisors

J. J. Thomson Ernest Rutherford

Notable students

J. A. Ratcliffe Charles Oatley

62


1948

PATRICK MAYNARD STUART BLACKETT

Born

18 November 1897 London, England

Died

13 July 1974 (aged 76) London, England

Nationality

United Kingdom

Alma mater

Osborne Naval College University of Cambridge

Known for

Cloud chambers Cosmic rays Paleomagnetism

Awards

Royal Medal (1940) Nobel Prize in Physics (1948) Copley Medal (1956)

Institutions

King's College, Cambridge Birkbeck, University of London University of Manchester Imperial College London

Academic advisors

Ernest Rutherford

Doctoral students

Edward Bullard Bibha Chowdhuri Keith Runcorn

Other notable students

Ishrat Hussain Usmani Imdadul Haque Khan

63


1949

HIDEKI YUKAWA

Born

23 January 1907 Tokyo, Japan

Died

8 September 1981 (aged 74) Kyoto, Japan

Nationality

Japanese

Known for

Pi-Meson Spectroscopy Yukawa force Yukawa potential

Alma mater

Kyoto Imperial University, Osaka Imperial University

Awards

Nobel Prize in Physics (1949) ForMemRS (1963) Lomonosov Gold Medal (1964)

Institutions

Osaka Imperial University Kyoto Imperial University Imperial University of Tokyo Institute for Advanced Study Columbia University

Academic advisors

Kajuro Tamaki

Doctoral students

Mendel Sachs

Influences

Enrico Fermi

In particle, atomic and condensed matter physics, a Yukawa potential (also called a screened Coulomb potential) is a potential of the form

SPECTROSCOPY 64


1950

CECIL FRANK POWELL

Born

5 December 1903 Tonbridge, Kent, England, United Kingdom

Died

9 August 1969 (aged 65) Valsassina, Italy

Nationality

English

Citizenship

British

Alma mater University of Cambridge Known for

Photographic method Nuclear Emulsion Discovery of the pion

Awards

Nobel Prize in Physics (1950) Hughes Medal (1949) Fellow of the Royal Society (1949) Royal Medal (1961) Lomonosov Gold Medal (1967)

Institutions

University of Cambridge University of Bristol

Doctoral advisor

C. T. R. Wilson Ernest Rutherford

Memorial bench and plaque dedicated to Powell at the site of his death in the foothills of the Alps, Italy.

65


1951

JOHN DOUGLAS COCKCROFT

Born

27 May 1897 Todmorden, West Riding of Yorkshire, England

Died

18 September 1967 (aged 70) Cambridge, Cambridgeshire, England

Nationality

British

Alma mater

Victoria University of Manchester Manchester Municipal College of Technology St. John's College, Cambridge

Known for

Splitting the atom (FISSION Reaction)

Awards

Hughes Medal (1938) Commander of the Order of the British Empire (1944) Knight Bachelor (1948) Royal Medal (1954) Faraday Medal (1955) Order of Merit (1957) Atoms for Peace Award (1961) Wilhelm Exner Medal (1961) Chevalier de la Legion d'Honneur (France, 1950)

Institutions

Atomic Energy Research Establishment

Academic advisors

Ernest Rutherford

This

Cockcroft–Walton

voltage

multiplier was part of one of the early particle accelerators responsible for development of the atomic bomb. Built in 1937 by Philips of Eindhoven it is now in the National Science Museum in London, England

66


1951

ERNEST THOMAS SINTON WALTON

Born

6 October 1903 Abbeyside, Dungarvan, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland

Died

25 June 1995 (aged 91) Belfast, Northern Ireland

Nationality

British

Alma mater

Trinity College Dublin Trinity College, Cambridge

Known for

The first disintegration of an atomic nucleus by artificially accelerated protons ("splitting the atom")

Awards

Hughes Medal (1938) Nobel Prize in Physics (1951)

Institutions

Trinity College Dublin University of Cambridge Methodist College Belfast Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies

Doctoral advisor

Ernest Rutherford

The 150,000 volt proton accelerator used by Doctors John Cockcroft (1897 - 1967) and Ernest Walton in the Cavendish Laboratory at Cambridge

Electronic connection between Cockcroft–Walton voltage generator and accelerator tube in TEMs 67


1952

FELIX BLOCH

Born

23 October 1905 Zürich, Switzerland

Died

10 September 1983 (aged 77) Zürich, Switzerland

Nationality

Swiss

Citizenship Swiss, American

Isosurface of the square modulus of a Bloch wave in silicon lattice

Alma mater ETH Zürich and University of Leipzig Known for

NMR (Nuclear magnetic resonance) Magnon Bloch wall Bloch's Theorem Bloch Function (Wave) Bloch sphere Spin wave

Awards

Nobel Prize for Physics (1952)

Institutions Stanford University University of California, Berkeley Doctoral advisor

Werner Heisenberg

Doctoral students

Carson D. Jeffries

900 MHz, 21.2 T NMR Magnet at HWB-NMR, Birmingham, UK

An illustration of the precession of a spin wave with a wavelength that is eleven times the lattice constant about an applied magnetic field.

68


1952

EDWARD MILLS PURCELL

Born

August 30, 1912 Taylorville, Illinois, United States

Died

March 7, 1997 (aged 84) Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States

Nationality

United States

Alma mater

Purdue University (BSEE) Harvard University (M.A.) Harvard University (Ph.D)

Known for

Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) Smith-Purcell effect 21 cm line Scallop theorem

Awards

Oersted Medal (1967) Max Delbruck Prize (1984) Beatrice M. Tinsley Prize (1988)

Institutions

Harvard University MIT

Doctoral advisor

Kenneth Bainbridge

Horn antenna used by Harold I. Ewen and Edward M. Purcell at the Lyman Laboratory of Physics at Harvard University in 1951 for the first detection of radio radiation from nuclear atomic hydrogen gas in the Milky Way at a wavelength of 21 cm. Now at National Radio Astronomy Observatory in Green Bank, WV.

Other academic John Van Vleck advisors Doctoral students

George Pake George Benedek Charles Pence Slichter

Other notable students

Nicolaas Bloembergen

69


1953

FRITS ZERNIKE

Born

16 July 1888 Amsterdam, Netherlands

Died

10 March 1966 (aged 77) Amersfoort, Netherlands

Nationality

Netherlands

Alma mater

University of Amsterdam

Known for

Ornstein–Zernike equation Zernike polynomials Phase-contrast microscopy

Awards

Rumford Medal (1952) Nobel Prize in Physics (1953) Fellow of the Royal Society

Institutions

Groningen University

Influences

Jacobus Kapteyn

Phase-contrast microscope

Images taken by Phase-contrast microscope

70


1954

MAX BORN

Born

11 December 1882 Breslau, German Empire (now Wrocław, Poland)

Died

5 January 1970 (aged 87) Göttingen, West Germany

Citizenship

German, British

Alma mater

University of Göttingen

Known for

Born–Haber cycle, Born rigidity Born coordinates, Born series, Born probability Born–Infeld theory Born–Oppenheimer approximation Born rule, Born–Landé equation Born–Huang approximation Born–von Karman boundary condition Born equation, Adiabatic theorem

Awards

Hughes Medal (1950) Max Planck Medal (1948) Fellow of the Royal Society (1939)

Institutions

University of Frankfurt am Main University of Göttingen University of Edinburgh University of Cambridge

Doctoral students

Mary Bradburn, Kaijia Cheng Max Delbrück, Walter Elsasser Herbert S. Green, Friedrich Hund Pascual Jordan, Edgar Krahn Victor Frederick Weisskopf

The Born equation can be used for estimating the electrostatic component of Gibbs free energy of solvation of an ion. It is an electrostatic model that treats the solvent as a continuous dielectric medium (it is thus one member of a class of methods known as continuum solvation methods). It was derived by Max Born.

NA = Avogadro constant z = charge of ion e = elementary charge, 1.6022×10−19 C ε0 = permittivity of free space r0 = effective radius of ion εr = dielectric constant of the solvent

Other notable Enrico Fermi, Huang Kun students Emil Wolf 71


1954

WALTHER BOTHE

Born

8 January 1891 Oranienburg, German Empire

Died

8 February 1957 (aged 66) Heidelberg, West Germany

Nationality

Germany

Alma mater University of Berlin Known for

Coincidence circuit

Awards

Nobel Prize for Physics (1954) Max Planck Medal (1953)

Institutions

University of Berlin University of Giessen University of Heidelberg Max Planck Institute for Medical Research

Doctoral advisor

Max Planck

Doctoral students

Hans Ritter von Baeyer

72


1955

WILLIS EUGENE LAMB

Born

July 12, 1913 Los Angeles, California, U.S.

Died

May 15, 2008 (aged 94) Tucson, Arizona, U.S.

Nationality

United States

Alma mater

University of California, Berkeley

Known for

Lamb shift Lamb–Mössbauer factor Laser Theory Quantum Optics

Awards

Nobel Prize in Physics (1955)

Institutions

University of Arizona University of Oxford Yale Columbia Stanford

Doctoral advisor

J. Robert Oppenheimer

Doctoral students

Bernard Feld (1945) Robert Retherford (1947) Norman Kroll (1948) Theodore Maiman (1955) Marlan Scully (1966) Balázs László Győrffy (1966)

A helium–neon laser demonstration. The glow running through the center of the tube is an electric discharge. This glowing plasma is the gain medium for the laser. The laser produces a tiny, intense spot on the screen to the right. The center of the spot appears white because the image is overexposed there.

73


1955

POLYKARP KUSCH

Born

January 26, 1911 Blankenburg, District of Blankenburg, Duchy of Brunswick, German Empire

Died

March 20, 1993 (aged 82) Dallas, Texas, United States

Alma mater

University of Illinois, Case Western Reserve University

Known for

Measured the magnetic moment of the electron

Awards

Nobel Prize in Physics (1955)

Institutions

University of Texas at Dallas Columbia University

Thesis

The molecular spectra of caesium and rubidium (1936)

Doctoral advisor

Francis Wheeler Loomis

Doctoral students

Eugene D. Commins

Other notable Gordon Gould students

74


1956

JOHN BARDEEN

Born

May 23, 1908 Madison, Wisconsin, U.S.

Died

January 30, 1991 (aged 82) Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.

Nationality

American

Alma mater

University of Wisconsin (B.S., 1928; M.S., 1929) Princeton University (Ph.D., 1936)

Known for

Transistor BCS theory Superconductivity

Awards

Stuart Ballantine Medal (1952) Oliver E. Buckley Condensed Matter Prize (1954) National Medal of Science (1965) IEEE Medal of Honor (1971) ForMemRS (1973) Lomonosov Gold Medal (1987) Harold Pender Award (1988)

Institutions

Bell Telephone Laboratories University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign

Doctoral advisor

Eugene Wigner

Doctoral students

William L. McMillan John Robert Schrieffer Nick Holonyak

A stylized replica of the first transistor invented at Bell Labs on December 23, 1947

75


1956

WALTER HOUSER BRATTAIN

Born

February 10, 1902 Xiamen, Fujian, Qing Dynasty

Died

October 13, 1987 (aged 85) Seattle, Washington, US

Nationality

American

Alma mater

Whitman College University of Oregon University of Minnesota

Known for

Transistor

Awards

Stuart Ballantine Medal (1952) Nobel Prize in Physics (1956)

Institutions

Whitman College Bell Laboratories

Doctoral advisor

John Torrence Tate, Sr.

An early model of a transistor

Metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET), showing gate (G), body (B), source (S) and drain (D) terminals. The gate is separated from the body by an insulating layer (pink).

76


1956

WILLIAM BRADFORD SHOCKLEY

Born

February 13, 1910 Greater London, England, United Kingdom

Died

August 12, 1989 (aged 79) Stanford, California, United States

Nationality

American

Alma mater MIT Caltech Known for

Point-contact transistor and GJT Process variation, Thyristor Shockley diode Shockley diode equation Shockley-Read-Hall recombination Shockley partials Shockley–Ramo theorem Shockley states Shockley–Queisser limit Haynes-Shockley experiment Read-Shockley equation

Awards

Comstock Prize in Physics (1953) Oliver E. Buckley Condensed Matter Prize (1953) Wilheln Exner Medal (1963) IEEE Medal of Honor (1980)

Institutions

Bell Labs Shockley Semiconductor Stanford University

Doctoral advisor

John C. Slater

77


1957

Born

TSUNG-DAO LEE

November 24, 1926 (age 93) Shanghai, China

Alma mater National Che Kiang University National Southwestern Associated University University of Chicago Known for

Kinoshita-Lee-Nauenberg theorem Non-topological solitons Parity violation Wu experiment

Awards

Nobel Prize in Physics (1957) Albert Einstein Award (1957) Matteucci Medal (1995)

Institutions Columbia University Institute for Advanced Study University of California, Berkeley Thesis

Hydrogen Content of White Dwarf Stars (1950)

Doctoral advisor

Enrico Fermi

Doctoral students

Richard M. Friedberg Norman Christ

78


1957

CHEN-NING YANG

Born

1 October 1922 (age 97) Hefei, Anhui Province, China

Nationality

Chinese

Citizenship

Republic of China (1922–2015)

Alma mater

National Southwestern Associated University Tsinghua University University of Chicago

Known for

Yang–Mills theory Gauge theory Yang–Mills–Higgs equations Standard Model Parity violation

Awards

Rumford Prize (1980) National Medal of Science (1986) Benjamin Franklin Medal (1993) Albert Einstein Medal (1995) Bogolyubov Prize (1996) Lars Onsager Prize (1999)

Institutions

Stony Brook University Institute for Advanced Study Chinese University of Hong Kong Tsinghua University University of Chicago

Doctoral advisor

Edward Teller

Quantum Field Theory

Yang–Mills–Higgs equations

Other acade Enrico Fermi mic advisors Doctoral students

Bill Sutherland

79


1958

PAVEL ALEKSEYEVICH CHERENKOV

Born

July 28, 1904 Novaya Chigla, Voronezh Governorate, Russian Empire

Died

January 6, 1990 (aged 85) Moscow, Russian SFSR, Soviet Union

Resting place

Novodevichy Cemetery, Moscow

Nationality

Russian

Alma mater

Voronezh State University

Known for

Characterizing Cherenkov radiation

Awards

Nobel Prize in Physics (1958)

Institutions

Lebedev Physical Institute

Doctoral advisor

Sergey Vavilov

Cherenkov radiation is named for his discovery of the phenomenon; pictured here glowing is the core of the Advanced Test Reactor

80


1958

ILYA MIKHAILOVICH FRANK

Born

23 October 1908 Saint Petersburg, Russian Empire

Died

22 June 1990 (aged 81) Moscow, Soviet Union

Alma mater

Moscow State University

Known for

Čerenkov radiation Transition radiation Frank-Tamm formula

Awards

Stalin Prize 1946, Nobel Prize in Physics (1958)

Institutions

Moscow State University, Academy of Sciences of the U.S.S.R.

Doctoral advisor

Sergey Ivanovich Vavilov

Frank–Tamm formula

Main buildings of Moscow Stateuniversity in Mokhovaya Street, 1798

81


1958

IGOR YEVGENYEVICH TAMM

Born

8 July 1895 Vladivostok, Russian Empire

Died

12 April 1971 (aged 75) Moscow, Russian SFSR, Soviet Union

Resting place

Novodevichy Cemetery, Moscow

Nationality

Soviet Union

Alma mater

Moscow State University Edinburgh University

Known for

Tamm states Neutron magnetic moment Cherenkov–Vavilov effect Frank–Tamm formula Tamm–Dancoff approximation Hydrogen bomb , Tokamak Phonon , Quantum speed limit

The reaction chamber of the DIII-D, an experimental tokamak fusion reactor operated by General Atomics in San Diego, which has been used in research since it was completed in the late 1980s. The

characteristic

torus-shaped

chamber is clad with graphite to help withstand the extreme heat. A man

Awards

inside the 1967 Lomonosov Gold Medal 1954 Order of the Hero of Socialist dimensions. Labour · Stalin Prize

Institutions

Second Moscow State University Moscow State University Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology Lebedev Physical Institute

Doctoral students

Vitaly Ginzburg, Andrey Sakharov Leonid Keldysh Anatoly Vlasov, Leonid Brekhovskikh

vessel

illustrates

the

Magnetic fields in a tokamak 82


1959

EMILIO GINO SEGRE

Born

1 February 1905 Tivoli, Italy

Died

22 April 1989 (aged 84) Lafayette, California, United States of America

Citizenship

Italy (1905–44) United States (1944–89)

Alma mater

Sapienza University of Rome

Known for

Discovery of antiproton, technetium, and astatine

Awards

Nobel Prize in Physics (1959)

Institutions

Los Alamos National Laboratory University of California, Berkeley University of Palermo Sapienza University of Rome Columbia University

Doctoral advisor

Enrico Fermi

Doctoral students

Thomas Ypsilantis Herbert York

The quark content of the antiproton

Technetium

Spectral lines of technetium

83


1959

OWEN CHAMBERLAIN

Born

July 10, 1920 San Francisco, California, USA

Died

February 28, 2006 (aged 85) Berkeley, California, USA

Nationality

United States

Alma mater

Dartmouth College University of California, Berkeley University of Chicago

Known for

Particle physics Antiparticle

Awards

Nobel Prize in Physics, 1959

Institutions

Los Alamos National Laboratory

Doctoral advisor

Enrico Fermi

Doctoral students

Paul Grannis, Nathan Isgur

Time projection chamber (TPC) of the ALICE experiment at CERN

SLAC 3-kilometer-long (2 mi) Klystron Gallery above the beamline Accelerator

84


1960

DONALD ARTHUR GLASER

Born

September 21, 1926 Cleveland, Ohio, U.S.

Died

February 28, 2013 (aged 86) Berkeley, California, U.S.

Alma mater

Case School of Applied Science (Case Western Reserve University) California Institute of Technology

Known for

Invention of bubble chamber Business executive

Awards

Nobel Prize in Physics (1960) Elliott Cresson Medal (1961)

Institutions

University of Michigan University of California at Berkeley

Thesis

The momentum distribution of charged cosmic ray particles near sea level (1949)

A bubble chamber

Doctoral advisor Carl David Anderson

85


1961

ROBERT HOFSTADTER

Born

February 5, 1915 New York City

Died

November 17, 1990 (aged 75) Stanford, California

Nationality

United States

Alma mater City College of New York Princeton University Known for

Electron scattering Atomic nuclei Sodium iodide scintillator

Awards

Nobel Prize in Physics (1961) National Medal of Science (1986) Dirac Medal (1987)

Institutions Stanford University University of Pennsylvania Doctoral students

Electron Scattering

Carol Jo Crannell

Scintillation crystal surrounded by

Princeton University

various scintillation detector assemblies

86


1961

RUDOLF LUDWIG MOSSBAUER

Born

31 January 1929 Munich, Weimar Republic

Died

14 September 2011 (aged 82) Grünwald, Germany

Alma mater Technical University of Munich Known for

Mössbauer effect Mössbauer spectroscopy

Awards

Nobel Prize in Physics (1961) Elliott Cresson Medal (1961) Lomonosov Gold Medal (1984)

Mössbauer absorption spectrum of 57Fe

Institutions Technical University of Munich Caltech Doctoral advisor

Heinz Maier-Leibnitz

Main campus entrance at Gabelsbergerstraße, Munich

87


1962

LEV DAVIDOVICH LANDAU

Born

22 January 1908 Baku, Baku Governorate, Russian Empire

Died

1 April 1968 (aged 60) Moscow, Soviet Union

Alma mater Baku State University Leningrad State University Leningrad Physico-Technical Institute Known for

Awards

Landau gauge, Landau pole Landau susceptibility,Landau potential Landau quantization Stuart–Landau equation Ginzburg–Landau theory Landau kinetic equation hydrodynamics Landau–Hopf theory of turbulence Superfluidity Superconductivity Stalin Prize (1946) Max Planck Medal (1960)

The liquid helium is in the superfluid phase. A thin invisible film creeps up the inside wall of the cup and down on the outside. A drop forms. It will fall off into the liquid helium below. This will

repeat

until

the

cup

is

empty—provided the liquid remains superfluid.

A high-temperature superconductor levitating above a magnet

Institutions Kharkov Polytechnical Institute and Kharkov University (later Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology) Institute for Physical Problems (RAS) MSU Faculty of Physics Academic advisors

Niels Bohr

Doctoral students

Alexei Alexeyevich Abrikosov Isaak Markovich Khalatnikov 88


1963

EUGENE PAUL WIGNER

Born

November 17, 1902 Budapest, Austria-Hungary

Died

January 1, 1995 (aged 92) Princeton, New Jersey, US

Citizenship American (post-1937) Hungarian (pre-1937) Alma mater Technical University of Berlin Known for

Awards

Bargmann–Wigner equations Wigner D-matrix, Wigner crystal, Wigner effect, Wigner's theorem Wigner energy, Wigner lattice Gabor–Wigner transform Jordan–Wigner transformation Newton–Wigner localization Wigner–Inonu contraction 6-j symbol, 9-j symbol Medal for Merit (1946), Enrico Fermi Award (1958) Atoms for Peace Award (1959) Max Planck Medal (1961) National Medal of Science (1969) Albert Einstein Award (1972)

Structure Wigner

of

a

crystal

two-dimensional in

a

parabolic

potential trap with 600 electrons. Triangles

and

squares

mark

positions of the topological defects.

Institutions University of Göttingen University of Wisconsin–Madison Princeton University, Manhattan Project Doctoral advisor

Michael Polanyi

Doctoral students

John Bardeen J O Hirschfelder

Jucys diagram for the Wigner 6-j symbol. 89


1963

MARIA GOEPPERT MAYER

Born

June 28, 1906 Kattowitz, German Empire (today Katowice, Poland)

Died

February 20, 1972 (aged 65) San Diego, California, United States

Citizenship

Germany United States

Alma mater

University of Göttingen

Known for

Nuclear shell model

Awards

Nobel Prize in Physics (1963)

Institutions

Sarah Lawrence College Columbia University Los Alamos Laboratory Argonne National Laboratory University of California, San Diego University of Chicago

Doctoral advisor

Max Born

Doctoral students

Robert G. Sachs

The old Auditorium Maximum (built in 1826–1865) University of Göttingen

Alpha decay

Types of radioactive decay related to N and Z numbers

90


1963

J. HANS D. JENSEN

Born

25 June 1907 Hamburg, German Empire

Died

11 February 1973 (aged 65) Heidelberg, West Germany

Nationality

German

Alma mater

University of Hamburg

Known for

Nuclear shell model

Awards

Nobel Prize for Physics (1963)

Doctoral advisor

Wilhelm Lenz

Doctoral students

Hans-Arwed Weidenmüller

German nuclear weapons program

University of Hamburg

91


1964

NICOLAY GENNADIYEVICH BASOV

Born

14 December 1922 Usman, Russian SFSR

Died

3 July 2001 (aged 78) Moscow, Russia

Resting place

Novodevichy Cemetery, Moscow

Alma mater

Moscow Engineering Physics Institute

Known for

Invention of lasers and masers

Awards

Nobel Prize in Physics (1964) Kalinga Prize (1986) Lomonosov Gold Medal (1989)

Institutions

Lebedev Physical Institute A hydrogen radio frequency discharge, the first element inside a hydrogen maser

92


1964

ALEXANDER PROKHOROV

Born

11 July 1916 Peeramon, Queensland, Australia

Died

8 January 2002 (aged 85) Moscow, Russia

Resting place Novodevichy Cemetery, Moscow Nationality

Soviet / Russian

Known for

Lasers and masers

Awards

1964 Nobel Prize in Physics 1987 Lomonosov Gold Medal

A 100 watt stereo audio amplifier used in home component audio systems in the 1970s.

QUANTUM ELECTRONICS

93


1964

CHARLES HARD TOWNES

Born

July 28, 1915 Greenville, South Carolina, U.S.

Died

January 27, 2015 (aged 99) Oakland, California, U.S.

Nationality

American

Alma mater

Furman University (B.S. & B.A.) Duke University (M.A.) Caltech (Ph.D.)

Known for

Lasers

Awards

Comstock Prize in Physics (1958) John J. Carty Award (1961) Stuart Ballantine Medal (1962) Young Medal and Prize (1963) IEEE Medal of Honor (1967) ForMemRS (1976) National Medal of Science (1982) Lomonosov Gold Medal (2000) Vannevar Bush Award (2006) SPIE Gold Medal (2010) Golden Goose Award (2012)

Institutions

Berkeley , Bell Labs Institute for Defense Analyses Columbia University MIT , University of Michigan

Doctoral advisor

William Smythe

Doctoral students

Ali Javan , Elsa M. Garmire James P. Gordon Robert W. Boyd Raymond Y. Chiao

The supermassive black hole

The free-electron laser FELIX at the FOM Institute for Plasma Physics Rijnhuizen, Nieuwegein

Detection of unusually bright X-Ray flare from Sagittarius A*, a black hole in the center of the Milky Way galaxy on 5 January 2015

94


1965

RICHARD PHILLIPS FEYNMAN

Born

May 11, 1918 Queens, New York, US

Died

February 15, 1988 (aged 69) Los Angeles, California, US

Alma mater

Massachusetts Institute of Technology Princeton University (Ph.D. 1942)

Known for

Acoustic wave equation Bethe–Feynman formula Feynman diagrams, Feynman gauge Feynman–Kac formula Nanotechnology, One-electron universe Quantum computing Quantum electrodynamics Quantum hydrodynamics The Feynman Lectures on Physics Universal quantum simulator

Awards

Albert Einstein Award (1954) E. O. Lawrence Award (1962) Foreign Member of the Royal Society (1965) Oersted Medal (1972) National Medal of Science (1979)

Institutions

Cornell University California Institute of Technology

Doctoral advisor

John Archibald Wheeler

Doctoral students

James M. Bardeen, Laurie Mark Brown Thomas Curtright , Albert Hibbs Giovanni Rossi Lomanitz , George Zweig

Quantum computer based on superconducting qubits developed by IBM Research in Zürich, Switzerland. The device shown here will be inserted into a dilution refrigerator and cooled to under 1 kelvin.

95


1965

Born

JULIAN SCHWINGER

February 12, 1918 New York City, New York, U.S.

Cavity perturbation theory describes

Died

July 16, 1994 (aged 76) Los Angeles, California, U.S.

formulae for performance changes of a

Nationality

United States

either introduction of a small foreign

Alma mater City College of New York Columbia University Known for

Quantum electrodynamics Cavity perturbation theory Spin–statistics theorem Sigma model MacMahon Master theorem

Awards

Albert Einstein Award (1951) National Medal of Science (1964)

methods for derivation of perturbation cavity

resonator.

These

performance

changes are assumed to be caused by object

into

the

cavity

or

a

small

deformation of its boundary.

Institutions University of California, Berkeley Purdue University Massachusetts Institute of Technology Harvard University University of California, Los Angeles Doctoral advisor

Isidor Isaac Rabi

Doctoral students

Roy Glauber , Ben R. Mottelson Eugen Merzbacher Sheldon Lee Glashow Walter Kohn , Bryce DeWitt Daniel Kleitman , Sam Edwards Gordon Baym , Lowell S. Brown Margaret G. Kivelson Tung-Mow Yan 96


1965

SHINICHIRO TOMONAGA

Born

March 31, 1906 Tokyo, Japan

Died

July 8, 1979 (aged 73) Tokyo, Japan

Nationality

Japanese

Alma mater Kyoto Imperial University Known for

Quantum electrodynamics Schwinger–Tomonaga equation

Awards

Asahi Prize (1946) Lomonosov Gold Medal (1964) Nobel Prize in Physics (1965)

Institutions

Institute for Advanced Study Tokyo University of Education RIKEN University of Tokyo Leipzig University

Electron self-energy loop

Lomonosov Gold Medal

Leipzig University 97


1966

ALFRED KASTLER

Born

3 May 1902 Guebwiller, Alsace, German Empire

Died

7 January 1984 (aged 81) Bandol, France

Nationality

France

Alma mater

École Normale Supérieure, University of Paris

Known for

Optical pumping technique

Awards

Holweck Prize (1954), CNRS Gold medal (1964), Nobel Prize for Physics (1966)

Doctoral advisor

Pierre Daure

Doctoral students

Claude Cohen Tannoudji

Optical pumping of a laser rod (bottom) with an arc lamp (top). Red: hot. Blue: cold. Green: light. Non-green arrows: water flow. Solid colors: metal. Light colors: fused quartz

98


1967

HANS ALBRECHT BETHE

Born

July 2, 1906 Strasbourg, Germany

Died

March 6, 2005 (aged 98) Ithaca, New York, United States

Nationality

German ,

Alma mater

University of Frankfurt University of Munich

Known for

Nuclear physics ,Stellar nucleosynthesis Quantum electrodynamics Crystal field theory , Bethe lattice Bethe–Salpeter equation Bethe–Feynman formula

Awards

1947 Henry Draper Medal 1957 ForMemRS, 1959 Franklin Medal 1961 Enrico Fermi Award 1963 Rumford Prize 1989 Lomonosov Gold Medal 1993 Oersted Medal , 2001 Bruce Medal 2005 Benjamin Franklin Medal

Institutions

American

Hans Bethe lecturing at Dalhousie University, 1978

In this symbolic representing of

a

nuclear

lithium-6 react

to

and form

reaction, deuterium the

highly

excited intermediate nucleus Be

which

then

decays

immediately into two alpha

University of Tübingen particles Cornell University , University of Bristol Protons University of Manchester

of are

helium-4 symbolically

represented by red spheres,

Doctoral advisor

Arnold Sommerfeld

Doctoral students

Michel Baranger , Peter A. Carruthers Michael Nauenberg, John W. Negele Mark Nelkin , Ramamurti Rajaraman

Other notable Freeman Dyson students

and neutrons by blue spheres

Overview of the CNO-I Cycle 99


1968

LUIS WALTER ALVAREZ

Born

June 13, 1911 San Francisco, California, US

Died

September 1, 1988 (aged 77) Berkeley, California, US

Nationality

American

Alma mater

University of Chicago

Known for

hydrogen bubble chamber Resonance states Particle Physics Magnetic moment of the neutron linear dipole array antenna radar system Manhattan Project "Fat Man" (a plutonium bomb) RaLa Experiments Muon tomography

Awards

Luis Alvarez was one of the most brilliant and productive experimental physicists of the twentieth century

Fermilab's disused 15-foot (4.57 m) bubble chamber

National Aeronautic Association's Collier Trophy in 1945

Medal for Merit (1947) National Medal of Science (1963) Nobel Prize in Physics (1968) Enrico Fermi Award (1987) Institutions

University of California, Berkeley

Doctoral advisor

Arthur Compton

Aerial view of Fermilab, a science research laboratory co-managed by the University of Chicago

100


1969

MURRAY GELL-MANN

Born

September 15, 1929 Manhattan, New York City, U.S.

Died

May 24, 2019 (aged 89) Santa Fe, New Mexico, U.S.

Alma mater

Yale University (B.Sc.) Massachusetts Institute of Technology (Ph.D.)

Known for

Coining the term "quark" Gell-Mann and Low theorem Gell-Mann matrices Gell-Mann–Nishijima formula Gell-Mann–Okubo mass formula V−A theory, Sigma model of pions Seesaw theory of neutrino masses Strangeness , Plectics Quark model , Crossing symmetry Totalitarian principle

A proton is composed of two up quarks, one down quark, and the gluons that mediate the forces "binding" them together. The color assignment of individual quarks is arbitrary, but all three colors must be present

Awards

Dannie Heineman Prize for Mathematical Physics (1959) E. O. Lawrence Award (1966) John J. Carty Award (1968) ForMemRS (1978)

Institutions

University of New Mexico University of Southern California California Institute of Technology University of Chicago

The

Doctoral advisor

Victor Weisskopf

magenta. Although these mesons are

Doctoral students

Kenneth G. Wilson , Sidney Coleman Rod Crewther , James Hartle Christopher T. Hill , Barton Zwiebach

pseudoscalar

meson

nonet.

Members of the original meson "octet" are shown in green, the singlet in now grouped into a nonet, the Eightfold Way name derives from the patterns of eight for the mesons and baryons in the original classification scheme.

101


1970

HANNES OLOF GOSTA ALFVEN

Born

30 May 1908 Norrköping, Sweden

Died

2 April 1995 (aged 86) Djursholm, Sweden

Alma mater University of Uppsala Known for

Awards

Magnetohydrodynamics Plasma cosmology Alfvén wave

The sun is an MHD Magnetohydrodynamics system that is not well understood

Björkénska priset (1946) Nobel Prize in Physics (1970) Lomonosov Gold Medal (1971) Dirac Medal (1979) ForMemRS (1980) William Bowie Medal (1988)

Institutions University of Uppsala Royal Institute of Technology University of California, San Diego University of Maryland, College Park University of Southern California Doctoral advisor

Manne Siegbahn Carl Wilhelm Oseen

Doctoral students

Carl-Gunne Fälthammar

Hannes

Alfvén

suggested

that

scaling

laboratory results can be extrapolated up to the scale of the universe. A scaling jump by a factor 109 was required to extrapolate to the magnetosphere, a second jump to extrapolate to galactic conditions, and a third jump to extrapolate to the Hubble distance

102


1970

L0UIS NEEL

Born

22 November 1904 Lyon, France

Died

17 November 2000 (aged 95) Brive-la-Gaillarde

Alma mater

École Normale Supérieure, University of Paris University of Strasbourg

Nationality

France

Known for

Néel effect Néel relaxation theory

Awards

Nobel Prize in Physics (1970) ForMemRS (1966) Legion of Honour (1966)

Institutions

CNRS, Grenoble

Doctoral advisor

Pierre Weiss

Computer simulation of the Earth's field in a period of normal polarity between reversals. The lines represent magnetic field lines, blue when the field points towards the center and yellow when away. The rotation axis of the Earth is centered and vertical. The dense clusters of lines are within the Earth's core

103


1971

DENNIS GABOR

Born

5 June 1900 Budapest, Kingdom of Hungary

Died

9 February 1979 (aged 78) London, England

Citizenship Hungarian / British Alma mater Technical University of Berlin Technical University of Budapest Known for

Holography (He is called as Father of holography) Gabor filter Gabor limit Gabor transform Gabor atom Gabor wavelet

Awards

FRS (1956) Young Medal and Prize (1967) Rumford Medal (1968) IEEE Medal of Honor (1970) Nobel Prize in Physics (1971)

Example of a two-dimensional Gabor filter

Institutions Imperial College London British Thomson-Houston Doctoral students

Anthony G. Constantinides Eric Ash Two photographs of a single hologram taken from different viewpoints

104


1972

JOHN BARDEEN

Born

May 23, 1908 Madison, Wisconsin, U.S.

Died

January 30, 1991 (aged 82) Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.

Nationality

American

Alma mater

University of Wisconsin (B.S., 1928; M.S., 1929) Princeton University (Ph.D., 1936)

Known for

Transistor , BCS theory Superconductivity

Awards

Institutions

Stuart Ballantine Medal (1952) Oliver E. Buckley Condensed Matter Prize (1954) Nobel Prize in Physics (1956) National Medal of Science (1965) IEEE Medal of Honor (1971) ForMemRS (1973) Lomonosov Gold Medal (1987) Harold Pender Award (1988) Bell Telephone Laboratories University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign

Thesis

Quantum Theory of the Work Function (1936)

Doctoral advisor

Eugene Wigner

Doctoral students

William L. McMillan John Robert Schrieffer Nick Holonyak

Electric cables for accelerators at CERN. Both the massive and slim cables are rated for 12,500 A. Top: regular cables for LEP; bottom: superconductor-based cables for the LHC

Bell Labs headquarters in Murray Hill, New Jersey, in 2007 (formerly Lucent's head office)

Nokia Bell Labs entrance sign at New Jersey headquarters in 2016 105


1972

Born

LEON NEIL COOPER

February 28, 1930 (age 89) Bronx, New York, U.S.

Alma mater Columbia University (B.A. 1951, M.A. 1953, Ph.D. 1954) Known for

Superconductivity Cooper pairs

Awards

Nobel Prize in Physics (1972) Comstock Prize in Physics (1968)

Institutions

Brown University

Doctoral advisor

Robert Serber

106


1972

JOHN ROBERT SCHRIEFFER

Born

May 31, 1931 Oak Park, Illinois, U.S.

Died

July 27, 2019 (aged 88) Tallahassee, Florida, U.S.

Nationality

American

Alma mater

Massachusetts Institute of Technology University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign

Known for Awards

BCS theory National Medal of Science (1983) Nobel Prize in Physics (1972) Comstock Prize in Physics (1968)

The University of Florida Cancer and Genetics Research Complex is one of several research facilities at the university BCS theory or Bardeen–Cooper–Schrieffer theory describes superconductivity as a microscopic

effect

caused

by

a

condensation of Cooper pairs. The theory is also used in nuclear physics to describe the pairing interaction between nucleons in an atomic nucleus. It was proposed by Bardeen, Cooper, and Schrieffer in 1957;

Institutions

University of Pennsylvania University of California, Santa Barbara University of Florida Florida State University University of Birmingham

Doctoral advisor

John Bardeen

they received the Nobel Prize in Physics for this theory in 1972.

Aerial of Ben Hill Griffin Stadium, also known as "The Swamp."

107


1973

Born

LEO ESAKI

March 12, 1925 (age 94)[1] Takaida-mura, Nakakawachi-gun, Osaka Prefecture, Japan

Nationality

Japanese

Alma mater

Tokyo Imperial University

Known for

Electron tunneling Esaki diode Superlattice

Awards

Japan Academy Prize (1965) Nobel Prize in Physics (1973) IEEE Medal of Honor (1991) Japan Prize (1998)[1]

Institutions

IBM T. J. Watson Research Center Sony University of Tsukuba

Esaki's “five don’ts” rules 1. Don’t allow yourself to be trapped by your past experiences. 2. Don’t allow yourself to become overly attached to any one authority in your field – the great professor, perhaps. 3. Don’t hold on to what you don’t need. 4. Don’t avoid confrontation. 5. Don’t forget your spirit of childhood curiosity.

The University of Tsukuba campus

108


1973

IVAR GIAEVER

Born

April 5, 1929 (age 90) Bergen, Norway

Nationality

Norway, United States (1964)

Alma mater Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Known for

Solid-state physics Global warming Bio Physics Superconductors

Awards

Oliver E. Buckley Condensed Matter Prize (1965) Nobel Prize in Physics (1973)

The Theta chapter of Chi Phi at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute

Cross section of a preform superconductor rod from abandoned Texas Superconducting Super Collider (SSC)

109


1973

BRIAN DAVID JOSEPHSON

Born

4 January 1940 (age 80) Cardiff, Wales, UK

Alma mater

University of Cambridge (BA, MA, PhD)

Known for

Josephson effect

Awards

FRS (1970) Elliott Cresson Medal (1972) Entrance to the old Cavendish Laboratory Nobel Prize in Physics (1973) on Free School Lane, Cambridge Faraday Medal (1982)

Institutions

Trinity College, Cambridge University of Cambridge

Thesis

Non-linear conduction in superconductors (1964)

Doctoral advisor

Brian Pippard

Josephson junction array chip developed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology as a standard volt

110


1974

MARTIN RYLE

Born

27 September 1918 Brighton, England

Died

14 October 1984 (aged 66) Cambridge, England

Nationality

United Kingdom

Education

Bradfield College

Alma mater

University of Oxford (BA, DPhil)

Known for

Aperture synthesis Radio astronomy

Awards

Hughes Medal (1954) RAS Gold Medal (1964) Henry Draper Medal (1965) Knight Bachelor (1966) Faraday Medal (1971) Royal Medal (1973) Bruce Medal (1974) Nobel Prize in Physics (1974)

Institutions

University of Cambridge Gresham College

Doctoral advisor

J. A. Ratcliffe

Doctoral students

Malcolm Longair Peter Rentzepis Jan Högbom

In 1605 Oxford was still a walled city, but several colleges had been built outside the city walls (north is at the bottom on this map)

Most aperture synthesis interferometers use the rotation of the Earth to increase the number of baseline orientations included in an observation. In this example with the Earth represented as a grey sphere, the baseline between telescope A and telescope B changes angle with time as viewed from the radio source as the Earth rotates. Taking data at different times thus provides measurements with different telescope separations

111


1974

ANTONY HEWISH

Born

11 May 1924 (age 95) Fowey, Cornwall, England

Nationality

United Kingdom

Education

King's College, Taunton

Alma mater University of Cambridge (BA, PhD) Known for

Pulsars

Awards

Hughes Medal (1977) Nobel Prize for Physics (1974) Eddington Medal (1969) Mullard Radio Astronomy Observatory

Institutions

Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge Cavendish Laboratory

Thesis

The fluctuations of galactic radio waves (1952)

Doctoral students

Jocelyn Bell Burnell

Gonville & Caius College Cambridge University 112


1975

AAGE NIELS BOHR

Born

19 June 1922 Copenhagen, Denmark

Died

8 September 2009 (aged 87) Copenhagen, Denmark

Nationality

Danish

Alma mater University of Copenhagen Known for

Geometry of atomic nuclei

Awards

Dannie Heineman Prize for Mathematical Physics (1960) Atoms for Peace Award (1969) H.C. Ørsted Medal (1970) Foreign Associate of the National Academy of Sciences (1971) Rutherford Medal and Prize (1972) John Price Wetherill Medal (1974) Nobel Prize in Physics (1975)

Institutions

Manhattan Project Institute for Advanced Study Columbia University University of Copenhagen

Thesis

Rotational States of Atomic Nuclei (1954)

A graphical representation of the semi-empirical binding energy formula. The binding energy per nucleon in MeV is plotted for various nuclides as a function of Z, the atomic number (on the y-axis), and N, the neutron number (on the x-axis). A dashed line is included to show experimentally-known nuclides are typically above approximately 7.6 MeV per nucleon—the highest binding energies, in excess of 8.5 MeV, are seen for Z = 26, iron.

113


1975

BEN ROY MOTTELSON

Born

July 9, 1926 (age 93) Chicago, Illinois, U.S.

Nationality

American-Danish

Citizenship Danish Alma mater Purdue University, B.S. 1947 Harvard University, Ph.D. 1950 Known for

Geometry of atomic nuclei A model of the atomic nucleus showing it as a

Awards

compact bundle of the two types of nucleons: Atoms for Peace Award (1969) John Price Wetherill Medal (1974) protons (red) and neutrons (blue). In this diagram, protons and neutrons look like little Nobel Prize in Physics (1975)

balls stuck together, but an actual nucleus (as

Institutions Nordita

understood by modern nuclear physics) cannot be explained like this, but only by using quantum mechanics. In a nucleus which occupies a certain

Doctoral advisor

Julian Schwinger

energy level (for example, the ground state), each nucleon can be said to occupy a range of locations.

114


1975

LEO JAMES RAINWATER

Born

December 9, 1917 Council, Idaho

Died

May 31, 1986 (aged 68) New York

Alma mater Columbia University Caltech Awards

Ernest Orlando Lawrence Award (1963) Nobel Prize in Physics (1975)

The Library at Columbia University, ca. 1900

Institutions Columbia University Manhattan Project Thesis

Neutron beam spectrometer studies of boron, cadmium, and the energy distribution from paraffin (1946)

Doctoral advisor

John R. Dunning The Trinity test of the Manhattan Project was the first detonation of a nuclear weapon

115


1976

BURTON RICHTER

Born

March 22, 1931 Brooklyn, New York, U.S.

Died

July 18, 2018 (aged 87) Stanford, California, U.S.

Nationality

American

Alma mater

MIT

Known for

J/ψ meson

Awards

E. O. Lawrence Award (1975) Nobel Prize in Physics (1976) Enrico Fermi Award (2012) National Medal of Science (2012 )

Institutions

Stanford University Stanford Linear Accelerator Center

Doctoral advisor

Bernard T. Feld

116


1976

SAMUEL CHAO CHUNG TING

Born

January 27, 1936 (age 83) Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States

Alma mater

University of Michigan

Known for

Discovery of the J/ψ particle Founder of the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer experiment

Awards

Ernest Orlando Lawrence Award (1975) Nobel Prize for Physics (1976) Eringen Medal (1977) De Gasperi Award (1988) Gold Medal for Science from Brescia (1988) NASA Public Service Medal (2001)

Institutions

Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Chinese name Chinese

丁肇中

Alpha magnetic spectrometer

117


1977

PHILIP WARREN ANDERSON

Born

December 13, 1923 (age 96) Indianapolis, Indiana, United States

Nationality

United States

Alma mater

Harvard University U.S. Naval Research Laboratory

Known for

Anderson localization Anderson Hamiltonian Kramers–Anderson superexchange RVB theory Higgs Mechanism Quantum spin liquid Spin glass

Awards

Oliver E. Buckley Condensed Matter Prize (1964) Nobel Prize in Physics (1977) ForMemRS (1980) National Medal of Science (1982)

Institutions

Bell Laboratories Princeton University Cambridge University

Doctoral advisor

John Hasbrouck van Vleck

Doctoral students

F. Duncan M. Haldane Michael Cross Piers Coleman Gabriel Kotliar

Spinon moving in spin liquids

A termite "cathedral" mound produced by a termite colony offers a classic example of emergence in nature

118


1977

NEVILL FRANCIS MOTT

Born

30 September 1905 Leeds, England

Died

8 August 1996 (aged 90) Milton Keynes, Buckinghamshire, England

Nationality

United Kingdom

Alma mater

University of Cambridge

Known for

Mott problem Mott–Gurney law Schottky-Mott rule Mott Insulator Mott transition Mott Medal Mott scattering Wannier-Mott exciton

Awards

FRS (1936) Hughes Medal (1941) Royal Medal (1953) Copley Medal (1972) A. A. Griffith Medal and Prize (1973) Faraday Medal (1973) Nobel Prize in Physics (1977)

Institutions

University of Manchester University of Cambridge University of Bristol

Doctoral advisor

R.H. Fowler

Wannier-Mott exciton, bound electron-hole pair that is not localized at a crystal position. This figure schematically shows diffusion of the exciton across the lattice. In quantum mechanics, the Mott problem is a paradox that illustrates some of the difficulties of understanding the nature of wave function collapse and measurement in quantum mechanics. The problem was first formulated in 1929 by Sir Nevill Francis Mott and Werner Heisenberg, illustrating the paradox of the collapse of a spherically symmetric wave function into the linear tracks seen in a cloud chamber.

The Old Quadrangle at the University of Manchester's main campus on Oxford Road.

119


1977

JOHN HASBROUCK VAN VLECK

Born

March 13, 1899 Middletown, Connecticut

Died

October 27, 1980 (aged 81) Cambridge, Massachusetts

Nationality

United States

Alma mater University of Wisconsin–Madison Harvard University Known for

Van Vleck paramagnetism, Van Vleck transformations, Van Vleck formula

Awards

Irving Langmuir Award (1965) National Medal of Science (1966) ForMemRS (1967)[1] Elliott Cresson Medal (1971) Lorentz Medal (1974)

Institutions University of Minnesota University of Wisconsin–Madison Harvard University University of Oxford Balliol College, Oxford Doctoral advisor

Edwin C. Kemble

Doctoral students

Robert Serber Edward Mills Purcell Philip Anderson Thomas Kuhn John Atanasoff Arianna Rosenbluth Carol Jane Anger Rieke

Balliol College Garden

Aerial view of Merton College's Mob Quad, the oldest quadrangle of the Oxford university, constructed in the years from 1288 to 1378

120


1978

PYOTR LEONIDOVICH KAPITSA

Born

8 July 1894 Kronstadt, Russian Empire

Died

8 April 1984 (aged 89) Moscow, Soviet Union

Resting place

Novodevichy Cemetery, Moscow

Pyotr Leonidovich Kapitsa was a leading Soviet Physicist and Nobel laureate, best known for his work in low-temperature Physics

Nationality Russian, Soviet Citizenship Russian Empire (1894–1917) → RSFSR (1917–1922) → Soviet Union (1922–1984) Known for Superfluidity Kapitza's pendulum Awards

FRS (1929) Faraday Medal (1942) Franklin Medal (1944) Lomonosov Gold Medal (1959) Rutherford Medal and Prize (1966) Nobel Prize in Physics (1978)

Doctoral students

David Shoenberg

During World War II he was assigned to head the Drawing showing how a Kapitza Department of Oxygen Industry attached to the USSR pendulum can be constructed: a Council of Ministers, where he developed his low-pressure motor rotates a crank at a high expansion techniques for industrial purposes. He invented speed, the crank vibrates a lever high power microwave generators (1950–1955) and arm up and down, which the discovered a new kind of continuous high pressure plasma pendulum is attached to with a discharge with electron temperatures over 1,000,000 K. pivot.

121


1978

ARNO ALLAN PENZIAS

Born

April 26, 1933 (age 86) Munich, Germany

Nationality

United States

Alma mater City College of New York Columbia University Known for

Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation

Awards

Henry Draper Medal (1977) Nobel Prize in Physics (1978) Harold Pender Award (1991) IRI Medal (1998)

Institutions

Bell Labs

The Holmdel Horn Antenna in use in 1962

122


1978

ROBERT WOODROW WILSON

Born

January 10, 1936 (age 84) Houston, Texas, USA

Nationality

United States

Alma mater

Rice University California Institute of Technology

Known for

Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation

Awards

Henry Draper Medal (1977) Nobel Prize in Physics (1978)

The first workable unit built by Robert Watson-Watt and his team

California Institute of Technology (Caltech)

123


1979

SHELDON LEE GLASHOW

Born

December 5, 1932 (age 87) New York City, New York, U.S.

Alma mater

Cornell University (A.B., 1954) Harvard University (Ph.D., 1959)

Known for

Electroweak theory Georgi–Glashow model Criticism of Superstring theory

Awards

Nobel Prize in Physics (1979)

Institutions

Boston University Harvard University University of California, Berkeley

Thesis

The vector meson in elementary particle decays (1958)

Doctoral advisor

Julian Schwinger

A brownstone town house used by Boston University as dormitory

SOME PICS FROM UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA

124


1979

ABDUL SALAM

Born

29 January 1926 Jhang, Punjab, Pakistan)

Died

21 November 1996 (aged 70) Oxford, England, United Kingdom

Nationality

Pakistani

Alma mater

Government College University Lahore (BA) Punjab University (MA) St. John's College, Cambridge (PhD)

Known for

Electroweak theory , Goldstone boson Grand Unified Theory , Higgs mechanism Magnetic photon , Neutral current Pati–Salam model , Quantum mechanics Pakistan atomic research program Pakistan space program Preon , Standard Model

Awards

Institutions

Smith's Prize (1950) , Adams Prize (1958) Sitara-e-Pakistan (1959) Hughes Medal (1964) Atoms for Peace Prize (1968) Royal Medal (1978) Nishan-e-Imtiaz (1979) Jozef Stefan Medal (1980) Lomonosov Gold Medal (1983) Copley Medal (1990) Cristoforo Colombo Prize (1992) PAEC , SUPARCO , PINSTECH Punjab University Imperial College London Government College University

Pakistani Missiles on display at the IDEAS 2008 defence exhibition in Karachi, Pakistan

St John's College, Cambridge where Salam studied

The road named after Abdus Salam in CERN, Geneva 125


University of Cambridge ICTP , COMSATS , TWAS Edward Bouchet Abdus Salam Institute Doctoral advisor

Nicholas Kemmer

Other acade Paul Matthews mic advisors Doctoral students

Michael Duff, Ali Chamseddine Robert Delbourgo Walter Gilbert, John Moffat Yuval Ne'eman John Polkinghorne Ray Streater , Riazuddin Fayyazuddin , Masud Ahmad Partha Ghose Kamaluddin Ahmed John Taylor , Ghulam Murtaza Christopher Isham, Munir Ahmad Rashid , Peter West

Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics was founded by Salam in 1964

Other notab Jonathan Ashmore le students Faheem Hussain , Pervez Hoodbhoy Abdul Hameed Nayyar Ghulam Dastagir Alam Influences

Paul Dirac

126


1979

Born Nationality Alma mater Known for

STEVEN WEINBERG

May 3, 1933 (age 86) New York City, New York, U.S.

In theoretical physics, the unitarity gauge or unitary gauge is a particular choice of a gauge fixing in a gauge theory with a spontaneous American symmetry breaking. In this gauge, the scalar fields responsible for the Higgs mechanism Cornell University (A.B., 1954) Princeton University (Ph.D., 1957) are transformed into a basis in which their Goldstone boson components are set to zero. In other words, the unitarity gauge makes the Electroweak interaction manifest number of scalar degrees of Unitarity gauge freedom minimal.The gauge was introduced Asymptotic safety to particle physics by Steven Weinberg in the Weinberg angle context of the electroweak theory. Weinberg–Witten theorem Joos–Weinberg equation

Awards

Heineman Prize (1977) Elliott Cresson Medal (1979) Nobel Prize in Physics (1979) ForMemRS (1981) National Medal of Science (1991) Andrew Gemant Award (1997)

Institutions

University of Texas at Austin University of California, Berkeley Massachusetts Institute of Technology Harvard University Columbia University

Thesis

The role of strong interactions in decay processes (1957)

Doctoral advisor

Sam Treiman

Doctoral students

Fernando Quevedo Mark G. Raizen John Preskill

Influenced

Alan Guth

Weinberg angle θW, and relation between couplings g, g', and e = g sin θW. Adapted from T D Lee's book Particle Physics and Introduction to Field Theory (1981).

127


1980

JAMES WATSON CRONIN

Born

September 29, 1931 Chicago, Illinois, U.S.

Died

August 25, 2016 (aged 84) Saint Paul, Minnesota, U.S.

Nationality

American

Alma mater Southern Methodist University University of Chicago Known for

Nuclear physics

Awards

E. O. Lawrence Award (1976) Nobel Prize in Physics (1980) John Price Wetherill Medal National Medal of Science

Institutions University of Chicago Since 1920s cloud chambers played an important role of particle detectors and eventually lead to the discovery of positron, muon and kaon.

128


1980

VAL LOGSDON FITCH

Born

March 10, 1923 Merriman, Nebraska

Died

February 5, 2015 (aged 91) Princeton, New Jersey

Alma mater Columbia McGill University Known for

Discovery of CP-violation

Awards

E. O. Lawrence Award (1968) John Price Wetherill Medal (1976) Nobel Prize in Physics (1980) National Medal of Science (1993)

Simulated

Large

Hadron

Collider

CMS

particle detector data depicting a Higgs boson

produced

by

colliding

protons

decaying into hadron jets and electrons

Institutions Manhattan Project Princeton University Thesis

Studies of X-rays from Mu-Mesonic Atoms (1954)

Doctoral advisor

James Rainwater

The

decay

of

a

kaon

(K+)

into

three

pions (2 π+, 1 π−) is a process that involves both weak and strong interactions.

129


1981

NICOLASS BLOEMBERGEN

Born

March 11, 1920 Dordrecht, Netherlands

Died

September 5, 2017 (aged 97) Tucson, Arizona, U.S.

Citizenship

Netherlands United States

Alma mater

Leiden University University of Utrecht

Known for

Laser spectroscopy

Awards

Oliver E. Buckley Condensed Matter Prize (1958) Stuart Ballantine Medal (1961) National Medal of Science (1974) Lorentz Medal (1978) Nobel Prize in Physics (1981) IEEE Medal of Honor (1983) Dirac Medal (1983)

Institutions

University of Arizona

Doctoral advisor

Cornelis Jacobus Gorter

A huge diffraction grating at the heart of the ultra-precise ESPRESSO spectrograph.

A laser beam used for welding

Other acade Edward Purcell mic advisors Doctoral students

Peter Pershan Yuen-Ron Shen Eli Yablonovitch Leiden University Library in 1610 130


1981

ARTHUR LEONARD SCHAWLOW

Born

May 5, 1921 Mount Vernon, New York, U.S.

Died

April 28, 1999 (aged 77) Palo Alto, California, U.S.

Nationality

United States

Alma mater

University of Toronto

Known for

laser spectroscopy

Awards

Stuart Ballantine Medal (1962) Marconi Prize (1977) Nobel Prize for Physics (1981) National Medal of Science (1991)

Institutions

Bell Labs Columbia University Stanford University

Doctoral advisor

Malcolm Crawford

Wavefunctions of a hydrogen atom, showing the probability of finding the electron in the space around the nucleus. Each stationary state defines a specific energy level of the atom.

Vaughan Road Academy

131


1981

KAI MANNE BORJE SIEGBAHN

Born

20 April 1918 Lund, Sweden

Died

20 July 2007 (aged 89) Ängelholm, Sweden

Nationality

Sweden

Alma mater

University of Stockholm

Known for

high-resolution electron spectroscopy

Awards

Björkénska priset (1955, 1977) Nobel Prize in Physics(1981)

Institutions

University of Stockholm University of Uppsala

132


1982

KENNETH G. WILSON

Born

June 8, 1936 Waltham, Massachusetts

Died

June 15, 2013 (aged 77) Saco, Maine

Nationality

United States

Alma mater

Harvard University (B.A.) Caltech (Ph.D.)

Known for

Renormalization group Phase transitions Wilson loops

Awards

Heineman Prize (1973) Boltzmann Medal (1975) Wolf Prize in Physics (1980) Nobel Prize in Physics (1982) Eringen Medal (1984) Dirac Medal (1989)

Institutions

Cornell University (1963–1988) Ohio State University (1988–2008)

Thesis

An investigation of the Low equation and the Chew-Mandelstam equations (1961)

Doctoral advisor

Murray Gell-Mann

Doctoral students

H. R. Krishnamurthy Roman Jackiw Michael Peskin Serge Rudaz Paul Ginsparg Steven R. White

This diagram shows the nomenclature for the different phase transitions

The new Annenberg Center for Information Science and Technology at Caltech

South Campus Gateway of Ohio State University

133


1983

SUBRAHMANYAN CHANDRASEKHAR

Born

19 October 1910 Lahore, Punjab, British India (present-day Punjab, Pakistan)

Died

21 August 1995 (aged 84) Chicago, Illinois, U.S.

Citizenship United States Alma mater University of Madras (B.Sc.) Trinity College, Cambridge (M.Sc., Ph.D.) Known for

Awards

Chandrasekhar limit, Chandrasekhar number Chandrasekhar friction Chandrasekhar–Kendall function Chandrasekhar's H-function Emden–Chandrasekhar equation Chandrasekhar–Page equations Chandrasekhar virial equations Batchelor–Chandrasekhar equation Schönberg–Chandrasekhar limit Chandrasekhar's white dwarf equation Chandrasekhar's X- and Y-function FRS (1944) , Adams Prize (1948) Copley Medal (1984) ,Heineman Prize (1974) National Medal of Science (1966) Royal Medal (1962), Padma Vibhushan (1968)

University of Madras

Trinity College

University of Cambridge

Institutions University of Chicago, Yerkes Observatory Ballistic Research Laboratory University of Cambridge Doctoral advisor

Ralph H. Fowler Arthur Eddington

Doctoral students

Donald Edward Osterbrock , Guido Münch Jerome Kristian , Yousef Sobouti Anne Barbara Underhill , Arthur Code

Wren Library interior, showing the limewood carvings by Grinling Gibbons

134


1983

WILLIAM ALFRED FOWLER

Born

August 9, 1911 Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

Died

March 14, 1995 (aged 83) Pasadena, California

Other names Willy Fowler Alma mater

Caltech (PhD)

Awards

Barnard Medal for Meritorious Service to Science (1965) Tom W. Bonner Prize in Nuclear Physics (1970) Vetlesen Prize (1973) National Medal of Science (1974) Eddington Medal (1978)

Doctoral advisor

Charles Christian Lauritsen

Doctoral students

J. Richard Bond, Donald Clayton, F. Curtis Michel

The Bridge Laboratory of Physics at Caltech

Fowler's research was of two kinds: theoretical studies to calculate fusion rates for a wide variety of elements, and experiments with accelerators to guide the theoretical calculations. His research career was marked by this continual feedback between theory and experiment. Although Fowler was not directly involved in astronomy, his work had special relevance to astronomy, and astronomical observations both supported his results and often stimulated new investigations.

A lifelong fan of steam locomotives, Fowler owned several working models of various sizes

135


1984

CARLO RUBBIA

Born

31 March 1934 (age 85) Gorizia, Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Italy

Nationality

Italian

Alma mater

Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa

Known for

Discovery of W and Z bosons

Awards

Senator for life (2013) OMRI , OMCA Nobel Prize in Physics (1984) Bakerian Lecture (1985) ForMemRS (1984) Dirac Medal (1989)

Order of Merit of the Italian Republic (OMRI)

136


1984

Born

SIMON VAN DER MEER

24 November 1925 The Hague, Netherlands

Stochastic cooling Stochastic cooling is a form of particle beam cooling.

It

is

used

in

some

particle

Died

4 March 2011 (aged 85) Geneva, Switzerland

Nationality

Dutch

Alma mater

Delft University of Technology signals that the individual charged particles

Known for

Stochastic cooling

Awards

Duddell Medal and Prize (1982) away from the other particles in the beam. It Nobel Prize in Physics (1984) is accurate to think of this as adiabatic

Institutions

CERN

accelerators and storage rings to control the emittance of the particle beams in the machine. This process uses the electrical generate in a feedback loop to reduce the tendency of individual particles to move

cooling, or the reduction of entropy, in much the same way that a refrigerator or an air conditioner cools its contents. The technique was invented and applied at the Intersecting Storage Rings and later the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS), at CERN in Geneva, Switzerland by Simon van der Meer, a Physicist from the Netherlands. It was used to collect and cool antiprotons.

Overview of the Antiproton Accumulator (AA) at CERN Simon van der Meer in the Antiproton Accumulator Control Room, 1984

137


1985

Born

KLAUS VON KLITZING

28 June 1943 (age 76) Schroda, Reichsgau Posen, Germany (now Środa Wielkopolska, Poland)

Nationality

German

Known for

Quantum Hall effect Conductance quantum

Awards

1981 Walter Schottky Prize 1982 Hewlett-Packard Prize 1985 Nobel Prize in Physics 1986 Order of Merit of Baden-Württemberg 1988 Honorary Doctorate from the Technical University of Karl-Marx-Stadt 1988 Bavarian Maximilian Order for Science and Art 1988 Dirac Medal 1992 Honorary Degree (Doctor of Science) from the University of Bath 2003 Member of (ForMemRS) 2006 Honorary Doctorate of the University of Oldenburg 2007 Member of the Chinese Academy of Sciences 2009 Austrian Decoration for Science and Art

Quantum Hall effect The quantum Hall effect (or integer quantum Hall effect) is a quantum-mechanical version of the Hall effect, observed in two-dimensional electron systems subjected to low temperatures and strong magnetic fields, in which the Hall conductance σ undergoes quantum Hall transitions to take on the quantized values

where Ichannel is the channel current, VHall is the Hall voltage, e is the elementary charge and h is Planck's constant. The prefactor ν is known as the filling factor, and can take on either integer

The quantum Hall effect is referred to as the integer or fractional quantum Hall effect depending on whether ν is an integer or fraction, respectively.

The conductance quantum, denoted by the

symbol Go, is the quantized unit of electrical conductance. It is defined by the elementary charge e and Planck constant h as:

Go= 7.748091729….×10−5 S

138


1986

ERNST AUGUST FRIEDRICH RUSKA

Born

25 December 1906 Heidelberg, Grand Duchy of Baden, German Empire

Died

27 May 1988 (aged 81) West Berlin, Germany

Nationality

German

Alma mater

Technical University of Berlin Technical University of Munich

Known for

Electron Microscopy

Awards

Albert Lasker Award for Basic Medical Research (1960) Duddell Medal and Prize (1975) Robert Koch Prize (Gold, 1986) Nobel Prize in Physics (1986)

Institutions

Fritz Haber Institute Technical University of Berlin

Doctoral advisor

Max Knoll

An image of an ant in a scanning electron microscope

Electron microscope constructed by Ernst Ruska in 1933

A modern transmission electron microscope

139


1986

GERD BINNIG

Born

20 July 1947 (age 72) Frankfurt am Main

Alma mater

J.W. Goethe University, Frankfurt

Known for

Scanning tunneling microscope, atomic force microscope

Awards

Nobel Prize in Physics (1986) The Elliott Cresson Medal (1987) Kavli Prize (2016)

Institutions

IBM Zurich Research Laboratory

Doctoral advisor

Werner Martienssen Eckhardt Hoenig

Doctoral students

Franz Josef Giessibl

Schematic view of an Scanning tunneling microscope

Goethe University Frankfurt

140


1986

HEINRICH ROHRER

Born

6 June 1933 Buchs, St. Gallen, Switzerland

Died

16 May 2013 (aged 79) Wollerau, Switzerland

Nationality

Swiss

Known for

Co-inventor of Scanning tunneling microscope

Awards

Elliott Cresson Medal (1987)

Schematic view of an STM

Image of reconstruction on a clean gold (100) surface using an STM

Heinrich Rohrer Medal

141


1987

Born

JOHANNES GEORG BEDNORZ

16 May 1950 (age 69) Neuenkirchen, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany

Nationality German Known for

High-temperature superconductivity Mineralogy , Crystallography A sample of BSCCO, which currently is one of

Awards

Doctoral advisor

Thirteenth Fritz London Memorial Award (1987) Dannie-Heineman Prize of the Göttingen Academy (1987) Robert Wichard Pohl Prize (1987) Hewlett-Packard Europhysics Prize (1988) Marcel Benoist Prize (1986) Nobel Prize for Physics (1987) James C. McGroddy Prize for New Materials (1988) Minnie Rosen Award (1988) Viktor Mortiz Goldschmidt Prize Otto Klung Prize (1987) National Academy of Sciences foreign associate (2018) Heini Gränicher, K. Alex Müller

the

most

practical

high-temperature

superconductors. Notably, it does not contain rare-earths.

BSCCO

superconductor

based

is on

a

cuprate

bismuth

and

strontium. Thanks to its higher operating temperature,

cuprates

are

now

becoming

competitors for more ordinary niobium-based superconductors, as well as magnesium oxide superconductors.

Mineralogy is a mixture of chemistry, materials science, physics and geology

142


1987

KARL ALEXANDER MULLER

Born

April 20, 1927 (age 92) Basel, Switzerland

Nationality

Swiss

Alma mater

ETH Zürich

Known for

High-temperature superconductivity

Awards

Marcel Benoist Prize (1986) Nobel Prize in Physics (1987) Wilhelm Exner Medal (1987)

Institutions

IBM Zürich Research Laboratory University of Zurich Battelle Memorial Institute

S magnet levitating above an high-temperature cooled by liquid nitrogen: this is a case of Meissner effect

143


1988

Born

LEON MAX LEDERMAN

July 15, 1922 New York City, New York, U.S.

Oops-Leon is the name given by particle

October 3, 2018 (aged 96) Rexburg, Idaho, U.S

new subatomic particle "discovered" at

Nationality

United States

Lederman who worked on the E288

Education

City College of New York (B.A.) Columbia University (Ph.D.)

particle with a mass of about 6.0 GeV,

Seminal contributions to neutrinos, bottom quark

Fermilab

Died

Known for Awards

Institutions

Wolf Prize in Physics (1982) National Medal of Science (1965) Vannevar Bush Award (2012) William Procter Prize for Scientific Achievement (1991) Columbia University Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory Illinois Institute of Technology

physicists to what was thought to be a Fermilab in 1976. The E288 experiment team, a group of physicists led by Leon particle

detector,

announced

that

a

which decayed into an electron and a positron, was being produced by the particle

accelerator.

The

particle's initial name was the greek letter Upsilon Ƴ (Upsilon). After taking further data, the group discovered that this particle did not actually exist, and the "discovery" was named "Oops-Leon" as a pun on the original name and the first name of the E288 collaboration leader

Butler Library of Columbia University

144


1988

MELVIN SCHWARTZ

Born

November 2, 1932 New York City, New York, U.S.

Died

August 28, 2006 (aged 73) Twin Falls, Idaho, U.S.

Alma mater Columbia University (B.A., Ph.D.) Known for

Awards

Neutrinos Muon Neutrino Neutrino beam method Nobel Prize in Physics (1988)

Institutions Brookhaven National Laboratory Stanford University Columbia University Doctoral advisor

The Moon's cosmic ray shadow, as seen in secondary muons generated by cosmic rays in the atmosphere, and detected 700 meters below ground, at the Soudan II detector.

Jack Steinberger In the 1970s he founded and became president of Digital Pathways. In 1972 he published a textbook on classical electrodynamics that has become a standard reference for intermediate and advanced students

Neutrino Beam Method

for its particularly clear exposition of the basic physical principles of the theory. In 1991, he became Associate Director of High Energy and Nuclear Physics at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Columbia University Logo

145


1988

JACK STEINBERGER

Born

May 25, 1921 (age 98) Bad Kissingen

Nationality

Germany-United States-Switzerland

Known for

Discovery of the muon neutrino

Awards

Nobel Prize in Physics (1988) National Medal of Science (1988) Matteucci Medal (1990)

Institutions

University of California, Berkeley Columbia University CERN

Academic advisors

Edward Teller Enrico Fermi

Notable students

Melvin Schwartz Eric L. Schwartz David R. Nygren Theodore Modis

Steinberger Spirit-electric guitar

The Globe of Science and Innovation at CERN

Interior of office building 40 at the Meyrin site. Building 40 hosts many offices for scientists from the CMS and ATLAS collaborations.

146


1989

Born

NORMAN FOSTER RAMSEY JR

August 27, 1915 Washington, D.C.

Norman Foster Ramsey Jr. Physicist who

Died

November 4, 2011 (aged 96) Wayland, Massachusetts

Physics,

Nationality

United States

construction of atomic clocks

was awarded the 1989 Nobel Prize in for

the

invention

of

the

separated oscillatory field method, which had

important

applications

in

the

Alma mater Columbia University, University of Cambridge Known for

Ramsey interferometry

Awards

Ernest Orlando Lawrence Award (1960) Davisson-Germer Prize (1974) IEEE Medal of Honor (1984) Rabi Prize (1985) Rumford Prize (1985) Oersted Medal (1988) National Medal of Science (1988) Nobel Prize in Physics (1989) Dirac Medal (1990) Vannevar Bush Award (1995)

Institutions

Harvard University

Doctoral advisor

Isidor Isaac Rabi

Doctoral students

David J. Wineland, Daniel Kleppner, Howard Berg

Other notab Sunney Chan (post doc) le students

a continuous cold caesium fountain atomic clock in Switzerland, started operating in 2004 at an uncertainty of one second in 30 million years

Chip-scale atomic clocks, such as this one unveiled in 2004, are expected to greatly improve GPS location

147


1989

HANS GEORG DEHMELT

Born

9 September 1922 Görlitz, Germany

Died

7 March 2017 (aged 94) Seattle, Washington, U.S.

Nationality

Germany, United States

Alma mater University of Göttingen Known for

Development of the ion trap Precise measurement of the electron g-factor , Penning trap

Awards

Davisson-Germer Prize in 1970. Rumford Prize in 1985. Nobel Prize in Physics in 1989. National Medal of Science in 1995

James B. Duke established the Duke Endowment, which provides funds to numerous institutions, including Duke University.

Institutions University of Washington Duke University Doctoral students

David J. Wineland

A g-factor (also called g value or dimensionless magnetic moment) is a dimensionless quantity Ion trap, shown here is one used for experiments towards realizing a quantum computer that characterizes the magnetic moment and angular momentum of an atom, a particle or nucleus. It is essentially a proportionality constant that relates the observed magnetic moment μ of a particle to its angular momentum quantum number and a unit of magnetic moment (to make it dimensionless), usually the Bohr A cylindrical version of Penning trap, with open ends to permit through flow magneton or nuclear magneton.

148


1989

Born

WOLFGANG PAUL

10 August 1913 Lorenzkirch, Saxony, German Empire

He humorously referred to Wolfgang Pauli as his "imaginary part".

Died

7 December 1993 (aged 80) Bonn, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany

which is necessary to produce fissionable material for

Nationality

Germany

Alma mater

Technical University of Munich Gaseous diffusion uses semi-permeable Technical University of Berlin membranes to separate enriched uranium University of Göttingen

Known for

Ion traps isotope separation Paul traps molecular beam

Awards

Nobel Prize in physics (1989) Dirac Medal (1992)

Institutions

University of Bonn University of Kiel CERN

Doctoral advisor

Hans Kopfermann

During World War II, he researched isotope separation, use in making nuclear weapons.

Quadrupole ion trap

The University of Kiel helped develop this radiation detector for a Mars probe

149


1990

Born

JEROME ISAAC FRIEDMAN

March 28, 1930 (age 89) Chicago, Illinois

In 2008, Friedman received an honorary Ph.D from the University of Belgrade. He won the 1990 Nobel Prize in Physics for work showing an

Nationality

United States

Alma mater

University of Chicago

quarks. Dr. Friedman currently sits on the Board

Known for

Experimental proof of quarks

of Sponsors of the Bulletin of the Atomic

Awards

Grand Cordon of the Order of the Rising Sun (2016)

internal structure for protons later known to be

Scientists.

The cover of the Bulletin of the Atomic

President's Medal of the IOP (2000) Nobel Prize in Physics (1990) Institutions

MIT

Doctoral advisor

Enrico Fermi

Scientists has featured the famous Doomsday Clock since it debuted in 1947, when it was set at seven minutes to midnight.

150


1990

HENRY WAY KENDALL

Born

December 9, 1926 Boston, Massachusetts

Died

February 15, 1999 (aged 72) Wakulla Springs State Park, Florida

Nationality

United States

Alma mater Amherst College ,

MIT

Known for

Quark model Electron-Proton scattering

Awards

Nobel Prize in Physics (1990)

Institutions MIT , Doctoral advisor

Henry Way Kendall an American particle physicist who won the Nobel Prize in 1990 "for pioneering investigations concerning deep inelastic scattering of electrons on protons and bound neutrons, which have been of essential importance for the development of the quark model in particle physics."

Stanford University

Martin Deutsch A United States Navy Mass Communication Specialist conducting underwater photography training

Deuterium, hydrogen-2, 2H

Electron-Proton scattering

Deuterium discharge tube

151


1990

RICHARD EDWARD TAYLOR

Born

2 November 1929 Medicine Hat, Alberta, Canada

Died

22 February 2018 (aged 88) Stanford, California, U.S

Alma mater

Stanford University University of Alberta

Awards

W.K.H. Panofsky Prize, 1989 Nobel Prize in Physics, 1990 Fellow, American Physical Society Elected a Fellow of the Royal Society (FRS) in 1997 Fellow, Royal Society of Canada Member, American Academy of Arts and Sciences Member, Canadian Association of Physicists Companion of the Order of Deep inelastic scattering of a lepton (l) on a Canada, 2005

Known for

Deep in-elastic scattering Pion production , Gluons

Institutions

Stanford Linear Accelerator Center Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory

Thesis

Positive pion production by polarised bremsstrahlung (1962)

Doctoral advisor

Robert F. Mozley

hadron (h), at leading order in perturbative

expansion. The virtual photon (γ*) knocks a quark (q) out of the hadron

In Feynman diagrams, emitted gluons are represented as helices. This diagram depicts the annihilation of an electron and positron

152


1991

Born

PIERRE-GILLES DE GENNES

24 October 1932 Paris, France

He was awarded Nobel Prize for discovering that "methods phenomena

Died

18 May 2007 (aged 74) Orsay, France

developed in

simple

for

studying

systems

order

can

be

generalized to more complex forms of matter, in particular to liquid crystals and polymers"

Nationality French Alma mater École Normale Supérieure University of Paris Known for

Awards

Soft matter Polymer physics Reptation Liquid crystalline elastomer

Reptation—motion of long linear, entangled macromolecules amorphous polymers

Fernand Holweck Medal and Prize (1968) ForMemRS (1984) Matteucci Medal (1987) Harvey Prize (1988) Lorentz Medal (1990) Wolf Prize (1990) Nobel Prize for Physics (1991) Eringen Medal (1998)

Institutions ESPCI Collège de France University of Paris XI

Entrance of the historic building of the ENS, at 45, rue d'Ulm. The inscriptions on the pediment of the monumental doorway display the school's two dates of creation (the first, in the oculus, under the National Convention) and date of installation in this premise

153


1992

Born

GEORGES CHARPAK

8 March 1924 Dąbrowica, Poland

Georges Charpak was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1992 "for his invention and development of particle detectors, in the multiwire proportional chamber", with affiliations to both Ecole

Died

29 September 2010 (aged 86) particular Paris, France

Nationality

Polish-Jewish French

superieure

de

physique

et

de

chimie

industrielles (ESPCI) and CERN. This was the

Citizenship

French

last time a single person was awarded the

Alma mater

École des Mines Collège de France

type of proportional counter that detects

Known for

Multiwire proportional chamber

Awards

Nobel Prize in Physics, 1992

The Hôtel de Vendôme, central building of Mines ParisTech

physics prize, as of 2019. A multi-wire proportional chamber is a charged particles and photons and can give positional information on their trajectory, by tracking the trails of gaseous ionization.

Equipotential line and field line in a Multiwire Proportional Chamber (MWPC)

154


1993

RUSSELL ALAN HULSE

Born

November 28, 1950 (age 69) New York City, New York

Nationality

United States

Alma mater

Cooper Union B.S. UMass Amherst Ph.D.

Known for

Pulsar ,

Awards

Nobel Prize in Physics (1993)

Institutions

UT Dallas Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory , NRAO

Doctoral advisor

Gravitational wave

Joseph Hooton Taylor Jr.

PSR B1509-58 – X-rays from Chandra are gold; Infrared from WISE in red, green and blue/max

The Vela Pulsar and its surrounding pulsar wind nebula Now disproved evidence allegedly showing gravitational waves in the infant universe was found by the BICEP2 radio telescope. The microscopic examination of the focal plane of the BICEP2 detector is shown here. In 2015, however, the BICEP2 findings were confirmed to be the result of cosmic dust

Gamma-ray pulsars detected by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope

155


1993

JOSEPH HOOTON TAYLOR JR.

Born

March 29, 1941 (age 78) Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Nationality

United States

Alma mater

Haverford College Harvard University

Known for

Pulsars Gravitational wave Occultation

Awards

Dannie Heineman Prize for Astrophysics (1980) Henry Draper Medal (1985) Magellanic Premium (1990) John J. Carty Award (1991) Wolf Prize in Physics (1992) Nobel Prize in Physics (1993) Tomalla Foundation Prize (1987) Albert Einstein Medal (1991) Karl Schwarzschild Medal (1997)

Institutions

Princeton University University of Massachusetts Amherst Five College Radio Astronomy Observatory

Doctoral students

Victoria Kaspi

In July 1997 still frame captured from video, the bright star Aldebaran has just reappeared on the dark limb of the waning crescent moon in this predawn occultation

156


1994

Born

BERTRAM BROCKHOUSE

July 15, 1918 Lethbridge, Alberta

In October 2005, as part of the 75th anniversary

Died

October 13, 2003 (aged 85) Hamilton, Ontario

Hamilton, Ontario, a street on the University

Nationality

Canadian

Alma mater University of British Columbia (BA) University of Toronto (PhD) Known for

Neutron spectroscopy Neutron scattering techniques

Awards

Oliver E. Buckley Condensed Matter Prize (1962) Duddell Medal and Prize (1963) FRS (1965) Henry Marshall Tory Medal (1973) Nobel Prize in Physics (1994)

Institutions McMaster University Thesis

of McMaster University's

establishment in

campus (University Avenue) was renamed to Brockhouse Way in honour of Brockhouse. The town of Deep River, Ontario has also named a street in his honour

The David Braley Health Sciences Centre at the McMaster Health Campus in downtown Hamilton

The effect of stress and temperature upon the magnetic properties of ferromagnetic materials (1950)

The seven standard HDPE nesting cylinders which make up the moderating assembly of

Chalk River Laboratories formerly Chalk River Nuclear the nested neutron spectrometer. (Note Laboratories is a Canadian nuclear research facility in Deep cylinders do not have their lids on.) River near Chalk River, about 180 km north-west of Ottawa.

157


1994

Born

CLIFFORD GLENWOOD SHULL

September 23, 1915 Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

Neutron scattering is practiced at research reactors

Died

March 31, 2001 (aged 85) Medford, Massachusetts

radiation of varying intensities. Neutron diffraction

Nationality

United States

and spallation neutron sources that provide neutron (elastic scattering) techniques are used for analyzing structures; where inelastic neutron scattering is used in studying atomic vibrations and other excitations.

Alma mater California Institute of Technology New York University Known for

Neutron scattering

Awards

Oliver E. Buckley Condensed Matter Prize (1956) Gregori Aminoff Prize (1993) Nobel Prize in Physics (1994)

Doctoral advisor

Richard T. Cox Clifford Shull (right), with Ernest Wollan, working with a double-crystal neutron spectrometer at the ORNL X-10 graphite reactor in 1949.

Workers in 1943 loading uranium slugs into the X-10 Graphite Reactor (now a National Historic Landmark)

The core of the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment

158


1995

Born

MARTIN LEWIS PERL

June 24, 1927 New York City, New York

The tau lepton (τ, also called the tau particle,

Died

September 30, 2014 (aged 87) Palo Alto, California

similar to the electron, with negative electric

Nationality

United States

the muon, and the three neutrinos, it is

Alma mater

New York University Tandon School of Engineering and Columbia University

Known for

Tau lepton, Spark chambers Strong interactions Bubble chambers

Awards

Nobel Prize in Physics in 1995

Institutions

University of Michigan Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) University of Liverpool

Doctoral advisor

I. I. Rabi

Doctoral students

Samuel C. C. Ting

Abercromby Square, University of Liverpool

tauon or simply tau) is an elementary particle charge and a spin of

½​

, but with 3477

times the mass. Together with the electron, classified as a lepton.

The tau is the only lepton that can decay into hadrons – the other leptons do not have the necessary mass. Like the other decay modes of the tau, the hadronic decay is through the weak interaction.

NYU Tandon School of Engineering

159


1995

FREDERICK REINES

Born

March 16, 1918 Paterson, New Jersey

Died

August 26, 1998 (aged 80) Orange, California

Citizenship American Known for

Neutrinos neutrino astronomy.

Awards

J. Robert Oppenheimer Memorial Prize (1981) National Medal of Science (1983) Bruno Rossi Prize (1989) Supernova SN1987A (the bright Michelson-Morley Award (1990) object in the center), as seen through Panofsky Prize (1992) the Hubble Space Telescope Franklin Medal (1992) Nobel Prize in Physics (1995)

Institutions Los Alamos Laboratory Case Western Reserve University University of California, Irvine Thesis

Nuclear fission and the liquid drop model of the nucleus (1944)

Doctoral advisor

Richard D. Present

Doctoral students

Michael K. Moe (1965)

Frederick Reines Hall at the University of California, Irvine houses the Physics and Astronomy Department, and part of the Chemistry Department.

160


1996

Born

DAVID MORRIS LEE

January 20, 1931 (age 89) Rye, New York

Alma mater Yale University University of Connecticut Harvard University Awards

Nobel Prize in Physics (1996) Oliver Buckley Prize (1981) Sir Francis Simon Memorial Prize (1976) Oliver E. Buckley Condensed Matter Prize (1970)

Institutions Cornell University Texas A&M University (2009-present)

Helium II will "creep" along surfaces in order to find its own level—after a short while, the

Known for

Superfluidity in Helium-3

levels in the two containers will equalize.

Doctoral advisor

Henry A. Fairbank

larger container; if it were not sealed, the

The Rollin film also covers the interior of the helium II would creep out and escape.

161


1996

DOUGLAS DEAN OSHEROFF

Born

August 1, 1945 (age 74) Aberdeen, Washington, U.S.

Nationality

American

Citizenship United States Alma mater California Institute of Technology (B.S.), Cornell University (Ph.D.) Known for

Discovering superfluidity in Helium-3

Awards

Nobel Prize in Physics (1996) Simon Memorial Prize (1976) Oliver E. Buckley Condensed Matter Prize (1970)

Doctoral regalia of the California Institute of Technology

Institutions Stanford University Bell Labs Doctoral advisor

David Lee

Influences

Richard Feynman

An aerial photograph of the center of the Stanford University campus in 2008

162


1996

ROBERT COLEMAN RICHARDSON

Born

June 26, 1937 Washington, D.C., U.S.

Died

February 19, 2013 (aged 75) Ithaca, New York, U.S.

Nationality

United States

Alma mater

Virginia Tech (B.S., M.S.) Duke University (Ph.D.)

Known for

Discovering superfluidity in helium-3 sub-millikelvin temperature

Awards

Oliver E. Buckley Condensed Matter Prize (1970) Nobel Prize in Physics (1996)

Institutions

Cornell University

Doctoral advisor

Horst Meyer

Cornell's Center for Advanced Computing was one of the five original centers of the NSF's Supercomputer Centers Program.

Virginia Tech's Burruss Hall

Badge of Eagle Scout in America Richardson was a member

163


1997

Born

STEVEN CHU

February 28, 1948 (age 71) St. Louis, Missouri, U.S.

Political party

Democratic

Education

University of Rochester (BA, BS) University of California, Berkeley (MS, PhD)

Awards

Chu served as the 12th United States Secretary of Energy from 2009 to 2013. At the time of his appointment as Energy Secretary, Chu was a professor of physics and molecular and cellular biology at the University of California, Berkeley, and the director of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, where his research was concerned primarily with the study of biological systems at the single molecule level.

Nobel Prize in Physics (1997)

Institutions Bell Labs Stanford University Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Thesis

Observation of the forbidden magnetic dipole transition 6²P1/2-7²P1/2 in atomic thallium (1976)

Doctoral advisor

Eugene D. Commins

Doctoral students

Michale Fee

Steven Chu lecturing

PlanetSolar, the world's largest solar-powered boat and the first ever solar electric vehicle to circumnavigate the globe (in 2012)

164


1997

CLAUDE COHAN-TANNOUDJI

Born

1 April 1933 (age 86) Constantine, French Algeria

Nationality

French

Alma mater Ecole Normale Supérieure University of Paris Known for

Atom-photon interaction Dressed atoms

Awards

Young Medal and Prize (1979) Lilienfeld Prize (1992) Matteucci Medal (1994) Harvey Prize (1996) Charles Hard Townes Award (1993) CNRS Gold medal (1996) Nobel Prize, for the development of methods to cool and trap atoms with laser light. (1997) Legion of Honour (2010)

Institutions

College de France University of Paris

Doctoral advisor

Alfred Kastler

Doctoral students

Serge Haroche Jean Dalibard

Meeting of doctors at the University of Paris. From a 16th-century miniature

165


1997

WILLIAM DANIEL PHILLIPS

He was one of the 35 Nobel laureates who signed a letter urging President Obama to provide a stable $15 billion per year Nationality United States support for clean energy research, Alma mater MIT technology and demonstration. He is one Juniata College of three well-known scientists and Methodist laity who have involved Known for Laser cooling themselves in the religion and science Awards Nobel Prize in physics (1997) dialogue. The other two scientists and Institutions NIST fellow Methodists are chemist Charles University of Maryland, Coulson and 1981 Nobel laureate Arthur College Park Leonard Schawlow.During a seminar at the UMCP Department of Chemistry and Doctoral Daniel Kleppner Biochemistry titled Coherent Atoms in advisor Optical Lattices Phillips stated, "Rubidium Laser cooling refers to a number of techniques in is God's gift to Bose–Einstein which atomic and molecular samples are cooled condensates.’’ Born

November 5, 1948 (age 71) Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania

down to near absolute zero. Laser cooling techniques rely on the fact that when an object (usually an atom) absorbs and re-emits a photon (a particle of light) its momentum changes. For an ensemble of particles, their thermodynamic A 40 nm wide NIST logo made with cobalt atoms temperature is proportional to the variance in their velocity. That is, more homogeneous velocities among particles corresponds to a lower temperature. Laser cooling techniques combine atomic spectroscopy with the aforementioned mechanical effect of light to compress the velocity distribution of an ensemble of particles, thereby cooling the particles.

166


1998

ROBERT BETTS LAUGHLIN

Born

November 1, 1950 (age 69) Visalia, California, United States

Nationality

United States

Alma mater MIT University of California, Berkeley Known for Awards

Quantum Hall effect Laughlin wavefunction E. O. Lawrence Award (1984) Oliver E. Buckley Condensed Matter Prize (1986) Nobel Prize in physics (1998) The Franklin Medal (1998)

Laughlin (right) in the White House together with other 1998 US Nobel Prize Winners and the President Bill Clinton

Institutions Stanford Doctoral advisor

John D. Joannopoulos

Laughlin wavefunction

167


1998

HORST LUDWIG STORMER

Born

April 6, 1949 (age 70) Frankfurt, Hesse, Allied-occupied Germany

Nationality

United States

Alma mater University of Stuttgart Goethe University Frankfurt Known for

Fractional quantum Hall effect Modulation doping

Awards

Oliver E. Buckley Condensed Matter Prize (1984) Nobel Prize in Physics (1998) The Benjamin Franklin Medal (1998)

Institutions Columbia University Bell Labs Doctoral advisor

Hans-Joachim Queisser

Goethe University Frankfurt Library at Campus Westend Modulation doping is a technique for fabricating semiconductors such that the free charge carriers are spatially separated from the donors. Because this eliminates scattering from the donors, modulation-doped semiconductors have very high carrier mobilities.

The fractional quantum Hall effect (FQHE) is a physical phenomenon in which the Hall conductance of 2D electrons shows precisely quantised plateaus at fractional values of e 2 / h . It is a property of a collective state in which electrons bind magnetic flux lines to make new quasiparticles, and excitations have a fractional elementary charge and possibly also fractional statistics. The microscopic origin of the FQHE is a major research topic in condensed matter physics.

168


1998

Born

DANIEL CHEE TSUI

February 28, 1939 (age 80) Fan village, Henan, China

Nationality American Citizenship United States Alma mater University of Chicago (PhD) Augustana College (BSc) Known for

Fractional quantum Hall effect

Awards

Oliver E. Buckley Condensed Matter Prize (1984) Benjamin Franklin Medal (1998) Nobel Prize in Physics (1998)

Institutions Princeton University Bell Laboratories Boston University

Moakley Building, Boston Medical Center

Cobb

Lecture

Hall,

part

of

the

Main

Quadrangles of University of Shicago was the first and most expensive of the campus' original 16 buildings. Designed by Henry Ives Cobb constructed in 1892, it was modeled after Gothic buildings at University of Oxford

Alexander Graham Bell, who invented the telephone at Boston University

169


1999

GERARD'T HOOFT

Born

July 5, 1946 (age 73) Den Helder, Netherlands

Nationality

Dutch

Alma mater Utrecht University Known for

Quantum field theory, Quantum gravity, 't Hooft–Polyakov monopole, 't Hooft symbol, 't Hooft operator, Holographic principle, Renormalization, Dimensional regularization

Awards

Heineman Prize (1979) Wolf Prize (1981) Lorentz Medal (1986) Spinoza Prize (1995) Franklin Medal (1995) Nobel Prize in Physics (1999) Lomonosov Gold Medal (2010)

Institutions

Utrecht University

Doctoral advisor

Martinus J. G. Veltman

Doctoral students

Robbert Dijkgraaf Herman Verlinde

The Science Park

(Utrecht University modern campus)

Gravity Probe B (GP-B) has measured spacetime curvature near Earth to test related models in application of Einstein's general theory of relativity.

170


1999

MARTINUS J. G. VELTMAN

Born

27 June 1931 (age 88) Waalwijk, Netherlands

Nationality

Dutch

Alma mater

Utrecht University

Awards

Nobel Prize in Physics (1999)

Known for

quantum structure of electroweak interactions

Institutions

University of Michigan-Ann Arbor Michigan Union on Central Campus Utrecht University

Doctoral students

Gerardus 't Hooft Peter van Nieuwenhuizen Bernard de Wit

Students learn pole climbing in course for telephone electricians in University of Michigan

171


2000

ZHORES IVANOVICH ALFEROV

Born

15 March 1930 Vitebsk, Byelorussian SSR, Soviet Union

Died

1 March 2019 (aged 88) St Petersburg

Nationality Soviet (until 1991) / Russian (since 1991) Alma mater Saint Petersburg State Electrotechnical University "LETI" Known for

Heterotransistors

Awards

Global Energy Prize (2005) Kyoto Prize in Advanced Technology (2001) Nobel Prize in Physics (2000) Demidov Prize (1999) Ioffe Prize (Russian Academy of Sciences, 1996) USSR State Prize (1984) Lenin Prize (1972) Stuart Ballantine Medal (1971) Order of Lenin (1986)

Saint Petersburg Electrotechnical University "LETI"

Institutions Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute

Alferov with Vladimir Putin

172


2000

HERBERT KROEMER

Born

August 25, 1928 (age 91) Weimar, Germany

Nationality

Germany , nUnited States

Alma mater

University of Jena University of Göttingen

Known for

Drift-field transistor Double-heterostructure laser Heterojunction bipolar transistor

Awards

J J Ebers Award (1973) Humboldt Research Award (1994) IEEE Medal of Honor(2002)

Institutions

Fernmeldetechnisches Zentralamt RCA Laboratories

Herbert Kroemer , a professor of electrical and computer engineering at the University of California, Santa Barbara, with a dissertation on hot electron effects in the then-new transistor, setting the stage for a career in research on the physics of semiconductor devices. In 2000, Kroemer, along with Zhores I. Alferov, was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics "for developing semiconductor heterostructures used in high-speedand opto-electronics". The other co-recipient of the Nobel Prize was Jack Kilby for his invention and development of integrated circuits and micro-chips.

Varian Associates University of Colorado University of California, Santa Barbara

Doctoral advisor

Fritz Sauter

Influences

Friedrich Hund Fritz Houtermans

HEP-640 PNP Germanium Drift Field Transistor

173


2000

Born

JACK ST. CLAIR KILBY

November 8, 1923 Jefferson City, Missouri, U.S.

Clair Kilby invented first integrated circuit

Died

June 20, 2005 (aged 81) Dallas, Texas, U.S.

1958. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in

Nationality

United States

Clinton wrote, "You can take pride in the

Known for

Handheld calculator Thermal printer, Integrated circuit

while working at Texas Instruments (TI) in Physics

on

December

10,

2000.

To

congratulate him, American President Bill knowledge that your work will help to improve lives for generations to come."

Alma mater University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee Awards

Nobel Prize in Physics (2000) National Medal of Science (1969) IEEE Medal of Honor (1986) Charles Stark Draper Prize (1989) Computer Pioneer Award (1993) Kyoto Prize (1993) Harold Pender Award (2000)

Institutions Texas Instruments

Statue on campus titled "Alma Mater" by Lorado Taft at University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign

A Soviet MSI nMOS chip made in 1977, part of a four-chip calculator set designed in 1970 Jack Kilby's original hybrid integrated circuit from 1958. This was the first integrated circuit, and was made from germanium

174


2001

Born

ERIC ALLIN CORNELL

December 19, 1961 (age 58) Palo Alto, California, USA

Nationality United States Alma mater Stanford University MIT (Ph.D.) Known for

Bose–Einstein condensation

Awards

King Faisal International Prize in Science (1997) Lorentz Medal (1998) Nobel Prize in Physics (2001) Benjamin Franklin Medal in Physics (2000)

Institutions University of Colorado Boulder National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) JILA Thesis

Mass spectroscopy using single ion cyclotron resonance (1990)

Doctoral advisor

David E. Pritchard The GNU project and free software movement originated at MIT

Velocity-distribution data (3 views) for a gas of rubidium atoms, confirming the discovery of a new phase of matter, the Bose–Einstein condensate. Left: just before the appearance of a Bose–Einstein condensate. Center: just after the appearance of the condensate. Right: after further evaporation, leaving a sample of nearly pure condensate.

Engineering Center University of Colorado Boulder

175


2001

CARL EDWIN WIEMAN

Born

March 26, 1951 (age 68) Corvallis, Oregon, U.S.

Doctoral advisor

Theodor W. Hänsch

Wieman is the founder and chairman of PhET, a web-based directive of University of Colorado Boulder which provides an extensive Nationality United States suite of simulations to improve the way that Alma mater MIT physics, chemistry, biology, earth science Stanford University and math are taught and learned. Wieman is a member of the USA Science and Known for Bose–Einstein condensation Engineering Festival's Advisory Board. Awards E. O. Lawrence Award (1993) Wieman was nominated to be The White King Faisal International Prize House's Office of Science and Technology in Science (1997) Policy Associate Director of Science on March Lorentz Medal (1998) 24, 2010. His hearing in front of the The Benjamin Franklin Medal Commerce committee occurred on May 20, (2000) 2010 and he was passed by unanimous Nobel Prize in Physics (2001) consent. On September 16, 2010 Dr. Wieman Oersted Medal (2007) was confirmed by unanimous consent. He left Institutions University of British Columbia that post in June 2012 to battle multiple University of Colorado Boulder myeloma. University of Michigan Stanford University

176


2001

WOLFGANG KETTERLE

Born

21 October 1957 (age 62) Heidelberg, West Germany

Nationality

Germany, United States

Alma mater Heidelberg , TUM , LMU Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics Known for

Bose–Einstein condensates

Awards

Benjamin Franklin Medal (2000) Nobel Prize for Physics (2001)

Institutions University of Heidelberg MIT Doctoral advisor

Herbert Walther Hartmut Figger

Doctoral students

Kendall B. Davis Marc-Oliver Mewes Dan Stamper-Kurn Martin Zwierlein

The main building of the Heidelberg University Library, built in 1905

Max-Planck-Institute for Quantum Optics

The Simmons Hall undergrad dormitory was completed in 2002 at Massachusetts Institute of Technology

177


2002

RAYMOND DAVIS JR.

Born

October 14, 1914 Washington, D.C., United States

Died

May 31, 2006 (aged 91) Blue Point, New York, United States

Nationality

American

Alma mater University of Maryland Yale University Known for

Neutrinos

Awards

Comstock Prize in Physics (1978) Tom W. Bonner Prize (1988) Beatrice M. Tinsley Prize (1994) Wolf Prize in Physics (2000) National Medal of Science (2001) Nobel Prize in Physics (2002) Enrico Fermi Award (2003) Benjamin Franklin Medal (2003) George Ellery Hale Prize of the American Astronomical Society (1996)

Institutions Monsanto University of Pennsylvania

Davis receiving the Medal of Science from President Bush, with OSTP Director Marburger on the left

The first use of a hydrogen bubble chamber

to

detect

neutrinos,

on

13 November 1970, at Argonne National Laboratory. Here a neutrino hits a proton in a hydrogen atom; the collision occurs at the point where three tracks emanate on the right of the photograph.

178


2002

MASATOSHI KOSHIBA

Born

September 19, 1926 (age 93) Toyohashi, Aichi, Japan

Nationality

Japan

Alma mater

University of Tokyo University of Rochester

Known for

Astrophysics, neutrinos

Awards

Humboldt Prize (1997) Wolf Prize in Physics (2000) Nobel Prize in Physics (2002)

Institutions

University of Chicago University of Tokyo Tokai University

Doctoral advisor

Morton F. Kaplon

Neutrino telescope

Other academic Shin'ichirō Tomonaga advisors Takahiko Yamanouchi Doctoral students

Yoji Totsuka Atsuto Suzuki

Other notable students

Takaaki Kajita

Early 20th-century comparison of elemental, solar, and stellar spectra

179


2002

RICCARDO GIACCONI

Born

6 October 1931 Genoa, Kingdom of Italy

Died

9 December 2018 (aged 87) San Diego, California, U.S.

Nationality

Italian American

Alma mater

University of Milan

Known for

X-ray astronomy cosmic X-ray sources NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory

Awards

Helen B. Warner Prize for Astronomy (1966) Bruce Medal (1981) Henry Norris Russell Lectureship (1981) Heineman Prize (1981) Gold Medal of the Royal Astronomical Society (1982) Wolf Prize in Physics (1987) National Medal of Science (2003) Asteroid 3371 Giacconi Elliott Cresson Medal (1980)

Institutions

Johns Hopkins University Chandra X-ray Observatory

The Crab Nebula is a remnant of an exploded star. This image shows the Crab Nebula in various energy bands, including a hard X-ray image from the HEFT data taken during its 2005 observation run. Each image is 6′ wide.

Andromeda Galaxy – in high-energy X-ray and ultraviolet light (released 5 January 2016)

180


2003

ALEXEI ALEXEYEVICH ABRIKOSOV

Born

June 25, 1928 Moscow, Russian SFSR, Soviet Union

Died

March 29, 2017 (aged 88) Palo Alto, California, United States

Citizenship

Soviet Union (1928–1991) Russia (since 1992) United States (since 1999)

Alma mater

Moscow State University USSR Academy of Sciences

Known for

Abrikosov vortex Condensed matter physics

Awards

ForMemRS (2001) Member of the National Academy of Sciences (2000) Russian Academy of Sciences 1964 Honorary Doctor of the University of Lausanne, 1975 Order of the Badge of Honour, 1975 Gold Medal of Vernadsky from National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 2015

Institutions

Landau Institute Moscow State University Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology Argonne National Laboratory

Each point on a surface is associated with a direction, called the surface normal; the magnetic flux through a point is then the component of the magnetic field along this direction.

Vortices in a 200-nm-thick YBCO film imaged by scanning SQUID microscopy

181


2003

Born

VITALY LAZAREVICH GINZBURG

4 October 1916 Moscow, Russian Empire

(Ginzburg–Landau theory) named after Vitaly

Died

8 November 2009 (aged 93) Moscow, Russia

mathematical physical theory used to describe

Nationality

Russia

Alma mater Moscow State University (MS 1938) (PhD 1942) Known for

Ginzburg–Landau theory Ginzburg criterion Transition radiation Undulator

Awards

Nobel Prize in Physics (2003) Wolf Prize in Physics (1994/95) Lomonosov Gold Medal (1995) ForMemRS (1987) Stalin Prize in 1953 Order of Lenin (1954) Order of the Badge of Honour, twice (1954, 1975) Gold Medal of the Royal Astronomical Society in 1991

Lazarevich Ginzburg and Lev Landau, is a superconductivity. In its initial form, it was postulated as a phenomenological model which could describe type-I superconductors without examining their microscopic properties. One GL-type superconductor is the famous YBCO, and generally all Cuprates.

Nobel laureates who worked at the LPI (Lebedev Physical Institute) Cherenkov, Tamm, Frank, Basov Prokhorov, Sakharov, Ginsburg

Institutions P. N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences Doctoral advisor

Igor Tamm

Doctoral students

Viatcheslav Mukhanov

Working of the undulator. 1: magnets, 2: electron beam entering from the upper left, 3: synchrotron radiation exiting to the lower right

182


2003

ANTHONY JAMES LEGGET

Born

26 March 1938 (age 81) Camberwell, London, England

Citizenship

British and American

Alma mater

University of Oxford (BA, DPhil)

Known for

Caldeira-Leggett model of quantum dissipation Quantum mechanics Superfluid phase of helium-3 Leggett–Garg inequality

Awards

Maxwell Medal and Prize (1975) FRS (1980) Paul Dirac Medal (1992) Nobel Prize in Physics (2003) Wolf Prize in Physics (2002) KBE (2004)

Institutions

University of Sussex University of Waterloo Institute for Quantum Computing University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Doctoral advisor

Dirk ter Haar

Doctoral students

Amir Caldeira Matthew Fisher Mohit Randeria

University of Sussex Coat of Arms

183


2004

DAVID JONATHAN GROSS

Born

February 19, 1941 (age 78) Washington, D.C., U.S.

Nationality

American

Education

Hebrew University of Jerusalem (BSc, MSc) University of California, Berkeley (PhD)

Known for

Asymptotic freedom Heterotic string Gross–Neveu model

Awards

Dirac Medal (1988) Harvey Prize (2000) Nobel Prize in Physics (2004) NSF Graduate Fellowship (1963–66) Alfred P. Sloan Foundation Fellow (1970–74) MacArthur Foundation Fellowship Prize (1987)

Institutions

University of California, Santa Barbara Harvard University Princeton University

Doctoral advisor

Geoffrey Chew

Doctoral students

Frank Wilczek Edward Witten William E. Caswell Rajesh Gopakumar

The portrait of Albert Einstein by Leonid Pasternak (1924) in the Mathematics and Computer Science Library of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem

The Crucifixion window at Princeton University

184


2004

HUGH DAVID POLITZER

Born

August 31, 1949 (age 70) Politzer was a junior fellow at the Harvard New York City, New York, U.S. Society of Fellows from 1974 to 1977

Nationality

United States

Alma mater

University of Michigan Harvard University

Known for

Quantum chromodynamics, asymptotic freedom

Awards

Nobel Prize in Physics (2004)

Institutions

California Institute of Technology

Doctoral advisor

Sidney Coleman

Doctoral students

Stephen Wolfram

before moving to the California Institute of Technology (Caltech), where he is currently professor of theoretical physics. In 1989, he appeared in a minor role in the movie Fat Man and Little Boy, as Manhattan Project physicist Robert Serber. The Nobel Prize in Physics 2004 was awarded jointly to David J. Gross, H. David Politzer and Frank Wilczek "for the discovery of asymptotic freedom in the theory of the strong interaction."

Charmonium

Charm Quark

Illustration of electric charge of particles (left) and antiparticles (right). From top to bottom; electron/positron, proton/antiproton, neutron/antineutron.

Quantum chromodynamics

185


2004

Born

FRANK WILCZEK

May 15, 1951 (age 68) Mineola, New York, U.S.

Nationality United States Education

University of Chicago (B.S.), Princeton University (M.A., Ph.D.)

Known for

Asymptotic Freedom Quantum chromodynamics Quantum Statistics

Awards

A Sensible Model for the Confinement and Asymptotic Freedom of Quarks

MacArthur Fellowship (1982) Sakurai Prize (1986) Dirac Medal (1994) Lorentz Medal (2002) Lilienfeld Prize (2003) Nobel Prize in Physics (2004) King Faisal Prize (2005)

Institutions MIT T. D. Lee Institute and Wilczek Quantum Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Arizona State University Stockholm University Thesis

Non-abelian gauge theories and asymptotic freedom (1974)

Doctoral advisor

David Gross

Quantum Tomography

186


2005

ROY JAY GLAUBER

Born

September 1, 1925 New York City, New York, U.S.

Died

December 26, 2018 (aged 93) Newton, Massachusetts, U.S.

Alma mater

Harvard University (B.A., Ph.D.)

Known for

Inventing Quantum Optics Orders Of Coherence Photodetection

Waves of different frequencies interfere to form a localized pulse if they are coherent

Glauber states Glauber dynamics Glauber-Sudarshan P representation

Awards

Nobel Prize in Physics (2005) Heineman Prize (1996) ForMemRS (1997) The first stages of the explosion of Albert A. Michelson Medal (1985) the Trinity nuclear test

Institutions

Harvard University Los Alamos National Laboratory

Doctoral advisor

Julian Schwinger

Doctoral students

Leo Kadanoff Daniel Kleitman Daniel Frank Walls Visualization of the translation-invariant probability measure of the one-dimensional Ising model

187


2005

JOHN LEWIS HALL

Born

August 21, 1934 (age 85) Denver, Colorado, U.S.

Nationality

United States

Alma mater Carnegie Institute of Technology Known for

Optical frequency comb

Awards

Department of Commerce Gold Medal (1969) Nobel Prize in Physics (2005) E. U. Condon Award, 1979 An ultrashort pulse of light in the time Davisson-Germer Prize 1988 domain. The electric field is a sinusoid Einstein Prize for Laser 1992 with a Gaussian envelope. The pulse Max Born Award 2002 length is on the order of a few 100 fs Rabi Award of the IEEE 2004 Doctor of Science, honoris causa, University of Glasgow, 2007

Institutions University of Colorado Boulder, JILA, NIST Doctoral students

Jun Ye President George W. Bush meets with the 2005 Nobel Prize recipients. From left to right are Dr. John Hall, 2005 Nobel Prize in Physics; Dr. Thomas C. Schelling, 2005 Nobel Prize in Economic Sciences; Dr. Roy J. Glauber, 2005 Nobel Prize in Physics; Dr. Richard R. Schrock and Dr. Robert H. Grubbs, 2005 Nobel Prize winners in Chemistry.

188


2005

Born

THEODOR WOLFGANG HANSCH

30 October 1941 (age 78) Heidelberg, Germany

The history of spectroscopy began with Isaac Newton's optics experiments (1666–1672). Newton applied the word Nationality Germany "spectrum" to describe the rainbow of Alma mater University of Heidelberg colors that combine to form white light and Known for Laser-based precision spectroscopy that are revealed when the white light is passed through a prism. During the early Awards James Joyce Award (2009) 1800s, Joseph von Fraunhofer made Rudolf Diesel Gold Medal (2006) experimental advances with dispersive Ioannes Marcus Marci Medal (2006) spectrometers that enabled spectroscopy to Philip Morris Research Prize (1998, 2000) become a more precise and quantitative Arthur L. Schawlow Award (2000) scientific technique. Since then, Stern-Gerlach Medal (2000) spectroscopy has played and continues to Arthur L. Schawlow Prize (1996) play a significant role in chemistry, Einstein Prize for Laser Science (1995) physics, and astronomy.

King Faisal International Prize (1989) Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Prize(1989) Michelson Medal (1986) William F. Meggers Award (1985) Herbert P. Broida Prize (1983) Comstock Prize in Physics (1983) Otto Klung Prize (1980)

Institutions Ludwig-Maximilians University Max-Planck-Institute Stanford University European Laboratory for Non-Linear Spectroscopy (LENS) Doctoral students

Carl E. Wieman , Immanuel Bloch ,

Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

Markus Greiner Tilman Esslinger

189


2006

Born Nationality

JOHN CROMWELL MATHER

August 7, 1946 (age 73) Roanoke, Virginia, USA

The cosmic microwave background (CMB,

United States

electromagnetic radiation as a remnant from

Alma mater Swarthmore College University of California, Berkeley Known for

Cosmic microwave background radiation studies

Awards

Dannie Heineman Prize for Astrophysics (1993) Nobel Prize in Physics (2006)

Institutions NASA University of Maryland Doctoral advisor

Paul L. Richards

CMBR),

in

Big

Bang

cosmology,

is

an early stage of the universe, also known as "relic radiation". The CMB is faint cosmic background radiation filling all space. It is an important source of data on the early universe because it is the oldest electromagnetic radiation in the universe, dating to the epoch of recombination. With a traditional optical telescope, the space between stars and galaxies (the background) is completely dark. However, a sufficiently sensitive radio telescope shows a faint background noise, or glow, almost isotropic, that is not associated with any star, galaxy, or other object.

NASA is famous for the first human visits to the Moon, (Apollo 8 image of Earth, 1968)

190


2006

Born

GEORGE FITZGERALD SMOOT

February 20, 1945 (age 74) Yukon, Florida, U.S.

Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL),

Nationality

American

United States national laboratory that conducts

Alma mater

Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Known for

Awards

Cosmic microwave background radiation Dark Energy Cosmic Background Explorer NASA Medal for Exceptional Scientific Achievement (1992) Kilby Award (1993) American Academy of Achievement Golden Plate Award (1994) E. O. Lawrence Award (1994) Albert Einstein Medal (2003) Gruber Prize (2006) Daniel Chalonge Medal (2006) Oersted Medal (2009)

Institutions

UC Berkeley/Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory/Paris Diderot University/Hong Kong University of Science and Technology

Doctoral advisor

David H. Frisch

commonly referred to as Berkeley Lab, is a scientific research on behalf of the United States Department of Energy (DOE). It is located in the Berkeley Hills near Berkeley, California, overlooking the main campus of the University of California, Berkeley. It is managed and operated by the University of California

Diagram representing the accelerated expansion of the universe due to dark energy.

Condorcet building, headquarters of the Department of Physics Paris Diderot University

191


2007

Born

ALBERT FERT

7 March 1938 (age 81) Carcassonne, Aude, France

Spintronics

also

known

as

spin

electronics, is the study of the intrinsic spin of the electron and its associated magnetic

Nationality

French

Alma mater École normale supérieure University of Paris

moment.

The field of spintronics concerns

spin-charge coupling in metallic systems; the analogous effects in insulators fall into the

field

of

fundamentally

multiferroics. differs

from

Spintronics traditional

electronics in that, in addition to charge

Known for

Awards

Giant magnetoresistive effect, spintronics, skyrmions CNRS Gold medal (2003) Wolf Prize in Physics (2006) Japan Prize (2007) Nobel Prize in Physics (2007) Hewlett-Packard Europhysics Prize (1997) Elected to the French Academy of Sciences in 2004 Gay-Lussac Humboldt Award (2014)

Institutions University of Paris-Saclay CNRS/Thales

state, electron spins are exploited as a further degree of freedom, with implications in the efficiency of data storage and transfer.

The founding results of Albert Fert and Peter Grünberg (1988): change in the resistance of Fe/Cr superlattices at 4.2 K in external magnetic field H. The current

Doctoral advisor

I. A. Campbell

and magnetic field were parallel to the axis. The arrow to the right shows maximum

resistance

change.

Hs

is

saturation field.

192


2007

Born

PETER GRUNBERG

Peter Andreas Grünberg 18 May 1939 Pilsen, Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia

Died

7 April 2018 (aged 78) Jülich, Germany

Nationality

Germany

Alma mater

Technische Universität Darmstadt

Known for

Giant magnetoresistive effect

Awards

Wolf Prize in Physics (2006) European Inventor of the Year (2006) Japan Prize 2007 Nobel Prize in Physics (2007) Friendship Award (China) 2016

Institutions

Carleton University Forschungszentrum Jülich University of Cologne Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST)

Doctoral advisor

Stefan Hüfner

Peter Andreas Grünberg was a German physicist, and Nobel Prize in Physics laureate for his discovery with Albert Fert of giant magnetoresistance which brought about a breakthrough in gigabyte hard disk drives.

Peter Grünberg playing guitar during his speech.

193


2008

MAKOTO KOBAYASHI

Born

April 7, 1944 (age 75) Nagoya, Japan

Citizenship

Japan

Alma mater

Nagoya University

Known for

Work on CP violation CKM matrix

Awards

1979 – Nishina Memorial Prize 1985 – Sakurai Prize 1995 – Asahi Prize 2001 – Person of Cultural Merit 2010 – Member of Japan Academy

Professional April 1972 – Research Associate achievement of Kyoto University April 1989 – Professor of the National Laboratory of High Energy Physics, Head of Physics Division II April 1997 – Professor of the Institute of Particle and Nuclear Science, KEK Head of Physics Division II April 2003 – Director, Institute of Particle and Nuclear Studies Institutions

Doctoral advisor

Kyoto University High Energy Accelerator Research Organization Shoichi Sakata

Nagoya University campus in Higashiyama. The university has produced six Nobel Prize laureates in science. Unsolved problem in physics: Why is the strong nuclear interaction force CP-invariant? Why does the universe have so much more matter than antimatter?

A pictorial representation of the six quarks' decay modes, with mass increasing from left to right

194


2008

TOSHIHIDE MASKAWA

Born

February 7, 1940 (age 80) Nagoya, Japan

Nationality

Japan

Alma mater

Nagoya University

Known for

Work on CP violation CKM matrix

Awards

1979 – Nishina Memorial Prize 1985 – Sakurai Prize 1985 – Japan Academy Prize 1995 – Asahi Prize 1995 – Chu-Nichi Culture Prize 2007 – High Energy and Particle Physics Prize by European Physical Society 2008 – Nobel Prize in Physics 2008 – Order of Culture

Institutions

Nagoya University Kyoto University Kyoto Sangyo University

Doctoral advisor

Shoichi Sakata

Toshihide Maskawa born February 7, 1940 in Nagoya, Japan is a Japanese theoretical physicist known for his work on CP-violation who was awarded one quarter of the 2008 Nobel Prize in Physics "for the discovery of the origin of the broken symmetry which predicts the existence of at least three families of quarks in nature."

Maskawa's slide rule on display at the Nobel Prize Museum

195


2008

YOICHIRO NAMBU

Born

18 January 1921 Tokyo, Japan

Died

5 July 2015 (aged 94) Toyonaka, Osaka, Japan

Citizenship United States (1970–2015) Alma mater Tokyo Imperial University Known for

Spontaneous symmetry breaking Nambu–Goto action Nambu-Goldstone boson Nambu mechanics Nambu–Jona-Lasinio model

Awards

Heineman Prize (1970) Order of Culture of Japan (1978) US National Medal of Science (1982) Dirac Medal (1986) J.J. Sakurai Prize (1994) Wolf Prize in Physics (1994/1995) Pomeranchuk Prize (2007) Nobel Prize in Physics (2008)

Spontaneous symmetry breaking illustrated: At high energy levels (left) the ball settles in the center, and the result is symmetric. At lower energy levels (right), the overall "rules" remain symmetric, but the symmetric "Mexican hat" enforces an asymmetric outcome, since eventually the ball must rest at some random spot on the bottom, "spontaneously", and not all others.

Institutions University of Tokyo (1942–49) Osaka City University (1949–52) Institute for Advanced Study (1952–54) University of Chicago (1954– 2015)

196


2009

Born Died

CHARLES KUEN KAO

4 November 1933 Shanghai, Republic of China

Sir Charles Kuen Kao was a Physicist

23 September 2018 (aged 84) Sha Tin, Hong Kong

development and use of fibre optics in

Citizenship United States United Kingdom Alma mater University College London (PhD 1965, issued by University of London) Woolwich Polytechnic (BSc 1957, issued by University of London Known for Awards

Fibre optics Fibre-optic communication Stuart Ballantine Medal (1977) Marconi Prize (1985) C&C Prize (1987) Faraday Medal (1989) James C. McGroddy Prize for New Materials (1989) SPIE Gold Medal (1992) Prince Philip Medal (1996) Japan Prize (1996) Charles Stark Draper Prize (1999) Asian of the Century (1999) Grand Bauhinia Medal (2010)

and electrical engineer who pioneered the telecommunications. In the 1960s, Kao created various methods to combine glass fibres with lasers in order to transmit digital data, which laid the groundwork for the evolution of the Internet. He is Known as the "Godfather of Broadband", the "Father of Fiber Optics", and the "Father of Fiber Optic Communications", Kao was awarded the 2009 Nobel Prize in Physics for

"groundbreaking

achievements

concerning the transmission of light in fibers for optical communication"

The landmark auditorium in the Hong Kong Science Park has been named after Kao since December 30, 2009

Institutions Chinese University of Hong Kong ITT Corporation , Yale University Standard Telephones and Cables Doctoral advisor

Harold Barlow Chinese University of Hong Kong

Science Centre

197


2009

WILLARD STERLING BOYLE

Born

August 19, 1924 Amherst, Nova Scotia, Canada

Died

May 7, 2011 (aged 86) Wallace, Nova Scotia, Canada

Citizenship Canada and United States Alma mater McGill University Lower Canada College Known for

Charge-coupled device

Awards

Stuart Ballantine Medal (1973) IEEE Morris N. Liebmann Memorial Award (1974) Draper Prize (2006) Nobel Prize in Physics (2009)

A specially developed Charge-coupled device in a wire-bonded package used for ultraviolet imaging.

Institutions Bell Labs

Willard Sterling

Boyle

was

a

Canadian

Physicist. He was a pioneer in the field of laser technology and co-inventor of the charge-coupled device. As director of Space Science and Exploratory Studies at Bellcomm he helped select lunar landing sites and provided support for the Apollo space program. On October 6, 2009, it was announced that he would share the 2009 Nobel Prize in Physics for "the invention of an imaging semiconductor circuit—the CCD sensor, which has become an electronic eye in almost all areas of photography"

CCD from a 2.1 megapixel Argus digital camera

198


2009

GEORGE ELWOOD SMITH

Born

May 10, 1930 (age 89) White Plains, New York, U.S.

Nationality

American

Alma mater

University of Chicago (PhD 1959) University of Pennsylvania (BSc 1955)

Known for

Charge-coupled device

Awards

Stuart Ballantine Medal (1973) IEEE Morris N. Liebmann Memorial Award (1974) Draper Prize (2006) Nobel Prize in Physics (2009)

Institutions

Bell Labs

199


2010

ANDRE KONSTANTIN GEIM

Born

21 October 1958 (age 61) Sochi, Russian SFSR, Soviet Union

Nationality

Dutch and British

Alma mater

Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology

Known for

Discovering graphene diamagnetic levitation Gecko tape

Awards

Ig Nobel Prize (2000) Mott Medal (2007) EuroPhysics Prize (2008) John J. Carty Award (2010) Hughes Medal (2010) Copley Medal (2013) Carbon Medal (2016) Prince Sultan bin Abdulaziz International Prize for Water (2018)

Institutions

Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology Institute of Solid State Physics Russian Academy of Sciences University of Manchester

Doctoral advisor

Victor Petrashov

Doctoral students

Soren Neubeck Konstantin Novoselov Rashid Jalil , Da Jiang Rahul Raveendran-Nair Ibtsam Riaz , Gareth Young

The 2000 Ig Nobel Prize in physics was awarded to

Andre

Geim, Radboud

University Nijmegen, and Michael Berry, University

of

Bristol,

UK,

for

the

magnetic levitation of a live frog.

Micro view of gecko tape

"Spider-Man test" of gecko tape

200


2010

KONSTANTIN NOVOSELOV

Born

23 August 1974 (age 45) Nizhny Tagil, Russian SFSR, Soviet Union

Nationality

Russia and United Kingdom

Alma mater Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology Radboud University of Nijmegen (PhD) Known for

graphene

Awards

Nicholas Kurti Prize (2007) TR35 (2008) EuroPhysics Prize (2008) IUPAP Prize (2008) Nobel Prize in Physics (2010) Knight Commander of the Order of the Netherlands Lion (2010) FRS (2011) Knight Bachelor (2012) Leverhulme Medal (2013) Onsager Medal (2014) Carbon Medal (2016) Dalton Medal (2016)

Konstantin Novoselov in his lab

A lump of graphite, a graphene transistor, and a tape dispenser. Donated to the Nobel Museum in Stockholm by Andre Geim and Konstantin Novoselov in 2010

Institutions National University of Singapore University of Manchester Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology Radboud University of Nijmegen Doctoral advisor

Jan Kees Maan Andre Geim

Radboud University Nijmegen

201


2011

SAUL PERIMUTTER

Born

September 22, 1959 (age 60) Champaign-Urbana, Illinois, U.S.

Nationality

United States

Alma mater Harvard University (AB) University of California, Berkeley (PhD) Known for

Accelerating universe Dark energy

Awards

Ernest Orlando Lawrence Award (2002)

Diagram representing the accelerated

Shaw Prize in Astronomy (2006) expansion of the universe due to dark energy Gruber Prize in Cosmology (2007) Breakthrough Prize in Fundamental Physics (2015)

Institutions University of California, Berkeley/Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Doctoral advisor

Richard A. Muller

Tower at the University of Puerto Rico, showing (right) the emblem of Harvard University‍—the oldest in the United States‍—and (left) that of National University of San Marcos, Lima‍—the oldest in the Americas.

202


2011

BRIAN PAUL SCHMIDT

Born

24 February 1967 (age 53) Missoula, Montana, United States

Nationality

American Australian

Citizenship United States Australia Alma mater University of Arizona (1989), Harvard University (1993) Known for

Accelerating universe / Dark energy , Supernova

Awards

Pawsey Medal (2001) Shaw Prize in Astronomy (2006) Nobel Prize in Physics (2011) FRS (2012) Dirac Medal (2012) AC (2013)

Gas is being stripped from a giant star to form an accretion disc around a compact companion (such as a white dwarf star). NASA image

Institutions Australian National University Thesis

Type II supernovae, expanding photospheres, and the extragalactic distance scale (1993)

Doctoral advisor

Robert Kirshner

Supernova remnant N103B taken by the Hubble Space Telescope

203


2011

Born

ADAM GUY RIESS

December 16, 1969 (age 50) Washington, D.C., U.S.

Nationality United States Alma mater Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Harvard University Known for

Accelerating universe / Dark energy , Supernova

Awards

Helen B. Warner Prize for Astronomy (2002) Shaw Prize in Astronomy (2006) Nobel Prize in Physics (2011) Albert Einstein Medal (2011)

Institutions University of California,

Saul Perlmutter, Riess, and Brian P. Schmidt being awarded the 2006 Shaw Prize in Astronomy. The trio would later be awarded the 2011 Nobel Prize in Physics

Berkeley Johns Hopkins University

Space Telescope Science Institute Doctoral advisor

Robert Kirshner, William H. Press

Artist's impression of a Type Ia supernova, as revealed by spectro-polarimetry observations

204


2012

SERGE HAROCHE

Born

11 September 1944 (age 75) Casablanca, Morocco

Nationality

French

Alma mater École normale supérieure Pierre-and-Marie-Curie University (Ph.D.) Known for

Laser spectroscopy Quantum optics Quantum decoherence

Awards

CNRS Gold medal (2009) Nobel Prize for Physics (2012) 1988 Einstein Prize for Laser 1992 The Humboldt Prize 2017 IEEE Honorary Membership

Institutions Pierre-and-Marie-Curie University Yale University , Collège de France Doctoral advisor

Claude Cohen-Tannoudji

Electron orbital of a Rydberg atom with n=12. Colors show the quantum phase of the highly excited electron.

205


2012

DAVID JEFFREY WINELAND

Born

February 24, 1944 (age 76) Milwaukee, Wisconsin, United States

Nationality

American

Alma mater

University of California, Berkeley Harvard University

Awards

1990 Davisson-Germer Prize 1990 William F. Meggers Award of the Optical Society of America 1996 Einstein Prize for Laser 1998 Rabi Award from the IEEE 2001 Arthur L. Schawlow Prize in Laser Science 2010 Benjamin Franklin Medal 2012 Nobel Prize in Physics Nobel Prize in Physics (2012) National Medal of Science (2007) Schawlow Prize (2001)

Known for

quantum computing

Institutions

University of Washington National Institute of Standards and Technology University of Colorado, Boulder University of Oregon

Thesis

The Atomic Deuterium Maser (1971)

Doctoral advisor

Norman Foster Ramsey, Jr.

The Washington university's landmark reading room, inside Suzzallo Library

Other acade Hans Georg Dehmelt mic advisors

206


2013

Born

FRANCOIS BARON ENGLERT

6 November 1932 (age 87) Etterbeek, Brussels, Belgium

FRANCOIS BARON ENGLERT has made

contributions in statistical physics, quantum

Nationality Belgian

field theory, cosmology, string theory and

Alma mater Université Libre de Bruxelles

Prince of Asturias Award in technical and

Known for Awards

supergravity. He is the recipient of the 2013

Higgs mechanism supergravity

scientific research, together with Peter Higgs

Francqui Prize (1982) Wolf Prize in Physics (2004) Sakurai Prize (2010) Nobel Prize in Physics (2013)

Higgs "for the theoretical discovery of a

Institutions Université Libre de Bruxelles Tel Aviv University

and the CERN. Englert was awarded the 2013 Nobel Prize in Physics, together with Peter mechanism

that

contributes

to

our

understanding of the origin of mass of subatomic particles, and which recently was confirmed through the discovery of the predicted fundamental particle, by the ATLAS and CMS experiments at CERN's Large Hadron Collider".

207


2013

PETER HIGGS

Born

29 May 1929 (age 90) Newcastle upon Tyne, England, UK

Nationality

British

Alma mater

King's College London (BSc, MSc, PhD)

Known for

Higgs boson Higgs field Higgs mechanism Symmetry breaking

Awards

Nobel Prize in Physics (2013) Wolf Prize in Physics (2004) Sakurai Prize (2010) Dirac Medal (1997) Rutherford Medal (1984) FRS (1983) Hughes Medal (1981) Copley Medal (2015)

Institutions

University of Edinburgh Imperial College London University College London King's College London

Thesis

Some problems in the theory of molecular vibrations (1955)

Doctoral advisor

Charles Coulson Christopher Longuet-Higgins

Doctoral students

Lewis Ryder David Wallace

A ball is initially located at the top of the central hill (C). This position is an unstable equilibrium: a very small perturbation will cause it to fall to one of the two stable wells left (L) or right (R). Even if the hill is symmetric and there is no reason for the ball to fall on either side, the observed final state is not symmetric.

HIGGS BOSON

208


2014

Born

ISAMU AKASAKI

January 30, 1929 (age 91) Chiran, Kawanabe District, Kagoshima Prefecture

Nationality Japanese Alma mater Kyoto University Nagoya University Known for

Gallium nitride (GaN) p-n junction blue LED

Awards

1991 – Chu-Nichi Culture Prize Asahi Prize (2001) Takeda Award (2002) 2003 – President's Award, the Science Council of Japan (SCJ)

Akasaki Institute

p-n junction LED

2003 – Solid State Devices & Materials (SSDM) Award

2004 – Tokai TV Culture Prize Kyoto Prize (2009) 2010 – Lifetime Professor, Meijo University 2011 – Minami-Nippon Culture Prize-Honorable Prize 2011 – Order of Culture, the Japanese Emperor IEEE Edison Medal (2011) Nobel Prize in Physics (2014) Charles Stark Draper Prize (2015)

Institutions Meijo University Nagoya University

Gallium nitride (GaN)

209


2014

Born

HIROSHI AMANO

September 11, 1960 (age 59) Hamamatsu, Japan

Alma mater Nagoya University Known for

Blue and white LEDs

Awards

1996 – IEEE/LEOS Engineering Achievement Award 1998 – British Rank Prize 2001 – Marubun Academic Award

2002 – Takeda Award 2003 – SSDM Award 2014 – Nobel Prize in Physics 2015 – Chu-Nichi Culture Prize 2015 – Prizes for Science and Technology

Very small (1.6x1.6x0.35 mm) red, green, and blue surface mount miniature LED package with gold wire bonding details

2015 – Asia Game Changer Award

Institutions Nagoya University Doctoral advisor

Isamu Akasaki

RGB-SMD-LED

210


2014

Born

SHUJI NAKAMURA

22 May 1954 (age 65) Ikata, Ehime, Japan

Shuji

Nationality

American

specializing in the field of semiconductor

Citizenship

Japan (until 2005) United States (since 2005)

Nakamura

is

a

Japanese-born

American electronic engineer and inventor technology,

professor

at

the

Materials

Department of the College of Engineering, University of California, Santa Barbara (UCSB)

Alma mater University of Tokushima

and is regarded as the inventor of the blue

Known for

Blue and white LEDs

technology. Together with Isamu Akasaki and

Awards

2001 – Asahi Prize 2002 – Benjamin Franklin Medal 2006 – Finland's Millennium Technology Prize

LED, a major breakthrough in lighting Hiroshi Amano, he is one of the three recipients of the 2014 Nobel Prize for Physics "for

the

invention

of

efficient

blue

2008 – Prince of Asturias Award

light-emitting diodes, which has enabled

from Hong Kong University

sources".

2008– Honorary degree of Doctor of Engineering bright

and In

energy-saving 2015,

his

light

input

into

2009 – Harvey Prize

commercialization

Association (SVIPLA) Inventor of the Year

technology was recognized by the Global

2014 – Nobel Prize in Physics

Energy Prize.

2012– Silicon Valley Intellectual Property Law energy-efficient

and

white

white

development LED

of

lighting

2015 – Global Energy Prize 2017 – Mountbatten Medal 2018 – Zayed Future Energy Prize

Fields

Electronics engineering

Institutions University of California, Santa Barbara

Reverse side of a Blu-ray. Unlike CD and DVD, the reflection has a blue hue.

211


2015

TAKAAKI KAJITA

Born

9 March 1959 (age 61) Higashimatsuyama, Saitama, Japan

Nationality

Japanese

Education

Saitama Prefectural Kawagoe High School

Alma mater Saitama University (B.S.) University of Tokyo (M.S., Ph.D.) Known for

Neutrino Oscillations

Awards

1987 – Asahi Prize 1999 – Nishina Memorial Prize 2002 – Panofsky Prize 2010 – Yoji Totsuka Award 2012 – Japan Academy Prize 2013 – Julius Wess Award for his "significant role in the Discovery of Atmospheric Neutrino Oscillations with the Super-KAMIOKANDE Experiment." 2015 – Nobel Prize in Physics 2016 – Fundamental Physics Prize

Main Building of Institute for Solid State Physics of the University of Tokyo

Institutions Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, University of Tokyo Doctoral advisor

Masatoshi Koshiba

Other academic advisors

Yoji Totsuka

The Kamioka Gravitational Wave Detector (KAGRA)

212


2015

ARTHUR BRUCE MCDONALD

Born

August 29, 1943 (age 76) Sydney, Nova Scotia, Canada

Known for

Solving the solar neutrino problem

Awards

Benjamin Franklin Medal (2007) Henry Marshall Tory Medal (2011) Nobel Prize in Physics (2015) Fundamental Physics Prize (2016)

McDonald is a co-recipient of the 2007

Benjamin Franklin Medal in Physics, the 2015 Nobel Prize in Physics, and the 2015 Nationality Canadian Fundamental Physics Prize for the Alma mater Dalhousie University (BSc, MSc) discovery of neutrino oscillations and Caltech (PhD) demonstrating that neutrinos have mass.

Institutions Princeton University Queen's University Thesis

Excitation energies and decay properties of T = 3/2 states in 17O, 17F and 21Na. (1970)

Doctoral advisor

Charles A. Barnes Herstmonceux Castle, which houses the Bader International Study Centre in Queen's University

Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics

213


2016

DAVID JAMES THOULESS

Born

21 September 1934 Bearsden, Scotland

Died

6 April 2019 (aged 84) Cambridge, England

Nationality

British

Citizenship

United Kingdom

Alma mater

University of Cambridge (BA) Cornell University (PhD)

Known for

Kosterlitz–Thouless transition Thouless energy Topological quantum numbers

Awards

Maxwell Medal and Prize (1973) Fellow of the Royal Society (1979) Holweck Prize (1980) Wolf Prize (1990) Member of the National Academy of Sciences (1995) Lars Onsager Prize (2000) Nobel Prize in Physics (2016)

Institutions

University of Washington University of California, Berkeley University of Birmingham Yale University

Doctoral advisor

Hans Bethe

Notable students

J. Michael Kosterlitz

The Fitzwilliam Museum, the art and antiquities museum of the University of Cambridge

I

214


2016

Born

FREDERICK DUNCAN MICHAEL HALDANE

14 September 1951 (age 68) London, England

Nationality British, Slovenian Citizenship United Kingdom, Slovenia Education

St Paul's School, London

Alma mater University of Cambridge (BA, PhD) Known for

Haldane pseudopotentials in the fractional quantum Hall effect

Awards

Oliver E. Buckley Condensed Matter Prize (1993) Dirac Medal (2012) Nobel Prize in Physics (2016) Foreign Associate of the National Academy of Sciences (2017)

Image of X-ray diffraction pattern from a protein crystal

Institutions Princeton University University of California, San Diego University of Southern California Bell Laboratories Thesis

An extension of the Anderson model as a model for mixed valence rare earth materials (1978)

Doctoral advisor

Philip Warren Anderson

Doctoral students

Ashvin Vishwanath

The entrance to the original Cavendish Laboratory on the New Museums Site

215


2016

Born

JOHN MICHAEL KOSTERLITZ

June 22, 1943 (age 76) Aberdeen, Scotland, United Kingdom

Kosterlitz does research in condensed matter

Nationality

British

localization, and spin glasses; and in critical

Citizenship

United States

Alma mater

University of Cambridge (BA, MA) University of Oxford (DPhil)

Known for Awards

theory, one- and two-dimensional physics; in phase

transitions:

random

systems,

electron

dynamics: melting and freezing. The Kosterlitz Centre at the University of Aberdeen is named in honour of his father, Hans Kosterlitz, a pioneering biochemist specializing in endorphins, who joined the faculty after fleeing

Kosterlitz–Thouless transition Nazi persecution of Jews in 1934. Nobel Prize in Physics (2016) Lars Onsager Prize (2000)

Institutions

Brown University University of Birmingham

Thesis

Problems in strong interaction physics (1969)

Academic advisors

David Thouless (postdoc)

The Berezinskii–Kosterlitz–Thouless transition (BKT transition) is a phase transition in the two-dimensional (2-D) XY model. It is a transition

from bound

vortex-antivortex pairs at low temperatures to unpaired vortices and anti-vortices at some critical temperature.

Melting ice cubes illustrate the process of fusion

216


2017

RAINER WEISS

Born

September 29, 1932 (age 87) Berlin, Germany

Education

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (BS, MS, PhD)

Known for

Pioneering laser interferometric gravitational wave observation

Awards

Einstein Prize (2007) Special Breakthrough Prize in Fundamental Physics (2016) Gruber Prize in Cosmology (2016) Shaw Prize (2016) Kavli Prize (2016) Harvey Prize (2016) Princess of Asturias Award (2017) Nobel Prize in Physics (2017)

Institutions

Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Thesis

Stark Effect and Hyperfine Structure of Hydrogen Fluoride (1962)

Doctoral advisor

Jerrold R. Zacharias

Doctoral students

Nergis Mavalvala

Simulation of merging black holes radiating gravitational waves

Other notable Bruce Allen students Sarah Veatch Influences

Robert H. Dicke

Launch of the COBE spacecraft November 18, 1989

217


2017

Born

KIP STEPHEN THORNE

June 1, 1940 (age 79) Logan, Utah, U.S.

Education

California Institute of Technology (BS)

Known for

Thorne-Żytkow object Roman arch Thorne-Hawking-Preskill bet

Awards

Princeton University (MS, PhD)

Lilienfeld Prize (1996) Albert Einstein Medal (2009) Special Breakthrough Prize in Fundamental Physics (2016) Gruber Prize in Cosmology (2016) Shaw Prize (2016) Kavli Prize (2016) Harvey Prize (2016) Princess of Asturias Award (2017) Lewis Thomas Prize (2018)

Institutions California Institute of Technology

The Thorne–Hawking–Preskill bet was a public bet on the outcome of the black hole information paradox made in 1997 by physics theorists Kip Thorne and Stephen Hawking on the one side, and John Preskill on the other, according to the document they signed 6 February 1997, as shown in Hawking's The Universe in a Nutshell

A schematic diagram of a laser interferometer

Doctoral advisor

John Archibald Wheeler

Doctoral students

William L. Burke , Carlton M. Caves Lee Samuel Finn , Sándor J. Kovács David L. Lee , Alan Lightman Don N. Page , William H. Press Richard H. Price Artist's impression of merging Bernard F. Schutz neutron stars. This event is a source Saul Teukolsky , Clifford Martin Will of gravitational waves

218


2017

BARRY CLARK BARISH

Born

January 27, 1936 (age 84) Omaha, Nebraska, U.S.

Education

University of California, Berkeley (BA, MA, PhD)

Awards

Klopsteg Memorial Award (2002) Member of the National Academy of Sciences (2002) Enrico Fermi Prize (2016) Henry Draper Medal (2017) Princess of Asturias Award (2017) Nobel Prize in Physics (2017)

It is impossible to make magnetic monopoles from a bar magnet. If a bar magnet is cut in half, it is not the case Known for LIGO detector, Gravitational waves that one half has the north pole and the Institutions University of California, Riverside other half has the south pole. Instead, California Institute of Technology each piece has its own north and south Fermi Chair Professor, Sapienza poles. A magnetic monopole cannot be created from normal matter such as Università di Roma atoms and electrons, but would instead Thesis A study of the reaction negative pion be a new elementary particle plus proton going to negative pion plus neutral pion plus proton at 310 and 377 MEV (1962)

Doctoral advisor

A. Carl Helmholz

The LIGO Livingston control room as it was during Advanced LIGO's first observing run (O1)

Simplified diagram of an Advanced LIGO detector (not to scale).

219


2018

Born Education

ARTHUR ASHKIN

September 2, 1922 (age 97) Brooklyn, New York, U.S. Columbia University (BS) Cornell University (MS, PhD)

Known for

Optical tweezers

Awards

Nobel Prize in Physics (2018)

Institutions

Bell Laboratories Lucent Technologies

Thesis

A measurement of positron-electron scattering and electron-electron scattering (1952)

Doctoral advisor

William M. Woodward

Arthur Ashkin is an American scientist and Nobel

laureate

Laboratories

and

who

worked

Lucent

at

Bell

Technologies.

Ashkin has been considered by many as the father of optical tweezers, for which he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics 2018 at age 96, becoming the oldest Nobel Laureate until 2019 when John B. Goodenough was awarded at 97. Ashkin started his work on manipulation of microparticles with laser light in the late 1960s which resulted in the invention of optical tweezers in 1986. He also pioneered the optical trapping process that eventually was used to manipulate atoms, molecules, and biological cells. The key phenomenon is the radiation pressure of light; this pressure can be dissected down into optical gradient and scattering forces.

Piezoelectric disk used as a guitar pickup

A generic optical tweezer diagram with only the most basic components

220


2018

Born Education

GERARD ALBERT MOUROU

22 June 1944 (age 75) Albertville, France University of Grenoble (BSc, MSc) Pierre and Marie Curie University (PhD)

Known for Awards

Chirped pulse amplification

very high-intensity laser pulses 1995 – R. W. Wood Prize 1997 – SPIE Harold E. Edgerton Award 2005 – Willis E. Lamb Award 2009 – Charles Hard Townes Award 2016 – Frederic Ives Medal 2018 - Arthur L. Schawlow Prize 2018 – Nobel Prize in Physics

Institutions École polytechnique ENSTA ParisTech University of Rochester University of Michigan Doctoral students

Gérard Albert Mourou is a French scientist and pioneer in the field of electrical engineering and lasers. He was awarded a Nobel Prize in Physics in 2018, along with Donna Strickland, for the invention of chirped pulse amplification, a technique later used to create ultrashort-pulse, very high-intensity (petawatt) laser pulses. In 1994, Mourou and his team at the University of Michigan discovered that the balance between the self-focusing refraction and self-attenuating diffraction by ionization and rarefaction of a laser beam of terawatt intensities in the atmosphere creates "filaments" which act as waveguides for the beam thus preventing divergence.

Donna Strickland

Mourou, speaking in 2018 after being awarded the Nobel Prize Scheme of chirped pulse amplification

221


2018

Born Education

Known for

DONNA THEO STRICKLAND

27 May 1959 (age 60) Guelph, Ontario, Canada McMaster University (BEng) University of Rochester (MS, PhD) Intense laser-matter interactions Nonlinear optics Short-pulse intense laser systems Chirped pulse amplification Ultrafast optics

Awards

Alfred P. Sloan Research Fellowship (1998) Fellow of the Optical Society (2008) Nobel Prize in Physics (2018)

Institutions

University of Waterloo

Donna Theo Strickland is a Canadian optical physicist and pioneer in the field of pulsed lasers. She was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 2018, together with Gérard Mourou, for the invention of chirped pulse amplification. She is a professor at the University of Waterloo. She served as fellow, vice president, and president of The Optical Society, and

is

currently

chair

of

their

Presidential Advisory Committee. In 2018, she was listed as one of BBC's 100 Women.

Doctoral advisor Gérard Mourou Structure of KTP crystal, viewed down b axis, used in second harmonic generation

Strickland's ultrafast laser group at University of Waterloo, in June 2017

A positively chirped ultrashort pulse of light in the time domain

222


2019

Born

JAMES PEEBLES

April 25, 1935 (age 84) Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada

Nationality Canadian, American Education

University of Manitoba (BS) Princeton University (MS, PhD)

In physics, Quintessence is a hypothetical form of dark energy, more

precisely

a

scalar

field,

postulated as an explanation of the observation of an accelerating rate of expansion of the universe. The

Known for

Cosmic microwave background radiation first example of this scenario was proposed by Ratra and Peebles Cosmic infrared background (1988). Cold dark matter Lyman-alpha emitter Primordial isocurvature baryon model Quintessence Recombination Ostriker–Peebles criterion

Awards

Eddington Medal (1981) Heineman Prize (1982) Bruce Medal (1995) Gruber Prize (2000) Harvey Prize (2001) Shaw Prize (2004) , Crafoord Prize (2005) Dirac Medal (2013) Order of Manitoba (2017)

A Lyman alpha emitter (left) and an artist's impression of what one might look like if viewed at a relatively close distance (right)

Institutions Princeton University Institute for Advanced Study Doctoral advisor

Robert Dicke

Doctoral students

Margaret J. Geller Stuart L. Shapiro

This artist's impression shows how light from the early universe is deflected

by

the

gravitational

lensing effect of massive cosmic structures forming B-modes as it travels across the universe.

223


2019

born

MICHEL GUTAVE EDOUARD MAYOR

12 January 1942 (age 78) Lausanne, Switzerland

Together with Didier Queloz in 1995, he discovered

Education

University of Lausanne (MS) University of Geneva (PhD)

sun-like star, 51 Pegasi. For this achievement, they

Known for

Discovered first planet orbiting around a normal star, 51 Pegasi

Awards

Prix Jules Janssen (1998) Shaw Prize (2005) Wolf Prize (2017)

Institutions University of Geneva Doctoral students

Didier Queloz

Didier Queloz and Michel Mayor at the La Silla Observatory (2012)

51 Pegasi , the first extrasolar planet orbiting a were awarded the 2019 Nobel Prize in Physics "for the discovery of an exoplanet orbiting a solar-type star". Related to the discovery, Mayor noted that humans will never migrate to such exoplanets since they are "much, much too far away hundreds of millions of days using the means we have available today". However, due to discoveries by Mayor, searching for extraterrestrial communications from exoplanets

may

now

be

a

more

practical

consideration than thought earlier.

51 Pegasi

224


2019

DIDIER PATRICK QUELOZ

Born

23 February 1966 (age 54) Switzerland

Nationality

Swiss

Education

University of Geneva (MS, DEA, PhD)

Known for

First person to find planets outside of our solar system

Awards

Wolf Prize in Physics (2017) Nobel Prize in Physics (2019)

In the area of religion The Daily Telegraph reports him as saying, "although not a believer himself, “Science inherited a lot from religions”

Institutions University of Geneva University of Cambridge Thesis

Doctoral advisor

Recherches liées à la spectroscopie par corrélation croisée numérique; (INTER-TACOS: guide de l'utilisateur) (1995)

The dining hall at King's College

Michel Mayor

By July 1995, the pair had discovered that a large planet orbited 51 Pegasi; the planet was identified as 51 Pegasi and determined to be of a Hot Jupiter. This was the first exoplanet to be discovered around a main sequence star. Queloz' and Mayor's discovery launched a more intensive search for exoplanets around other stars. For this achievement, they were awarded half of the 2019 Nobel Prize in Physics "for the discovery of an exoplanet orbiting a solar-type star"

51 Pegasi (circled) in the constellation Pegasus

225


2020

ROGER PENROSE

Born

8 August 1931 (age 90) Colchester, England, UK

Education

University College School

Known for

Black hole bomb Geometry of spacetime Penrose interpretation of quantum mechanics Penrose–Hawking singularity theorems Schrödinger–Newton equations

Awards

The Penrose triangle

Adams Prize (1966) Heineman Prize (1971) Fellow of the Royal Society (1972) Wolf Prize (1988) Dirac Medal (1989) Albert Einstein Medal (1990) De Morgan Medal (2004) Dalton Medal (2005)

Scientific career Fields

Mathematical physics, tessellations

Institutions Cornell University Bedford College, London Princeton University Polish Academy of Sciences Thesis

Tensor Methods in Algebraic Geometry (1958)

Doctoral advisor

John A. Todd

Influenced

Michael Atiyah Stuart Hameroff

226


2020

REINHARD GENZEL

Born

24 March 1952 (age 70) Bad Homburg vor der Höhe, West Germany (now Germany)

Education

University of Freiburg (BSc) University of Bonn (MSc, DPhil)

Known for

Infrared astronomy Submillimetre astronomy

Awards

Otto Hahn Medal (1980) Balzan Prize (2003) Shaw Prize (2008) Crafoord Prize (2012) Tycho Brahe Prize (2012) Fellow of the Royal Society Harvey Prize (2014) Nobel Prize in Physics (2020)

Scientific career Fields

Astrophysicist

Reinhard Genzel

studies infrared- and submillimetre astronomy. He and his group are active in developing ground- and space-based instruments for astronomy. They used these to track the motions of stars at the centre of the Milky Way, around Sagittarius A*, and show that they were orbiting a very massive object, now known to be a black hole. Genzel is also active in studies of the formation and evolution of galaxies.

Institutions Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics University of California, Berkeley Thesis

Beobachtung von H2O-Masern in Gebieten von OB-Sternentstehung (1978)

Doctoral advisor

Peter Georg Mezger

227


2020

ANDREA M GHEZ

Born

June 16, 1965 (age 57) New York City, U.S.

Education

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (BS) California Institute of Technology (MS, PhD)

Known for

Discovery of a supermassive black hole at the Galactic Center Adaptive optics

Awards

MacArthur Fellowship (2008) Crafoord Prize (2012) Nobel Prize in Physics (2020)

Scientific career Fields

Astrophysics

Institutions

University of California, Los Angeles

Thesis

The Multiplicity of T Tauri Stars in the Star Forming Regions Taurus-Auriga and Ophiuchus-Scorpius: A 2.2μm Speckle Imaging Survey (1993)

Doctoral advisor

Gerry Neugebauer

Nobel Prize winner Andrea Ghez: How a girl who loved puzzles grew up to solve a galactic mystery

228


2021

KLAUS FERDINAND HASSELMANN

Klaus Ferdinand Hasselmann

Born

25 October 1931 (age 90) Hamburg, Germany

Education

University of Hamburg (Diploma) Max Planck Society University of Göttingen (PhD)

Known for

German oceanographer who was

Physical modelling of Earth’s climate, quantifying variability and reliably predicting global warming”

awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics in 2021 for the foundational progress he and Japanese-born American meteorologist Syukuro Manabe made in developing scientific models of Earth’s climate, quantifying variability, and predicting global warming.

Scientific career Fields

Climate variability Climate model

Institutions University of Hamburg Scripps Institution of Oceanography University of California, San Diego Max Planck Society Max Planck Institute for Meteorology German Climate Computing Centre Thesis

Über eine Methode zur Bestimmung der Reflexion und Brechung von Stoßfronten und

von

beliebigen

Wellen

kleiner

Wellenlängen an der Trennungsfläche zweier Medien (1957)

Doctoral advisor

Walter Tollmien

The city hall of Hamburg, Germany

229


2021

Born

SYUKURO (SUKI) MANABE

Education

University of Tokyo (BA, MA, DSc)

Awards

Carl-Gustaf Rossby Research Medal (1992) Blue Planet Prize (1992) Asahi Prize (1995) Volvo Environment Prize (1997) William Bowie Medal (2010) Franklin Institute Awards (2015) Crafoord Prize (2018) Nobel Prize in Physics (2021) Academic career

Institutions Princeton University Nagoya University Doctoral students

Syukuro (Suki) Manabe

21 September 1931 (age 90)  Shinritsu, Uma, Ehime, Japan 

Isaac Held, Kenneth Bowman

A senior meteorologist in atmospheric and oceanic sciences at Princeton University and the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, created the first global climate model after his groundbreaking

studies

of

atmospheric

dynamics in the 1960s. Manabe was co-author of a 1967 paper that was the first credible report of climate change, which led to the creation of the first three-dimensional model of global warming in

1975.

connections atmosphere.

Manabe between His

identified the

sea,

revolutionary

profound land

and

idea

using numerical modeling to predict how the Earth’s surface temperatures are influenced by atmospheric

conditions

was

a

major

breakthrough, giving researchers a powerful new tool to investigate the Earth’s complex climate systems. His work is foundational for all modern climate research.

Main Building of Institute for Solid State Physics of the University of Tokyo

230


2021

GIORGIO PARISI

Born

4 August 1948 (age 73) Rome, Italy

Education

Sapienza University (BS, MS, PhD)

Known for

Statistical mechanics, quantum field theory, spin glass, complex systems The discovery of the interplay of disorder and fluctuations in physical systems from atomic to planetary scales.

Awards

Boltzmann Medal Dirac Medal Enrico Fermi Prize Dannie Heineman Prize Nonino Prize Microsoft Award Lagrange Prize Max Planck Medal EPS HEPP Prize Lars Onsager Prize Pomeranchuk Prize Wolf Prize Clarivate Citation Laureates Nobel Prize in Physics (2021)

Scientific career

Graphical elaboration of three subsequent photographs of starling flocks. Parisi and 20 colleagues spent the past winter studying starlings in action. Parisi

estimates

having

taken

approximately 100,000 photographs of flocks in the air. Now the group is writing computer programs to create a 3D reconstruction of the flocks and hopes to have results soon. Starling flocks

provide

a

convenient,

measurable example of a complex system. “They may seem very far from spin glasses, but there is something in common,” Parisi says. “What they share, and what is very interesting, is how complex behaviors arise. This is a theme recurrent in physics and biology,

Fields

Physics

and most of the research that I have

Institutions

Sapienza University Columbia University

complex collective behavior may arise

Academic advisors

Nicola Cabibbo

done is to get at this thing: how from elements that each have a simple behavior.”

231


https://www.nobelprize.org/prizes/lists/all-nobel-prizes-in-physics https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Nobel_laureates_in_Physics http://www.globalsino.com/EM/page3257.html https://www.google.com.pk https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki https://www.britannica.com https://www.pakpedia.pk/dr-abdus-salam https://physicstoday.scitation.org

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