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All paper stock in this publication is FSC certified. The cover is 55% recycled paper and 30% post-consumer waste (PCW). The text is on 100% PCW paper. Low VOC, vegetable-based inks are used throughout. The publication is printed using certified wind power.


Cultivating Maine’s Agricultural Future A Guide for Towns, Land Trusts, and Farm Supporters

Maine Farmland Trust American Farmland Trust Mainewatch Institute

September 2011


Table of Contents Acknowledgments…………………………………………………………………………………………... i How to Use This Publication……………………………………………………………………………... iii Introduction………………………………………………………………………………………………… iv

PART I: THE BENEFITS OF LOCAL FARMS AND FARMLAND…………………………………………………. 1 Economic Benefits………………………………………………………………………………………….. 1 Fiscal Benefits……………………………………………………………………………………………… . 2 Environmental Benefits…………………………………………………………………………………… . 2 Community Benefits………………………………………………………………………………………. . 3 Trends in Maine Agriculture………………………………………………………………………………. 4

PART II: WHO CAN KEEP FARMS AND FARMLAND WORKING?…………………………………………... 7 Farmers & Other Landowners……………………………………………………………………………..7 Elected Officials, Town Boards and Committees………………………………………........................8 Local and Regional Organizations…………………………………………………………....................11

PART III: CASE STUDIES: MAINE REGIONS AND TOWNS SUPPORTING AGRICULTURE…………………. .. 15 Regional Groups……………………………………………………………………………………………15 Local Groups………………………………………………………………………………………………. 16

PART IV: TOOLS AND STRATEGIES FOR SUPPORTING LOCAL AGRICULTURE…………………………… .. 19 1. Inventories and Information Gathering……………………………………………………………… 19 Farm & Farmland Inventories………………………………………………………………………. 19 Community Farm Surveys…………………………………………………………………………... 21 Cost of Community Services Studies……………………………………………………………….. 23 Economic Impact Analysis………………………………………………………………………….. 25 2. Promotion and Public Awareness……………………………………………………….................... 26 Promoting Local Farm Products……………………………………………………………………. 26 Agricultural Commissions…………………………………………………………………………... 28 Connecting Farms & Schools………………………………………………………………............ 30 Farmers Markets……………………………………………………………………………………... 31 Minimizing Conflicts Between Farmers and Non-Farming Residents…………………………… 33 3. Municipal Tax Programs…………………………………………………………………................... 34 Current Use Taxation……………………………………………………………………………….. 34 Voluntary Municipal Farm Support Program……………………………………………………… 36 4. Farm Support Programs………………………………………………………………………………... 37 Programs That Support Farm Business Development…………………………………………….. 37 5. Municipal Planning and Land Use………………………………………………………................... 41 Open Space Plans…………………………………………………………………………………… 41 Comprehensive Plans……………………………………………………………………………….. 42 Land Use Ordinances……………………………………………………………………………….. 44 Special Development Fees………………………………………………………………………….. 50 6. Non-Regulatory Land Protection………………………………………………………………………51 Leasing Land to Farmers…………………………………………………………………………….. 51 Permanent Agricultural Conservation Easements……………………………………................... 54 Limited Development……………………………………………………………………………….. 57

WEB LINKS DIRECTORY………………………………………………………………………………….... 60


Acknowledgements This publication is the result of a cooperative effort to provide town officials, land trusts and individuals with information on how to support agriculture in Maine. Collaborating on the research, writing, and editing were: Amanda Bunker, Wright Pierce Cris Coffin, Ben Bowell, and Doris Mittasch, American Farmland Trust Stephanie Gilbert, Maine Department of Agriculture, Food and Rural Resources Brian Kent, Kent Associates John Piotti, Maine Farmland Trust Alison Truesdale, LandForms Layout and design was by Amanda Bunker, Wright Pierce. Photos by Bridget Besaw, Amanda Bunker, Brian Kent and Ed Friedman (www.pointofviewhelicopters.com). Cover design by Mahan Graphics.

Sponsoring Organizations and Funders American Farmland Trust Maine Farmland Trust Mainewatch Institute Additional funding from: Anonymous Elmina B. Sewall Foundation Horizon Foundation, Inc. Lowell, Blake & Associates and The Mentor Charitable Fund Maine Department of Agriculture, Food and Rural Resources Maine Outdoor Heritage Fund

About the Sponsors The mission of Maine Farmland Trust is to protect Maine’s farmland, keep agricultural lands working, support Maine’s farmers and advance the future of farming in Maine. The mission of American Farmland Trust is to save the land that sustains us by protecting America's farm and ranch land, promoting environmentally sound farming practices and ensuring an economically sustainable future for farmers and ranchers. The mission of Mainewatch Institute is to explore viable economic alternatives for Maine that recognize the importance of natural systems to our quality of life.

i


Contributing Advisors Thanks to the many individuals and organizations that helped the authors along the way: Bill Bell, President, Maine Farmland Trust Steve Buck, City Manager, City of Caribou Tony Cox, former Director, Community & Economic Development, Town of Bowdoinham Tim Glidden, former Director, Land for Maine’s Future Program Mary Ann Hayes, Executive Director, Maine Rural Partners Gwen Hilton, Maine Land Use Regulation Commission Sherry Huber, President, Mainewatch Institute Collin Therrien, Senior Planner, Land for Maine’s Future Program Jonathan LaBonte, Executive Director, Androscoggin Land Trust Russell Libby, Executive Director, Maine Organic Farmers and Gardeners Association Bonnie Lounsbury, Esquire John Maloney, Senior Land Use Planner, Androscoggin Valley Council of Governments Robert Sanford, Faculty, University of Southern Maine, Department of Environmental Science Nancy Smith, Executive Director, GrowSmart Maine Ralph and Lisa Turner, Laughing Stock Farm Agricultural Council of Maine (AGCOM) Maine Municipal Association Maine State Planning Office Planning Decisions, Inc.

Photo: Amanda Bunker

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How to Use This Publication This publication was developed in the hopes of being helpful to as many people as possible. It draws from many of the approaches and tools already employed in the state, as well as tools from other states that are applicable to Maine. It does not need to be read cover-to-cover in order to be useful. Readers can choose their area of interest and glean as much information as they want.

Resources and Links in this Document To find out more about the subjects within this document, more detailed information is available on the internet and referenced by web address within these pages. The digital PDF version of this publication contains hyperlinks to web resources, allowing the user to click on a web address (or URL) and bring up the referenced website or document. For those who are reading the printed version of this publication, note that the blue underlined text indicates that a web address for more information on that subject is listed in the Web Links Directory at the back of this publication. For example, when you see Cape Farm Alliance, it indicates that the web address for the Cape Farm Alliance is listed by chapter and section in the Directory under that name.

Photo: Bridget Besaw

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Introduction Farming in Maine defies any single label. It is, at once, thriving and threatened. It is as diverse and complex as Maine’s 8,100 working farms. Maine has abundant water, good soils, handy access to markets, intact farm infrastructure, and a nice balance between established farmers and young people entering the field. Consumers, meanwhile, increasingly care about where their food comes from, favoring local or Maine-produced goods. But all this opportunity is matched by a major demographic challenge. The ownership of as much as one third of Maine’s best farmland (about 400,000 acres) will be in transition in the next ten years, simply due to the age of farmland owners. Without intervention, much of this land will be lost to agriculture. Maine cannot hope for a robust farm economy if much more farmland and farm infrastructure are lost.

Photo: Bridget Besaw

The bottom line is that farming in Maine is very well poised, if we take the right steps. There is much that can be done locally, often by town boards or committees, but also by individuals working to make a difference. The intent of this publication is to provide the reader with ideas of what you can do, examples of what others have done, and resources for learning more and taking action. Together, we can create a great future for Maine farming.

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Web Links Directory These are the website addresses for the web-linked text within the publication, indicated in blue underlined text in the printed version. Listed in order of appearance. repeated.

Duplicate links within each section (Parts I, II, III, IV) are not

Part I: The Benefits of Local Farms & Farmland County Profiles of Maine Agricultural Enterprises http://www.maine.gov/agriculture/mpd/farmland/mainecountymap.html USDA Census of Agriculture http://www.agcensus.usda.gov/Publications/2007/Full_Report/Volume_1,_Chapter_2_County_Level/ Maine/index.asp Part II: Who Can Keep Farms and Farmland Working? Maine Department of Economic and Community Development, List of Potential Partners http://www.maine.gov/decd/decd_information/links_and_partners.shtml Maine Department of Agriculture, List of Food Assistance Programs http://www.maine.gov/agriculture/co/tefap/countysearch.html Future Farmers of America http://www.maine.gov/education/aged/maine_ffa/index.htm 4-H (Maine) http://umaine.edu/4h/ Maine State Grange website http://www.mainestategrange.org/ Maine Land Trust Network http://www.mltn.org/ Maine Farmland Trust http://www.mainefarmlandtrust.org/ Maine FarmLink Program http://www.mainefarmlink.org/ MFT Farm Viability Program http://www.mainefarmlandtrust.org/Programs/FarmViability/tabid/140/Default.aspx

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Maine State Planning Office, Contact Information for Regional Councils and Councils of Government http://www.maine.gov/spo/landuse/techassist/regionalcouncillist.htm Part III: Case Studies: Maine Regions and Towns Supporting Agriculture "Threshold To Maine" Resource Conservation and Development (RC&D) Area http://www.thresholdtomaine.org/ Three Rivers Land Trust http://www.3rlt.org/ Unity Barn Raisers http://www.unitybarnraisers.org/ Sebasticook Regional Land Trust http://www.sebasticookrlt.org/index.shtml Monmouth Grows http://www.monmouthgrows.com/ Bowdoinham Department of Community and Economic Development http://www.bowdoinham.com/community-economic-development U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Landowner Incentive Program http://wsfrprograms.fws.gov/Subpages/GrantPrograms/LIP/LIP.htm Cape Farm Alliance Progress Report http://www.capeelizabeth.com/government/bds_commissions/ad_hoc/future_open_space_preservati on/meeting_materials/packets/2011/04-08-2011/CFA_Final%20Report_2008.pdf Cape Farm Alliance http://www.capeelizabethfarms.com/ Part IV: Tools and Strategies for Supporting Local Agriculture 1: Inventories & Information Gathering USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) Regional Offices http://www.me.nrcs.usda.gov/ University of Maine Cooperative Extension Regional Offices http://extension.umaine.edu/county-offices/ Maine Office of Geographic Information Systems (MeOGIS) http://www.maine.gov/megis/ Maine Farmland Trust http://www.mainefarmlandtrust.org/ 61


Maine County Soil & Water Conservation Districts http://www.maine.gov/agriculture/narr/soil3.htm Maine State Planning Office http://www.maine.gov/spo/ Maine Department of Agriculture http://www.maine.gov/agriculture/index.shtml Maine Regional Planning Commissions http://www.maine.gov/spo/landuse/techassist/regionalcouncillist.htm AFT Cost of Community Services http://www.farmland.org/services/fiscalplanning/default.asp American Farmland Trust http://www.farmland.org/ American Farmland Trust Farmland Information Center http://www.farmlandinfo.org/ IMPLAN Economic Modeling System Software http://implan.com/V3/Index.php Planning Decisions, Inc. http://www.planningdecisions.com/ 2: Promotion & Public Awareness Monmouth Grows Website http://www.monmouthgrows.com/index.php Monmouth Grows On-line Farm Directory http://www.monmouthgrows.com/findus.php Bowdoinham On-line Business Directory http://www.bowdoinham.com/business-directory-search-category Connecticutâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Capitol Region Council of Governments Model Agricultural Regulations http://www.ctplanningforagriculture.com/documents/CRCOGModelRegulations.pdf Maine Department of Transportation, Official Business Directional Signs Permitting http://www.maine.gov/mdot/traffic/obds.htm Get Real, Get Maine http://www.getrealmaine.com/ "Threshold To Maine" Resource Conservation and Development (RC&D) Area http://www.thresholdtomaine.org/

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Maine Resource Conservation & Development Areas http://www.me.nrcs.usda.gov/programs/rc&d.html Massachusetts Agricultural Commissions Website http://www.massagcom.org/ Massachusetts Department of Agriculture http://www.mass.gov/agr/agcom Maine Agriculture in the Classroom http://www.agclassroom.org/ME/programs/index.htm Belfast's Troy Howard Middle School Garden Project http://www.schoolgardenproject.com/ Kittery School Food Service Program http://www.kitteryschools.org/~nutrition/ Maine Harvest Lunch http://www.mofga.org/Resources/MaineHarvestLunch/tabid/817/Default.aspx Maine Agriculture in the Classroom http://www.agclassroom.org/ME/programs/index.htm Maine School Garden Network http://www.msgn.org/ Maine Farm to School Program http://www.farmtoschool.org/ME/ Harrison Farmers Market http://www.local-farmers-markets.com/market/2337/harrison/harrison-farmers-market Rockland Farmers Market http://rocklandfarmersmarket.org/ MOFGA Maine Farmers Market Directory http://www.mofga.net/Directories/FarmersMarkets/tabid/352/Default.aspx Maine Federation of Farmers Markets (MFFM) http://www.mffm.org/ MFFM Examples of Market Rules, Bylaws, Discussion Groups http://snakeroot.net/mffm/Resources2.shtml Maine Farmers Market Convention http://www.whcacap.org/farm-to-market/farmers-market-convention/index.php Massachusetts Sample Town Right-to-Farm Laws http://www.massagcom.org/laws/local.html 63


Massachusetts Agricultural Commissions Website http://www.massagcom.org/ Maine Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Best Management Practices http://www.maine.gov/agriculture/narr/documents/ Maine Agriculture Protection Act http://www.mainelegislature.org/legis/statutes/7/title7sec153.html 3: Municipal Tax Programs Maine Revenue Service, Property Tax Division, Current Use Programs http://www.maine.gov/revenue/propertytax/propertytaxbenefits/CurrentUseLandPrograms.htm 4: Farm Support Programs Maine Department of Agriculture, Get Real, Get Maine!, Agricultural Resource Directory http://www.getrealmaine.com/index.cfm/fuseaction/home.showpage/pageID/4/index.htm University of Maine Cooperative Extension, New Farmers Program http://extension.umaine.edu/new-farmers/ University of Maine Cooperative Extension, Canning and Freezing Workshops http://umaine.edu/food-health/food-preservation/hands-on-workshops/ Maine Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Business Development Programs http://www.maine.gov/agriculture/mpd/business/ University of Maine Cooperative Extension http://extension.umaine.edu/ Maine Organic Farmers and Gardeners Association (MOFGA) http://www.mofga.org/ Coastal Enterprises, Inc. http://www.ceimaine.org/ Slow Money Maine http://www.slowmoneymaine.org/ 5: Municipal Planning & Land Use Town of Cumberland Open Space Plan http://cumberlandmaine.com/openspace.pdf Town of Sanford Open Space Plan http://www.sanfordmaine.org 64


Trust for Public Land, Penobscot Valley Greenprint http://www.tpl.org/publications/books-reports/penobscot-valley-community-greenprint.html Maine State Planning Office Publications/Resources http://www.maine.gov/spo/landuse/docs/publications.htm Maine State Planning Office, Technical Assistance for Planning http://www.maine.gov/spo/landuse/techassist/index.htm Beginning with Habitat http://www.beginningwithhabitat.org/ Town of Bowdoinham Comprehensive Plan http://www.bowdoinham.com/comprehensive-plan Town of Cumberland Comprehensive Plan http://cumberlandmaine.com/ordinances-documents/ Town of Monmouth Comprehensive Plan http://www.monmouthme.govoffice2.com Town of Sanford Comprehensive Plan http://www.sanfordmaine.org Town of Turner Comprehensive Plan http://www.turnermaine.com/ordinances.html Maine Growth Management Act http://www.mainelegislature.org/legis/statutes/30-a/title30-Ach187sec0.html Maine Department of Agriculture & Maine State Planning Office, Agriculture "Resource Packets" http://www.maine.gov/spo/landuse/compplans/planningdata.htm Maine State Planning Office, Examples of Ordinances That Support Agriculture http://www.maine.gov/spo/landuse/techassist/ag_ordinances.htm Ordinance Template for Local Authority over Food and Farm Policies http://localfoodlocalrules.files.wordpress.com/2011/03/localfoodlocalrules-ordinance-template.pdf "Local Food Local Rules" Website http://localfoodlocalrules.wordpress.com/ Maine Law on Impact Fees http://www.mainelegislature.org/legis/statutes/30-A/title30-Asec4354.html Maine State Planning Office, Impact Fee Guide http://www.maine.gov/spo/landuse/docs/compplanning/impactfeemanual.pdf

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6: Non-Regulatory Land Protection Maine Farmland Trust, FarmLink Program http://www.mainefarmlink.org/ Land for Maine's Future Program http://www.maine.gov/spo/lmf/ Federal Farm and Ranch Lands Protection Program http://www.nrcs.usda.gov/programs/frpp/ Maine Department of Agriculture, Farmland Protection Program http://www.maine.gov/agriculture/mpd/farmland/ Mainewatch Institute, Green Development: Balancing Development with Conservation http://www.mainewatch.org/publications-frame.html

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Profile for Maine Farmland Trust

Cultivating Maine's Agricultural Future  

This guide released by Maine Farmland Trust and American Farmland Trust provides specific examples and suggestions of what local officials a...

Cultivating Maine's Agricultural Future  

This guide released by Maine Farmland Trust and American Farmland Trust provides specific examples and suggestions of what local officials a...

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