Cairo green

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Compiled and Edited by: Magda Mostafa With Contributions from: Andreas Vogler

Arturo Vittori Khaled Tarabieh


Credits This publication was made possible by The Swiss Embassy in Cairo, and The American University’s Department of Construction and Architectural Engineering, and the creative work of Andreas Vogler and Arturo Vittori of Architecture and Vision, and was organized with the support of AUC’s Architecture Student Association- AA. 2013 This work is the shared copyright of Magda Mostafa representing the American University in Cairo; © Architecture and Vision; and the Swiss Embassy, Cairo. SBN: 15210/2013

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Design and layout: Mariam Elibyari Compiling and Editing: Magda MostafaŘŒ Associate Professor, AUC

Contributions from:

Workshop Coordinators: Khaled Tarabieh, Assistant Professor, AUC Magda Mostafa, Associate Professor, AUC Andreas Vogler, Architect, Architecture & Vision Arturo Vittori, Architect, Architecture & Vision Workshop participants: Amira Abdel Rahman Sarah Mokhtar Affaf Azzouz Zina Adly Malak Madkour Nagla Elkhoraiby Lilian Hany Salma Nassar Mohamed Mamdouh Saad Maria Aklimandos Sandra Sami Jailane Atef Mostafa El - Zohdy Mariam ElIbyari Salma El- Lakany Mohamed Aly Mohamed Talaia Panel Transcripts: Decentralization for Urban Sustainability: Marie Di Pietrantonio, transcript Magda Mostafa, editing Combatting Air Pollution: Mirette Khorshed, transcript Magda Mostafa, editing Photography: Ahmed Mohsen Salma Ellakany Mirette Khorshed Karim Youssef Graphics Editing and Printing: Henry Graphix and Spirit Advertising CAIRO GREEN-FALL 2012

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INTRODUCTION Dr. Stefano Toscano, Swiss Embassy in Cairo Why organize a series of events on urban sustainability? Well, for those of us living in Cairo, the need for such a debate seems pretty obvious – let us just think of the traffic jams we all face every day on our way to and back from the office. More broadly, let us consider this: two centuries ago, only three percent of the world’s population lived in cities. Now it is fifty percent and it might well rise to seventy percent by 2030. Indeed, the world’s urban population is growing by 65 million people per year – a stunning figure. This represents one of the most significant demographic trends of the 21st century, a trend that puts us in front of enormous economic, social and political challenges. There is no doubt that we need raised awareness about this trend and its far-reaching ramifications – not least at the political level. What is also called for is what we may term “urban ingenuity” – that is the ability to develop intelligent solutions for unprecedented situations. The cities that have proved most robust and most successful in the past are, indeed, those that have demonstrated an ability to adapt to change. And here is where Andreas Vogler and Arturo Vittori come in handy. The work of Architecture and Vision, the projects and ideas presented by Andreas and Arturo in their exhibition and publications, surprise us for their simplicity and ingenuity – sort of a Columbus’s egg effect. Andreas and Arturo’s message is plain and clever at the same time: whenever we try to find solutions to our challenges – be they to produce potable water, to provide breathable air, to dispose of our waste sensibly, or even to survive the harsh conditions of the desert – let us act in sync with nature, let us draw inspiration from it, let us be guided by it. All is there for us to see. However, it will remain invisible to our eye unless we are prepared to look at what nature has to offer and take it. So: nature and human ingenuity working hand in hand will bring us forward, will help us steer our planet towards a more sustainable development. The Embassy of Switzerland in Egypt was very pleased to cooperate with Architecture and Vision and the American University in Cairo (AUC) towards the dual objective of raising awareness about the issue of urban

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Introduction sustainability (and lack thereof) and of exploring possible concrete solutions to current challenges in Cairo and Egypt. We are convinced that through the temporary exhibition at the AUC premises, a thought-provoking lecture by Andreas and Arturo, a three-day workshop with students from AUC and other universities, and two panel discussions, we have achieved this objective. Sustainable development is one of the priority areas of Swiss foreign policy, and one of the main axes of our bilateral cooperation with Egypt. This cooperation has been strengthened and broadened significantly after the Egyptian revolution, and we remain keen on exploring possible avenues for concrete action in areas such as urban sustainability. So for us the journey can and must not stop here. This initiative shall be the beginning of a long, but crucial, journey that will steer us towards a “Cairo Green” – for starters. I wish to thank Andreas and Arturo wholeheartedly for having accepted to participate in this initiative. But I also wish to express my deep gratitude to AUC for the wonderful cooperation throughout the project, a cooperation that demonstrate a shared commitment towards sustainable development and the wish to move this particular agenda forward. Let me also express a special thanks to the Istituto Italiano di Cultura in Cairo, and in particular its Director, Dr. Dante Marianacci, for having supported us so graciously in an unexpected moment of need.

Dr. Stefano Toscano Minister, Deputy Head of Mission Embassy of Switzerland in Egypt

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PREFACE & EDITORIAL Cairo Green, November 2012 Dr. Magda Mostafa, AUC Historically, Cairo has always played a pivotal role both globally and regionally- straddling the European and African continents and playing a central role in the Arab and later Islamic civilizations. Its importance in today’s socio-political landscape lives up to this historic tradition, and once again Cairo is playing an important role in ideology, change and perhaps at times controversy. A city with- as scholar David Sims has famously said- a logic to its chaos, Cairo is currently undergoing an urban transformation which mirrors the uncertainty on the one hand and polarizing determinism on the other, which is seen in its socio-political domain. Since the 2011 Revolution, there has been a distinct power shift, with the initial release from the grasps of dictatorship and centralized iron-grip, and at times, corrupt control, towards a form of informal governance of urban space. Grassroots, community based initiatives have begun to emerge, where non existed before, and through this bottom-up approach, a glimmer of hope begins to surface with regards to the future of our urban environment.

SSE Dean Tarek Shawky welcomes guests to AUC

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Preface & Editorial Paramount among the issues plaguing the city of Cairo is the environment. Among the most pressing is the drastic lack of accessible, public green space, as well as the issue of pollution- particularly air pollution. Not mutually exclusive in their coexistence, the lack of one inevitably plays a role in the increase of the other. As the green strip of the precious Nile valley is being eroded by the rapidly increasing urbanization of agricultural land on the national level, parks and green spaces within the city are becoming less and less, with no new initiatives planned for the near future. Cairo’s infamous traffic, and notorious lack of reliable, safe mass transit, play an instrumental role in the ever- Andreas Vogler and Arturo Vittori present their Desertseal project increasingly poor air quality in the city. Recent practices such as illegal elimination of rice straw, with all the legislative, agricultural and economic factors that have led to it, contributes significantly to a further dip in air quality in the months of October and November. Coupled with the greenhouse gas emissions, and the urban island effect of such a massive metropolis, Cairo has risen in the ranks of the most polluted cities worldwide, with a 2012 estimated sixth place worldwide behind Beijing, New Delhi, Santiago and Mexico City among others, even despite its comparatively small industrial footprint. It is these two issues- urban green areas, and air pollution- and the role of urban design and architecture in addressing them, that were the focus of the event hosted by the American University in Cairo and sponsored by the Swiss Embassy in Cairo in November 2013. Revolving around the works of the architectural team Andreas Vogler and Arturo Vittori of Architecture and Vision, this week-long event was comprised first of a public lecture titled “the Genius Loci of the Space Age”. Framing architecture in a domain of science and technology, this lecture brought science and design together, and presented the format of small ideas with big impact, that is so instrumental to addressing Cairo’s current debate. The second event of this initiative was the presentation of the works of Vogler & Vittori in a week long exhibition titled “From Pyramids to Spacecraft” hosted at AUC’s Department of Construction and Architectural Engineering’s gallery at the New Cairo campus. Illustrating examples of the work presented at the lecture, this exhibition drew an audience of students, scholars, professionals and civic society.

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The third part of this multi-modal initiative was a 3-day intensive workshop titled Cairo Green, with students from both the American University in Cairo’s and Cairo University’s Architecture programs. Working with both Andreas Vogler and Arturo Vittori a group of 20 students, 3 AUC teaching assistants, representatives from AUC’s Architecture Student’s Association- the AA, as well as AUC faculty members Dr. Khaled Tarabieh and Dr. Magda Mostafa, the group was posed with the simple question “what small idea with big impact can you develop towards making Cairo Green?” Working in groups as well as individually, students developed ideas that ranged in both scope and scale, and are illustrated in more detail in this publication.

Arturo Vittori (second from the left), Andreas Vogler (fourth from the left) and Khaled Tarabieh (fourth from the right) kickoff the 3-day workshop with students, guests and teaching assistants

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Preface & Editorial With the generous support of an AUC grant it is hoped that a prototype of the best of these proposals may be built and tested, for further development and implementation. The final and conclusive event in this week-long Cairo Green initiative, was a series of two panel discussions, organized by the Swiss Embassy in Cairo, AUC’s Department of Construction and Architectural Engineering and kindly hosted at the Italian Cultural Institute. These panels were comprised of experts in the field of both Decentralization as a means of Urban Sustainability and Combatting Air Pollution. Titled “Cairo Green” and “Breathing Life into Cairo” respectively, Associate Chair, Nagwa Sherif leads the panel discussion these panels drew audience of practitioners, scholars, academics, researchers and students, and helped frame the issue of urban sustainability into a larger and more diverse framework of legislation, public policy and socio-cultural forces, in addition to design. The conclusive recommendations and questions posed at these panels are outlined in this document. An intensive and informative experience, the Cairo Green event helped bring together international perspectives with local initiative and frame it within the experience of our great city of Cairo. It may have ultimately posed more new questions than answer existing ones, as all strong debates should, but it is still hoped that this be only the first of many future collaborations towards making, both physically and conceptually, Cairo Green. Magda Mostafa, 2013 Arturo Vittori and Magda Mostafa present students’ work

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LECTURE & EXHIBITION The Genius Loci of the Space Age Arturo Vittori and Andreas Vogler, Architecture and Vision Title: The Genius Loci of the Space Age www.architectureandvision.com Drawing inspiration from nature and scientific progress, ‘Architecture and Vision’ aims to improve the quality of life through the wise use of technologies and available resources to create a harmonious integration of humans, technology and nature by design. The projects presented in the lecture range from houses and sculptures which clean the air, tents which cool themselves using local solar energy in the desert to mobile pavilions and towers which walk. Planning space habitats, as well as water collecting towers for developing countries is not a contradiction, but a clear consequence of understanding the preciousness of resources like air or potable water.

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Lecture & Exhibition It is an economy of the third wave which AV is designing for, where people and their designed objects are not just consuming and polluting the clean resources of nature, but are actively producing them. Our vision of the ‘Genius Loci of the Space Age’ is to build architectures, which not only integrate aesthetically in their context, but deeply integrate into the flow of resources in nature to create buildings which clean the air and water, produce energy and grow food. Founded by Italian architect Arturo Vittori and Swiss architect Andreas Vogler, and building on experience in aerospace and architecture, Vittori and Vogler are merging these skills to create a vision of the future as expressed through their internationally recognized projects. Architecture and Vision strives to develop elegant, ecological and economical solutions for an evolving planet.

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WORKSHOP The workshop on the topic of urban sustainability titled ‘CAIRO GREEN’, was based on the philosophy of ‘urban acupuncture’ where students investigated the integration of green elements in small interventions with big impact throughout the city. These included interventions at locations such as roof tops, balconies, window frames, bridges and traffic infrastructure. Students from the architecture program at AUC, as well as students from Cairo University joined the workshop team, Khaled Tarabieh from AUC and Andreas Vogler and Arturo Vittori from Architecture and Vision, for two days of discussions and studio work, exploring, investigating and developing Cairo Green strategies with minimal intervention but maximum impact.

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Workshop

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WORKSHOP PROJECTS Metro Exhaust Cover By: Malak Madkour Salma Nassar AUC

GREEN WIND By: Mostafa El-Zohdy Cairo University

SUSPENDED

VISTA By: Affaf Azzouz Lilian Mina Zina Adly AUC

STARS ON EARTH By: Jailane Atef Maria Aklimandos Sandra Sami Cairo University 14

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Workshop Projects

Green Revolution By: Amira AbdEl Rahman Sarah Mokhtar AUC

Bridging

Green By: Nagla Al Khoreiby AUC

Green Squares By: Mohamed Saad Cairo University

Fresh Air Unit By: Mariam El Ibyari AUC

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SUSPENDED VISTA A Modular Plug-in to Egyptian Bridges By: Affaf Azouz, Lilian Mina & Zina Adly, AUC

Site Sketch

Proposal Sketch

Concept Development

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Site Picture


Workshop Projects

Metro Exhaust Cover Sustainable green cover to the poluted metro exhausts By: Malak Madkour & Salma Nassar, AUC

Site Picture

Proposed Design

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Bridging Green Foliate Cairo’s main commuter, reduce pollution and green Cairo By: Nagla Al Khoreiby, AUC

Plant green pods with purifying plants (ivy) at every support of the bridge. Attached to the bridge is a steel helix structure that revolves around the bridge for ivy to climb on. The foliation of the structure would act as a green barrier participating in the neutralization of car combustion, as well as creating consecutive shaded points on the bridge to minimize sun exposure.

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Workshop Projects

Fresh Air Unit By: Mariam El Ibyari, AUC A unit that can be attached to the A.C system on buildings facades aiming to enhance the facades visual quality and prodice fresh air while sustaining its energy from the exhaust of the air condition. The system proposed has a double layer of aeroponics plants which has air filtration properties and cleaning enzimes with a fan behind it to direct the clean air towards to cool air A.C cycle. Moreover, it has a water tank which stores the A.C water waste and uses it to grow the aeroponics. As for the energy of the unit, it relies on solar panels. Application

Concept Development

Unit repetition on facades

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PANELS

Cairo Green: Decentralization For Urban Sustainability Tuesday, November 26, 2012, 6-7.15 p.m. Italian Cultural Institute, Zamalek Modern cities are based on highly centralized logistic systems. Water, air, energy, food, waste as well as people and goods are moved in and out of cities on a daily basis. Should streets and lines of communication collapse, then the whole system would be in severe danger. Natural systems, for their part, are based on decentralization and self-regulating, balanced micro-flows. If one part in the system fails, others can take over to a certain degree or counter-balance by feedback loops. Can today’s centralized systems evolve into local, decentralized ones – that is systems that recycle resources as well as produce energy and food in local proximity-based hubs? If so, then this would make cities no longer dependent upon large mass and energy flows in and out of them, thus avoiding, among other things, giant traffic flows with all their negative side effects. The panel discussed if and how today’s centralized systems can evolve into local, decentralized systems, as well as on the pros and cons of such an evolution. After an introduction with provocative examples about the future of urban infrastructure, the panel discussion will focus on concrete decentralization possibilities, examples in the areas of energy and/or water and/or waste, the impact such decentralization steps would have 20 CAIRO GREEN-FALL 2012


Panels on traffic patterns (which is particularly relevant to a city such as Cairo), and the status of the decentralization in the urban sustainability debate in Egypt. Moderation/Panelists Moderator: Speaker 1: Speaker 2: Speaker 3: Speaker 4: Speaker 5:

Mr. Stefano Toscano, Chargé d’affaires a.i., Embassy of Switzerland Mr. Andreas Vogler, architect (Switzerland) Mr. Mohamed Asar, Senior Technical Consultant, Ministry of Housing and Urban Planning Mr. Romain Darbellay, Director of Cooperation, Swiss Programme Office – Egypt Mr. Mohamed Nada, UN Habitat Mr. Hany Attalla, Chairman of the Board of the Egyptian Earth Construction Association

Presentation This panel discussion was convened as part of the culminating efforts of the week-long Cairo Green event. The subject of the discussion, as presented to the audience and panelists, was the issue of decentralization and its role in urban sustainability. The discussion began with an inspirational presentation by Arturo Vittori about how to create a more sustainable environment. Focusing on the concept of bringing nature back into the city, as pockets of green, he illustrated his concept with various examples on how to realize this vision. These examples included rooftop gardens, edible landscapes and plants in, on as well as around houses. He highlighted the importance of bringing agriculture into the city, as a means to help ensure food security, reduce transportation and decrease the tremendous carbon footprint incurred by bringing food from farm to fork as it were. Mohamed Asar brought a State perspective on decentralization. He explained that in Egypt, before 2000, planning was following a top-down (centralized) approach. After 2000, the government started a bottomup approach or participatory approach (decentralized). He argued in favor of decentralization to provide more efficiency in urban planning.

Arturo Vittori presents at the panel discussion

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In his presentation, Mohamed Nada emphasized three challenges in Egypt; (1) Cairo: the city faces a problematic lack of cooperation between its three governorates. Moreover, the competencies given to the governorates are not sufficient. (2) National level; there is a significant fragmentation in the urban sustainability sector, given that there exist more than 100 financial authorities and more that 100 planning authorities and that cooperation among them is insufficiently developed. (3) Lack of autonomy of the governorates: the governors can only control the land of the city, whereas the land outside the city’s boundaries belongs to the central agency and is not under control of governors. The governorates control only 10% of the investments, the rest is controlled by the central government. At the local level, 85% of the expenses go to wages, leaving little money for investments. Local administration can only ask low accountability of the government and the social accountability is also extremely low. Residents are not typically consulted in the decision making, making participatory design ineffective. Hani Attala provided many examples and ideas that could and have been implemented in Egypt - solar energy, use of local material, reusing rainwater, biogas projects, courtyards to provide shade, etc. He also argued in favor of making money available at the local level to be used more efficiently. Romain Darbellay brought a Swiss perspective to the discussion explaining the success of decentralized social and public services in Switzerland. One would think that decentralization causes financial loss, due to its limitations of preventing economies of scale. However, it appears eventually to be more cost-effective thanks to the proximity with the population, which in turn helps to meet the needs effectively. He explained that in a centralized system, the decision-maker applies what the advisers say and the citizens have to adapt, while in a decentralized system the decision-maker has to apply what the people require. There can however be some conflicts between what the population wants and what the government wants.

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Panels

Stefano Toscana leads the panel discussion

Discussion One attendant highlighted the issue of the water scarcity and the challenge of bringing green in an area which lacks this resource. A panelist suggested using grey water for plantation in the urban area. Another attendant mentioned a concrete plan of decentralizing railways stations of Cairo in order to gain the space used by the tracks and other railway installations. This space could then be used to create gardens and would therefore bring a vast green area into the city. The panelists stressed the importance – for NGOs – to raise people’s awareness and show them good alternatives to their habits. Enhancing personal responsibility is important in this context. On the other hand, the government has to set laws and to ensure their enforcement. There are sufficient existing laws for the protection of the environment, but they lack implementation. The conclusion of the discussion was that decentralization is a potential shift in mindset worthy of further investigation and implementation, towards strengthening urban sustainability. There are many great existing ideas in Egypt, but they need to be applied. To that effect, institutional, legislative and fiscal reforms are necessary to promote subsidiarity and empower local authorities and institutions. Equally important is to raise awareness among the population about urban sustainability, This, coupled with a better enforcement of the law, should help change individual behavior towards a more responsible and sustainable future. CAIRO GREEN-FALL 2012

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Cairo Green Student Workshop Presentation Magda Mostafa of AUC and Arturo Vitori of Architecture and Vision, presented the student projects developed during the 3-day workshop at the American University’s Architecture program in New Cairo. This workshop was conducted by AUC’s Khaled Tarabieh and Magda Mostafa and Architecture and Vision’s Andreas Vogler and Arturo Vittori. The projects were focusing on simple premise of small ideas with big impact towards a green Cairo, and were well received by the audience. The ideas varied from public space installations, roof top solutions, bridge interventions and façade treatments. AUC is exploring the financial support to hopefully develop, implement and test a prototype of the best of these solutions.

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Panels

Breathing Life Into Cairo Tuesday, November 26, 2012, 7.45-9 p.m. Italian Cultural Institute, Zamalek The black cloud, a decade old phenomenon, has been attributed to farmers burning rice straw after their harvest. But studies show there are several contributors to the foul air. In 2007, the World Bank ranked Cairo’s air worst in the world for pollution by particulates, the tiny fragments of soot or dust that are most damaging to human lungs. High emissions contribute to the problem, but Cairo’s topography and climate make it even worse. The panel discussed the impact of air pollution on cities like Cairo and how the quality of the air can be improved. Sources and causes of the extreme air pollution were discussed as well as possible interventions to reduce particle pollution, including potentially unconventional ones.

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Moderation/Panelists Moderation: Dr. Nagwa Sherif, Associate Chair of the Construction and Architectural Engineering Department at AUC Speaker 1: Speaker 2: Speaker 3: Speaker 4: Speaker 5:

Mr. Omar Nagati, Architect Mr. Romain Darbellay, Director of the Swiss Program Office Mr. Arturo Vittori, architect (Italy) Mr. Yasser Sherif, Environics, Environment and Development Advisors Mr. Emad Adly, doctor and activist

Panel Report – Breathing Life into Cairo Breathing Life into Cairo was the second panel of a two-panel session taking place at the Italian Cultural Institute late November 26th. A joint collaboration between The Swiss Embassy in Cairo and The American University in Cairo (AUC), the event hosted a number of key-note speakers who shared with the audience their views of some of Cairo’s most pressing environmental and urban problems. The second panel titled “Breathing Life into Cairo” gave the floor to five guest speakers: Mr. Arturo Vittori- Architect and co-founder of Architecture and Vision, Mr. Romain Darbellay – Head of the Swiss Programme Office at the Swiss Embassy in Cairo, Mr. Omar Nagati – Founder of Cluster - Cairo, Mr. Yasser Sherif – Environics and Dr. Emad Adly – both Doctor and Activist. Throughout the course of the evening, the panel, moderated by Dr. Nagwa Sherif, Associate Chair and Professor at the Department of Construction and Architectural Engineering at AUC, brought up various topics fed by the different backgrounds and specializations of the speakers. The panel began with a discussion of what Mr. Nagati called an “Urban Revolution”- discussing the sudden initiative and action taken by many of the locals living in some of Cairo’s most neglected areas. He discussed the power of change people brought upon themselves by taking matters into their own hands and creating the spaces and the infrastructure they were so deeply in need of. Although in this case the construction was unregulated and uncontrolled, what Mr. Nagati was bringing to our attention was the significance and potential of the citizen and the importance of redefining the role of people. Further elaborating on the theme of the community involvement in implementing any major changes was Dr. Emad Adly who brought up the importance of incentives in such changes; stating that more responsibility needs to be put on the people. “People need to be a part of the solution,” and need to work with the government to create feasible solutions and “whole packages”- where proposed changes are attractive to all parties. Meaning that, when changes are made to improve the bigger picture, those involved must be provided with acceptable alternatives. Looking at Cairo’s rice straw problem for instance, if limits on rice growth are to be implemented, farmers need to be given a suitable alternative. Similarly if the amount 26 CAIRO GREEN-FALL 2012


Panels of straw burnt is to be reduced, farmers need to see incentives as to why they should opt for composting or bio-massing, since these options are usually more time consuming and/or costly on a micro-level. At the same time, the panel’s second guest speaker Mr. Arturo Vittoroi brought up the issue of air pollution specifically; answering it with Architecture and Vision’s strong philosophy of optimism and belief in taking what would seem impossible and making it happen. The discussion was thus steered towards some of the firm’s most innovative design solutions to problems of air pollution; such as the ‘EmiliaThree’ solar car or the ‘MercuryHouseTwo’ which not only provides a home but also provides better air quality to the surroundings. Mr. Vittori stressed that the solutions are out there, and model-regulations that foster the protection of air quality have been in place and successful before. Accordingly Mr Vittori noted that it was only a matter of “mobilizing the people themselves to promote air quality – and not their neighbours” as this is a change that can only happen if each person makes the changes they can make rather than limiting it to a few specific groups or individuals. After the optimistic approach Mr. Vittori presented, the panel moved into more specific problems and solutions brought up by Mr. Darbellay and Mr. Yasser Sherif. Specific solutions such as the filtering system that was implemented for a renewable energy power plant in Iran discussed by Mr. Darbellay, and the many critical growing problems specific to Cairo, brought up by Mr. Yasser Sherif; ranging from Cairo’s intense traffic problems, insufficient waste management solutions and “internal demographic explosion” showed the variety of problems and approaches present in our city. Here Mr. Yasser Sherif brings up how wastes such as ricestraw are causing the seasonal Black Cloud, how cement and other solid wastes are polluting Cairo’s urban environment and how Cairo’s growing boundaries and attempted new settlements on its outskirts failed at diverting a sufficient amount of the population from the center. They have only “extended Cairo” which is now a growing heat island. At this point many questions of sustainability were brought up. Why is public transportation not used? Why are pedestrian friendly environments not being created? And why are we not looking for our own specific models for solutions to our specific problems, rather than adopting models that are not suitable to our location. The conclusions of the panel showed that Cairo in its current state faces many problems. However, with the correct approach, many of these diverse problems could be resolved, through community-involved changes, negotiated agreements and realistic implementation plans that could be adopted at all levels. By targeting the various components affecting Cairo’s air quality, it seems there is hope in slowly breathing a clean environment back to into life in Cairo.

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AirTree, Architecture and Vision

EcoUnit, Architecture and Vision

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Atlas CoelestisZero, Architecture and Vision

Warkawater, Architecture and Vision CAIRO GREEN-FALL 2012

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