International Lighting Magazine 2013/11 Spring Issue
Light and well-being Interviews Dr. Bernecker and Dr. Daan
Project Floating silkworm cocoons
BEYOND EFFICIENCY This edition’s cover of Luminous says it all: the rightful and purposeful design of light in architecture is a profession that goes way beyond making things “efficient”. Because what does “efficiency” really mean? Sure, the reduction of energy consumption is of incredible importance, and today’s LED lighting contributes in a tremendous way to that. But then there is so much more about light.... Beyond the simple objective of reaching efficiency, light is about wellbeing, about feeling healthy and being stimulated. Light is about being amazed and about giving people a feeling of love for the world around them. Light is about imagination. This year, it’s “our year”. With the completion of the new lighting for Empire State Building in New York City, lighting design takes a new turn: fully integrated, a part of the building experience, and a gift to the city. And, on the other side of the world in my hometown Amsterdam, the new Rijksmuseum just re-opened after ten years, and puts the Rembrandt and Vermeer paintings on display in the most beautiful light one can imagine. And it’s all done with LED. A benchmark project for the entire museum industry, with many galleries around the world to follow. These projects do not just come along. They are ﬁne examples of lighting design and project planning, and they could only be realized because both the creative team and the engineers worked so closely together with the client. These are processes that took many years, and that are rooted in a profound knowledge of the project, and deep interest in its context, as well as its history and future. And what a pleasure it is for lighting designers to work on such projects! To be able to contribute to the imagination of so many people, visitors and city dwellers alike, and make light and lighting design go beyond efficiency. It’s not without a reason the theme of this edition of Luminous. The examples around the world are plentiful. We take a look at enhancing people’s wellbeing through light, and explore why and how light affects our mood and health. We dive into the world and the work of Prof. Serge Daan, a behavioral biologist who published over 250 articles on topic of circadian rhythm. It’s the stuff that matters to each lighting designer, just like daylight. Similar to the Rijksmuseum, where the paintings render so beautiful under the skylights, daylight is instrumental to keep office workers healthy and happy, and to help patients in the hospital to heal faster. Read on in the article “In praise of daylight”. Let Luminous not just provide you with new ideas for future projects, but also provoke a meaningful discussion about the role of light in our lives. Because, as Santiago Calatrava said it so rightfully about the role of designers: “We have to deliver a sign of beauty”. Feel free to write me, and let us know what you think about Luminous!
Rogier van der Heide P.S. Looking for inspiration? The Light Show at the Hayward Gallery in London. is a phenomenal overview of light art from all over the world. Open until 6 May 2013.
colophon published by | Philips Lighting BV – Mathildelaan 1, Eindhoven 5611 BD, The Netherlands – www.lighting.philips.com editor in chief | Vincent Laganier managing editor | Paulina Dudkiewich steering committee | Fernand Pereira, Cécile Davidovich, Matthew Cobham copywriting & editing | Ruth Slavid graphic design concept | MediaPartners dtp | Relate4u printing | Print Competence Centre ISSN nr | 1876-2972 12 NC 322263567444 cover | Sony Center, Berlin, Germany photo | © Alexander Weckmer Licht und Mediensysteme GmbH more info | firstname.lastname@example.org
BEYOND LIGHT AND WELL-BEING FLOATING SILKWORM COCOONS
DIALOGUE LIGHT, DARKNESS AND WELL-BEING
Dr. Bernecker and Dr. Daan interviews
MORE NATURAL LIGHT
IN PRAISE OF DAYLIGHT
Bradford Royal Inﬁrmary, Yorkshire, UK
Research into health and light
THINKING ABOUT CITIES ‘Create the Liveable City’ workshops
VOLCANO OF LIGHT Helmut Jahn and Yann Kersalé in Berlin, Germany
Aurélien de Fursac and Patrice Echassériaux in Lyon, France
DAZZLING EXHIBITION Light Show expo, London, UK
SLEEK ELEGANCE Bally store refurblishment, Geneva, Switzerland
Light, darkness and
well-being By Ruth Slavid
If lighting designers are to create solutions that are not simply technically proďŹ cient but also enhance health and well-being, then they need to understand the scientiďŹ c basis of our response to light. Two leading researchers outline the basis of their work.
6 PLATFORM Philips Lighting University’s collaboration with Parsons The New School for Design In 2012 the Philips Lighting University began exploring a collaboration with Parsons with the intention of creating a platform for exploring and sharing academic and industry knowledge which was of beneﬁt to further light as part of architecture. Derek Porter, lighting designer and director of lighting design at Parsons, developed the idea with the Philips Lighting University. The ﬁrst step was the Luminous Talk, which took place at Parsons in October 2012. When Dr George Brainard, professor of neurology at Jefferson Medical College in Philadelphia, spoke at the Luminous Talk in New York last October, it was not only a successful event but also the start of something more. The event, a collaboration between Philips Lighting University and Parsons The New School for Design, was chaired by Craig Bernecker, one of the most determined educators in the ﬁeld of lighting, as well as a man with his own impressive research pedigree. Brainard gave an insight into the effect of blue light on circadian rhythms, and the intention is to widen the audience to learn not about the technology of lighting but about the scientiﬁc basis of our responses to light. Bernecker says, “We hope to build on the relationship between Parsons and Philips initiated with Luminous Talks, looking to future topics for face-to-face seminars, and perhaps other modes of delivery for some of these topics, such as distance education. This would allow us to expand the interest generated in the local NYC community to a much broader audience, with the same academic focus we created with the initial Luminous Talk.” A number of academics will be involved in this endeavour. On these pages we look at the work of two of them, Bernecker himself and Serge Daan, the Dutch scientist who has enhanced understanding of our reaction to daylight and darkness. The Philips Lighting University in collaboration with Parsons The New School for Design presented webinars in April, May and June around this subject with Bernecker, Daan and others. For more information visit the following link: www.lighting.philips.com/main/connect/ lighting_university/webinars.wpd
CRAIG BERNECKER There are many researchers who have seen effects from their work, but few as directly as Craig Bernecker, founder of the Lighting Education Institute. A study he carried out in the early 1990s into people’s perception of lighting has changed the design of thousands of uplighters since then. The popularity of the direct indirect light can be largely laid at Bernecker’s door, since the research that he did both for his PhD and later on showed that people’s perception of lighting is greatly improved when they can see a direct as well as an indirect element. “We found that you need to see the source of the lighting to feel that it is bright enough,” Bernecker explained. “People described rooms lit with entirely indirect lighting as being like having an overcast sky, rather than the clear crisp environment that you get on a sunny day. “Bernecker researched his PhD after a spell working for Peerless Lighting in California, a manufacturer of indirect lighting. The experiments he carried out resulted simply from putting a diffuse lens into the side of an uplighter. More sophisticated forms – such
© Byungwoo Jun and Jacinda Ross
Nike shop lighting design, option 1, ﬂexible LED by Byungwoo Jun and Jacinda Ross Lighting Studio 1 Fall.11, Parson’s MFALD Professor: Craig Bernecker
as adding perforated metal, cutting slots and adding lenses and louvres to indirect luminaire – are now nearly universal. In case you were wondering, people don’t actually need to see a light source directly to get this effect. Lighting design such as the use of cove lighting actually has, says Bernecker, the effect of “a virtual source”. When one sees the reﬂected light it is clear where the light source is, even though it is not visible. The result, in terms of perception, is the same as if the research subjects could see the light source directly. Not all Bernecker’s work has yielded such tangible results. A study with neurology professor George Brainard looked at whether architectural lighting could alleviate the effects of seasonal affective disorder. “Until then most studies were therapeutic,” Bernecker explained. “We wanted to know if we could create physiological responses with architectural light.” They found that by using light levels as low as those commonly found in offices, it was possible to suppress melatonin, the hormone that is a marker of circadian rhythms (melatonin levels rise at night when we are not exposed
to light). They found that higher levels of light have an even greater effect. It is possible to achieve this by raising light levels, particularly of task lighting, but not to levels that seemed ludicrously bright. “We were able to suppress levels of melatonin with much lower levels of light than people were predicting,” Bernecker said. “We could build in those levels.” One might think that, with our current concerns about energy saving, ratcheting up the levels of light would be entirely unacceptable, but Bernecker thinks there are ways to get around the issue. With more research one could discover exactly how much of a “daily dose” people needed and this could be done by turning on lights early in the morning, for example, or having a brightly lit canteen. If it reduced the incidence of depression and of absenteeism, then the costs would easily be offset by the savings to employers and health services – not to mention by the increase in health and happiness. These two studies indicate the breadth of Bernecker’s interests, which cover the psychological and physiological effects of lighting
Most of the work dealt with brightness, although there was also some variation in colour temperature.
as well as a sound technical background and a drive to spread knowledge. Some of this derives from the unconventional way in which he came into the lighting world. Bernecker’s ﬁrst degree was in psychology, which he intended to be a precursor to training as a Lutheran minister. When he decided that was not the path for him, he started taking additional classes in architecture, a career that had always interested him. On graduation he tried to get on a master’s course in architecture at Pennsylvania State University, where he had taken his ﬁrst degree. He was not successful, but was instead steered toward the architectural engineering course. He had a lot of catching up to do in preparation for a graduate degree in engineering. “I took a lot of undergraduate courses,” he said, but he rapidly became a protégé of John Flynn, who was carrying out some of the earliest work into the psychology of light. Bernecker became his graduate assistant and his master’s thesis was on predicting and mapping brightness from luminance data as a better way to understand how people perceive spaces.
Some of this work was carried out in mocked-up rooms, but Bernecker also created some of the earliest computer simulations of lighting effects. Crucially, these were correlated with impressions of real rooms and, although the experience is different – with a simulation one is standing outside it – the reactions were found to be the same. Now, when such simulations are part of every designer’s armoury, it is easy to forget that they did not always exist – and, crucially, that they might not have worked. Most of the work dealt with brightness, although there was also some variation in colour temperature, but the range of colour temperatures available was far less – this was the 1980s. Now not only are many more colour temperatures available but digital technology offers far more opportunities. Bernecker has explored with students a simple way of measuring the light that falls on a surface, using a digital camera as a measuring device. In this way it is possible to carry out more tests of perception. “With better measurement techniques we can do many more studies,” said Bernecker. “I would like to go back with the data that
© Craig Bernecker
HDR image of a room and the associated false color luminance map. This refers to the digital camera measurement technique to capture better luminance data and thus better study brightness perception.
we can capture and correlate with the Flynn data. I am interested in discovering when people perceive something as uniform and relate it back to ideas of spaciousness, for example.” The fact that Bernecker is doing this work with his students is important, since teaching has been a major thread through his working life. Just as he fell into the world of lighting, so he fell into teaching, originally taking over some work that Flynn found inconvenient. But in both cases Bernecker has developed a passionate commitment. He set up the Lighting Education Institute because he was interested in offering a range of programmes, including distance learning, to anybody who was interested in lighting – an area where he still feels that there is a great lack of information. He sees lighting as a specialism in itself, which helps to explain the eclectic nature of his research – as well as the fact that “as an educator, in order to help my students achieve the understanding of these disciplines and acquire the creative ability to do good design, I need to have achieved these things myself. Multidisciplinary
research helps me to better help my students. It is also important to point out that it is my students who sometimes help direct my research activity. A graduate student’s speciﬁc interest in an area would lead me in a direction I might otherwise not take in order to properly advise him or her.” Hence his co-authoring of papers such as “Formation of a zirconate phase within the emission mix for low pressure Hg-Ar discharge lamps”, which was the particular area of interest of a Chinese student in the mid-1990s. Better lighting can, Bernecker believes, only result from better knowledge. “Systems are still being designed by folks who haven’t had the advantage of a lot of lighting background,” he says. “I see architects who are designing lighting systems that are creative but they are not achieving the effects that they would like to achieve. And there are engineers who are meeting the required criteria but who are creating spaces in which people are unhappy.” The planned series of webinars together with the Philips Lighting University represent just one way in which Bernecker hopes to help alleviate this situation.
“Most people have a natural sleep cycle independent of the stimulus of light.”
SERGE DAAN Serge Daan still has a copy of a booklet that American airline Pan Am gave to ﬁrst-class passengers in the 1980s. Entitled “The Tireless Traveller” it gives advice on when to go outdoors and when to stay away from sunlight in order to minimise the effects of jetlag. The reason that Daan has kept the book is that it is based on research that he carried out into the effects of light on our sleep timing. It is research that is wide-ranging and that is not yet complete, despite the fact that Daan has worked on it much of his life - he was born in 1940. It is a more complex ﬁeld than many would imagine but the work is not only fascinating in itself, but has major implications for the ways in which we can use light to help make our unnatural ways of living more acceptable and healthier. Daan is a biologist. Born in a windmill in Mook in the Netherlands, he became involved in the ﬁeld of chronobiology - the biology of time - early in his career. ”It has always been the main thrust of my work,“ he said. ”I am interested in particular in the evolutionary and functional aspects of timing in animals and humans.”
After a PhD in Amsterdam on the subject of hibernation, Daan went to the Max Planck Institute in Germany and then to Stanford University in California. Early in his career he forged a relationship with Jürgen Aschoff and Colin Pittendrigh who did pioneering work in chronobiology. Over 25 years Aschoff monitored the sleep behaviour of volunteers who spent four weeks in a specially built underground apartment with no access to natural light. They were also deprived of all time clues, such as watches, radio and TV. The researchers monitored the sleep patterns of the volunteers, and gathered a wealth of information. They found that most people have a natural sleep cycle independent of the stimulus of light, but that this varies in length, so for some it is a little longer than 24 hours and for others a little less. Daan is particularly interested in a group who have what he calls a “circabidian” rhythm. If a circadian rhythm is one with a cycle of about 24 hours, with a period of sleep and a period of wakefulness, then people with a circabidian rhythm develop a two-day pattern,
© Serge Daan
The underground isolation facility in Andechs, used by Profs. J.Aschoff and R.A.Wever between 1964 and 1989. Upper left: Transection through the bunker. Upper right: Entrance to the bunker. Lower left: Plan and section of the bunker. Lower right: The Max Planck Institute.
typically sleeping for 12 or 13 hours, and then being awake for 35 or 36 hours. During their waking period, these people will eat three normal meals as if this was a ”normal” day, and indeed this is what it feels like to them. Obviously this only happens in the special circumstances of the experiment when their body is able to express its natural rhythm without external stimuli. Daan is still analysing these research results. He would like to have carried out further studies in the mid 1990s but found that attitudes had changed. Whereas the original guinea pigs were keen to take part for only minimal compensation, and there were more volunteers than could be accepted, by the 1990s the opposite was the case. ”Social and cultural changes make it virtually impossible now,“ Daan said. ”We could not ﬁnd anybody who would undergo such an experiment without being paid a lot of money.” Nevertheless the original data has given him plenty to analyse. We normally experience temperature ﬂuctuations over a 24-hour cycle and this was the same for the circabidian people. Despite
their eccentric sleep cycle, their temperatures did not switch to a 48-hour cycle. But there is some interesting data in terms of their temperatures. ”I am ﬁnding that these people tend to be colder than other people,“ Daan said. ”Their average temperatures are a few tenths of a degree lower than the average.“ And people with very short cycles - as little as 16 hours - tend to be hotter. ”This may reﬂect the metabolic rate,“ Daan said. One of the major pieces of work with which Daan was involved in the 1980s addressed the question of internal clocks. This was a response to the existence of internal desynchronisation – the fact that while the world runs on a 24-hour cycle, most people have a temperature cycle that operates over something like 25 hours. There is obviously a ”biological clock” in the brain that causes this cycle. Its location had been known for some time. At the bottom of the brain, sitting on top of the chiasma – the place where the optic nerves cross – are the suprachiasmatic nuclei, which contain the circadian pacemaker. This pacemaker has a direct connection to
12 PLATFORM WAKE
The light receptors that set our biological clocks do not respond to all light equally.
TIME OF DAY IN HOURS Internal synchronization: record of a common subject with alternating sleep (blue), wake (yellow), daily maximum body temperatures (red dots) for 28 cycles, lasting on average ca. 25 h.
the retina of both eyes. Later research by Russ Forster showed that the responsible photoreceptor in the eyes is entirely separate from the rods and cones that make up our visual system - which is why it still operates for many blind people. There was a belief that there was a second clock in our brains that governed sleep, but nobody had worked out where it was. ”One day I had a brain wave,“ said Daan. ”It was inspired by the sleep researchers.“ His brainwave was that the reason nobody could ﬁnd the biological clock for sleep was that it did not exist. Sleep is a homeostatic process, as had been shown by the Swiss sleep expert Alex Borbély. This means that the need for sleep increases during periods of wakefulness and decreases during sleep. It is a self-regulating process that is only entrained by the biological clock (that is adjusted to synchronise with it), not generated by one. As humans evolved to become diurnal creatures - animals that are awake during the day - they developed a cycle of sensitivity. This means that their pacemaker will slow down if light hits it at the start
of the night but speed up when they encounter light at the end of the night. There is a complex interrelationship between light and our sleep patterns. The fact that it is complex is obvious when you think about it since, as Daan points out, we are able to fall asleep outside in bright sunlight if we are tired. There is not a simple relationship such that we are always awake in the light and always asleep in the dark. But changes in the pattern of light - in particular through international ﬂights or by working shifts - will have an impact as they synchronise our clock. The light receptors that set our biological clocks do not respond to all light equally. They are particularly sensitive to blue light, which is logical, Daan explains, because that is the light that is most generally diffused - hence the sky looks blue. That is why artiﬁcial lights that are designed to entrain our body clocks use blue light. Daan is very interested in these lights and their potential. ”If they turn on slowly and gradually become brighter, then they will reduce sleepiness,” he says. They probably do not affect the biological
PLATFORM 13 0
25 0 24 24 24 0 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24
TIME OF DAY IN HOURS Internal desynchronisation - a person whose record is shown on the left will have much longer cycles (ca. 35 h) in sleep-wake, but similar (25 h) in body temperature.
clock very much but reduce what he calls” sleep inertia”, the time it takes to become fully alert after sleeping. As well as providing a gentler means of waking up, they may be of assistance in resetting the sleep patterns of ”owls”. These are people who have a biological clock cycle that is longer than 24 hours - in contrast to early-rising “larks” who have a shorter cycle. As a result, owls never want to go to bed at the “proper” time, but stay up late. When they have to get up regularly to go to work, they will therefore tend to become sleep deprived, suffering by the end of the working week from what Daan’s colleague Roenneberg has described as ”social jet lag”. This is not only unpleasant but may affect their performance or their health or both. ”It may be possible to help these people with personalised light patterns,“ Daan says. ”This is a really important area. We could have personal light patterns, trying to enable them to shift their clock forward by exposing them to light early.” Such engineering of the day could prove vital on the proposed privately funded mission to Mars, which
SLEEP-WAKE The two-process model of a circadian clock component (C) and a homeostatic sleep-wake component (S) accounting for the phenomenon of internal desynchroinisation.
the world’s ﬁrst space tourist Dennis Tito says that he intends to fund for take-off in 2018. He wants to send an older married couple on the 501-day long ”ﬂy-by” mission. There are many issues to address of which one is sleep. “Do you keep the people synchronised with each other and with the home base?” Daan asked. ”Or should they alternate their sleep patterns? This could be resolved by light.“ But, he warned, it would be costly in energy terms. Solar radiation does not provide a lot of energy for conversion into electricity, particularly as one gets further from the sun. This may be futuristic, but in a sense it harks back to the earliest days of Daan’s research. ”Aschoff always used to joke that he should run a marriage bureau,“ he said. ”He should take engaged couples down to his bunker and see what their sleep patterns were.” In those days of course Aschoff could only have suggested that couples married people with matching cycles. Now it may be possible to adapt those cycles to match – thanks in part to the research that Serge Daan has conducted.
In praise of
daylight By Ludmila Svistunova At present, arguments in favour of energy-efficient buildings primarily focus on their environmental sustainability. As a result, the main advantage of their internal lighting system that is usually stressed is reduced carbon footprint. What is often overlooked is the effect of lighting design on occupantsâ€™ health, well-being and work performance. At the same time, the International Commission on Illumination, upon issuing its principles of healthy lighting, called for greater integration of daylight in architectural design. Why exactly is natural light good for us â€“ and why is it so vital for the designs of places where people live and work?
Light can also affect employee performance through physiological effects.
Lighting affects us much more than we realise. Studies have consistently demonstrated that natural light can have visual and nonvisual effects on people’s physical and psychological state. It allows us to collect appropriate environmental information – for instance, to distinguish between times of day and seasons of the year. Bright light, and speciﬁcally daylight, upon entering through the eye, acts as a trigger and regulator of many physiological processes in our bodies. These processes include regulation of our body temperature and hormones. Overall, independent research shows that the more time we spend in daylight or artiﬁcial light that mimics natural daylight, the better we feel. Throughout the evolutionary process our biological rhythms have adjusted to the natural patterns of light and dark. Therefore, appropriate levels and quality of light can improve comfort and quality of sleep. The presence of windows and availability of daylight in the workplace both contribute to satisfaction with the working environment. A series of studies in Germany reported a considerable difference in the health of employees working in spaces where artiﬁcial lighting was primarily used, and those dominated by natural lighting. The ﬁrst cohort complained more about not only eye strain, but also about higher perceived levels of noise and temperature. Furthermore, multiple studies related greater amounts of sunlight to higher job satisfaction. What is ultimately important for employers, however, is proof that the quality of lighting in the workspace affects employee performance. A variety of studies have positively related daylight to human performance. One of the explanations for this could be the relationship between different types of lighting conditions and individuals’ moods, the ﬂuctuations in which in turn affect their behaviour and work performance. Light can also affect employee
performance through physiological effects. Limited access to daylight has been shown to be disruptive to the biological systems of workers. As good lighting is also vital for successful performance of complex visual tasks, it is particularly essential it be provided to shift workers, such as doctors and nurses. Unfortunately, in hospitals both staff and patients have limited access to natural daylight. Medical professionals often work extensively long shifts without being exposed to sunlight. Thus, their natural sleep patterns can become distorted, resulting in drowsiness and irritability, which poses a signiﬁcant risk in a setting where precise work with no mistakes is essential. Adequate exposure to the right kinds of light has also been shown to play a vital role in the treatment of patients. Its importance stems, once again, from the combination of physical and psychological effects. Hence, existing studies suggest that daylight can be beneﬁcial to hospital patients in two ways: by affecting their psychological state and by enhancing the patients’ health and wellbeing. One of the particularly well-researched psychological effects of daylight is its ability to treat Seasonal Affective Disorder and battling depression. It improves sleeping patterns and reduces agitation amongst psychological patients, whereas adequate amounts and quality of light could reduce their length of stay in treatment facilities, as demonstrated in a study conducted by Benedetti and colleagues in 2001. By affecting body chemistry, light can help speed up the healing process or even act as a treatment. For instance, daylight phototherapy is used as a means of treating newborn jaundice. Greater doses of sunlight have been shown to improve the mental well-being of patients who have recently undergone surgery and
reduce the time spent in hospital after the surgery. Incorporating daylight into the design of stores, on the other hand, is something that retailers should ﬁnd worth considering, especially since it appears to attract customers and encourage them to buy more products. This was demonstrated by the two studies conducted by the Heschong Mahone Group for the California Energy Commission. The studies found that the increased use of daylight resulted in a considerable increase in monthly proﬁts from sales, as well as an increase in the number of transactions. The researchers estimated that the increased sales proﬁts related to daylight use were worth from 19 to potentially 100 times more than energy savings from using more natural light. An increased number of daylight hours were also theorised to be associated with various intangible beneﬁts. Those could possibly include improved health and morale of employees. Similarly, exposure to daylight in store could evoke positive emotions in customers. When designing spaces for living and work it is important to remember that it is not the quantity of daylight that counts, but rather the quality of its delivery. Heat and glare caused by sunlight can cause irritation, and incorrectly placed windows may not allow privacy. The challenge is thus to design buildings where daylight brings beneﬁts rather than discomfort. Without doubt, ﬁnding the right lighting solution that balances comfort, aesthetics, well-being and energy efficiency is not an easy task. However, if done right, daylighting can help to create sustainable building designs, where occupants are also healthy and productive. In turn, Philips can help you by offering knowledge to use daylight wisely to get the maximum impact of light and dim areas where possible to save energy.
For more information on the use of skylight in retail, turn to the next page.
Philips innovation village lighting solutions are developed based on customer ideas and insights.
INNOVATION VILLAGE At Philips Innovation Village, lighting solutions for supermarkets, fashion and beauty and do-it-yourself retail stores are developed based on customer needs, assessed by talking to retail designers, experienced store managers and format managers. Such customer-driven innovations are aimed at increasing sales through improved store experience or highlighting of products in a different way. Future Store Concepts created by Philips in Eindhoven provides a space to discuss new ideas and test innovative solutions before they are launched on the wider market. Effects of skylights in retail (Heschong, 2002) š 108 WalMart stores, 2/3 equipped with diffusing skylights š Sales measured for 18 months š Controlling for many factors, including opening times, average income of
population, ﬂoor area and architectural design š Presence of skylights explained increase of the sales index by 4% Other reasons for using daylighting in retail (Edwards and Torcellini, 2002) š Create a more pleasant shopping environment š Attract more customers š Improve colour rendering
REFERENCES: BENEDETTI, F., COLOMBO, C., BARBINI, B., CAMPORI, E., AND SMERALDI, E. (2001). MORNING SUNLIGHT REDUCES LENGTH OF HOSPITALIZATION IN BIPOLAR DEPRESSION. JOURNAL OF AFFECTIVE DISORDERS. 62(3), PP.221-223 DIMICH-WARD H, LORENZI M, TESCHKE K, SPINELLI JJ, RATNER PA, LE NCHOW Y, SHU D, GALLAGHER R. 2007. MORTALITY AND CANCER INCIDENCE IN A COHORT OF REGISTERED NURSES FROM
BRITISH COLUMBIA, CANADA. AM J IND MED (50), PP. 892–900 HESCHONG-MAHONE GROUP, INC. (1999). SKYLIGHTING AND RETAIL SALES: AN INVESTIGATION INTO THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DAYLIGHTING AND HUMAN PERFORMANCE. FAIR OAKS, CA: CALIFORNIA BOARD FOR ENERGY EFFICIENCY THIRD PARTY PROGRA. HESCHONG MAHONE GROUP, INC.(2003). DAYLIGHT AND RETAIL SALES. CALIFORNIA: CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION. TECHNICAL REPORT P500-03-082-A-5 ZULLO, S.E. (2007). EVIDENCE-BASED HEALTHCARE DESIGN: USE OF COLOR, LIGHT, AND GARDENS AT CHOICES RECOVERY SERVICES CHOICES LONGITUDINAL STUDY. LONG BEACH. SEPTEMBER (1.5)
Beyond Light Sony Center, Berlin, Germany
Bally, Geneva, Switzerland
La MontĂŠe du Boulevard, Lyon, France
Bradford Royal InďŹ rmary, Yorkshire, UK
SONY CENTER, BERLIN, GERMANY
Volcano of light
By Isabelle Arnaud
© Alexander Weckmer Licht und Mediensysteme Gmb
The Sony Center in Berlin, Germany, is an international commercial, communication, and cultural hub that draws nearly 8.3 million visitors a year. The Center’s modern steel and glass design is the work of internationally renowned architect Helmut Jahn, and the lighting concept is by French lighting designer Yann Kersalé.
ÂŠ Alexander Weckmer Licht und Mediensysteme GmbH
22 PROJECT I
Top: 26 444 m2 complex is the tent-like roof of the Forum. Bottom: The tall marquee starts to cycle through all the colours of the spectrum, from magenta to cyan, with the exception of yellow.
PROJECT I 23
“Its pulsation would express nocturnal life, both radiating light and sending signals.”
Project team Hines Immobilien GmbH Client Sochribel Fixtures GmbH Architect Helmut Jahn Engineer Ove Arup+Partners Lighting design Yann Kersalé, Les Ateliers AIK, Vincennes Lighting solutions Alexander Weckmer Licht und Mediensysteme GmbH, Königsbrunn Installation WISAG Building Berlin-Brandenburg GmbH, Frankfurt Luminaires Philips ColorReach Powercore ColorBlast Powercore Websites www.sonycenter.de www.jahn-us.com www.ykersale.com www.lichtundmediensysteme.de www.wisag.de
Located in Potsdamer Platz, the complex consists of seven buildings containing shops, restaurants, hotel rooms and suites, condominiums, a conference centre, offices, cinemas and museums. The most prominent architectural element of the 26,444 m2 complex is the tent-like roof of the Forum, made of steel, glass and textile sails. At night the roof comes to life with fascinating changing lighting in shades of blue and red. Yann Kersalé compares this cap, designed by structural engineering ﬁrm Ove Arup+Partners, to a ‘volcano’: “At the top, luminous sources shine downwards: on looking up, the intensity of the spotlights would have been blinding,” he explained. “When Helmut Jahn asked me to conceive the lighting of the Forum, I suggested that not only should it emanate from within, but also that its pulsation would express nocturnal life, both radiating light and sending signals. The only other element was the positioning of blue lights at the angles of the buildings, highlighting the multiple entrances to the Forum.” As night falls, the tall marquee starts to cycle through all the colours of the spectrum, from magenta to cyan, with the exception of yellow. When the Forum empties out, the dome changes to an intense blue, fading back into white in the morning.
24 PROJECT I
“A particular challenge was providing the fan-like geometry with uniform illumination.”
The original lighting system had been in place for twelve years. After constant operation, it had reached its maximum life expectancy and had become costly to maintain. The plan was to reduce running costs as well as maintenance costs while still creating the colour-changing light effects. Alexander Weckmer Licht und Mediensysteme GmbH provided a turnkey solution for replacing the existing lighting installation. The team immediately thought of an LED lighting system, the only solution that could meet the criteria. The ﬁrm coordinated the entire project and handled all aspects of the lighting replacement – developing technical plans, specifying and delivering all lighting components, installing the system, and programming. “Longevity and the low maintenance requirements proved the primary reasons for selecting a system using Philips Color Kinetics LED ﬁxtures,” said Alexander Weckmer. “A particular challenge was providing the fan-like geometry with uniform illumination.” In order to achieve all of the project’s goals, they needed sufficiently powerful and ﬂexible LED ﬁxtures such as ColorReach Powercore and ColorBlast Powercore, which accept line voltage, allowing the existing 230 V circuits to be extended directly to the ﬁxtures.
This allowed the Center to retain signiﬁcant portions of the original electrical infrastructure, considerably reducing the labour costs of installation. Each individual “blade” of the cone is different in terms of dimensions, angle of inclination and twist; for this reason, each ﬁxture had to be individually positioned to achieve uniform illumination across the entire structure. “The positioning of the original ﬁxtures could be maintained as both LED models permit ﬂexible adaptation thanks to their multifaceted lens systems,” explained Weckmer. “The positioning of 38 ColorReach Powercores and 67 ColorBlast Powercores provided both uniform and powerful illumination of the sails.” The lighting control system is operated wirelessly via a smart device and the client has access to the control system remotely, allowing greater ﬂexibility and faster service. The Center can now choose from more than 16 million colours, and create new light shows for special events such as ﬁlm opening nights and holidays. Far more than mere energy savings, the new lighting system offers a combination of comfort, efficient technology and artistic design, while bringing to life the exceptional architecture of the building.
ÂŠ Alexander Weckmer Licht und Mediensysteme GmbH
PROJECT I 25
The positioning of the original ďŹ xtures could be maintained thanks to the multifaceted lens systems of ColorReach Powercores and ColorBlast Powercores.
PROJECT II 27 BALLY, GENEVA, SWITZERLAND
elegance By Ruth Slavid
The new Bally store in Geneva, Switzerland, is the ﬁrst for the international shoe company that uses an all-LED solution. But given the cost savings and customer response, it will certainly not be the last.
Client Bally Shoe Factories Ltd Architect Bally Store Planning Department Lighting design ADM Event Services di Andrea de Marco Installation Permasteelisa Group Luminaires Philips MASTER LEDspot MR16, eW Cove QLX Powercore, StyliD Compact Power – track and surface mounted Website www.bally.com
LED lighting in Bally’s new Geneva store creates an ambiance of reﬁned luxury and allows customers to view products to their best advantage.
28 PROJECT II
“They don’t need to ask customers to go outside to see the true colours of the shoes that they are thinking of buying.”
The Bally store in Geneva, Switzerland, represents a new departure for a brand that is over 150 years old and combines tradition with forward thinking. Switzerland is its home country, since Carl Franz Bally started the manufacture of shoes in Schönenwerd in 1851. Since then it has combined tradition with fashion, most recently with the appointment of two new creative directors in 2010. The Geneva store, created in an existing building in one of the city’s prime shopping streets, reﬂects this mix. It has the sleek, elegant materials typical of a Bally store, including a dramatic staircase – it is all designed to emanate a feeling a quality while making sure that the building takes a back seat to the products – but it is also a pioneering store, the ﬁrst that the company has built using LEDs throughout for the lighting. Luigi Basilico, Bally store planning director explained: “We had used LEDs in a small way before, but we wanted to try to light a store entirely with LED, and the opportunity was there in Geneva, which is one of our ﬂagship stores. The LEDs were three times the cost of traditional lighting, but we did an analysis and discovered that we could reduce our costs immediately by savings on mechanical plant.” Because LED lighting produces almost no heat, the air conditioning load is reduced dramatically, allowing Bally both to cut down on the amount of plant that it installed and to have lower running costs. The power reduction overall in the store will be 80%. In addition, the environment is more natural and pleasant for both staff and shoppers. It was essential that the very high standards of lighting were maintained, and Bally has clear views about how its stores should be lit. This is crucial both for creating the desired ambiance of reﬁned luxury and to allow customers to see the products to their best advantage. Andrea di Marco of lighting designer ADM Event Services explained some of the challenges. “There was a need for the customer to see lighting that had not changed radically with
respect to the existing stores,” he said. “This meant that we had to compromise and to use traditional lighting systems, replacing halogen lamps with MR16 Master LED. These lamps were used for lighting the shop and for the lighting of the various exhibition areas. This system has allowed us to maintain the design of the store and to give it a higher luminous efficacy. In fact the Master LED lamps, being provided with optics, focus the light better than a dichroic lamp does.” The use of the existing ﬁttings was particularly important in the ceiling, where the lighting is integrated with other systems such as the fresh-air supply in a neat and unobtrusive solution. If new ﬁttings had been used, this would have involved Bally in a major rethink. Speciﬁc areas in the store required their own special treatment. “A particular challenge,” said Di Marco, “was ﬁnding a lighting system suitable for lighting the display shelves. Normally these were illuminated with ﬂuorescent lamps embedded in the same shelves. This time the customer asked us to ﬁnd a system with LED technology that would have a greater luminous efficiency than the ﬂuorescents. We tried a variety of solutions that would achieve the desired result while keeping costs down and maintaining the size of the shelves. We settled on Cove.” Basilico says that he is delighted with the result. “Our merchandising people say that they don’t need to ask customers to go outside to see the true colours of the shoes that they are thinking of buying.” And a survey after a year of operation has shown just how much the use of air conditioning has been reduced. There will also be the maintenance beneﬁts of not needing to replace lights regularly. With a shop that costs less to run, where the staff and customers are happy, it is not surprising that Basilico is planning another all-LED store. This will be in the new Doha Airport in Qatar. The project has been delayed because of hold-ups in the airport construction, but should be completed later this year.
PROJECT II 29
Display shelves illuminated with LED technology. eW Cove QLX Powercore luminaires are well-suited for display shelves illumination aimed at increasing materials perception.
LA MONTﾃ右 DU BOULEVARD, LYON, FRANCE
By Isabelle Arnaud
© Xavier Boymond
The renovation of the ‘Montée du Boulevard’ lighting in Lyon provides an ergonomic solution that combines highly efficient technology with sustainability. The objective of the lighting designers at Côté Lumière was to guide pedestrians along the winding stairway without blocking their views, as well as to highlight the historical ramparts of the city.
32 PROJECT III
An intimate lighting project that puts people ﬁrst.
The Montée du Boulevard is the name of the stairway that links the ﬁrst and the fourth districts of Lyon, beginning in Place Bellevue and going all the way down the steep hill to the Montée Bonafous. To understand better the topology of the place, let’s go back to the etymology of the word ‘boulevard’, which comes from the Dutch bolwerc, meaning ‘wall of a fortiﬁcation’. In fact, the staircase descends between the beautiful arrangement of golden stone on the side of Fort Saint-Laurent, one of the city’s numerous forts, and two apartment buildings designed for the Canuts (Lyon’s famous silk weavers). It drops down through charming areas, eventually becoming a rough, steep path that winds around at the foot of Lyon’s fortiﬁcations. Above all, the City of Lyon wanted a project that would meet people’s needs. The previous lighting used old luminaires equipped with Sodium High Pressure – SHP – lamps. They were difficult to access, making maintenance operations complicated and expensive. The light quality was poor, and the lamps were inefficient, and energy-hungry. It was obviously time to replace the old installation with sustainable, high-efficiency lighting that could meet pedestrians’ requirements. In order to design the solution, it was necessary to know who used the staircase and what their needs were. It turned out that the staircase was used as a shortcut whatever the weather by people
PROJECT III 33
© Côté Lumière
Day and night lighting design sketches with lighting beams and directions.
going to work, by children and students going to school and by joggers. Therefore, the lighting concept had to: - allow pedestrians to see the stairs without any effort at night - eliminate any risk of dazzle - offer continuity both in ﬁxtures and effects from top to bottom - create a global, coherent and soft image that could be seen from a distance. Aurélien de Fursac and Patrice Echassériaux of lighting designer Côté Lumière, suggested using LED technology and a pole-less luminaire. Thinking about the best way to deliver good lighting without disturbing the look and feel of a public space, and about how to adjust the lighting to suit the users’ needs De Fursac chose FreeStreet, presented by Philips at Light+Building in Frankfurt. With no visible support, the ﬁttings ﬂoat like the cocoons of the silkworms that formed the basis of so much of Lyon’s traditional prosperity. “Apart from the poetic aspect of such a product, we chose FreeStreet for its pragmatic characteristics that enabled us to do away with the need for poles, which would have been difficult to install in the stairway. For us, both the people’s well-being and a friendly lighting environment were equally essential,” explained the lighting designer. The system, by eliminating the need for traditional
34 PROJECT III
The lighting resembles silkworm cocoons ﬂoating above the stairs.
streetlight poles, removes visible and physical obstructions at eye level. Instead, a narrow cable strings together a line of slim-line LEDs, which are virtually invisible during the day and at night and appear to ﬂoat in mid-air. “The innovative new system consists of 26 LED lamps of 20 W each (against 6 x SHP 250 W before), integrated on a cable that runs the entire length of the passageway,” said Aurélien de Fursac. “One of the city’s requirements was to have a colour temperature of 3.500 K, which the FreeStreet did not offer, so we asked Philips to adapt the ﬁxture.” Jean Philippe Advinin, business engineer for outdoor lighting at Philips Lighting, explained: “This change was achieved by mixing 3,000 K and 4,000 K LEDs. More difficult was deﬁning the metallic support for the cable while preserving the ramparts, so we worked together with the installer to make all the necessary calculations and tests. The system offers enormous ﬂexibility in terms of how it is installed, so it can be structured in response to the way people move and behave in a public space, rather than people having to adapt to where the lighting is located.”
Client City of Lyon
© Xavier Boymond
Lighting design Aurélien de Fursac, Patrice Echassériaux, Côté Lumière
FreeStreet ﬁttings ﬂoat like cocoons of silkworms.
Installer Eiffage Energie Luminaires Philips FreeStreet Website www.lyon.fr www.cotelumiere.com
© Xavier Boymond
© Xavier Boymond
© Côté Lumière
PROJECT III 35
Top: Lighting design concept plan showing the zig-zag positioning of the cable. Bottom left: One of the city’s requirements was to have a colour temperature of 3.500 K. Bottom right: Good and uniform lighting level is provided on the staircases.
BRADFORD ROYAL INFIRMARY, YORKSHIRE, UK
More natural light By Ludmila Svistunova
Independent research has shown the importance of quality lighting in the healing process of mental health patients. In the United Kingdom, Philips is working with The Kingâ€™s Fund to transform the Bradford Royal InďŹ rmary so as to improve the well-being of dementia patients with the help of innovative lighting solutions.
38 PROJECT IV
© John Pool
“We found that that deﬁnitely helps with patients’ sleep and wake cycles.”
Raytrace preview of the bed ward showcasing two lighting settings from the HealWell system.
An independent British charitable organisation, The King’s Fund, runs the Enhancing the Healing Environment (EHE) programme whose objective is to enable nurses and dementia patients to work together on improving the health care delivery environment. The project carried out at the Bradford Royal Inﬁrmary is a part of this programme. The Inﬁrmary was looking at refurbishment options that would improve the environment for people with dementia, and thus the Fund introduced them to Philips. The outcome of this cooperation is the transformation of Ward 23 and Ward 29 of the Inﬁrmary, where innovative lighting solutions have been installed. Philips’ Dynamic Lighting system is used in both wards. The system produces cyclical lighting throughout the day, following the natural rhythm of daylight. Previous research has demonstrated a relationship between hormone levels in the human body and exposure to the cycle of light and darkness, suggesting that light regulates the sleep-wake rhythm and hence our overall well-being. Maintaining an appropriate sleeping pattern is especially difficult for dementia patients, as they often sleep throughout the day
and remain awake in the night, which also creates additional challenges for the nursing staff. Hence, in the Bradford Inﬁrmary, the Dynamic Lighting system serves two main functions: it creates a pleasant and bright environment in the wards, while also keeping patients active during the day so that they can have better quality rest at night. “We found that that deﬁnitely helps with patients’ sleep and wake cycles. I think the idea of having a warmer yellow-orange light is to help people to prepare for sleep,” observed Ward Manager Debbie Beaumont. “Overall the lighting solutions have helped the appearance of the ward so they look lighter, brighter and more welcoming. There’s deﬁnitely a change in how patients feel about their environment; they report feeling more relaxed and calmer,” she added. In Ward 29, the Philips HealWell solution has been installed in three patient rooms typically used for the most acutely ill patients. The HealWell system combines gradually varying levels of light during the day with an ambient lighting that patients can regulate
PROJECT IV 39
Warm lighting on the wall before going to sleep.
themselves by using a touch-pad controller. The positive effects of the HealWell lighting solution were also captured in the study conducted by Maastricht University Medical Center+ in partnership with Philips. The research demonstrated that patients in the study fell asleep faster and slept on average 8% or 30 minutes longer during their length of stay. Both patients and staff of the Bradford Inﬁrmary have provided positive feedback for the new system. Ms. Beaumont also noted the enjoyment that patients derive from having a degree of control over the ambiance in the room. Commenting on the early results of the HealWell solution trial at Bradford, Shane Embleton, Project Manager Estates Design at the hospital, noted that it had been going very well. “The evaluation results are still to come out but the indications are that things are looking really good for patient well-being,” he said. Meanwhile, Debbie Beaumont also observed employee satisfaction with the system. “The staff seem to enjoy the fact they’ve got this lighting, I think it makes them think the area they work in is a little bit special, a little bit different. We’ve had staff walk on to Ward 23 to
ask to work there, and they appreciate the fact that we are thinking about the patients,” she noted. The lighting solutions installed in the Inﬁrmary not only serve to improve the well-being of patients and staff. The project uses energy-efficient light sources, such as Philips LuxSpace and LED compact lights, which help to save energy and minimise maintenance requirements, as they need to be replaced less often. Shane Embleton commented: “The beneﬁts to the infrastructure of the estate is that it’s all on a time clock, so it runs itself and in the 11 to 12 months since the solution was installed we’ve not had to come out to look at any repairs or anything, So it’s been good from that point of view and because it’s energy saving and it’s reducing costs for the Trust.” Sarah Weller of the King’s Fund stressed the importance of good lighting for people with dementia and the beneﬁts that artiﬁcial lighting schemes could bring. “We look forward to seeing the results of the Bradford Royal Inﬁrmary trial with great interest,” she concluded.
© Jean-Charles Frémont Luminous_11_2013_UK_v6.indd 40
‘CREATE THE LIVABLE CITY’ WORKSHOPS IN DUBROVNIK, COPENHAGEN, TURNHOUT AND BRATISLAVA
Thinking about cities By Ruth Slavid
Day-long seminars that combine theory with practical experience give lighting designers the opportunity to create solutions that would make our cities better places to live in.
© Jean-Charles Frémont © Jean-Charles Frémont Luminous_11_2013_UK_v6.indd 42
“Effects are great but if they don’t support the concept they will have to go.”
Improving our cities is one of the biggest challenges that we face, and it is one in which Philips has taken an interest for some time, with a programme studying comparing key indicators in different cities. Most recently it has run four events in European cities, in Dubrovnik in Croatia, Copenhagen in Denmark, Turnhout in Belgium and Bratislava in Slovakia. These ‘Create the Liveable City’ events combine high-level discussion with practical workshops. Tapio Rosenius, founder of Madrid’s Lighting Design Collective, who leads the practical sessions, explained: “The idea for every workshop is to create an inspiring, experimental design environment with a strong focus on lighting concept work. The whole structure of the day is challenging but also very rewarding. Each group gets to choose a site to work on, and this is followed by intense concept development guided by Marco Bevolo to create a link to the research work. They also get support from an illustrator/artist and of course I help and challenge the ideas as much as possible. The concepts are then physically built by the participants, which can be equally challenging.”
Top: Dubrovnik Create the liveable city, ground ﬂoor, workshop group results. Bottom: Dubrovnik Create the liveable city, lighting ambiances.
The participants have access to all the latest technologies. While Rosenius encourages participants to experiment, part of his role is to ensure that they do not get carried away by technical considerations. “We insist on a coherent concept and the key point is to realise the presented concept,” he said. “Effects are great but if they don’t support the concept they will have to go.” His other major concern is that the participants create a space that can be experienced, not merely looked at. “It can be easier to create a display, a kind of temporary theatre stage set and this is something that many of the groups naturally gravitate towards,” Rosenius said. “Whilst experimenting with some of the theatrical display principles is not a bad thing, the requirement to create a lit environment highlights many of the real-world challenges when working with urban constraints.” The participants produce a wide variety of solutions, but Rosenius has spotted some common themes. “There is a desire to bring a sense of nature into the urban context through light,” he said. “Water ripples, shadows from tree canopies and other visual linking effects have been popular.” Whatever the solutions they came up with, he believes that “Everybody left with a feeling that lighting is a powerful yet demanding tool for creating positive urban environments. The feedback has been very positive. This is an intense learning process, not a product display. It’s a great day for learning, for debate and analytical thinking.” It should help prepare the participants for forthcoming changes that Rosenius predicts in the way that we use lighting. “I see a multidisciplinary approach and creativity being the deﬁning factors for the lighting design profession in the future,” he said. “New technology opens up new possibilities but also adds complexity. Each project will need a holistic vision, creativity, a great deal of collaboration and a high level of technical competence. The lighting profession must be able to grow and develop to answer these needs.”
© Jean-Charles Frémont
STRATEGY MEETS SOCIO-DYNAMIC FORCES Marco Bevolo, who led the theoretical part of the discussions at the four workshops, is an author and researcher who specialises in strategic design, people research and thought leadership. At the workshops, he encouraged participants to think in terms of an urban futures matrix which he developed as part of a project called City.Futures.Light, which he developed when working for Philips. This matrix considers four different strategies for cities (accelerator, memory, iconic and connecting) and also four socio-dynamic forces (identity, exploration, belonging and sustainability). It then allows an exploration of each of the 16 possible interactions between strategy and socio-dynamic force. “It is,” Bevolo explained, “the core tool regulating the entire methodology: it cross-references socio-cultural drivers
© Jean-Charles Frémont
‘Create a liveable city’, Dubrovnik. Ground ﬂoor, workshop group results.
‘Create a liveable city’, Bratislava. Lighting ambiances.
© Jean-Charles Frémont
representing future evolution of human societies, regardless of any business implication (horizontal axis) with city strategies that are possible ways to position cities for the future (vertical axis).” Bevolo’s role then was to give the participants some ideas about the challenges and potential of cities that they may not have encountered before. He presented these ideas, which he has been reﬁning since they were ﬁrst published in 2007, and then led a panel discussion with regional experts who were invited to each of the events. This approach offered participants an insight into some creative thinking about cities, which they could then use as a theoretical basis for the real-world designs that they produced later in the day.
© Jean-Charles Frémont
‘Create a liveable city’, Dubrovnik. Lighting ambiances during the Rector’s Palace workshops.
‘Create a liveable city’, Dubrovnik. The Rector’s Palace, ﬁrst ﬂoor, workshop group results.
LIGHT SHOW EXPO, LONDON
exhibition By Ruth Slavid
© Linda Nylind
The Light Show exhibition in London’s Hayward Gallery earlier this year contained art works spanning a 50-year period, with technologies ranging from neon and incandescent bulbs to the latest highly-programmed LEDs.
“The technology is obsolescent”
is fantastic, it has a great architectural resonance.” In contrast, Jim Campbell with Exploded View (Commuters) and Leo Villareal with Cylinder II have written their own programmes to create rapidly changing effects with LEDs. Lauson decided to put on the show because there had not, he believes, been one of this nature before. “There have been monographic shows looking at a single artist,” he said, “but light art has not been looked at in this way before.” There are big names, and also artists little known outside their countries. Most exciting are the immersive environments, such as Olafur Eliasson’s Model for a Timeless Garden, with fountains ‘frozen’ by strobe lighting, and Carlos Cruz-Diez’s Chromosaturation, which makes you question the way that you perceive colour.
© Linda Nylind
London saw one of its largest collections of incandescent bulbs earlier this year, when Light Show opened in a major exhibition space, the Hayward Gallery. This was not an exercise in nostalgia but an art exhibition of the sculptural use of light in which some of the 27 exhibitors, such as Philip Parreno and Katie Paterson, chose to use the bulbs in their work. Parreno’s piece, Marquee, which also employed neon, was one of the most recent works, showing that contemporary thinking does not have to employ the newest technology. For example, Cerith Wyn Evans, in a piece entitled S=U=P=E=R=S=T=R=U=C=T=U=R=E ‘Trace me back to some loud, shallow, chill, underlying motive’s overspill’ created in 2010, used defunct technologies to create tall illuminated columns. “The technology is obsolescent,” said curator Cliff Lauson,” as it emits a lot of heat. We are used to all the light we have being cold. So this
Above: Cerith Wyn Evans, S=U=P=E=R=S=T=R=U=C=T=U=R=E (‘Trace me back to some loud, shallow, chill, underlying motive’s overspill…’) (2010) ©the artist; courtesy the artist and White Cube. Pages 46-47: Carlos Cruz-Diez, Chromosaturation (1965-2013), ©the artist/DACS, Cruz-Diez Foundation.
© Linda Nylind
© Linda Nylind
Top: Leo Villareal Cylinder, II (2012), ©the artist; courtesy the artist and GERING & LóPEZ GALLERY, NY. Bottom: Anthony McCall, You and I, Horizontal (2005), ©the artist; courtesy of the artist and Sprüth Magers, Berlin, London.
© Linda Nylind
© Linda Nylind
Top: Ann Veronica Janssens, Rose (2007), ©the artist/DACS. Bottom: Jim Campbell, Exploded View (Commuters) (2011), ©the artist; courtesy Bryce Wolkowitz Gallery, New York and studio of Jim Campbell.
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11th anniversary of city.people.light award
is your city a potential
Register your urban inspiration lighting project now to enter the 11th international city.people.light award competition, by completing the entry form for 2013 on www.citypeoplelight.com/award
Lyon, France Winner city.people.light award 2012
The international city.people.light award was
which takes place in Guangzhou in China this
set up jointly in 2003 by Philips Lighting and
year. The winning project will receive the first
the Lighting Urban Community International
price award and a cheque for â‚Ź 10,000.
association (LUCI). It rewards cities and
Is your urban inspirational lighting project a
villages that best demonstrate the added
potential winner? Go online now to see if
value that lighting can give to an areaâ€™s cultural
you meet the criteria and register for the
and architectural heritage and night-time
2013 award. All entries must be received
identity, whilst at the same time respecting the
by before 31 July 2013, so visit
environment. Three cities will be awarded for
their projects during the annual LUCI Forum,
The award ceremony will take place in Guangzhou, China, during the Annual LUCI Forum from 13-17 November 2013.