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Harwell Science and Innovation Campus


In the context of spaceflight, a satellite is an object which has been placed into orbit by human endeavor. Such objects are sometimes called artificial satellites to distinguish them from natural satellites such as the Moon.The world’s first artificial satellite, the Sputnik 1, was launched by the Soviet Union

in 1957. Since then, thousands of satellites have been launched into orbit around the Earth. Some satellites, notably space stations, have been launched in parts and assembled in orbit. Artificial satellites originate from more than 50 countries and have used the satellite launching capabilities of ten nations. A few

Ar te m i s

hundred satellites are currently operational, whereas thousands of unused satellites and satellite fragments orbit the Earth as space debris. A few space probes have been placed into orbit around other bodies and become artificial satellites to the Moon, Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, and the Sun.

FactFile: - A few space probes

- Have been placed into orbit - Around other bodies - And become artificial - Satellites to the Moon, Mercury, - Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, and the Sun. - The world’s first artificial satellite, - The Sputnik 1, was launched - By the Soviet Union - In 1957.

first the apogee then the perigee, going via a 590 km x 31000 km orbit). Then, its electric-ion motor — originally intended for station keeping and for firing a few minutes at a time — was instead kept running for most of 18 months, pushing the spacecraft into an outward spiral trajectory. It gained altitude at the rate of about 15 km per day, until it reached the intended geostationary orbit.[3]

Artemis

Artemis is a geostationary earth orbit satellite (GEOS) for telecommunications, built for and owned by ESA. The Artemis satellite operates at the 21.5E orbital position. The mission was planned for many years, with launch initially intended for 1995 and slipping; it was intended for launch on Ariane 5 but at one point there were suggestions that a Japanese H-II rocket might be used. Launched by an Ariane 5 rocket on 12 July 2001, it originally reached an orbit much lower than planned (590 km x 17487 km). It was remotely reconfigured to reach its intended station by means of a novel procedure. First, over the course of about a week, most of its chemical fuel was used to put it in a 31,000 km circular orbit (by raising

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Artemis is a geostationary earth orbit satellite (GEOS) for telecommunications, built for and owned by ESA. The Artemis satellite operates at the 21.5E orbital position. The mission was planned for many years, with launch initially intended for 1995 and slipping; it was intended for launch on Ariane 5 but at one point there were suggestions that a Japanese H-II rocket might be used. Launched by an Ariane 5 rocket on 12 July 2001, it originally reached an orbit much lower than planned (590 km x 17487 km). It was remotely reconfigured to reach its intended station by

means of a novel procedure. First, over the course of about a week, most of its chemical fuel was used to put it in a 31,000 km circular orbit (by raising first the apogee then the perigee, going via a 590 km x 31000 km orbit). Then, its electric-ion motor — originally intended for station keeping and for firing a few minutes at a time — was instead kept running for most of 18 months, pushing the spacecraft into an outward spiral trajectory. It gained altitude at the rate of about 15 km per day, until it reached the intended geostationary orbit.

Artemis is a geostationary earth orbit satellite (GEOS) for telecommunications, built for and owned by ESA. The Artemis satellite operates at the 21.5E orbital position. The mission was planned for many years, with launch initially intended for 1995 and slipping; it was intended for launch on Ariane 5 but at one point there were suggestions that a Japanese H-II rocket might be used. Launched by an Ariane 5 rocket on 12 July 2001, it originally reached an orbit much lower than planned (590 km x 17487 km). It was remotely reconfigured to reach its intended station by

means of a novel procedure. First, over the course of about a week, most of its chemical fuel was used to put it in a 31,000 km circular orbit (by raising first the apogee then the perigee, going via a 590 km x 31000 km orbit). Then, its electric-ion motor — originally intended for station keeping and for firing a few minutes at a time — was instead kept running for most of 18 months, pushing the spacecraft into an outward spiral trajectory. It gained altitude at the rate of about 15 km per day, until it reached the intended geostationary orbit.[3]

20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

Artemis

Artemis

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ESA has a fleet of different launch vehicles in service with which it competes in all sectors of the launch market. ESA's fleet consists of three major rocket designs: Ariane 5, Soyuz-2 and Vega. Rocket launches are carried out by Arianespace, which has 23 shareholders representing the industry that manufactures the Ariane 5 as well as CNES, at the spaceport in French Guiana. Because many communication satellites have equatorial orbits, launches from French Guiana are able to take larger payloads into space than from spaceports at higher latitudes. In addition, equatorial launches give spacecraft an extra 'push' of nearly 500 m/s due to the higher rotation velocity of someone standing on the equator than near the Earth's axis where rotation velocity approaches nil. The Ariane 5 rocket is ESA’s primary launcher. Its maximum estimated payload is 6-10 tons to GTO and up to 21 tons to LEO. The launch craft has been in service since 1997 and replaced Ariane 4. The Ariane 5 rocket exists in several variants, the heaviest being Ariane 5 ECA, which failed during its first test flight in 2002, but has since made twenty-two consecutive successful flights.

Artemis is a geostationary earth orbit satellite (GEOS) for telecommunications, built for and owned by ESA, in part by the UKSA. The Artemis satellite operates the 21.5E orbital position. The mission was planned for many years, with launch initially intended for 1995 and slipping; it was intended for launch on Ariane 5 but at one point there were suggestions that a Japanese H-II rocket might be used. Launched by an Ariane 5 rocket on 12 July 2001, it originally reached an orbit much lower than planned (590 km x 17487 km). It was remotely reconfigured to reach its intended station by means of a novel procedure. First, over the course of about a week, most of its chemical fuel was used to put it in a 31,000 km circular orbit (by raising first the apogee then the perigee, going via a 590 km x 31000 km orbit). Then, its electric-ion motor — originally intended for station keeping and for firing a few minutes at a time — was instead kept running for most of 18 months, pushing the spacecraft into an outward spiral trajectory. It gained altitude at the rate of about 15 km per day, until it reached the intended geostationary orbit.


Skylon is a design for a spaceplane by the British company Reaction Engines Limited. It uses SABRE, a combined-cycle, air-breathing rocket engine, to reach orbit in a single stage. A fleet of vehicles is envisaged; the design is aiming for re-usability for more than 200 times. In paper studies, the costs per kilogram of payload are hoped to be lowered from the current £15,000/kg to £650/kg (as of 2011), including the costs of research and development, with costs expected to fall much more over time after the initial expenditures have amortised. In 2004, the developer estimated the total lifetime cost of the programme to be about $12 billion. The vehicle design is for a hydrogen-powered aircraft that would take off from a conventional runway, and accelerate to Mach 5.4 at 26 kilometres (16 mi) altitude using atmospheric air before switching the engines to use the internal liquid oxygen (LOX) supply to take it to orbit.

The European Space Agency (ESA) is an intergovernmental organisation dedicated to the exploration of space, currently with 20 member states. Established in 1975 and headquartered in Paris, France, ESA has a staff of more than 2,000 with an annual budget of about €4.02 billion / US$5.38 billion (2012). ESA’s space flight program includes human spaceflight, mainly through the participation in the International Space Station program, the launch and operations of unmanned exploration missions to other planets and the Moon, Earth observation, science, telecommunication as well as maintaining a major spaceport, the Guiana Space Centre at Kourou, French Guiana, and designing launch vehicles. The main European launch vehicle Ariane 5 is operated through Arianespace with ESA sharing in the costs of launching and further developing this launch vehicle.


The U KSA uses i ts m embership t o the ESA to which it c ompetes in a ll s ectors o f the launch designs: Ariane 5 , Soyuz-2 and Vega. R ocket launches a re c arried out b y Arianespace, which has 2 3 shareholders representing the industry that manufactures the Ariane 5 as well as CNES, a t the spaceport i n French G uiana. Because many communication satellites have equatorial orbits, launches from French Guiana are able to t ake larger p ayloads i nto space than f rom spaceports at h igher l atitudes. In addition, e quatorial launches g ive spacecraft an e xtra ' push' o f nearly 500 m /s due t o the higher rotation velocity of someone standing on the equator than near t he E arth's axis where rotation velocity approaches nil. The Ariane 5 rocket is ESA’s primary launcher. Its maximum estimated payload is 6-10 tons to GTO and up to 21 tons t o LEO. The l aunch c raft has been in s ervice s ince 1997 and r eplaced A riane 4 . The A riane 5 r ocket exists i n several variants, the heaviest being Ariane 5 ECA, which failed


UKSA Presentation  

A short presentation about what I propose for the UKSA Brief

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