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Designed by Luke Rossiter lukerossiter.co.uk All images sourced from: NASA JSC Digital Image Collection.

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CONTENTS Project Mercury

Project Gemini

Apollo Program

MR-3 MR-4 MA-6 MA-7 MA-8 MA-9

4 6 8 10 12 14 16

Gemini Gemini Gemini Gemini Gemini Gemini Gemini Gemini Gemini Gemini

18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38

Apollo Apollo Apollo Apollo Apollo Apollo Apollo Apollo Apollo Apollo Apollo Apollo

3 IV V VII VI-A VIII IX-A X XI XII

1 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

40 42 44 46 48 50 52 56 58 60 62 64 66


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PROJECT MERCURY 1959-1963 Goal:

Orbital Flight

Outcome:

Accomplished main goal, however the Soviet Union lead the way throughout.

Unmanned:

Little Joe 1 Big Joe 1 Little Joe 6 Little Joe 1A Little Joe 2 Little Joe 1B Beach Abort MA-1 Little Joe 5 MR-1 MR-1A MR-2 MA-2 Little Joe 5A MR-BD MA-3 Little Joe 5B MA-4 MS-1 MA-5

Manned:

MR-3 MR-4 MA-6 MA-7 MA-8 MA-9


MERCURY REDSTONE 3

First American in Space

Crew

N: P: B: D: M:

Spacecraft

Alan Shepard Pilot 18 Nov '23 21 Jul '98 MR-3 Apollo 14

Mission Alt Name: Type: Launch: Return: Duration: Insignia:

Freedom 7 Sub-Orbital Test Flight 5 May '61 5 May '61 15 Mins, 22 Secs.

During the fl ight, Shepard observed the Earth and tested the capsule’s attitude control system, turning the capsule around to face its blunt heat shield forward for atmospheric entry. He also tested the retrorockets which would return later missions from orbit, though the capsule did not have enough energy to remain in orbit. After re-entry, the capsule landed by parachute on the Atlantic ocean off the Bahamas. Shepard and the capsule were picked up by helicopter and brought to an aircraft carrier.

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Shepard prepares for lift-off.


MERCURY REDSTONE 4

Crew

N: P: B: D: M:

Spacecraft

Gus Grissom Pilot 3 Apr '26 27 Jan '67 MR-4 Gemini 3 Apollo 1

Mission Alt Name: Type: Launch: Return: Duration: Insignia:

Liberty Bell 7 Sub-Orbital Test Flight 21 July '61 21 July '61 15 Mins, 37 Secs.

The flight reached an altitude of more than 102.8 nautical miles and travelled 262.5 nautical miles downrange, landing in the Atlantic ocean. All went as expected until just after splashdown, when the hatch cover, designed to release explosively in the event of an emergency, accidentally blew. Grissom was at risk of drowning but was recovered safely; the capsule sank into the Atlantic and was not recovered until 1999.

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Failed spacecraft recovery attempt over the Atlantic.


MERCURY ATLAS 6

First American Orbital Flight

Crew

N: P: B: D: M:

Spacecraft

John Glenn Pilot 18 Jul '21 NA MA-6 STS-95

Mission Alt Name: Type: Launch: Return: Duration: Insignia:

Friendship 7 Orbital Test Flight 20 Feb '62 20 Feb '62 4 Hrs, 55 Mins.

The mission was successful making Glenn the first American in orbit. During the flight only two major problems were encountered: forcing the astronaut to abandon the automatic control system for the manual-electrical fly-by-wire system. Once aboard the recovery ship after returning to Earth Glenn used the explosive emergency hatch to exit the spacecraft after warning the ships crew to stand back. Glenn got out and stood on the deck of the USS Noa. His first words were, “It was hot in there.�

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Glenn during his orbit of Earth.


MERCURY ATLAS 7

Crew

N: P: B: D: M:

Spacecraft

Scott Carpenter Pilot 1 May '25 10 Oct '13 MA-7

Mission Alt Name: Type: Launch: Return: Duration: Insignia:

Aurora 7 Orbital Test Flight 24 May '62 24 May '62 4 Hrs, 56 Mins.

The focus of Carpenter’s five-hour mission was on science. The full flight plan included the first study of liquids in weightlessness and Earth photography. During the third and final orbit Carpenter bumped his hand against the inside wall of the cabin and solved a mystery from the previous flight. The resulting bright shower of particles outside the spacecraft - what John Glenn had called “fireflies” - turned out to be ice particles shaken loose from the spacecraft’s exterior.

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Carpenter inspecting his pre-flight spacecraft.


MERCURY ATLAS 8

Crew

N: P: B: D: M:

Spacecraft

Wally Schirra Pilot 12 Mar '23 3 May '07 MA-8 Gemini 6-A Apollo 7

Mission Alt Name: Type: Launch: Return: Duration: Insignia:

Sigma 7 Orbital Test Flight 3 Oct '62 3 Oct '62 9 Hrs, 13 Mins.

Schirra returned healthy after nine hours of confinement in low-gravity. The public and political reaction was muted compared with that of earlier missions, as the Cuban Missile Crisis soon eclipsed the Space Race in the news. The mission was a technical success: all the engineering objectives were completed without significant malfunctions, and the spacecraft used even less fuel than expected. This confirmed the capabilities of the Mercury spacecraft for future missions.

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Schirras photo of Earth from orbit.


MERCURY ATLAS 9

Crew

N: P: B: D: M:

Spacecraft

Gordon Cooper Pilot 6 Mar '27 4 Oct '04 MA-9 Gemini 5

Mission Alt Name: Type: Launch: Return: Duration: Insignia:

Faith 7 Orbital Test Flight 15 May '63 16 May '63 34 Hrs, 20 Mins.

Cooper orbited the Earth 22 times and logged more time in space than all five previous Mercury astronauts combined. During the 19th orbit, the capsule had a power failure, and the cabin temperature jumped to 38째C. Cooper fell back on his understanding of star patterns, took manual control of the tiny capsule and successfully estimated the correct pitch for re-entry. Coopers performance encouraged NASA to give more flight control over to astronauts in future missions.

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Coopers recovery ship USS Kearsarge.


Gemini spacecraft cutaway.

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PROJECT GEMINI 1962-1966 Goals:

Long-Duration Spaceflight Rendezvous and Docking Extra-Vehicular Activity Targeted Re-entry Earth Landing

Outcome:

All goals accomplished, US catches up and overtakes the Soviet Union in terms of spaceflight ability. Preparation of the Apollo Program is complete.

Unmanned:

Gemini 1 Gemini 2

Manned:

Gemini Gemini Gemini Gemini Gemini Gemini Gemini Gemini Gemini Gemini

3 IV V VII VI-A VIII IX-A X XI XII

Key Terms. EVA:

Extra-Vehicular Activity. Actions taken by astronauts outside of the spacecraft whilst in space or on the surface of another world.


GEMINI 3

First Orbital Manoeuvre by Manned Spacecraft

Crew

N: P: B: D: M:

Spacecraft

Gus Grissom Commander 3 Apr '26 27 Jan '67 MR-4 Gemini 3 Apollo 1

N: John Young P: Pilot B: 24 Sep '30 D: NA M: Gemini 3 Gemini 10 Apollo 10 Apollo 16*

Mission Callsign: Type: Launch: Return: Duration: Insignia:

Molly Brown Orbital Test Flight 23 Mar '65 23 Mar '65 4 Hrs, 53 Mins.

The mission’s primary goal was to test the new, manoeuvrable Gemini spacecraft. In space, the crew fired thrusters to change the shape of their orbit, shift their orbital plane slightly, and drop to a lower altitude. Other firsts were achieved on Gemini 3: two people flew aboard an American spacecraft and the first manned reentry where the spacecraft was able to produce lift to change its touchdown point. The only incident involved a contraband sandwich that Young had snuck on board.

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*Young also flew aboard STS-1 and STS-9


Ground Control during Gemini 3


GEMINI IV

First American EVA

Crew

N: P: B: D: M:

Spacecraft

J. McDivitt Commander 10 Jun '29 NA Gemini 4 Apollo 9

N: E. White II P: Pilot B: 14 Nov '30 D: 27 Jan '67 M: Gemini 4 Apollo 1

Mission Callsign: Type: Launch: Return: Duration: Insignia:

Gemini 4 Orbital Test Flight 3 June '65 7 June '65 4 Days, 2 Hrs.

Gemini 4 would be the first multi-day space flight by the United States, designed to show that it was possible for humans to remain in space for extended lengths of time, with a four-day, 66-orbit flight. The highlight of the mission was the first space walk by an American, during which White floated free outside the spacecraft, tethered to it, for approximately 20 minutes. White tried to use taking more pictures as an excuse to stay out longer, and McDivitt had to coax him in.

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White performs his EVA.


GEMINI V

Crew

N: P: B: D: M:

Spacecraft

G. Cooper Commander 6 Mar '27 4 Oct '04 MA-9 Gemini 5

N: Pete Conrad P: Pilot B: 2 Jun '30 D: 8 Jul '99 M: Gemini 5 Gemini 11 Apollo 12 Skylab 2

Mission Callsign: Type: Launch: Return: Duration: Insignia:

Gemini 5 Orbital Test Flight 21 Aug '65 29 Aug '65 7 Days, 23 Hours.

Gemini 5 was first time an American manned space mission held the world record for duration, by breaking the Soviet Union’s previous record set by Vostok 5 in 1963. Cooper and Conrad took high-resolution photographs for the United States Department of Defence, but problems with the fuel cells and manoeuvring system forced the cancellation of several other experiments. Onboard medical tests, however, continued to show the feasibility of longer flights.

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Photograph from Gemini 5 of Cape Canaveral.


GEMINI VII

Crew

N: P: B: D: M:

Spacecraft

Frank Borman Commander 14 Mar '28 NA Gemini 7 Apollo 8

N: James Lovell P: Pilot B: 25 Mar '28 D: NA M: Gemini 7 Gemini 12 Apollo 8 Apollo 13

Mission Callsign: Type: Launch: Return: Duration: Insignia:

Gemini 7 Orbital Test Flight 4 Dec '65 18 Dec '65 13 Days, 19 Hrs.

Gemini 7 was planned to be a long duration flight, investigating the effects of fourteen days in space on the human body. However after Gemini 6 failed to launch some mission objectives were changed with 7 becoming a passive rendezvous target for Gemini 6-A, a goal which was accomplished on day 11. The astronauts also evaluated a lightweight spacesuit, the G5C, which proved uncomfortable when worn for a long time in the Gemini spacecraft’s hot, cramped quarters.

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Lovell boarding in the new G5C Spacesuit.


GEMINI VI-A

First Manned Rendezvous

Crew

N: P: B: D: M:

Spacecraft

Wally Schirra Commander 12 Mar '23 3 May '07 MA-8 Gemini 6-A Apollo 7

N: T. Stafford P: Pilot B: 17 Sep '30 D: NA M: Gemini 6-A Gemini 9-A Apollo 10 ASTP

Mission Callsign: Type: Launch: Return: Duration: Insignia:

Gemini 6-A Orbital Test Flight 15 Dec '65 16 Dec '65 1 Day, 2 Hrs.

Gemini 6-A was a back-up mission for Gemini 6 which failed after its intended rendezvous target, an unmanned spacecraft, exploded over the Atlantic ocean. Gemini 6-A achieved the first manned rendezvous with another spacecraft, its sister Gemini 7. The two spacecraft came as close as one foot and could have docked if they had been equipped to do so. Gemini 6-A also became the first mission to play a musical instrument in space, for a Christmas themed prank on Gemini 7.

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Gemini 6-A and Gemini 7 make first manned rendezvous.


GEMINI VIII

First Docking in Space

Crew

N: P: B: D: M:

Spacecraft

N. Armstrong Commander 5 Aug '30 25 Aug '12 Gemini 8 Apollo 11

N: David Scott P: Pilot B: 6 Jun '32 D: NA M: Gemini 8 Apollo 9 Apollo 15

Mission Callsign: Type: Launch: Return: Duration: Insignia:

Gemini 8 Orbital Test Flight 16 Mar '66 17 Mar '66 10 Hrs, 41 Mins.

This mission conducted the first docking of two spacecraft in orbit with Gemini 8 docking to an Agena Target Vehicle. It also suffered the first critical in-space system failure of an American spacecraft which threatened the lives of the astronauts and required the immediate abort of the mission after a control thruster malfunction caused the space craft to enter a spin. Gemini 8 made an emergency landing in the Pacific ocean, forgoing the extended EVA planned for this mission.

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Gemini 8 approaches the Agena Target Vehicle.


GEMINI IX-A

Crew

Spacecraft

N: T. Stafford P: Commander B: 17 Sep '30 D: NA M: Gemini 6-A Gemini 9-A Apollo 10 ASTP

N: E. Cernan P: Pilot B: 14 Mar '34 D: NA M: Gemini 9-A Apollo 10 Apollo 17

Mission Alt Name: Type: Launch: Return: Duration: Insignia:

Gemini 9-A Orbital Test Flight 3 June '66 6 June '66 3 Days, 21 Mins.

Gemini 9-A launched with the back-up crew for Gemini 9 after the prime crew died in an air crash. Gemini 9-A was to dock with another unmanned vehicle in orbit, similar to Gemini 8, however when visual contact with the vehicle was made Stafford discovered that its payload fairing had not detached and the objective was cancelled. Cernan then performed a planned EVA which was cut short after the new pressure suit was deemed too uncontrollable to safely carry out any testing.

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Stafford inside Gemini 9-A


GEMINI X

Crew

Spacecraft

N: John Young P: Commander B: 24 Sep '30 D: NA M: Gemini 3 Gemini 10 Apollo 10 Apollo 16

N: M. Collins P: Pilot B: 31 Oct 30 D: NA M: Gemini 10 Apollo 11

Mission Callsign: Type: Launch: Return: Duration: Insignia:

Gemini 10 Orbital Test Flight 18 Jul '66 21 Jul '66 2 Days, 23 Hrs.

Gemini 10 established that radiation at high altitude was not a problem. After docking with their Agena booster in low orbit, Young and Collins used it to climb to meet with the drifting Agena left over from the aborted Gemini 8 flight—thus executing the program’s first double rendezvous. Collins then spacewalked over to the dormant Agena, making Collins the first person to meet another spacecraft in orbit. He retrieved a cosmic dust-collecting panel from its side to bring back to Earth.

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Young and Collins pose for press.


GEMINI XI

Crew

Spacecraft

N: Pete Conrad P: Commander B: 2 Jun '30 D: 8 Jul '99 M: Gemini 5 Gemini 11 Apollo 12 Skylab 2

N: Dick Gordon P: Pilot B: 5 Oct '29 D: NA M: Gemini 11 Apollo 12

Mission Callsign: Type: Launch: Return: Duration: Insignia:

Gemini 11 Orbital Test Flight 12 Sep '66 15 Sep '66 2 Days, 23 Hrs.

Gemini 11 allowed astronauts to perform the firstever direct-ascent (first orbit) rendezvous with an Agena Target Vehicle, docking with it one hour and thirty-four minutes after launch. They went on to use the Agena rocket engine to achieve a world record high-apogee earth orbit; and created a small amount of artificial gravity by spinning the two spacecraft connected by a tether. Gordon also performed two extra-vehicular activities for a total of 2 hours and 41 minutes.

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The unmanned Agena Target Vehicle.


GEMINI XII

Crew

Spacecraft

N: James Lovell P: Commander B: 25 Mar '28 D: NA M: Gemini 7 Gemini 12 Apollo 8 Apollo 13

N: Buzz Aldrin P: Pilot B: 20 Jan 30 D: NA M: Gemini 12 Apollo 11

Mission Callsign: Type: Launch: Return: Duration: Insignia:

Gemini 12 Orbital Test Flight 11 Nov '66 15 Nov '66 3 Days, 23 Hrs.

In preparation for Gemini XII new, improved restraints were added to the outside of the capsule, and a new technique—underwater training—was introduced, which would become a staple of future space-walk simulation, still in use today. During the mission Aldrin completed a two-hour, 20-minute tethered space-walk, during which he photographed star fields, retrieved a micrometeorite collector and did other chores, at last demonstrating the feasibility of extravehicular activity.

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Aldrin on his spacewalk.


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APOLLO PROGRAM 1961-1972 Goals:

Land a man on the Moon and return him safely to Earth by the end of the 1960s.

Outcome:

The first man walked on the Moon in 1969 and was returned safely to Earth a few days later during the Apollo 11 mission.

Unmanned:

SA-1 to SA-5 A-101 to A-105 AS-201 to AS-203 Apollo 4 to Apollo 6

Manned:

Apollo 1 Apollo 7 to Apollo 17

Key Terms. CSM:

Command/ Service Module. The two part spacecraft of Apollo carrying the three astronauts, provisions and scientific equipment.

CM:

Command Module. Breaks away from the Service Module to allow manned atmospheric re-entry.

LM:

Lunar Module. The vehicle that takes men and equipment down to the Moon from Lunar Orbit.


APOLLO 1

First Disaster of the US Space Program

Crew

N: P: B: D: M:

Gus Grissom Commander 3 Apr '26 27 Jan '67 MR-4 Gemini 3 Apollo 1

Spacecraft

N: E. White II P: Senior Pilot B: 14 Nov '30 D: 27 Jan '67 M: Gemini 4 Apollo 1

N: Roger Chaffee P: Pilot B: 15 Feb '35 D: 27 Jan '67 M: Apollo 1

Mission Alt Name: Type: Launch: Return: Duration: Insignia:

AS-204 Crewed Spacecraft Test 21 Feb '67 (Planned) NA NA

Apollo 1 was the first manned mission of the U.S. Apollo program. The planned low Earth orbital test of the Apollo Command/Service Module, never made its target launch date of February 21, 1967, because a cabin fire during a launch rehearsal test on January 27 at Cape Canaveral killed all three crew members and destroyed the Command Module. Although the ignition source could not be identified, the CM’s pure oxygen atmosphere allowed an uncontrollable fire to break out.

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Grissom, White and Chaffee rest during water egress training.


APOLLO 7

Crew

N: P: B: D: M:

Wally Schirra Commander 12 Mar '23 3 May '07 MA-8 Gemini 6-A Apollo 7

Spacecraft

N: P: B: D: M:

Donn Eisele CM Pilot 23 Jun '30 2 Dec '87 Apollo 7

N: W. Cunningham P: LM Pilot B: 16 Mar '32 D: NA M: Apollo 7

Mission Callsign: Type: Launch: Return: Duration: Insignia:

Apollo 7 Manned CSM Test Flight 11 Oct '68 22 Oct '68 10 Days, 20 Hrs.

Apollo 7 was the first American space flight to carry astronauts into low Earth orbit after a cabin fire killed the Apollo 1 crew in 1967. Apollo 7 carried out the mission that Apollo 1 was scheduled to do, using the first Saturn IB launch vehicle to put a crew into space. Apollo 7 also tested the redesigned Apollo Command/Service Module (CSM) with a crew on board, was the first live TV broadcast from an American spacecraft, and the first three-person American space mission.

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Schirra looks out the rendezvous window of Apollo 7.


APOLLO 8

First Manned Lunar Orbit.

Crew

N: P: B: D: M:

Frank Borman Commander 14 Mar '28 NA Gemini 7 Apollo 8

Spacecraft

N: James Lovell P: CM Pilot B: 25 Mar '28 D: NA M: Gemini 7 Gemini 12 Apollo 8 Apollo 13

N: Bill Anders P: LM Pilot B: 17 Oct '33 D: NA M: Apollo 8

Mission Callsign: Type: Launch: Return: Duration: Insignia:

Apollo 8 Manned Lunar Orbiter 21 Dec '68 27 Dec '68 6 Days, 3 Hrs.

Apollo 8 became the first manned spacecraft to leave Earth orbit, reach the Earth’s Moon, orbit it and return safely to Earth. It took three days to travel to the Moon, orbiting ten times over the course of 20 hours. Apollo 8 came at the end of 1968, a year that had seen much upheaval on Earth. Anders famous photo of ‘Earthrise’ became a source of inspiration for people everywhere, a reminder of our significance, and insignificance, cementing the mission as one of outstanding historical importance.

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The crew of Apollo 8 were the first to witness Earthrise.


APOLLO 9

Crew

N: P: B: D: M:

J. McDivitt Commander 10 Jun '29 NA Gemini 4 Apollo 9

Spacecraft

N: David Scott P: CM Pilot B: 6 Jun '32 D: NA M: Gemini 8 Apollo 9 Apollo 15

N: R. Schweickart P: LM Pilot B: 25 Oct '35 D: NA M: Apollo 9

Mission Callsigns: CSM: Gumdrop LM: Spider Type: Lunar Module Test Flight Launch: 3 Mar '69 Return: 13 Mar '69 Duration: 10 Days, 1 Hour. Insignia:

Apollo 9 was the first flight of the Command/ Service Module combined with the Lunar Module. The mission successfully tested several aspects critical to landing on the Moon, including the Lunar Module engines, backpack life support systems, navigation systems, and docking manoeuvres. The piloting of the Lunar Module was the flight of a manned spacecraft that was not equipped to reenter the Earth’s atmosphere.

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Apollo 9 Lunar Module ‘Spider’ is tested in Earth orbit.


APOLLO 10

Crew

N: T. Stafford P: Commander B: 17 Sep '30 D: NA M: Gemini 6-A Gemini 9-A Apollo 10 ASTP

Spacecraft

N: John Young P: CM Pilot B: 24 Sep '30 D: NA M: Gemini 3 Gemini 10 Apollo 10 Apollo 16

N: E. Cernan P: LM Pilot B: 14 Mar '34 D: NA M: Gemini 9-A Apollo 10 Apollo 17

Mission Callsign: Type: Launch: Return: Duration: Insignia:

CSM: Charlie Brown LM: Snoopy Lunar Orbit Test Flight 18 May '69 26 May '69 8 Days, 3 Mins.

The purpose of Apollo 10 was to be a dress rehearsal for the Apollo 11 mission, testing all of the procedures and components of a Moon landing without actually landing on the Moon itself. The mission was successful with the exception of an unplanned roll during the LM’s separation from its ascent stage, leading the to crew broadcast expletives live-on-air before regaining control. Although it was down-played the roll was only several revolutions from being unrecoverable.

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View of the CSM from the LM in Lunar orbit.


APOLLO 11

First Manned Lunar Landing.

Crew

N: P: B: D: M:

N. Armstrong Commander 5 Aug '30 25 Aug '12 Gemini 8 Apollo 11

Spacecraft

N: M. Collins P: CM Pilot B: 31 Oct 30 D: NA M: Gemini 10 Apollo 11

N: Buzz Aldrin P: LM Pilot B: 20 Jan 30 D: NA M: Gemini 12 Apollo 11

Mission Callsigns: CSM: Columbia LM: Eagle Type: Manned Lunar Landing Launch: 16 July '69 Return: 24 July '69 Duration: 8 Days, 3 Hrs. Insignia:

The Apollo programs primary goal was achieved by Apollo 11, fulfilling President Kennedy’s mandate to land a man on the Moon before the end of the 1960s. On 20 July 1969 Armstrong and Aldrin piloted the LM down to the Moons surface whilst Collins maintained Lunar orbit in the CSM. Armstrong became the first man to walk on the Moon on July 21 at 02:56 UTC. They stayed a total of 21½ hours on the lunar surface performing tests and scientific tasks before returning to Earth.

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Aldrin deploying a science package on the Moons surface.


HERE MEN FROM THE PLANET EARTH FIRST SET FOOT UPON THE MOON JULY 1969, A.D. WE CAME IN PEACE FOR ALL MANKIND


It was carried out in a technically brilliant way with risks taken that would be inconceivable in the risk-averse world of today. The Apollo programme is arguably the greatest technical achievement of mankind to date, nothing since Apollo has come close to the excitement that was generated by those astronauts. Armstrong, Aldrin and the 10 others who followed.


APOLLO 12

Crew

N: Pete Conrad P: Commander B: 2 Jun '30 D: 8 Jul '99 M: Gemini 5 Gemini 11 Apollo 12 Skylab 2

Spacecraft

N: Dick Gordon P: CM Pilot B: 5 Oct '29 D: NA M: Gemini 11 Apollo 12

N: Alan Bean P: LM Pilot B: 15 Mar '32 D: NA M: Apollo 12 Skylab 3

Mission Callsigns: CSM: Yankee-Clipper LM: Intrepid Manned Lunar Landing Type: 14 Nov '69 Launch: Return: 24 Nov '69 Duration: 10 Days, 5 Hrs. Insignia:

Launch of Apollo 12 was a near-disaster after a lightning strike caused fuel cells in the Service module to go offline. This was quickly fixed by Bean switching to backup power. Unlike Apollo 11, Conrad and Bean achieved a precise landing, the site of the Surveyor 3 unmanned probe, which landed in 1967. During EVA Bean accidentally destroyed the first Apollo colour-TV camera by pointing it at the Sun. They also visited the Surveyor 3 and removed some parts for return to Earth.

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Bean taking a surface sample.


APOLLO 13

Crew

N: James Lovell P: Commander B: 25 Mar '28 D: NA M: Gemini 7 Gemini 12 Apollo 8 Apollo 13

Spacecraft

N: P: B: D: M:

John Swigert CSM Pilot 30 Aug '31 27 Dec '82 Apollo 13

N: Fred Haise P: LM Pilot B: 14 Nov 33 D: NA M: Apollo 13 ALT

Mission Callsigns: CSM: Odyssey LM: Aquarius Manned Lunar Landing Type: 11 Apr '70 Launch: Return: 17 Apr '70 Duration: 5 Days, 23 Hrs. Insignia:

Apollo 13 was to be the third mission to land on the Moon, however the lunar landing was aborted after an oxygen tank exploded two days in to the voyage, crippling the Service Module upon which the Command Module depended. Despite great hardship caused by limited power, loss of cabin heat, shortage of potable water, and the critical need to jury-rig the carbon dioxide removal system out of a NASA-lunchbox, the crew returned safely to Earth.

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A Navy rescue team recover the Apollo 13 crew.


APOLLO 14

Crew

N: P: B: D: M:

Alan Shepard Commander 18 Nov '23 21 Jul '98 MR-3 Apollo 14

Spacecraft

N: P: B: D: M:

Stuart Roosa CSM Pilot 16 Aug '33 12 Dec '94 Apollo 14

N: Edgar Mitchell P: LM Pilot B: 17 Sep '30 D: NA M: Apollo 14

Mission Callsigns: CSM: Kitty Hawk LM: Antares Type: Manned Lunar Landing Launch: 31 Jan '71 Return: 9 Feb '71 Duration: 9 Days, 2 Mins. Insignia:

Apollo 14 made its lunar landing on February 5 in the Fra Mauro formation; the original target of the aborted Apollo 13 mission. The lunar decent was almost auto-aborted due to a fault with the LM computer, fixed by Mitchell with only moments to spare. During the two lunar EVAs, Moon rocks were collected and several surface experiments, including seismic studies, were performed. Shepard famously hit two golf balls on the lunar surface with a makeshift club he had brought from Earth.

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Apollo 14 rolls out of the VAB on a gigantic crawler-transporter.


APOLLO 15

First Lunar Roving Vehicle.

Crew

N: David Scott P: Commander B: 6 Jun '32 D: NA M: Gemini 8 Apollo 9 Apollo 15

Spacecraft

N: P: B: D: M:

Alfred Worden CSM Pilot 7 Feb '32 NA Apollo 15

N: James Irwin P: LM Pilot B: 17 Mar '30 D: 8 Aug '91 M: Apollo 15

Mission Callsigns: CSM: Endeavour LM: Falcon Type: Manned Lunar Landing Launch: 26 Jul '71 Return: 7 Aug '71 Duration: 12 Days, 7 Hrs. Insignia:

Apollo 15 was highly successful, with a total of 18½ hours of EVA carried out on the Moon - longer than any previous mission. This enabled the completion of many more scientific experiments helped by the addition of the new Lunar Roving Vehicle allowing Scott and Irwin to travel further from the LM than earlier missions. At the same time Worden conducted further experiments in Lunar Orbit. Apollo 15 came on the anniversary of MR-3 marking only 10 years from the first American manned space mission.

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Irwin, the LM and the LRV.


APOLLO 16

Crew

N: John Young P: Commander B: 24 Sep '30 D: NA M: Gemini 3 Gemini 10 Apollo 10 Apollo 16

Spacecraft

N: P: B: D: M:

Ken Mattingly CSM Pilot 17 Mar '36 NA Apollo 16 STS-4 STS-51-C

N: Charles Duke P: LM Pilot B: 3 Oct '35 D: NA M: Apollo 16

Mission Callsigns: CSM: Casper LM: Orion Manned Lunar Landing Type: 16 Apr '72 Launch: Return: 27 Apr '72 Duration: 11 Days, 2 Hrs. Insignia:

Having had a successful journey despite one or two problems with the LM Young and Duke landed on the Moon 104 hours into the mission. They spent three days on the lunar surface, during which they conducted three moonwalks, totalling 20 hours and 14 minutes. The pair also drove the Lunar Roving Vehicle a total of 16.6 miles. The landing spot in the highlands was chosen to gather geologically older lunar material than previous missions, disproving volcanic activity on the Moon.

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Young and Duke take a drive to Stone Mountain.


APOLLO 17

The Final Manned Mission to the Moon

Crew

N: E. Cernan P: Commander B: 14 Mar '34 D: NA M: Gemini 9-A Apollo 10 Apollo 17

Spacecraft

N: P: B: D: M:

Ronald Evans CSM Pilot 10 Nov '33 7 Apr '90 Apollo 17

N: Jack Schmitt P: LM Pilot B: 3 Jul '35 D: NA M: Apollo 17

Mission Callsigns: CSM: America LM: Challenger Type: Manned Lunar Landing Launch: 7 Dec '72 Return: 19 Dec '72 Duration: 12 Days, 14 Hrs. Insignia:

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Whilst Evans remained in lunar orbit above in the CSM Cernan and Schmitt spent just over three days on the lunar surface in the Taurus-Littrow valley, conducting three moonwalks, during which they collected lunar samples and deployed scientific instruments. Their main scientific aim was similar to that of Apollo 16, to prove or disprove that volcanic activity was responsible for geographic formations on the Moons surface. Apollo 17 remains the most recent manned Moon landing and also the last time humans have travelled beyond low Earth orbit.


Earth during the final voyage to the Moon.


I’m on the surface; and, as I take man’s last step from the surface, back home for some time to come - but we believe not too long into the future - I’d like to just say what I believe history will record. That America’s challenge of today has forged man’s destiny of tomorrow. And, as we leave the Moon at Taurus-Littrow, we leave as we came and, God willing, as we shall return, with peace and hope for all mankind. “Godspeed the crew of Apollo 17.”


The Moon during Apollo 17’s journey back to Earth.


THE US, EU, RUSSIA, JAPAN, INDIA, IRAN AND CHINA ALL HAVE PLANS TO RECOMMENCE MANNED SPACE EXPLORATION OUTSIDE OF LOW EARTH ORBIT DURING THE 2020s.


To The Moon