Luis de Sousa Data Experience March 2016
INTRODUCTION The project ‘Data For Experience’ considers how technology has allowed humans to access and interpret data in ways that could have not been imagined before. Nowadays, one can access enormous amounts of information and transform it into something readable and possibly meaningful in relatively easy ways, which makes one wonder how it may evolve in the future. We increasingly realise that there is information being generated everywhere and the challenge now is how can translate it into something tangible. In this project we were asked to utilise raw data, decrypt it and finally generate a design outcome that promotes an experience and a connection to its user. ‘Data For Experience’ started as a group project during the initial research period, becoming individual afterwards.
Discover & Define
Initial Research & Brainstorm
Creating an Overall System
How to Find Stability
Defining a Concept
Developing the Concept
Refining the Product
Testing / Prototyping
Creating a Brand
Service & Journey Map
DISCOVER & DEFINE Discover & Define
Initial Research & Brainstorm
With our group mind map, the key areas we identified were: - Behaviours (human) - Health - Home - Nutrition - Social - Travel - Work The mind map, not only helped us understanding and connecting different areas, but also to see how each topic could be influenced by others (ex: lack of sleep can be related to poor nutrition and a stressful work day, etc.).
INITIAL RESEARCH & BRAINSTORM On the first day of our project we started by doing some desk research in groups in order to identify areas where data could be generated. We quickly realised that information could be found in many daily activities so we decided to brainstorm and make a group mind map. This map helped us identify key areas and understand how these connected together. Inside each key area, there were many related topics.
At the end of the day, we got together as a class and made a brainstorm session with the findings generated by each group. After the activity, each group picked the desired area to pursue. Our group chose personal state of mind as the topic to explore.
Our group chose personal state of mind as the area to explore. How can the data improve personal well-being and its relationship with oneself?
GATHERING DATA: An Ethnography Kit As we needed to research and gather information around our topic, we had an ethnography workshop to help us identify the appropriate method and tools for our group. After the workshop, we developed our own ethnography kit, which consisted of a set of closed questions and another set of open questions: each of these would help us generate both quantitative and qualitative data respectively. Simultaneously, we also created small cards to be carried around during the day and to be used in a case of a sudden mood change, whether if it was caused by a specific situation or not. These kits were distributed amongst our class, friends and family. As we had questions related to cultural backgrounds and weather, we also sent the kit to people abroad in order to see how their opinion could differ. Finally we agreed to maintain a personal diary where we would breakdown our days and the feelings associated to each moment. We also committed to try to update it every hour, so the thoughts and feeling would be fresh in our heads. At the end, we could grab the data acquired from the diary, and make a feeling user journey in order to understand when our sentiments were stabilised or oscillating.
The outcome of the kits was very rich: not only did we receive a lot of interesting feedback, but we also gained many insights. In order to interpret the results, we organised them all by topics and started the affinitising process. This method allowed us to organise the information further, generate additional insights and most importantly, areas of opportunity.
Once the areas of opportunity were defined, we made a presentation to the class where we shared them, and also determined which one each of us would follow individually. I chose to follow the idea of incorporating our experiences and relations in our daily activities in order to overcome negative feelings. 8
The following week, we had an infographics workshop and its purpose was to help us acquire some basic graphic knowledge and above all, to understand how we could graphically represent the data we had gathered. We started by learning a brief history of infographics, followed by some contemporary influences that we could use for inspiration. We then learned about good practices and the individual variables, such as position, size, shape, colour, structure, etc. After learning about the theory, we moved on to a practical exercise that would hopefully inspire us in our own project. It consisted of developing a platform (webmobile, physical, etc.) and an audience to represent qualitative data in such a way that could induce a qualitative effect.
I developed a way to visually represent what made people happy or sad. As these are things that happen inside our head, I decided to make a brain crossed by a line, where everything above it meant happiness and below sadness. I then coloured certain parts of the brain with different colour tones and sizes, each of them representing a topic that influenced our mood. This imagery was represented in a webinteractive form: every time one clicked on a shape a sentence with a qualitative insight would show up. The idea was that this could be a platform where users might see their state of mind and identify what was affecting them more at a specific moment, thus making them more aware about themselves and the issue in need to be tackled.
This workshop helped me identifying a graphical style for the project, but most importantly it made me consider the idea of allowing people to understand why they could be feeling certain things in certain moments, thus reflecting on their own issues and possibly on how to improve them. 10
Creating an Overall System
How to Find Stability
Defining a Concept
Developing the Concept
Refining the Product
Testing / Prototyping
Creating a Brand
In order to understand what makes people happy or sad, and most importantly why these are only momentary situations— especially the happy ones—I had to understand what is, indeed, happiness. How can we classify happy moments and why doesn’t the feeling last longer? We often obtain things we desired and once we have them, the fulfilment is brief. Could I make it last longer or at least make these moments even more valuable? In order to find plausible answers to these questions, I researched about the psychology and reasoning behind happiness, also reading opinions of experts in the area.
Daniel Kahneman: The Riddle of Experience vs. Memory Source: TED
In order to illustrate the difference between memory and real experience, Kahneman gives the example of the two patients having a colonoscopy: while patient A’s intervention only lasted 10 minutes, it ended in great pain; for patient B it lasted 20 minutes, however the second half was less painful. In terms of real experience, patient B suffered more pain than patient A, however the memory will be worse for A, as it ended more abruptly than B, that had a quieter ending to the procedure. 14
Daniel Kahneman is a psychologist and an Economical Sciences Nobel Prize. Amongst other things he is known for his study Behavioural Economics. In this TED talk, he talks about how our memories affect our daily reality and future decisions. He explains that, as humans, we are constantly experiencing things, yet we easily forget them afterwards. We tend to remember the different experiences (new ones) and the bad ones. He then talks about how happiness is generated from a confusion about experience and memory and that it ends up to become an illusion that people tend to focus on as an achievement. According to the psychologist, we make decisions based on our remembering-self, a type of story-teller of our memories, rather than the real experiences he had.
Barry Schwartz is also a psychologist and in this talk he claims that the more choice we have, the more confused we become. According to him, if we have more options, we will consequently have more things to regret about the option we took. His idea to be happier is to lower expectations and simplify things. In order to illustrate his claim, he provides us with the example of our contemporary work environment that is surrounded by technology that allows us to work anywhere and anytime: the consequence of such facility is that even in leisure times, people tend to think if they should reply to that e-mail or answer that call, thus making them more worried and accountable for something that they should not be at that particular moment.
Barry Schwartz: The Paradox of Choice Source: TED
Dan Gilbert is also a psychologist and writer and in his talk he mentions the problem of over expectations for the future. According to him, people can be just as happy buy not getting what they wanted initially. Like Barry Schwartz, he believes that when people have the choice, they kill themselves trying to take the right decision. For Gilbert, uncertainty is the worse obstacle towards peace of mind. Dan Gilbert: The Surprising Science of Happiness Source: TED
These talks gave me deeper understanding about happiness and made me see how I could develop my opportunity and generate a concept. Rather than aiming for happiness, I should aim for peace of mind and stability in our emotions. In simple terms, the idea should be to overcome the negative by providing the tools to digest it. 15
CREATING AN OVERALL SYSTEM
With the inspiration acquired before, I started working on a system that would allow people to stabilise their emotions and overcome negative feelings. This system could collect data from things that the userâ€™s phone or smart band is able to gather (heart rate, physical activity, calendar, sleep times, etc.) along with a profile defined by the user. The system would then identify the negative from the positive and along with the help of externally connected artefacts it would possibly help the user to improve their state of mind.
HOW TO FIND STABILITY?
As I had now a basic idea for an overall system, I needed to understand which methods and tools could be applied to create an artefact and effectively help the user. In order to achieve that, I looked at the tools employed to overcome cases of sadness such as depression and traumatic situations. Although these were stronger approaches then what I was aiming, they could clearly provide more insights around the subject. Amongst the findings, the ideas below were the ones that related more to my investigation area and project.
How to cure depression: Everything starts with progressive steps. It needs to start slowly and then build up to something bigger. One cannot expect too much from day one. Cultivate support relationships:
- Turn to family and friends that make people feel loved
- Keep up with social activities despite the unwillingness to do it
- Support Groups for depression
Exercises that are moderately intense, continuous and rhythmic Challenge negative-thinking:
- Try to think outside of oneself
- Allow oneself to be less perfect
- Keep a negative thought diary and later review and reflect on it
Do enjoyable things
- Relaxation techniques (yoga, meditation, deep breathing, etc)
- Take care of a pet
How to deal with traumatic stress: Seek comfort and support:
These insights were very useful as they made me realise that most of the techniques applied were small things that could be fitted in an everyday routine, thus becoming a habit to the user on long term and consequently create a more positive personality.
- re-establish a routine
- Challenge the sense of helplessness
Acknowledge and accept feelings
- Donâ€™t force healing process, be patient with recovery
Make stress reduction a priority:
- Relaxation activities (yoga, meditation, walking, etc.)
- Schedule time for activities that bring joy
- Sleep 17
INITIAL CONCEPTS With the information acquired from the research of happiness and the methods to make the system work, I started working on early concepts and developing stories for each of them. Inner Voice
Inspired by the movie “Her” (Spike Jonze, 2013) this concept is about listening to our own inner voice: a voice that helps and guides us in difficult situations.
“Her” (Spike Jonze, 2013)
When the user enters in an area that she doesn’t like, the system detects it and the voice activates. The voice will say something simple and based on the user’s preferences such as “the weather will be good this afternoon, perhaps you could go for a walk on the beach after work”. The idea would be to generate another thought in the user’s head that would distract him from that moment, thus improving her mood.
“Her” (Spike Jonze, 2013)
“Her” (Spike Jonze, 2013)
The user has a problem at work and gets very nervous. A couple of minutes later the voice activates and says: “I detected a stressful event at work. Try to remain calm and don’t worry too much. Why don’t we talk about it later when you can think more clearly?” Later on, the user is at home and looks at stress chart on his phone. The voice then helps him to put things in perspective and overcome the issue.
The idea of these contacts is to change light according to the user’s mood. In this situation, the user doesn’t like grey weather so the contacts change the light effect in order to provide more colour to the day, thus making the user happier and relaxed.
In the second scenario, the user is at work and cannot concentrate, as there are many distractions around. The system detects it, so the lenses become blurry except for the area where the user is focusing his sight, thus eliminating unnecessary visual clutter.
Massage Ball This concept is about using physical relaxation techniques to help the user balance the emotional level. In the first example, the user is on a train and feels sleepy: the systems detects it and suggests a massage with the ball on the hand, where it stimulates pressure points that generate more energy. In the second story, the user is under a lot of stress at work, therefore the system suggests a massage on the neck, that can be done while multitasking. The user feels more relaxed and focused to deal with the workload.
Writing as Therapy
In this concept the idea is to use writing as a means to express and deal with negative emotions. In this scenario, the user feels sad. The system detects it and suggests the user to write down those feelings. Once the user has completed the task, the system asks the user to throw paper away, along with all those negative feelings inside it. This process gives the user a sense of liberation, thus improving his mood.
Tamagoshi-me Tamagoshi-me works as a virtual pet that the user has to take care of. However, that pet is actually the user himself. In this situation, Tamagoshi-me detects that the energy levels are low and asks the user to take a five min break outside. After the user takes the break, Tamagoshi-me feels much better, and so does the user.
DEFINING A CONCEPT
I started wondering about glasses as
From the initial concepts, I was very eager to pursue the one about the contacts and light changes. Although I felt it had potential, it still had a lot of issues, especially when it came to using something so invading such as contact lenses, as noted during one of the tutorials. I quickly realised that the idea of contacts might indeed be too extremist for people to adhere too. In that sense, I started wondering about glasses, however these once again raised issues about people who donâ€™t like wearing glasses in public, or even just the obligation of having glasses the whole time. At first, I was confused with this situation, which made it even more challenging considering choosing a design direction, therefore I sought user feedback. One of the things that came up was that rather than focusing on the whole journey, to consider just a part of the day. With that in mind, I started looking at parts of the day where people could more emotional in general, but also where lighting could be poor.
an alternative to contacts, however it would not be an ideal or enjoyable solution for people to use the whole day. After being advised about thinking of specific moments of the day, rather than whole journey, I focused on work environments where lighting is usually poor.
One of the most evident areas was work environments: these are spaces where, not only a person spends a lot of time, but also have usually poor light and the user has no control of it whatsoever.
Source - images.room4debate.com Example of typical office environment: constant white light, which makes it difficult for workers to identify the part of the day.
Source - theofficegroup.co.uk Good office environment: daylight allows employees to maintain a regular cycle.
In order to validate the concept I was trying to define, I started researching about the effects of light and its “The impact of light and colour on psychological mood: a cross-cultural study of indoor work environments”, by Küller R, Ballal S, Laike T, Mikellides B, Tonello G
connection with our emotional wellbeing.
“Incandescent affect: Turning on the hot emotional system with bright light”, by Alison Jing Xu and Aparna A Labroo.
In the study “The impact of light and colour on psychological mood: a cross-cultural study of indoor work environments”, the authors Küller R, Ballal S, Laike T, Mikellides B, Tonello G claim that lighting affects the mood of employees in a work environment. Although their study was performed in different countries with different climates and latitudes, they arrived to the same conclusion: that people’s mood was affected by dark light, but if this were too bright, they would become affected again.
My first finding was a paper called Incandescent affect: Turning on the hot emotional system with bright light, written by Alison Jing Xu and Aparna A Labroo. This paper identifies that the more light an environment has, the more emotional people become, whether for positive or negative things. According to the writers, people’s ability to take certain decisions can be very influenced under bright daylight, and also “turning down the light, effortless and unassuming as it may seem, can reduce emotionality in everyday decisions, most of which take place under bright light.”
“It became evident that the light and colour of the workplace itself also had an influence on the mood of persons working there.”
These two studies made me validate the point that light affects one’s mood, however it made me realise that the most important thing is to have an optimal amount of light, rather than just bright light. 21
“A Literature Review of the Effects of Natural Light on Building Occupants”, L. Edwards and P. Torcellini In this study, the writers explain the effects of light in body. According to them, “humans are affected both psychologically and physiologically by the different spectrums of light”. Under daylight, people have improved mood, enhanced morale and lower fatigue, however under poor lighting conditions, the inability to perceive alters our mood and energy. The authors claim that our nervous and endocrine systems are directed regulated by light. “The body uses light for metabolic processes similar to water and food. Natural light stimulates essential biological functions in the brain.”
Benefits of using a full spectrum of bright light in places where daylight cannot be integrated:
- Adjusts internal clock
- Improves productivity
- Less work accidents
- Mental performance
- Improvement in sleep quality
- Increase of morale in night shifts
Stimulated & Regulated by Light
This study made me realise how important the appropriate amount of light at the right time is to a person’s wellbeing, but mots importantly how this not only affects one’s state of mind at work, but also at home afterwards. 22
Philips Hue Lightbulb
Finally, I looked at the Philips Hue Lights, as this product is the only widespread available solution on the market, and it was developed for consumers seeking ideal lighting. Investigating this product was important for me, as it made me see that there is a market place for people looking to improve their lighting conditions, but also how successful it is and how it’s customers are satisfied. It also allowed me to identify the constraints they have, such as the fact that these are not based on user’s needs or emotions, but rather on what they desire at that moment. Phillips Hue controls the lighting in a house, allowing the user to adjust it for the many times or occasions of the day. It is controlled by an app on the user’s phone. It only works on Wi-Fi, which means it cannot work offline. The lights are 100% manually controlled by the user, that is, the system cannot take into account the user’s needs but rather his preferences.
With Philips Hue Light Beyond, the brand already reveals a preoccupation around the user’s needs and not simply his preferences. It is based on several activities during the day (rest, work, etc.).
DEVELOPING THE CONCEPT After conducting the aforementioned research, I started working on a more refined concept which consisted on a user’s own lighting system that changes according to her needs. This could be applied in a work environment, or spaces where natural light is poor, thus making people happier or satisfied with the surrounding environment. Rather than being controlled by the user, the embedded sensor would detect emotions and act accordingly. It would allow the user to deal with distinct emotions during the day, but would also learn from the user’s habits and preferences.
Lenses that adapt colour according to user’s needs Sensor that detects heart rythm changes and acts accordingly
The glasses identify the userâ€™s needs and change colour accordingly. These allow and help the user to deal with distinct emotions during the day, but also learn from the his habits and preferences. 25
SYSTEM With the concept defined, I revisited the system developed before and refined it in order to match the areas the concept was eventually going to cover. The idea was to create a system that allowed the user to create a profile and that would be fed by the sensor embedded in the glasses. It would also give the user the choice to alter any preference or colour at any given moment, but most importantly it would track the userâ€™s emotions throughout the day, so these could be revisited and reflected later on. This refinement allowed me to better visualise how the product could work not only for the user, but also for the system.
Philips Hue App Similarly to Philips Hue, the user would be given freedom to create and edit colour profiles or themes.
It would also allow the user to see the progress throughout the day, thus making the user refelect on his emotions.
Apple Music App 26
Like Apple Music, the conifguration should be simple
TECHNOLOGY In order to see what was available in term of technology in glasses, I investigated existing smart glasses in the market. Like Google Glasses, these devices are only focused on replicating the functionality of a smartphone, or possibly a small computer. In terms of aesthetics, they have a strong “high-tech” appeal that makes them seen more as technological products, rather than glasses. These devices made me understand how I wished to position my product and in terms of aesthetics and market niche, which in this case was in an opposite direction. Nevertheless the most important consideration was that it was indeed possible to display colour and information in lenses, thus making the product technologically viable.
While looking at more ways to make the technology of the lenses possible, I found a type of glass called Smartglass, that was developed by a company of the same name, and has the ability to change colour and opacity according to its user’s desires.
SmartGlass fittted in the skylight of CERN’s Globe for Science 27
INVESTIGATING GLASSES In order to understand more about glasses and gain more insights about how to develop the appropriate artefact, I looked at their history, from their invention until their eventual mass production. I also looked at their cultural and social impact and how they evolved from utilitarian items to a fashion accessory. Another aspect I looked was the rituals and small everyday situations that are common to people that wear glasses: from steamy lenses, to walking in the rain with glasses, or adjusting them on the nose. This investigation gave me a deeper insight about the cultural implications around different types of glasses, but also how I could generate touch-points of interactions based on the rituals people have with the item.
Glasses through 20th Century Source: museumofvision.org
This investigation gave me a deeper insight about the cultural implications around different types of glasses, but also how I could generate touch-points of interactions based on the rituals people have with the item. 28
INVESTIGATING SOUND As the idea was to create a tool for work, it made sense to introduce features that would be relevant to the work environment and that could help in both concentration and relaxation. There is a strong belief that music helps focus on different tasks (ex: the much known Mozart Effect). As a result there are many playlists created for different activities, or several sound therapy or white noise machines. In order to validate that thought, I tested on myself thematic playlists for three days, according to my different activities. These proved to work effectively, especially the ones developed for concentration/work. While testing the sound on earphones, I realised these became uncomfortable after a few hours, thus making me identify the need for developing comfortable sound outputs. This test made me see how important it was to incorporate sound into the user experience, not only for the purposes explained above, but also to support the simple ritual through which many people enjoy listening to music while working.
I tested on myself thematic playlists for three days, according to my different activities. These proved to work effectively, especially the ones developed for concentration/work, nevertheless the earbuds were uncomfortable with time.
Testing music made me see how important it was to incorporate sound into the user experience, not only for concentration or relaxtion purposes, but also to support the simple ritual through which many people enjoy listening to music while working. 29
REFINING THE PRODUCT With the information acquired from the rituals around glasses, I started refining the experience and developed what the touchpoints would be for different functionalities and moments.
Take a Break
When the user needs to focus at work, the lenses become blurry except in the focus area, therefore shutting down all eventual distractions in the surrounding area.
When the user needs a break, the sensor identifies it and the lenses become steamy/ blurry. The only way to get them back is to take the glasses off and clean the lenses with a cloth, as if it was real steam. This interaction makes the user rest the eyes from the computer screen and clear the mind for a minute.
Do Not Disturb
When the user does not wish to be interrupted, a little light is activated, which makes it noticeable to other co-workers and avoids unnecessary disruptions. This light is activated in the same way as when the user adjusts the glasses in the nose. 30
Functionalities and buttons in the watch:
- Adjust colour
- Adjust Sound
- Do Not Disturb Light
- Stop Colour
- Stop Sound
- Charging Port
In order to develop a prototype, I started sketching the glasses in order to understand where certain inputs would go, such as the sensor, the speakers or the battery.
TESTING / PROTOTYPING
I also developed quick paper prototypes that helped me testing the location and interaction of the distintc features of the glasses. This method was more useful than sketching per se as I could easily understand what worked well. It also helped me build the final prototype faster, as I had detected already the issues that needed to be resolved before going into the final model. For the final prototype I used some existing frames along with clay to make the space dedicated to the battery, and also manually carved the places of the buttons and branding details.
APP One of the concerns regarding the app was that the system and product itself were so complex that it required serious simplification to facilitate the user with an enjoyable and intuitive experience.
The app has a simple setup process that asks the user a few questions and then displays some images where she is prompted to select her favourite options. With that information the system will determine which are the userâ€™s working conditions and ideal lighting. Once the app is setup, the user can adjust the colour, choose a pre-defined theme, listen to music and finally review their progress throughout the day.
CREATING A BRAND The more developed the prototype and the app were, the more I considered the whole product as a brand. During the development I kept wondering how the service would look like, where and how could people buy the glasses and what could be the aesthetic and communication of the whole product. In that sense, I took the decision to create a brand and a service around it.
I named the brand Nikko, which means daylight in Japanese, the land of the rising sun.
As with any real product, I developed a box for the glasses and a packaging for the whole product.
By creating a brand, I was able not only to generate a service and lifecycle around the product, but also to create a deeper connection with it: I was finally able to fully understand its potential and imagine it in a real life environment.
How to buy the glasses: 1 - User goes online and checks website 2 - Registers and chooses which of the models she prefers, by trying them on the virtual mirror 3 - If the user has any prescription, the system will ask to upload the necessary documents or to provide the contact of the optician, so they build in the prescription on the lenses. 4 - User receives the glasses at home and is ready to set them up with the app. 36
I developed a website for the brand that would not only represent the initial journey of the service, but also make the brand more credible and visually aligned through to its different interfaces and items.
Service & Journey Map
FINAL PRODUCT The Final Product consists of the glasses and the app that interacts with them. The glasses connect via Bluetooth with the users phone and have embedded speakers on the side. They are rechargeable inside the box that is connected to a wall plug on its turn. After ordering Nikko online, the user receives a package with the glasses, box, cloth, charger and an instructions booklet.
BRAND STATEMENT The Internet changed the way our world works and how information is shared and processed. Nowadays a big part of the devices we interact with are connected and constantly generating and sharing information. Another fact is that all the others will also be connected in a near future. While such innovation changed and shaped our lives, the extent of the consequences are not fully understood by the majority of its users. People have unknowingly and most probably involuntarily gave up on their privacy and individuality. At Nikko we believe that technology and data are great and have the capability to improve and make our lives easier. Nevertheless, we also believe that each and everyone is entitled to his or her privacy and own uniqueness. We believe that people should only share what they want and with whom they want. With that in mind, our commitment is to ensure our customersâ€™ data is personal and not shared unless by them on their own free will. We are still in the early days of this technological journey and there is no doubt that data will provide us with incredible knowledge and insights, when refined to fulfill that matter. There are opportunities to come that at the moment seem impossible for our contemporary reality. Despite all possible achievements, the most important thing to keep in mind is to ensure full transparency about data collection and further use.
CONCLUSION I found this project very interesting and relevant to our current reality, when we consider that now, more than ever before, information is widely available and is simultaneously more valuable than it ever was. Companies keep seeking new ways of generating products and experiences with new types of data. The biggest problem with these new inventions is that, as users, we donâ€™t really understand anymore the type of personal information we are providing or keeping private. As this project tackled this sensitive area, I found that I had to create something according to my beliefs and opinions around the topic. While developing the product, I had to constantly ensure I was taking into account what I considered to be the right approach, and properly justifying the reasoning behind each type of information that was needed to create the experience. Throughout this project, I constantly focused on creating a meaningful experience rather than on how to manipulate data to perhaps add more features or even find new discoveries. I particularly enjoyed researching about the effects daylight potentially have in our mood, as it not only validated my concept, but also gave me the security to know I was following a true insight. During the prototyping stage, it really helped me to make these paper prototypes and understand which touchpoints were more appropriate for the experience with the product.
Creating a brand around the product was fundamental despite the extra work it gave me, as it made me envision the idea as something real and almost tangible. Overall, this was a very enjoyable project, especially once I defined the concept of lighting applied to a work environment. In terms of further development, I would like to resolve a few issues, especially when it comes to the technology in the glasses, as I believe it would be beneficial to have a more full understanding of how these might work, individually and in relationship with the remaining components. Another thing would have been the service itself, as there were aspects that were not considered, such as people that need to change their prescription every few months, and how the service would accommodate that.
Track Your Day