Page 1

GRAMMAR AND WRITING

I N

E N G L I S H

teacher edition


Introduction: Welcome to Voyages in English .

. OV-1 Program Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . OV-2 How to Use This Program . . . . . . . . . OV-16 Independent Writing Centers . . . . . . . . OV-18

PA R T

1 Grammar Teacher Preparation SECTION

1

Sentences

2

1

The Sentence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Capital Letters and End Marks . . . . . . . . . 4 Words Working Together . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Telling Sentences . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Commanding Sentences . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Asking Sentences . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Exclaiming Sentences . . . . . . . . . . . 15 The Naming Part of a Sentence . . . . . . . . 19 The Action Part of a Sentence . . . . . . . . . 20 Conjunctions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Prepositions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Sentence Challenge . . . . . . . . . . . . 26

Teacher Preparation SECTION

1a–1b

29a–29b

Nouns

29

Nouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Proper Nouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Days of the Week . . . . . . . . . . . The Months of the Year . . . . . . . . . . . Writing Dates Using Commas . . . . . . . . . Abbreviations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Initials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Common Nouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . Singular and Plural Nouns . . . . . . . . . . Irregular Plural Nouns . . . . . . . . . . . Collective Nouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nouns in a Series . . . . . . . . . . . . Possessive Nouns . . . . . . . . . . . . Singular Possessive Nouns . . . . . . . . . . Plural Possessive Nouns . . . . . . . . . . . Compound Words . . . . . . . . . . . . Noun Challenge . . . . . . . . . . . . .

30 32 35 37 39 40 41 42 44 46 48 50 52 53 54 56 60

Contents  •  iii


Teacher Preparation SECTION

3

Verbs

63

Action Verbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Verbs in the Present Tense . . . . . . . . . . Has and Have . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Verbs in the Past Tense . . . . . . . . . . . Helping Verbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Verbs That Tell What Is Happening Now . . . . . . Verbs Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Saw and Seen . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ate and Eaten, Gave and Given . . . . . . . . . Went and Gone, Did and Done . . . . . . . . . Am and Is . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Are . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Was and Were . . . . . . . . . . . . . Verbs That Tell What Will Happen . . . . . . . . Using Vivid Verbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . Adverbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Verb Challenge . . . . . . . . . . . . .

64 66 67 68 72 73 75 77 78 79 80 81 82 85 87 89 90

Teacher Preparation SECTION

4

iv  •  Contents

63a–63b

Pronouns and Adjectives

93a–93b 93

Pronouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 The Pronouns I and Me . . . . . . . . . . . 98 Using I in Sentences . . . . . . . . . . . 100 Possessive Adjectives and Pronouns . . . . . . . 102 Indefinite Pronouns . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 Reflexive Pronouns . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 Pronouns Review . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 Adjectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 Sensory Words . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 Adjectives That Compare . . . . . . . . . . 116 A, An, and The . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118 This and That . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 These and Those . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 Choosing the Right Adjective . . . . . . . . . 121 Adjectives Review . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 Adjective or Adverb . . . . . . . . . . . . 126 Adjectives in Poems . . . . . . . . . . . 127 Pronoun and Adjective Challenge . . . . . . . 128


Teacher Preparation SECTION

5

Contractions

6

131

Contractions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132 Contractions Review . . . . . . . . . . . 133 Contractions with Not . . . . . . . . . . . 134 Contractions with Am and Is . . . . . . . . . 140 Contractions with Are . . . . . . . . . . . 141 Contractions with Have . . . . . . . . . . . 143 Contractions with Has . . . . . . . . . . . 144 Contractions Review . . . . . . . . . . . 146 Contractions with Had . . . . . . . . . . . 148 Contraction Challenge . . . . . . . . . . . 150

Teacher Preparation SECTION

131a–131b

Word Study

153a–153b 153

Synonyms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154 Synonyms Review . . . . . . . . . . . . 159 Antonyms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160 Synonyms and Antonyms Review . . . . . . . . 165 Word Categories . . . . . . . . . . . . 166 Context Clues . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168 Prefixes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170 Suffixes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173 Root Words . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176 Homophones . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178 Homophones Review . . . . . . . . . . . 183 Word Study Challenge . . . . . . . . . . . 184

Contents  •  v


Teacher Preparation SECTION

7

vi  •  Contents

Study Skills

187a–187b 187

Alphabetical Order . . . . . . . . . . . . 188 Dictionary Skills . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191 Parts of a Book . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195 Fiction and Nonfiction . . . . . . . . . . . 196 Using the Internet . . . . . . . . . . . . 199 Study Skills Challenge . . . . . . . . . . . 200


PA R T

2 Writing Teacher Preparation CHAPTER

1

204a–204b

Personal Narratives

Get Ready to Write: Personal Narrative . Writer’s Workshop . . . . . . .

. .

. .

. .

Teacher Preparation CHAPTER

2 3

Friendly Letters

Get Ready to Write: Friendly Letter . . . . . . . Writer’s Workshop . . . . . . . . . . . .

How-to Articles

Get Ready to Write: How-to Article . . . . . . . Writer’s Workshop . . . . . . . . . . . .

4

Descriptions

Get Ready to Write: Description . Writer’s Workshop . . . . .

Teacher Preparation CHAPTER

5 6

216 218 222

228 230 234

240a–240b . .

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

240 242 246

252a–252b

Book Reports

252 Get Ready to Write: Book Report . . . . . . . . 254 Writer’s Workshop . . . . . . . . . . . . 258

Teacher Preparation CHAPTER

204 206 210

228a–228b

Teacher Preparation CHAPTER

. .

216a–216b

Teacher Preparation CHAPTER

. .

264a–264b

Research Reports

Get Ready to Write: Research Report . . . . . . Writer’s Workshop . . . . . . . . . . . .

264 266 272

Rubrics and BLMs . . . . . . . . . . . Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . Scope and Sequence . . . . . . . . . . Common Core Correlations . . . . . . . . Proofreading Marks Chart . . . . . Inside Back

T-278 T-292 T-295 T-296 T-301 Cover

Contents  •  vii


SECTION PLANNER

1

Sentences

SECTION FOCUS • The Sentence • Capital Letters and End Marks • Words Working Together • Telling Sentences • Commanding Sentences • Asking Sentences • Exclaiming Sentences • The Naming Part of a Sentence • The Action Part of a Sentence • Conjunctions • Prepositions

SUPPORT MATERIALS Writing Chapter 1 Personal Narratives Loyola Press Online Assessment System www.voyagesinenglish.com Lesson Plans www.voyagesinenglish.com

GRAMMAR FOR GROWN-UPS Strictly Sentences A sentence consists of several parts of speech organized into a pattern that expresses a complete thought. Every sentence has two basic parts: the subject (naming part), which is the explicit or implied person, place, or thing talked about; and the predicate (action part), which is what the subject is, has, or does. A declarative (telling) sentence makes a statement and ends with a period. An interrogative (asking) sentence asks a question and ends with a question mark. An imperative (commanding) sentence gives a command and ends with a period. An exclamatory (exclaiming) sentence expresses strong emotion and ends with an exclamation point.

INDEPENDENT WRITING CENTER ACTIVITIES Writing Center Activities give students hands-on experience exploring grammar and writing concepts. Students can work independently or in small groups to practice integrating grammar and writing skills using various learning modalities. A range of Writing Center Activities appears on pages OV-18–OV-21 of the Teacher Edition.

CONNECT WITH LITERATURE

Consider using the following titles throughout the section to illustrate the grammar concept:

Hooray for Diffendoofer Day by Dr. Seuss CDB by William Steig

For more support on the grammar concepts, go to

voyagesinenglish.com . www.voyagesinenglish.com  •  Sentences  •  1a


Section Planner COMMON ERRORS Or “Where is the action part?” ERROR: Many children.

Some developing writers write sentence fragments rather than complete sentences. This error occurs because young writers often forget that all sentences must have a naming part (subject) and an action part (predicate).

CORRECT: Many children play soccer. ERROR: The funny dog.

As students write, remind them to check each sentence for a naming part and an action part. Explain that the action part tells what something is or does.

CORRECT: The funny dog does tricks.

DAILY MAINTENANCE 1. To begin each day, write an incorrect sentence on the board as shown (without edits).

4. Below the edited sentence, have students write the sentence again in its correct form.

2. Have students copy the sentence in their Daily Maintenance journals.

5. Call a volunteer to the board to show how he or she edited the sentence and wrote the correct one. Guide the student to make corrections as needed.

3. Ask students to consult the Proofreading Chart on the inside back cover of the student book and use the marks to edit the sentence.

DAILY EDITS Monday Sam woke up to a

noise

loud noiz. Ruby loves her

house

tree hous. i led the Thanksgiving Day parade john had a colorful flower

flowar garden.

1b  •  Section 1

Tuesday

Wednesday

Thursday was

Something was

Sam ran out

the loud noise

xploding!

the bak door

fireworks.

one night a storm

ruby cried over the

nocked it down.

smashed wood

exploding

back

Friday Sam sat down and

enjoyed

injoyed the show

Then she heard a

her dad already had

truk drive up?

new boards nails.

I even had a silver

then I took a

We marched

baton

wrong tern.

all way to the rivir!

Winter coming was

John did not want

so he Bought paints

Now hiz garden hangs

soon

to lus his garden

and painted a picture.

on the the wall.

knocked

a

I wore shiny uniform.

was

lose

truck

turn

and

the

river

his


PART

GRAMMAR SE

1

CTION

1 Sentences The Sentence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Capital Letters and End Marks . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Words Working Together . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Telling Sentences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Commanding Sentences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Asking Sentences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Exclaiming Sentences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 The Naming Part of a Sentence . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 The Action Part of a Sentence. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Conjunctions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Prepositions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Sentence Challenge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26

1


The Sentence OBJECTIVES • To recognize that a sentence is a complete thought • To use an end mark at the end of a sentence

DAILY MAINTENANCE Follow the directions on page 1b.

WARM-UP Find several pictures of children playing, eating, reading, etc. Cut the pictures in half so that only the child is showing and not the action. Display the pictures. ASK: Is something missing? Put the two pieces of the picture together. SAY: Now the picture shows a complete thought. A sentence tells a complete thought in words.

TEACH Guide students through the instruction and examples. SAY: The bear is not a complete sentence because it does not tell a complete thought. Point out that The bear ate the honey names the bear and says what the bear did. Ask students what this example says about the bear. (It ate honey.) SAY: The bear ate the honey is a complete sentence and should end with a period.

PRACTICE Read aloud the directions on page 2. Have students complete the page. Together go over the work.

sentence. ASK: What are some things the other animals might do? Write students’ responses without end marks on the board. Invite volunteers to add periods to the sentences on the board.

ASSESS Note which students had difficulty recognizing complete sentences. Provide those students with additional opportunities for review and practice.

Have students fold a sheet of paper in half. On the left side, ask them to draw a picture of themselves and write their name above the picture. On the right side, have them draw a picture of something they like and the words likes [animals]. above the picture. SAY: A sentence is a complete thought.

WRITING CONNECTION Use pages 204–215 of the Writing portion of the book. Emphasize the use of complete sentences in writing personal narratives.

COMMON CORE STANDARDS CCSS.ELA.L.2.2

Name The Sentence A sentence is a group of words that expresses a complete thought. This is not a complete sentence.

The bear This group of words is not a sentence because it does not tell anything about the bear. A period is not placed after these words. This is a complete sentence.

The bear ate the honey. This group of words is a sentence because it tells what the bear did. A sentence always ends with an end mark. A period ( ) is a kind of end mark.

.

Write an S next to each group of words that is a sentence. Put a period at the end of each sentence. 1. I made a cake 2. A kite 3. Jill gave the ball to Jenny

APPLY

4. Run and hide, Bill

Lead the class in reciting the poem on page 2. On the board, write The cat, The pig, The cow, The bird. ASK: Are these word groups complete sentences? (No.) Model how to make The cat a complete

5. My desk 6. I rode my bike 7. The dog 8. At home 9. We made our beds 10. This is a holiday 2

2  •  Section 1

RETEACH

• Section 1

A little black dot that you can see. Period is my name. A telling sentence ends with me, I play a telling game.


More About Sentences OBJECTIVE • To recognize that a sentence begins with a capital letter and ends with an end mark

DAILY MAINTENANCE Follow the directions on page 1b.

WARM-UP On the board, write the dog ran. Help students understand that the dog ran is a complete thought. Explain that capital letters let readers know that a sentence is beginning and that end marks let readers know that a sentence is ending. Have volunteers add a capital letter and an end mark to the sentence on the board.

TEACH

APPLY

Go over the instruction on page 3. When students have finished the exercise, ask them to share their answers by reading the sentences aloud, beginning each sentence by telling the capital letter and ending each sentence by telling the end mark.

Ask students to name three kinds of pets. List responses on the board. SAY: This is a list of things. Then ask students to name three actions. List responses in a second column on the board. SAY: These words tell what someone or something does. Ask a volunteer to write a complete sentence using one word from each list. Read aloud the sentences.

PRACTICE Read aloud the directions on page 3. Have students complete the page. Together go over the work.

ASSESS Note which students had difficulty recognizing complete sentences. Provide those students with additional opportunities for review and practice.

RETEACH Cut out simple pictures from magazines or print them from the Internet. Provide enough for each student to have one. Have students glue the picture to the top of a sheet of writing paper. Below it have them write a complete sentence about what they see in the picture.

Name More About Sentences A sentence begins with a capital letter. It ends with an end mark. Write these sentences correctly. Begin each sentence with a capital letter. Put a period at the end of each sentence.

WRITING CONNECTION Use pages 204–215 of the Writing portion of the book. Emphasize the use of complete sentences in writing personal narratives.

1. the dog eats its dinner

2. i love to go fishing

COMMON CORE STANDARDS CCSS.ELA.L.2.2

3. amal kicks the ball

4. we walk to school

5. brandon sweeps the floor

Sentences • 3

www.voyagesinenglish.com  •  Sentences  •  3


Capital Letters and End Marks OBJECTIVES • To begin sentences with capital letters • To use periods at the end of telling sentences

DAILY MAINTENANCE Follow the directions on page 1b.

WARM-UP On separate sticky notes, write ice slid The on .[period] penguin the Model arranging the words to form a complete sentence. (The penguin slid on the ice.) SAY: Every sentence begins with a capital letter and ends with an end mark, like a period.

RETEACH

APPLY On the board, invite volunteers to underline the capital letter and circle the end mark for each sentence from the Teach activity.

ASSESS Note which students had difficulty applying capitalization and using end marks. Provide those students with additional opportunities for review and practice.

While working in small groups, have students write complete sentences about each illustration on page 4. (The girl sings. The friends sit together. The boy reads a story.) Have volunteers read their sentences aloud.

WRITING CONNECTION Use pages 204–215 of the Writing portion of the book. Emphasize the use of complete sentences in writing personal narratives.

COMMON CORE STANDARDS CCSS.ELA.L.2.2

Name Capital Letters and End Marks Unscramble each group of words to make a sentence. Remember to add capital letters and periods.

TEACH On separate sentence strips, write 10 complete sentences without beginning capitalization or end marks. Cut 10 squares about an inch wide from a sheet of colored construction paper. Write on each square capital letter. Cut 10 circles from a sheet of different colored construction paper. Write on each circle end mark. Have volunteers place the construction-paper shapes on the sentence strips in the appropriate places. On the board, have different volunteers write the complete sentences, including capital letters and end marks.

1. sing to she likes

2. sit sofa the on we

3. book the reads he

4. eats cookies jesse the

5. dog i give bath the a

6. runs dog the fast

PRACTICE

7. pretty pony that is a

Read aloud the directions on page 4. Have students complete the page. Together go over the work.

8. flowers they fresh bring

4

4  •  Section 1

• Section 1


Words Working Together OBJECTIVE • To identify complete sentences

DAILY MAINTENANCE Follow the directions on page 1b.

WARM-UP Explain that all writing is made up of sentences and that sentences are made up of words. Review the concept of a complete sentence. Read aloud a paragraph from classroom reading material and point out the structure of each sentence (begins with a capital letter, tells a complete thought, ends with an end mark).

TEACH

APPLY

Write on the board the word groups the car, made a yellow cake, the fish swim away without capitalization or punctuation. Ask students to identify the word group that tells a complete thought (the fish swim away). Have volunteers add correct punctuation and capitalization. Then help students form the other word groups into complete sentences.

Ask students to write a complete sentence that begins with the word we. Have students evaluate their sentences by answering the following questions: Does it tell a complete thought? Does it start with a capital letter? Does it have an end mark? Ask volunteers to share their complete sentences after making any necessary corrections.

PRACTICE

ASSESS

Read aloud the directions on page 5. Have students complete the page. Together go over the work.

Note which students had difficulty recognizing complete sentences. Provide those students with additional opportunities for review and practice.

RETEACH

Name Words Working Together Words work together to build a sentence. Remember, a sentence is a group of words that expresses a complete thought. A

Have students use the words in the first column of Exercise B on page 5 as sentences starters. Invite volunteers to share their sentences with the class. Point out that each sentence expresses a complete thought.

Color the check mark next to each complete sentence.

WRITING CONNECTION

1. Aki goes to school.

Use pages 204–215 of the Writing portion of the book. Emphasize the use of complete sentences in writing personal narratives.

2. gets rabbits 3. Kylie sings with the radio. 4. Mario watches the movie.

COMMON CORE STANDARDS CCSS.ELA.L.2.1

5. eats an apple 6. Andy stops the

B

Match the words in the first list with the words in the second list to build a complete sentence. 1. The kids

rises.

2. My mom

plays hockey.

3. The moon

fly.

4. Birds

go to the park.

5. Kenji

has a green bag.

Sentences • 5

www.voyagesinenglish.com  •  Sentences  •  5


More Words Working Together OBJECTIVE • To identify complete sentences

DAILY MAINTENANCE Follow the directions on page 1b.

WARM-UP Have students draw their pet or a pet they would like to have and write a sentence underneath telling something about the pet. On the board, write Does it tell a complete thought? Does it start with a capital letter? Does it have an end mark?

TEACH Have students exchange drawings and sentences with a partner. Ask students to answer the three questions on the board about the sentences they receive. Tell students that if they answer no to any question, they should fix their partners’ sentences to make them correct.

ASSESS Note which students had difficulty building sentences. Provide those students with additional opportunities for review and practice.

Ask students to choose a word group from the left column of Exercise A on page 6. Have students make the incomplete sentence into a complete sentence by adding their own second part. Then have students choose a word group from the right column of Exercise B and make it into a complete sentence using their own words. Invite volunteers to share their sentences.

CCSS.ELA.L.2.1

Name More Words Working Together A

Match the words in the first list with the words in the second list to build a sentence. Put the correct letter on the line. The first one is done for you. 1. The happy children

Read aloud the directions on page 6. Have students complete the page. Together go over the work. B

Have students look around the room for complete sentences they see in print. Have students raise their hand when they find one. Call on a volunteer to read the sentence aloud. On the board write the sentence. Decide as a class whether it is a complete sentence or an incomplete sentence. Help students make any incomplete sentence complete.

6

6  •  Section 1

Use pages 204–215 of the Writing portion of the book. Emphasize the use of complete sentences in writing personal narratives.

COMMON CORE STANDARDS

RETEACH

PRACTICE

APPLY

WRITING CONNECTION

d

a. crashed against the rocks.

2. The baseball player

b. howled through the treetops.

3. A bitter cold wind

c. blazed in the fireplace.

4. Two large pine logs

d. clapped their hands.

5. The big white waves

e. hit a home run.

Match the words in the first list with the words in the second list to build a sentence. 1. Three baby robins

chased the little mouse.

2. The big red truck

sped across the sky.

3. My playful kitten

hung in the closet.

4. Jeff’s winter coat

slept in a nest.

5. A shiny silver plane

rumbled down the street.

• Section 1


Telling Sentences OBJECTIVES • To identify a telling sentence • To end a telling sentence with a period

DAILY MAINTENANCE Follow the directions on page 1b.

WARM-UP Ask volunteers to say one thing they did last night in the form of a complete sentence. SAY: These sentences are called telling sentences because each tells about something. The end mark for a telling sentence is a period.

TEACH

PRACTICE

Review what students have learned about a sentence (tells a complete thought, begins with a capital letter, has an end mark). Then go over the instruction and examples on page 7. Guide students to understand that the examples are complete sentences because they tell something, begin with a capital letter, and end with a period.

Read aloud the directions on page 7. Have students complete the page. Together go over the work. Read aloud the Writer’s Corner. Allow time for students to write their sentences. Invite volunteers to share their work.

APPLY Have students write a telling sentence about something imaginary that might have happened this morning. (A dragon got on the school bus.) Have students draw a picture to accompany the sentence. Invite volunteers to share their sentences and pictures.

ASSESS Note which students had difficulty recognizing a telling sentence. Provide those students with additional opportunities for review and practice.

Name Telling Sentences A telling sentence tells about something. A period ( ) is placed at the end of a telling sentence.

.

RETEACH

The honey is in the jar. The honey is sticky.

SAY: The right side of the room is the complete sentences side, and the left side is the incomplete sentences side. Move to the side of the room appropriate for each word group as I say it aloud. Read aloud the word groups on page 7.

Underline the complete telling sentence in each pair. Put a period at the end of each telling sentence.

1. Bob likes to fish

Does Bob like 2. Parks his blue car

Dad parks his car 3. Sings in the morning

My pet bird sings 4. Beth holds the cat

The furry cat

5. Down the busy street

WRITING CONNECTION

Joe runs down the street

Use pages 204–215 of the Writing portion of the book. Emphasize the use of telling sentences in writing personal narratives.

6. The bunny is soft

The soft little bunny 7. Leslie talks on the phone

COMMON CORE STANDARDS

On the phone

CCSS.ELA.L.2.2

8. Type on

I type on the computer

Writer’s Corner Write a telling sentence about something you did this morning. Sentences • 7

www.voyagesinenglish.com  •  Sentences  •  7


Making Telling Sentences OBJECTIVES • To form telling sentences • To end telling sentences with periods

DAILY MAINTENANCE Follow the directions on page 1b.

WARM-UP SAY: Let’s make a story. I’ll start, and you add a telling sentence to the story when it’s your turn. The sun rose this morning. Invite volunteers to continue the story by adding their own telling sentence.

ASSESS

WRITING CONNECTION Use pages 204–215 of the Writing portion of the book. Emphasize the use of telling sentences in writing personal narratives.

Note which students had difficulty recognizing telling sentences. Provide those students with additional opportunities for review and practice.

COMMON CORE STANDARDS

RETEACH Invite students to write two telling sentences about something that really happened and one telling sentence about a made-up event. Encourage them to read the sentences to a partner and have the partner guess which sentence is false. Remind students to be kind when writing these sentences and interacting with one another.

CCSS.ELA.L.2.2 CCSS.ELA.SL.2.6

TEACH Remind students that a telling sentence is a complete thought and ends with a period. Read aloud the words from the word bank on page 8.

PRACTICE Read aloud the directions on page 8. Have students complete the page. Together go over the work.

APPLY Have students cut out examples from magazines and newspapers of telling sentences. Ask them to glue the sentences to a sheet of paper then underline the capital letter that begins the sentence and circle the period at the end. Ask volunteers to share their sentences.

Name Making Telling Sentences Use the words on the right to make telling sentences. Put a period at the end of each sentence.

writing

1. We go to the

tire flowers

2. They feed the

skateboard

cards

3. Kira will not

rain

park

4. Jason dries the 5. Mae rides her

help shoes

in the park

birds

6. Erin and Shawn play 7. Marco thinks

is fun

8. Grandma plants

plates

in her garden scare my sister

9.

10. Your

look new

11. Today it will 12. This 8

8  •  Section 1

Puppets

• Section 1

would make a good swing


Commanding Sentences OBJECTIVES • To recognize commanding sentences • To use periods as end marks

DAILY MAINTENANCE Follow the directions on page 1b.

WARM-UP Play a game of Simon Says with the class. Invite different students to be “Simon.”

TEACH

PRACTICE

Explain to students that when you tell them to do something, you are giving a commanding sentence. Use the examples on page 9 to help students understand the definition of a commanding sentence. Explain that in commanding sentences the person or thing doing the action is not stated but is understood. Go over the directions for Exercise A on page 9. Help students identify the commanding sentences. Then allow time for students to color the appropriate signs.

Read aloud the directions for Exercise B on page 9. Have students complete the page. Together go over the work. Read aloud the Writer’s Corner on page 9. Allow time for students to write their commanding sentences.

Commanding Sentences A commanding sentence tells people what to do. A commanding sentence begins with a capital letter. A period ( ) is usually placed at the end.

.

Stop at the red light.

Wait for me.

Color each sign that has a commanding sentence on it.

Turn right.

Watch your step.

B

Ask students to imagine that they have a robot. Tell them that the robot understands only commanding sentences. Have students draw pictures of their robots and write at least three commanding sentences for the robot. Invite volunteers to share their drawings and commanding sentences with the class. 


ASSESS

Name

A

APPLY

Obey the rules.

Did you go?

Note which students had difficulty recognizing a commanding sentence. Provide those students with additional opportunities for review and practice.

RETEACH

Review classroom rules. SAY: Each rule is an example of a commanding sentence that ends with a period. Alternatively, have students write their own rules in the form of commanding sentences.

The dog barked.

Step up.

WRITING CONNECTION

Put a period at the end of each commanding sentence. Underline the capital letter in the first word of each sentence.

Use pages 204–215 of the Writing portion of the book. Emphasize the use of different sentence types in writing personal narratives.

1. Turn off the light

5. Ride your bike

2. Open the door, please

6. Blow the whistle

3. Work quietly

7. Water the flowers

COMMON CORE STANDARDS

4. Swim across the pool

8. Write the answer on the line

CCSS.ELA.L.2.2

Writer’s Corner Write a commanding sentence that you might say to someone crossing the street. Sentences • 9

www.voyagesinenglish.com  •  Sentences  •  9


More Commanding Sentences OBJECTIVES • To identify commanding sentences • To use periods as end marks

DAILY MAINTENANCE Follow the directions on page 1b.

WARM-UP Display real-life examples of commanding sentences in textbooks, driving directions; classroom, family, or game rules.

TEACH Remind students that commanding sentences begin with a capital letter and end with a period. Go over the directions for Exercise A on page 10. Help students identify the commanding sentences. Remind students that commanding sentences tell people what to do and that all sentences begin with a capital letter and end with an end mark.

ASSESS

Use pages 204–215 of the Writing portion of the book. Emphasize the use of different sentence types in writing personal narratives.

Lead the class in reciting the poem on page 10. Then call on a student to say a commanding sentence and to say period when he or she reaches the end of the sentence. Repeat with additional volunteers.

MEETING INDIVIDUAL NEEDS

EXTRA SUPPORT  Use a highlighter marker to mark key words or phrases on the student page in advance of having the student work to complete it.

RETEACH Show a brief how-to video from an appropriate video-sharing website. On the board, write the steps involved in the form of commanding sentences, but do not include capitalization or end punctuation. Invite volunteers to come to the board and fix the sentences by adding capital letters and periods.

COMMON CORE STANDARDS CCSS.ELA.L.2.1

Name More Commanding Sentences A

Underline the commanding sentence in each pair. 1. The dog is named Bear.

3. Give Shen the cookie.

Walk the dog.

The cookie tastes good.

2. Help your little brother.

PRACTICE Read aloud the directions for Exercise B on page 10. Have students complete the exercise. Together go over the work.

WRITING CONNECTION

4. These bags are heavy.

Your little brother plays baseball. B

Carry these bags.

Choose the word from the word bank that best completes each commanding sentence. Remember that a sentence begins with a capital letter.

go

put

stop

don’t

mow

eat

APPLY Model writing directions for someone to get from your classroom to the principal’s office. (Get up from your desk. Go to the door. Open the door. Go into the hall. Turn left.) In pairs, have students write directions for how to get from your classroom to the washroom or another school room. Ask volunteers to share their directions. Point out that directions are usually given as commanding sentences.

to the kitchen.

4.

the orange.

2.

on your shoes.

5.

banging the drum.

3.

the lawn.

6.

pet the tiger.

Commanding Sentence is my name. Giving directions is my aim. I help you know the things to do at home, at play, and in school too!

10

10  •  Section 1

1.

• Section 1


Sentences Review OBJECTIVE • To distinguish between telling sentences and commanding sentences

DAILY MAINTENANCE Follow the directions on page 1b.

WARM-UP Invite students to share a sentence they said or heard today. Ask volunteers to say if it was a telling or commanding sentence.

TEACH

APPLY

Guide students through the instruction on page 11. Review items 1 and 2 as examples. Help students identify whether each item is a telling or a commanding sentence.

SAY: A telling sentence tells about something and a commanding sentence tells people to do something. Invite volunteers to give examples of each kind of sentence. Write students’ suggestions on the board. Have students write one commanding sentence and one telling sentence on separate strips of paper. Collect the strips and place them in a container. Randomly pick a strip from the container and read it aloud. Have students tell whether each sentence is a commanding sentence or a telling sentence.

PRACTICE Read aloud the directions on page 11. Have students complete the page. Together go over the work.

ASSESS Note which students had difficulty recognizing the difference between a telling sentence and a commanding sentence. Provide those students with additional opportunities for review and practice.

Name Sentences Review A telling sentence tells about something. A commanding sentence tells people what to do.

RETEACH

3. The boats are moving.

Write each of the sentences on page 11 on a separate sentence strip. On the board, draw a two-column chart. Label the first column Telling Sentences and the second column Commanding Sentences. Display and read aloud each strip and have a volunteer tape the strip to the board under the appropriate column.

4. Turn off the light.

MEETING INDIVIDUAL NEEDS

Write t beside each telling sentence. Write c beside each commanding sentence. 1. The team is ready. 2. Play ball.

t

c

EXTRA SUPPORT  For students who would benefit from it, make seven labels each that say telling sentence and seven more that say commanding sentence. Students can stick the labels in place on page 11.

5. My house is on King Street. 6. My brother works at night. 7. Please sit down. 8. Nan likes to draw.

WRITING CONNECTION

9. I read that book.

Use pages 204–215 of the Writing portion of the book. Emphasize the use of different sentence types in writing personal narratives.

10. Listen to the story. 11. Your desk is neat. 12. Color the picture.

COMMON CORE STANDARDS CCSS.ELA.L.2.1 Sentences • 11

www.voyagesinenglish.com  •  Sentences  •  11


More Sentences Review OBJECTIVE • To distinguish between telling sentences and commanding sentences

DAILY MAINTENANCE Follow the directions on page 1b.

WARM-UP On the board, draw a two-column chart. Write Commanding Sentence at the top of the first column and Telling Sentence at the top of the second. Have volunteers write a commanding sentence in the first column and a telling sentence in the second. Challenge students to write sentences that correspond. (Column 1: Sit down. Column 2: The dog sat.)

TEACH Review with students that a telling sentence tells a complete thought and that a commanding sentence tells what to do. Go over the sample sentences as a class and explain the answers or invite a volunteer to do so.

Have each student choose one card and move to the front or the back of the room depending on his or her card. Then have the students read their cards aloud and say whether it is a telling or commanding sentence.

ASSESS

Use pages 204–215 of the Writing portion of the book. Emphasize the use of different sentence types in writing personal narratives.

CCSS.ELA.L.2.2

Name More Sentences Review A

Write t next to each telling sentence. Write c next to each commanding sentence. 1. Give Molly your hand.

c

2. She can help you cross the street.

t

3. Josh likes to read. 4. Take him to the library. 5. Let Josh pick a book. 6. Josh loves books about dinosaurs. 7. Don’t let him get a scary book. 8. Josh also likes movies. 9. Josh can get one movie. 10. Be home by five o’clock.

B

Write your own telling sentence.

C

Write your own commanding sentence.

12

12  •  Section 1

WRITING CONNECTION

COMMON CORE STANDARDS

Read aloud the directions for Exercise B on page 12. Allow time for writing. Read aloud the directions for Exercise C. Allow time for writing. Encourage volunteers to share their sentences with the class.

On separate note cards, have each student write two telling sentences and two commanding sentences. Collect the cards and shuffle them. Tell students that commanding sentences go in the back of the room and telling sentences go in the front.

Collect all the note cards from the Apply step and have students return to their seats. Give each student two telling and two commanding cards. Have them identify which type of sentence is on each card by writing either telling or commanding on the back. Collect the cards.

Note which students had difficulty differentiating between telling sentences and commanding sentences. Provide those students with additional opportunities for review and practice.

PRACTICE

APPLY

RETEACH

• Section 1


Asking Sentences OBJECTIVES • To complete an asking sentence • To use question words to begin asking sentences

DAILY MAINTENANCE Follow the directions on page 1b.

WARM-UP Say different asking sentences emphasizing question words. Ask volunteers to say what the sentences have in common. (They ask questions, end with question marks, and begin with capital letters.)

TEACH

PRACTICE

SAY: The sentences I said are called asking sentences, and each ends with a question mark. Read aloud the instruction on page 13. Explain that questions are a type of sentence called asking sentences. Remind students that all sentences begin with a capital letter and end with an end mark. SAY: A question mark is the end mark for an asking sentence. Draw a box around the question marks on the board.

Read aloud the directions on page 13. Have students complete the page. For items with more than one answer, guide students to understand what other question words fit the sentence. Together go over the work.

APPLY Have the class recite the poem on page 13. Write a series of asking sentences without question marks, using who, what, when, where, why, and how. Have volunteers add question marks.

ASSESS Note which students had difficulty recognizing asking sentences. Provide those students with additional opportunities for review and practice.

Name Asking Sentences An asking sentence asks a question. Some asking sentences begin with question words. An asking sentence ends with a question mark (?). Complete each sentence with a question word from the word bank. You may use some words more than once.

How Why

What When

Who

RETEACH Divide the students into six groups. Have each group make a mobile featuring a different asking word with examples of asking sentences using that word. Provide groups with hangers for the mobiles.

Where

1.

are you doing?

2.

old are you?

3.

did Mary laugh?

4.

is the picnic?

5.

is Pete?

6.

gave Ren that daisy?

7.

do we leave for the park?

8.

do you feed your parrot?

?

?

? ?

?

?

WRITING CONNECTION Use pages 204–215 of the Writing portion of the book. Emphasize the use of different sentence types in writing personal narratives.

COMMON CORE STANDARDS I am a squiggle on your page with a little dot below. At the end of each asking sentence, please place me just so.

CCSS.ELA.L.2.1

Sentences • 13

www.voyagesinenglish.com  •  Sentences  •  13


More Asking Sentences OBJECTIVES • To use question words • To distinguish between telling, commanding, and asking sentences

DAILY MAINTENANCE Follow the directions on page 1b.

WARM-UP Write on separate table-tennis balls the words Do, Has, Have, Are, Is, Did. Place the balls in a bag. Ask volunteers to pick a ball and say a complete asking sentence that begins with the word on the ball. On the board, write the sentences the students offer.

ASSESS Note which students had difficulty recognizing asking sentences. Provide those students with additional opportunities for review and practice.

RETEACH

ENGLISH-LANGUAGE LEARNERS Consider recording yourself saying asking sentences that begin with the question words used on pages 12 and 13. Make the recording available for playback with headphones in a classroom listening station. Auditory learners can also benefit from time spent at a listening station.

Divide students into six groups. Assign each group one of the following question words do, has, have, are, is, did. Then hang sheets of paper in different areas around the classroom. Invite students to write questions using their question word on one of the sheets of paper.

WRITING CONNECTION Use pages 204–215 of the Writing portion of the book. Emphasize the use of different sentence types in writing personal narratives.

COMMON CORE STANDARDS CCSS.ELA.L.2.1

TEACH Underline the question words in the sentences on the board. SAY: When each of these words begins a sentence, it signals that it is an asking sentence. Read aloud the directions for Exercise A on page 14. Guide students to complete the exercise.

Name More Asking Sentences A

PRACTICE Read aloud the directions for Exercise B. Have students complete the exercise. Together go over the work.

APPLY On the board, write Do, Has, Have, Are, Is, Did. Ask students to write questions that they would ask a dog or other animal if it could talk. SAY: Begin your sentences with one of the asking words on the board. Write the asking sentences. (Did you always know how to talk? Do you know any other animals that can talk? Is being a dog fun?)

1.

you going to the circus?

2.

Jonah popped his balloon?

3.

you like popcorn?

4.

you see the clown?

5.

the elephants done any tricks?

6.

there enough popcorn for everyone?

Do Has Have Are Is

B

Write the letter that tells what each sentence is. Put the correct end mark at the end of each sentence.

t = telling

c = commanding

1. Will you go with me 2. All fish need water 3. Today is cold 4. Does John know the way 5. Jump over the fence

14

14  •  Section 1

Complete each sentence with one of the question words on the right. Use each word one time.

• Section 1

a = asking

Did


Exclaiming Sentences OBJECTIVES • To identify an exclaiming sentence • To use a capital letter at the beginning and an exclamation point at the end of an exclaiming sentence

DAILY MAINTENANCE Follow the directions on page 1b.

WARM-UP Show a brief appropriate video clip or picture of baby animals. Ask volunteers to tell you about the video or picture. On the board, write student responses without end punctuation (They’re so cute; They are super tiny).

TEACH

PRACTICE

Write a big exclamation point on the board. SAY: When you want to show surprise or excitement, put an exclamation point at the end of a sentence. This kind of sentence is called an exclaiming sentence. Like all sentences, it starts with a capital letter. Ask volunteers to add exclamation points to the word groups on the board and then read each sentence aloud with excitement. Guide students through the teaching and examples on page 15.

Read aloud the directions on page 15. Have students complete the page. Together go over the work.

APPLY Have the class recite the poem on page 15. Have students write an exclaiming sentence about the first day of school and the last day of school. Ask volunteers to share their sentences. On the board write the sentences. Have volunteers underline the capital letter and circle the exclamation point in each sentence.

ASSESS Take note of which students had difficulty recognizing exclaiming sentences. Provide additional opportunities for review and practice.

Name Exclaiming Sentences An exclaiming sentence shows surprise or excitement. An exclamation point (!) is placed at the end of an exclaiming sentence.

What a hot day it is!

The sun is coming out!

Underline the capital letter at the beginning of each sentence. Then put an exclamation point at the end. 1. Watch your step 2. I am so excited 3. He can hardly wait

!

! ! !

!

My name is Exclamation Point. Now if you are very wise, you will put me at the end of each sentence of surprise.

!

RETEACH Read aloud the book Exclamation Mark! by Amy Krouse Rosenthal. Have students write exclaiming sentences about the book. (It was funny! It was silly! I liked it!) Invite students to share their sentences and write them on the board or include them on an exclamation point-themed bulletin board.

WRITING CONNECTION Use pages 204–215 of the Writing portion of the book. Emphasize the use of different types of sentences in writing personal narratives.

4. What a surprise 5. Watch out for the ball

COMMON CORE STANDARDS

6. The storm is coming

CCSS.ELA.L.2.2 7. Today is my birthday 8. Look at her run 9. The bus is coming 10. This tastes delicious

Sentences • 15

www.voyagesinenglish.com  •  Sentences  •  15


More Exclaiming Sentences OBJECTIVES • To recognize exclaiming sentences • To use exclamation points as end marks

DAILY MAINTENANCE Follow the directions on page 1b.

WARM-UP Have students come to the board and draw the largest exclamation point they can. SAY: I asked you to draw such big exclamation points on the board so that you would remember that exclaiming sentences express a big feeling.

ASSESS

WRITING CONNECTION

Note which students had difficulty recognizing an exclaiming sentence. Provide those students with additional opportunities for review and practice.

Use pages 204–215 of the Writing portion of the book. Emphasize the use of different sentence types in writing personal narratives.

COMMON CORE STANDARDS

RETEACH For show-and-tell, ask students to bring in photos or other items that excited or surprised them (a photo of a new brother or sister, a birthday party or gift).

CCSS.ELA.L.2.2

TEACH Review that an exclaiming sentence shows surprise or excitement.

PRACTICE Read aloud the directions on page 16. As a class, brainstorm sentence ideas for each picture. Have students complete the page. Together go over the work. Read aloud the Writer’s Corner. Allow time for writing. Encourage volunteers to share their sentences.

Name More Exclaiming Sentences Write your own exclaiming sentence for each picture. Remember to use an exclamation point (!).

1.

2.

APPLY Have students write two exclaiming sentences about something that would surprise them if they saw it in the classroom. (My bike is here! A bear is in the room!) Ask volunteers to share their sentences. On the board, write the sentences.

3.

4.

5.

Writer’s Corner Write an exclaiming sentence that you might say during a thunderstorm. 16

16  •  Section 1

• Section 1


Asking and Exclaiming Sentences OBJECTIVE • To distinguish between asking sentences and exclaiming sentences

DAILY MAINTENANCE Follow the directions on page 1b.

WARM-UP Give students a sheet of construction paper. Have them draw and decorate a question mark on one side of the paper and an exclamation point on the other. Invite volunteers to say a sentence while holding up the appropriate end mark.

TEACH

APPLY

Review the definitions of asking and exclaiming sentences. Write on the board examples of both sentence types without end marks.

Have a volunteer draw a large question mark and a large exclamation point to the right of your sentences. Read each sentence from the board aloud and have volunteers draw a line from the sentence you read to the correct end mark. Then have other volunteers draw the correct end marks at the end of each sentence.

PRACTICE Read aloud the directions on page 17. Have students complete the page. Together go over the work.

ASSESS Note which students had difficulty distinguishing between asking sentences and exclaiming sentences. Provide those students with additional opportunities for review and practice.

RETEACH

Name

Have students fold a sheet of paper in half and then in half again to make four boxes. Have them write a different asking sentence for each box on the left. (What is that?) In the corresponding boxes on the right, have students write an exclaiming sentence that answers the question. (It’s a fire truck!) Encourage them to add drawings to the boxes on the right.

Asking and Exclaiming Sentences Read the sentences. Put a question mark at the end of each asking sentence. Put an exclamation point at the end of each exclaiming sentence. 1. How old are you 2. Can you see the clowns 3. It is so hot today

WRITING CONNECTION

4. That is a funny mask

Use pages 204–215 of the Writing portion of the book. Emphasize the use of different types of sentences in writing personal narratives.

5. Where is my hat 6. Hurry, Paige

COMMON CORE STANDARDS

7. Where is the squirrel

CCSS.ELA.L.2.2

8. Watch out 9. I had the best birthday 10. Did you read the story

Sentences • 17

www.voyagesinenglish.com  •  Sentences  •  17


More Asking and Exclaiming Sentences OBJECTIVE • To distinguish between asking sentences and exclaiming sentences

DAILY MAINTENANCE Follow the directions on page 1b.

WARM-UP Invite volunteers to say asking sentences about what you have planned for today’s schedule. (Do we have gym today?) Respond to student questions with positive exclaiming sentences. (We sure do!) Point out that your answers are exclaiming sentences. Invite volunteers to say other exclaiming sentences.

TEACH Remind students of the difference between asking and exclaiming sentences and how to form a question mark and an exclamation point. Review the example sentence.

PRACTICE Read aloud the directions on page 18. Have students complete the page. Together go over the work.

students read aloud their sentences. Ask the class to identify what kind of sentence it is. Have students pass the cards to their right and then write on the back of the card another asking or exclaiming sentence that uses the word on the card. Have volunteers share their sentences. Repeat two more times.

ASSESS

Say either an asking sentence or an exclaiming sentence. Invite students to stand and identify the sentence type by posing their bodies as either a question mark (curve arms and bend to the right) or exclamation point (arms straight above the head). Model the movements before you begin saying any sentences.

WRITING CONNECTION

Note which students had difficulty distinguishing between asking sentences and exclaiming sentences. Provide those students with additional opportunities for review and practice.

Use pages 204–215 of the Writing portion of the book. Emphasize the use of different sentence types in writing personal narratives.

COMMON CORE STANDARDS CCSS.ELA.L.2.2

Name More Asking and Exclaiming Sentences Read the sentences below. Put an X in the Exclaiming box for each exclaiming sentence. Put an X in the Asking box for each asking sentence. Add the correct end mark to each sentence. The first one is done for you.

Exclaiming 1. Where is your house ?

2. Mary did well on her test

APPLY

3. I love my dog

Distribute a note card to each student. Have students write on the note card one word that names a person, place, or thing. Then have half the class write the letter A at the tops of their cards and have the other half write the letter E. Collect and shuffle the note cards. Distribute the cards. Tell students that A stands for asking sentence and E stands for exclaiming sentence. Have students write on the back of the card an asking or exclaiming sentence that uses the word on the card. Have

4. How are you

5. It is really hot

6. This game is fun

7. Is it raining

8. Do you have a scooter

9. Who brought the kittens

10. When are you going home

18

18  •  Section 1

RETEACH

• Section 1

Asking

X


The Naming Part of a Sentence OBJECTIVE • To identify the naming part of telling sentences

DAILY MAINTENANCE Follow the directions on page 1b.

WARM-UP Ahead of time, on one sheet of construction paper write came to school today. Invite volunteers to come to the front of the room. Stand to his or her left and hold up the construction paper. SAY: [Lalo] came to school today. Repeat this with other volunteers.

TEACH

PRACTICE

Explain that a sentence has two parts and that you’re going to talk about the naming part now. SAY: When you came to the front of the room, you were the naming part of the sentence [Lalo] came to school today. The naming part tells who or what the sentence is about. The sentence was about you. Guide students through the teaching and examples on page 19.

Go over the exercise directions on page 19. Then complete the exercise with students by reading aloud each item and asking who or what the sentence is telling about.

APPLY Read aloud sentences from classroom materials. Invite volunteers to tell you who or what each sentence is about. Reinforce the concept that the naming part of the sentence tells who or what the sentence is about.

ASSESS Note which students had difficulty recognizing the naming part of a telling sentence. Provide those students with additional opportunities for review and practice.

Name The Naming Part of a Sentence

RETEACH

A sentence has two parts. The naming part of a sentence tells who or what the sentence is about.

Have students draw a picture of someone they know and write the person’s name below it. Then have students use a different color to write a telling sentence that uses the person’s name as the naming part of the sentence. Remind students to write kind things about one another.

Sari likes to sing. In this sentence the naming part is Sari because the sentence is about Sari.

The stars are very bright. In this sentence the naming part is The stars because the sentence is about the stars.

WRITING CONNECTION

Underline the naming part of each sentence.

Use pages 204–215 of the Writing portion of the book. Emphasize the use of different types of sentences in writing personal narratives.

1. We play in the snow. 2. Talia has red mittens. 3. I have a fast sled.

COMMON CORE STANDARDS

4. Kim makes a snow angel.

CCSS.ELA.L.2.1

5. They make a snowman. 6. Our neighbors come over. 7. Chad makes snowballs. 8. The puppy eats snow. 9. We get cold. 10. Aunt Debbie gives us hot cocoa.

Sentences • 19

www.voyagesinenglish.com  •  Sentences  •  19


The Action Part of a Sentence OBJECTIVE • To identify the action part of a telling sentence

DAILY MAINTENANCE Follow the directions on page 1b.

WARM-UP Ask a volunteer to come to the front of the room. Ask him or her to say something he or she does (reads, listens to music). SAY: [Andre] reads. Reads is an action. In the sentence Andre reads, the naming part of the sentence is Andre and reads is the action part. Continue with other volunteers in the same manner.

When students finish, ask them to underline the action part of the sentence. Ask a volunteer to read aloud only the action part of his or her sentence. Repeat with additional volunteers. Remind students that a telling sentence tells a complete thought and has a naming part.

RETEACH Invite volunteers to pantomime or perform different actions. Ask the class what they think the action is. Once a student guesses correctly, challenge that student to say a complete sentence using the action. (A girl plays violin.)

WRITING CONNECTION

ASSESS Note which students had difficulty recognizing the action part of a telling sentence. Provide those students with additional opportunities for review and practice.

Use pages 204–215 of the Writing portion of the book. Emphasize the use of complete sentences in writing personal narratives.

COMMON CORE STANDARDS CCSS.ELA.L.2.1

TEACH On the board, write some actionword groups (hides acorns, sleep during the day, flies over the trees). Explain that these are action parts and that they are not complete sentences. Help students make complete sentences by adding naming parts to the action parts. (A squirrel hides acorns. Bats sleep during the day. The eagle flies over the trees.) Have students underline the action parts of the sentences on the board. Point out that they can find the naming part of a telling sentence by asking who or what the sentence is telling about.

PRACTICE Read aloud the directions on page 20. Have students complete the page. Together go over the work.

Name The Action Part of a Sentence The action part of a sentence tells what a person or a thing does.

Gina ran home. In this sentence the action part is ran home because it tells what Gina did.

Jake cleaned his room. In this sentence the action part is cleaned his room because it tells what Jake did. Underline the action part of each sentence. 1. The sisters play piano. 2. Miss Burke opens the book. 3. Emil washes the dishes. 4. They play hopscotch. 5. Mr. Smith sells ice cream. 6. Kathy answers the phone.

APPLY Ask students to choose an animal and write a telling sentence about what that animal does. (A cat purrs.)

7. Brian plays a game. 8. Marc runs to second base. 9. Ally helps wash the car. 10. We water the plants.

20

20  •  Section 1

• Section 1


Naming Parts and Action Parts OBJECTIVE • To demonstrate understanding of how naming parts and action parts work together

DAILY MAINTENANCE Follow the directions on page 1b.

WARM-UP Invite volunteers to name pairs of things that go together (peanut butter and jelly, salt and pepper).

TEACH

APPLY

SAY: The naming part and the action part of a sentence go together too. One without the other is not a complete sentence. Go over the instruction on page 21 and the directions for Exercise A. Do the exercise as a class.

Photocopy for each student a page from classroom reading materials. Read aloud the text and ask students to underline the naming parts and circle the action parts of the sentences. Help students understand that a sentence must have both parts to express a complete thought.

PRACTICE Read aloud the directions for Exercise B on page 21. Have students complete the exercise. Together go over the work.

ASSESS Note which students had difficulty recognizing the naming parts and the action parts of telling sentences. Provide those students with additional opportunities for review and practice.

RETEACH

Name Naming Parts and Action Parts Remember that a sentence has two parts. Together, the naming part and action part form a complete sentence. A

B

Match the naming part to the action part. The first one is done for you. Then say each complete sentence. 1. She

built a fort.

2. The kids

make a sandcastle.

3. The baby

sleeps in his stroller.

4. I

goes to the store.

Clap a short pattern and ask students to clap it back to you. Invite a volunteer to clap a pattern for the rest of the class to repeat. SAY: This time, clap the pattern back to me but only use one hand. Explain that you need two hands to clap just as you need the naming part and the action part to make a complete sentence.

WRITING CONNECTION Use pages 204–215 of the Writing portion of the book. Emphasize the use of complete sentences in writing personal narratives.

Draw a line under the naming part. Draw a circle around the action part.

COMMON CORE STANDARDS CCSS.ELA.L.2.1

1. We go to the beach. 2. My father brings a picnic. 3. I bring a pail and a shovel. 4. Grandma brings a blanket. 5. Leo makes a sandcastle. 6. Taylor and Paul go swimming. 7. My mother teaches Carly how to surf. 8. We go home after sunset.

Sentences • 21

www.voyagesinenglish.com  •  Sentences  •  21


The Conjunctions And, But, Or OBJECTIVE • To identify and use the conjunctions and, but, and or

DAILY MAINTENANCE Follow the directions on page 1b.

WARM-UP Invite a volunteer to come to the front of the class and perform two actions, such as hop and hold a book. Invite students to say what the volunteer is doing. Restate their answers and emphasize the word and. Invite another volunteer to hop or hold a book. Emphasize the word or in your request. SAY: Felicia holds a book but isn’t hopping. Emphasize the word but.

TEACH SAY: The word and helps us join

together words in a sentence. Read aloud the instruction at the top of the page 22. Invite a volunteer to read aloud the first example sentence. ASK: What words does the word and join together in this sentence? (soccer and basketball) How are the words that are joined similar? (They are both sports.) Invite volunteers to read aloud the next two sentences, identifying the conjunctions.

PRACTICE Read aloud the directions for the activity. Ask students to complete the activity independently. Then ask volunteers to share their answers.

APPLY Challenge students to identify the words in each sentence on page 22 that each conjunction joins and how these words are related. (Soccer and football. They are both sports.)

ASSESS

Use pages 204–215 of the Writing portion of the book. Emphasize the use of conjunctions and, but, and or in sentences.

Take note of which students had difficulty distinguishing among the conjunctions. Provide those students with additional opportunities for review and practice.

COMMON CORE STANDARDS

RETEACH Invite a pair of students to come to the front of the class. Have the seated students ask and answer questions using conjunctions about the pair. (Is Emily wearing a red shirt or a white shirt? Emily is wearing a white shirt. Mariel is wearing a yellow shirt. Emily is wearing a white shirt, but Mariel is wearing a yellow shirt.)

CCSS.ELA.L.2.1

Name The Conjunctions And, But, Or A conjunction is a word that joins together words in a sentence. And, but, and or are conjunctions. These sentences have conjunctions.

Soccer and basketball are sports. Kelly plays soccer but likes basketball too. Do you throw with your right or your left arm? Underline the conjunction in each sentence. 1. Ming loves soccer and plays football, too. 2. Basketballs are large but easy to throw. 3. You can play basketball inside or outside. 4. Children play sports for fun and exercise. 5. Baseball and soccer are team sports. 6. We throw and catch the baseball. 7. Trey is a good batter but a slow runner. 8. Jenna likes pitching or catching.

22

22  •  Section 1

WRITING CONNECTION

• Section 1


The Conjunctions So, Because OBJECTIVE • To identify and use because and so

DAILY MAINTENANCE Follow the directions on page 1b.

WARM-UP SAY: Stand up. After students have followed your instruction, have them sit back down. ASK: Why did you stand up just now? (Because you told us to) On the board, write The class stood up because the teacher told them to.

TEACH

PRACTICE

SAY: The reason you stood up was because I told you to. The word because gives a reason. ASK: What happened when I told you to stand up? (We stood up.) On the board, write The teacher told the class to stand up, so they did. Underline the word so. SAY: The result of me telling you to stand up was that you stood up. The word so gives a result. Guide students through the instruction and examples on page 23.

Read aloud the directions on page 23. Have students complete the page. Together go over the work and have students make corrections.

APPLY ASK: Why do you wear sneakers for gym? (So I can run fast.) Why do you take your book home. (So I can read it.) Continue in this way. Then SAY: The answers you are giving are your reasons.

ASSESS Take note of which students had difficulty distinguishing between because and so. Provide additional opportunities for review and practice.

Name

RETEACH

The Conjunctions So, Because

On the board, write in one column

Conjunctions join together words or groups of words. Because and so are conjunctions. Because gives a reason. It tells why. So gives the result.

School was closed today because there was a lot of snow. There was a lot of snow, so school was closed today. Use because or so to complete each sentence. 1. Daniel ran fastest,

Daniel won the race

2. Rayna ate lunch early

Rayna was hungry,

3. Dad packed lunch,

We ate in the car

4. Nestor was tired,

Nestor took a nap

5. We moved closer,

We could see better

Mom makes salad Tammy had to stay home Write in the second column

she was sick. I like it. Ask volunteers to use either because or so to make complete sentences. Challenge students to make their own sentences using the word because.

he won the race. he ran fastest.

she was hungry.

WRITING CONNECTION

she ate lunch early.

Use pages 204–215 of the Writing portion of the book. Emphasize the use of the conjunctions because or so in sentences.

we ate in the car. Dad packed lunch.

COMMON CORE STANDARDS

he took a nap.

CCSS.ELA.L.2.1

he was tired.

we could see better. we moved closer.

Sentences • 23

www.voyagesinenglish.com  •  Sentences  •  23


The Prepositions To, From OBJECTIVE • To identify and use the prepositions to and from

DAILY MAINTENANCE Follow the directions on page 1b.

WARM-UP Read the picture book Journey by Aaron Becker to students. Ask volunteers to help recount the girl’s journey. (She went to an enchanted forest. A magic carpet took her to a castle.) Emphasize the use of the word to.

ASSESS

WRITING CONNECTION

Take note of which students had difficulty using to and from. Provide additional opportunities for review and practice.

Use pages 204–215 of the Writing portion of the book. Emphasize the use of the prepositions to and from in writing personal narratives.

RETEACH

COMMON CORE STANDARDS

Invite volunteers to walk from one point of the room to another and narrate what they do. (Tanya walked from the front of the class to the back. Jimmy walked from his desk to the pencil sharpener.) Model this for the class.

CCSS.ELA.2.1

TEACH Guide students through the instruction on page 24. Then read aloud the example paragraph. Have students underline the words to and from in the sample paragraph on the page.

PRACTICE

Name The Prepositions To, From The words to and from are used in sentences to show movement and action.

When Jarret came home from school, he wrote an e-mail to his friend Ben. Ben was happy to get an e-mail from Jarret. He wrote back to Jarret right away. Jarret was happy to get an e-mail from Ben.

Read aloud the directions on page 24. Have students complete the exercise. Together go over the work and have students make corrections.

APPLY

Use to or from to complete each sentence.

On the board, write Some people ride buses to work. Other people drive cars to work. Some people ride their bikes from home to work. Ask volunteers to come to the board and underline the prepositions to and from.

1. I can see the street

2. Some students walk

3. We walked from the bus

4. Veronica got a present

5. Alma sent an e-mail

6. Max got his test back

7. Carlos bought fruit

8. Javier gave soup

24

24  •  Section 1

• Section 1

my window. school. the store. her brother. her teacher. Ms. Ramos. the farmers market. the food drive.


The Prepositions Before, After OBJECTIVE • To identify and use the prepositions before and after

DAILY MAINTENANCE Follow the directions on page 1b.

WARM-UP Ask students to brainstorm a list of things they do during the school day (Pledge of Allegiance, lunch, gym). Then ask them questions about the day using before and after. Prompt them to use before and after in their responses. (We say the Pledge of Allegiance after the bell. We have art before lunch.)

TEACH

PRACTICE

Read aloud the first sentence of instruction on page 25. Then guide students through the first two examples. SAY: One word in the first sentence gives a clue about when Marcus makes his bed. Read aloud the sentence and ask a volunteer to identify the word (before). Repeat with the next sentence.

Read aloud the directions on page 25. Have students complete the page. Have pairs compare their answers. Then go over the work together and have students make corrections.

APPLY On the board, write We read page 1 in our books (before after) page 2. We let our soup cool (before after) we eat it. Ask volunteers to come to the board and circle the word that best completes each sentence. Remind students that before and after help signal when something happens.

ASSESS Name The Prepositions Before, After Before and after are used in sentences to tell when something happens.

Marcus makes his bed before school. This sentence tells when Marcus makes his bed—before school.

Beth plays the piano after dinner.

RETEACH Have students make a four-panel comic strip that shows what they do after school. Have them label each panel with a sentence that begins with either Before or After. (Before I get on the bus, I meet my sister. After I get home, I do my homework.)

This sentence tells when Beth plays the piano—after dinner.

Circle the word that best completes each sentence. 1. (Before

After) dinner we cleared the dishes from the table.

2. James put on his socks (before 3. It gets dark (before 4. Puddles form (before

after) his boots.

WRITING CONNECTION

after) the sun goes down.

Use pages 204–215 of the Writing portion of the book. Emphasize the use of prepositions before and after in writing personal narratives.

after) it rains.

5. Kevin warmed up (before

after) the race.

6. Leon packs his book bag (before

after) leaving for school.

7. Ariana only liked picture books (before 8. We shovel the sidewalk (before

On the board, write the steps for making a cheese sandwich: You will need two slices of bread. Place them side by side. Place two slices of cheese on top of one slice of bread. Put the second slice of bread on top of the cheese. Challenge students to make up sentences about making a cheese sandwich using before and after.

COMMON CORE STANDARDS CCSS.ELA.L.2.1

after) she could read.

after) it snows.

Sentences • 25

www.voyagesinenglish.com  •  Sentences  •  25


Sentence Challenge OBJECTIVES • To identify the four types of sentences • To use the correct end mark for each type of sentence

ALTERNATIVE ASSESSMENT

ASSESS Explain the directions for each exercise. Assist students if necessary. When students have finished each exercise, review their answers. Sentence Challenge may be used as a review or as a test.

In addition to these Challenge pages and the available online assessments for this section, consider adding other forms of assessment, such as observations, performances, or portfolios to track students’ progress.

Online Assessment After you have reviewed Section 1: Sentences, administer the section assessment or create a customized test using the optional Loyola Press Online Assessment System.

Name Sentence Challenge Put the correct end mark at the end of each sentence. Then write the letter telling what kind of sentence it is.

t = telling a = asking t

c = commanding e = exclaiming

1. Some fish swim in the ocean . 2. Will you go with me 3. It is so cold 4. Does Tim know how to swim 5. Write your name in the book 6. The green frog hopped across the pond 7. Plant the seed in the ground 8. That was a great game 9. Do you know your teacher’s name 10. Don’t step in that puddle

26

26  •  Section 1

• Section 1


Sentence Challenge WRITING CONNECTION Use pages 204–215 of the Writing portion of the book. Emphasize the use of complete sentences in writing personal narratives.

COMMON CORE STANDARDS CCSS.ELA.L.2.1 CCSS.ELA.L.2.2

Name Sentence Challenge A

Read the sentences below. Underline the naming part. Circle the action part. 1. I like peanut butter. 2. Jamal and Nico eat lunch. 3. They know where we are going. 4. Lucy and Avril pet the puppies. 5. He sees a huge spider.

B

Write a telling sentence.

C

Write a commanding sentence.

D

Write an asking sentence.

E

Write an exclaiming sentence.

Sentences • 27

www.voyagesinenglish.com  •  Sentences  •  27


Sentence Challenge, continued Online Assessment After you have reviewed Section 1: Sentences, administer the section assessment or create a customized test using the optional Loyola Press Online Assessment System.

COMMON CORE STANDARD CCSS.ELA.L.2.1

Name Sentence Challenge A

Use and, but, or, because, or so to complete each sentence. 1. We went to dance class

it was Tuesday.

2. Is her shirt blue

red?

3. Pears

grapes are healthy snacks.

4. The rocks were slippery, 5. Ariana was tired

B

did not quit.

Circle the right word to complete each sentence. 1. I sent a package (to

from) my aunt.

2. I got a message (to

from) my friend.

3. Sometimes I go (to

from) Kelly’s house to play.

4. She got a book (to

C

from) the library.

Use before or after to complete each sentence. 1. It was dark 2. Lara cleaned up 3. Juan ate the sandwich 4. Felix put a helmet on

28

28  •  Section 1

she tripped.

• Section 1

she turned the light on. the spill. he made it. his bike ride.


PART

WRITING

2

CHAPTER 1

Personal Narratives . . . . . . . . . . 204

CHAPTER 2

Friendly Letters . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216

CHAPTER 3

How-to Articles . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228

CHAPTER 4

Descriptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240

CHAPTER 5

Book Reports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252

CHAPTER 6

Research Reports . . . . . . . . . . . 264

203


CHAPTER

Personal Narratives

1

CHAPTER FOCUS

WHAT IS A PERSONAL NARRATIVE?

• What Is a Personal Narrative? The Beginning • The Middle • Write a Story

Personal narratives are written to share significant events in writers’ lives. At their best, personal narratives are revealing and relevant to an intended audience.

• Writer’s Workshop: Personal Narratives

A good personal narrative includes the following:

• The Ending

■■A topic about something that really happened to the writer ■■A first-person point of view ■■A beginning that tells what the story is about ■■A middle that tells what happened ■■An ending that finishes the story ■■Use of time order and temporal words ■■Correct grammar, spelling, capitalization, and punctuation

SUPPORT MATERIALS Loyola Press Online Assessment System www.voyagesinenglish.com Rubrics Student, page T-280 Teacher, page T-281 Grammar Section 1: Sentences, pages 1–28 Lesson Plans www.voyagesinenglish.com

DAILY SENTENCE STARTERS Each day, write on the board the Daily Sentence Starter. This daily exercise provides students with practice writing in the first person. Have students finish the sentences in their journals.

Monday

Tuesday

Wednesday

Thursday

Friday

I once found

Last Saturday I

My first day of school was

I tripped and laughed when

I once dressed up as

I went with my friends to

I was nervous when I

I ate outside when

My favorite day was when

I helped make

It was strange when I saw

It was raining when I

I met my friend at

I had an adventure when

I helped someone when

It was fun when I

My favorite meal was

I stayed up late when

I liked going to

I wish I hadn’t

204a  •  Chapter 1


Chapter Planner WRITERS’ WORKSHOP TIPS

SCORING RUBRIC

Follow these ideas and tips to help you and your class get the most out of the Writer’s Workshop:

Personal Narrative

• Encourage students to keep a picture journal to record important or interesting personal experiences. • Invite students to bring in pictures or drawings of favorite events. Discuss how these events might make good personal narrative topics. • Invite local officials (such as the mayor, an entertainer, or the principal) to tell the class about an event they remember from their own childhood.

Point Values 0 = not evident 1 = minimal evidence of mastery 2 = evidence of development toward mastery 3 = strong evidence of mastery 4 = outstanding evidence of mastery

Ideas

POINTS

topic relates to a real event

LiNK

Organization

Use the following titles to offer your students examples of well-crafted personal narratives:

has a logical sequence

When I Was Young in the Mountains by Cynthia Rylant

has a beginning

When Lightning Comes in a Jar by Patricia Polacco

has a middle has an ending

CONNECT WITH GRAMMAR Throughout the Writer’s Workshop, look for opportunities to integrate an understanding of sentence structure, conventions, and sentence variety when writing personal narratives.

Voice

• Discuss how using a variety of sentence types (telling, commanding, asking, and exclaiming) can make writing more interesting.

Word Choice

is written from the writer’s point of view

uses words appropriately uses personal pronouns

• Ask students to edit their writing for uppercase letters to begin each sentence.

Sentence Fluency

• Have students edit their writing to add end marks in the correct places.

has correct sentence structure

Conventions

INDEPENDENT WRITING CENTER ACTIVITIES

grammar

Writing Center Activities give students hands-on experience exploring grammar and writing concepts. Students can work independently or in small groups to practice integrating grammar and writing skills using various learning modalities. A range of Writing Center Activities appears on pages OV-18–OV-21 of the Teacher Edition.

spelling punctuation and capitalization

Total A full-size, reproducible Student Rubric and a Teacher Scoring Rubric can be found on pages T-280 and T-281.

www.voyagesinenglish.com  •  Personal Narratives  •  204b


CHAPTER

1

Personal Narratives

INTRODUCING THE CHAPTER Reading the Quotation Read aloud the quotation on page 204 and ask students what it means to them. After giving students time to respond, SAY: Even the best writers do not write perfectly the first time they put their ideas into sentences. Good writers often erase and rewrite. Any sentence you read in a book was probably written, edited, and improved many times. Reading the Model Talk with students about what writing is. SAY: Writing is a way that people share information, ideas, and stories so that others can read and enjoy them. Explain that when we write, we share our thoughts with others. Tell students that the writer puts thoughts and memories in writing so that they will last.

Ask students to look at the opening picture on page 204. Invite volunteers to tell how the picture makes them feel (scared, nervous). Invite volunteers to tell about times when they were scared or nervous. Ask students questions that will elicit additional details about their stories. (What was the weather like? Who else was there? What did you hear?) Point out that each story is a true story that happened to the student who

CHAPTER

1

Quotation Station Even the best writer has to erase. —Spanish Proverb

204

204  •  Chapter 1

told it. SAY: A personal narrative is a true story that the writer tells about himself or herself. Read aloud the personal narrative on page 205. Ask students what words in the story show that it is about something that happened to the writer (I, my). Guide students to understand that words such as I, me, and my are used in a personal narrative. Ask students to tell how the writer felt about the experience.

Personal Narratives


(He felt scared. He felt silly for being scared.) Explain that writers write personal narratives to share their true stories with others. Ask what words in the story show that it is scary (loud, rainy, night, scary, shadows, monster). Invite volunteers to name other words and phrases they might find in a scary story. On the board, write students’ words and phrases.

Point out the word then in the model. Explain that using words like then, next, before, and later help the reader understand the sequence of events in their stories. SAY: When we write stories, we write using sentences. Read aloud a sentence from the model. Point out that the sentence tells one complete thought. Explain that sentences go together to tell many complete

thoughts and that those thoughts make up the whole story. Point out that the words and phrases on the board do not tell complete thoughts. Help students use the words on the board to form sentences. Explain that a piece of writing is like a brick house and that sentences are the bricks that the house is made of.

Scavenger Hunt Ask students to find examples of personal narratives in the classroom and around the school. Point out that a personal narrative is not fiction; it is a retelling of something that really happened to the writer. COMMON CORE STANDARDS CCSS.ELA.W.2.3

Stormy Night It was a loud and rainy night. Scary shadows were everywhere. My chair looked like it had a monster in it! So I turned on the light. Then I laughed. It was just my fuzzy bear. It is funny to be scared of a little fuzzy bear.

Personal Narratives • 205

www.voyagesinenglish.com  •  Personal Narratives  •  205


What Is a Personal Narrative? OBJECTIVE • To identify the beginning of a personal narrative

WARM-UP Read aloud a brief personal narrative. ASK: Think about the beginning of this story. What caught your attention? Explain that a story in which a writer writes about his or her own life experience always has a beginning, and that the beginning of this kind of story should catch the reader’s attention.

Invite volunteers to explain how they knew which beginning fits which personal narrative.

APPLY Invite students to imagine they are the writer for each activity example in the right column and write their own beginning for each personal narrative. (I love to ride my bike might be a good beginning for the first narrative example.) Encourage students to read aloud one of their sentences. Redirect students to correct responses if necessary.

ASSESS Note which students had difficulty identifying the beginning of a personal narrative. Provide those students with additional support.

COMMON CORE STANDARDS CCSS.ELA.W.2.3

GRAMMAR CONNECTION When reading the model on page 205, take the opportunity to remind students that personal narratives are made up of sentences, which are words that tell complete thoughts.

What Is a Personal Narrative?

TEACH SAY: The word personal means “belonging to a person.” The word narrative means story. That means that a personal narrative is a story that someone tells about his or her own life experience. Guide students through the first two paragraphs on page 206. SAY: No matter how long or short a story is, it has a beginning, a middle, and an ending.

PRACTICE Read aloud the first paragraph under the heading The Beginning. Tell students that the beginning tells what a story is about. Then read aloud the first example sentence. ASK: What do you think this story is about? (the wind playing a trick) Read aloud the rest of the example. Talk to students about how the beginning fits with the rest of the story and makes the reader want to know more. Read aloud the exercise directions. Guide students to complete the activity as a class. 206  •  Chapter 1

A personal narrative is a story about you. A personal narrative has a beginning, a middle, and an ending. A personal narrative uses the words I, me, and my.

The Beginning The beginning is the first sentence or sentences in a story. The beginning tells what the story is about. beginning

The wind played a trick on me today. A brisk breeze took my hat and tossed it across the ground. I chased my hat and grabbed it. Would you like to have the wind treat your favorite hat this way? Match each beginning to its story. Write the letter on the line. a. This morning

I had my first skating lesson. b. I had fun

yesterday with a cardboard box. c. Last week I was

riding my bike.

Dad said it was time to take off my training wheels. I got scared. I started slowly. I pedaled once. I pedaled twice. I couldn’t believe it. I was riding all by myself! As soon as I moved onto the ice, my feet slid out from under me! My coach helped me up and we started over. I wonder if penguins have this much trouble. I made it into a sled. I zoomed down a hill on my simple sled. What an exciting ride!

206 • Chapter 1


OBJECTIVES

GRAMMAR CONNECTION

• To identify the purpose of the middle of a personal narrative • To write a short sequence of events

When reading the sample paragraph, point out that complete sentences begin with uppercase letters and end with end marks, such as periods.

WARM-UP Read aloud a brief personal narrative. ASK: Think about the middle of this story. In what order did the events happen? Explain that a personal narrative always has a middle part and that the middle of the story should tell the main events in time order.

TEACH Remind students that a personal narrative is a true story about the writer. Review the types of personal pronouns that writers use in a personal narrative, such as I, me, my, we, and us. SAY: A beginning of a personal narrative starts the story and tells what the story is about.

Read aloud the first paragraph on page 207. Tell students that the middle part of a personal narrative tells the story in time order. Ask pairs of students to tell each other brief stories about their favorite memory from summer. After students share, SAY: Think about the middle of the story you heard. Which event happened first? What happened next? What happened just before the end? The middle of a personal narrative is often the longest part because it tells so much of the story. Guide students through the example and direct their attention to highlighted sentences labeled middle. Explain that these sentences describe the important events in the story. Tell students that the beginning of a personal narrative connects to the middle and that the middle leads to the ending.

The Middle

PRACTICE

The middle tells what happens in the story. A story usually has more than one middle sentence.

Read aloud the exercise directions and the first and last sentences of the activity on page 207. Ask students to imagine that they have spent the day at a lake. Have students complete the narrative. Invite volunteers to read aloud their narratives.

middle

It was my very first balloon ride. The giant balloon began to float. People waved to me from the ground. The balloon went higher and higher. Someday I’d like to go around the world in a balloon. Read the beginning and ending sentences below. Write your own middle sentences. Use the word bank for help.

splash

sun

turtle

fish

swim

boat

My Day at the Lake I had a great day at the lake.

APPLY On the board, write Today was the best day! (beginning) and I can’t wait for tomorrow (ending). Have students write two or three middle sentences to complete a personal narrative, using the beginning and ending on the board. Collect student work and provide written feedback.

ASSESS Note which students had difficulty writing the middle part of a personal narrative. Provide those students with additional support.

I had so much fun that I can’t wait to go back again. Personal Narratives • 207

COMMON CORE STANDARDS CCSS.ELA.SL.2.4 CCSS.ELA.W.2.3

www.voyagesinenglish.com  •  Personal Narratives  •  207


What Is a Personal Narrative? OBJECTIVES • To identify the purpose of the ending of a personal narrative • To select appropriate endings for personal narratives

WARM-UP Read aloud a brief personal narrative but leave out the ending. SAY: This story ends suddenly. A reader cannot tell that it is over. ASK: Based on what you heard, what might be a good ending to this story? After listening to suggested endings, read aloud the original ending for the class.

ASK: How does this story turn out? (The writer loses the contest but is happy because the cookies were delicious.)

Ask them to apply what they just learned and write a different ending for each story. When students have finished, invite volunteers to share aloud their endings.

PRACTICE Read aloud the exercise directions. Point out that an ending might tell the last thing that happened, ask a question, or reveal the writer’s feelings. Guide students to complete the exercise as a class.

ASSESS Note which students had difficulty choosing an appropriate ending for a story. Provide those students with additional support.

COMMON CORE STANDARDS CCSS.ELA.W.2.3

APPLY Invite students to imagine that the stories in the first column of the exercise actually happened to them.

GRAMMAR CONNECTION When reading the sample paragraph, emphasize that complete thoughts might be expressed in telling, commanding, asking, or exclaiming sentences.

TEACH Review what a personal narrative is (a true story that happened to the writer; a story that uses the words I, me, and my). ASK: What do the beginning and the middle of a personal narrative do? (A beginning tells what the story is about. The middle tells what happens in the story.) SAY: Personal narratives have a third important part. Read aloud the first paragraph on page 208. Emphasize that the ending tells how a story turns out. A good ending lets the reader know that the story is over. SAY: Some endings tell the last thing that happens in the story. Some endings tell what the story means or why something is important. Some endings tell how the writer feels. Read aloud the example story on page 208. Point out the highlighted sentence labeled ending. Ask students to identify the beginning and middle parts of the story. Remind students that an ending finishes a story.

The Ending The ending is the last sentence or sentences in a story. The ending finishes the story. It may tell the last thing that happens, ask a question, or tell about a special feeling the writer has.

My brother and I were making cookies. He challenged me to an egg-cracking contest. He neatly cracked an egg with one hand. Then it was my turn. The whole egg, shell and all, plopped into the cookie dough. I lost the contest, but the cookies were still delicious! ending

Choose the correct ending for each story. Write the letter on the line. Nothing tastes better than lemonade on a warm day. My brother and I decided to make some. He cut up the lemons. I squeezed them into a jar. Then I added sugar and water. Dad tasted it and made a funny face. I learned a lot about camping last summer. Owls were hooting all night. Chirping birds woke me up in the morning. Today was my first time on a subway train. We moved so fast that I could barely stand. I had to hold on tight. In the tunnel it got dark. 208 • Chapter 1

208  •  Chapter 1

a. I cannot wait to ride

again! b. I learned that the

forest is a noisy place to sleep! c. I think I will add

more sugar next time!


OBJECTIVES • To use I, me, and my in a personal narrative • To write a personal narrative with a beginning, a middle, and an ending

WARM-UP Begin a chain story about an event experienced by the class. Start the story with an open-ended sentence. (We will always remember our field trip.) Invite volunteers, in turn, to add to the story. Wrap the story up with an ending. (It was the most interesting field trip ever.)

GRAMMAR CONNECTION When reading the writing prompts on page 209, point out that each sentence begins with a capital letter. Remind students that each sentence should end with an end mark.

PRACTICE

TEACH Ask volunteers how they decided what to add to the chain story in the Warm-Up, what they think makes a story interesting, and how they like to experience stories. Invite students to recall what they know about a personal narrative. (It is a story about the writer. It is a

Write a Story A personal narrative is a story about you. You are the star in your story. Remember to use the words I, me, and my to show that the story is about you. Write a story about a day you remember well. Remember to include

Read aloud the paragraph under the Write a Story heading. Give students time to tell a partner a story they would like to write. Encourage partners to ask questions about the story. (Who? What? Where? When? Why? How?) When students begin writing, walk around the classroom to check their progress, offer assistance, and give support. Ask partners to exchange their written stories. Encourage them to read the stories and point out any details that were not included when the story was told orally or were left out of the written story. When students have finished writing and checking their stories, invite them to share their personal narratives with the class.

APPLY Invite volunteers to tell what they liked about the stories that were shared from the Practice exercise.

• a beginning that tells what the story is about. • a middle that tells what happened in the story.

ASSESS

• an ending that tells the last thing that happened, asks a question, or tells about a special feeling.

Beginning

true story. It is a story that uses the words I, me, and my.) Read the first paragraph of the section Write a Story on page 209. Tell a brief story about something that happened to you. ASK: Can you think of a story that you would like to tell?

Note which students had difficulty writing a personal narrative with a beginning, a middle, and an ending. Provide those students with additional support.

I remember the day I

Middle

COMMON CORE STANDARDS CCSS.ELA.SL.2.2 CCSS.ELA.W.2.3

Ending

It was the

day ever.

Personal Narratives • 209

www.voyagesinenglish.com  •  Personal Narratives  •  209


Writer’s Workshop OBJECTIVE • To choose a topic for a personal narrative

PREWRITING Pick a Topic Ask students to talk with a partner about

MODEL BRAINSTORMING TOPICS 

Ask volunteers to offer topics for personal narratives. Write student suggestions on the board. For each topic, ASK: What did you do? How did you feel or react? Use the topics on the board to brainstorm your own list of personal-narrative topics. Write your ideas on the board, talk about them, and circle your favorite topic.

Your Turn Read aloud the Your Turn text. Allow time for students to write their ideas in their notebooks. Provide encouragement and help students list appropriate topics. Encourage students to circle the topic that seems most interesting to write and read about.

COMMON CORE STANDARDS CCSS.ELA.W.2.5

• brave things they have done. • past events that surprised them. • past events that they will always remember. SAY: Writers often brainstorm by writing ideas and then picking their favorite one. TOPICS  Read aloud the first paragraph on page 210. SAY: A topic for a personal narrative might be when I went to the bowling alley, my first baseball game, or what I did after school yesterday. Emphasize that before writing, students will choose their own topics. Explain that Raj is a second-grade student who is writing a personal narrative. Tell students that they will follow Raj through the writing process as he writes a personal narrative. Have students read aloud Raj’s topics. Explain that Raj wrote several topics and then circled the one he liked best.

Writer’s Workshop PREWRITING Pick a Topic A personal narrative is a story about you. The topic can be anything that happened to you. Raj needs to pick a topic for a personal narrative. Look at his notes.

my trip

to Florid

a

da y o my first l sc h o o my very

f

scary n

ight

I won the time est t th e c o n

Your Turn Write as many ideas as you can. Then circle the idea you like best. This will be your topic. Write a personal narrative about you. It should be a real story that happened to you. Jot down ideas in your notebook. Think about a time that • you were happy. • you were really surprised. • something funny happened. • you were scared by something silly.

210

210  •  Chapter 1

• Chapter 1


OBJECTIVE • To draw pictures for the beginning, middle, and ending for a personal narrative

PREWRITING Plan Your Story SAY: Now that you’ve chosen a topic, the next step is to organize your ideas. Explain that organize in this case means “to put the parts of your story in order.” ORGANIZING IDEAS  Read aloud the

first paragraph. Explain that a good way to plan and organize a personal narrative is to draw pictures of the

main parts of the story. Tell students that the pictures can help them keep the story in order. Invite volunteers to describe what is shown in each of Raj’s pictures. Remind students that the ending might tell the last thing that happens, ask a question, or tell about the writer’s feelings. MODEL ORGANIZING IDEAS  On the

board, draw pictures that represent the beginning, middle, and ending of the personal-narrative topic used in your model. Include more than one picture to illustrate the middle. SAY: Drawing pictures helps me remember what happened. Drawing also helps me figure out what parts of the story are important. I won’t draw small

Personal Narratives

PREWRITING Plan Your Story Now Raj must plan his personal narrative. He draws pictures to help him plan his story. He draws pictures of the beginning, the middle, and the ending of his story.

Beginning

details. I’ll draw only the most important things that happened. Once I know what I want to write about, the pictures help me put the parts in the correct order. I’ll save the pictures to help me organize my ideas when I write a draft. Your Turn Read aloud the Your Turn text. Tell students that they can draw more than three pictures if they wish. Individually, help students distinguish important ideas and details from unimportant details. Then allow time for students to sketch their pictures for their chosen topic.

SPEAKING AND LISTENING Have students meet in small groups to share their drawings. Have them tell their narratives in order using their drawings as the basis for their speaking. Remind students of good listening skills, including making eye contact with the speaker and remaining quiet and still as the speaker talks.

MEETING INDIVIDUAL NEEDS VISUAL LEARNERS  Invite students to tell a story using only pictures. Encourage them to use a lot of pictures to depict what happens in the middle of the story. COMMON CORE STANDARDS CCSS.ELA.SL.2.4 CCSS.ELA.W.2.3 CCSS.ELA.W.2.8

Middle

Ending

Your Turn What pictures come to mind when you think about your story? In your notebook, draw pictures of the beginning, the middle, and the ending. Write beginning next to the beginning pictures. Write middle next to the middle pictures. Write ending next to the ending pictures. Personal Narratives • 211

www.voyagesinenglish.com  •  Personal Narratives  •  211


Writer’s Workshop OBJECTIVES • To use drawings to plan and organize a personal narrative • To write a first draft

DRAFTING Ask volunteers to share the pictures they drew to plan their stories. Have them explain how each picture represents the beginning, middle, or ending. As they explain each picture, encourage them to express their ideas in complete sentences and then use the sentences in their personal narrative when they write their first draft.

Your Turn Read aloud the Your Turn text. Give students time to look at the pictures they drew. Encourage students to ask themselves questions, such as Do my pictures help me tell my story? Do I need to add or change any pictures? Are my pictures in the right order? SAY: Add more pictures or details to your story that relate to your topic. Encourage students to add pictures if they show important details. Give students time to write their drafts. Walk around the room to provide support. Encourage students to use the spelling patterns and letter sounds they know to write unfamiliar words. Explain that later they will have time to make changes.

COMPLETE SENTENCES  Read aloud the first paragraph on page 212. SAY: Raj turned his picture ideas into sentences. Invite a volunteer to read aloud Raj’s draft. Point out that later Raj will have time to make his draft better.

212  •  Chapter 1

EXTRA SUPPORT  To reinforce writing complete sentences, write a list of naming parts on the board. Ask volunteers to suggest action parts that make a complete sentence. Then write a list of action parts and follow the same process to identify naming parts.

COMMON CORE STANDARDS CCSS.ELA.W.2.3 CCSS.ELA.W.2.8

Writer’s Workshop DRAFTING

MODEL WRITING COMPLETE SENTENCES  Refer to the drawings

you made previously as you model writing the beginning, middle, and ending for your draft. Explain how the sentences connect to the pictures. Explain to students that voice is what gives writing personality and style. Help students write using their own voice in the first person as they draft their personal narratives. Include in your draft at least one mistake that can be discovered by answering the questions on the Editing Checklist on page 213 and one mistake from the Proofreading Checklist on page 214. SAY: I probably made some mistakes, included unnecessary details, or left some things out as I wrote. I can fix these mistakes later. Save your draft to use during the Editing stage. Point out to students an example of a complete sentence. SAY: This sentence has a naming part and an action part. Ask volunteers to underline the naming part and circle the action part.

MEETING INDIVIDUAL NEEDS

When you first write your story, you are making a draft. This is Raj’s draft.

had a My chair looked like it the light. monster on it! So I on just my Then I laughed. It was to be scared fuzzy bear. It is funny of a little fuzzy bear. Your Turn Look at the pictures you drew to help you plan your story. Put them in the right order. Draw more pictures if you need to. Write a sentence to go with each picture. Write your draft in your notebook. Use your pictures and sentences to help you. You can also use the words in the word bank if you need help. Remember to write a beginning, a middle, and an ending. surprise scary

212

• Chapter 1

happy warm

loud fuzzy

shiny laugh


OBJECTIVES

EDITING CHECKLIST  Read aloud the

• To edit using an Editing Checklist • To revise using changes identified when writing

EDITING AND REVISING SAY: When you edit, you mark changes in your draft to make your story more exciting for your reader. Explain that writers can use checklists and peer-editing to help improve their drafts and make changes. SAY: When you revise, you rewrite those changes correctly.

first paragraph. Invite a volunteer to read aloud the questions in the Editing Checklist. ASK: Which question helped Raj find the mistake in his draft? (Do I have a beginning?) Point out how Raj fixed his draft by adding the sentences shown in red type. Point out the proofreading mark that Raj used. Guide students to the chart on the inside back cover of the book and discuss its meaning. ASK: How do these sentences make the draft better? (They tell what the story is about.)

Personal Narratives

EDITING

I don’t have a beginning to my story.

When you check your draft, you are editing. Raj uses this Editing Checklist to review his draft.

Editing Checklist Do I have a beginning? ? Do I have a middle

? Do I have an ending me? ut abo ry sto my Is er? Is my story in ord

It was a loud and rain y ni Scary shadows were ev ght. erywhere. My chair looked like it had a monster in it! So I on th e light.

Look at the mistake Raj finds. How does he fix it? Your Turn Look at your draft. Then use the Editing Checklist. If you spot a mistake, fix it. You might ask another person to read your story. Other readers can point out ways you can improve your draft.

PEER EDITING  Explain that in addition to using the Editing Checklist to find mistakes, it is helpful to ask a friend to read your story. Emphasize the importance of respectful behavior and helpful language during peer editing. MODEL EDITING AND REVISING 

Direct students’ attention to the personal narrative you wrote that contains at least one error from the Editing Checklist on page 213. SAY: Everyone makes mistakes when they write, and that is why we edit. Guide them to use the Editing Checklist to find the mistakes in your draft. Demonstrate how to mark the corrections. Then choose a volunteer to model appropriate peer-editing behavior and language, reinforcing helpful words such as I like the part when . . . or I think your story can be better if you . . . When editing is complete, SAY: Now I will use the proofreading marks to rewrite the sentences of my personal narrative. On the board, rewrite your draft, incorporating your marked changes into the new version. Your Turn Ask students to use the items on the checklist to edit their drafts. When they finish making changes to their own work, have them exchange their drafts with a partner. Tour the classroom and listen for appropriate peer-editing behavior. When students have finished editing, allow time for them to revise their drafts. As students work, walk around the classroom and offer support and encouragement

COMMON CORE STANDARDS CCSS.ELA.SL.2.4 CCSS.ELA.W.2.5 CCSS.ELA.W.2.8

REVISING Raj copies his draft. He makes changes that improve the draft. Your Turn Copy your story. Add any changes that will make it better. Fix any mistakes that you find. Make your story the best it can be. Personal Narratives • 213

www.voyagesinenglish.com  •  Personal Narratives  •  213


Writer’s Workshop OBJECTIVES • To proofread a revised draft • To edit using a proofreading checklist

PROOFREADING SAY: When we proofread, we are checking that all the words are spelled correctly and all the sentences are complete. We want readers to pay attention to our story, not our mistakes. PROOFREADING CHECKLIST  Read aloud the first paragraph. Then invite a volunteer to read aloud the Proofreading Checklist. Clarify the meaning of each question. Read the sentence below the writing model. ASK: Which question in the checklist helped Raj find his mistake? (Are the sentences complete?) ASK: How did Raj fix this mistake? (He added an action— turned.) SAY: Proofreading marks show what changes we want to make. Point out the proofreading mark that Raj used to add a word to his draft. Discuss the Proofreading Marks Chart at the bottom of the page and review the meaning of each one with the class. MODEL USING PROOFREADING MARKS  Direct students’ attention

to your revised personal narrative. Guide students to use the Proofreading Checklist to find the error you included. Demonstrate how to use proofreading marks to correct your error.

Read aloud the Your Turn text. Ask students to proofread their drafts. Encourage them to check for one kind of mistake at a time. Offer the use of other references, such as a print or online dictionary or a word wall to check and correct mistakes. When students finish, ask partners to trade drafts and proofread each other’s work. Remind them that another person might spot a mistake that they missed or offer another suggestion for improvement. SAY: Please double-check anything your partner suggests to change, or ask for help. Because it is your story, you should decide whether or not to make a change. Walk Your Turn

around the class room to offer assistance and support. Listen for respectful peer- conferencing language and offer assistance as needed.

Teacher Tip Encourage students to refer often to the Proofreading Marks Chart on the inside back cover of their book.

COMMON CORE STANDARDS CCSS.ELA.L.2.2e CCSS.ELA.SL.2.4 CCSS.ELA.W.2.5 CCSS.ELA.W.2.8

Writer’s Workshop PROOFREADING When you carefully check your words and sentences, you are proofreading. Raj uses this Proofreading Checklist to review his draft.

It was a loud and rainy night. Scary shadows wer e everywhere. My chair looked lik e it had a monster on it! Soturned I on the light.

ecklist Proofreading Ch

spelled Are all the words correctly? ers? Did I use capital lett end ht rig Did I use the marks? Are the sentences complete?

Look at the mistake that Raj finds. How does he fix it? Your Turn Use the checklist to review your draft. Put an X next to the questions you can answer yes to. Use these proofreading marks to mark your changes.

Proofreading Marks Symbol

214

214  •  Chapter 1

• Chapter 1

Meaning

Example read

add

We books.

take out

the the park

add period

She is smart

capital letter

carl jones

lowercase letter

He likes Soccer.


OBJECTIVE

the words in the thought bubble. SAY: Raj is telling us how he will publish his draft.

• To publish a personal narrative

MODEL WRITING A FINAL COPY 

PUBLISHING Explain that publishing is a writer sharing his or her work with an audience. SAY: Your audience is anyone with whom you share the final copy of your writing. Guide students to identify who their audience might be. Point out that students are publishing their work when they hand it in to a teacher or show it to a parent or friend. WAYS TO PUBLISH  Read aloud the

first two paragraphs. Point out

Model for students how to write a final copy. You might write your final copy on the board, or you might use one of the publishing ideas shown on the page. As you write, SAY: First I wrote this personal narrative. Then I edited, revised, and proofread it. Now I am ready to share my personal narrative with an audience. Your Turn Discuss with students ways they could publish their personal narratives. Give students time to write their final copies.

Personal Narratives

PUBLISHING

How will Raj publish his personal narrative? Are you ready to publish your work? Copy your story onto a sheet of paper. Print as neatly as you can. Be sure to include all the improvements in your final copy. Leave room to draw a picture.

I want to read my story to my mom!

Make a bo ok.

Give it to my parents. Put it on the bulletin board.

finished, give each a copy of the Student Rubric on page T-280. Read aloud each item on the rubric. Discuss with students what each item means and how to apply it to their writing. Ask students to evaluate their personal narratives. Use the Teacher Scoring Rubric on page T-281 to assess student understanding of the genre.

PORTFOLIOS  Have students keep

a portfolio of their finished drafts.

SAY: A portfolio will help you see

what you are learning and how your writing improves throughout the year. Distribute folders to hold their finished drafts. Students may wish to decorate their folders.

CHALLENGE  If computers are available, ask students to type the final copy of their personal narrative and add graphics. Publish their writing on the class website.

SPEAKING AND LISTENING During peer-editing sessions, or after a student’s published piece has been presented orally, prompt other students to ask questions to increase their understanding of or learn more about the content of the piece. Remind students to ask and answer questions in a kind, constructive, and respectful manner.

Teacher Tip Encourage students to use available spell-check when they type their writing on a computer.

Make it into a skit.

Read it to a friend.

RUBRICS  When students have

MEETING INDIVIDUAL NEEDS

Publishing your work means sharing it. It is exciting to share your very best work with an audience.

You can publish your story in many ways. How will you publish yours?

Remind them to write slowly and carefully and to check each sentence to make sure it’s the best it can be. Encourage students to add art or other visuals.

Frame it.

COMMON CORE STANDARDS

Your Turn Decide with your class how to share your story. Think of new and fun ways.

CCSS.ELA.W.2.3 CCSS.ELA.W.2.5 CCSS.ELA.W.2.6 CCSS.ELA.W.2.8 Personal Narratives • 215

www.voyagesinenglish.com  •  Personal Narratives  •  215

Voyages in English 2018, Teacher Edition, Grade 2  

The Voyages in English Teacher Edition offers unparalleled support in an easy-to-use, step-by-step format that can be adapted for students’...

Voyages in English 2018, Teacher Edition, Grade 2  

The Voyages in English Teacher Edition offers unparalleled support in an easy-to-use, step-by-step format that can be adapted for students’...