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ACADEMY OF ST MARTIN IN THE FIELDS JOSHUA BELL, MUSIC DIRECTOR & VIOLIN

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OPENING 2019 7600 Fay Avenue, in La Jolla

For nearly half a century, La Jolla Music Society has enhanced the cultural landscape of San Diego by presenting and producing a dynamic range of performing arts for the community. This artistic inspiration and passion continues with the development of The Conrad Prebys Performing Arts Center. This new venue will serve as the premier home for diverse programming and education for the entire Southern California region.

VISIT THECONRAD.ORG FOR MORE INFORMATION L J M S. O R G ¡ 8 5 8 . 4 5 9 . 3 7 2 8

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Table of Contents CALENDAR LA JOLLA MUSIC SOCIETY STAFF & BOARD OF DIRECTORS PIERRE-LAURENT AIMARD EMANUEL AX - LEONIDAS KAVAKOS - YO-YO MA HERBIE HANCOCK ACADEMY OF ST MARTIN IN THE FIELDS SCHUBERT’S SWAN SONG I ARTIST BIOGRAPHIES SUPPORT

LA JOLLA MUSIC SOCIETY STAFF Cho-Liang Lin – SummerFest Music Director ADMINISTRATION

Chris Benavides – Finance Director Debra Palmer – Executive Assistant & Board Liaison Anthony LeCourt – Administrative Assistant/Rental Coordinator Brandon Johnson – Administrative Assistant ARTISTIC & EDUCATION

Leah Rosenthal – Director of Artistic Planning & Education Allison Boles – Education Manager Sarah Campbell – Artist Services Coordinator Marcia Asasi – Artistic & Education Assistant Serafin Paredes – Community Music Center Program Director Eric Bromberger – Program Annotator DEVELOPMENT

Ferdinand Gasang – Development Director Rewa Colette Soltan – Business Development & Event Coordinator Katelyn Woodside – Development Coordinator MARKETING & TICKET SERVICES

Jenie Dahlmann – Marketing Director Hayley Woldseth – Marketing Manager Hilary Huffman – Marketing Coordinator Angelina Franco – Graphic & Web Designer Jorena de Pedro – Ticket Services Manager Shannon Haider – Ticket Services Assistant Caroline Mickle – Ticket Services Assistant Alex Gutierrez – Ticket Services Assistant Shaun Davis – House Manager Paul Body – Photographer PRODUCTION

Travis Wininger – Director of Theatre Operations Leighann Enos – Production Manager Jonnel Domilos – Piano Technician Erica Poole – Page Turner

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BOARD OF DIRECTORS · 2017-18 Katherine Chapin – Chair Rafael Pastor – Vice Chair Robin Nordhoff – Treasurer Jennifer Eve – Secretary Stephen L. Baum Gordon Brodfuehrer Wendy Brody Ric Charlton Linda Chester Brian Douglass Debby Fishburn Sarah Garrison Lehn Goetz Susan Hoehn Sue Major Peggy Preuss Sylvia Ré Jeremiah Robins Donald J. Rosenberg

Sheryl Scarano Clifford Schireson Marge Schmale Maureen Shiftan Jeanette Stevens Shankar Subramaniam Haeyoung Kong Tang Debra Turner H. Peter Wagener Lisa Widmier Clara Wu Katrina Wu

HONORARY DIRECTORS

Brenda Baker Stephen L. Baum Joy Frieman, Ph.D. Irwin M. Jacobs Joan K. Jacobs Lois Kohn (1924-2010) Helene K. Kruger Conrad Prebys (1933-2016) Ellen Revelle (1910-2009) Leigh P. Ryan, Esq.

LEGAL COUNSEL

Paul Hastings LLP AUDITOR

Leaf & Cole, LLP HONORARY

Christopher Beach – Artistic Director Emeritus

LA JOLLA MUSIC SOCIETY

7946 Ivanhoe Avenue, Suite 309, La Jolla, California 92037 Admin: 858.459.3724 | Fax: 858.459.3727

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PRELUDE 7 PM Lecture by Steven Cassedy

How Beethoven Blew Up Sonata Form and Turned the Piano into an Orchestra In this late sonata, Beethoven exploited the almost symphonic potential of the newly powerful instrument and, as if carried away by its novelty, took sonata form and stood it on its head.

PIERRE-LAURENT AIMARD, piano THURSDAY, MARCH 1, 2018 • 8 PM BALBOA THEATRE *Please wait to applaud until intermission

BEETHOVEN Piano Sonata in B-flat Major, Opus 106 (1770-1827) “Hammerklavier” (1818) Allegro Scherzo: Assai vivace Adagio sostenuto Largo; Allegro; Allegro risoluto I N T E R M I S S I O N

The Piano Series is underwritten by Medallion Society members:

Conrad Prebys and Debbie Turner

Additional support for tonight’s concert is provided by:

OBUKHOV Création de l’or, Nos. 1 and 2 (1916) (1892-1954)

Revelation

(1915)

LISZT Nuages gris, S.199 (1881) (1811-1886) Les jeux d’eaux à la Villa d’Este, S.163/4 (1867-77) MESSIAEN Le courlis cendré from Catalogue d'oiseaux (1956-58) (1810-1856)

La Jolla Music Society’s 2017-18 Season is supported by The City of San Diego Commission for Arts and Culture, County of San Diego Community Enhancement Program, National Endowment for the Arts, Thomas C. Ackerman Foundation, David C. Copley Foundation, D’Addario Foundation, ProtoStar Foundation, ResMed Foundation, Regents Bank, US Bank, The Dow Divas, The Lodge at Torrey Pines, La Valencia Hotel, The Westgate Hotel, Conrad Prebys and Debra Turner, Brenda Baker and Stephen Baum, The Beyster Family, Joan and Irwin Jacobs, Joy Frieman, Brian and Silvija Devine, Gordon Brodfuehrer, Jeanette Stevens, and an anonymous donor

SCRIABIN Piano Sonata No. 5 in F-sharp Major, Opus 53 (1907) (1872-1915)

This performance marks Pierre-Laurent Aimard’s La Jolla Music Society debut. L J M S. O R G · 8 5 8 . 4 5 9 . 3 7 2 8

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Hammerklavier “the crystallization of the late style.” Those old forms may be present, but Beethoven is transforming them beyond recognition even as he holds onto them. Born December 16, 1770, Bonn The Allegro opens with a powerful, almost defiant chordal Died March 26, 1827, Vienna gesture, yet Beethoven quickly follows this with a flowing, Duration: Approximately 45 minutes lyric idea and then brings the music to a brief pause–in those Beethoven spent the summer of 1817 in the small village opening eight bars, he has provided enough material to fuel of Mödling, about twelve miles south of Vienna. These were virtually the entire movement. There is a second theme, a miserable times for the composer (he himself referred to this quiet chorale set high in the pianist’s right hand while the left as a period of “oppressive circumstances”): he was in poor accompanies this with swirling sextuplets; Beethoven marks health, locked in a bitter legal struggle for custody of his this cantabile dolce ed espressivo, but it is really the sonata’s nephew Karl, and sinking deeper into deafness. Worse, he opening that will dominate this movement–the chorale theme found himself at a creative standstill. Since the dissolution of does not re-appear until almost the end of the exposition, and the Heroic Style five years earlier, he had fallen into a long Beethoven treats it thereafter more as refrain than as an active silence as–from the depths of his illness and deafness–he thematic participant. The drama comes from that sharplysearched for a new musical language. Yet Beethoven took contrasted opening idea, and Beethoven builds much of his pleasure in the village in the lovely valley of Brühl, where he development on a fugal treatment of the opening gesture would go for long walks. He was joined on one of these by before the movement drives to a powerful close on a coda the pianist Carl Czerny, who reported that Beethoven told him derived from that opening. “I am writing a new sonata that will become my greatest.” After that mighty first movement, which lasts a full But progress was slow. Beethoven began the sonata in the fall dozen minutes, the Scherzo whips pasts in barely two. It is in of 1817 and had only the first two movements complete by standard ternary form, but Beethoven experiments with the the following April. He returned to Mödling for the summer whole notion of theme here: the outer section is built virtually of 1818 and had the sonata done by the end of that summer. It on one rhythmic pattern, the dotted figure heard at the very had taken a year of work. beginning. The brief central episode, in D-flat major and Many would agree with Beethoven that this sonata is his written in octaves, leads to a dazzling return to the opening: greatest, and–at 45 minutes–it is certainly his longest. When a Prestissimo run across the range of the keyboard and great it was published in September 1819, it acquired the nickname flourish set up the beautifully-understated reappearance of “Hammerklavier,” a nickname that originated–obliquely–with the opening. The ending is just as brilliant: Beethoven writes the composer himself. Beethoven in these years had become a very brief Presto that begins in colossal power and–almost convinced that the piano was a German invention, and he did before we know it–has vanished like smoke. not want to use the Italian title pianoforte for the instrument The Adagio sostenuto is not just the longest movement in (during this period he was also coming to prefer German this sonata but one of the longest slow movements Beethoven performance markings to Italian). When this sonata and the ever wrote. He specifies that it should be Appassionata e con Sonata in A-flat Major, Opus 101 were published, Beethoven molto sentimento, and the simple, moving chordal melody specified that they were “für das Hammerklavier,” which was at the beginning gradually expands across the long span of simply the German word for piano (a piano with the strings this movement, taking us through a range of experience, struck by hammers). The title Hammerklavier has stuck only intense and heartfelt. The final movement opens with a to the second of those sonatas, but that nickname–with its long introduction marked Largo; some of this is unbarred latent subtextual implication of vast power–is inextricably and gives the impression of existing outside time, yet in linked to our sense of this music. We never think of it as the the middle of this slow introduction the music suddenly Sonata in B-flat Major. We think of it only with one powerful rushes ahead on a five-measure Allegro that sounds as if word: Hammerklavier. it had come directly from Bach’s Well-Tempered Clavier. Coming as it does between the collapse of the Heroic The Largo resumes, gathers power on a series of trills, and Style and the arrival of the Late Style, the Hammerklavier is suddenly the main section–Allegro risoluto–bursts to life. inevitably a transitional work, though that hardly need imply This massive finale is one long fugue in three voices, which an inferior one. It is traditional in the sense that it retains the Beethoven then develops with great power, originality, and four-movement structure of the sonata: a sonata-form first complexity; perhaps he saw in the fugue, with its combination movement, a scherzo, a lyric slow movement, and a powerful of intellectual and emotional power, an ideal conclusion to fast finale, yet in every other sense this music looks ahead, so powerful a sonata. This finale makes fiendish demands and Maynard Solomon is quite right when he describes the on the pianist (it is scarcely easier for the listener), and it

Piano Sonata in B-flat Major, Opus 106 “Hammerklavier”

LUDWIG VAN BEETHOVEN

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has produced some stunned reactions: Barry Cooper notes that “There is in this finale . . . an element of excessiveness . . . an instinct to push every component part of the music . . . not just to its logical conclusion but beyond.” And in fact the sonata is so overwhelming–technically, musically, emotionally–that it has left all who write about it gasping for language that might measure its stride. Paul Bekker calls the slow movement “the apotheosis of pain, of the deep sorrow for which there is no remedy . . . the immeasurable stillness of utter woe.” The pianist and pedagogue Ernest Hutcheson virtually concedes defeat: “The immensity of this composition cannot fail to strike us with awe. We gaze at its vast dome like pygmies from below, never feeling on an intellectual or moral level with it.” Perhaps it is best to leave the last word to Beethoven himself, who mailed this music off to his publisher with a wry observation: “Now there you have a sonata that will keep the pianists busy fifty years hence.”

Création de l’or, Nos. 1 and 2 Revelation

NIKOLAY OBUKHOV Born April 22, 1892, Kursk, Russia Died June 13, 1954, Paris

Duration: Approximately 10 minutes

The first half of this program features music by four visionary pianist-composers, and it opens with music by one of the most visionary of them all. Nikolay Obukhov was born in a remote village in the Kursk region, but he was lucky to have parents who recognized his talent and arranged for piano and violin lessons for him. Obukhov studied first at the Moscow Conservatory, but then went on to the St. Petersburg Conservatory, where he studied with Maximilian Steinberg and Alexander Tcherepnin. Obukhov was an experimenter from the start: while still in his twenties, he devised a system of twelve-tone composition several years before Schoenberg invented a similar method–Obukhov called his system “absolute harmony.” Obukhov had many further ideas about what music should be: he invented his own system of notation, and he invented new instruments. The most famous of these was the croix sonore, or “resounding cross,’ which used electric amplification to produce a sound similar to the theremin. In his vocal music Obukhov sometimes called for screaming, whispering, groaning, and other utterances. Beyond purely technical innovations, Obukhov was a religious mystic, and–like Scriabin–he believed in the artist as a visionary whose art had the power to transform the human race. He referred to himself as Nicolas l’illuminé ("Nicholas the Illuminated") and sometimes signed his manuscripts with his own blood. Obukhov’s magnum opus was his gigantic Le livre de vie (“The Book of Life”), scored

for voices, chorus, two pianos, and orchestra. The entire work, which occupied Obukhov over many years and runs to 2000 pages of manuscript, is almost unknown, though Koussevitzky did perform its overture in Paris in 1926. Obukhov fled Russia after the Bolshevik Revolution and thereafter made his home in Paris, where he studied briefly with Ravel. He published a theory of harmony in 1947, but two years later he was assaulted by a gang of street toughs in Paris and beaten so badly that he was unable to compose during the remaining five years of his life. This recital opens with a collection of short pieces Obukhov composed while he was still in his early twenties and living in Russia. His Création de l’or (“The Creation of Gold”) is a set of brief pieces composed in 1916, and this recital offers the first two. Revelation, probably composed in 1915, is a more substantial work, consisting of six short sections. The titles of these sections suggest Obukhov’s mystic preoccupations: Death-Knell of the Next World, Death, Nothingness, Immortal, The Distress of Satan, and Truth. Listeners will discover that Obukhov’s music takes them into a very distinct world–mysterious, fragmentary, dramatic, disembodied, wandering, haunting.

Nuages gris, S.199

FRANZ LISZT

Born October 22, 1811, Raiding, Austria Died July 31, 1886, Bayreuth

Duration: Approximately 3 minutes

In the final decade of his long life, Liszt wrote a series of short pieces for piano. His career as a touring virtuoso was now long in the past, and in these final years his efforts to “hurl my javelin into the infinite space of the future” (as he defined his mission as a composer) led him to compose music that might best be called experimental: these pieces bring new conceptions of form, sound, and harmony. Nuages gris, composed in 1881, the year Liszt turned 70, has become one of the best-known of these late works. Nuages gris (“Gray Clouds”) is almost more interesting for what it is not than for what it is. This music is formless, static, and as harmonically uncertain as clouds are evanescent. There is no motion in this music, no progress, only an unsettling harmonic language and a refusal ever to conform to an audience’s expectations. The pianist’s two hands seem to inhabit different tonal worlds altogether, and they are worlds that have little to do with each other. Only three minutes long, this music reaches a conclusion that is entirely characteristic, passing out of our hearing on two quiet and enigmatic rolled chords. Nuages gris has been described as a forerunner of impressionism, and it would certainly have appealed to Debussy, who sought a similar

L J M S. O R G · 8 5 8 . 4 5 9 . 3 7 2 8

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freedom of tonality and evocative expression in his own music: twenty years later Debussy would write his own Nuages for orchestra.

birds and birdsong. His second wife, Yvonne Loriod, recalled a story from the composer himself: “[Messiaen] was eighteen months old, and being pushed in a pram by his mother, when a bird began to sing, and he immediately threw down his Les jeux d’eaux à la Villa d’Este, S.163/4 bottle and raised his hand to tell his mother to be quiet and listen to the bird.” As an adult, Messiaen traveled throughout the world, notating and recording the songs of birds, and so Duration: Approximately 8 minutes passionate was he about hearing new birdsong that he would Liszt gave up the post of kapellmeister in Weimar in 1859 sometimes sleep in barns so that he could hear the morning and moved the following year to Rome, where he took minor song of birds. orders in the Catholic Church and lived for part of each year Birdsong began to appear in Messiaen’s music when in the Villa d’Este in Rome. Liszt composed the third book of he was still a young man, but in the 1950s it became a his Années de pèlerinage at the Villa between 1867 and 1877, central feature of his music. In 1951 he wrote a brief work though it was not published until 1883, shortly before his for flute and piano called Le merle noir (“The Blackbird”), death. The Villa d’Este is a handsome sixteenth-century villa and this was followed by a piano concerto called Réveil des built on a steep hillside in Tivoli. It is famous for its gardens oiseaux (“Wakening of Birds,” 1953), Oiseaux exotiques and particularly for its fountains, which are of many different (“Exotic Birds,” 1956), and Catalogue d’oiseaux (“Catalog and elaborate designs and which stretch down the hillside. By of Birds,” composed 1956-1958). Birdsong would remain an the time Liszt lived there, the Villa had fallen into disrepair (it important part of Messiaen’s music across the long span of has since been renovated), but the fountains and gardens were his career, and Yvonne Loriod has noted that it had a religious intact, and they made a profound impression on the composer. significance for him: “Messiaen always used to say, ‘I was By far the most famous of the pieces in the third book born a believer,’ and never at any point in his life did he have of the Années de pèlerinage are those that were in some a shadow of doubt. And birds were for him master musicians way inspired by the Villa d’Este. Two were inspired by the who sang to the glory of God, and he himself wanted to sing cypresses on the grounds of the estate and certainly Respighi as they do.” must have been aware of this music when, half a century The most imposing and comprehensive of Messiaen’s later, he wrote his own music inspired by the pines and birdsong-inspired works is his massive Catalogue d’oiseaux, other aspects of Rome. The finest of the Villa d’Este pieces, a collection of thirteen pieces for solo piano, each titled with however, is Les jeux d’eaux à la Villa d’Este (“Play of the the name of a specific bird. Messiaen gathered these thirteen Waters at the Villa d’Este”), a musical evocation of one pieces, composed over the span of two years, and published of the sparkling fountains on the estate. This shimmering them in seven books. The complete Catalogue d’oiseaux music would have a powerful influence a generation later takes about 2½ hours to perform, and most performances offer on two young French composers who would write a great only excerpts. deal of similar “water” music: Debussy and Ravel (one Catalogue d’oiseaux is not simply a collection of of whose pieces is called Jeux d’eau). Liszt’s portrait of pieces inspired by the song of a specific bird. Instead, each sunlight sparkling off the waters of the fountain seems movement is a small music-drama. Each is set in a specific pure impressionism: the swirling beginning gives way to location, which is evoked musically. Each features a main more lyric ideas in the middle section. In the score at this character, the bird of the title and its song. Each creates a point Liszt includes a quote from St. John: “But whosoever supporting cast of surrounding birds and their songs. And drinketh of the water that I shall give him shall never thirst; each is based on a brief scenario, which Messiaen published but the water that I give him shall become in him a fountain in the score. Catalogue d’oiseaux begins in the extreme of water springing up into eternal life.” southeast part of France with a piece set in the Alps, and over the course of this vast composition the setting gradually Le courlis cendré from Catalogue d'oiseaux moves across France so that the thirteenth and final piece concludes on the shores of Brittany. And so Catalogue d’oiseaux is more than just music inspired by birdsong–it is a December 10, 1908, Avignon Died April 28, 1992, Paris musical, ornithological, and geographical tour of France. Duration: Approximately 10 minutes Le courlis cendré, the thirteenth and final piece in the Catalogue, completes Messiaen’s journey on the bleak island Throughout his life Olivier Messiaen was fascinated by of Ushant (Ouessant in French), off the far west coast of

FRANZ LISZT

OLIVIER MESSIAEN

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Brittany. The courlis cendré is the Eurasian Curlew, and in the score Messiaen describes its cry as “slow and sad tremolos, chromatic motifs, savage trills, and a tragically repeated call that expresses all desolation.” The delicate opening, marked triste (sad), introduces us to the soft cries of this curlew in its lonely setting, and soon we hear the carefully-notated calls of specific birds: Black-headed Gull, Silver Seagull, Common Redshank, Guillemot, Sandwich Tern, and others. Their cries are interrupted by the rough sound of waves, rumbling up from the depths, and then fog and increasing darkness arrive on a steady sequence of triple forte chords. These chords grow quiet as fog and night take hold, and suddenly we hear a massive chord, a blast from the warning foghorn of the Créac’h Lighthouse (Ushant has a number of spectacular lighthouses, and this blast of sound is the only moment in the entire Catalogue d’oiseaux when human agency intrudes on the world of birds). The birds cry out in response to these repeated blasts, and after one final call from the curlew, marked “tragic and desolate” in the score, the music fades into silence on what Messiaen calls bruit du ressac: the noise of the surf.

Piano Sonata No. 5 in F-sharp Major, Opus 53

ALEXANDER SCRIABIN Born January 6, 1872, Moscow Died April 27, 1915, Moscow

Duration: Approximately 11 minutes

In the early years of the twentieth century, Alexander Scriabin’s life and art underwent a profound transformation. Falling first under the influence of Nietzsche and then Madame Blavatsky and theosophism, Scriabin conceived a vision in which all life strained toward mystical unity and ecstasy, and this vision transformed his own music. He had begun as a “traditional” composer, one much influenced by Chopin, but now he began to evolve a new musical language, characterized by harmonic and formal freedom and a strong interest in instrumental color. As part of his consuming philosophy, Scriabin wrote what he called a “poem of ecstasy.” This inspired one of his finest orchestral works, a tone poem that he called Poem of Ecstasy, written between 1905 and 1908. During its composition, Scriabin took time off to compose his Piano Sonata No. 5, which springs from the same inspiration. Scriabin wrote this sonata very quickly, in the space of only six days in December 1907. It is in the one-movement form that he came to prefer in his later years, and it lasts a very compact ten minutes. In the printed score, Scriabin quotes four lines from his “Poem of Ecstasy:”

I call you to life, O mysterious forces Submerged in depths, obscure! O thou creative spirit, timid of life, To you I bring courage!

Listeners should not look for a literal depiction of any of this in the music, but should rather take these lines as an indication of the spiritual longing that animated Scriabin’s creativity over the final decade of his brief life. The sonata gets off to a striking beginning with a very brief–and violent–introduction. A sequence of low trills is broken by salvos of attacks that spiral upward and break off in silence. Out of nowhere comes a quiet transition Scriabin marks Languido (his performance markings, often quite subjective, are a clear indication of what he feels the music is “about,” but they are available to the performer and not to the audience). The main body of the sonata rushes ahead firmly at the Presto con allegrezza (“Very fast, with cheerfulness”), and soon this settles into a rather voluptuous melody marked accarezzevole (“caressingly”). This in turn is interrupted by rhythmic outbursts marked Allegro fantastico. Scriabin’s treatment of this material is very free: he recalls all his themes, varying and alternating them as they reappear, and continually moving them higher in the piano’s register. This music–of great rhythmic freedom and often scintillating color–is extraordinarily difficult for the performer. At the end, a coda marked Presto drives this sonata to a conclusion that is almost breathtaking in its suddenness.

Program notes by Eric Bromberger

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SCHUBERT’S SWAN SONG

CURATED BY INCOMING SUMMERFEST MUSIC DIRECTOR INON BARNATAN Inon Barnatan and a host of internationally-acclaimed musicians perform the deeply moving piano sonatas and chamber music masterpieces composed by Franz Schubert during his last year of life, at just 31 years of age. “Schubert translated the human experience so immediately to music, exploring complex statements in a simple and direct way. Please join us as we bring works from this most miraculous year in music history to the 21st century.” –Inon Barnatan

Tickets start at $30

SCHUBERT’S SWAN SONG I

PRELUDES 7 PM

SATURDAY, MARCH 24, 2018 • 8 PM IRWIN M. JACOBS QUALCOMM HALL SCHUBERT

Arrive early for a conversation and musical excerpts with Inon Barnatan hosted by James Chute

Fantasy in F Minor for Piano Four-Hands, D.940 Piano Sonata No. 20 in A Major, D.959 Piano Trio in B-flat Major, D.898

Erin Keefe, violin; Clive Greensmith, cello; Inon Barnatan, Garrick Ohlsson, pianos

SCHUBERT’S SWAN SONG II SATURDAY, APRIL 14, 2018 • 8 PM IRWIN M. JACOBS QUALCOMM HALL SCHUBERT

Piano Sonata in B-flat Major, D.960 Schwanengesang, D.957 “Swan Song”

Robin Tritschler, tenor; Inon Barnatan, piano

SCHUBERT’S SWAN SONG III SATURDAY, MAY 19, 2018 • 8 PM IRWIN M. JACOBS QUALCOMM HALL SCHUBERT

Piano Sonata No. 19 in C Minor, D.958 Fantasy for Violin and Piano in C Major, D.934 String Quintet in C Major, D.956

Benjamin Beilman, violin; Carter Brey, cello; Inon Barnatan, piano; Dover Quartet Joel Link, Bryan Lee, violins; Milena Pajaro-van de Stadt, viola; Camden Shaw, cello

SUNDAY AFTERNOON SCHUBERTIADES Hear additional Schubert favorites - as his friends and fellow musicians did during his lifetime – at an intimate chamber music party where musicians and music lovers freely mingle while enjoying cocktails and light fare.

SCHUBERTIADE I SUNDAY, MARCH 25, 2018 • 3 PM - KINSELLA LIBRARY SCHUBERTIADE II SUNDAY, MAY 20, 2018 • 3 PM - "POP-UP" LOCATON TBA Tickets are $95, please call 858.459.3728. Schubertiade tickets can only be purchased over the phone or in person.

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Inon Barnatan


Major support for tonight’s concert is provided by:

Debbie Turner

Additional support for the concert is provided by: Brenda Baker and Steve Baum Nicole Frank and Bob Barth Susan and Bill Hoehn Sheryl and Bob Scarano

The artists are sponsored by: Debby and Wain Fishburn, Sue and John Major, Sheryl and Bob Scarano, & Twin Dragon Foundation Tonight’s corporate sponsor is:

La Jolla Music Society’s 2017-18 Season is supported by The City of San Diego Commission for Arts and Culture, County of San Diego Community Enhancement Program, National Endowment for the Arts, Thomas C. Ackerman Foundation, David C. Copley Foundation, D’Addario Foundation, ProtoStar Foundation, ResMed Foundation, Regents Bank, US Bank, The Dow Divas, The Lodge at Torrey Pines, La Valencia Hotel, The Westgate Hotel, Conrad Prebys and Debra Turner, Brenda Baker and Stephen Baum, The Beyster Family, Joan and Irwin Jacobs, Joy Frieman, Brian and Silvija Devine, Gordon Brodfuehrer, Jeanette Stevens, and an anonymous donor

Opus 3 Artists exclusive management for Emanuel Ax, Leonidas Kavakos and Yo-Yo Ma: OPUS 3 ARTISTS 470 Park Avenue South, 9th Floor North, New York, NY 10016 opus3artists.com

EMANUEL AX - LEONIDAS KAVAKOS YO-YO MA SATURDAY, MARCH 3, 2018 · 8 PM

JACOBS MUSIC CENTER - COPLEY SYMPHONY HALL

Emanuel Ax, piano; Leonidas Kavakos, violin; Yo-Yo Ma, cello BRAHMS Piano Trio in C Major, Opus 87 (1882) (1833-1897) Allegro Andante con moto Scherzo: Presto Finale: Allegro giocoso Piano Trio in C Minor, Opus 101 (1886) Allegro energico Presto non assai Andante grazioso Allegro molto I N T E R M I S S I O N

Piano Trio in B Major, Opus 8 (1889) Allegro con brio Scherzo: Allegro molto Adagio Allegro

Emanuel Ax last performed for LJMS in a Special Event on January 20, 2016. Leonidas Kavakos last performed for LJMS in a Special Event on February 11, 2017. Yo-Yo Ma last performed for LJMS in a Special Event on March 12, 2014. L J M S. O R G · 8 5 8 . 4 5 9 . 3 7 2 8

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THE THREE BRAHMS PIANO TRIOS

Brahms’ three trios for violin, cello, and piano span his creative career, but in curious ways. He wrote his first as a boy–he was only twenty–then set the form aside for three decades, returning to compose two more piano trios in the 1880s. And so in his piano trios we hear both Brahms the young composer and Brahms the master. But it’s not as simple as that, and there are some unexpected connections between young and old Brahms in this music. After completing his two mature piano trios, Brahms discovered that he was dissatisfied with the trio he had composed as a twenty-year-old and went back and completely re-wrote it. And so the program order of this evening’s concert makes very good sense: we begin with the two trios composed in Brahms’ maturity, then conclude with his first effort in the form, now completely re-written by a master composer, one who had by this time completed all his symphonies and concertos. If Brahms’ “youthful” Trio in B Major, Opus 8 sounds like the work of an extremely sophisticated composer, there’s a good reason for that. NOTE: And just to confuse matters a little more, Brahms may have written a fourth piano trio. In 1924 the manuscript (not in Brahms’ hand) of a Trio in A Major turned up in Bonn. The music sounds exactly like Brahms, and he had mentioned composing a piano trio in A major at the time he wrote his Opus 8. Scholars differ on the authenticity of this music, but many are quite ready to accept it as the work of Brahms. It is very pleasing music and has been widely performed (local audiences may recall a performance in Sherwood Auditorium in 1992). Those interested in hearing what might be Brahms’ “fourth” piano trio should know that it has been recorded several times and is readily available.

Piano Trio in C Major, Opus 87

JOHANNES BRAHMS Born May 7, 1833, Hamburg Died April 3, 1897, Vienna

Duration: Approximately 30 minutes

Brahms was normally the most self-deprecating of composers, anxious to heap scorn on each new work he wrote. And so it comes as a pleasant surprise to read his description of the Trio in C Major to his publisher: “You have not so far had such a beautiful trio from me and very probably have not published one to match it in the last ten years.” It is very doubtful the Brahms’ publisher–or any other publisher– has ever published another trio as beautiful as this one. It came from the apex of Brahms’ career: he began it in March 1880, when he was almost 47, but completed only the first movement. Returning to the score two years later, he wrote

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the final three movements at his favorite summer retreat, Bad Ischl, high in the Austrian Alps. The first performance took place on December 29, 1882. The opening instant of the first movement establishes a characteristic pattern. Here (and throughout the trio) Brahms treats the piano and the two string instruments as two separate voices. The violin and cello so often play in octaves that the notion of a trio–of music featuring three separate voices– seems to become instead a duo: a sort of massive sonata for piano and a huge, eight-stringed instrument. The Allegro is built on three theme-groups: the strings’ athletic opening theme (violin and cello are in octaves), a chordal second melody introduced by piano, and a lilting idea in triplets played by the strings, once again in octaves. The development is extended (Brahms stretches the opening theme into a waltz and builds much of the development on this idea), and the movement drives to a powerful close on the opening theme. The Andante con moto is an ingenious set of variations. Violin and cello (now two octaves apart) immediately announce the main theme, and its Lombard rhythms (dotted rhythm with the short note coming first to produce a rhythmic snap) have led many to assume that this theme must have its origins in the Hungarian folk music Brahms loved so much. This theme, however, appears to be entirely the creation of Brahms. There are five variations; the odd-numbered ones treat this theme, while the two even-numbered are variations of the piano accompaniment to the original theme. Brahms thus creates a double set of variations on what appears to be only one theme. The spooky Scherzo is one of Brahms’ most effective (and one of his shortest) movements. The crisp C-minor mutterings of the opening section give way to a C-major trio, built on one of the most glowing themes Brahms ever wrote. Beginning quietly, the violin soars to the top of its range as this radiant idea unfolds and sings. The return to the ghostly opening section sounds even darker by contrast, and Brahms offers an almost literal repeat of the opening, varying only the conclusion. The marking to the last movement–Allegro giocoso–is crucial, for this is genuinely a happy finale. The movement is in sonata form, but its wealth of ideas has led many to compare it to a rondo. Once again, violin and cello are in octaves as they announce the main idea. Brahms marks this mezzo voce (middle voice), and this theme will gradually grow more powerful as the movement progresses. A lengthy coda leads to a powerful close on a huge variant of this opening theme.


EMANUEL AX - LEONIDAS KAVAKOS - YO-YO MA – PROGRAM NOTES

Piano Trio in C Minor, Opus 101

JOHANNES BRAHMS Duration: Approximately 21 minutes

Brahms wrote this trio–his last for violin, cello, and piano–during the summer of 1886, which he spent at Hofstetten on Lake Thun in Switzerland. From the windows of his room, Brahms could look out over the lake to the immense glaciers of the Bernese Oberland, and some have felt that the elemental power of that craggy vista made itself felt in the music Brahms composed there. Certainly the Piano Trio in C Minor communicates tension from its opening instant. A description of an early performance of this trio, with Brahms at the piano, suggests the composer’s own intensity in this music: “A simple room, a small upright pianino, the three giants, and Clara Schumann turning over the leaves . . . I can see [Brahms] now looking eagerly with those penetrating, clear, grey-blue eyes, at Joachim and Hausmann for the start, then lifting both of his energetic little arms high up and descending ‘plump’ on that first C minor chord . . . as much as to say: ‘I mean THAT.’” For all its power, though, the Trio in C Minor is probably Brahms’ most concise work: despite being in four movements, it is almost the shortest of his twenty-four pieces of chamber music. The opening of the Allegro energico explodes off the page, driving forward on the triplet rhythm that will energize much of the movement. A warmer second subject, marked cantando and scored for the strings in octaves, brings some relief, but this movement remains taut throughout: Brahms omits the exposition repeat and keeps both development and recapitulation quite short. The opening theme returns only in the closing moments and drives the movement to an unrelenting close. The Presto non assai, also in C minor, is more restrained. Brahms mutes the strings and marks the beginning semplice (“simple”); the music skims along fluidly in the piano, with the strings following and echoing. The middle section, with arpeggiated pizzicato chords riding above the staccato piano, is particularly effective. Much has been made of the rhythmic complexity of the Andante grazioso. Brahms originally thought the movement should be set in the unusual meter 7/4 but later changed this to one measure of 3/4 followed by two measures of 2/4; the middle section, marked quasi animato, continues the rhythmic complexities, switching between 9/8 and 6/8. Brahms alternates sonorities throughout this movement, the melodic line flowing back and forth between the piano and the combined strings. The Allegro molto finale returns to the mood and the C-minor tonality of the first movement. There is nothing of

the cheerful rondo-finale here (the movement is in modified sonata form): the flickering half-lights of the subdued opening quickly give way to the same craggy outbursts that marked the opening movement, and only in its final moments does Brahms relent and let the music break free to end in the tonic major. Rarely has C major sounded so fierce.

Piano Trio in B Major, Opus 8

JOHANNES BRAHMS Duration: Approximately 35 minutes

The Trio in B Major had a curious genesis: Brahms composed it twice. He wrote the first version in 1853-54, when he was only twenty, and the trio was played in that form for many years. Then in 1889, when the 56-yearold composer was at the height of his creative powers, Brahms returned to this work of his youth and subjected it to a revision so thorough that it amounted to a virtual recomposition. With characteristic understatement, Brahms said that his revision “did not provide it with a wig, but just combed and arranged its hair a little,” but a comparison of the two versions (both versions have been published and recorded) shows how greatly Brahms had refined his compositional techniques across the course of his career. It was the development sections of the early version that bothered the mature Brahms most, and when he revised the trio, he kept the opening section of each movement virtually intact but wrote new second subjects for the first, third, and fourth movements. The development sections, which had been episodic and unfocused in the first version, became concise and economic in the second. Brahms had grown more adept not just at developing his material but also at creating themes capable of growth and change, and– as revised–the Trio in B Major combines some of the best features of early and late Brahms: his youthful impetuosity is wed to an enormously refined technique. Brahms joked that perhaps he should change the opus number from 8 to 108 but finally decided to let the original number stand, and that is misleading–far from being an early work, the later version offers some of his most mature and sophisticated music. Not everyone was happy with the revision, however. Some felt that in the process of refining and focusing his early work, the older Brahms had edited out a great deal of youthful impetuosity–and beautiful music as well–and they missed that. Upon receiving a copy of the revised version, Brahms’ good friend Elizabeth von Herzogenberg wrote to him: “you had no right to impress your masterly touch on this lovable, if sometimes vague, product of your youth . . . because no one is the same after all that time.” But performers have invariably preferred the revised version, and Brahms’ original version is seldom performed today. This L J M S. O R G · 8 5 8 . 4 5 9 . 3 7 2 8

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EMANUEL AX - LEONIDAS KAVAKOS - YO-YO MA – PROGRAM NOTES

concert offers the revised version. The Trio in B Major has a wonderful beginning. Piano alone suggests the shape of the first theme, and then the cello sings that theme in its full span. This is one of those melodies of that characteristic Brahmsian nobility–his individual voice was clear right from the start. The piano introduces the singing second subject (a new theme that Brahms created as part of the revision), and the development focuses mostly on this theme. But in a magical touch Brahms brings back the opening melody–now marked Tranquillo–and embellishes it softly as the movement gradually gathers strength drives toward its firm concluding chords. The Scherzo was the one movement that Brahms kept almost intact, only substituting a new coda for the original. Brahms moves to B minor here, and the staccato opening has a spooky, muttering quality. This sets up the middle section beautifully, giving way to another one of those that great Brahms themes that flows along nobly. The opening material returns, and Brahms concludes with the new coda. The Adagio has a solemn, chorale-like beginning, as piano and strings exchange phrases, but the real glory of this movement comes with its lovely second subject, sung by the cello. This theme was composed by the mature Brahms during the revision, and it is of such expressive autumnal lyricism that it transforms the original movement from the effort of a tentative beginner to the work of a master. The finale pulses darkly forward on dotted rhythms. Its second subject, also added during the revision, is a firmlystriding idea that Brahms marks pesante (heavy). The movement drives implacably to its powerful close, and–in a surprising touch–Brahms ends not in the expected home key of B major, but in B minor. In its original form, the Trio in B Major was performed quickly and widely: the première took place in Danzig on October 13, 1855, and the first performance in America took place the following month, on November 27, 1855, in New York City. The violinist on that occasion was the twentyyear-old Theodore Thomas, who later moved to a raw town in the West and founded the Chicago Symphony Orchestra. The première of the revised version took place in Budapest on January 10, 1890. Program notes by Eric Bromberger

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HERBIE HANCOCK WEDNESDAY, MARCH 7, 2018 · 8 PM BALBOA THEATRE

Vinnie Colaiuta, drums James Genus, bass Lionel Loueke, guitar Terrace Martin, keyboard & saxophone NO INTERMISSION

Tonight's concert is sponsored by:

La Jolla Music Society’s 2017-18 Season is supported by The City of San Diego Commission for Arts and Culture, County of San Diego Community Enhancement Program, National Endowment for the Arts, Thomas C. Ackerman Foundation, David C. Copley Foundation, D’Addario Foundation, ProtoStar Foundation, ResMed Foundation, Regents Bank, US Bank, The Dow Divas, The Lodge at Torrey Pines, La Valencia Hotel, The Westgate Hotel, Conrad Prebys and Debra Turner, Brenda Baker and Stephen Baum, The Beyster Family, Joan and Irwin Jacobs, Joy Frieman, Brian and Silvija Devine, Gordon Brodfuehrer, Jeanette Stevens, and an anonymous donor

Herbie Hancock last performed for LJMS in the Jazz Series on March 20, 2015. L J M S. O R G · 8 5 8 . 4 5 9 . 3 7 2 8

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PRELUDE 7 PM Lecture by Michael Gerdes

Romantic Scenes The works on this program are filled with the lush musical language of romanticism and the vivid imagery of storytelling. We’ll explore how each selection sets a scene and takes us beyond the idea of purely musical expression.

The Orchestra Series is underwritten by Medallion Society members:

Joan and Irwin Jacobs

Additional support for tonight’s concert is provided by:

La Jolla Music Society’s 2017-18 Season is supported by The City of San Diego Commission for Arts and Culture, County of San Diego Community Enhancement Program, National Endowment for the Arts, Thomas C. Ackerman Foundation, David C. Copley Foundation, D’Addario Foundation, ProtoStar Foundation, ResMed Foundation, Regents Bank, US Bank, The Dow Divas, The Lodge at Torrey Pines, La Valencia Hotel, The Westgate Hotel, Conrad Prebys and Debra Turner, Brenda Baker and Stephen Baum, The Beyster Family, Joan and Irwin Jacobs, Joy Frieman, Brian and Silvija Devine, Gordon Brodfuehrer, Jeanette Stevens, and an anonymous donor

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ACADEMY OF ST MARTIN IN THE FIELDS

JOSHUA BELL, music director and soloist FRIDAY, MARCH 16, 2018 · 8 PM

JACOBS MUSIC CENTER - COPLEY SYMPHONY HALL

MENDELSSOHN Overture to A Midsummer Night’s Dream, Opus 21 (1826) (1809-1847) WIENIAWSKI Violin Concerto No. 2 in D Minor, Opus 22 (1862) (1835-1880) Allegro moderato (à la zingara) Romance: Andante non troppo Allegro con fuoco: Allegro moderato (à la zingara) Joshua Bell, violin I N T E R M I S S I O N

BEETHOVEN Symphony No. 6 in F Major, Opus 68 “Pastoral” (1808) (1770-1827) Awakening of Cheerful Feelings upon Arrival in the Country: Allegro ma non troppo Scene by the Brook: Andante molto moto Merry Gathering of Country Folk: Allegro Thunderstorm: Allegro Shepherd’s Song: Happy and Thankful Feelings after the Storm: Allegretto Academy of St Martin in the Fields last performed for La Jolla Music Society in the Orchestra Series on March 2, 2013. Joshua Bell last performed for La Jolla Music Society in a Special Event on February 7, 2014.


ACADEMY OF ST MARTIN IN THE FIELDS – ROSTER

VIOLIN I

Joshua Bell Harvey de Souza Miranda Playfair Jeremy Morris Helen Paterson Martin Gwilym-Jones Richard Milone Alicja Smietana

VIOLIN II

Jennifer Godson Fiona Brett Mark Butler Rebecca Scott-Smissen Sijie Chen Joanna Wronko

VIOLA

Fiona Bonds Alexandros Koustas Martin Humbey Matt Maguire

CELLO

Stephen Orton William Schofield Juliet Welchman Reinoud Ford

BASSOON

Emily Hultmark Richard Skinner

HORN

Lynda Houghton Benjamin Russell

Stephen Stirling Tim Caister Alexia Cammish James Shields

FLUTE

TRUMPET

DOUBLE BASS

Fiona Kelly Sarah Newbold Rebecca Larsen

OBOE

Mark David William O’Sullivan

TROMBONE

Tom Blomfield Rachel Ingleton

Roger Harvey Andrew Cole David Stewart

CLARINET

TIMPANI

Fiona Cross Sarah Thurlow

Adrian Bending

P ROGRAM NOTES

Overture to A Midsummer Night’s Dream, Opus 21

FELIX MENDELSSOHN Born February 3, 1809, Hamburg Died November 4, 1847, Leipzig

Duration: Approximately 12 minutes

Felix Mendelssohn grew up in the most cultivated household in Berlin, and it is a measure of the Mendelssohn family’s sophistication that one of their recreations was reading Shakespeare’s plays together in the recent Schlegel-Tieck translation into German. Each member of the family would take different parts as they read, and Fanny Mendelssohn later remembered the impact of one play in particular: We were saying yesterday what an important part the Midsummer Night’s Dream has always played in our home, and how we had all at different times gone through all the parts from Peaseblossom to Hermia and Helena... We were really brought up on the Midsummer Night’s Dream, and Felix especially made it his own . . . Felix indeed “made it his own” during the summer of 1826, when the 17-year-old composer retreated to a garden house on the family estate and composed an overture to that play that remains today the finest music ever inspired by Shakespeare. This overture does not set out to tell the story of the play–it is a concert overture, worked out in

ADMINISTRATION MUSIC DIRECTOR Joshua Bell FOUNDING PRESIDENT Sir Neville Marriner CH, CBE PRINCIPAL GUEST CONDUCTOR Murray Perahia KBE LEADER/DIRECTOR Tomo Keller STAFF Chief Executive Alan Watt Director of Concerts Alison Tedbury Concerts and Tours Manager Richard Brewer Orchestra Manager (USA Tour) Nigel Barratt Concerts and Participation Assistant Hattie Rayfield Librarian Katherine Adams Learning and Participation Producer Charlotte O’Dair Director of Development Andrew McGowan Development Manager Amy Scott Marketing Manager Fiona Bell PR Consultant Rebecca Driver, Media Relations

sonata form. Yet young Mendelssohn captures the spirit of Shakespeare’s play so perfectly that the instant this music begins we feel ourselves transported to the woods outside Athens where Puck flits mischievously through the forest, the “rude mechanicals” rehearse their play, and lovers are mysteriously transformed. The beginning is magic. Four soft chords in E major–played only by the woodwinds–lift us into the land of make-believe, and suddenly Mendelssohn shifts to E minor, where the violins’ glistening rush suggests the gossamer flickering of tiny wings. Violins sing the overture’s powerful main theme (back in E major), clarinets and violins have the flowing second subject, and all seems set when Mendelssohn surprises us a third theme-group: over heavy stamping, the orchestra shouts out a vigorous tune that ends with a great hee-haw. This is the braying of Bottom, the rustic actor who is transformed into an ass, and Mendelssohn makes it sound all the more strident by having that bray screech downward across the span of a ninth. This description of themes may help introduce the overture, but it does not begin to suggest the lightness of Mendelssohn’s touch in this music, its non-stop energy, or its freshness. The overture’s structure is crystal-clear– Mendelssohn uses the opening sequence of four chords to mark the beginning of the development and also of the L J M S. O R G · 8 5 8 . 4 5 9 . 3 7 2 8

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recapitulation. One nice little surprise: as the music rushes toward its conclusion, Mendelssohn gives us a cascade of shining E-major chords that will clearly bring the overture to a close. But they do not. This is a false ending, and the music instead rushes back into the flickering “fairyland” rush of the very beginning. This leads to the real ending: violins sings a relaxed version of the main theme, and the overture vanishes on the same four chords with which it began. This extraordinary music is the work of a 17-year-old boy.

Violin Concerto No. 2 in D Minor, Opus 22

and the finale, which he specifies should be played à la Zingara: “in the gypsy style.” This is a consciously virtuoso movement, full of excitement and brilliance, and the concerto drives to a conclusion (marked brillante con fuoco) worthy of the gypsy fiddlers who inspired it.

Symphony No. 6 in F Major, Opus 68 “Pastoral”

LUDWIG VAN BEETHOVEN Born December 16, 1770, Bonn Died March 26, 1827, Vienna

Duration: Approximately 39 minutes

HENRYK WIENIAWSKI Born July 10, 1835, Lublin, Poland Died March 31, 1880, Moscow

After making sketches for several years, Beethoven composed his Sixth Symphony during the summer of 1808, Duration: Approximately 19 minutes and it was first performed at the Theater an der Wien on December 22 of that year. The Sixth is unique among One of the great nineteenth-century violin virtuosos, Beethoven’s symphonies because it appears to be program Henryk Wieniawski appears to have led the stereotypical music. Beethoven himself gave it the nickname Pastoral and infant-prodigy life: acclaimed as a phenomenal talent while a further headed each movement with a descriptive title that small boy, he entered the Paris Conservatory at age 8, won its seems to tell a “story”: the arrival in the country, impressions first prize in violin at age 11, was given a Guarnerius violin by beside a brook, a peasants’ dance which is interrupted by a the emperor, and embarked on the life of a touring virtuoso. thunderstorm, and a concluding hymn of thanksgiving once His career took some unexpected turns, however, and the storm has passed. Some have claimed that romantic music Wieniawski spent twelve years (1860-72) in Russia as solo begins with the Pastoral Symphony–they see it as a precursor violinist to the czar and concertmaster of the court orchestra. of such examples of musical painting as Berlioz’s Symphonie With the great Russian pianist Anton Rubinstein, Wieniawski Fantastique, Mendelssohn’s fairyland scenes, and Liszt’s tone made a concert tour of the United States in 1872; Rubinstein poems–while others have tried to stage this music, complete eventually gave up the grueling tour and returned to Russia, with characters, costumes, and scenery. but Wieniawski continued by himself, finally reaching Beethoven would have been astonished. He had no use for California, where he gave concerts in the rough western city program music or musical portraiture, which he considered of San Francisco. He taught at the Brussels Conservatory for cheap trickery. His Sixth Symphony is in classical symphonic three years before his death at age 44. forms throughout; even its “extra” movement, the famous As might be expected, almost all of Wieniawski’s music thunderstorm, can be understood as a brief transition between is for the violin, and a few pieces–the Scherzo-Tarantelle the scherzo and the rondo-finale. And while this symphony and Légende–remain favorites with audiences and violinists refers to something outside the music itself, Beethoven alike. His most famous work is the Second Violin Concerto, wanted it understood as “an expression of feelings rather than composed in Russia in 1862, when the composer was 27, and painting.” The Sixth may lack the stark drama and tension of first performed on November 27 of that year in St. Petersburg; such predecessors as the Eroica or the Fifth, but it depends it is dedicated to violinist Pablo de Sarasate. The concerto on the same use of sonata form for its musical argument, and is in the standard three movements, usually played without finally it aims for the same feeling of transcendence those pause. The extended Allegro moderato is based on two ideas: earlier works achieved, even if–as Joseph Kerman has wryly the strings’ expressive opening melody and a second subject noted–all that is being transcended here is the weather. that Wieniawski divides between French horn and oboe. After Beethoven liked to get out of Vienna during the stifling a long orchestral introduction, the solo violinist enters with summer months and would take rooms in a rural village, a part as brilliant as one might expect, full of octave runs, where he could combine composing with long walks through chromatic slides, and wide leaps. A bridge passage featuring the fields and woods. A journal entry from 1815, seven years pizzicato strings and solo clarinet leads directly into the slow after the Pastoral, suggests his feelings about these walks: movement, a singing Romance in 12/8, which has become “The Almighty in the woods! I am happy, blessed in the famous enough that it is sometimes performed separately. forests.” This symphony seems similarly blessed. Its first Wieniawski places the cadenza between this slow movement movement (“Cheerful impressions on arriving in the country”)

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ACADEMY OF ST MARTIN IN THE FIELDS – PROGRAM NOTES

is built on two completely relaxed themes; these do not offer the contrast that lies at the heart of sonata form, but instead create two complementary “Cheerful impressions.” One of the other unusual features of this movement is Beethoven’s use of the second measure of the opening theme in so many ways: as theme, as accompaniment, as motor rhythm; this simple falling figure saturates the movement, and over its ostinato-like repetitions Beethoven works some wonderful harmonic progressions, all aimed at preserving this movement’s sense of calm. The second movement –“Scene by the Brook” –is also in a sonata form built on two themes. The title “Scene” may imply dramatic action, but there is none here. Over murmuring lower strings, with their suggestion of bubbling water, the two themes sing gracefully. The movement concludes with three brief bird calls, which Beethoven names specifically in the score: nightingale (flute), quail (oboe), and cuckoo (clarinet). Despite the composer’s protests to the contrary, the third and fourth movements do offer pictorial representations in sound. The scherzo (“Peasants’ merrymaking”) is a portrait of a rural festival; its vigorous trio echos the heavy stamping of a peasant dance. Beethoven offers a da capo repeat of both scherzo and trio, yet just as the scherzo is about to resume it suddenly veers off in a new direction. Tremulous strings and distant murmurings lead to the wonderful storm, which remains–two centuries after its composition–the best musical depiction ever of a thunderstorm, with great crashes of thunder in the timpani and lightning flashing downward in the violins (one desperately literal-minded early critic complained that this was the only storm he had ever heard of where the thunder came before the lightning). Gradually the storm moves off, and the music proceeds directly into the last movement, where solo clarinet and horn outline the tentative call of a shepherd’s pipe in the aftermath of the storm. Beethoven then magically transforms this call into his serene main theme, given out by the violins. If ever there has been music that deserved to be called radiant, it is this singing theme, which unfolds like a rainbow spread across the still-glistening heavens. The finale is a moderately-paced rondo (Beethoven’s marking is Allegretto). Along the way appear secondary themes that once again complement rather than conflict with the mood of the rondo theme, and at the end a muted French horn sings this noble melody one last time. The petulant young Debussy, enemy of all things German, once sneered that one could learn more about nature from watching the sun rise than from listening to the Pastoral Symphony. This is strange criticism from the man who would go on to write La Mer, which sets out to do exactly the same thing as the Pastoral: to evoke the emotions generated by nature rather than trying to depict that same

nature literally. Beethoven did not set out to teach or to show his audience anything. Rather, he wrote a symphony in classical form, which he wanted understood as music: “It is left to the listener to discover the situations for himself . . . . Anyone with a notion of country life can imagine the composer’s intentions without the help of titles or headings.” Program notes by Eric Bromberger

The Academy’s work in the US is supported by Maria Cardamone and Paul Matthews together with the American Friends of the Academy of St Martin in the Fields. Joshua Bell’s position as Music Director is supported by Klara and Larry A. Silverstein together with the American Friends of the Academy of St Martin in the Fields. Exclusive Management for the Academy of St Martin in the Fields: OPUS 3 ARTISTS David V. Foster, President & CEO Leonard Stein, Senior Vice President, Director, Touring Division Robert Berretta,Vice President, Manager, Artists & Attractions Tania Leong, Associate, Touring Division Grace Hertz, Assistant, Artists & Attractions Kay McCavic, Company Manager 470 Park Avenue South, 9th Floor North, New York, NY 10016 opus3artists.com

L J M S. O R G · 8 5 8 . 4 5 9 . 3 7 2 8

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PRELUDE 7 PM Lecture by James Chute

Schubert's Swan Song Series curator Inon Barnatan guides the audience through the program with musical excerpts and conversation hosted by James Chute

SCHUBERT’S SWAN SONG I SATURDAY, MARCH 24, 2018 · 8 PM IRWIN M. JACOBS QUALCOMM HALL

SCHUBERT Fantasie in F Minor for Piano Four-Hands, D.940 (1828) (1797-1828) Allegretto molto moderato Largo Allegro vivace Finale: Allegro Tempo I Inon Barnatan, Garrick Ohlsson, pianos Piano Sonata in A Major, D.959 (1828) Allegro Andante Scherzo: Allegro vivace Rondo: Allegretto Garrick Ohlsson, piano I N T E R M I S S I O N

La Jolla Music Society’s 2017-18 Season is supported by The City of San Diego Commission for Arts and Culture, County of San Diego Community Enhancement Program, National Endowment for the Arts, Thomas C. Ackerman Foundation, David C. Copley Foundation, D’Addario Foundation, ProtoStar Foundation, ResMed Foundation, Regents Bank, US Bank, The Dow Divas, The Lodge at Torrey Pines, La Valencia Hotel, The Westgate Hotel, Conrad Prebys and Debra Turner, Brenda Baker and Stephen Baum, The Beyster Family, Joan and Irwin Jacobs, Joy Frieman, Brian and Silvija Devine, Gordon Brodfuehrer, Jeanette Stevens, and an anonymous donor

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Trio in B-flat Major for Violin, Cello, and Piano, D.898 (1828) Allegro moderato Andante un poco mosso Scherzo: Allegro Rondo: Allegro vivace Erin Keefe, violin; Carter Brey, cello; Inon Barnatan, piano

Inon Barnatan last performed for La Jolla Music Society during SummerFest 2017. Carter Brey last performed for La Jolla Music Society during SummerFest 2016. This performance marks Erin Keefe’s La Jolla Music Society debut. Garrick Ohlsson last performed for La Jolla Music Society in the Piano Series on January 14, 2016.


SCHUBERT'S SWAN SONG – PROGRAM NOTES

marks it simply Tempo I) brings back music from the very beginning, but quickly the wistful opening melody is jostled aside by a vigorous fugue derived from the second Born January 31, 1797, Vienna subject of the opening section. On tremendous chords and Died November 19, 1828, Vienna contrapuntal complexity the Fantasie drives to its climax, Duration: Approximately 18 minutes only to fall away to the quiet close. The Fantasie in F Minor for Piano Four-Hands is Schubert dedicated this music to the Countess Caroline one of the creations of Schubert’s miraculous final year of Esterházy, who ten years before–as a girl of 15–had been life, which saw a nearly unbroken rush of masterpieces. one of his piano students. Evidence suggests that Schubert Schubert wrote most of the Fantasie in January 1828 but was–from a distance–always thereafter in love with her: to ran into problems and set the work aside for several months, a friend he described her as “a certain attractive star.” Given returning to complete it in April. He and his friend Eduard the intensity of this music, it is easy to believe that his love von Bauernfeld gave the first performance on May 9 of that for her remained undiminished in the final year of his life. year, six months before the composer’s death at age 31. Music for piano four-hands is a very particular genre, Piano Sonata in A Major, D.959 now unfortunately much out of fashion. In early nineteenthcentury Vienna, however, there was a growing market for Duration: Approximately 43 minutes music that could be played in the home, where there might be only one piano but several pianists, usually amateur Schubert’s final year was dreadful. Ill for years, he musicians. Such music often had an intentionally “social” went into steady decline in 1828 and died in November appeal–it was not especially difficult, and it tended to be at 31. Yet from those last months came a steady stream pleasing rather than profound. Much of Schubert’s fourof masterpieces, and few of the achievements of that hand piano music was intended for just such “home” miraculous–and agonizing–year seem more remarkable performers (he often wrote music for his students to play than the composition of three large-scale piano sonatas together), but the Fantasie in F Minor is altogether different: in the month of September, barely eight weeks before this work demands first-class performers and contains some his death. In the years following Schubert’s death, many of the most wrenching and focused music Schubert ever of the works from this final year were recognized as the wrote. Schubert scholar John Reed has gone so far as it call masterpieces they are, but the three piano sonatas made their it “a work which in its structural organisation, economy of way much more slowly. When they appeared in 1838, a form, and emotional depth represents his art at its peak.” decade after Schubert’s death, the publisher dedicated them The title “fantasia” suggests a certain looseness of to Schumann, one of Schubert’s greatest admirers, but even form, but the Fantasie in F Minor is extraordinary for Schumann confessed mystification, noting with a kind of its conciseness. Lasting barely a quarter of an hour, it dismayed condescension that “Always musical and rich in is in one continuous flow of music that breaks into four songlike themes, these pieces ripple on, page after page . . .” clear movements. The very beginning–Allegretto molto Even as late as 1949, Schubert’s adoring biographer Robert moderato–is haunting. Over murmuring accompaniment, Haven Schauffler could rate them “considerably below the the higher voice lays out the wistful first theme, whose level of the last symphonies and quartets, the String Quintet, halting rhythms and chirping grace notes have caused many and the best songs.” It took Artur Schnabel’s championing to believe that this theme had its origins in Hungarian folk these sonatas to rescue them from obscurity. The last of music. Schubert repeats this theme continually–the effect them, in fact, has today become one of the most familiar is almost hypnotic–and suddenly the music has slipped of all piano sonatas: the current catalog lists over forty effortlessly from F minor into F major. The second subject, separate recordings. based on firm dotted rhythms, is treated at length before Still, these sonatas remain a refined taste, and some the music drives directly into the powerful Largo, which is of the problem may lie in the fact that our notion of a given an almost baroque luxuriance by its trills and double piano sonata has been so conditioned by Beethoven that (and triple) dotting. This in turn moves directly into the Schubert’s late sonatas–which conform neither structurally Allegro vivace, a sparkling scherzo that feels like a very nor emotionally to the Beethoven model–can seem fast waltz; its trio section (marked con delicatezza) ripples mystifying. Certainly the opening Allegro of the Sonata along happily in D major. The writing for the first pianist in A Major seems to be in a sort of sonata form, with a here goes so high that much of this section is in the bell-like declarative opening theme-group and a more flowing second upper register of the piano–the music rings and shimmers subject marked pianissimo, but the development does not as it races across the keyboard. The final section (Schubert do the things that a Beethoven development has taught us

Fantasie in F Minor for Piano Four-Hands, D.940

FRANZ SCHUBERT

FRANZ SCHUBERT

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to expect: instead, it grows almost entirely out of a wisp of a phrase from the second theme group and then proceeds to go its own way. Alfred Einstein both describes and defends Schubert’s method: “in place of a development proper Schubert spins a dreamy, ballad-like web of sound, the very existence of which is its own best justification.” Schubert rounds this long movement off with an impressive–and very quiet–coda derived from the opening material. The really stunning movement in this sonata is the Andante. Structurally, this is in ternary form, but what music lies within this simple form! It opens with a wistful little melody that treads along its steady 3/8 meter and spins an air of painful melancholy. It is moving music, but the simplicity of this opening in no way prepares us for what happens at the center of this movement, where the pace moves ahead gradually and the movement suddenly explodes into furious, tormented music. And then this agony has passed, the opening music resumes, and now its steady and measured pace seems all the more moving for having regained control. The brief Scherzo whips along on flashing, dancing chords, with much of its sparkling character coming from the right hand’s being written in the piano’s ringing high register; the trio feels almost sedate in comparison. The last movement seems consciously to call up echoes of the past. Many have noted the similarity between this rondo-finale and the one that Beethoven wrote to close out his Sonata in G Major, Opus 31, No. 1; Einstein correctly hears echoes of Schubert’s own song Im Frühling in the pianist’s left hand, and Schubert borrowed the main theme of this movement from his own Piano Sonata in A Minor, composed in 1817. Schubert’s rondo is built on only two themes, and– unusually–they begin to develop as this movement proceeds. But matters never become too serious, and in fact the impression this movement creates is of endlessly relaxed and happy music-making. Schubert provides some structural unity by rounding off the sonata with a Presto coda that recalls the opening of the first movement, but it is the flowing, genial spirit of this movement that one remembers when the sonata is done.

Trio in B-flat Major for Violin, Cello, and Piano, D.898

FRANZ SCHUBERT Duration: Approximately 40 minutes

Late in his brief life, Franz Schubert wrote two piano trios, a form he had largely ignored up to that point in his career. Perhaps the ready availability of performers like violinist Ignaz Schuppanzigh, cellist Joseph Linke, and pianist Karl Maria von Bocklet sparked his interest in the form–those performers are known to have performed these trios at the famous “Schubertiads,” those evenings of relaxed and convivial music-making in the homes of Schubert’s

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friends. But the exact date of composition of the Trio in B-flat Major remains uncertain–the manuscript is lost, and there are almost no references to this music in Schubert’s correspondence. The trio probably dates from the fall of 1827 or early in 1828, the year of Schubert’s death, but it was not published until 1836, eight years later. At that time Robert Schumann offered a review that gets at the essence of this sunny music: “One glance at it and the troubles of our human existence disappear and the whole world is fresh and bright again . . .” Schumann was right: nearly two centuries later, this music remains an audience favorite. The Piano Trio in B-flat Major is a big-scaled work: if all the repeats are taken, it can stretch out to over forty minutes. The Allegro moderato is built on two quite different theme-groups. Its opening melody–for violin and cello in octaves–has a jaunty, energetic stride, and Schubert lets it unfold at length before turning it over to the piano as the strings accompany. All this energy falls away as a single sustained note leads to the wistful second subject, for cello alone and marked pianissimo on this first statement. The development is extended, and in its course Schubert presents both themes simultaneously. He teases the audience (and performers!) by seeming to begin the recapitulation in several “wrong” keys before finally settling on the correct B-flat major. The Andante un poco mosso features a glowing main theme that in its warm lyricism might almost be called “Brahmsian,” were that not absurd; perhaps it does suggest why, half a century later, Brahms held Schubert in such reverence. This lullaby-like idea develops at some length before the piano leads the way into the an agitated central episode in C minor. The main theme returns in a luxuriant richness, and once again Schubert leads us through several unexpected keys to the calm conclusion. The Scherzo, marked Allegro, has a perky energy; by contrast, its trio section is cast as a stately and restrained waltz. The finale is marked “Rondo,” but Schubert introduces a terse second idea, stamped out in octaves by all three instruments, and both themes promptly begin to develop–this movement is actually in sonata form. Many have thought the violin’s dancing opening melody the essence of Viennese charm, and certainly it moves with cheerful lightness. Schubert varies the pulse of the movement with an ingenious touch: he re-bars the music from its original 2/4 to 3/2 and combines his principal themes at this relaxed new tempo. It is a wonderful stroke, and it must have appealed to Schubert–he brings it back once again in the closing moments. A propulsive coda drives the trio to its two emphatic closing chords. Program notes by Eric Bromberger


Biographies Academy of St Martin in the Fields

The Academy of St Martin in the Fields is one of the world’s greatest chamber orchestras, renowned for fresh, brilliant interpretations of the world’s greatest classical music. Formed by Sir Neville Marriner in 1958 from a group of leading London musicians, the Academy gave its first performance in its namesake church in November 1959. Through unrivalled live performances and a vast recording output – highlights of which include the 1969 best-seller Vivaldi’s Four Seasons and the soundtrack to the Oscar-winning film Amadeus – the Academy quickly gained an enviable international reputation for its distinctive, polished and refined sound. Today the Academy is led by Music Director and virtuoso violinist Joshua Bell, retaining the collegiate spirit and flexibility of the original small, conductor-less ensemble which has become an Academy hallmark. Under Bell’s direction, and with the support of Leader/Director Tomo Keller and Principal Guest Conductor Murray Perahia, the Academy continues to push the boundaries of play-directed performance to new heights, presenting symphonic repertoire and chamber music on a grand scale at prestigious venues from New York to Beijing. Complementing a busy international schedule, the Academy continues to reach out to people of all ages and backgrounds through its Learning and Participation programs. Find out more at asmf.org.

Joshua Bell, director & violin

With a career spanning more than 30 years as a soloist, chamber musician, recording artist and conductor, Joshua Bell is one of the most celebrated violinists of his era, known for his restless curiosity, passion, and multi-faceted musical interests. Named the Music Director of the Academy of St Martin in the Fields in 2011, he is the only person to hold this post since Sir Neville Marriner formed the orchestra in 1958. He has recorded more than 40 CDs garnering Grammy®, Mercury, Gramophone and Echo Klassik awards, and is a recipient of the Avery Fisher Prize. Mr. Bell first met the Academy at age 18 when he recorded the Mendelssohn Violin Concerto. The Academy of St Martin in the Fields’ first release under Bell’s leadership, Beethoven Symphonies No. 4 and 7, debuted at #1 on the Billboard charts. Mr. Bell’s latest recording with the Academy of St Martin in the Fields of Bruch’s Scottish Fantasy and G minor Concerto will be released in May 19. Bell performs on the 1713 Huberman Stradivarius violin. Joshua Bell appears by arrangement with Park Avenue Artists (parkavenueartists.com) and Primo Artists (primoartists.com). Press Representation for Joshua Bell: Jane Covner, JAG Entertainment. Mr. Bell records exclusively for Sony Classical.

Pierre-Laurent Aimard, piano

Widely acknowledged as a key figure in the music of our time as well as a leading interpreter of the standard piano repertoire, Pierre-Laurent Aimard enjoys an internationally-celebrated career that transcends traditional boundaries. This year’s recipient of the prestigious Ernst von Siemens Music Prize, Aimard champions music of all periods, from great composers of the past to the leading voices of the 20th and 21st centuries, with composers such as Boulez, Ligeti, Kurtág, Messiaen, Benjamin and Carter – among others – having written music especially for him, some in lifelong collaborations. Mr. Aimard has won Gramophone Awards for Best of the Year albums ranging from Beethoven to Tristan Murail; his recording of Bach’s Art of the Fugue was a bestseller on the Billboard and iTunes charts. Having recently signed with Pentatone, Mr. Aimard will contribute Messiaen’s Catalogue d’Oiseaux as his first release on the label in March 2018. Former Artistic Director of Aldeburgh Festival, Mr. Aimard began a three year tenure as Artist-in-Residence at Southbank Centre in 2017. Early career landmarks included winning first prize in the 1973 Messiaen Competition at the age of 16. Born in Lyon in 1957, Pierre-Laurent Aimard studied at the Conservatoire de Paris with Yvonne Loriod and in London with Maria Curcio.

Emanuel Ax, piano

Born in modern-day Lvov, Poland, Emanuel Ax moved to Winnipeg, Canada, with his family when he was a young boy. He is a winner of the Young Concert Artist Award, Arthur Rubinstein International Piano Competition, Michaels Award and recipient of the Avery Fisher Prize. In partnership with David Robertson, he began his 2017/18 season with six Mozart concerti in St. Louis and Sydney, Australia. Always a committed exponent of contemporary composers, with works written for him by John Adams, Christopher Rouse, Krzysztof Penderecki, Bright Sheng and Melinda Wagner already in his repertoire, most recently he has added HK Gruber's Piano Concerto and Samuel Adams’ Impromptus. A frequent and committed partner for chamber music, he has worked regularly with such artists as Young Uck Kim, Cho-Liang Lin, Yo-Yo Ma, Edgar Meyer, Peter Serkin, Jaime Laredo, and the late Isaac Stern. Leonidas Kavakos and Mr. Ma join him on his most recent release for Sony, Brahms: The Piano Trios Brahms (2017). Mr. Ax resides in New York City with his wife, pianist Yoko Nozaki, with whom he has two children. He is a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and holds honorary doctorates of music from Yale and Columbia Universities. L J M S. O R G · 8 5 8 . 4 5 9 . 3 7 2 8

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Biographies Inon Barnatan, piano

"One of the most admired pianists of his generation" (New York Times), Inon Barnatan is celebrated for his poetic sensibility, musical intelligence and consummate artistry. He was a recipient of Lincoln Center's Martin E. Segal Award in 2015, recognizing "young artists of exceptional accomplishment," as well as the Avery Fisher Career Grant in 2009. He recently completed his third and final season as the inaugural Artistin-Association of the New York Philharmonic (2017), a position created by former Philharmonic Music Director Alan Gilbert, who calls him "…the complete artist.…” He recently joined the Academy of St Martin in the Fields to record that orchestra’s first complete Beethoven concerto cycle. Born in Tel Aviv in 1979, Inon Barnatan started playing the piano at the age of 3 after his parents discovered he had perfect pitch, and he made his orchestral debut at age 11. His musical education connects him to some of the 20th century's most illustrious pianists and teachers: he studied first with Professor Victor Derevianko; and in 1997 he moved to London to study at the Royal Academy of Music with Maria Curcio and Christopher Elton. Leon Fleisher has also been an influential teacher and mentor. Barnatan currently resides in New York City. For more information visit inonbarnatan.com.

Steven Cassedy, prelude presenter

Steven Cassedy, Distinguished Professor of Literature and Associate Dean of Graduate Studies at UCSD, is a classically trained pianist who studied at The Juilliard School’s Pre-College Division and at the University of Michigan’s School of Music. He received his undergraduate degree in comparative literature at the University of Michigan in 1974 and his Ph.D. in comparative literature at Princeton University in 1979. He has been a member of UCSD's Department of Literature since 1980.

James Chute, prelude presenter

James Chute has been an arts journalist for nearly four decades. A Pittsburgh native and a graduate of the University of Cincinnati College-Conservatory of Music (where he earned a Doctor of Musical Arts), he has served as music critic for The Cincinnati Post, The Milwaukee Journal, The Orange County Register and the San Diego Union-Tribune. A Pulitzer Prize finalist in criticism and a winner of an ASCAP-Deems Taylor Award, Penney Missouri Award, Best of the West award and a California Newspaper Publishers award, he has contributed articles to the New Grove Dictionary of Music, New Grove Dictionary of American Music and other publications.

Michael Gerdes, prelude presenter

Michael Gerdes is the Director of Orchestras at SDSU, the San Diego Summer Music Institute, and the BRAVO International Music Academy, and the Assistant Conductor of the La Jolla Symphony. His performances have been hailed as “highly sensitive and thoughtfully layered” and his conducting has been proclaimed “refined, dynamically nuanced” and “restrained but unmistakably lucid” by the San Diego Story. The Symphony’s Suite Noir premèire received a 2015 “Bravo” award. Mr. Gerdes earned his Bachelor of Music as well as a BA in Philosophy from Concordia College and his Master’s in Orchestral Conducting from James Madison University.

Clive Greensmith, cello

Clive Greensmith has a distinguished career as soloist, chamber musician and teacher. From 1999 until 2013 he was a member of the world-renowned Tokyo String Quartet, giving over one hundred performances each year in the most prestigious international venues, including New York’s Carnegie Hall, Sydney Opera House, London’s South Bank, Paris Châtelet, Berlin Philharmonie, Vienna Musikverein and Suntory Hall in Tokyo. As a soloist, Mr. Greensmith has performed with the London Symphony, Royal Philharmonic and Rome’s RAI orchestras, among others. He has collaborated with international artists such as Midori, Andras Schiff, Pinchas Zukerman, Leon Fleisher, Lynn Harrell, Dmitry Sitkovetsky, Alicia de Larrocha and Emmanuel Ax. A jury member at the 2015 Carl Nielsen Chamber Music Competition in Copenhagen, he is Co-Director of Chamber Music and Professor of Cello at the Colburn School in Los Angeles. Mr. Greensmith is a regular guest with the Chamber Music Society of Lincoln Center and a founding member of the Montrose Trio with pianist Jon Kimura Parker and violinist Martin Beaver.

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Biographies Herbie Hancock, keyboard

Now in the sixth decade of his professional life, Herbie Hancock remains where he has always been: at the forefront of world culture, technology, business and music. In addition to being recognized as a legendary pianist and composer, Herbie Hancock has been an integral part of every popular music movement since the 1960’s. As a member of the Miles Davis Quintet that pioneered a groundbreaking sound in jazz, he also developed new approaches on his own recordings, followed by his work in the 70s —with record-breaking albums such as "Headhunters"—that combined electric jazz with funk and rock in an innovative style that continues to influence contemporary music. "Rockit" and "Future Shock" marked Mr. Hancock's foray into electronic dance sounds; during the same period he also continued to work in an acoustic setting with V.S.O.P., which included ex-Miles Davis bandmates Wayne Shorter, Ron Carter, and Tony Williams. In honor of his work, Mr. Hancock was awarded the Grammy® Lifetime Achievement Award in February 2016. Hancock is currently in the studio at work on a new album. April 1978, at the age of 22, marked drummer Vinnie Colaiuta’s big break. He performed the notoriously difficult piece “The Black Page,” in an audition for Frank Zappa, and earned himself a role as Mr. Zappa’s principal drummer for studio and live performances. Mr. Colaiuta has worked with many notable rock and pop artists, recently he toured with Sting and Jeff Beck. Bassist James Genus began studying guitar at age 6 and switched to bass at 13. After graduating from Virginia Commonwealth University (1987), he was in-demand on both acoustic and electric bass, and worked with dozens of artists, from Herbie Hancock to Whitney Houston. When not on tour, Mr. Genus is the bassist on Saturday Night Live. Born in Benin, Lionel Loueke picked up guitar at age 17. He left Africa (1994) to pursue Jazz, first in Paris, then at the Berklee College of Music, where he met future trio mates Massimo Biolcati and Ferenc Nemeth—with whom he continues to collaborate. At the Thelonious Monk Institute, Mr. Loueke studied with his most significant mentors: Wayne Shorter, Terence Blanchard and Herbie Hancock, who praised him as “a musical painter.” Keyboard and saxophonist Terrace Martin is a Grammy® award-winning musician, rapper and producer from Los Angeles and the visionary behind the label Sounds of Crenshaw Records. Working with Kendrick Lamar, as well as musical legends Quincy Jones and Herbie Hancock, Mr. Martin works to shatter the acknowledged rules of the popular sound with the creation of fresh and original compositions inspired by funk, jazz, and classical music.

Leonidas Kavakos, violin

Recognized across the world as an artist of rare quality, Greek violinist Leonidas Kavakos is renowned for his virtuosity, superb musicianship and the integrity of his playing. He works with the world’s greatest orchestras and conductors and is an exclusive artist with Decca Classics. By age 21, Mr. Kavakos had won three major competitions: the 1985 Sibelius Competition and the 1988 Paganini and Naumburg Competitions. He was the first to record the original Sibelius Violin Concerto (1903/4), which won the 1991 Gramophone Concerto of the Year Award. He is the 2017 winner of the Léonie Sonning Music Prize, Denmark’s prestigious and highest musical honor awarded annually to an internationally recognized composer, instrumentalist, conductor or singer. Previous winners include Igor Stravinsky and Sir Simon Rattle. He is the 2017/18 Artist-in-Residence at both the Concertgebouw and Vienna Musikverin. His recent recordings include the Brahms Trios with Yo-Yo Ma and Emanuel Ax (2017, Virtuoso (2016), the Brahms Violin Sonatas with Yuja Wang (2014), Brahms Violin Concerto with the Gewandhausorchester Leipzig and Riccardo Chailly (2013) and the complete Beethoven Violin Sonatas with Enrico Pace (2013). Mr. Kavakos was named Gramophone Artist of the Year 2014. He plays the ‘Willemotte’ Stradivarius violin of 1734.

Erin Keefe, violin

Violinist Erin Keefe is the Concertmaster of the Minnesota Orchestra as well as an Artist of the Chamber Music Society of Lincoln Center. Winner of the 2006 Avery Fisher Career Grant, she has appeared as soloist in recent seasons with the Minnesota Orchestra, New Mexico Symphony, Korean Symphony Orchestra, Amadeus Chamber Orchestra, Sendai Philharmonic and the Gottingen Symphony and has given recitals throughout the United States, Austria, Italy, Germany, Korea, Poland, Finland, Japan and Denmark. Ms. Keefe has been performing with the Chamber Music Society of Lincoln Center since 2006 and has been featured on “Live from Lincoln Center” three times. She has recorded for Naxos, the CMS Studio Recordings label and Deutsche Grammophon and has made festival appearances with Music@Menlo, Ravinia, and the Marlboro, Bridgehampton, Seattle and Bravo! chamber music festivals. Ms. Keefe earned her Master of Music Degree from The Juilliard School and a Bachelor of Music Degree from The Curtis Institute.

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Biographies Yo-Yo Ma, cello

The many-faceted career of cellist Yo-Yo Ma is testament to his continual search for new ways to communicate with audiences and to his personal desire for artistic growth and renewal. Mr. Ma maintains a balance between his engagements as soloist with orchestras worldwide and his recital and chamber music activities. His discography includes over 100 albums, including 18 Grammy® Award-winners. Mr. Ma is the founder of the cross-cultural and transformative Silkroad, which tours annually, and as the Judson and Joyce Green Creative Consultant to the Chicago Symphony Orchestra’s Negaunee Music Institute. Mr. Ma was born in Paris to Chinese parents who later moved the family to New York. He began studying cello at the age of four, attended The Juilliard School and in 1976 graduated from Harvard University. He has received numerous awards, among them the Avery Fisher Prize (1978), the National Medal of Arts (2001), the Presidential Medal of Freedom (2010). and recognized as a Kennedy Center Honoree (2011). Most recently, Mr. Ma has joined the Aspen Institute Board of Trustees. He has performed for eight American presidents, most recently at the invitation of President Obama at the 56th Inaugural Ceremony. For additional information, see yo-yoma.com, silkroad.org, and opus3artists.com.

Garrick Ohlsson, piano

Since his triumph as winner of the 1970 Chopin International Piano Competition, pianist Garrick Ohlsson has established himself worldwide as a musician of magisterial interpretive and technical prowess. Although long regarded as one of the world's leading exponents of the music of Frédéric Chopin, Mr. Ohlsson commands an enormous repertoire, which ranges over the entire piano literature. A student of the late Claudio Arrau, Mr. Ohlsson has come to be noted for his masterly performances of the works of Mozart, Beethoven and Schubert, as well as the Romantic repertoire. To date he has at his command more than 80 concertos, ranging from Haydn and Mozart to works of the 21st century, many commissioned for him. Awarded the 1994 Avery Fisher Prize and a native of White Plains, New York, Garrick Ohlsson began his piano studies at the age of 8, at the Westchester Conservatory of Music; at 13 he entered The Juilliard School. He makes his home in San Francisco.

PHOTO CREDITS: Cover: J. Bell © Ian Douglas; Pg. 13 & 31: P. Aimard © Marco Borggreve; Pg. 19: E. Ax, L. Kavakos, and Y. Ma © Shane McCauley; Pg. 23 & 33: H. Hancock © Douglas Kirkland; Pg. 24: Academy of St Martin in the Fields and J. Bell © Robert Torres; Pg. 28 & 32: I. Barnatan © Marco Borggreve; Pg. 31: Academy of St Martin in the Fields © Alan Kerr, J. Bell © Lisa Marie Mazzucco, E. Ax © Shane McCauley; Pg. 32: S. Cassedy courtesy of presenter, J. Chute courtesy of presenter, M. Gerdes courtesy of presenter, C. Greensmith © Philip Pirolo; Pg. 33: L. Kavakos © Shane McCauley; E. Keefe © Lisa-Marie Mazzucco; Pg. 34: Y. Ma © Jason Bell, G. Ohlsson © Dario Acosta; Back Cover: E. Ax © Lisa-Marie Mazzucco, L. Kavakos © Marco Borggreve, Y. Ma © Jason Bell.

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Season Partners La Jolla Music Society’s 2017-18 Season is supported by The City of San Diego Commission for Arts and Culture, County of San Diego Community Enhancement Program, National Endowment for the Arts, Thomas C. Ackerman Foundation, David C. Copley Foundation, D’Addario Foundation, ProtoStar Foundation, ResMed Foundation, Regents Bank, US Bank, The Dow Divas, The Lodge at Torrey Pines, La Valencia Hotel, The Westgate Hotel, Conrad Prebys and Debra Turner, Brenda Baker and Stephen Baum, The Beyster Family, Joan and Irwin Jacobs, Joy Frieman, Brian and Silvija Devine, Gordon Brodfuehrer, Jeanette Stevens, and an anonymous donor.

Thomas C. Ackerman Foundation

David C. Copley F o u n d at i o n

PHP Management, Inc.

Media Partners ®

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Annual Support La Jolla Music Society’s high quality presentations, artistic excellence, and extensive education and community engagement programs are made possible in large part by the support of the community. There are many ways for you can play a crucial role in La Jolla Music Society’s future — from education or concert sponsorships, general program gifts, or planned giving. For information on how to help bring extraordinary programs to San Diego, please contact Ferdinand Gasang, Development Director, at 858.459.3724, ext. 204 or FGasang@LJMS.org.

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Anonymous Andrew K. Achterkirchen Barry & Emily Berkov Benjamin Brand Luc Cayet & Anne Marie Pleska Elizabeth Clarquist Dr. Ruth Covell George & Cari Damoose

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LA JOLLA MUSIC SOCIETY

Caroline DeMar Douglas Doucette Nomi Feldman Lynda Fox Photography Paul & Clare Friedman Sally Fuller James & Carrie Greenstein Phil & Kathy Henry Paul & Barbara Hirshman Louise Kasch Helene K. Kruger Toni Langlinais Sally & Luis Maizel Ted McKinney Ohana Music, Inc. Lorne Polger Anthony & Agnieska RĂŠ Winfried Ritter Arlene & Peter Sacks Yvonne Vaucher Margie & John H. Warner, Jr. Suhaila White Olivia & Marty Winkler

ENTHUSIAST ($250 - $499)

Christine Andrews Nancy Assaf Lynell Antrim Chris Benavides Dr. & Mrs. Paul Benien Stefana Brintzenhoff Candace Carroll Robert & Jean Chan Geoffrey Clow Sharon L. Cohen Hugh Coughlin James Determan Christopher Franke Bruce Galanter Ferdinand Gasang Dr. and Mrs. Jimmie Greenslate Susan Guzzetta Ed & Linda Janon Nancy Jones Gladys & Bert Kohn Robert & Elena Kucinski Las Damas de Fairbanks Christine & Bill Mingst Joani Nelson Tai Nguyen

Kim & Hans Paar Aghdas Pezeshki Janet Presley Dr. Aron Rosenthal Paul Rotenberg Peter & Arlene Sacks Jeanne & Milton Saier Joe & Virginia Silverman Ronald I. Simon & Anne F. Simon William Smith Bob Stefanko Edward Stickgold & Steven Cande Eli & Lisa Strickland Norma Jo Thomas Monica & Richard Valdez Laurette Verbinski Dr. & Mrs. Robert Wallace Terry & Peter Yang Debra Youssefi

COMMUNITY MUSIC CENTER Beginning in 1999, La Jolla Music Society has operated the Community Music Center, a free afterschool music education program in Logan Heights, San Diego. Each year, the program provides instruments and valuable instruction to over one hundred students.


ANNUAL SUPPORT

FOUNDATIONS Thomas C. Ackerman Foundation Ayco Charitable Foundation: The AAM & JSS Charitable Fund The Vicki & Carl Zeiger Charitable Foundation Bettendorf, WE Foundation: Sally Fuller The Blachford-Cooper Foundation The Catalyst Foundation: The Hon. Diana Lady Dougan The Clark Family Trust David C. Copley Foundation D'Addaraio Foundation Enberg Family Charitable Foundation The Epstein Family Foundation: Phyllis Epstein The Fidelity Charitable Gift Fund: Drs. Edward & Martha Dennis Fund Sue & Chris Fan Don & Stacy Rosenberg Shillman Charitable Trust Richard and Beverly Fink Family Foundation Inspiration Fund at the San Diego Foundation: Frank & Victoria Hobbs The Jewish Community Foundation: Diane & Elliot Feuerstein Fund Foster Family Foundation Galinson Family Fund Lawrence & Bryna Haber Fund Joan & Irwin Jacobs Fund David & Susan Kabakoff Fund Warren & Karen Kessler Fund Liwerant Family Fund Theodora F. Lewis Fund Jaime & Sylvia Liwerant Fund The Allison & Robert Price Family Foundation Fund Gary & Jean Shekhter Fund John & Cathy Weil Fund

Sharon & Joel Labovitz Foundation The Stephen Warren Miles and Marilyn Miles Foundation The New York Community Trust: Barbara & William Karatz Fund ProtoStar Foundation Qualcomm Foundation Rancho Santa Fe Foundation: The Fenley Family Donor-Advised Fund The Susan & John Major Donor-Advised Fund The Oliphant Donor-Advised Fund ResMed Foundation The San Diego Foundation: The Beyster Family Foundation Fund The M.A. Beyster Fund II The Karen A. & James C. Brailean Fund The Valerie & Harry Cooper Fund The Hom Family Fund The Ivor & Colette Carson Royston Fund The Scarano Family Fund The Shiftan Family Fund Schwab Fund for Charitable Giving: Alexa Kirkwood Hirsch Fund Ted McKinney & Frank Palmerino Fund The Shillman Foundation Silicon Valley Community Foundation: The William R. & Wendyce H. Brody Fund Simner Foundation The Haeyoung Kong Tang Foundation The John M. and Sally B. Thornton Foundation The John H. Warner Jr. and Helga M. Warner Foundation Vail Memorial Fund Thomas and Nell Waltz Family Foundation Sheryl and Harvey White Foundation

SERVING OUR COMMUNITY In the 2016-17 season, La Jolla Music Society was able to reach over 11,500 students and community members. LJMS worked with students from over 60 different schools and universities, providing concert tickets, performance demonstrations, and master classes. Thanks to the generous support of our patrons and donors, all of our outreach activities are free to the people we serve.

L J M S. O R G ¡ 8 5 8 . 4 5 9 . 3 7 2 8

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ANNUAL SUPPORT

HONORARIA & MEMORIAL GIFTS In Honor of Gordon Brodfuehrer: Hugh Coughlin Richard & Katherine Matheron Jeanette Stevens

In Honor of Katherine “absolutely not” Chapin: Bebe and Marvin Zigman

In Honor of Martha Dennis’ Birthday: Christine Andrews Thompson and Jane Fetter Stacy and Don Rosenberg

In Memory of Dick Enberg: Brenda Baker and Steve Baum Elaine and Dave Darwin Robert Gould Phil and Kathy Henry Sue and Steve Hesse

Joan Hotchkis Stuart and Lisa Lipton Papa Doug Manchester Joel Mogy Cliff Schireson and John Venekamp Neal and Marge Schmale Pam Shriver Corinne Wohlforth In Honor of May L. Hsieh: Yau-Hung Chow Richard Hsieh In Memory of Lois Kohn: Ingrid Paymar

MATCHING GIFTS Bank of America IBM, International Leidos Merck QUALCOMM, Inc. Sempra Energy *In Memoriam

In Honor of Maggie Meyer’s Birthday: Martha and Ed Dennis In Honor of Betty-Jo Petersen: Chris Benavides

In Honor of Abby and Ray Weiss: Lynn Stern

In Memory of Carleton and Andree Vail: Vail Memorial Fund

SUPPORT To learn more about supporting La Jolla Music Society’s artistic and education programs or to make an amendment to your listing please contact Katelyn Woodside at 858.459.3724, ext. 216 or KWoodside@LJMS.org. This list is current as of January 5, 2018. Amendments will be reflected in the next program book in April 2018.

DANCE SERIES OUTREACH La Jolla Music Society hosts dance master classes and open rehearsals throughout the winter season. Participating companies have included, MOMIX, Joffrey Ballet, New York City Ballet MOVES, and many more.

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Medallion Society In 1999, the Board of Directors officially established the Medallion Society to provide long-term financial stability for La Jolla Music Society. We are honored to have this special group of friends who have made multi-year commitments of at least three years to La Jolla Music Society, ensuring that the artistic quality and vision we bring to the community continues to grow.

CROWN JEWEL

TOPAZ

Brenda Baker and Steve Baum Conrad Prebys and Debbie Turner

Anonymous Joan Jordan Bernstein Mary Ann Beyster Virginia and Robert Black Dr. James C. and Karen A. Brailean Dave and Elaine Darwin Eleanor Ellsworth Barbara and Dick Enberg Jeane Erley Pam and Hal Fuson Buzz and Peg Gitelson Dr. Lisa Braun-Glazer & Dr. Jeff Glazer Margaret and Michael Grossman Theresa Jarvis Angelina and Fred Kleinbub Joseph Wong and Vivian Lim Michel Mathieu and Richard McDonald Elaine and Doug Muchmore Hank and Patricia Nickol Rafael and Marina Pastor Maria and Dr. Philippe Prokocimer Don and Stacy Rosenberg Leigh P. Ryan Neal and Marge Schmale Jeanette Stevens Elizabeth Taft Gianangelo Vergani Dolly and Victor Woo Carolyn Yorston-Wellcome and H. Bard Wellcome Bebe and Marvin Zigman

DIAMOND Raffaella and John Belanich Joy Frieman Joan and Irwin Jacobs

RUBY Silvija and Brian Devine

GARNET Peggy and Peter Preuss

SAPPHIRE Julie and Bert Cornelison Kay and John Hesselink Keith and Helen Kim

Listing as of January 5, 2018

L J M S. O R G ¡ 8 5 8 . 4 5 9 . 3 7 2 8

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Corporate Honor Roll Members of our Corporate Honor Roll are committed to the LJMS community. For information on how your business can help bring world-class performances to San Diego, please contact Rewa Colette Soltan at 858.459.3724, ext. 206 or RSoltan@LJMS.org.

GUARANTOR

SUSTAINER

SUPPORTER

AMBASSADOR

AFICIONADO

ASSOCIATE

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Listing as of January 5, 2018

LA JOLLA MUSIC SOCIETY


Dance Society La Jolla Music Society is proud to be a major presenter of American and International dance companies in San Diego. The Dance Society was created in order to fulfill our community’s desire for exceptional dance and ballet performances by the highest-quality artists from around the world. We are grateful to the following friends for their passion and generous support of our dance programs.

ARABESQUE

POINTE

PLIÉ

Ellise and Michael Coit June and Dr. Bob Shillman Jeanette Stevens

Carolyn Bertussi Teresa O. Campbell Katherine and Dane Chapin

Stefana Brintzenhoff Joani Nelson Elyssa Dru Rosenberg Elizabeth Taft

PIROUETTE

DEMI POINTE

Elaine Galinson and Herbert Solomon Annie So Marvin and Bebe Zigman

Saundra L. Jones

Listing as of January 5, 2018

Legacy Society The Legacy Society recognizes those generous individuals who have chosen to provide for La Jolla Music Society’s future. Members have remembered La Jolla Music Society in their estate plans in many ways – through their wills, retirement gifts, life income plans and many other creative planned giving arrangements. We thank them for their vision and hope you will join this very special group of friends. Anonymous (2) June L. Bengston* Joan Jordan Bernstein Bjorn and Josephine Bjerede Dr. James C. and Karen A. Brailean Gordon Brodfuehrer Barbara Buskin Trevor Callan Geoff and Shem Clow Anne and Robert Conn George and Cari Damoose Elaine and Dave Darwin Teresa & Merle Fischlowitz Ted and Ingrid Friedmann Joy and Ed* Frieman

Sally Fuller Maxwell H. and Muriel S. Gluck* Dr. Trude Hollander Eric Lasley Theodora Lewis Joani Nelson Maria and Dr. Philippe Prokocimer Bill Purves Darren and Bree Reinig Jay W. Richen Leigh P. Ryan Jack* and Joan Salb Johanna Schiavoni Patricia C. Shank Drs. Joseph and Gloria Shurman

Jeanette Stevens Elizabeth and Joseph* Taft Norma Jo Thomas Dr. Yvonne E. Vaucher Lucy and Ruprecht von Buttlar Ronald Wakefield John B. and Cathy Weil Carolyn Yorston-Wellcome and H. Barden Wellcome Karl and Joan Zeisler Josephine Zolin *In Memoriam Listing as of January 5, 2018

L J M S. O R G · 8 5 8 . 4 5 9 . 3 7 2 8

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L J M S. O R G · 8 5 8 . 4 5 9 . 3 7 2 8

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SEASON

MARCH

2017-18

ACADEMY OF ST MARTIN IN THE FIELDS

PIERRE-LAURENT AIMARD

JOSHUA BELL, music director & violin

Thursday, March 1, 2018 · 8 PM

Friday, March 16, 2018 · 8 PM

Piano Series

Orchestra Series

Balboa Theatre

Jacobs Music Center - Copley Symphony Hall

WINTERFEST GALA

SCHUBERT’S SWAN SONG I

Saturday, March 3, 2018 · 8 PM

Saturday, March 24, 2018 · 8 PM Curated by Inon Barnatan

Jacobs Music Center - Copley Symphony Hall

Revelle Chamber Music Series

AX – KAVAKOS – MA Special Event

Irwin M. Jacobs Qualcomm Hall

HERBIE HANCOCK Wednesday, March 7, 2018 · 8 PM Jazz Series

Balboa Theatre

Emanuel Ax

Leonidas Kavakos

Yo-Yo Ma

WWW.LJMS.ORG · 858.459.3728

S49 Program Book Vol 3  
S49 Program Book Vol 3