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SEASON 48 | 2016-17



SEASON 48 | 2016-17 OCTOBER





Thursday, March 9, 2017 · 8 PM

Saturday, January 14, 2017 · 8 PM

Piano Series

MCASD Sherwood Auditorium

Thursday, October 6, 2016 · 8 PM

Piano Series

MCASD Sherwood Auditorium

Balboa Theatre



Friday, March 10, 2017 · 8 PM

from the Buena Vista Social Club:

Friday, January 20, 2017 · 8 PM

Jazz Series


Special Guests Roberto Fonseca, Anat Cohen & Regina Carter Friday, October 7, 2016 · 8 PM Jazz Series

Balboa Theatre

TWYLA THARP DANCE 50th Anniversary Tour Saturday, October 22, 2016 · 8 PM Dance Series

Spreckels Theatre


Revelle Chamber Music Series MCASD Sherwood Auditorium

EDGAR MOREAU, cello The Auditorium at TSRI

Dance Series

Discovery Series


Emmanuel Villaume, music director Gautier Capuçon, cello Wednesday, January 25, 2017 · 8 PM Orchestra Series

Jacobs Music Center-Copley Symphony Hall

The Auditorium at TSRI


HÉLÈNE GRIMAUD Thursday, December 1, 2016 · 8 PM Piano Series

MCASD Sherwood Auditorium


Jeff Edmons, music director & conductor Richard O’Neill, viola Friday, December 2, 2016 · 8 PM

San Diego Youth Symphony Series MCASD Sherwood Auditorium

With Special Guest Kurt Elling

Friday, February 10, 2017 · 8 PM Jazz Series

Balboa Theatre

Special Event

MCASD Sherwood Auditorium

THE UKULELE ORCHESTRA OF GREAT BRITAIN “HOLIDAY SHOW” Saturday, December 17, 2016 · 8 PM Special Event

MCASD Sherwood Auditorium

Orchestra Series

Jacobs Music Center-Copley Symphony Hall

MAX RAABE & PALAST ORCHESTER Friday, March 31, 2017 · 8 PM Special Event Balboa Theatre

Saturday, April 8, 2017 · 8 PM

Balboa Theatre

Dance Series


Christoph Eschenbach, conductor Ray Chen, violin Orchestra Series


Spreckels Theatre

EMERSON STRING QUARTET Saturday, April 22, 2017 · 7:30 PM Revelle Chamber Music Series La Jolla Presbyterian Church

NIKOLAY KHOZYAINOV, piano Saturday, April 29, 2017 · 8 PM

Sunday, February 26, 2017 · 3 PM

Special Event

The Auditorium at TSRI





Friday, May 12, 2017 · 7:30 PM

Discovery Series

Jeff Edmons, music director & conductor Caroline Goulding, violin

The Auditorium at TSRI

Piano Series

La Jolla Presbyterian Church

Friday, March 3, 2017 · 8 PM

San Diego Youth Symphony Series MCASD Sherwood Auditorium

Sunday, March 5, 2017 · 3 PM Discovery Series

The Auditorium at TSRI


Thursday, March 30, 2017 · 8 PM




Fabio Luisi, conductor Deborah Voigt, soprano

Special Event

Jacobs Music Center-Copley Symphony Hall

Friday, December 16, 2016 · 8 PM


Saturday, February 11, 2017 · 8 PM

Friday, December 9, 2016 · 8 PM


Civic Theatre


Saturday, February 18, 2017 · 8 PM

MCASD Sherwood Auditorium

Saturday, March 18, 2017 · 8 PM


TAKÁCS QUARTET Revelle Chamber Music Series





MCASD Sherwood Auditorium

Sunday, January 22, 2017 · 3 PM

Sunday, October 30, 2016 · 3 PM Discovery Series

Revelle Chamber Music Series

For more information:

858.459.3728 · WWW.LJMS.ORG

Dates, times, programs and artists are subject to change. Ticket prices for performances at the Spreckels Theatre, Balboa Theatre, Civic Theatre and the Jacobs Music CenterCopley Symphony Hall include applicable facility fees.


“Music is my connection with the sublime.” - Conrad Prebys Thank you Conrad Prebys and Debbie Turner for your extraordinary kindness and generosity. Conrad you are deeply missed. We could not be more humbled, proud and honored to know that your legacy will live on in The Conrad Prebys Performing Arts Center.


The ResMed Foundation is pleased to support your excellent programs in musical arts education. Board of Trustees Edward A. Dennis, PhD Chairman

Mary F. Berglund, PhD Treasurer

Peter C. Farrell, PhD, DSc Secretary

Charles G. Cochrane, MD Michael P. Coppola, MD Anthony DeMaria, MD Sir Neil Douglas, MD, DSc, FRCPE Klaus Schindhelm, BE PhD Jonathan Schwartz, MD Kristi Burlingame Executive Director

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The Conrad will serve as the heart of cultural, community and arts education event activity in La Jolla, bringing world-class performances to San Diego and the permanent home of La Jolla Music Society. The new performing arts center, located at 7600 Fay Avenue in La Jolla, will include a 500-seat concert hall, a 150-seat multi-use space, new offices for La Jolla Music Society and a large open courtyard.




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BOARD OF DIRECTORS · 2016-17 Katherine Chapin – Chair Rafael Pastor – Vice Chair Robin Nordhoff – Treasurer Jennifer Eve – Secretary Martha Dennis, Ph.D. – Past Chair Stephen Baum Karen A. Brailean Gordon Brodfuehrer Wendy Brody Ric Charlton Linda Chester Elaine Bennett Darwin Brian Douglass Barbara Enberg Lehn Goetz Susan Hoehn Ethna Sinisi Piazza

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Christopher Beach – Artistic Director Emeritus




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Lecture by Steven Cassedy

Can you really make a piano sound like water? And why do composers (almost) always write water music with lots of sharps and ask performers to spend most of their time playing on the black keys of the piano? Maybe it has something to do with the sounds of the pentatonic scale (what you get if you play only black keys)? But what makes those sounds water-like?

La Jolla Music Society’s Season is supported by The City of San Diego Commission for Arts and Culture, County of San Diego Community Enhancement Program, the National Endowment for the Arts, ResMed Foundation, The Tippet Foundation, The Lodge at Torrey Pines, The Westgate Hotel, Conrad Prebys and Debra Turner, Brenda Baker and Stephen Baum, The Beyster Family, Joan and Irwin Jacobs, Joy Frieman, Brian and Silvija Devine, Gordon Brodfuehrer, Lehn and Richard Goetz, John and Kay Hesselink, Keith and Helen Kim, Maria and Philippe Prokocimer, Jeanette Stevens, Joyce and Ted Strauss, and Sue and Peter Wagener.

Tonight’s concert is underwritten by Medallion Society members:

Maria and Philippe Prokocimer

Piano Series

HÉLÈNE GRIMAUD, piano Thursday, December 1, 2016 · 8PM MCASD SHERWOOD AUDITORIUM

BERIO Wasserklavier (1964) (1925-2003) TAKEMITSU Rain Tree Sketch II (1992)


FAURÉ Barcarolle No. 5 in F-sharp Minor, Opus 66 (1894) (1845-1924)

RAVEL Jeux d’eau (1901) (1875-1937)

ALBÉNIZ Almería (1905-1909) (1860-1909)

LISZT Les jeux d’eaux à la Villa d’Este, S.163/4 (1867-1877) (1811-1886)

JANÁˇCEK Andante from In the Mists (1912)


DEBUSSY La cathédrale engloutie (1910) (1862-1918) I N T E R M I S S I O N

BRAHMS Piano Sonata No. 2 in F-sharp Minor, Opus 2 (1852) (1833-1897) Allegro ma non troppo, ma energico Andante con espressione Scherzo: Allegro Finale: Introduzione; Allegro non troppo e rubato

Hélène Grimaud last performed for La Jolla Music Society in the Celebrity Orchestra Series with the Rotterdam Philharmonic Orchestra on February 13, 2015.

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Program notes by Eric Bromberger

WATER The first half of this program consists of eight separate works, each inspired in a different way by water. Water in these pieces may take many forms–it can be mist, rain, oceans, fountains. Some of these pieces were inspired by different locations or settings or legends, each having to do in some way with water. Or the composers may simply have been inspired by water itself–its sound, its feel, its beauty, its evocative power. Water is fundamental to life, and these eight composers–eight very different artists–respond to it in quite different ways.


LUCIANO BERIO Born October 24, 1925, Oneglia, Italy Died May 27, 2003, Rome

Approximate Duration: 2 minutes

Luciano Berio composed his Wasserklavier in 1964, and in its original form the work was for two pianos; Wasserklavier (that title means “Water-Piano”) has a companion piece composed in 1970: Erdenklavier: “EarthPiano.” Wasserklavier is an extremely brief (26-measure) and concentrated work. Berio’s detailed performance markings give explicit indication of the music’s character: it must be triple piano throughout, and Berio marks the music sempre legatissimo and teneramente e lontano: “tenderly and far away.” Though it is in a specific key (F minor), this music may be regarded as a study in harmonic and textural complexity. It begins gently in 6/8, and at least one critic has made the connection between this quiet opening and the barcarolle, the rocking song of Venetian gondoliers, and identified that connection as the source of the work’s title. Within this quiet beginning, Berio introduces a brief thematic cell that interrupts the harmonic and rhythmic flow. Gradually textures grow thicker, there are wide thematic skips, and the music takes on an unexpected complexity before Wasserklavier resolves quietly on an F-minor scale.

Rain Tree Sketch II

TORU TAKEMITSU Born October 8, 1930, Tokyo Died February 20, 1996, Tokyo

Approximate Duration: 4 minutes

Takemitsu was virtually self-taught as a composer. His music–which combines Japanese materials, Western techniques, and an acute ear for instrumental color–is entirely original. Not for Takemitsu is the dramatic, incident-crowded music of the Western symphonic tradition. Instead, he suggests, “We should listen in the way we walk through an



ornamental garden.” Certain features distinguish Takemitsu’s music: its wide palette of color, the contrast between what seems a static timelessness and bursts of ecstatic activity reminiscent of Messiaen, the contrast between the sound of the piano’s sharp percussive attack and the subtle decay of that attack, the attention to reverberation (this music requires scrupulous use of all three pedals), and the delicacy of much of his music. Takemitsu composed Rain Tree Sketch II in 1992, shortly after the death of Olivier Messiaen in April of that year; the work received joint premières in October 1992 in France and Japan. Subtitled In Memoriam Olivier Messiaen, this music seems to take on some of the spirit of that French master: Takemitsu’s opening marking is “Celestially Light,” and he specifies that the central episode is to be “Joyful.”

Barcarolle No. 5 in F-sharp Minor, Opus 66

GABRIEL FAURÉ Born May 12, 1845, Pamiers, France Died November 4, 1924, Paris

Approximate Duration: 6 minutes

The term barcarolle (“boat-song”) comes from the Italian barcarole, the songs of the Venetian gondoliers. The barcarolle traditionally has some of the relaxed ease of those songs, in which a melody is sung over a rocking accompaniment in a slow 6/8 meter that echoes the motion of the boat across the waves. This agreeable form made its way into the art-music of serious composers across Europe in the middle of the nineteenth century–Chopin composed a Barcarolle in F-sharp Major, Mendelssohn included what he called Venetian Boat Songs in several of his sets of Songs without Words, and many other composers provided examples. French composer Gabriel Fauré was particularly attracted to the barcarolle–he wrote thirteen of them across the span of his career. He completed the fifth of that series on September 18, 1894, a few months after his fiftieth birthday and dedicated it to the wife of his friend Vincent d’Indy. No one


coming to this music without knowing its title would guess that it is a barcarolle. Rather than exuding a relaxed ease, this is complex music. Fauré sets it in 9/8 rather than the expected 6/8, but will then write passages in 6/8, and at one point he sets the right hand in 2/4 and the left in 6/8. This is also quite energetic music. Fauré may mark the beginning dolce, but within just a few measures the music has grown to sempre fortissimo, and it spills over with energy throughout–it can be rippling and sparkling one moment, turbulent and dissonant the next, and dissonances will sting from out of these washes of sound. After all this energy, the music grows quiet and vanishes on a gently-arpeggiated chord in F-sharp major.

Jeux d’eau


Born March 7, 1875, Ciboure, Basses-Pyrénées, France Died December 28, 1937, Paris

Approximate Duration: 5 minutes

Ravel composed his Jeux d’eau in 1901, when he was still almost unknown. At that time, the 26-year-old composer had gained a slender reputation with a few brief piano pieces– Pavane for a Dead Princess and Habanera–but he was still enrolled in the Paris Conservatory as a student of Fauré and struggling to win that symbol of success for young French composers, the Prix de Rome. Ravel never won that prize, but his Jeux d’eau, one of his most dazzling and original pieces, brought him sudden fame. This music is at once both a connection with the past and a departure toward the future. The connection with the past may at first seem an unlikely one: Franz Liszt. In 1877, while living in Rome, Liszt had composed a brief piano piece called Les jeux d’eaux a la Villa d’Este (heard later on this program), a depiction of the play of the water in the fountain of the estate where he was living. Ravel borrowed both the general conception of Liszt’s music and the first part of his title when he wrote Jeux d’eau (“Play of the Water”), but he achieved a range of sparkling color from the piano that Liszt never dreamed of. In the score, Ravel prefaced the music with a quote from Henri de Regnier: “The river god laughs at the water as it caresses him.” One should take this as a general suggestion of spirit rather than as something the music sets out to depict literally–Ravel himself said that Jeux d’eau was “inspired by the bubbling of water and the musical sounds of fountains, waterfalls, and brooks.” In this music he achieves an enormous range of sounds that evoke sparkling waters: the very opening (which sounds bell-like because Ravel keeps it in the piano’s ringing high register) suggests a completely new soundworld from the piano, and Ravel contrasts this with a variety of sonorities, from delicate tracery cascading downward to thundering music that sweeps across the keyboard.



Born May 29, 1860, Camprodón, Lérida, Spain Died May 18, 1909, Cambo-les-Bains, France

Approximate Duration: 10 minutes

We remember Albeniz primarily for the music inspired by his homeland, and the work that most completely embodies Albéniz’s use of Spanish materials is his masterpiece, the suite Iberia. Iberia consists of four books of three pieces each, which were composed during the final years of his life, 190509. These twelve pieces have been described as a collection of evocations of Spain and its atmosphere, music, and sounds (so successful has this music proven that some observers claim that this music evokes for them even the characteristic smells of Spain). Albéniz wrote Iberia during his final illness, when he was living in France, and in a touching way these pieces truly are evocations of a music and a world Albeniz remembered from his boyhood. Almería, the second piece in Book II, was inspired by the city of that name, built on the Mediterranean coast during the Muslim occupation of southern Spain. Almería is famous for its fortress, its beautiful setting, and its hot temperatures. Albéniz’s evocation of the city is in ternary form, with the central chordal section giving way to an expansive return of the opening material.

Les jeux d’eaux à la Villa d’Este, S.163/4


Born October 22, 1811, Raiding, Austria Died July 31, 1886, Bayreuth, Germany

Approximate Duration: 7 minutes

Liszt gave up the post of kapellmeister in Weimar in 1859 and moved the following year to Rome, where he took minor orders in the Catholic Church and lived for part of each year in the Villa d’Este in Rome. The Villa d’Este is a handsome sixteenth-century villa built on a steep hillside in Tivoli and famous for its gardens and particularly for its fountains, which are of many different and elaborate designs and which stretch down the hillside. By the time Liszt lived there, the Villa had fallen into disrepair (it has since been renovated), but the fountains and gardens were intact, and they made a profound impression on the composer. Les jeux d’eaux à la Villa d’Este (“Play of the Waters at the Villa d’Este”) is a musical evocation of one of the sparkling fountains on the estate. This shimmering music would have a powerful influence a generation later on two young French composers who would write a great deal of similar “water” music: Debussy and Ravel. Liszt’s portrait of sunlight sparkling off the waters of the fountain seems pure impressionism: the swirling beginning gives way to more lyric ideas in the middle section. In the score at this W W W. L J M S . O R G · 8 5 8 . 4 5 9 . 3 7 2 8



point Liszt includes a quote from St. John: “But whosoever drinketh of the water that I shall give him shall never thirst; but the water that I give him shall become in him a fountain of water springing up into eternal life.”

Andante from In the Mists


Born July 3, 1854, Hukvaldy, Czech Republic Died August 12, 1928, Ostravia, Czech Republic

Approximate Duration: 3 minutes

Janáček composed In the Mists in 1912, when he was 58 years old and serving as director of the Organ School in Brno. As a composer he was virtually unknown: a regional production of his opera Jenůfa in1904 had brought him a brief moment of notice, but now he seemed doomed to live out his days as a provincial musician. Success would come to Janáček a decade later, but when he wrote In the Mists, Janáček could have no inkling of this: he was nearing retirement, he was unknown, he was trapped in an unhappy marriage, and he feared that this would be his fate. Some of Janáček’s biographers believe that the title In the Mists is autobiographical and that it refers to Janáček’s belief that–as a composer–he was lost “in the mist.” Janáček had a fondness for enigmatic titles, and we need to be careful not to read significance into a situation where it may not belong, but that suggestion is intriguing. In the Mists is a suite of four brief movements. The mood here is neither bitter nor angry, but all four movements are tinged with a measure of melancholy. All four are in a general ternary form: an opening statement, a central episode in a different mood or tempo, and return (sometimes modified) to the opening material. But this music conforms to no set form, and the individual movements are episodic, mercurial in their short themes, repeated phrases, and quick changes of mood and color. This recital offers only the opening Andante, and one might note how beautifully it establishes the subdued mood of the entire work.

La cathédrale engloutie


Born August 22, 1862, Saint-Germain-en-Laye, France Died March 25, 1918, Paris

Approximate Duration: 6 minutes

Debussy composed his first book of twelve Preludes very quickly, between December 1909 and February 1910. Though he has been inescapably tagged an “impressionist,” Debussy disliked that term. He would have argued that he was not trying to present a physical impression of something but instead trying to re-create in sound the character of his subject. So little was he concerned to convey a physical



impression that he carefully placed the evocative title of each prelude at its end rather than its beginning: he did not wish to have an audience (or performer) fit the music into a preconceived mental set but rather wanted the music heard for itself first, then identified with an idea or image later. Some scholars, in fact, have gone so far as to say that perhaps Debussy wanted the music to suggest the title. La cathédrale engloutie (“The Engulfed Cathedral”), however, does seem to offer a kind of tone-painting. It was inspired by the ancient Breton legend of the town of Ys, which had been submerged and would rise from out of the sea one day each year. The prelude begins with the sound of tolling bells, a distant chorale is heard, and gradually the cathedral rises magnificently out of the sea, sparkling and majestic in the sunlight, then gradually sinks back into the depths.

Piano Sonata No. 2 in F-sharp Minor, Opus 2

JOHANNES BRAHMS Born May 7, 1833, Hamburg Died April 3, 1897, Vienna

Approximate Duration: 26 minutes

In his famous article in the October 1854 Neue Zeitschrift für Musik that hailed Brahms as “a young eagle,” Robert Schumann described the effect of watching the young man play his music: “Sitting at the piano he began to disclose wonderful regions to us. We were drawn into even more enchanting spheres. Besides, he is a player of genius who can make of the piano an orchestra of lamenting and loudly jubilant voices. There were sonatas, veiled symphonies rather …” Schumann helped Brahms publish these sonatas, and the young man was astonished by the experience of seeing his own music in print–and by his sudden respectability. To Schumann he wrote: “I still cannot accustom myself to seeing these guileless children of nature in their smart new clothes.” For the first of his works to be published, Brahms chose the two piano sonatas he had played for the Schumann family; both had been composed while he was still a few months short of his twentieth birthday. Published as his Opus 2, the Piano Sonata in F-sharp Minor was actually the first to be composed: Brahms had written it in November 1852. This is a big-boned and dramatic piece of music–at moments it feels very much like “a veiled symphony”–and throughout its span one feels the young composer attempting to constrain his own impetuous and spirited music within the frame of the piano sonata as handed down by Beethoven. The result can feel like a hybrid: this sonata gives the impression of wildness, of a free and rhapsodic spirit caught almost unwillingly within classical form. This is also a very unusual piano sonata, and one of its most distinctive features is the young composer’s effort to unify it around one controlling theme-shape.


This shape appears at the beginning of the second movement, marked Andante con espressione. Brahms in fact composed this movement first, and it may be useful to begin a discussion of this violent sonata with this gentle theme. Brahms drew the shape of the theme from the song Mir ist Leide by the Minnesinger Kraft von Toggenberg; in the song, this theme sets the words: “It makes me sad, that winter has bared the wood and heath.” Brahms uses this theme as the basis of a variation movement: he offers three variations, the last of which grows into a huge extension of the melody (Brahms marks it con molt’ agitazione) before fading to the quiet close. But the interesting thing is that Brahms then takes the initial four notes of this theme and uses them as the basis for the dramatic opening gesture of the first movement and for the main theme of the third movement, a scherzo: he works outward from the slow movement as he builds the rest of this sonata. A quick tour of that sonata: the opening movement is extremely dramatic, with hammered octaves and much chordal writing. It proceeds almost unremittingly to its powerful coda and then closes (surprisingly) with two quiet chords. The slow movement follows, leading without pause into the scherzo, which is in many respects the most attractive of the four movements. Its basic theme-shape is drawn directly from the melodic theme of the slow movement; here it rushes nimbly along a 6/8 meter. The trio section–quite long–is also impressive: the mood changes sharply here as the music dances with an unexpected elegance, then makes a dark and dissonant return to the opening section. The last movement shows similar imagination. It opens with a long introduction–full of swirls, trills, and runs–before launching into the main section, a smoothly-flowing Allegro non troppo e rubato. Some of the opening movement’s explosive manner returns here, but at the end Brahms springs another surprise: the movement’s florid introduction now returns, and the sonata spirals to its close in a great shower of arabesques and delicate runs. ADDITIONAL NOTE: Of Brahms’ first five opus numbers, three are massive piano sonatas, all of them complete by the time he was twenty, and while he lived for another 44 years, he never wrote another piano sonata. Apparently he found the form too confining for the kind of piano music he wanted to write. When the Piano Sonata in F-sharp Minor was published–and appeared in its “smart new clothes”–Brahms dedicated it to Clara Schumann, whom he had not yet met when he composed it.

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Arrive early for a pre-performance interview with Richard O’Neill hosted by Marcus Overton

La Jolla Music Society’s Season is supported by The City of San Diego Commission for Arts and Culture, County of San Diego Community Enhancement Program, the National Endowment for the Arts, ResMed Foundation, The Tippet Foundation, The Lodge at Torrey Pines, The Westgate Hotel, Conrad Prebys and Debra Turner, Brenda Baker and Stephen Baum, The Beyster Family, Joan and Irwin Jacobs, Joy Frieman, Brian and Silvija Devine, Gordon Brodfuehrer, Lehn and Richard Goetz, John and Kay Hesselink, Keith and Helen Kim, Maria and Philippe Prokocimer, Jeanette Stevens, Joyce and Ted Strauss, and Sue and Peter Wagener.

San Diego Youth Symphony Series


Jeff Edmons, music director & conductor Richard O’Neill, viola Friday, December 2, 2016 · 8PM MCASD SHERWOOD AUDITORIUM

FALLA Ritual Fire Dance from El amor brujo (1914-1915)


SHOSTAKOVICH Sinfonia for Solo Viola and Strings (1992) Adagio; Doppio movimento; Tempo primo

(1906-1975) (arr. Alexander Tchaikovsky) Richard

O’Neill, viola and leader


DEBUSSY Clair de lune (orch. André Caplet) (1905) (1862-1916) MOZART Symphony No. 31 in D Major, K.297 “Paris” (1778) (1756-1791) Allegro assai Andantino Allegro

The SDYS Chamber Orchestra last performed for La Jolla Music Society in the San Diego Youth Symphony Series on February 26, 2016. Richard O’Neill last performed for La Jolla Music Society at SummerFest 2015.



SDYS CHAMBER ORCHESTRA Music Director: Jeff Edmons


Yeawon (Erica) Hwang Daniel Rim Ilana Hirschfeld Frank Lee Jonathan Kuo Song (Amy) Lee Sofia Llacer Chamberlain


Christian Gonzales Altana Schweitzer Natalie Chin Judy Qin Ryan Park Craig Chen Elizabeth Guanuna


Nathan Rim Abigail McRea Emily Pilkington Christopher Yang


Stephen Yang Russell Chiang Daniel Sun Madelynn Bolin Caroline Barker Henry Helmuth

Program notes by Eric Bromberger

Ritual Fire Dance from El amor brujo

MANUEL DE FALLA Born November 23, 1876, Cádiz, Spain Died November 14, 1946, Alta Gracia, Argentina

Approximate Duration: 4 minutes

Falla went to Paris to study in 1907 and remained there for seven years, but with the outbreak of World War I he returned to Madrid and–not surprisingly–wished to write something specifically Spanish. Through his friend Martinez Sierra, he met the Andalusian singer-dancer Pastora Imperio, and from her mother, the gypsy Rosario la Mejorana, they heard the old Andalusian gypsy tale that became the basis for a ballet entitled El amor brujo. Sierra adapted a scenario, and Falla composed the music between November 1914 and April 1915, when it was premièred in Madrid. El amor brujo tells of the young gypsy woman Candelas who loved a passionate but dissolute gypsy, now dead. Candelas is being pursued by the handsome Carmelo, but she is haunted by the ghost of her former lover: whenever she and Carmelo are about to exchange “the perfect kiss” that will symbolize their love, the ghost appears and prevents it. Carmelo devises a plan: remembering the dead gypsy’s fondness for all beautiful young women, he asks his friend Lucia to accompany them. The ghost appears and begins to flirt with Lucia, freeing Candelas and Carmelo to exchange “the perfect kiss.” Vanquished, the ghost disappears forever and triumphant bells ring out. The Ritual Fire Dance depicts Candelas’ final attempt to exorcise the demon of the gypsy. Midnight arrives on its twelve quiet strokes, and now Candelas dances this “fire”



William Mrdjenovich

Ivy Huang Chae Yoon Baek


Christine Kim Robin Kong




Max Jiang

Minjoon Choi

Christine Kwon Lauryn Chan Lucy Ren


David Meinen

dance in the effort to banish the spirit of her dead lover. Swirling trills over a walking bass line lead to the famous main theme of this dance, with its characteristic triplets; the dance grows increasingly animated and ends brilliantly. Though the Ritual Fire Dance fails to chase off the dissolute ghost, it has become famous on its own and has been heard in many arrangements (it was one of Arthur Rubinstein’s most successful encore pieces).

Sinfonia for Viola and String Orchestra (arr. by Alexander Tchaikovsky of Shostakovich’s String Quartet No. 13 in B-flat Minor, Opus 138)

DMITRI SHOSTAKOVICH Born September 25, 1906, St. Petersburg Died August 9, 1975, Moscow

Approximate Duration: 20 minutes

In 1923, four young string players at the Moscow Conservatory formed a quartet that would eventually become known as the Beethoven Quartet, and they quickly became good friends with the star composition student at the rival St. Petersburg Conservatory, Dmitri Shostakovich. The Beethoven Quartet’s close relation with the composer would last for over half a century, and they gave the premières of thirteen of his quartets (all but the first and last). By the late 1960s, however, the effect of time was becoming all too clear: Shostakovich suffered from debilitating illness over the final decade of his life, and the quartet lost two of its original members–second violinist Vasily Shirinsky died and violist Vadim Borisovsky retired. As a gesture of lifelong respect and gratitude, Shostakovich dedicated each of his String Quartets Nos. 11 through 14 to a different member of

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the quartet. He composed the String Quartet No. 13 in B-flat Minor during the summer of 1970, completing it on August 10, and dedicated it to violist Borisovsky on the occasion of his seventieth birthday (Borisovsky had at that point already retired from the quartet). With its new members, the Beethoven Quartet gave the quartet several private hearings before the official première on December 13, 1970, in Leningrad. The Thirteenth Quartet is heard at this concert in an arrangement for solo viola and string orchestra made by the Russian composer Alexander Tchaikovsky (born 1946). In this arrangement, titled Sinfonia for Viola and String Orchestra, Tchaikovsky transforms the quartet into a sort of concerto for viola and string orchestra by assigning to the solo viola the quartet’s leading melodic line, whether it was for the two violins, the viola, or the cello in the original. The effect is to re-cast Shostakovich’s quartet in a way that gives the viola a concerto-like solo part and enriches the overall sound of the original. This music may have been written to commemorate a birthday, but there is nothing festive about it. It’s one movement is in a broad ternary form: the opening Adagio gives way to a long central episode at twice that tempo before the final section returns to the opening tempo. Set in the dark key of B-flat minor, the Sinfonia opens with a spare viola solo marked espressivo. Gradually the other voices enter, the music rises to a dissonant outburst, and the opening section gives way to the central section, marked Doppio movimento and announced by chirping threenote patterns. These patterns of three-note attacks gradually build to a strident climax in which three-note patterns are hammered out by the entire ensemble. Then the music launches into an eerie dance that skitters along triplet rhythms and is punctuated by the sound of the players tapping their bows on their instruments. This unsettled music–wild in its hard-edged energy and strange sounds–is the most Bartókian moment in the entire cycle of Shostakovich’s quartets. Gradually this dance winds down, and ominous trills and a recall of the three-note patterns lead to a return to the opening tempo. But now that opening music has become even darker. In the course of this closing section, for which Shostakovich mutes all the instruments, there is a long duet– murmuring and subdued–for viola and cellos, and then the cellos vanish. The final word is left to the viola, whose bleak soliloquy (sometimes set at the extreme upper limit of that instrument’s range) leads to the jolting cadence: on its final note, the viola is rejoined by the (unmuted) violins, and these instruments shriek out the concluding B-flat.



Clair de lune (orch. André Caplet)

CLAUDE DEBUSSY Born August 22, 1862, Saint-Germain-en-Laye Died March 25, 1918, Paris

Approximate Duration: 5 minutes

Clair de lune, Debussy’s seductive invitation into a world of moonlit possibility, has become one of his most famous compositions, so it may come as a surprise to learn that in its earliest version this music had nothing at all to do with moonlight. Debussy originally composed it around 1890 under the title Promenade sentimentale, and the 28-year-old composer intended it as one of the movements of a suite of pieces for piano. Debussy sketched that suite in 1890, but he was in no hurry to finish it–not until fifteen years later, in 1905, did he come back to these pieces, revise them, and publish the set under the title Suite bergamasque. But there had been some important changes along the way. The movement originally titled Promenade sentimentale now had a new name, Clair de lune, which Debussy had taken from the title of a poem by Paul Verlaine. Verlaine (1844-1896) is remembered as one of the symbolist poets, that school of poetry centered in France at the end of the nineteenth century that reacted against realism and in favor of an exploration of the internal consciousness–a setting suffused with the half-tones of soft moonlight was perfect for that imagination. Debussy’s Clair de lune fully deserves its popularity. No matter how over-familiar this music may have become, Debussy’s fluid rhythms, haunting melodies, and muted, silvery colors continue to work their hold on listeners (and performers). Clair de lune has been arranged for many different instrumental combinations, and arrangements for orchestra offer a palette of sound that can evoke the subtle textures of Debussy’s music more fully than a solo piano. Clair de lune is heard at this concert in an orchestration by the French composer André Caplet (1878-1925), who is best-remembered today for his arrangements of Debussy’s piano pieces.

Symphony No. 31 in D Major, K.297 “Paris”

WOLFGANG AMADEUS MOZART Born January 27, 1756, Salzburg Died December 5, 1791, Vienna

Approximate Duration: 20 minutes

In the years 1777-78 Mozart and his mother set out on a long trip through the musical capitals of Europe in search of a position for the young man. Mozart found no position, but the trip did let him hear the two finest orchestras in Europe: those of Mannheim and Paris. He was very impressed by the Mannheim orchestra, renowned for its virtuosity and long crescendos, but he was distinctly less impressed with the


situation in Paris, where he found the orchestra subpar and the audiences shallow. The Paris orchestra was famous for its unison attacks, called there coup d’archet, but Mozart was underwhelmed. To his father back in Salzburg, he wrote: “The oxen here make such a fuss of this!–the devil!–they all begin together–just like in other places.” In Paris, Mozart was asked by Joseph LeGros, director of the Concerts Spirituels, to write a symphony, and early in June 1778 he composed a symphony tailored specifically for Paris. He wrote for the large Paris orchestra, which meant a full complement of winds (including the first appearance of clarinets in a Mozart symphony); he left out the minuet movement typical only of the Viennese symphony; and he tried to appeal to current Parisian fashions. This is most evident in Mozart’s conscious use of the coup d’archet: the first movement opens with a massive attack for full orchestra and then a brisk run up the D-major scale. This flourish, clearly aimed at Parisian taste, returns at key points throughout the movement. Scholars have noted the influence of the baroque concerto on this movement, which features themes tossed between strings and solo winds, but there is also a touch of Mannheim influence in the long crescendos. In a letter to his father, Mozart made clear just how consciously he was trying to please his audience: “Right in the middle of the first Allegro, there was a passage that I knew must please, all the hearers were quite carried away–and there was a great burst of applause–but I had known, when I wrote it, what kind of effect it would make, so I brought it back again at the close–when there were shouts of Da capo.” While the audience liked the slow movement at the première, LeGros did not and asked Mozart to rewrite it for a second performance of the symphony in August. This Mozart did, and the movement exists in two versions–as an Andantino in 6/8 and as an Andante in 3/4–but the problem now is that no one knows which is the original and which is the replacement! At the present concert, the Andantino is performed. This is songful and elegant music, and while Mozart introduces a second subject, he does not develop either of his main ideas. The scoring is somewhat unusual: after the huge orchestral effects of the first movement, Mozart uses the winds very sparingly here, and most of the thematic interest is in the strings. The concluding Allegro returns to the manner of the opening movement and is notable for its virtuosity and brilliant effects, which include some accomplished fugal writing in the development. For the best description of this music, though, we should turn to the composer himself, who wrote to his father after the première: “as I had heard that all the last Allegros here, like the first, begin with all the instruments together, usually in unison, I began mine with the two violins alone, piano for the first eight bars–after which came a forte–this made the audience, as I expected, say ‘Ssh’ at the piano–and then came the forte–when they heard the

forte they at once began to clap their hands–I went as soon as the symphony was over to the Palais Royal–I had a large ice– and I said the Rosary as I had vowed.” On a final note, Mozart may have sneered at French tastes and consciously catered to them, but this does not mean that he undervalued this music. On the contrary: he took this symphony with him when he moved to Vienna in 1781 and performed it there several times, something he rarely did with his “old” music.

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Lecture by James Chute

In the Takács Quartet’s illuminating, allBeethoven program, we’ll hear Beethoven learning the principles of the string quartet genre in the String Quartet No. 5, expanding those principles in No. 11, and transcending them in No. 12, the first of his five celebrated late string quartets. We’ll talk about some of the basics that Beethoven mastered, the rules that had been perfected by Haydn and Mozart, and how Beethoven broke them to go beyond any other composer of his era, and some would say any era, in his string quartets.

La Jolla Music Society’s Season is supported by The City of San Diego Commission for Arts and Culture, County of San Diego Community Enhancement Program, the National Endowment for the Arts, ResMed Foundation, The Tippet Foundation, The Lodge at Torrey Pines, The Westgate Hotel, Conrad Prebys and Debra Turner, Brenda Baker and Stephen Baum, The Beyster Family, Joan and Irwin Jacobs, Joy Frieman, Brian and Silvija Devine, Gordon Brodfuehrer, Lehn and Richard Goetz, John and Kay Hesselink, Keith and Helen Kim, Maria and Philippe Prokocimer, Jeanette Stevens, Joyce and Ted Strauss, and Sue and Peter Wagener.

Tonight’s concert is sponsored by:

Joyce and Ted Strauss The Takács Quartet appears by arrangement with Seldy Cramer Artists, and records for Hyperion and Decca/London Records. The Takács Quartet is Quartet-in-Residence at the University of Colorado in Boulder and are Associate Artists at Wigmore Hall, London.



Revelle Chamber Music Series


Friday, December 9, 2016 · 8PM MCASD SHERWOOD AUDITORIUM

Edward Dusinberre, Károly Schranz, violins Geraldine Walther, viola; András Fejér, cello BEETHOVEN String Quartet in A Major, Opus 18, No. 5 (1798-1800) (1770-1827) Allegro Menuetto Andante cantabile Allegro String Quartet in F Minor, Opus 95 “Serioso” (1810) Allegro con brio Allegretto ma non troppo Allegro assai vivace ma serioso Larghetto espressivo; Allegretto agitato I N T E R M I S S I O N

BEETHOVEN String Quartet in E-flat Major, Opus 127 (1825) Maestoso; Allegro Adagio, ma non troppo e molto cantabile Scherzando vivace Finale

Takács Quartet last performed for La Jolla Music Society in the Revelle Chamber Music Series on January 17, 2015.


Program notes by Eric Bromberger

String Quartet in F Minor, Opus 95 “Serioso” Approximate Duration: 21 minutes

String Quartet in A Major, Opus 18, No. 5

Beethoven’s manuscript for the Quartet in F Minor is dated October 1810, but almost certainly he continued to Born December 16, 1770, Bonn work on this quartet for some years after that, and it was Died March 26, 1827, Vienna not published until 1816. This quartet has a nickname, Approximate Duration: 28 minutes “Quartetto Serioso,” that–unusually for a musical Beethoven’s first string quartets, a set of six written in nickname–came from the composer himself. Well aware of Vienna during the years 1798-1800, inevitably show the the music’s extraordinary character, Beethoven described influence of Haydn and Mozart, who had made the form a the quartet as having been “written for a small circle of great one. Scholars have been unanimous in believing that the connoisseurs and . . . never to be performed in public.” fifth quartet of Beethoven’s set had a quite specific model: Joseph Kerman has described it as “an involved, impassioned, Mozart’s String Quartet in A Major, K.464, composed in highly idiosyncratic piece, problematic in every one of its 1785. Beethoven greatly admired this particular quartet and movements, advanced in a hundred ways” and “unmatched in had copied out the last two movements as a way of studying Beethoven’s output for compression, exaggerated articulation, them. Carl Czerny reported that Beethoven once took up the and a corresponding sense of extreme tension.” Yet this Mozart score and exclaimed: “That’s what I call a work! In it, same quartet–virtually the shortest of Beethoven’s string Mozart was telling the world: Look what I could create if the quartets–comes from the same period as the easily accessible time were right!” For his own quartet, Beethoven took both “Archduke” Trio, the Seventh and Eighth Symphonies, and the key and general layout of Mozart’s quartet: a sonata-form the incidental music to Goethe’s Egmont, and this music’s first movement, a minuet movement that comes second, a extraordinary focus and tension seem sharply at odds with theme-and-variation third movement, and a sonata-form finale those scores. In fact, this quartet in many ways prefigures that–like Mozart’s–ends quietly. Beethoven’s late style and the great cycle of quartets written But it is unfair to Beethoven to see his Quartet in A during his final years. Major as just an imitation of Mozart’s masterpiece. Though The first movement is extraordinarily compressed (it the two composers were the same age when they wrote these lasts barely four minutes), and it catapults listeners through quartets (29), Beethoven was still feeling his way with a an unexpected series of key relationships. The unison form Mozart had mastered, and though he may have chosen opening figure is almost spit out, passing through and ending Mozart as a model, this music sounds in every measure in a “wrong” key and then followed by complete silence. like young Beethoven. The opening Allegro is built on two Octave leaps and furious restatements of the opening figure nicely-contrasted ideas–a soaring opening theme and a darker, lead to the swaying second subject, announced in flowing more melodic second idea–and Beethoven asks for a repeat triplets by the viola. The development section of this (highly of both exposition and development. The opening of the modified) sonata-form movement is quite short, treating only minuet belongs entirely to the violins, with the second violin the opening theme, before the movement exhausts itself on gracefully following and commenting on the first’s theme; fragments of that theme. the trio section–with the theme in the middle voices under the The marking of the second movement, Allegretto ma non first violin’s drone–is surprisingly short. troppo, might seem to suggest some relief, but this movement Longest of the movements, the Andante cantabile is even more closely argued than the first. The cello’s strange offers five variations on the simple falling-and-rising idea descending line introduces a lovely opening melody, but announced at the beginning; particularly effective are the this quickly gives way to a long and complex fugue, its fugal first variation, the first violin’s staccato triplets in sinuous subject announced by the viola and then taken up the second, the expressive fourth (which Beethoven marks and developed by the other voices. A quiet close (derived sempre pp), and the exuberant fifth. A long coda leads to a from the cello’s introduction) links this movement to the restatement of the theme and a quiet close. The energetic third, a violent fast movement marked Allegro assai vivace and good-natured finale is in sonata (rather than the expected ma serioso. The movement is in ABABA form, the explosive rondo) form. The opening melody leaps smoothly between opening section alternating with a chorale-like subject instruments, and Beethoven offers a quiet chorale as the for the lower three voices which the first violin decorates. second theme. The writing for all four voices is extremely Once again, Beethoven takes each section into unexpected accomplished here, and on the energy of the opening idea keys. The last movement has a slow introduction–Larghetto the music rushes to its close, which brings a sudden and espressivo–full of the darkness that has marked the first three surprisingly quiet concluding chord. movements, and this leads to a blistering finale that does


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much to dispel the tension. In an oft-quoted remark about the arrival of this theme, American composer Randall Thompson is reported to have said: “No bottle of champagne was ever uncorked at a better moment.” In contrast, for example, to the near-contemporary Seventh Symphony, which ends in wild celebration, this quartet has an almost consciously anti-heroic close, concluding with a very fast coda that Beethoven marks simply Allegro. Some have felt that the Quartet in F Minor is composed with the same technique as the late quartets but without their sense of spiritual elevation, and in this sense they see the present quartet as looking ahead toward Beethoven’s late style. But it is unfair to this music to regard it simply as a forerunner of another style. This quartet may well be dark, explosive, and extremely concentrated. But it should be valued for just those qualities.

String Quartet in E-flat Major, Opus 127 Approximate Duration: 37 minutes

When Russian prince Nikolai Golitsyn wrote to Beethoven in the fall of 1822 to commission three string quartets, his request met a sympathetic response: the composer had been thinking about writing string quartets for some time and promised to have the first done within a month or two. After seven years of intermittent activity he had resumed sustained composing in 1820 with a set of three piano sonatas, but other projects now intervened, and despite the prince’s frequent inquiries Beethoven had to complete the Missa Solemnis, Diabelli Variations, and Ninth Symphony before he could begin work on the first of the three quartets in the summer of 1824. This quartet–in E-flat major–was not complete until February 1825. Performed immediately by the string quartet of Ignaz Schuppanzigh, the music was a failure at its première on March 6, 1825. Furious, Beethoven quickly had it rehearsed and performed by a quartet led by Joseph Böhm. The composer attended their rehearsals and supervised their interpretation (though deaf, he could follow their performance by watching the movement of their bows). The second performance was successful, and this quartet was performed publicly at least ten more times in 1825–an extraordinary number of performances for a new work–and always to great acclaim. That fact is important because it undercuts the notion that Beethoven’s late quartets were far ahead of their time. Certain features of the late quartets did defy quick comprehension, but this was not true of the Quartet in E-flat Major. At first glance, this is the most traditional of Beethoven’s late quartets. It has a relatively straightforward structure: a sonataform first movement, a variation-form slow movement, a scherzo in ABA form, and a dance-finale. But to reduce this music to such simplicity is to miss the extraordinary



originality beneath its appealing and gentle surface. In the first movement, Beethoven seems to set out intentionally to blur the outlines of traditional sonata form, which depends on the opposition of material. Contrast certainly seems to be implied at the beginning, which opens with a firm chordal Maestoso, but this Maestoso quickly melts into the flowing and simple main theme, marked Allegro (Beethoven further specifies that he wants this melody performed teneramente–“tenderly”–and sempre piano e dolce). The powerful Maestoso returns twice more, each time in a different key, and then drops out of the movement altogether; Beethoven builds the movement almost exclusively out of the opening melody and an equally-gentle second subject. Here is a sonata-form movement that does not drive to a powerful climax but instead remains understated throughout: the movement evaporates on a wisp of the opening Allegro theme. Two softly-pulsing measures lead to the main theme of the Adagio, a gently-rocking and serene melody introduced by the first violin and repeated by the cello. There follow six melodic variations, each growing organically out of the previous one until the music achieves a kind of rhapsodic calm–and the original theme has been left far behind. Four sharp pizzicato chords introduce the scherzo, and these four chords then vanish, never to reappear. The fugue-like opening section, built on a dotted figure and its inversion, leads to a brief–and utterly different–trio section. In E-flat minor, this trio whips past in a blistering blur: Beethoven’s phrase markings here stretch over twenty measures at a time. Beethoven brings back the opening section, then offers a surprise at the ending by including a quick reminiscence of the trio just before the cadence. The last movement has proven the most difficult for commentators, perhaps because of its apparent simplicity. Marked only Finale (there is no tempo indication), it opens with a four-measure introduction that launches off in the wrong direction before the true main theme appears in the first violin. Of rustic simplicity, this melody has been compared to a country-dance, and the second theme–a jaunty march-tune decorated with grace notes–preserves that atmosphere. The tunes may be innocent, but Beethoven’s treatment of them in this sonata-form movement is quite sophisticated, particularly in matters of modulation and harmony. The ending is particularly striking. At the coda Beethoven re-bars the music in 6/8, moves to C major, and speeds ahead on violin trills, chains of triplets, and shimmering textures. The very end, back in E-flat major, is calm, resounding–and perfect.

La Jolla Music Society’s Season is supported by The City of San Diego Commission for Arts and Culture, County of San Diego Community Enhancement Program, the National Endowment for the Arts, ResMed Foundation, The Tippet Foundation, The Lodge at Torrey Pines, The Westgate Hotel, Conrad Prebys and Debra Turner, Brenda Baker and Stephen Baum, The Beyster Family, Joan and Irwin Jacobs, Joy Frieman, Brian and Silvija Devine, Gordon Brodfuehrer, Lehn and Richard Goetz, John and Kay Hesselink, Keith and Helen Kim, Maria and Philippe Prokocimer, Jeanette Stevens, Joyce and Ted Strauss, and Sue and Peter Wagener.

Special Event

THE UKULELE ORCHESTRA OF GREAT BRITAIN Friday, December 16, 2016 · 8PM Saturday, December 17, 2016 · 8PM MCASD SHERWOOD AUDITORIUM

The December 17th concert is sponsored by:

Regents Bank Exclusive Management: ARTS MANAGEMENT GROUP, INC. 130 West 57th St., NY, NY 10019

HOLIDAY SHOW Back by popular demand, The Ukulele Orchestra of Great Britain returns for two special Holiday Shows. When The Ukulele Orchestra of Great Britain is in town, audiences can look forward to lots of catchy, foot-stomping tunes, a bit of comedy and, at this time of year, good old-fashioned holiday cheer! PERFORMERS

George Hinchliffe Jonty Bankes Peter Brooke Turner Will Grove-White Leisa Rea Ben Rouse Dave Suich Richie Williams The program will be announced from the stage and will include songs where the orchestra will invite you to play along. There will be 20-minute intermission. The Ukulele Orchestra of Great Britain last performed for La Jolla Music Society in a Special Event on January 23, 2015.

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Lecture by Steven Cassedy

Testing the limits of the pianoforte. Wagner strove for the Gesamtkunstwerk (total artwork), with mega-compositions designed to blend theatre, poetry, and music into one colossal multi-sensory experience. Liszt strove to test the limits of the pianoforte, which grew tremendously in size over the course of his career. Is a piano reduction a fit vehicle for the total artwork of Wagner, or must we experience Liszt’s transcriptions as simply compositions of an entirely different order?

La Jolla Music Society’s Season is supported by The City of San Diego Commission for Arts and Culture, County of San Diego Community Enhancement Program, the National Endowment for the Arts, ResMed Foundation, The Tippet Foundation, The Lodge at Torrey Pines, The Westgate Hotel, Conrad Prebys and Debra Turner, Brenda Baker and Stephen Baum, The Beyster Family, Joan and Irwin Jacobs, Joy Frieman, Brian and Silvija Devine, Gordon Brodfuehrer, Lehn and Richard Goetz, John and Kay Hesselink, Keith and Helen Kim, Maria and Philippe Prokocimer, Jeanette Stevens, Joyce and Ted Strauss, and Sue and Peter Wagener.

Piano Series

LOUIS LORTIE, piano Saturday, January 14, 2017 · 8PM MCASD SHERWOOD AUDITORIUM

WAGNER Prelude und Liebestod from Tristan und Isolde (1813-1883) (trans. Louis Lortie) Magic Fire Music from Die Walküre (trans. Hugo Wolf) LISZT Réminiscences de Don Juan, S.418



WAGNER Siegfried Idyll (trans. Josef Rubinstein) “O du mein holder Abendstern” from Tannhäuser (trans. Franz Liszt) Overture to Tannhäuser (trans. Franz Liszt)

Recordings available on the Chandos and Decca/London Labels Louis Lortie appears by arrangement with Seldy Cramer Artists

Louis Lortie last performed for La Jolla Music Society in the Piano Series on January 30, 2011.




Program notes by Eric Bromberger

LISZT AT THE OPERA — MOSTLY WITH WAGNER On this evening’s recital Louis Lortie plays a program of music from operas that has been arranged for piano. Such arrangements were common in the nineteenth century, when virtuoso performers would use themes from popular operas–tunes their audiences would already recognize–to create completely new works with which they could demonstrate their own virtuosity. These pieces went under a variety of names–fantasy, reminiscence, paraphrase–and they were essentially new compositions based on themes by other composers. But sometimes composers would make literal piano versions of music from opera–or the concert hall–and here their intentions were more generous: they wanted to bring unfamiliar music to audiences that might not otherwise hear it. The name for such faithful arrangements was transcription, and Liszt made piano transcriptions of such works as Berlioz’s Symphonie fantastique, Beethoven’s symphonies, Weber’s overtures, and many more. On this program Mr. Lortie offers both these approaches, including a reminiscence of a Mozart opera and a paraphrase of the end of a Wagner opera, plus fairly literal transcriptions of music from Wagner’s operas, made by a number of different composers.

Prelude und Liebestod (trans. Liszt) from Tristan und Isolde (trans. Louis Lortie)

RICHARD WAGNER Born May 22, 1813, Leipzig Died February 13, 1883, Venice

Approximate Duration: 18 minutes

During the 1850s Wagner was at work on the operas that would make up The Ring of the Nibelungen. He completed Das Rheingold in 1854 and Die Walküre in 1856 and immediately set to work on Siegfried. Partway through Act I of Siegfried, however, Wagner’s plans took an unexpected detour when he became fascinated by the ancient Irish legend of Tristan and Iseult, lovers who find fulfillment only in death. He laid aside his work on Siegfried for three years and composed Tristan und Isolde between 1856 and 1859. Even before the opera was premièred in Munich in 1865 Wagner had led orchestral excerpts from it in concerts, and the most important of these involves a remarkable piece of compositional surgery: Wagner took the very beginning of the opera–its opening prelude–and the very ending–Isolde’s farewell to life–and fused them in an orchestral work he called Prelude and Love-Death. This reduces the four-hour opera to a sixteen-minute distillation that moves directly from its yearning beginning to Isolde’s ecstatic fulfillment in death at the very end, and it has remained one of the most popular orchestral excerpts from Wagner’s operas. It is also one of the most remarkable works in the repertoire, so remarkable that many feel that modern music (whatever that is) begins with the Prelude to Tristan und Isolde. The Prelude opens this tale of unfulfilled love with music that is itself the very embodiment of unfulfilled longing–a falling cello line intersects dissonantly with a

rising oboe line, and that harmonic clash does not resolve. That same pattern repeats in a new key, again without resolution. It will never resolve. The music’s failure ever to find harmonic stasis mirrors the lovers’ failure to find fulfillment in life, and–despite the beauty of the music–its effect is intentionally unsettling. Berlioz confessed that he was “completely baffled” when he heard Wagner conduct the Prelude in Paris in 1859, and he was quite right to feel assaulted. This music annihilated the conception of a tonal center decades before those other two works that have seemed to launch modern music–Debussy’s Prelude to the Afternoon of a Faun and Stravinsky’s Rite of Spring–were conceived (and before either of those two composers had even been born). The Prelude–built on a series of longing, surging phrases– comes to a quiet close on two deep pizzicato strokes, and the music continues directly into the concluding Liebestod, or Love-Death. It was Wagner himself who invented that name, though he considered calling this concluding excerpt Verklärung, or Transformation. Tristan has died, and Isolde– dying herself–clings to his body and finds in death the union that the two could never achieve in life. The Liebestod is built on a sonority quite different from the Prelude, full of shimmering sounds that mirror Isolde’s transfiguration.

Magic Fire Music from Die Walküre (trans. Hugo Wolf) Approximate Duration: 5 minutes

At the end of Die Walküre, the second opera of the Ring cycle, Wotan faces a horrifying decision. Siegmund and his enemy Hunding are about to fight to the death, and Wotan and his daughter Brünnhilde clash over that fight. As king of the gods, Wotan must abide by the rules of marriage and cannot W W W. L J M S . O R G · 8 5 8 . 4 5 9 . 3 7 2 8



protect Siegmund, but Brünnhilde disobeys him and sides with Siegmund. The furious Wotan allows Hunding to kill Siegmund, then kills Hunding with a wave of his hand. In the opera’s final scene, Wotan punishes Brünnhilde by making her mortal and putting her to sleep on the top of a mountain. In a moving farewell to his daughter, he surrounds her with a magic fire that can be penetrated only by a hero worthy of her love, and this is accompanied by some of the most beautiful music in the entire Ring, Wotan’s Farewell to Brünnhilde and the Magic Fire Music. The Magic Fire Music begins quietly. Tentative at first, the flames slowly expand to surround and protect Brünnhilde, and Die Walküre winds down to its quiet and very moving conclusion as the flames flicker around Wotan’s sleeping daughter. The Magic Fire Music is heard on this recital in a littleknown arrangement by Hugo Wolf. One of the most ardent of Wagnerians, Wolf made what he called a Paraphrase über Die Walküre von Richard Wagner in 1880, when he was still a 20-year-old. That substantial paraphrase, well over twenty minutes long, freely treats themes from throughout the opera, but it concludes with a fairly literal version of the Magic Fire Music. On this recital Mr. Lortie plays only the Magic Fire Music.

Réminiscences de Don Juan, S.418


Born October 22, 1811, Raiding, Austria Died July 31, 1886, Bayreuth, Germany

Approximate Duration: 15 minutes

The “Don Juan” of this French title is actually Don Giovanni of Mozart’s great opera. Liszt wrote this paraphrase on themes from Don Giovanni in 1841, just as he turned 30 and was at the crest of his fame as a touring virtuoso. Unlike some of Liszt’s paraphrases, which string together tunes from an opera, the Réminiscences de Don Juan is a much more carefully conceived composition. Liszt chose three characteristic scenes from the opera and treated each in turn and at some length. The result is a very serious piece of music–it has been described as “symphonic”–which is remarkable not just for the virtuosity of the writing but for imagination of Liszt’s treatment of Mozart’s ideas. The three scenes Liszt chose are quite different, and each shows us a different face of Mozart’s opera. The opening section is a powerful extension of the music that accompanies one of the most dramatic moments in the opera– the appearance of the statue at Don Giovanni’s dinner party at the very end of the final act, when the Don is dragged down into hell. Liszt then turns to Don Giovanni and Zerlina’s great duet from Act I, Là ci darem la mano, as he attempts to seduce her. This is one of the best-loved melodies in all music (Chopin and others have also written variations on it), and here Liszt evolves two long variations. The extended final



section is based on what has been called the “champagne aria”–Don Giovanni’s Finch’han dal vino from Act I, when he orders Leporello to prepare a party at which he plans to seduce as many women as possible. It is a sparkling aria in the opera, and Liszt uses its drive to energize his own virtuoso treatment. It all comes to a brilliant close, and it is no surprise that Liszt performed this music so often (or that it proved so popular with nineteenth-century audiences). In our own day, when it may seem sacrilegious to “tamper” with a masterpiece like Don Giovanni, it is important to remember that we do not come to this music to hear Mozart but to hear what Liszt does with Mozart: Humphrey Searle has remarked that this piece is “MozartLiszt and not Mozart, and one should appreciate it for what it is.” And what it is, is quite impressive: over its nearly twentyminute span this paraphrase reminds not just of the greatness of Mozart but of Liszt’s own powerful musical personality.

Siegfried Idyll (trans. Josef Rubinstein)

RICHARD WAGNER Approximate Duration: 20 minutes

An understanding of Wagner’s lovely Siegried Idyll requires some knowledge of the details of that composer’s irregular personal life. In 1864, at the age of 51, Wagner began an affair with 27-year-old Cosima von Bülow, daughter of Franz Liszt and wife of pianist-conductor Hans von Bülow. Wagner and Cosima’s daughter Isolde was born the following April, on the same day von Bülow conducted the first rehearsal of Tristan und Isolde. All concerned agreed to keep details of the situation a secret, and the infant’s birth certificate listed von Bülow as the father, Wagner as the godfather. Cosima bore Wagner two more children, a daughter Eva in 1867 and a son Siegfried in 1869, and moved in with him in 1868. Finally, in 1870–after a six-year relationship and three children–the couple was married. That fall, Cosima became aware that Wagner was working on a project he would not describe to her, and for good reason–it was to be one of the best surprises in the history of music. On Christmas morning, Cosima–asleep with eighteen-month-old Siegfried–awoke to the sound of music. Her husband had secretly composed and rehearsed a piece for small orchestra, and now that orchestra–arranged on the staircase leading to Cosima’s bedroom–gave this music its most unusual première. This music was not just a token of love and a Christmas present, but also a birthday present–Cosima had turned 33 a few weeks earlier. She treasured this music, which is full of private meanings for the couple: it is based on themes from Wagner’s (as yet unperformed) opera Siegfried, but it also uses a child’s cradlesong and other themes with personal meaning for Wagner and Cosima. Their private title for the


piece was Tribschen Idyll: they were living at Tribschen on Lake Lucerne in Switzerland at the time, and Cosima felt that the music was an embodiment of their life and love in these years. When in 1878, pressed for cash, Wagner had the music published (under the now-familiar title Siegfried Idyll), Cosima confessed in her diary: “My secret treasure is becoming common property; may the joy it will give mankind be commensurate with the sacrifice I am making.” As good love music should be, Siegfried Idyll is gentle, warm, and melodic. Listeners familiar with the opera Siegfried will recognize some of the themes, all associated with the young hero Siegfried: his horn call, the bird call from the Forest Murmurs sequence, and others. Wagner also quotes, in the oboe near the beginning, the old cradlesong “Sleep, Little Child, Sleep.” The Siegfried Idyll is heard on this concert in a transcription by Josef Rubinstein.

“O du mein holder Abendstern” from Tannhäuser (trans. Franz Liszt) Approximate Duration: 6 minutes

Franz Liszt and Richard Wagner shared a long and–at times–difficult relationship. During his years as music director in Weimar, Liszt championed Wagner’s music and conducted a number of his operas, including Tannhäuser. But in 1865 Liszt’s daughter Cosima abandoned her husband Hans von Bülow, ran off with Wagner, and eventually married him. Liszt was furious with both Cosima and Wagner and remained estranged from them until a reconciliation was worked out in 1872. If Liszt could disapprove of Wagner’s actions, he nevertheless admired his music, and he made piano transcriptions of music from eleven of Wagner’s operas. Liszt’s paraphrases or transcriptions of other composers’ opera excerpts could sometimes be quite free, as in the Réminiscences de Don Juan heard earlier on this program, but it is a measure of Liszt’s respect for Wagner’s operas that these transcriptions were usually quite respectful–they were almost always straightforward and literal, as are the two heard on this program. The idea of the redemptive power of love would engage Wagner throughout his life: it lies at the core of Der fliegender Holländer, Tristan und Isolde, the Ring Cycle, and even in some ways in Parsifal. It is also central to Tannhäuser, which Wagner composed between 1843 and 1845. Set in the thirteenth century, the opera tells of the minstrel-knight Tannhäuser, who is trapped by the sensual claims of Venusberg and is living a dissolute life in that grotto of love. Weary of the flesh and longing for something purer and finer, he appeals to the Virgin Mary and instantly finds himself back in his native Thuringia, where he once loved the pure Elizabeth. Sensing where he has been, the locals turn

on him, but–seeking redemption–Tannhäuser vows to make a pilgrimage to Rome. That trip proves pointless when the pope dismisses his appeal, and the bitter Tannhäuser returns to Thuringia, defiant and vowing to go back to Venusberg. But Elizabeth, who has remained faithful to him in his absence, appeals to the Virgin Mary, hoping that she might die and offer her death as a means of redeeming Tannhäuser’s soul. She departs on that fatal journey, and her death is announced by the approach of her funeral cortege. Recognizing her sacrifice for him, Tannhäuser–his soul finally released–falls dead. “O du mein holder Abendstern” (“Oh, you, my lovely Evening Star”) is sung by the minstrel-knight Wolfram von Eschenbach near the beginning of the third and final act. Elizabeth has announced her intention to set out on her fateful journey, and Wolfram offers to accompany her. She refuses his offer, and Wolfram–taking up his harp–sings this song, asking the Evening Star to guide Elizabeth on her way to heaven.

Overture to Tannhäuser (trans. Franz Liszt) Approximate Duration: 15 minutes

The overture to Tannhäuser is built on the same conflict that underlies the opera: the collision between the pure and the sensual. The overture opens with stately music from the “Pilgrim’s Chorus,” sung in Acts II and III by those on their way to and from Rome. This soon gives way to the Venusberg music, which accompanies the bacchanalian sensuality that has seduced the young knight. This music seems powerful enough to us today, but to generations past it was overwhelming in its sensuality. In The Victor Book of the Symphony (1941), Charles O’Connell described it as “the maddest music in the orchestral repertoire; a music so delirious, so powerfully suggestive of forbidden orgies, of insanely drunken exuberance, of fearsome passions turned loose in terrible play, of frenzies and rages and fierce intolerable ecstasies, as to leave the senses reeling and words stopped in the mouth.” Wagner builds the overture on the collision between these very different kinds of music, and it eventually drives to an overpowering climax, full of great cascades of instrumental sound. Liszt made his (fairly literal) transcription of the overture in 1849, just a few years after the première of Tannhäuser. It has always been regarded as one of the finest of his Wagner transcriptions, particularly for the way Liszt is able to make a single piano unleash the same sort of furious sonority an orchestra can.

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Revelle Chamber Music Series


Friday, January 20, 2017 · 8PM MCASD SHERWOOD AUDITORIUM

David Harrington, John Sherba, violins Hank Dutt, viola; Sunny Yang, cello Brian H. Scott, lighting designer Scott Fraser, sound designer


Lecture by James Chute

It’s hard to think of a greater contrast to the Takács Quartet’s series-opening all-Beethoven concert than this extraordinary program by the Kronos Quartet. Encompassing nine works by composers from Ireland to Azerbaijan to China (by way of Carlsbad), many of them women, all living in the 21st century, using sources ranging from folk song (composer Franghiz Ali-Zadeh) to “MTV videos, rave culture, Hitchcock…” (composer Nicole Lizée), this program promises a journey in every sense of the word. We’ll explore some of the common elements between these diverse composers, and in the process confront a more basic question: What makes music, music?

FRANGHIZ ALI-ZADEH R qs (Dance)* (2015)

(b. 1947) Composed for Fifty for the Future: The Kronos Learning Repertoire

NICOLE LIZÉE Death to Kosmische* (2015) (b. 1973)

N. RAJAM Dadra in Raga Bhairavi+ (arr. Reena Esmail) (2015) (b. 1938)

TERRY RILEY One Earth, One People, One Love from Sun Rings*

(b. 1935) (2002)

TANYA TAGAQ Sivunittinni* (arr. Jacob Garchik) (2015)

(b. 1975) Composed for Fifty for the Future: The Kronos Learning Repertoire

I N T E R M I S S I O N La Jolla Music Society’s Season is supported by The City of San Diego Commission for Arts and Culture, County of San Diego Community Enhancement Program, the National Endowment for the Arts, ResMed Foundation, The Tippet Foundation, The Lodge at Torrey Pines, The Westgate Hotel, Conrad Prebys and Debra Turner, Brenda Baker and Stephen Baum, The Beyster Family, Joan and Irwin Jacobs, Joy Frieman, Brian and Silvija Devine, Gordon Brodfuehrer, Lehn and Richard Goetz, John and Kay Hesselink, Keith and Helen Kim, Maria and Philippe Prokocimer, Jeanette Stevens, Joyce and Ted Strauss, and Sue and Peter Wagener.

Tonight’s concert is underwritten by Medallion Society members:

Kay and John Hesselink Contact: Kronos Quartet/Kronos Performing Arts Association P. O. Box 225340 San Francisco, CA 94122-5340 USA Twitter: @kronosquartet #kronos The Kronos Quartet records for Nonesuch Records.




Quartet No. 4* (1993)

GARTH KNOX Selections from Satellites* (2015) (b. 1956) I. Geostationary III. Dimensions Composed for Fifty for the Future: The Kronos Learning Repertoire

WU MAN Selections from Four Chinese Paintings* (2015) (b. 1963) III. Ancient Echo IV. Silk and Bamboo Composed for Fifty for the Future: The Kronos Learning Repertoire

ALEKSANDRA VREBALOV My Desert, My Rose* (2015)

(b. 1970) Composed for Fifty for the Future: The Kronos Learning Repertoire

* Written for Kronos / +Arranged for Kronos

This performance marks the Kronos Quartet’s La Jolla Music Society debut.


Program notes provided by the artist

FIFTY FOR THE FUTURE Franghiz Ali-Zadeh’s Rǝqs (Dance), Tanya Tagaq’s Sivunittinni, Garth Knox’s Satellites, Wu Man’s Four Chinese Paintings and Aleksandra Vrebalov’s My Desert, My Rose were commissioned as part of the Kronos Performing Arts Association’s Fifty for the Future: The Kronos Learning Repertoire, which is made possible by a group of adventurous partners, including Carnegie Hall and many others. Kronos Quartet/Kronos Performing Arts Association launched, in the 2015/16 season, an exciting new commissioning initiative—Fifty for the Future: The Kronos Learning Repertoire. Fifty for the Future will commission 50 new works—10 per year for five years— devoted to contemporary approaches to the quartet and designed expressly for the training of students and emerging professionals. The works will be created by an eclectic group of composers—25 men and 25 women. Kronos will première each piece and create companion digital materials, including scores, recordings, and performance notes, which will be distributed online for free. Kronos’ Fifty for the Future will present string quartet music as a living art form. Kronos, Carnegie Hall, and an adventurous list of project partners join forces to support this exciting new commissioning, performance, education, and legacy project of unprecedented scope and potential impact.

R qs (Dance)

Death to Kosmische

Born 1947, Baku, Azerbaijan

Born 1973, Gravelbourg, Canada

FRANGHIZ ALI-ZADEH Composer Franghiz Ali-Zadeh was born in Azerbaijan, a republic of the Soviet States. She first came to prominence as a composer and performer while still a student of the celebrated composer Kara Karayev. Ali-Zadeh is highly regarded for her creativity and distinctive style. Her compositions draw from the vocabulary of modern European classical music, including the Second Viennese School, and incorporate the sounds of mugham (the main modal unit of Arabic music), music traditional to Azerbaijan. About Rǝqs, Ali-Zadeh writes: “Rǝqs means ‘dance’ in Azerbaijani as well as in all other Turkic languages. In Azerbaijan, many different dances have existed since time immemorial: for men and women, heroic and lyric, fast and slow. And the tradition of accompanying all important life events with all kinds of dances has been preserved to the present day: engagements and weddings, harvest and farewells, birthdays and even dates of death. There are also burial dances that accompany the farewell to the deceased person. In this respect, the dance tradition remains very strong and current in Azerbaijan today, especially in rural areas. In my new piece for the Kronos Quartet, I have attempted to reflect some of the rhythms and configurations of Azerbaijani dances.”

NICOLE LIZÉE Nicole Lizée is a composer, sound artist and keyboardist based in Montreal, Quebec. Her compositions range from works for large ensemble and solo turntablist featuring DJ techniques fully notated and integrated into a concert music setting, to other unorthodox instrument combinations that include the Atari 2600 video game console, Simon and Merlin handheld games, and karaoke tapes. About Death to Kosmische, Lizée writes: “Death to Kosmische is a work that reflects my fascination with the notion of musical hauntology and the residual perception of music, as well as my love/hate relationship with the idea of genres. The musical elements of the piece could be construed as the faded and twisted remnants of the Kosmische style of electronic music. To do this, I have incorporated two archaic pieces of music technology (the Stylophone and the Omnichord) and have presented them through the gauze of echoes and reverberation, as well as through imitations of this technology as played by the strings. I think of the work as both a distillation and an expansion of one or several memories of music that are irrevocably altered by the impermanence of the mind. Only ghosts remain.” Nicole Lizée’s Death to Kosmische was commissioned for the Kronos Quartet by Margaret Dorfman and the Ralph I. Dorfman Family Fund.

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Dadra in Raga Bhairavi (arr. Reena Esmail)


Born 1938, Chennai, India

Indian-American composer, Reena Esmail is a graduate of Juilliard and the Yale School of Music, and a 2011–12 Fulbright grantee to India. Her work draws elements from both Western and Hindustani (North Indian) classical music. About Dadra in Raga Bhairavi, Esmail writes: “Hindustani (North Indian) violinist N. Rajam occupies a rare and unique position in Indian music. While initially trained as a Carnatic (South Indian) violinist, she later adapted Carnatic violin technique to the performance of Hindustani music. N. Rajam plays in what is called the gakayi ang, the singing style, having trained on her instrument with such vocal legends as Omkarnath Thakur. Her melodies are direct and yet subtle: they seem, at once, guileless and ephemeral. “This arrangement of N. Rajam’s Dadra in Raga Bhairavi sets her improvised violin solo into the medium of string quartet. Raga Bhairavi, normally rendered in the late morning hours, is often used throughout the day in its semi-classical form (as heard here) in shorter, lighter pieces that come towards the end of a Hindustani classical performance. The metric cycle, Dadra, is also characteristic of a lighter piece of music. In this arrangement, the Dadra taal (metric cycle) is rendered on the body of the cello, as it imitates the strokes of the tabla (Hindustani percussion).” Reena Esmail’s arrangement of N. Rajam’s Dadra in Raga Bhairavi was commissioned for Kronos Quartet by the David Harrington Research & Development Fund.

One Earth, One People, One Love from Sun Rings

TERRY RILEY Born 1935, Colfax, California

Terry Riley’s evening-length composition Sun Rings includes sounds harvested from our solar system—the crackling of solar winds, the whistling of deep-space lightning, and other cosmic events. The NASA Art Program offered Kronos a commission to take these tones from outer space and create a musical work from them. Kronos’ David Harrington turned to longtime collaborator Riley to serve as the project’s composer. The Sun Rings project was nearly de-railed by the tragic events of September 11, 2001, after which all parties concerned questioned Sun Rings’ relevance in the wake of the terrorist attacks and the impending war in Afghanistan. But then, as the Los Angeles Times put it: “Riley heard poet and novelist Alice Walker on the radio talking about how she had made up a September 11 mantra—‘One Earth, One People,



One Love.’ It suddenly occurred to him that contemplating outer space could be a way to put the problems on Earth into perspective.” Alice Walker’s mantra provided a title and focal point for Sun Rings’ concluding movement. Furthermore, the sound of Walker’s voice intoning the words “One Earth, One People, One Love” became an integral component of the movement itself. As Riley describes his fully realized, post-September 11 conception of Sun Rings: “This work is largely about humans as they reach out from Earth to gain an awareness of their solar system neighborhood….Space is surely the realm of dreams and imagination and a fertile feeding ground for poets and musicians. Do the stars welcome us into their realms? I think so or we would not have made it this far. Do they wish us to come in Peace? I am sure of it.” Sun Rings was commissioned for the Kronos Quartet by the NASA Art Program, the National Endowment for the Arts, The Rockefeller Foundation’s Multi-Arts Production Fund, Hancher Auditorium/University of Iowa, Society for the Performing Arts, Eclectic Orange Festival/Philharmonic Society of Orange County, SFJAZZ, Barbican, London, U.K., and University of Texas Performing Arts Center, Austin (with the support of the Topfer Endowment for Performing Arts). Additional contributions from Stephen K. Cassidy, Margaret Lyon, Greg G. Minshall, and David A. and Evelyne T. Lennette made this work possible

Sivunittinni (arr. Jacob Garchik)


Born 1975, Cambridge Bay, Nunavut, Canada

Tanya Tagaq’s unique vocal expression is rooted in Inuit throat singing, but her music has as much to do with electronica, industrial and metal influences as it does with traditional culture. Her contribution to Kronos Quartet’s Fifty for the Future project marks another chapter in a longstanding creative association with the group. Appearances with Kronos have included a performance at the Big Ears Festival (Knoxville, Tennessee) in 2015 and work on the album Tundra Songs. Tagaq’s album Animism won the Polaris Music Prize in 2014 and a Juno Award in 2015. She is the recipient of an honorary doctorate degree from her alma mater, Nova Scotia College of Art & Design in Halifax. About Sivunittinni, Tagaq writes: “Sivunittinni, or ‘the future ones,’ comes from a part of a poem I wrote for my album, and is the perfect title for this piece. My hope is to bring a little bit of the land to future musicians through this piece. There’s a disconnect in the human condition, a disconnect from nature, and it has caused a great deal of social anxiety and fear, as well as a lack of true meaning of health, and a lack of a relationship with what life


is, so maybe this piece can be a little bit of a wake-up. “Working with the Kronos Quartet has been an honour. We have a symbiosis that allows a lot of growth musically. They teach me so much, I can only hope to reciprocate. Kronos has gifted me the opportunity to take the sounds that live in my body and translate them into the body of instruments. This means so much because the world changes very quickly, and documenting allows future musicians to glean inspiration from our output.”

String Quartet No. 4

SOFIA GUBAIDULINA Born 1931, Chistopol, Soviet Union

Sofia Gubaidulina was born in Chistopol in the Tatar Republic of the Soviet Union. Until 1992, she lived in Moscow. Since then, she has made her primary residence in Germany, outside Hamburg. Gubaidulina’s compositional interests have been stimulated by the tactile exploration and improvisation with rare Russian, Caucasian, and Asian folk and ritual instruments collected by the “Astreia” ensemble, of which she was a co-founder.


GARTH KNOX Born 1956, Dublin, Ireland

Garth Knox is one of today’s leading performers of contemporary music, and his formative experience as a member of Pierre Boulez’s Ensemble InterContemporain and then as violist of the Arditti Quartet has given him a very comprehensive grasp of new music. Stimulated by the practical experience of working on a personal level with composers such as Boulez, Ligeti, Berio, Xenakis, and many others, he channels and expands this energy when writing his own music. Tonight’s performance features the first and third movements of Satellites, about which Knox writes:

“In space, the seemingly simple idea of standing still becomes a complex notion, demanding great precision and enormous effort, and is achievable only by travelling at great speed. In ‘Geostationary’, I wanted to capture this paradox in music, with always at least one instrument (usually the viola) in perpetual mechanical motion while the violins try to float their static melody, which never succeeds in leaving Of String Quartet No. 4, Gubaidulina writes: the starting note behind and falls back each time into the “What interested me especially with this piece was how vacuum. At regular intervals their stationary orbit sweeps the ‘real’ arises from the ‘unreal’: the ‘real’ normal play of our four astronauts through a meteor shower where they are arco or pizzicato arising from the ‘unreal’ transparent sounds bombarded by high-energy micro-particles scattering in of rubber balls on the strings; the ‘real’ on-stage playing of every direction. the quartet arising from the ‘unreal’ playing by the same “‘Dimensions’ deals with the many possible dimensions musicians on a pre-recorded tape; the ‘real’ colored lights which surround us, represented by the physical movements arising from the ‘unreal’ white and black (white and black, of the bow through space. In the first dimension, only after all, represent the absence of light; color becomes ‘unreal’ vertical movement is possible. In the second, only horizontal within them). movement along the string is possible. Then only circular “As such, three trinities unfold: the sound of the quartet motion, then alternating between the two sides of the bow (the and its two recorded hypostases; the real form and its two stick and the hair). The fun really starts when we begin to mix recorded satellites; and the creative reality of the play of the dimensions, slipping from one to another, and the piece light and its two unreal protagonists of complete light and builds to a climax of spectacular bow techniques including the complete darkness. ‘whip’ and the ‘helicopter’, producing a huge range of other “All the details of the piece—both its material essence worldly sounds.” and its compositional design—are derived from the basic idea that ‘real genuine’ is born of the ‘unreal artificial’ (and not the Four Chinese Paintings (arr. Danny Clay) reverse). For me, this idea was best expressed in T. S. Eliot’s ‘Four Quartets.’ I would be pleased if my composition were to Born 1963, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China be heard and perceived as a musical response to the creative Recognized as the world’s premier pipa virtuoso and world of that great poet.” leading ambassador of Chinese music, Grammy® Award– Sofia Gubaidulina’s String Quartet No. 4 was nominated musician Wu Man has carved out a career commissioned for Kronos by Mrs. Ralph I. Dorfman, the as a soloist, educator, and composer giving her lute-like Barbican (London), and Théâtre de la Ville (Paris). Kronos’ instrument—which has a history of over 2,000 years in recording of String Quartet No. 4 can be found on the China—a new role in both traditional and contemporary music. Nonesuch recordings Night Prayers and Kronos Quartet: 25 Years.


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Tonight’s performance features two final movements of Four Chinese Paintings, about which Wu Man writes: “After two decades of collaborating with the Kronos Quartet, I am finally beginning to understand Western string instruments. With the group’s encouragement and support, I was able to write this—my first composition for string quartet. “Four Chinese Paintings is a suite consisting of four short pieces. In traditional Chinese music, there is often a poetic title that serves as a prompt foundation for musical content and style. I decided to continue this traditional form in this piece by presenting four traditional Chinese paintings. “The inspiration for these paintings came from several styles of Chinese folk music, including Uyghur music (western China, border of Central Asia) and tea-house music from my hometown of Hangzhou. My wish is for the audience to experience—to ‘see’—the Chinese landscapes, and to hear each of the four stories in their local dialects. More important, listeners will experience Chinese culture. “Writing a piece for string quartet was a great challenge for me. Though I have written and improvised countless works for the pipa, composing for Western string instruments was a brand new experience. My creative process began with improvising on the pipa, building layer upon layer until I had all four instrumental parts composed. I then worked with Danny Clay to arrange the piece. “I’d like to thank Kronos for their trust and encouragement, for letting me be a part of their Fifty for the Future project, and for giving me this opportunity to share my musical culture with young string quartets around the world!”

My Desert, My Rose

ALEKSANDRA VREBALOV Born 1970, Novi Sad, Yugoslavia

Aleksandra Vrebalov, a native of the former Yugoslavia, left Serbia in 1995 and now lives in New York City. She has written more than 60 works, ranging from concert music, to opera and modern dance, to music for film. Her works have been commissioned and/or performed by the Kronos Quartet, Serbian National Theater, Carnegie Hall, Moravian Philharmonic, Belgrade Philharmonic and Providence Festival Ballet. About My Desert, My Rose, Vrebalov writes: “My Desert, My Rose consists of a series of patterns open in length, meter, tempo, and dynamics, different for each performer. The unfolding of the piece is almost entirely left to each performer’s sensibility and responsiveness to the parts of other members of the group. Instinct and precision are each equally important in the performance of the piece. The patterns are (notated as) suggested rather than fixed



musical lines, so the flow and the length of the piece are unique to each performance. The lines merge and align to separate and then meet again, each time in a more concrete and tighter way. The piece ends in a metric unison, like a seemingly coincidental meeting of the lines predestined to reunite. It is like a journey of four characters that start in distinctly different places, who, after long searching and occasional, brief meeting points, end up in the same space, time, language. “The writing of this piece, in a form as open and as tightly coordinated at the same time, was possible thanks to 20 years of exposure to rehearsal and performance habits of the Kronos Quartet, a group for which I have written 13 out of 14 of my pieces involving string quartet.”

FOR THE KRONOS QUARTET/KRONOS PERFORMING ARTS ASSOCIATION: Managing Director Janet Cowperthwaite Artistic Administrator Sidney Chen Development Manager Mason Dille Production & Tour Associate Sarah Donahue Development Associate Lauren Frankel Sound Designer Scott Fraser Communications Manager Sasha Hnatkovich Production & Artistic Services Director Gregory T. Kuhn Communications & Marketing Associate Reshena Liao Office Manager Nikolás McConnie-Saad Strategic Initiatives Director Kären Nagy Business Operations Manager Lucinda Toy


Arrive early and hear young artists from the San Diego Youth Symphony perform

La Jolla Music Society’s Season is supported by The City of San Diego Commission for Arts and Culture, County of San Diego Community Enhancement Program, the National Endowment for the Arts, ResMed Foundation, The Tippet Foundation, The Lodge at Torrey Pines, The Westgate Hotel, Conrad Prebys and Debra Turner, Brenda Baker and Stephen Baum, The Beyster Family, Joan and Irwin Jacobs, Joy Frieman, Brian and Silvija Devine, Gordon Brodfuehrer, Lehn and Richard Goetz, John and Kay Hesselink, Keith and Helen Kim, Maria and Philippe Prokocimer, Jeanette Stevens, Joyce and Ted Strauss, and Sue and Peter Wagener.

The Discovery Series is underwritten by Medallion Society member:

Jeanette Stevens Additional support for the Series is provided by:

Gordon Brodfuehrer

Discovery Series

EDGAR MOREAU, cello Sunday, January 22, 2017 · 3PM THE AUDITORIUM AT TSRI

Jessica Xylina Osborne, piano J.S. BACH Sonata No. 3 in G Minor for Viola da Gamba and (1685-1750) Keyboard, BWV 1029 (1720-1739) Vivace Adagio Allegro FRANCK Sonata in A Major for Cello and Piano (1886) (1822-1890) Allegretto ben moderato Allegro Recitativo–Fantasia Allegretto poco mosso I N T E R M I S S I O N SCHNITTKE Sonata No. 1 for Cello and Piano (1978) (1934-1998) Largo Presto Largo CHOPIN Introduction and Polonaise Brillante, Opus 3 (1810-1849) (1829-1830)

This performance marks Edgar Moreau’s La Jolla Music Society debut.

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Program notes by Eric Bromberger

Sonata No. 3 in G Minor for Viola da Gamba and Keyboard, BWV 1029


Sonata in A Major for Cello and Piano

CÉSAR FRANCK Born December 10, 1822, Liege Died November 8, 1890, Paris

Approximate Duration: 28 minutes

This cello sonata is an arrangement, made shortly after Franck’s death, of his Violin Sonata in A Major, originally Approximate Duration: 15 minutes composed in 1886. This sonata is one of the finest examples A viola da gamba was–and still is, for that matter–a viol of Franck’s use of cyclic form, a technique he had adapted held between the legs when it is played. It is the counterpart from his friend Franz Liszt, in which themes from one of the viola da braccia, which was held beneath the chin movement are transformed and used over subsequent or against the chest. Eventually the viola da braccia grew movements. The Sonata in A Major is a particularly ingenious somewhat smaller and became the modern viola (its original instance of this technique: virtually the entire work is derived name survives in the German word for viola: Bratsche). from the quiet and unassuming opening of the first movement, As a performing instrument, the viola da gamba essentially which then evolves endlessly across the sonata. Even when a disappeared, to be kept alive only by enthusiasts for new theme seems to arrive, it will gradually be revealed as a performances on original instruments, and most modern subtle variant of one already heard. performances of Bach’s three sonatas for viola da gamba The piano’s quiet fragmented chords at the beginning of and harpsichord are given by either viola or cello with the Allegretto ben moderato suggest a theme-shape that the piano accompaniment. cello takes over as it enters: this will be the thematic cell of the It has been difficult to date the three sonatas Bach wrote entire sonata. The piano has a more animated second subject, for this combination of instruments. Are they from his years but the gently-rocking cello figure from the opening dominates as Kapellmeister at the court of Anhalt-Cöthen (1717-1723), this movement, and Franck reminds the performers constantly when he wrote the greater part of his secular music and served to play molto dolce, sempre dolce, dolcissimo. a prince who played the viola da gamba? Or do they come The mood changes completely at the fiery second from his tenure as cantor at the Thomaskirche in Leipzig? No movement, marked passionato, and some critics have gone one is sure. Perhaps sensibly, the editors of The New Grove so far as to claim that this Allegro is the true first movement Dictionary throw up their hands and play it safe, noting that and that the opening Allegretto should be regarded as an these sonatas were written sometime between 1720 and 1739. introduction to this movement. In any case, this movement These sonatas are notable for the liberation of the keyboard contrasts its blazing opening with more lyric episodes, and part: no longer is it relegated to providing a simple bass line listeners will detect the original theme-shape flowing through beneath the melodic instrument, and here the two instruments some of these. become equal partners in the musical enterprise. The Recitativo–Fantasia is the most original movement In the first two sonatas, Bach adopted the sequence of in the sonata. The piano’s quiet introduction seems at first a movements of the Italian sonata di chiesa, or church sonata: re-visiting of the germinal theme, though it is–ingeniously–a slow-fast-slow-fast. But the Sonata in G Minor is the only one variant of the passionato opening of the second movement. without an opening slow movement: Bach opts for a threeThe cello makes its entrance with an improvisation-like movement form opening with a vigorous Vivace–the firmlypassage (this is the fantasia of the title), and the entire accented main theme here is somewhat reminiscent of the movement is quite free in both structure and expression: opening of his Brandenburg Concerto No. 3. The other two moments of whimsy alternate with passionate outbursts. sonatas have an Andante slow movement, but here Bach sets After the expressive freedom of the third movement, the middle movement at a slower tempo: this Adagio attains the finale restores order with pristine clarity: it is a canon in a sort of nobility on its long-spanned melodic lines and the octaves, with one voice following the other at the interval steady accompaniment in the piano. The concluding Allegro of a measure. As this movement proceeds it recalls thematic seems at first to promise a fugue, but this is in fact very material from earlier movements. Gradually, the music takes accomplished imitative writing, with the melodic line slipping on unexpected power and drives to a massive (perhaps too smoothly between the stringed instrument and keyboard as massive) coda and a thunderous close. each has the principal part, then steps back to echo the other. Franck wrote this sonata for his fellow Belgian, the great violinist Eugene Ysaÿe, who gave the première in Brussels in November 1886. The composer Vincent D’Indy recalled that première: “The violin and piano sonata was performed Born March 21, 1685, Eisenach, Germany Died July 28, 1750, Leipzig




. . . in one of the rooms of the Museum of Modern Painting at Brussels. The seance, which began at three o’clock, had been very long, and it was rapidly growing dark. After the first Allegretto of the sonata, the performers could scarcely read the music. Now the official regulations forbade any light whatever in rooms which contained paintings. Even the striking of a match would have been matter for offense. The public was about to be asked to leave, but the audience, already full of enthusiasm, refused to budge. Then Ysaÿe was heard to strike his music stand with his bow, exclaiming [to the pianist], “Allons! Allons!” [“Let’s go!”] And then, unheard-of marvel, the two artists, plunged in gloom . . . performed the last three movements from memory, with a fire and passion the more astounding to the listeners in that there was an absence of all externals which could enhance the performance. Music, wondrous and alone, held sovereign sway in the darkness of night.”

Sonata No. 1 for Cello and Piano

ALFRED SCHNITTKE Born November 24, 1934, Engels Died August 3, 1998, Hamburg

Approximate Duration: 22 minutes

Alfred Schnittke’s Cello Sonata No. 1 dates from 1978, when the composer–then 44–was still living in Moscow. This was a particularly productive period for Schnittke. In 1976 he completed the moving and impressive Piano Quintet and the following year he composed the two works that suddenly established his name in the West: the Concerto Grosso No. 1 and his notorious cadenza for the Beethoven Violin Concerto, which brought him equal measures of fame and excoriation. Schnittke had always been regarded as a part of what little avant-garde the Soviet Union had, and the Cello Sonata No. 1–bleak and dark–flew in the face of every canon of Social Realism; one Western critic has gone so far as to describe this sonata as “a grim portrait of Brezhnev gloom.” The Cello Sonata No. 1 is in the traditional three movements, but Schnittke reverses expectations with a slowfast-slow sequence of movements. The opening Largo is quite brief. Cello and piano seem to inhabit different worlds here, so dissimilar is their music. The cello sings a brooding and melancholy meditation into which the piano makes the briefest of intrusions. But those intrusions bring whiffs of order into this bleak world, tiny glimpses of consonance and clarity amid the darkness. By complete contrast, the Presto is a phantasmagoric rush, a perpetual-motion movement that is broken by abrasive, assaultive episodes. The cello opens with seemingly-endless ostinato-figures, and into this rush the piano explodes like a series of pistol shots; along the way the music is driven by almost mindless little tunes full of

manic energy. Yet there are some wonderful sounds in this percussive movement, and it drives to a sonorous climax. Longer than the first two movements combined, the concluding Largo incorporates some of the spirit (and the music) of both those movements. It opens with the cello’s jagged song of grief, and over the long span of this movement Schnittke spins music of a bleak but somber beauty. At the end, its energy spent, the sonata drifts into silence.

Introduction and Polonaise Brillante, Opus 3

FRÉDÉRIC• CHOPIN Born February 22, 1810, Zelazowa Wola, Poland Died October 17, 1849, Paris

Approximate Duration: 9 minutes

In the fall of 1829, Chopin–nineteen years old, restless, dissatisfied with his career, and upset by the political troubles in Poland–was sent by his father to spend some time as a guest at the estate of Prince Radziwiłł in Antonin. Radziwiłł was a cellist, a composer, and a generous man. More to the point, he had two beautiful teenaged daughters, Wanda and Elise, and Chopin made a happy visit with the Radziwiłł family. Wanda was a pianist, and–as a gift to Wanda and her father–Chopin composed a polonaise for the two of them to play together. Chopin made his motives clear in a letter to a friend: “I have written an alla Polacca for the violoncello with accompaniment. It is nothing more than a glittering trifle for the salon, for ladies. I wanted Princess Wanda, the daughter of the cello-playing Prince, to learn it. She is still very young– perhaps seventeen–and beautiful.” Presumably father and daughter did play this music that fall, and Chopin wrote a slow introduction for it the following year; the music was published in 1831 under the title Introduction and Polonaise Brillante. Despite Chopin’s disparagement of this music as “a glittering trifle,” it is considerably more difficult than he makes it sound, and in fact Wanda and her father must have been first-rate musicians if they could manage this piece. As its name implies, a polonaise is of Polish origin. In its original form, it was in triple time and at a moderate tempo, and it could be sung or danced as part of ceremonial processions. By the eighteenth century it had become a dance form, and in his thirteen polonaises for piano Chopin transformed it into a brilliant and fast dance fired by his intense national feelings. Here he makes it a pleasing display piece for cello and piano. A lengthy introduction, full of long runs for the piano, eventually grows quite animated and leads into the Alla Polacca, which Chopin marks Allegro con spirito. Chopin may mark the piano part elegantamente near the start, but soon he is reminding the duo to play con forza and brillante. This is exciting music, and it drives to a grand close.

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Lecture by Michael Gerdes

Bohemian Rhapsodies: Can music really sound like a specific place? Antonín Dvořák’s works are often labeled as nationalistic, but what is it about this evening’s music that makes it sound so quintessentially Czech? In this prelude presentation, we’ll follow Smetana’s journey down the Moldau and explore the Bohemian inspirations for Dvořák’s 8th Symphony. La Jolla Music Society’s Season is supported by The City of San Diego Commission for Arts and Culture, County of San Diego Community Enhancement Program, the National Endowment for the Arts, ResMed Foundation, The Tippet Foundation, The Lodge at Torrey Pines, The Westgate Hotel, Conrad Prebys and Debra Turner, Brenda Baker and Stephen Baum, The Beyster Family, Joan and Irwin Jacobs, Joy Frieman, Brian and Silvija Devine, Gordon Brodfuehrer, Lehn and Richard Goetz, John and Kay Hesselink, Keith and Helen Kim, Maria and Philippe Prokocimer, Jeanette Stevens, Joyce and Ted Strauss, and Sue and Peter Wagener.

The Orchestra Series is underwritten by Medallion Society members:

Joan and Irwin Jacobs

Orchestra Series

PKF - PRAGUE PHILHARMONIA Emmanuel Villaume, music director Gautier Capuçon, cello


SMETANA The Moldau (Vltava) (1874) (1824-1884)

DVOˇRÁK Concerto in B Minor for Violoncello and Orchestra, (1841-1904) Opus 104 (1896) Allegro Adagio ma non troppo Finale: Allegro maestoso Gautier Capuçon, cello I N T E R M I S S I O N

DVOˇRÁK Symphony No. 8 in G Major, Opus 88 (1890) Allegro con brio Adagio Allegretto grazioso Allegro ma non troppo

This performance marks PKF - Prague Philharmonia’s and Gautier Capuçon’s La Jolla Music Society debut.




Program notes by Eric Bromberger

The Moldau (Vltava)

BEDŘICH SMETANA Born March 2, 1824, Litomyšl, Czech Republic Died May 12, 1884, Prague

Approximate Duration: 12 minutes

Two quite different forces combined to help create Smetana’s Moldau, one of the most popular orchestral works ever written. The first of these was Smetana’s own intense Czech nationalism. After three hundred years of German domination, Smetana and his fellow Czechs longed for their own homeland, an independent nation with its own language, customs, and heritage. That longing fired Smetana’s music, just as it would later shape the music of his countrymen Dvořák and Janáček. The other force was the music of Franz Liszt. Smetana was a friend of Liszt, and he particularly admired the Hungarian composer’s symphonic poems, brief orchestral works that set out to tell a tale in music. Smetana tried his hand at several symphonic poems based on literary topics (Shakespeare’s Richard III, Schiller’s Wallenstein, and others), but it was not until he turned to his own Czech heritage that the form came to memorable life for him. Between 1872 and 1879, when he was in his sixties, Smetana composed a cycle of six symphonic poems on Czech subjects–its landscape, heroic past, and legends–and collected them under the title Má Vlast: “My Fatherland.” This was a miserable time for Smetana personally. He had fallen into his horrifying final illness and found himself assailed by buzzing in his ears, skin rashes, disorientation, throat and ulcer problems, and–devastating to a composer– deafness. In the fall of 1874, while working on The Moldau (which would be the second of the symphonic poems that make up Má Vlast), Smetana went completely deaf in his right ear and asked to be removed from his position as director of the Prague Provisional Theatre. His condition did not improve, and he gradually sank into complete deafness and insanity, dying in poverty ten years later. Yet there is not a trace of what must have been personal agony in Má Vlast, which rings with a pride in his Czech identity. Smetana pressed on in the face of increasing deafness and disorientation to complete The Moldau on November 18, 1874, and the first performance took place in Prague on April 4, 1876. Some of the movements of Má Vlast focus on historical figures or settings, but The Moldau is a portrait of the great river that begins in the Bohemian forests southwest of Prague, runs north through that city, and eventually joins the Elbe and flows to the sea at Hamburg. The Czech name for this river is the Vltava (pronounced as three even syllables: “Vol-ta-vah”), and the irony of course is that a piece of

music written expressly to help encourage the cause of Czech independence from Germany is best known under the German name for that river, Moldau. Smetana left a detailed program note that explains what each of the eight sections of The Moldau depicts, and these events can be easily followed. Legend has it that the Moldau begins deep in the forest as two rivulets–one cold, one warm– flow together to form the headwaters of the mighty river. The Moldau opens with these two delicate rivulets (the flute is the cold source, the clarinet the warm), which gradually intertwine and begin to flow. Smetana marks this beginning lusingando, an Italian term that does not translate easily into English: “charming, coaxing”–the literal translation– catches only some of what Smetana wants from this delicate beginning. The rivulets combine, and now Smetana gives us the theme of the river itself, a great soaring melody in E minor for the violins that will become the backbone of this music. As the river flows toward Prague, it passes different scenes, and Smetana describes these in detail: a hunt in the woods, with the sound of hunting horns ringing out, is followed by a peasant wedding with its charming folk-dance. The opening rivulets return to introduce a quiet episode as nymphs play on the moonlit waters of the Moldau; muted strings cast a mist over the water, and Smetana makes another nod to his homeland’s past when he notes that in the water “many fortresses and castles are reflected as witnesses to the past glories of knighthood and the vanished warlike fame of bygone ages”–these heroic echoes are heard as distant fanfares for the horns. Next, the river smashes its way through the St. John’s Rapids and proceeds grandly out on the plain toward Prague, with the Moldau theme now transformed into E major. The music reaches a climax as the river flows past Vyšehrad, the site of a fortress established in the ninth century and regarded as the birthplace of Prague. Its heroic journey complete, the river flows on, and it is worth quoting Smetana on the ending: “Welcomed by the timehonored fortress, Vyšehrad, it sweeps past the quais and under the bridges of the city, to vanish in the dim distance where the poet’s gaze can no longer follow.”

Concerto in B Minor for Violoncello and Orchestra, Opus 104


Born September 8, 1841, Nelahozeves, Czech Republic Died May 1, 1904, Prague

Approximate Duration: 38 minutes

Dvořák’s Cello Concerto is the greatest ever written for that instrument, and so it comes as a surprise to learn that Dvořák had been reluctant to write a concerto for cello. He had sketched a cello concerto when he was only 24 and had been so dissatisfied that he did not even bother to orchestrate it. He came away from that experience with reservations W W W. L J M S . O R G · 8 5 8 . 4 5 9 . 3 7 2 8



about what he considered the cello’s “limitations”: a somewhat indistinct sound in its lowest register and a thin sound in its highest, as well as the problem of making a lowpitched instrument cut through the weight of a full orchestra. But–encouraged by his cellist friend Hanuš Wihan and by hearing Victor Herbert play his own Second Cello Concerto in New York in 1894–Dvořák wrote this concerto very quickly during his final year in the United States. He began work on November 8, 1894, just after resuming his teaching duties at the National Conservatory of Music in New York, and completed the draft of the score the following February 9, two months before he returned for good to his Czech homeland. Dvořák’s solutions to the problems posed by a cello concerto are ingenious. Rather than scaling back the orchestra to balance it more equitably with the soloist, he instead writes for a huge orchestra, adding three trombones and tuba to the texture, as well as such “exotic” instruments as piccolo and triangle. He then scores the concerto with great imagination, alternating grand gestures that use all his forces with leanlyscored passages in which only a handful of instruments accompany the soloist. The concerto was a triumph at its première in London on March 19, 1896, and it has justly remained the most popular of cello concertos ever since. When Brahms, then only a year from his death, examined the score to Dvořák’s Cello Concerto, he exclaimed: “Why on earth didn’t I know one could write a violoncello concerto like this? If I had only known I would have written one long ago!” The lengthy opening Allegro is in sonata form, and Dvořák follows custom by introducing both main themes before the soloist enters: the quiet opening tune, a dark, march-like figure for clarinets, soon builds up to Grandioso restatement, preparing the way for the glorious second subject, a soaring melody perfectly suited to the solo horn that announces it (Dvořák’s biographer John Clapham reported that the composer always grew emotional when playing over this theme). The solo cello makes an impressive entrance on the opening march theme, and Dvořák exploits fully the lyric and dramatic possibilities of the instrument in this movement. There is, however, no empty brilliance here (the concerto significantly has no cadenza), and the virtuosity of the solo part is central to the music rather than an end in itself. After so much inspired lyricism, the movement drives–surprisingly–to a ringing, heroic close. The Adagio ma non troppo is in ABA form, with woodwinds introducing the gentle opening section in G major before the soloist takes it up. The G-minor central episode quotes from Dvořák’s own song “Leave me alone with my dreams,” originally composed in 1887-88. This song had been a favorite of one of Dvořák’s pupils, Josefina Čermáková Kaunitzova, with whom he had fallen in love while he was a young man. She had not responded to that love, and Dvořák later married her sister. Now, as he was writing this concerto



in New York City, he learned that Josefina was seriously ill with heart disease in Prague and–remembering her fondness for this song–included its wistful melody in this movement. The end of the movement is extended, and Dvořák scores this very carefully, sometimes reducing the orchestra to just a few instruments. Matters rise to a menacing climax in C minor before the music falls away to end peacefully in G major. Over a steady pulse from lower strings, horns announce the main subject of the rondo-finale, which the soloist quickly picks up. This rondo is both lively and lyric, and its episodes are varied. Near the close comes the most remarkable passage in the entire concerto. Shortly after Dvořák returned to Prague in 1895, Josefina died. Stunned, the composer returned from her funeral and rewrote the ending of the concerto, adding a quiet sixty-measure section that recalls the main theme of the first movement and the song-theme from the second movement that Josefina had loved so much. This makes the ending of the concerto particularly moving, and it was crucially important to its creator. When Hanuš Wihan tried to add a cadenza at just this point, Dvořák erupted, writing to his publisher: “The finale concludes gradually, diminuendo– like a faint breath–with reminiscences of the first and second movement–the solo fades away in a pp–then the orchestra surges up and ends in a turbulent tone. This was my idea and I cannot abandon it.” It is an effective ending. Dvořák recalls his sister-in-law one final time as the cello sings this sad melody, its final measures trailing off over quiet timpani accompaniment, and then–with this behind him–he winds the music up and rushes it suddenly to the smashing close.

Symphony No. 8 in G Major, Opus 88 Approximate Duration: 36 minutes

The summer of 1889 was an unusually happy and productive time for Dvořák. At age 48, he found himself a successful composer with a large and devoted family. Earlier that year, his opera The Jacobin had been premièred, and now he took his family to their summer retreat at Vysoka in the countryside south of Prague. There, amid the rolling fields and forests of his homeland, Dvořák could escape the pressures of the concert season, enjoy the company of his wife and children, and indulge one of his favorite pastimes– raising pigeons. Dvořák also composed a great deal that summer. He completed his Piano Quartet in E-flat Major on August 10, writing to a friend that “melodies pour out of me” and lamenting “If only one could write them down straight away! But there–I must go slowly, only keep pace with my hand, and may God give the rest.” A few weeks later, on August 25, he made the first sketches for a new symphony, and once again the melodies poured out of him: he began


the actual composition on September 6, and on the 13th the first movement was done. The second took three days, the third one day, and the entire symphony had been sketched by September 23. The orchestration was completed on November 8, and Dvořák himself led the triumphant première of his Eighth Symphony in Prague on February 2, 1890. From the time Dvořák had sat down before a sheet of blank paper to the completion of the full score, only 75 days had passed. From the moment of the première, audiences have loved this symphony (including one very unusual audience: Dvořák conducted this symphony before 30,000 Czechs on an all-Czech program at the World’s Columbian Exposition in Chicago in 1893). Surprisingly, the Eighth Symphony has come in for a tough time from certain critics, who find much to complain about. One finds the music plain and claims to hear signs of haste in its composition, another criticizes the music’s harmonic sequences, while yet another calls the finale a “not altogether satisfactory design.” All seem baffled by the structure of the movements. Listening to these charges, one might conclude that Dvořák’s Eighth Symphony is a disaster. Actually, this is one of the loveliest pieces of music ever written. It is quite true that Dvořák went his own way in writing this symphony rather than attempting to compose a “correct” symphony, and that may be what bothered those critics; Dvořák’s biographer Otakar Šourek noted that the composer himself felt that in this music he was trying to write “a work different from his other symphonies, with individual thoughts worked out in a new way.” One can love the Eighth Symphony without knowing any of this, but there is a fierce pleasure in watching Dvořák go his own way. We feel this from the first instant. “Symphony in G Major,” says the title page, but the beginning is firmly in the “wrong” key of G minor, and this will be only the first of many harmonic surprises. It is also a gorgeous beginning, with the cellos singing their long wistful melody. But–another surprise: this theme will have little to do with the actual progress of the first movement. We soon arrive at what appears to be the true first subject, a flute theme of an almost pastoral innocence (commentators appear unable to resist describing this theme as “birdlike”), and suddenly we have slipped into G major. There follows a wealth of themes–someone counted six separate ideas in the opening minutes of this symphony. Dvořák develops these across the span of the opening movement, and the cellos’ somber opening melody returns at key moments: quietly to begin the development and then blazed out triumphantly by the trumpets at the stirring climax. The two middle movements are just as free. The Adagio is apparently in C minor, but it begins in E-flat major with dark and halting string phrases; the middle section flows easily on a relaxed woodwind tune in C major in which some have

heard the sound of cimbalon and a village band. A violin solo leads to a surprisingly violent climax before the movement falls away to its quiet close. The Allegretto grazioso opens with a soaring waltz in G minor that dances nimbly along its 3/8 meter; the charming center section also dances in 3/8 time, but its dotted rhythms produce a distinctive lilt here. The movement concludes with some nice surprises: a blistering coda (Molto vivace) whips along a variant of the lilting center section tune, but Dvořák has now transformed its triple meter into a propulsive 2/4. The movement rushes on chattering woodwinds right up to its close, where it concludes suddenly with a hushed string chord. The finale is a variation movement–sort of. It opens with a stinging trumpet fanfare, but this fanfare was an afterthought on Dvořák’s part, added after the rest of the movement was complete. Cellos announce the noble central theme (itself derived from the flute theme of the first movement), and a series of variations follow, including a spirited episode for solo flute. But suddenly the variations vanish: Dvořák throws in an exotic Turkish march full of rhythmic energy, a completely separate episode that rises to a great climax based on the ringing trumpet fanfare from the opening. Gradually things calm down, and the variations resume as if this turbulent storm had never blown through. Near the end comes some lovely writing for strings, and a raucous, joyous coda–itself one final variation of the main theme–propels this symphony to a rousing close. Are the critics’ charges about this symphony true? For the most part, probably yes. Do they matter? No. In this music, Dvořák followed his own instincts–“with individual thoughts worked out in a new way”–and audiences find the Eighth Symphony as lovely and exciting today as they did when it was premièred over a century ago.

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Biographies Steven Cassedy, prelude presenter

Steven Cassedy, Distinguished Professor of Literature and Associate Dean of Graduate Studies at UCSD, is a classically trained pianist who studied at The Juilliard School’s Pre-College Division and at the University of Michigan’s School of Music. He received his undergraduate degree in comparative literature at the University of Michigan in 1974 and his Ph.D. in comparative literature at Princeton University in 1979. He has been a member of UCSD’s Department of Literature since 1980.

James Chute, prelude presenter

James Chute has been an arts journalist for nearly four decades. A Pittsburgh native and a graduate of the University of Cincinnati College-Conservatory of Music (where he earned a Doctor of Musical Arts), he has served as music critic for The Cincinnati Post, The Milwaukee Journal, The Orange County Register and the San Diego Union-Tribune. A Pulitzer Prize finalist in criticism and a winner of an ASCAP-Deems Taylor Award, Penney Missouri Award, Best of the West award and a California Newspaper Publishers award, he has contributed articles to the New Grove Dictionary of Music, New Grove Dictionary of American Music, and other publications.

Michael Gerdes, prelude presenter

Michael Gerdes is the Director of Orchestras at SDSU where he conducts the Symphony, Chamber and Opera orchestras. His performances with the Symphony have been hailed as “highly sensitive and thoughtfully layered” and his conducting has been proclaimed “refined, dynamically nuanced” and “restrained but unmistakably lucid” by the San Diego Story. The Symphony’s Suite Noir premèire received a 2015“Bravo” award. Mr. Gerdes earned his Bachelor of Music as well as a BA in Philosophy from Concordia College and his Master’s in Orchestral Conducting from James Madison University.

Hélène Grimaud, piano

Renaissance woman French Pianist Hélène Grimaud is deeply passionate and committed musical artist whose pianistic accomplishments play a central role in her life and her multiple talents extend far beyond the instrument she plays with such poetic expression and peerless technical control. She has established herself as a committed wildlife conservationist, a compassionate human rights activist and as a writer. Born in 1969 in Aix-en-Provence, she was accepted into the Paris Conservatoire at age 13. In 1987, renowned conductor Daniel Barenboim invited her to perform with the Orchestre de Paris, marking the launch of Ms. Grimaud’s musical career, characterized ever since by concerts with most of the world’s major orchestras and many celebrated conductors. Her recordings have been critically acclaimed and awarded numerous accolades, among them the Cannes Classical Recording of the Year, Choc du Monde de la musique, Diapason d’or, Grand Prix du disque, Record Academy Prize (Tokyo), Midem Classic Award and the Echo Award. She has been an exclusive Deutsche Grammophon artist since 2002, most recently releasing Water in 2016. Hélène Grimaud is undoubtedly a multi-faceted artist. Her deep dedication to her musical career, both in performances and recordings, is reflected and reciprocally amplified by the scope and depth of her environmental and literary pursuits.

Kronos Quartet

For more than 40 years, San Francisco’s Kronos Quartet—David Harrington (violin), John Sherba (violin), Hank Dutt (viola), and Sunny Yang (cello)—has combined a spirit of fearless exploration with a commitment to continually re-imagining the string quartet experience. In the process, Kronos has become one of the world’s most celebrated and influential ensembles, performing thousands of concerts, releasing more than 50 recordings, collaborating with an eclectic mix of composers and performers, and commissioning over 850 works and arrangements for string quartet. A Grammy® winner, Kronos also received the Polar Music Prize and the Avery Fisher Prize. The non-profit Kronos Performing Arts Association (KPAA) manages all aspects of Kronos’ work, including the commissioning of new works, concert tours and home-season performances, education




programs, and its new presenting program KRONOS PRESENTS. In 2015 KPAA launched a new 5-year commissioning and education initiative, Fifty for the Future: The Kronos Learning Repertoire, which will commission 50 new works (5 by women and 5 by men each year) designed to train students and emerging professionals, and be distributed online for free.

Louis Lortie, piano

The highly-esteemed French Canadian pianist Louis Lortie has extended his interpretative voice across a broad range of repertoire rather than choosing to specialize in one particular style. The London Times has identified the artist’s “combination of total spontaneity and meditated ripeness that only great pianists have.” He has recently performed with the Chicago Symphony, the Sydney Symphony, the Royal Philharmonic, Boston Symphony, both Dallas Symphony and Hong Kong Philharmonic with Jaap Van Zweden, the Warsaw Philharmonic, and toured with the Leipzig Gewanhaus, the La Scala Orchestra and Beethoven Orchester Bonn. Having been Master in Residence at Queen Elisabeth Music Chapel of Brussels since October, 2016, Mr. Lortie has been named Artist in Residence of the Shanghai Symphony for the 2017-18 Season, which will involve three different residency periods, plus a tour including performances in Tibet. Mr. Lortie has performed with the world’s leading conductors, including Riccardo Chailly, Charles Dutoit, Neeme Järvi, Sir Andrew Davis, Sir Mark Elder, and Yannick Nézet-Séguin. His play/conducting engagements are with great orchestras worldwide. He has made more than 45 recordings for the Chandos label, covering repertoire from Mozart to Stravinsky. Recent recordings include four volumes of Louis Lortie plays Chopin and Saint-Saëns: Cello Concertos Nos. 1 and 2; The Carnival of the Animals; Africa; Wedding-cake with cellist Truls Mørk, conductor Neeme Järvi and the Bergen Philharmonic Orchestra.

Edgar Moreau, cello

“The rising star of the French cello,” 22-year-old cellist Edgar Moreau consistently captivates audiences with his effortless virtuosity and dynamic performances (Le Figaro Magazine). He won First Prize in the 2014 Young Concert Artists International Auditions after capturing, Second Prize and the Prize for the Best Performance of the Commissioned Work by Krzysztof Penderecki at the 2011 Tchaikovsky Competition. He was awarded six concert prizes at the YCA Auditions and is recipient of the Florence Gould Foundation Fellowship of YCA. In 2013, he was named “New Talent of the Year” at the Victoires de la Musique in France, and in 2015, he was named “Solo Instrumentalist of the Year.” As recipient of the 2015 Arthur Waser Award, he receives a grant and makes his debut with the Lucerne Symphony Orchestra. Mr. Moreau has been selected as one of the European Concert Hall Organization’s 2016-17 Rising Stars, and will embark upon a European tour of more than a dozen major concert halls including Barbican, Concertgebouw and Musikverein. Born in 1994 in Paris, Edgar Moreau began playing the cello at the age of 4 and the piano at 6. He plays a David Tecchler cello, dated 1711. His most recent recording Giovincello was released October 2015 on the Warner Classics label.

Richard O’Neill, viola

Violist Richard O’Neill is an Emmy Award winner, two-time Grammy® nominee and Avery Fisher Career Grant recipient. He has appeared with the London and Los Angeles philharmonics; the BBC and Korean symphonies; and the Moscow and Vienna chamber orchestras. As recitalist he has performed at Carnegie Hall, the Kennedy Center, Wigmore Hall, the Louvre and the Seoul Arts Center. This season he celebrates his tenth anniversary as artistic director of DITTO, which has introduced tens of thousands to chamber music in South Korea and Japan. A Universal/DG recording artist, he has made eight solo albums that have sold more than 150,000 copies. A former member of CMS Two, he was the first violist to receive the artist diploma from Juilliard and was honored with a Proclamation from the New York City Council for his achievement and contribution to the arts. He serves as Goodwill Ambassador for the Korean Red Cross, The Special Olympics, OXFAM and UNICEF and runs marathons for charity.

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Jessica Xylina Osborne, piano

Hailed by The Washington Post as a pianist “with a refreshing mellowness and poetic touch” after her debut with the National Symphony Orchestra, Jessica Xylina Osborne is one of the most intensely expressive and passionate artists of her generation. An avid soloist, collaborator, chamber musician and teacher, Ms. Osborne has collaborated with some of the world’s most distinguished performing musicians and has performed widely in the United States, Europe, and Far East, including performances in such venues as Carnegie Hall, the Kennedy Center and the Seoul Arts Center. She holds degrees in solo piano performance from Indiana University and Rice University, and recently received her doctorate in piano performance from Yale University. Ms. Osborne is Artist Faculty at Third Street Music Settlement in New York City.

Marcus Overton, prelude presenter

In a 50-year career, Marcus Overton has crossed almost every disciplinary boundary, as performer, teacher and coach for singers and actors, opera and theatre stage director, critic for major publications and Emmy Award-winning radio and television producer. His arts management career began at the Lyric Opera of Chicago, continued in senior management at the Ravinia Festival, and included nine years as Senior Manager of Performing Arts at the Smithsonian Institution. Before relocating to San Diego for an unsuccessful attempt at retirement, he held the general manager’s post at Spoleto Festival USA – by invitation of Gian Carlo Menotti.

PKF – Prague Philharmonia

The PKF – Prague Philharmonia was founded in 1994 by conductor Jiří Bělohlávek and has become one of the most respected Czech orchestras in the world. The orchestra specializes in Viennese works by Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven as well as romantic, modern and contemporary music. The orchestra has been headed by the distinguished French conductor Emmanuel Villaume since 2015. The PKF – Prague Philharmonia is a regular guest at international music festivals, frequently performs at prestigious world concert halls and is a regular partner of renowned conductors and soloists including Vladimir Ashkenazy, Milan Turković, Yefim Bronfman, András Schiff, Shlomo Mintz, Sarah Chang, Isabelle Faust, Mischa Maisky, Magdalena Kožená, Anna Netrebko, Natalie Dessay, Rolando Villazón, Plácido Domingo, Elina Garanča, Juan Diego Flórez, Radek Baborák, Thomas Hampson and many others. To date the orchestra has recorded more than 60 CDs for labels including Deutsche Grammophon, Decca,Supraphon, EMI, Warner Music, and Harmonia Mundi. Their albums have received the RAC Canada Gold Disc (2000), the Harmonie Award (2001), and the Diapason d’Or (September 2007). The PKF – Prague Philharmonia has recorded with Anna Netrebko, Magdalena Kožená, Isabelle Faust, Jean-Guihen Queyras, Dagmar Pecková and many others. Their most critically acclaimed album is a 2010 live recording of Smetana’s My Country conducted by Jakub Hrůša.

Emmanuel Villaume, music director & chief conductor

French-born conductor Emmanuel Villaume has led captivating performances with the most prominent opera companies and symphony orchestras around the world. In 2015 Mo. Villaume began his tenure as Music Director and Chief Conductor of the PKF – Prague Philharmonia. Recent projects with the PKF include a Deutsche Grammophon recording with Anna Netrebko, a Warner Classics release with Bryan Hymel, and a New Year’s celebration concert at the Royal Opera House Muscat. Mo.Villaume is now entering his fourth season as Music Director of The Dallas Opera. The Chicago Classical Review praised Mo. Villaume’s conducting of Roméo et Juliette at the Lyric Opera of Chicago, “Villaume is almost without peer in this repertory, and his conducting provides a virtual seminar in how French opera should be performed.” His recent orchestral performances include at New York’s Avery Fisher Hall for the 2014 Richard Tucker Gala, with The Juilliard Orchestra, Los Angeles Philharmonic, Grant Park Music Festival, the White Nights Festival at the Mariinsky Theater in St. Petersburg, Russia, and a European concert tour of Iolanta. He was Artistic Director and Chief Conductor of the National Slovenian Philharmonic and Chief Conductor of the Slovak Philharmonic Orchestra from 2009-2016. As author of noted articles of musicology, Mo. Villaume was appointed Dramaturg of the Opéra National du Rhin in Strasbourg at the age of 21.




Gautier Capuçon, cello

Noted in the San Francisco Chronicle, “It’s the rare performer who can bring such ease and refinement to this music, while still giving everything he plays a sense of dramatic urgency.” Gautier Capuçon is a true 21st century ambassador for the cello. Performing each season with many of the world’s foremost conductors and instrumentalists, he is also founder and leader of the ‘Classe d’Excellence de Violoncelle’ at the Fondation Louis Vuitton in Paris – based in the stunning new Auditorium designed by Frank Gehry. He is acclaimed internationally for his deeply expressive musicianship and exuberant virtuosity, as well as for the glorious sonority of his 1701 Matteo Goffriller cello. Born in Chambéry in 1981, Mr. Capuçon began playing the cello at the age of five. He studied at the Conservatoire National Supérieur in Paris with Philippe Muller and Annie Cochet-Zakine, and later with Heinrich Schiff in Vienna. The winner of various first prizes in many leading international competitions, including the International André Navarra Prize, Mr. Capuçon was named “New Talent of the Year” by Victoires de la Musique in 2001.

Takács Quartet

The Takács Quartet was formed in 1975 at the Franz Liszt Academy. Now entering its 42nd season, the Quartet is renowned for the vitality of its interpretations. The New York Times recently lauded the ensemble for “revealing the familiar as unfamiliar, making the most traditional of works feel radical once more,” and the Financial Times described a recent concert at the Wigmore Hall: “Even in the most fiendish repertoire these players show no fear, injecting the music with a heady sense of freedom. At the same time, though, there is an uncompromising attention to detail: neither a note nor a bow-hair is out of place.” Their many honors include Grammy® nominations and a Grammy® Award, a Gramophone Hall of Fame induction and the Royal Philharmonic Society’s 2011 Award for Chamber Music and Song, and in 2011 each member of the Quartet was awarded the Order of Merit Commander’s Cross by the President of the Republic of Hungary. Appointed in 2012 as the first-ever Associate Artists at Wigmore, they were awarded the Wigmore Hall Medal in May, 2014. Based in Boulder at the University of Colorado, members of the Takács Quartet are Christoffersen Faculty Fellows and play on instruments generously loaned to them by the Shwayder Foundation.

The Ukulele Orchestra of Great Britain®

The Ukulele Orchestra of Great Britain is “sheer fun and outright daffiness tied to first-rate musicality and comic timing,” raves The New York Times. Founded in 1985, the Orchestra’s first gig instantly sold out. The current group has been performing together more than 20 years, delivering standing-room-only concerts around the world, including Germany, Sweden, Finland, Poland, France, Svalbard, United States, Japan and China. The ensemble has played at prestigious venues such as the Sydney Opera House, The Royal Albert Hall and New York’s Carnegie Hall. They also had the honor to perform, by invitation of The Prince of Wales, at the private 90th Birthday party of Her Majesty the Queen at Windsor Castle. The Orchestra is “frighteningly talented and awesome!” proclaims Time Out magazine. The group believes that all genres of music are available for reinterpretation, as long as they are played on the ukulele. Expect anything from Tchaikovsky to Nirvana via Otis Redding, Christmas Carols and Spaghetti Western soundtracks. The group is “virtuosic,” raves Guitar Magazine. The Ukulele Orchestra’s music has been used in films, plays and commercials. The Independent praised, “Impressive solo voices and an absolute mastery of strum, pluck, and twang ensured the sheer joy and beauty of the music was never lost in the comedy. Perfectly polished professionalism.”

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San Diego Youth Symphony and Conservatory

Under the leadership of President and CEO Dalouge Smith and Music Director Jeff Edmons, San Diego Youth Symphony and Conservatory (SDYS) instills excellence in the musical and personal development of students ages 8 to 25 through rigorous and inspiring musical training experiences. Since 1945, SDYS has given thousands of musicians the opportunity to study and perform classical repertoire at a highly advanced level. SDYS serves 600 students annually through its twelve ensembles in the Conservatory Program. Its vision to “Make Music Education Accessible and Affordable to All” has led to restoring and strengthening music education in public schools. The organization’s preeminent ensemble, the SDYS Chamber Orchestra, is comprised of the principal and assistant principal musicians from the advanced Ovation Program. Provided the finest training, the Chamber Orchestra is given the opportunity to perform professional-level repertoire from multiple historic periods for both string orchestra and full chamber orchestra on a national and international stage. In June 2015, select students of the San Diego Youth Symphony participated in SDYS’s 70th Anniversary Tour to China and performed in Beijing’s Forbidden City Concert Hall, San Diego’s sister city Yantai’s Concert Hall and the Oriental Arts Center in Shanghai.

Jeff Edmons, music director & conductor

Jeff Edmons is now in his 21st year with the San Diego Youth Symphony and Conservatory. Under his direction, SDYS has experienced tremendous growth, both in enrollment and in its level of musical achievement. Mr. Edmons has been featured in articles and journals honoring his work and has been the subject of documentaries on CNN, Fox Television, National Public Radio, and more. Mr. Edmons has led youth, collegiate, and professional orchestras in critically acclaimed performances throughout the U.S. as well as abroad, from Mexico to Switzerland and beyond. He is frequently invited to judge and guest conduct local and regional orchestras and bands and has received numerous local and national invitations and awards for his achievements in music education. His mentors and teachers include Esa-Pekka Salonen, Michael Davis, Dr. Robert Gillespie and Craig Kirchoff.

PHOTO CREDITS: Cover: Kronos Quartet © Jay Blakesberg; Pg. 11 & 40: H. Grimaud by © Mat Hennek/DG; Pg. 16: SDYS by Matthew Fernie; Pg. 20: Takács Quartet by Patrick Ryan; Pg. 23 & 43: The Ukulele Orchestra of Great Britain courtesy of artist; Pg. 24: L. Lortie © Plushmusic; Pg. 28 & 40 Kronos Quartet by Jay Blakesberg; Pg. 33 & 41: E. Moreau by Matt Dine; Pg. 36 & 42: PKF – Prague Philharmonia courtesy of artist; Pg. 40: S. Cassedy courtesy of presenter; J. Chute courtesy of presenter; M. Gerdes courtesy of presenter; Pg. 41: L. Lortie courtesy of artist; R. O’Neill courtesy of artist; Pg. 42: J. Osborne courtesy of artist; M. Overton courtesy of presenter; E. Villaume courtesy of artist. Pg. 43: G. Capuçon © Michael Tammaro/Virgin Classics; Takács Quartet by Peter Smith; Pg. 44: J. Edmons courtesy of artist; Back Cover: Takács Quartet © Richard Houghton.



Season Partners La Jolla Music Society’s Season is supported by The City of San Diego Commission for Arts and Culture, County of San Diego Community Enhancement Program, the National Endowment for the Arts, ResMed Foundation, The Tippet Foundation, The Lodge at Torrey Pines, The Westgate Hotel, Conrad Prebys and Debra Turner, Brenda Baker and Stephen Baum, The Beyster Family, Joan and Irwin Jacobs, Joy Frieman, Brian and Silvija Devine, Gordon Brodfuehrer, Lehn and Richard Goetz, John and Kay Hesselink, Keith and Helen Kim, Maria and Philippe Prokocimer, Jeanette Stevens, Joyce and Ted Strauss, Sue and Peter Wagener.

Media Partners ®

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Annual Support La Jolla Music Society’s high quality presentations, artistic excellence, and extensive education and community engagement programs are made possible in large part by the support of the community. There are many ways for you to play a crucial role in La Jolla Music Society’s future — from education or concert sponsorships, general program gifts, or planned giving. For information on how you can help bring world-class performances and educational opportunities to San Diego, please contact Ferdinand Gasang, Development Director, at 858.459.3724, ext. 204 or


($250,000 and above)


($100,000 - $249,999)

Brenda Baker & Stephen Baum Conrad Prebys & Debra Turner The City of San Diego Commission for Arts and Culture Joy Frieman Joan & Irwin Jacobs Raffaella & John Belanich


Silvija & Brian Devine Steven & Sylvia Ré


Anonymous Mary Ann Beyster Gordon Brodfuehrer Katherine & Dane Chapin Linda Chester & Ken Rind Dave & Elaine Darwin Kay & John Hesselink

($50,000 - $99,999)

($25,000 - $49,999)

Susan & Bill Hoehn Peter & Peggy Preuss Marge & Neal Schmale Jeanette Stevens Joe Tsai & Clara Wu Twin Dragon Foundation

WORLD-CLASS PERFORMANCES La Jolla Music Society cultivates and inspires the performing arts scene in San Diego throughout the year with presentations of world-class musicians, jazz ensembles, orchestras and dance companies.







Anonymous Dr. James C. & Karen A. Brailean Wendy Brody Martha & Ed Dennis Barbara & Dick Enberg Jennifer & Kurt Eve Sue & Chris Fan Lehn & Richard Goetz Brenda & Michael Goldbaum Theresa Jarvis & Ric Erdman William Karatz & Joan Smith Keith & Helen Kim National Endowment for the Arts Robin & Hank Nordhoff Rafael & Marina Pastor Clifford Schireson & John Venekamp Gary & Jean Shekhter Maureen & Thomas Shiftan June & Dr. Bob Shillman Vail Memorial Fund

Anonymous (2) Judith Bachner & Dr. Eric L. Lasley Norman Blachford & Peter Cooper Johan & Sevil Brahme Jian & Samson Chan Karen & Don Cohn Ellise & Michael Coit Anne & Robert Conn Julie & Bert Cornelison Nina & Robert Doede Jeane Erley Jill Esterbrooks & James Kirkpatrick Robbins Peter & Olivia Farrell Elaine Galinson & Herbert Solomon Jeff Glazer & Lisa Braun-Glazer Michael Grossman & Margaret Stevens Grossman Angelina & Fredrick Kleinbub Helene Kruger Carol Lazier & James A. Merritt Richard J. Leung, M.D. Michel Mathieu & Richard MacDonald Leanne Hull MacDougall Marilyn & Stephen Miles Morgan & Elizabeth Oliver Betty-Jo Petersen Catherine & Jean Rivier Sandra & Robert Rosenthal Ivor Royston & Colette Carson Royston Leigh P. Ryan Sheryl & Bob Scarano Susan Shirk & Samuel Popkin Joyce & Ted Strauss Elizabeth Taft Karen & Stuart Tanz Gianangelo Vergani Ronald Wakefield Margie & John H. Warner, Jr. Sheryl & Harvey White Carolyn Yorston-Wellcome & H. Barden Wellcome Marvin & Bebe Zigman

Anonymous Jim Beyster Josephine & Bjorn Bjerede Robert & Ginny Black Joye Blount & Jessie Knight, Jr. Stuart & Isabel Brown R. Nelson & Janice Byrne Trevor Callan, Callan Capital Carol & James Carlisle Marsha & Bill Chandler Leonard & Susan Comden Jeanette & Dr. Harold Coons Gigi Fenley Elliot & Diane Feuerstein Deborah & Ron Greenspan Bryna Haber Judith Harris & Robert Singer, M.D. Jeanne Jones & Don Breitenberg David & Susan Kabakoff Arleen & Robert Lettas Kathleen & Ken Lundren Mary Keough Lyman Sue & John Major Jack & Una McGrory Diane McKernan & Steve Lyman Gail & Ed Miller Howard & Sally Oxley Patty & Murray Rome Annie So Leland & Annemarie Sprinkle Jo & Howard Weiner Faye Wilson Su-Mei Yu Ellen & Tim Zinn

($15,000 - $24,999)


($10,000 - $14,999)

Anonymous Joan Jordan Bernstein Betty Beyster Ric & Barbara Charlton County of San Diego / Community Enhancement Program Brian Douglass, digital OutPost Alexa Kirkwood Hirsch Sharon & Joel Labovitz Carol Lam & Mark Burnett Vivian Lim & Joseph Wong Ethna Sinisi Piazza Maria & Dr. Philippe Prokocimer Don & Stacy Rosenberg Iris & Matthew Strauss Haeyoung Kong Tang Sue & Peter Wagener Abby & Ray Weiss Dolly & Victor Woo

($5,000 - $9,999)

($2,500 - $4,999)


($1,000 - $2,499)

Carolyn Bertussi Teresa O. Campbell Peter Chen June Chocheles Drs. Anthony F. Chong & Annette Thu Nguyen Victor & Ellen Cohn The Rev. Eleanor Ellsworth Drs. Edward & Ruth Evans Nomi Feldman Richard & Beverley Fink Karen S. Fox Paul & Barbara Hirshman Lulu Hsu W W W. L J M S . O R G ¡ 8 5 8 . 4 5 9 . 3 7 2 8



Elisa & Rick Jaime Daphne & James Jameson Katherine Killgore Kristin & Thierry Lancino Theodora Lewis Debbie & Jimmy Lin Sylvia & Jamie Liwerant Maggie & Paul Meyer Bill Miller & Ida Houby Dr. Sandra Miner Anne Otterson Ann & Ken Poovey Jill Q. Porter Allison & Robert Price William Purves & Don Schmidt Dr. Jane Reldan Marilies Schoepflin Doreen & Myron Schonbrun Jay & Minna Shah Barbara & Lawrence Sherman Tina Simner Richard & Susan Ulevitch Mary Walshok Nell Waltz Judith White Karin Winner Joseph Witztum & Mary Elinger Witztum Toby Wolf Katrina Wu Anna & Edward Yeung Hanna Zahran, Regents Bank


($500 - $999)

Anonymous Barry & Emily Berkov Malin Burnham Luc Cayet & Anne Marie Pleska Jean & Robert Chan Peter B. Clark Sharon Cohen Douglas P. & Robin Douchette Paul & Clare Friedman Sally Fuller Carrie & Jim Greenstein Linda & Edward Janon Saundra L. Jones Louis Kasch Sally Maizel Winona Matthews Ted McKinney Robert Nelson & Jean Fujisaki



Sandra Redman & Jeff Mueller Pat Shank Miriam Summ Susan & Jonathan Tiefenbrun Susan Trompeter Yvonne Vaucher Suhaila White Olivia & Marty Winkler

ENTHUSIAST ($250 - $499)

Lynell Antrim Fiona & Scott Bechtler-Levin Steven & Patricia Blostin Benjamin Brand Stefana Brintzenhoff Patrick Chapman, Accurate Printing and Mailing Kathleen Charla Elizabeth Clarquist Geoffrey Clow Dr. Ruth Covell Carol DeMar Marina & Igor Fomenkov Drs. Lawrence & Carol Gartner Lynn Gordon Nancy Jones Nan & Buzz Kaufman Gladys & Bert Kohn Robert & Elena Kucinski Arlene LaPlante The Hon. M. Margaret McKeown & Dr. Peter Cowhey Robert Merryman Alan Nahum & Victoria Danzig Joani Nelson Aghdas Pezeshki Becki Robbins Peter & Arlene Sacks Jonathan Scheff William Smith Joan Snider Kathryn Starr Edward Stickgold & Steven Cande Norma Jo Thomas Eleanor L. tum Suden Laurette Verbinski Terry & Peter Yang Josephine Zolin

COMMUNITY MUSIC CENTER Beginning in 1999, La Jolla Music Society has operated the Community Music Center, a free afterschool music education program in Logan Heights, San Diego. Each year, the program provides instruments and valuable instruction to over one hundred students.


FOUNDATIONS The Atkinson Family Foundation Ayco Charitable Foundation: The AAM & JSS Charitable Fund The Vicki & Carl Zeiger Charitable Foundation Bettendorf, WE Foundation: Sally Fuller The Blachford-Cooper Foundation The Catalyst Foundation: The Hon. Diana Lady Dougan The Clark Family Trust Enberg Family Charitable Foundation The Epstein Family Foundation: Phyllis Epstein The Fidelity Charitable Gift Fund: Drs. Edward & Martha Dennis Fund Sue & Chris Fan Don & Stacy Rosenberg Shillman Charitable Trust Richard and Beverly Fink Family Foundation Inspiration Fund at the San Diego Foundation: Frank & Victoria Hobbs The Jewish Community Foundation: Diane & Elliot Feuerstein Fund Foster Family Foundation Galinson Family Fund Lawrence & Bryna Haber Fund Joan & Irwin Jacobs Fund David & Susan Kabakoff Fund Warren & Karen Kessler Fund Liwerant Family Fund Theodora F. Lewis Fund Jaime & Sylvia Liwerant Fund The Allison & Robert Price Family Foundation Fund Gary & Jean Shekhter Fund John & Cathy Weil Fund

Sharon & Joel Labovitz Foundation The Stephen Warren Miles and Marilyn Miles Foundation The New York Community Trust: Barbara & William Karatz Fund Qualcomm Foundation Rancho Santa Fe Foundation: The Fenley Family Donor-Advised Fund The Susan & John Major Donor-Advised Fund The Oliphant Donor-Advised Fund ResMed Foundation The San Diego Foundation: The M.A. Beyster Fund II The Karen A. & James C. Brailean Fund The Valerie & Harry Cooper Fund The Hom Family Fund The Ivor & Colette Carson Royston Fund The Scarano Family Fund The Shiftan Family Fund Schwab Fund for Charitable Giving: Alexa Kirkwood Hirsch Fund Ted McKinney & Frank Palmerino Fund The Shillman Foundation Silicon Valley Community Foundation: The William R. & Wendyce H. Brody Fund Simner Foundation The Haeyoung Kong Tang Foundation The John M. and Sally B. Thornton Foundation The John H. Warner Jr. and Helga M. Warner Foundation Vail Memorial Fund Thomas and Nell Waltz Family Foundation Sheryl and Harvey White Foundation

SERVING OUR COMMUNITY In the 2015-16 season, La Jolla Music Society was able to reach over 11,500 students and community members. We worked with students from over 60 different schools and universities, providing concert tickets, performance demonstrations, and master classes. Thanks to the generous support of our patrons and donors, all of our outreach activities are free to the people we serve.

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HONORARIA & MEMORIAL GIFTS In Honor of Linda Chester and Ken Rind: Michael Stotsky In Honor of Silvija Devine’s Birthday: Elaine & Dave Darwin Martha & Ed Dennis In Memory of Lois Kohn: Ingrid Paymar In Honor of Helene Kruger: Anonymous (2) Marilyn Colby Brian & Silvija Devine Ferdinand Gasang Benjamin Guercio Bryna Haber Ruth Herzog Sharon & Joel Labovitz Patricia Manners Paul & Maggie Meyer Betty Jo Petersen Don & Stacy Rosenberg Pat Winter In Honor of Carol Lam: QUALCOMM Incorporated In Memory of Conrad Prebys: Brenda Baker & Steve Baum Chris Benavides Allison Boles Karen & Jim Brailean Gordon Brodfuehrer Wendy Brody Katherine & Dane Chapin Linda Chester & Kenneth Rind Martha & Ed Dennis Vanessa Dinning Barbara & Dick Enberg Leighann Enos Jennifer & Kurt Eve Matthew Fernie Juliana Gaona Ferdinand Gasang Susan & Bill Hoehn Hilary Huffman Kristin Lancino Anthony LeCourt Debbie & Jimmy Lin Cari McGowan Robin & Hank Nordhoff Debra Palmer Marina & Rafael Pastor Ethna Sinisi Piazza Peggy & Peter Preuss Sylvia & Stephen Ré



Jordanna Rose Leah Z. Rosenthal Leigh P. Ryan Kristen Sakamoto Clifford Schireson & John Venekamp Marge & Neal Schmale Maureen &Tom Shiftan June & Dr. Bob Shillman Rewa Colette Soltan Jeanette Stevens Travis Wininger In Memory of Carleton and Andree Vail: Vail Memorial Fund

MATCHING GIFTS Bank of America IBM, International Merck QUALCOMM, Inc. Sempra Energy

SUPPORT To learn more about supporting La Jolla Music Society’s artistic and education programs or to make an amendment to your listing please contact Katelyn Woodside at 858.459.3724, ext. 216 or This list is current as of October 15, 2016. Amendments will be reflected in the next program book in February 2017.

DANCE SERIES OUTREACH La Jolla Music Society hosts dance master classes and open rehearsals throughout the winter season. Participating companies have included, MOMIX, Joffrey Ballet, New York City Ballet MOVES, and many more.

Medallion Society In 1999, the Board of Directors officially established the Medallion Society to begin to provide long-term financial stability for La Jolla Music Society. We are honored to have this special group of friends who have made a multi-year commitment of at least three years to La Jolla Music Society, ensuring that the artistic quality and vision we bring to the community continues to grow.



Brenda Baker and Steve Baum Conrad Prebys and Debbie Turner

Anonymous Joan Jordan Bernstein Mary Ann Beyster Dr. James C. and Karen A. Brailean Dave and Elaine Darwin Barbara and Dick Enberg Jeane Erley Dr. Lisa Braun-Glazer & Dr. Jeff Glazer Margaret and Michael Grossman Alexa Kirkwood Hirsch Theresa Jarvis Angelina and Fred Kleinbub Joseph Wong and Vivian Lim Michel Mathieu and Richard McDonald Rafael and Marina Pastor Don and Stacy Rosenberg Leigh P. Ryan Neal and Marge Schmale Jeanette Stevens Elizabeth Taft Gianangelo Vergani Dolly and Victor Woo Carolyn Yorston-Wellcome and H. Bard Wellcome Bebe and Marvin Zigman

DIAMOND Raffaella and John Belanich Joy Frieman Joan and Irwin Jacobs

RUBY Silvija and Brian Devine

GARNET Peggy and Peter Preuss

SAPPHIRE Kay and John Hesselink Keith and Helen Kim Sharon and Joel Labovitz Maria and Dr. Philippe Prokocimer

Listing as of October 15, 2016.

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Dance Society La Jolla Music Society has quickly become the largest presenter of major American and great international dance companies in San Diego. In order for LJMS to be able to fulfill San Diego’s clear desire for dance and ballet performances by the very best artists around the world, the Dance Society was created. We are grateful to the following friends for their passion and support of our dance programs.




Katherine and Dane Chapin Ellise and Michael Coit June and Dr. Bob Shillman Jeanette Stevens

Carolyn Bertussi Teresa O. Campbell

Stefana Brintzenhoff Joani Nelson Elyssa Dru Rosenberg Elizabeth Taft

DEMI POINTE Saundra L. Jones Susan Trompeter

PIROUETTE Elaine Galinson and Herbert Solomon Annie So Marvin and Bebe Zigman

WinterFest Gala Saturday, March 18, 2017 June Shillman, Gala Chair

Beauty and the


Malandain Ballet Biarritz For more information or reservations, please contact Rewa Colette Soltan at 858.459.3724, ext. 206 or



Listing as of October 15, 2016.

Business Society Members of our Business Society are committed to the LJMS community. For information on how your business can help bring world-class performances to San Diego, please contact Rewa Colette Soltan at 858.459.3724, ext. 206 or


The Lodge at Torrey Pines


The Westgate Hotel


ACE Parking Management, Inc. digital OutPost La Jolla Sports Club The LOT NINE-TEN Restaurant Paul Hastings LLP Procopio, Cory, Hargreaves & Savitch LLP The Violin Shop Whisknladle Hospitality



Giuseppe Restaurants & Fine Catering La Jolla Beach and Tennis Club La Valencia Hotel Chef Drew Catering, Panache Productions Paul Body Photography Sammy’s Woodfire Pizza & Catering

Athen’s Market Taverna Jimbo’s…Naturally! Romero Bow Shop Sprinkles Cupcakes


Nelson Real Estate


Listing as of October 15, 2016.

Bloomers Flowers Callan Capital Gelson’s Market Girard Gourmet Monarch Cottages Sharp HealthCare UC San Diego Healthcare

Legacy Society The Legacy Society recognizes those generous individuals who have chosen to provide for La Jolla Music Society’s future. Members have remembered La Jolla Music Society in their estate plans in many ways – through their wills, retirement gifts, life income plans and many other creative planned giving arrangements. We thank them for their vision and hope you will join this very special group of friends. Anonymous (2) June L. Bengston* Joan Jordan Bernstein Bjorn and Josephine Bjerede Dr. James C. and Karen A. Brailean Gordon Brodfuehrer Barbara Buskin Trevor Callan Anne and Robert Conn George and Cari Damoose Elaine and Dave Darwin Teresa & Merle Fischlowitz Ted and Ingrid Friedmann Joy and Ed* Frieman Sally Fuller

Maxwell H. and Muriel S. Gluck* Dr. Trude Hollander Eric Lasley Theodora Lewis Joani Nelson Maria and Dr. Philippe Prokocimer Bill Purves Darren and Bree Reinig Jay W. Richen Leigh P. Ryan Jack* and Joan Salb Johanna Schiavoni Patricia C. Shank Drs. Joseph and Gloria Shurman Jeanette Stevens

Elizabeth and Joseph* Taft Norma Jo Thomas Dr. Yvonne E. Vaucher Lucy and Ruprecht von Buttlar Ronald Wakefield John B. and Cathy Weil Carolyn Yorston-Wellcome and H. Barden Wellcome Karl and Joan Zeisler Josephine Zolin

*In Memoriam Listing as of October 15, 2016.

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sharp applauds

La JoLLa Music society for its efforts to enrich the cultural life of san diego.

CORP580A ©2014 SHC

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Enjoy a new dining experience complete with an expanded outdoor patio and lounge, custom-built wood-burning rotisserie, and re-imagined menu from Executive Chef Jeff Jackson. | 858.777.6635 11480 North Torrey Pines Road | La Jolla, California 92037

THE LOT La Jolla

TH E LOT is San Diego’s luxury cinema and dining destination. A high energy social hub for craft coffee, artisan pastries, elevated cuisine, premium spirits and sophisticated wines. THE LOT La Jolla, 7611 Fay Avenue, La Jolla, CA 92037 THE LOT Liberty Station, 2620 Truxtun Road, San Diego, CA 92106



THE LOT Liberty Station

SEASON 48 | 2016-17 December HÉLÈNE GRIMAUD

Thursday, December 1, 2016 · 8 PM Piano Series

MCASD Sherwood Auditorium


THE UKULELE ORCHESTRA KRONOS QUARTET OF GREAT BRITAIN “HOLIDAY SHOW” Friday, January 20, 2017 · 8 PM Friday, December 16, 2016 · 8 PM Special Event

MCASD Sherwood Auditorium


Revelle Chamber Music Series MCASD Sherwood Auditorium


Sunday, January 22, 2017 · 3 PM

Jeff Edmons, music director & conductor Saturday, December 17, 2016 · 8 PM Richard O’Neill, viola Special Event

Discovery Series

San Diego Youth Symphony Series

Emmanuel Villaume, music director Gautier Capuçon, cello

Friday, December 2, 2016 · 8 PM MCASD Sherwood Auditorium


Friday, December 9, 2016 · 8 PM Revelle Chamber Music Series


Saturday, January 14, 2017 · 8 PM


Wednesday, January 25, 2017 · 8 PM Orchestra Series

Jacobs Music Center-Copley Symphony Hall

Piano Series

MCASD Sherwood Auditorium


MCASD Sherwood Auditorium

MCASD Sherwood Auditorium

The Auditorium at TSRI


La Jolla Music Society Season 48, Program Book, Volume 2