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Alfabeto siríaco El alfabeto siríaco es un sistema

Alfabeto siríaco

de escritura utilizado principalmente para escribir el idioma siríaco del [1]

siglo I d.

Es una de las abjads

semíticas que descienden del alfabeto arameo

a

Palmyrene

través [2]

,

del y

alfabeto comparte

similitudes con las escrituras fenicias

Estrangela estilo alfabeto

, hebreas , árabes y las tradicionales mongolas .

Tipo

impura blanca

Syriac se escribe de derecha a

Idiomas

Arameo ( Clásica siríaco , Western Neo-Arameo , Neoarameo asirio , caldeo NeoArameo , Turoyo , cristiana palestina arameo ), Árabe ( Garshuni ), malayalam ( Suriyani malayalam )

Periodo de tiempo

do. 200 aC - presente

izquierda en líneas horizontales. Es un script cursivo , pero no todas las letras se conectan dentro de una palabra.

Los

espacios

separan

palabras individuales. Las 22 letras son consonantes, pero

Sistemas Jeroglíficos egipcios parentales Escritura proto-sinaítica

hay marcas diacríticas opcionales para

indicar

vocales

características.

Además

y

Alfabeto fenicio

otras

de

los

Alfabeto arameo

sonidos del idioma, las letras del

Alfabeto siríaco

alfabeto siríaco se pueden usar para representar números en un sistema similar a los números hebreos y

Sistemas infantiles

griegos .

Sogdian

→ Antiguo alfabeto turca

Cuando el árabe comenzó a ser el

→ Antiguo alfabeto húngaro → Antiguo alfabeto uigur

idioma hablado predominante en la Media Luna Fértil , los textos a menudo se escribían en árabe con la escritura

siríaca

ya

que

→ Escritura de Mongolia

el

→ Alfabeto maniqueo

conocimiento del alfabeto árabe aún no estaba muy extendido. Malayalam

Alfabeto nabateo

también se escribió con escritura siríaca

y

se

llamó

Suriyani

Malayalam

.

Tales

escritos

→ alfabeto árabe → alfabeto N'Ko

generalmente se llaman Karshuni o Garshuni (

). Garshuni a

menudo es usado hoy por hablantes neoaramaicos para la comunicación

Dirección

De derecha a izquierda

ISO 15924

Syrc, 135

escrita, como cartas y volantes.

Syre, 138

(Variante'Esṭrangēlā)

Syrj, 137

(Variante occidental)

Syrn, 136

(Variante del Este)

Sumario

Unicode alias

Siríaco

formas del alfabeto Clásica 'Estrangela East Syriac Maḏnḥāyā Vocales

Rango Unicode

U + 0700-U + 074F (http://www.unicode.org/charts/PDF/U0700.pdf) siríaco

West Syriac Serṭā Vocales Tabla de resumen formas contextuales de letras Ligaduras alteraciones de letras

U + 0860-U + 086F (http://www.unicode.org/charts/PDF/U0860.pdf) Syriac Supplement


Las madres de la lectura Majlisyane Rūkkāḵā y qūššāyā Mismo Unicode Bloques Tabla de códigos HTML 'ALAP pero Vocales y personajes únicos alfabeto latino y romanización Ver también notas a piepágina referencias enlaces externos

Forms of alphabet There are three major variants of the Syriac alphabet: ʾEsṭrangēlā, Maḏnḥāyā, and Serṭā.

Classical ʾEsṭrangēlā The oldest and classical form of the alphabet is ʾEsṭrangēlā (

‫ ;ܐ‬the name is

thought to derive from the Greek adjective στρογγύλη [strongylē, 'rounded'],[3] though it has also been suggested to derive from

‫ܐܘ‬

[serṭā ʾewwangēlāyā, 'gospel

character'][4]). Although ʾEsṭrangēlā is no longer used as the main script for writing Syriac, it has received some revival since the 10th century. It is often used in scholarly publications (such as the Leiden University version of the Peshitta), in titles, and in inscriptions. In some older manuscripts and inscriptions, it is possible for any letter to join to the left, and older Aramaic letter forms (especially of Ḥeth and the lunate Mem) are found. Vowel marks are usually not used with ʾEsṭrangēlā.

11th century book in Syriac Serṭā.

East Syriac Maḏnḥāyā ܿ ܵ ܵ names for the script include Swāḏāyā (f€ܵ ‫ ݂ܕ‬u, 'conversational', often translated as 'contemporary', ܵ ܵ reflecting its use in writing modern Neo-Aramaic), ʾĀṯūrāyā (f€ܵ ‫ܐ ݂ܬ ܼܘܪ‬, 'Assyrian', not to be confused with ܵ ܿ the traditional name for the Hebrew alphabet), Kaldāyā (f€ܵ rˆ„ܼ , 'Chaldean'), and, inaccurately, ܵ r݂ Šܼ , 'Eastern') form of the alphabet. Other The East Syriac dialect is usually written in the Maḏnḥāyā (fܵ x

Yəšūʿ or ʾĪšōʿ, the Syriac name of Jesus.

"Nestorian" (a term that was originally used to refer to the Church of the East in the Sasanian Empire). The Eastern script resembles ʾEsṭrangēlā somewhat more closely than the Western script.

Vowels The Eastern script uses a system of dots above or below letters, based on an older system, to indicate vowel sounds not found in the script:

ܵ

A dot above and a dot below a letter represent [a], transliterated as a or ă (called fwܵ §™ ݂ , Pṯāḥā),

ܵ ܵ ܿ ܵ ܵ ܵ ܵ ݂ , Rḇāṣā ʾărīḵā or f¡ܵ ¥™ Two horizontally-placed dots below a letter represent [ɛ], transliterated as e or ĕ (called f…݂ €‫ܪ‬ ܼ f‹‡‫ܙ‬, Zlāmā pšīqā; ܼ ‫ ܼܐ‬gŸܵ i‫ܪ‬ Two diagonally-placed dots above a letter represent [ɑ], transliterated as ā or â or å (called fš݂ ‫ܙ‬, Zqāp̄ā), often pronounced [ɪ] and transliterated as i in the East Syriac dialect),

ܿ gŸܵ i‫ܪ‬ ܵ ݂ , Rḇāṣā karyā or f¥ ܵ ܼ ܿ f‹ܵ ‡‫ ܵܙ‬, Zlāmā qašyā), ܿ ܵ , ʿṢāṣā ʾălīṣā or gŸܵ i‫ܪ‬ ܵ ݂ , Rḇāṣā), The letter Waw with a dot below it represents [u], transliterated as ū or u (called gŸܵ ‡ ܼ ‫ ܼܐ‬g‫–Ÿ ܵܨ‬ ܵ , Rwāḥā), ܵ ܵ ܵ , ʿṢāṣā rwīḥā or fw‫ܪܘ‬ The letter Waw with a dot above it represents [o], transliterated as ō or o (called fx€‫ܪܘ‬ ܼ g‫–Ÿ ܵܨ‬ ܵ ݂ , Ḥḇāṣā), The letter Yōḏ with a dot beneath it represents [i], transliterated as ī or i (called gŸܵ jw ܵ „ܼ Two diagonally-placed dots below a letter represent [e], transliterated as ē (called f€£

A combination of Rḇāṣā karyā (usually) followed by a letter Yōḏ represents [e] (possibly *[e̝] in Proto-Syriac), transliterated as ē or ê (called f¡ܵ ܵ ‫ ܼܿܐ‬, ʾĂsāqā). It is thought that the Eastern method for representing vowels influenced the development of the niqqud markings used for writing Hebrew. In addition to the above vowel marks, transliteration of Syriac sometimes includes ə, e̊ or superscript

e

(or often nothing at all) to represent an

original Aramaic schwa that became lost later on at some point in the development of Syriac. Some transliteration schemes find its inclusion necessary for showing spirantization or for historical reasons. Whether because its distribution is mostly predictable (usually inside a syllable-


initial two-consonant cluster) or because its pronunciation was lost, both the East and the West variants of the alphabet have no sign to represent the schwa.

West Syriac Serṭā ܳ ܶ , ܳ 'line') form of the alphabet, also known as the Pšīṭā ( ܺ , The West Syriac dialect is usually written in the Serṭā (

'simple'), 'Maronite', or the 'Jacobite' script (although the term Jacobite is considered derogatory). Most of the letters are clearly derived from ʾEsṭrangēlā, but are simplified, flowing lines. A cursive chancery hand is evidenced in the earliest Syriac manuscripts, but important works were written in ʾEsṭrangēlā. From the 8th century, the simpler Serṭā style came into fashion,

The opening words of the Gospel of John written in Serṭā, Maḏnḥāyā and ʾEsṭrangēlā (top to bottom) — brēšiṯ iṯaw[hy]-[h]wā melṯā, 'in the beginning was the word'.

perhaps because of its more economical use of parchment. The Nabataean alphabet, which gave rise to the Arabic alphabet, was based on this form of Syriac handwriting.

Vowels The Western script is usually vowel-pointed, with miniature Greek vowel letters above or below the letter which they follow:

ܳ ܳ ݂ , Pṯāḥā), ܳ Lowercase Alpha (α) represents [ɑ], transliterated as ā or â or å ( ݂ ܳ ‫ܙ‬, Zqāp̄ā; pronounced as [o] and transliterated as o in the West Syriac Capital Alpha (Α) represents [a], transliterated as a or ă ( dialect),

Lowercase Epsilon (ε) represents both [ɛ], transliterated as e or ĕ, and [e], transliterated as ē ( ܳ Capital Eta (H) represents [i], transliterated as ī ( ܳ ܳ ݂ , Ḥḇāṣā),

ܳ ݂ ‫ܪ‬, Rḇāṣā),

A combined symbol of capital Upsilon (Υ) and lowercase Omicron (ο) represents [u], transliterated as ū or u ( ‫ ܳ ܳܨ‬, ʿṢāṣā),

ّ , 'O!'). Lowercase Omega (ω), used only in the vocative interjection ʾō (‫ܐܘ‬

Summary table The Syriac alphabet consists of the following letters, shown in their isolated (non-connected) forms. When isolated, the letters Kāp̄ , Mīm, and Nūn are usually shown with their initial form connected to their final form (see below). The letters ʾĀlap̄ , Dālaṯ, Hē, Waw, Zayn, Ṣāḏē, Rēš, and Taw (and, in early ʾEsṭrangēlā manuscripts, the letter Semkaṯ[5]) do not connect to a following letter within a word. These are marked with an asterisk (*).


Letter

Name

ʾEsṭrangēlā

Phoenician Equivalent

Imperial Aramaic Equivalent

Hebrew Equivalent

IPA

ʾĀlep̄ or ʾĀlap̄* ( ‫)ܐ‬

ʾ or nothing mater lectionis: ā

[ʔ] or silent mater lectionis: [ɑ]

1

‫א‬

Bēṯ (

hard: b soft: ḇ (also bh, v, β)

hard: [b] soft: [v] or [w]

2

‫ב‬

Gāmal ( )

hard: g soft: ḡ (also g̱, gh, ġ, γ)

hard: [ɡ] soft: [ɣ]

3

‫ג‬

Dālaṯ* ( ‫)ܕ‬

hard: d soft: ḏ (also dh, ð, δ)

hard: [d] soft: [ð]

4

‫ד‬

Hē* ( ‫)ܗ‬

h

[h]

5

‫ה‬

Waw* (‫)ܘܘ‬

consonant: w mater lectionis: ū or ō (also u or o)

consonant: [w] mater lectionis: [u] or [o]

6

‫ו‬

Zayn* ( ‫)ܙ‬

z

[z]

7

‫ז‬

Ḥēṯ (

)

[ħ], [x], or [χ]

8

‫ח‬

Ṭēṯ (

)

[tˤ]

9

‫ט‬

Yōḏ (‫) ܕ‬

consonant: y mater lectionis: ī (also i)

consonant: [j] mater lectionis: [i] or [e]

10

‫י‬

Kāp̄ (

hard: k soft: ḵ (also kh, x)

hard: [k] soft: [x]

20

‫כך‬

l

[l]

30

‫ל‬

)

m

[m]

40

‫מם‬

Nūn (‫) ܢ‬

n

[n]

50

‫נן‬

Semkaṯ ( )

s

[s]

60

‫ס‬

ʿĒ (

)

ʿ

[ʕ]1

70

‫ע‬

Pē (

)

hard: p soft: p̄ (also p̱, ᵽ, ph, f)

hard: [p] soft: [f]

80

‫פף‬

Ṣāḏē* ( ‫)ܨܕ‬

[sˤ]

90

‫צץ‬

Qōp̄ (‫) ܦ‬

q

[q]

100

‫ק‬

Rēš* ( ‫)ܪ‬

r

[r]

200

‫ר‬

š (also sh)

[ʃ]

300

‫ש‬

hard: t soft: ṯ (also th, θ)

hard: [t] soft: [θ]

400

‫ת‬

)

Serṭā

Numerical Value

Transliteration

)

Maḏnḥāyā

Sound Value

Lāmaḏ ( ) Mīm (

Šīn (

)

Taw* (‫)ܬܘ‬

Notes: 1. ^ Among most Assyrian Neo-Aramaic speakers, the pharyngeal sound [ʕ] in ʿĒ is rendered as [ei], [ai] or [e], depending on the dialect.

Contextual forms of letters


ʾEsṭrangēlā (classical) Letter

Normal form

ʾĀlap̄

Final connected

Final unconnected

Maḏnḥāyā (eastern) Normal form

Final connected

Final unconnected

1

Bēṯ

Gāmal Dālaṯ Hē Waw Zayn Ḥēṯ Ṭēṯ Yōḏ Kāp̄

Lāmaḏ

Mīm Nūn Semkaṯ

/

ʿĒ Pē Ṣāḏē Qōp̄ Rēš Šīn Taw

1

In the final position following Dālaṯ or Rēš, ʾĀlap̄ takes the normal form rather than the final form.

Ligatures


ʾEsṭrangēlā (classical) Name

Normal form

Final connected

Final unconnected

Maḏnḥāyā (eastern) Normal form

Final connected

Final unconnected

Unicode character(s)

Description

Lāmaḏ and ʾĀlap̄ combined at the end of a word

LāmaḏʾĀlap̄

/

Taw-ʾĀlap̄

‫ܬ‬

Taw and ʾĀlap̄ combined at the end of a word

Hē-Yōḏ

‫ܗܝ‬

Hē and Yōḏ combined at the end of a word

Taw-Yōḏ

‫ܬܝ‬

Taw and Yōḏ combined at the end of a word

Letter alterations Matres lectionis Three letters act as matres lectionis: rather than being a consonant, they indicate a vowel. ʾĀlap̄ (‫)ܐ‬, the first letter, represents a glottal stop, but it can also indicate a vowel, especially at the beginning or the end of a word. The letter Waw (‫ )ܘ‬is the consonant w, but can also represent the vowels o and u. Likewise, the letter Yōḏ (‫ )ܝ‬represents the consonant y, but it also stands for the vowels i and e.

Majlīyānā In modern usage, some alterations can be made to represent phonemes not represented in classical phonology. A mark similar in appearance to a tilde (~), called majlīyānā (fŽˆm ̰ Š), is placed above or below a letter in the Maḏnḥāyā variant of the alphabet to change its phonetic value (see also: Geresh): Added below Gāmal: [ɡ] to [d͡ʒ] (voiced palato-alveolar affricate) Added below Kāp̄: [k] to [t͡ʃ] (voiceless palato-alveolar affricate) Added above or below Zayn: [z] to [ʒ] (voiced palato-alveolar sibilant) Added above Šīn: [ʃ] to [ʒ]

Transliteration of the Syriac alphabet.

Rūkkāḵā and qūššāyā In addition to foreign sounds, a marking system is used to distinguish qūššāyā (

, 'hard' letters) from rūkkāḵā (

‫ܪܘ‬, 'soft' letters). The

letters Bēṯ, Gāmal, Dālaṯ, Kāp̄ , Pē, and Taw, all stop consonants ('hard') are able to be 'spirantized' (lenited) into fricative consonants ('soft'). The system involves placing a single dot underneath the letter to give its 'soft' variant and a dot above the letter to give its 'hard' variant (though, in modern usage, no mark at all is usually used to indicate the 'hard' value):


Name

Bēṯ (qšīṯā)

Gāmal (qšīṯā)

Dālaṯ (qšīṯā)

Kāp̄ (qšīṯā)

Pē (qšīṯā)

Taw (qšīṯā)

The mnemonic bḡaḏkp̄ āṯ (

Stop

Translit.

IPA

Name

‫݁ܒ‬

b

[b]

Bēṯ rakkīḵtā

‫݁ܓ‬

g

[ɡ]

Gāmal rakkīḵtā

‫݁ܕ‬ ݁ ݁

‫݁ܦ‬

‫݁ܬ‬

d

[d]

Dālaṯ rakkīḵtā

k

[k]

Kāp̄ rakkīḵtā

p

t

[p]

[t]

Pē rakkīḵtā

Taw rakkīḵtā

Fricative

Translit.

IPA

‫݂ܒ‬

[v] or [w]

‫݂ܓ‬

[ɣ]

‫݂ܕ‬ ݂ ݂

‫ ݂ܦ‬or ‫̮ܦ‬

‫݂ܬ‬

[ð]

[x]

Notes [v] has become [w] in most modern dialects.

[d] is left unspirantized in some modern Eastern dialects.

[f] or [w]

[f] is not found in most modern Eastern dialects. Instead, it either is left unspirantized or sometimes appears as [w]. Pē is the only letter in the Eastern variant of the alphabet that is spirantized by the addition of a semicircle instead of a single dot.

[θ]

[t] is left unspirantized in some modern Eastern dialects.

) is often used to remember the six letters that are able to be spirantized (see also: Begadkefat).

In the East Syriac variant of the alphabet, spirantization marks are usually omitted when they interfere with vowel marks. The degree to which letters can be spirantized varies from dialect to dialect as some dialects have lost the ability for certain letters to be spirantized. For native words, spirantization depends on the letter's position within a word or syllable, location relative to other consonants and vowels, gemination, etymology, and other factors. Foreign words do not always follow the rules for spirantization.

Syāmē Syriac uses two (usually) horizontal dots above a letter within a word, similar in appearance to diaeresis, called syāmē (

̈ , literally 'placings'),

to indicate that the word is plural. These dots, having no sound value in themselves, arose before both eastern and western vowel systems as it became necessary to mark plural forms of words, which are indistinguishable from their singular counterparts in regularly inflected nouns. For instance, the word malkā ( , 'king') is consonantally identical to its plural malkē ('kings'); the syāmē above the word ( ̈ ) clarifies its grammatical number. Irregular plurals also receive syāmē even though their forms are clearly plural: e.g. baytā ( , 'house') and its irregular plural bāttē ( ̈ , 'houses'). Because of redundancy, some modern usage forgoes syāmē points when vowel markings are present. There are no firm rules for which letter receives syāmē; the writer has full discretion to place them over any letter. Typically, if a word has at least one Rēš, then syāmē are placed over the Rēš that is nearest the end of a word (and also replace the single dot above it). Other letters that often receive syāmē are low-rising letters—such as Yōḏ and Nūn—or letters that appear near the middle or end of a word. Besides nouns, syāmē are also placed on: plural adjectives, including participles (except masculine plural adjectives/participles in the absolute state);


the cardinal numbers 'two' and the feminine forms of 11-19, though inconsistently; and certain feminine plural verbs.

Unicode The Syriac alphabet was added to the Unicode Standard in September, 1999 with the release of version 3.0. Additional letters for Suriyani Malayalam were added in June, 2017 with the release of version 10.0.

Blocks The Unicode block for Syriac is U+0700–U+074F: Syriac[1][2] Official Unicode Consortium code chart (http://www.unicode.org/charts/PDF/U0700.pdf) (PDF) 0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

A

B

C

D

E

F

U+070x

‫܀‬

‫܁‬

‫܂‬

‫܃‬

‫܄‬

‫܅‬

‫܆‬

‫܇‬

‫܈‬

‫܉‬

‫܊‬

‫܋‬

‫܌‬

‫܍‬

U+071x

‫ܐ‬

ܑ

‫ܒ‬

‫ܓ‬

‫ܔ‬

‫ܕ‬

‫ܖ‬

‫ܗ‬

‫ܘ‬

‫ܙ‬

‫ܚ‬

‫ܛ‬

‫ܜ‬

‫ܝ‬

‫ܞ‬

‫ܟ‬

U+072x

‫ܠ‬

‫ܡ‬

‫ܢ‬

‫ܣ‬

‫ܤ‬

‫ܥ‬

‫ܦ‬

‫ܧ‬

‫ܨ‬

‫ܩ‬

‫ܪ‬

‫ܫ‬

‫ܬ‬

‫ܭ‬

‫ܮ‬

‫ܯ‬

U+073x

ܰ

ܱ

ܼܿ

ܳ

ܴ

ܵ

ܶ

ܷ

ܸ

ܹ

ܺ

ܻ

ܼ

ܽ

ܾ

ܿ

U+074x

݀

݁

݂

݃

݄

݅

݆

݇

݈

݉

݊

‫ݍ‬

‫ݎ‬

‫ݏ‬

܏ SAM

Notes 1.^ As of Unicode version 10.0 2.^ Grey areas indicate non-assigned code points

The Syriac Abbreviation (a type of overline) can be represented with a special control character called the Syriac Abbreviation Mark (U+070F). The Unicode block for Suriyani Malayalam specific letters is called the Syriac Supplement block and is U+0860–U+086F: Syriac Supplement[1][2] Official Unicode Consortium code chart (http://www.unicode.org/charts/PDF/U0860.pdf) (PDF) 0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

A

B

C

D

E

F

U+086x Notes 1.^ As of Unicode version 10.0 2.^ Grey areas indicate non-assigned code points

HTML code table Note: HTML numeric character references can be in decimal format (&#DDDD;) or hexadecimal format (&#xHHHH;). For example, ܕ and ܕ (1813 in decimal) both represent U+0715 SYRIAC LETTER DALATH.

ʾĀlap̄ Bēṯ


‫ܕ‬

‫ܓ‬

‫ܒ‬

‫ܐ‬

ܕ

ܓ

ܒ

ܐ

‫ܚ‬

‫ܙ‬

‫ܘ‬

‫ܗ‬

ܚ

ܙ

ܘ

ܗ

‫ܝ‬

‫ܛ‬

ܝ

ܛ

‫ܠ‬ ܠ

ܟ

‫ܥ‬

‫ܣ‬

ܥ

ܤ

ܢ

ܡ

‫ܪ‬

‫ܩ‬

‫ܨ‬

‫ܦ‬

ܪ

ܩ

ܨ

ܦ

‫ܬ‬

‫ܫ‬

ܬ

ܫ

Vowels and unique characters

ܼܿ

ܵ

ܲ

ܵ

ܸ

ܹ

ܸ

ܹ

ܼ

ܿ

ܼ

ܿ

̈

̰

̈

̰

݁

݂

݁

݂

‫܀‬

‫܂‬

܀

܂

‫܄‬

݇

܄

݇

Latin alphabet and romanization In the 1930s, following the state policy for minority languages of the Soviet Union, a Latin alphabet for Syriac was developed with some material promulgated.[6] Although it did not supplant the Syriac script, the usage of the Latin script in the Syriac community has still become widespread because most of the Assyrian diaspora is in Europe and the Anglosphere, where the Latin alphabet is predominant. As a result of Westernisation, the Latin alphabet has been used for Syriac writing.[7]

See also Abjad Alphabet Aramaic alphabet Aramaic language Mandaic language Mongolian script Sogdian alphabet Syriac language Syriac Malayalam Old Uyghur alphabet History of the alphabet List of writing systems


Footnotes 1. "Syriac alphabet" (http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/578972/Syriac-alphabet). Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved June 16, 2012. 2. P. R. Ackroyd,C. F. Evans (1975). The Cambridge History of the Bible: Volume 1, From the Beginnings to Jerome (https://books.google.nl/boo ks?id=QnG2067meU0C&pg=PA26). p. 26. 3. Hatch, William (1946). An album of dated Syriac manuscripts. Boston: The American Academy of Arts and Sciences, reprinted in 2002 by Gorgias Press. p. 24. ISBN 1-931956-53-7. 4. Nestle, Eberhard (1888). Syrische Grammatik mit Litteratur, Chrestomathie und Glossar. Berlin: H. Reuther's Verlagsbuchhandlung. [translated to English as Syriac grammar with bibliography, chrestomathy and glossary, by R. S. Kennedy. London: Williams & Norgate 1889. p. 5]. 5. Coakley, J. F. (2002). Robinson's paradigms and exercises in Syriac grammar (5th ed.). Oxford University Press. p. 141. ISBN 978-0-19926129-1. 6. Moscati, Sabatino, et al. The Comparative Grammar of Semitic Languages. Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden, Germany, 1980. 7. S. P. Brock, "Three Thousand Years of Aramaic literature", in Aram,1:1 (1989)

References Coakley, J. F. (2002). Robinson's Paradigms and Exercises in Syriac Grammar (5th ed.). Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-926129-1. Hatch, William (1946). An Album of Dated Syriac Manuscripts. Boston: The American Academy of Arts and Sciences, reprinted in 2002 by Gorgias Press. ISBN 1-931956-53-7. Michaelis, Ioannis Davidis (1784). Grammatica Syriaca. Nestle, Eberhard (1888). Syrische Grammatik mit Litteratur, Chrestomathie und Glossar. Berlin: H. Reuther's Verlagsbuchhandlung. [translated to English as Syriac grammar with bibliography, chrestomathy and glossary, by R. S. Kennedy. London: Williams & Norgate 1889]. Nöldeke, Theodor and Julius Euting (1880). Kurzgefasste syrische Grammatik. Leipzig: T.O. Weigel. [translated to English as Compendious Syriac Grammar, by James A. Crichton. London: Williams & Norgate 1904. 2003 edition: ISBN 1-57506-050-7]. Phillips, George (1866). A Syriac Grammar. Cambridge: Deighton, Bell, & Co.; London: Bell & Daldy. Robinson, Theodore Henry (1915). Paradigms and Exercises in Syriac Grammar. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-926129-6. Rudder, Joshua. Learn to Write Aramaic: A Step-by-Step Approach to the Historical & Modern Scripts. n.p.: CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform, 2011. 220 pp. ISBN 978-1461021421 Includes the Estrangela (pp. 59–113), Madnhaya (pp. 191–206), and the Western Serto (pp. 173–190) scripts. Thackston, Wheeler M. (1999). Introduction to Syriac. Bethesda, MD: Ibex Publishers, Inc. ISBN 0-936347-98-8.

External links The Syriac alphabet (http://www.omniglot.com/writing/syriac.htm) at Omniglot.com (http://www.omniglot.com/) The Syriac alphabet (http://ancientscripts.com/syriac.html) at Ancientscripts.com (http://ancientscripts.com/index.html) Unicode Entity Codes for the Syriac Script (https://web.archive.org/web/20060617231514/http://tlt.psu.edu/suggestions/international/bylangua ge/syriacchart.html) Download Syriac fonts (http://www.bethmardutho.org/index.php/resources/fonts.html) How to write Aramaic – learn the Syriac cursive scripts (http://www.nativlang.com/aramaic-language/aramaic-writing-cursive.php) Aramaic and Syriac handwriting (http://www.syriac.talktalk.net/syriac_writing.html) ʾEsṭrangēlā (classical) Learn Assyrian (Syriac-Aramaic) OnLine (http://www.learnassyrian.com/aramaic/) Maḏnḥāyā (eastern) GNU FreeFont (https://www.gnu.org/software/freefont/) Unicode font family with Syriac range in its sans-serif face. Learn Syriac Latin Alphabet (https://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/Assyrian/Latin_Alphabet) on Wikiversity Obtenido de «https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Syriac_alphabet&oldid=815236789» Se editó esta página por última vez el 13 dic 2017 a las 13:35. El texto está disponible bajo la Licencia Creative Commons Atribución-CompartirIgual 3.0; pueden aplicarse términos adicionales. Véase Términos de uso para más detalles.

Lishana.org - Alfabeto siríaco (arameo cristiano) (w)  

Academia Lishana.org Material de difusión.

Lishana.org - Alfabeto siríaco (arameo cristiano) (w)  

Academia Lishana.org Material de difusión.

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