Vol. 2, No. 1 | 2019 Academic Newsletter
T A B L E of C O N T E N T S
Welcome from the Dean
In the Field
Faculty Notes and News
Dr. Kenyon Knapp writes about the blessings of the Lord.
A research paper by Dr. Judith Reisman.
Janet Brown approaches the subject of cyber crime.
Notable works and articles by our faculty.
Eight new members join our team.
Rev. Dr. Tim Tsohantaridis discusses biblical studies for psychologists.
A Q&A with Bethany Adams.
Rev. Deena Martinelli describes her chaplaincy.
Share your story with us.
A M E SS A G E from the DE AN Dear Friends, As you read about the accomplishments of our faculty and students succeeding in settings all around the world, I hope you are as encouraged as I am. This year alone, our faculty are leading LU Send trips to Costa Rica, Israel, Colombia, Greece, Iceland, India, Italy, Peru, South Africa, South Korea, and Alaska. On these trips, students are applying their mental health skills to a variety of challenges while ministering to people in Jesusâ€™ name. Faculty and students are also being recognized for their work through the literally hundreds of presentations and publications that they have conducted in the last 12 months. A sampling of the work is presented, which will encourage you as well as challenge you to think of the creative ways our faculty and students are impacting and can continue to impact the world for Christ. Romans 13:7 tells us to honor those to whom honor is due, so what you see here is also an affirmation of faculty and students who are doing excellent and innovative work within their academic disciplines. All of these things often lead people to the correct conclusion that I work with an amazing group of people. If you know of others who would benefit from training in psychology, counseling, or social work, please have them contact us. In Christ,
Dr. Kenyon Knapp Dean
School of Behavioral Sciences
FACULT Y FORUM
Arousal Confusion Syndrome DR. JUDITH REISMAN, RESEARCH PROFESSOR A A R O N N A Z I F, J . D . | M A R Y M C A L I S T E R , E S Q . Shakespeare posed this provocative question in 1603: “Is there not charms, By which the property of youth and maidhood, May be abused? Have you not read, Roderigo, of some such thing?” (Othello, Act I, Scene I). The English Bard was not alone in his interest in psychosocio development. Some 300 years later, the famous scifi writer H.G. Wells warned, “Preserving the young from a premature awakening is in the interests of civilization, in positively delaying the period of awakening, retarding maturity and lengthening the period of growth and preparation as much as possible.” Thus, it is not surprising that our research group sought out whether the erotic “charm” alluded to by Shakespeare could invade the domain of “youth and maidhood” to cause a premature, even harmful, sexual “awakening” in some people. What we discovered was provocative and disturbing. We observed that an Arousal Confusion Syndrome (ACS) was likely to occur if a person’s libido, fear, shame, and anxiety were triggered concurrently, causing subjects to identify confusing emotional and corporeal stimulation as sexual arousal. Tragically, due to sexual abuse or other trauma, anxiety-filled emotional sexual arousal can often be wired into the brain-body-mind architecture. In the 1960s, Schachter and Singer identified a two-factor theory of emotion: to wit, a stimulus leads to a physiological response, which the individual interprets and labels as the most probable emotion. Additionally, in an early famous experiment, male subjects were made to cross a narrow, rickety bridge over a dangerous river. If a sexuallydemonstrative girl greeted them at the end of the bridge, the men often felt sexually aroused (Schachter & Singer, 1962). ACS can be described as a mechanism used to make sense of confusing cultural stimuli, at times resulting in “misattribution of emotion” (White, 1981). The biological instincts (fight, flight, food, and sex) are significantly controlled by testosterone, dopamine, and the amygdala, the almond-shaped grouping of neurons deep within the brain (Goleman, 2006). A visual signal first goes from the retina to the thalamus before it is translated into the language of the brain. The message then goes to the visual cortex, where it is analyzed and assessed for meaning and appropriate response. If that response is emotional, a signal goes to the amygdala to activate the emotional centers. But a smaller portion of the original signal goes straight from the thalamus to the amygdala in a quicker transmission of an emotional response before the cortical centers have fully understood what is happening (Goleman, 1979).
The similarities between these mechanisms and the multipurpose use of associated brain areas for mixed signals suggest how emotions can be mislabeled and how individuals, particularly those who are vulnerable, can confuse arousal responses. Negative stimuli, such as physical, psychological, or sexual abuse, or even sexual information or imagery that worries or confuses a youth, sets off “a ripple of hormonal changes that wire the child’s brain to cope with a malevolent world” (Teicher, 2001). If the child learns that an event is coded as sexual, then he or she labels bodily responses as sexual. Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) is an accepted harm measurement used in social services, mental/public health, education, juvenile justice, pediatrics, criminal justice, medical research, business, etc. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ACE Study (1995 to 1997) followed thousands of participants for 15 years. The study established increased ACE measures predicting higher medical, mental, and social problems in adulthood (Stevens, 2012). ACE calculated how traumatic early life events impact longterm health and social-emotional well-being. Examples can include physical and sexual abuse, neglect, parent/caregiver loss, abandonment, incarceration, divorce, and exposure to violence and substance abuse (Stevens, 2012). Also, increasingly premature exposure to sexual stimuli like pornography or sex education materials impact one’s lack of flourishing (Olfman, 2009). Said events can trigger Arousal Confusion Syndrome, leading to emotional confusion and mislabeling of stimuli in developing brains. Even in the absence of adverse childhood experiences, children exposed to premature erotic stimuli find fear, shame, or other anxiety-producing stimuli enhance sexual arousal due to ACS (Barlow, 1983). That in turn can become an ACE criteria, triggering lifelong dysfunctions. The interrelationship between arousal confusion syndrome and adverse life (Heimbach, 2002) — in connection with recent findings addressing the behavioral impact of mirror neurons (Ramachandren, 2000; Giedd, 2014-2016; Fight the New Drug, 2019) — points to the need for serious reexamination of what type of stimuli (past, present, and future) should be provided to the undeveloped brain. Dr. Judith Reisman is Research Professor of Psychology with the School of Behavioral Sciences. She has been a prolific writer and a seasoned educator at Liberty University School of Law since 2011. Her research interests include legal corruption, human sexuality, sexual science, Kinsey Institute myths, and political malfeasance regarding the pornography industry, child sex abuse, and sex education. For more information, contact Dr. Reisman at firstname.lastname@example.org.
IN THE FIELD J A N E T B R O W N , A S S O C I AT E P R O F E S S O R
Today, more than 95% of all young Americans between 12 and 17 years old are online. Three out of four teens access the internet on cell phones, tablets, and other mobile devices rather than the home desktop computer of just a few years ago. Truly, young people today are carrying the Internet around with them! As an Associate Professor of Psychology at Liberty University, I have served on the Board of Directors of the Safe Surfin’ Foundation since it was established in 2000 by my husband, Sheriff Mike Brown. I have worked arduously to educate children about the dangers of cyberstalking and have traveled extensively with my husband in support of these efforts. The Global Sustainability Network (GSN) is a registered charity in the United Kingdom that also supports these efforts. The GSN is a growing private network of more than 900 leaders across the social spheres of faith, government, business, media, NGSs, and academia. They have held conferences at the Vatican, the United Nations in New York, the Dubai Chamber of Commerce and Industry, and the Expo 2020 headquarters in Dubai, as well as in the United Kingdom. As a result of the work done by the Safe Surfin’ Foundation and the Cyber S.W.A.T. program, my husband and I were invited to speak at the Global Sustainability Network (GSN) Conference at the Vatican in April 2019. There, we reported that one of the greatest threats to children and youth worldwide is carried in the palm of their hand — the cellphone — as predators and human traffickers will take full advantage of this technology’s ubiquity. The presentation was well received by the 100+ participants. Many people commented on the need for our program to be instituted in as many schools as possible to get this important message out to children around the world. As a result of our time at the Vatican, we were invited to speak again at the GSN Conference at Columbia University and in Dubai in January 2020, and we will be going back to the Vatican. Locally, these predators seek youths sadly vulnerable to seduction, including those with histories of sexual or physical abuse, emotional vulnerability, those who post sexually provocative photos or videos online, and those who recklessly talk about sex with unknown people online. Online offenders used the victims’ social networking sites to gain personal information.
Since 2000, the Safe Surfin’ Foundation has been striving to tackle the problem of cyberstalking head-on with the knowledge that an informed internet user is a safer one — helping to stop would-be predators before they can hurt their intended victims. They have employed a number of methods to reach young people — comic books, a day at the park, celebrity speaking to people who did an excellent job — and have had some success. However, educating youth by conventional/traditional methods just did not appear to be working. Children not only need to observe behavior, but they also need to pay attention to it, think about it, and be able to reproduce it. This premise is part of the foundation of the Cyber S.W.A.T. program. As high school students learn principles of online safety, they take their message to middle and elementaryschool students. The Cyber S.W.A.T. program has made it cool to be safe and responsible online. The program was first tested and demonstrated to be effective in 2016–17 at a high school in Central Virginia, facilitated by a school resource officer. The team members at our first target school were enthusiastic from the beginning and have done an excellent job. One of their first endeavors was a presentation for the entire student body on the dangers of sexting. The team, school administrators, and teachers noticed that every student in the auditorium was riveted by the message these young people were delivering — much more so than if that message had been coming from adults. Team members understand what it means to be a young person in today’s world. They understand the culture and technology far better than parents and teachers do. When young people believe that they can accomplish a goal, their self-esteem increases. By making a difference in the lives of their peers, these young people are part of the solution — not the problem. The Cyber S.W.A.T. Team program is truly a revolutionary paradigm shift in approaching the social problem of cybercrime. It eliminates traditional barriers to reaching young people because the messengers are the young people themselves. This peer-to-peer communication is a powerful and lasting means of reaching the young user of technology — potentially stopping the predator right at the intersection of innocence and abuse.
School of Behavioral Sciences
F A C U LT Y N E W S A N D N O T E S
DR . LY N N B OH E CK ER Associate Professor of Counselor Education and Family Studies, Ph.D., LMFT Dr. Bohecker and colleagues (Anna Elliott at MSU, Gregg Elliott at CCU, Veronica Johnson at U of M, Bethany Jean Townsend at NNU, Elizabeth D. Horn at ISU, and Ken Roach at U of P) published an article, Interstate Licensure Portability: Logistics and Barriers for Professional Counselors, in The Professional Counselor. The authors conducted a qualitative content analysis to understand the logistics associated with interstate portability of counseling licenses in the Rocky Mountain Region of the Association for Counselor Education and Supervision (Colorado, Idaho, Montana, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming). Results describe participantsâ€™ experiences in fulfilling licensure requirements and the barriers encountered because of discrepancies in practice standards. For more information, contact Dr. Bohecker at email@example.com.
DR . L AUREL SHALER Associate Professor, of Counselor Education and Family Studies, Ph.D., LPC, NCC, LCSW, LISW-CP An experienced counselor, Dr. Laurel Shaler is passionate about helping women thrive in all of their relationships, which she discusses fully in her new book, Relational Reset: Unlearning the Habits that Hold You Back. Relational Reset will reveal unhealthy patterns that may be holding women back, giving practical steps for improving their relationships and helping them find their ultimate security and identity in Jesus Christ. When people reset their relationships, they honor God, themselves, and the ones they love. For more information, contact Dr. Shaler at firstname.lastname@example.org.
D R . D AV I D S K I F F Online Professor of Social Work, Ph.D. In 2018, at the National Association of Deans and Directors Spring Meeting: Birds of a Feather Round Table for the International Task Force (Orlando, FL), Dr. David Skiff and Dr. Irene McClatchey shared input from Schools of Social Work regarding the NADD international survey instrument. This revised instrument is designed to better capture all the current work being conducted internationally regarding field placements, cross cultural courses, study abroad programs, research efforts, and international course content. For more information, contact Dr. Skiff at email@example.com.
Aysta, S. (2019). Received board certification in Clinical Psychology. American Board of Professional Psychology, 43. Brown, J. (2019). Presentation: Cyber S.W.A.T. (Safety While Accessing Technology): A paradigm shift in online safety based on social cognitive theory. Department of Homeland Security’s Leadership Academy. Glynco, GA. Buckles, W. & Davis, J. (2019). Presentation: The role of ethics and intentional practices in preventing vicarious trauma. Indiana Counseling Association. Ft. Wayne, IN. Carpenter, C. (2019). Approval of $20,000 grant to develop social-emotional learning programs for students grades K–12 in rural Ohio. Combs, J. A. (2019). Awarded with Approved Clinical Supervisor (ACS) and Certified Professional Counselor Supervisor (CPCS) credentialing. Licensed Professional Counselors Association of Georgia. U.S.A. Cowsert, K. (2019). Book: Detours: That become life’s paths. Sarasota, FL: DK Community Publishing. Cowsert, K. (2019). Book: Pig Moments: God Moments to Remember. Sarasota, FL: DK Community Publishing Cox, E. (2019). Presentation: Self-care in the real world: Helping yourself and your students. Field Appreciation Luncheon. Lynchburg, VA. Daniel, D., Landa, S., & Luz, H. (2019). Presentation: The structured life review: Preparing gerontological counselors of the future. Association for Adult Development and Aging (AADA) National Conference. Chicago, IL. Estenson, M., & Brown, D. (2019). Presentation: The “art” of assessment in group supervision. Association of Counselor Education & Supervision Conference. Seattle, WA. Gopaul, M. (2018). Book Chapter: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In Principle-Based Stepped Care and Brief Psychotherapy for Integrated Care Settings (Springer, Cham, 2018). The book aims to educate practitioners about stepped care approaches and brief therapies to behavioral health problems commonly faced in primary care. Heck, T. (2019). Book: A 40-day Journey of Prayer for Your Marriage. Indianapolis, IN: Leitourgia. Knox, J. (2019). Book: Sociology is Rude!: A Conversation on Sociological Theory and Thought. Dubuque, IA: Kendall-Hunt. Knox, J. (2019). Received a master’s degree in sociology from the T. Denny Sanford School of Social and Family Dynamics at Arizona State University. Lorbeer, C. (2018). Presentation: Physician burnout: Healing the healer. Primary Care & Cardiovascular Symposium. St. Augustine, FL.
Marston, D. (2019). Blog Post: Comparatively speaking. Psychology Today. Retrieved from https://www.psychologytoday. com/us/blog/comparatively-speaking.
Pincus, R., Bridges, C. W., & Remley, T. P. (2019). Article: School counselors using motivational interviewing. Journal of Professional Counseling: Practice, Theory & Research, 45(2), 82–94. Skiff, D. (2018). Presentation: Assessing undergraduate social work student crisis intervention skill development through simulation. North American Social Workers Conference. Hartford, CT. Smith, G. (2019). Began “Training and Education” position with U.S. Congress on various topics focusing on the development of positive and productive culture in the legislative branch. Washington, D.C. Sullins, J., Console, K., Denton, R., Henrichson, C., & Barber, S. (2019). Article: Not all confusion is productive: An investigation into confusion induction methods and their impact on learning. International Journal of Learning Technology. Sullins, J., Console, K., Henrichson, C., Denton, R., Roberts, S., & Howell, K. (2018). Presentation: The first step in harnessing the self-conscious emotions: A quantitative exploration of shame. Cognitive Science Society (40th Meeting). Madison, WI. Sullins, J., & Mankey, S. (2018). Presentation: Shame on you! A preliminary exploration into the linguistic characteristics of shame. 15th annual McNair Scholars Meeting, Searcy, AR. Taylor, A., & Taylor, J. (2019). Book: Aly’s Fight: Beating Cancer, Battling Infertility, and Believing in Miracles. New York, NY: Worthy.
NEW FACULTY/STAFF APPOINTMENTS
Marlene Estenson. Associate Professor, Counselor Education and Family Studies David Jones. Assistant Professor, Counselor Education and Family Studies Chansoon (Danielle) Lee. Assistant Professor, Psychology Robert Pincus. Assistant Professor, Counselor Education and Family Studies
Lorbeer, C. (2018). Presentation: Practice transformation: improving quality and safety using a team-based care approach. Conference on Practice Improvement. Tampa, FL.
Judith Reisman. Research Professor, Psychology
Lorbeer, C. (2019). Presentation: Behavioral dietary training: The obesity epidemic—hidden in plain sight. Primary Care & Cardiovascular Symposium. St. Augustine, FL.
Logan Skillman. Professional Advisor, Psychology
Gail Roaten. Associate Professor, Counselor Education and Family Studies Lee Underwood. Professor, Counselor Education and Family Studies
Marston, D. (2019). Book: Autism & Independence: Assessments & Interventions to Prepare Teens for Adult Life. Eau Claire, WI: PESI.
School of Behavioral Sciences
GUEST CONTRIBUTOR R E V. D R . T I M T S O H A N T A R I D I S PROFESSOR OF BIBLICAL STUDIES & GREEK
at George Fox University
As a professor of biblical studies and Greek on the West Coast, I have often had the opportunity to teach at my university’s graduate school of clinical psychology. One of the classes that I have taught to doctoral level students is Bible Survey for Psychologists. We study the Scriptures, emphasizing thematic and structural elements that enhance the students’ ability for continued theological and psychological integrative studies. Interpretive issues are also explored with attention given to meaningful application to central themes and their implications for professional psychology students. Moreover, as a pastor and Bible professor, I see the Bible as God’s story of the redemption of His creation. God’s desire is to help restore broken relationships, to enable holy living within the community of faith, and to promote unity and peace. I believe that Christian psychotherapists are called to be trained both professionally and biblically to offer restorative healing to persons and communities entrusted to them by Jesus Christ. During His ministry, Jesus was asked which of the commandments is most important, and He replied, “Hear, O Israel: The Lord our God, the Lord is one. Love the Lord your God with all your heart and with all your soul and with all your mind and with all your strength. The second is this: Love your neighbor as yourself. There is no commandment greater than these” (Mark 12:29-31, New International Version). The second part of His answer supports the work of the psychotherapist. God wants His people to be whole, not
broken. This can include the physical, emotional, intellectual, social, and spiritual parts of life. Counselors must use their training to diagnose and begin the therapeutic process of restoring the client back to good health. By connecting this part of therapy with the greatest commandment, Jesus’ words support the idea of a therapist. Both Testaments provide glimpses into the psychology of God. The book of Psalms shows us how we can be honest with our feelings toward God — thanking Him, complaining of injustices, and feeling neglected by God, admitting our failures, and remembering His ways. In Proverbs, we read wise sayings regarding issues and consequences of justice, mercy, wisdom, and foolishness. In history books, the health and dysfunction of the Israelites are on display for all to see. The didactic teaching of the Epistles provides many examples of how love and forgiveness work, and points to blessings of a healthy life. Scriptures teach that all people are created in the image of God. A good way to understand this concept is to see Jesus as described in Luke 2:52 — “And Jesus grew in wisdom and stature, and in favor with God and man” (New International Version). Just like Jesus, everyone’s spirituality, cognition, emotion, and behavior interact with each other in complex ways. Therapies that are clinically proven and biblically based will improve the aspects of one’s life and will ultimately provide a fine marriage of theology and psychology.
Student Showcase B E T H A N Y A DA M S , P SYC H O LO GY M A J O R
Q: What do you like most about your major? A: I love that psychology dares to bring up the questions that we are afraid (or unaware) to ask. It probes our behavior, our mindsets, our beliefs, and our habits. Second, psychology has the ability to ascertain the connections between our mind and our body. Last, what I love about psychology is that when it is correctly applied, it has the power to bring insight, change, and true healing. Q: What are your plans post-graduation?
Q: Why did you become a psychology major? A: As a teenager, doctors discovered an abnormal (but benign) tumor attached to my liver. For four years, I found myself constantly fighting illnesses, and my mental health began to deteriorate. My parents took note and I began counseling, which changed my life by allowing me to further discover who I was, to improve my coping skills, and to reframe my life experiences. I knew if I ever recovered, I would dedicate the rest of my life to the study of psychology and become a counselor. Q: What has been your favorite class at LU? A: My absolute favorite course would be Multicultural Counseling. This class challenged my worldview and has allowed me to see the major influence that culture has on cultivating who we are and what we perceive as truth. I learned that mental health (and illnesses) vary from culture to culture. That is how powerful culture truly is! Overall, there is so much that can be learned through the beauty of our diversity.
A: My plans are to pursue a master’s in marriage & family counseling after graduation. I want to start my own multicultural private family practice that allows clients to have access to a diverse staff of counselors. As an African American, I want to fight against the shameful stigma of counseling that prevents so many minorities from seeking help. Finally, as a believer, I want to help those in the body of Christ who are silently suffering in their mental health. I want to help others as I was helped. Q: What advice would you give to students thinking about majoring in psychology? A: My advice would be to really understand why you want to pursue psychology. The motive of an action or a decision in life can be more important than the action or decision itself. The second question I would suggest asking yourself would be, “How can society benefit from your pursuit of this degree?” Use what you are learning to really explore and increase your self-understanding. Be a sponge and soak in all the wisdom of your psychological studies!
School of Behavioral Sciences
Alumni Notes R E V. D E E N A M A R T I N E L L I , B C C M . A . I N H U M A N S E R V I C E S C O U N S E L I N G | M . D I V. I N C H A P L A I N C Y
A two-time Liberty alumnus living in Connecticut, I currently work as a boardcertified medical chaplain at the Eastern Connecticut Health Network (ECHN). I am responsible for two hospitals: Manchester Memorial Hospital and Rockville Hospital. In addition to ministering on standard hospital floors and two psychiatric units, I have the unique privilege of covering the Walden Eating Disorders Center at Rockville Hospital, which is Connecticut’s first dedicated inpatient eating disorder treatment center for adults and adolescents. The new 30-bed facility provides the most intensive level of care for patients working toward eating disorder recovery. I have personally watched the Lord reach patients that had little chance of survival. The Bible became food for their souls that healed their bodies. My chaplaincy career began when I was a Vermont State Trooper 30 years ago. Instead of collecting facts about car accidents or domestic disputes in hospital emergency rooms, I found myself offering comfort to victims and talking about the hope found in Jesus Christ. The Lord used my skills from law enforcement to teach me how to serve and build rapport with people, but it was my outstanding education and training from Liberty University that led me to fulfill my calling as a chaplain. After graduating from Liberty University with an M.Div. in Chaplaincy in 2011, the Lord sent me back to Liberty University to attain a Master of Arts in Human Services
Counseling. Upon completing clinical pastoral education, I have worked for a hospice, two hospitals, and ECHN in my current role as a medical chaplain. During my time as a student and after my graduation from Liberty, the Lord told me, “Deena, you take care of my business and I will take care of yours.” Although Chaplaincy 101 teaches aspiring chaplains that evangelism is forbidden, the Lord has opened hundreds of doors for me to spread the Gospel — especially on mental health floors where the patients’ minds are adversely affected by alcohol/drug abuse and illness. I am grateful for the preparation that I received from Liberty’s counseling curriculum. I continue to be amazed daily by the love that Jesus has for people and the lengths to which He will go to touch them. I love when patients ask, “How did you know I needed a chaplain visit right now?” “I didn’t,” I reply. “It is God who directs my footsteps.” Ministry goes both ways — I am continually blessed by the witness and resiliency of patients as they share their personal faith and struggles. The Lord has also graciously allowed me to lead the ECHN Ethics Committee for the past two years, and I have been appointed membership on the ECHN Institutional Review Committee (IRC). I am currently working on a research project to develop a guide for mental health chaplaincy for geriatric patients. My other passion is screenwriting, and in 2017, I was a semifinalist in the International Faith in Film competition with my script, “AFLAME.” Let us use every gift that God has given for His glory! Go Flames!
The DEPARTMENT of COUNSELING trains individuals to be thoroughly competent professionals in the practice of agency and pastoral counseling, supported by a Christian worldview. For more information: Department of Counseling (434) 592-4049 | Counseling@liberty.edu
The DEPARTMENT of PSYCHOLOGY provides students with the knowledge and skills required for the development of a biblically-integrated, evidence-based understanding of human psychology through practical application and research. For more information: Department of Psychology (434) 592-4038 | Psychology@liberty.edu
The DEPARTMENT of SOCIAL WORK develops Christ-centered social workers who are equipped with the skills, values, and knowledge to humbly lead in advancing the well-being of individuals and communities all around the world. For more information: Department of Social Work (434) 582-7570| LUOSocialWork@liberty.edu
Kali Psychi (The Good Mind or Soul) is published for all faculty, staff, students, alumni, and friends of Liberty Universityâ€™s School of Behavioral Sciences, and it is delivered through email and published online. We want to hear from you! Please let us know about the good work that you are doing in behavioral sciences and in the world as Liberty University community members, graduates, professionals, and friends! Interested in contributing to the next issue of Kali Psychi? We welcome any relevant news, press releases, publications, or potential feature articles from faculty, students, or alumni.
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School of Behavioral Sciences
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