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Preface

歷史微探者:論許家維「台灣總督府工業研究所」 國立台南藝術大學動畫藝術與影像美學研究所教授 孫松榮

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History Micro-prober: Chia-Wei Hsu’s “Industrial Research Institute of Taiwan Governor-General's Office” Professor of the Graduate Institute of Animation and Film Art, Tainan National University of the Arts Song-Yong SING 嶄新地理的可能性⸺許家維的影像-歷史-地理學 譯者、戲劇研究員 林立騎

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The Possibility of an Alternative Geography: Chia-Wei Hsu’s Historical Imageography Translator, Theater Researcher Tatsuki HAYASHI

與許家維對話

前打開 - 當代藝術工作站總監 陳嘉壬

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Conversation with Chia-Wei Hsu Former Director of Open-Contemporary Art Center Chia-Jen CHEN 簡介

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工作人員

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Biography

Team


台灣總督府工業研究所計畫 Industrial Research Institute of Taiwan Governor-General's Office Project

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《台灣總督府工業研究所》 Industrial Research Institute of Taiwan Governor-General's Office

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《飛行器、霜毛蝠、逝者證言》 Drones, Frosted Bats and the Testimony of the Deceased

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《高砂》 Takasago

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《核衰變計時器》 Nuclear Decay Timer

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《統一度假村》 Uni-Resort

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序 當哈努曼(Hanuman)捲起長長的尾巴,為拯救人類,智取會逃跑的 生命之花時,電影這一幕,從小就烙印在我的腦海當中。看見許家維

的創作再一次出現哈努曼時,內心是又驚又喜十分激動的,總覺得是 久違的緣分,因緣俱足地又相聚在一起。

我熱愛古籍收藏,前人的智慧與經驗總是經常吸引著我,而他們做學 問的態度令人更是佩服。當鐵甲元帥看見了許家維,祂看見了現今社 會還能有以做學問這般的熱忱,追尋真實還原歷史題材的創作方式,

祂定是深深感嘆與歡喜,現今這樣的年輕藝術家實屬難得啊!我經常 在與他對話當中,感受到相近的磁場,許多歷史真實傳奇在許家維的 演繹當中,喚起了相遇相知的感動,很多題材到最後的總結,即是為

人類爭取一份祥和,以過去未完之夢,期許喚醒再延續的圓滿或各界 的重新重視,並為大家帶來祝福,這更堅固了與真理相互對應,自助 而天助。

藝術家同時可以是成功的科學家、數學家或是歷史學者,這或許才是 對現今社會表現積極貢獻的一種方式,身份多元並想方設法地去改變

長久以來,環境社會所帶來的詬病與困境,因為當任何事物加入美的 元素,總會多了一份柔軟與善良的心靈,和諧與包容才會經常在你我 之間發芽生根。而許家維總保有這份赤子之心,這樣的創作態度,任

何被遺忘的時空,經他以美感與靈動方式的串起,增添了無比想像與 閱讀的趣味,令人十分難忘也願意跟隨他的影像一同思考與反省。觀 看許家維的影像,你或多或少會被看似溫和的舞蹈與音樂節奏慢慢引 入心坎,他所敘事的故事,就像風在天上吹著,雖然不易立竿見影,

但到了時機成熟的時刻,將會帶來厚厚的雲層與雷電,然後普降甘霖, 潤澤大地,使我們每一個人的心靈皆能受益,也讓各方未曾重視的歷 史事件與文化,由黑暗隱晦而使一切明白呈現進而更為耀眼!

臺灣總督府工業研究所

尊彩藝術中心 董事長

余彥良

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Preface

The scene where Hanuman wiggles his long tail and skillfully lifts the healing herbs from a mountain to save humanity has ingrained in my mind since childhood. When I saw Hanuman in Chia-Wei Hsu’s works again, my heart filled with immense surprise and joy. This tide of intense emotions reminded me that fate drove my encounter with Hsu. This magical luck has brought us together. I have an unswerving passion for collecting antiques. The wisdom and experiences from my predecessors have always attracted me – I am often awed by their attitude for seeking new levels of intellectual pursuits. When Marshal Tie Jia met Hsu, he must have recognized his unquenchable thirst for knowledge and his quest for finding the essence of history through his creative expressions. Marshal Tie Jia must have been lamenting and celebrating at the same time, for that young artists like Hsu are a rare breed in the modern society we live in today. I often feel the same magnetic field when I converse with Hsu. Many real historical legends, through Hsu’s artistic techniques, have the power of evoking a moving nostalgia. Many themes conclude with an unfulfilled dream, searching for peace for humankind. Through these unfulfilled dreams, Hsu hopes to revoke a continuing completion and reexamine every aspect. The artist also brings blessings for everyone through his works, solidifying the correspondence of truth through his expressions and the aid from deities. The artist could be a polymath – a successful scientist, mathematician, and a historian. Perhaps, this is one of the ways to contribute as an active participant in the society we reside in today. With multiple identities, Hsu can change our society’s flaws and dilemmas through his own set of ways. When aesthetic becomes an essential element in anything, there always seems to be a resulting tender and good mind. Beauty is the only antidote to the conflicts of the world, and it sows the seeds of harmony and empathy between you and me. Hsu keeps this simple childlike mentality through his creative explorations. Any forgotten era, through his skillful manipulation with aesthetics and wit, is revived with unbounded imagination and lively reading. He casts a spell through his videos, making it hard for his audience not to think and reflect critically along with his imageries. While viewing Hsu’s videos, one is somewhat moved by the seemingly gentle choreographies and tempo that slowly penetrates your mind. The stories he tells resemble the wind – even though the wind is almost transparent without shadows when the right time comes, it becomes omnipresent, bringing thick layers of clouds and thunderstorms. Hsu’s stories, just like blazing storms, wet the land and bring nutrients to our intellectual development. Hsu also sheds light upon those buried historical events and culture and brings those stories to life. Through Hsu’s clear expressions, these stories shine like bright gems in the dark. Yen-Liang YU President of Liang Gallery

Preface

Industrial Research Institute of Taiwan Governor-General's Office

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Research Institute of Taiwan Governor-General‘s Office

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臺灣總督府工業研究所


歷史微探者: 論許家維「台灣總督府工業研究所」

History Micro-prober: Chia-Wei Hsu’s “Industrial Research Institute of Taiwan Governor-General's Office”

國立台南藝術大學動畫藝術與影像美學研究所教授

Professor of the Graduate Institute of Animation and Film Art, Tainan National University of the Arts

孫松榮

Song-Yong SING


多年以前,當藝評人為台灣年輕的視覺藝術創作者作品中的去政治化 激烈地爭論不休之際,另一類以不同形態承載且轉化政治思辨的新世 代藝術家實則已悄然崛起。這些傑出的藝術家,例如從高俊宏、蘇育

賢到許家維,無獨有偶透過動態影像的形式體現出各自呈顯影像政治

與政治影像的殊異方式。蘇育賢的《花山牆》(2014)、高俊宏的《博

愛》(2016)及 2016 年許家維個展中的《回莫村》(2012)與《廢墟 情報局》(2015),可謂是近年來最令人印象深刻的作品。

《花山牆》一邊透過紙紮文化,一邊藉由辯士旁白重新寓言化鄭南榕自

《花山牆》錄像截圖,蘇育賢,2013 /蘇育賢提供

焚事件;《博愛》則在連結海山煤礦、博愛市場、台汽客運,及安康 接待室這四個場景來凸顯新自由主義與戒嚴令的多重暴力;而個展「回 莫村」奠基於泰緬邊境的村落,進一步挖掘被剝奪的「孤軍」歷史。 這幾部作品之所以得到高度矚目(其中《花山牆》與個展「回莫村」 更榮獲台新藝術年度大獎),在我看來,絕非僅因其政治題旨(甚至

政治正確)使然。換言之,饒富歷史與政經語境的影像政治固然賦予 了藝術家再重要不過的論題和素材,然而作品出色之處,無非在於藝 術家對於政治影像的把握與揉塑。我曾在其他地方詳細闡述過《花山

牆》與《博愛》乃作為「謠言電影」1 (Yaoyan Cinema,陳界仁語)的

當代結晶。蘇育賢運用台語旁白、中英文翻譯字幕的方式匠心獨運,

展露出語言與圖像之間糾纏著統獨意識的國家主體性。高俊宏從田調、 拍攝到展映,既以海山煤礦、博愛市場、台汽客運及安康接待室作為

限地實踐(site-specific practice)的所在,更以之作為現地政治(on-site

politic)的批判。而許家維則透過所述的流亡主角、歷史遺址、建築模

型、錄音室,投影銀幕、木偶戲表演、樂師團、舞台及神話等構成元素, 後設地重新想像一段交織個人命運與集體故事的冷戰史。

《白色大樓-貢奈》錄像截圖,許家維,

2016

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孫松榮,〈當代「謠言電影」 系譜考:從《殘響世界》到《博 愛》〉,《藝術家》第 501 期, 2017 年 2 月,頁 150-153。

《廢墟情報局》錄像截圖,許家維,2015 /製片:Le Fresnoy

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臺灣總督府工業研究所

歷史微探者:

論許家維「台灣總督府工業研究所」


《鐵甲元帥-靖思村》錄像截圖, 許家維,2013

《博愛》海山投影,高俊宏,2016 /高俊宏提供

截至個展「回莫村」為止,許家維的影像政治與政治影像已經成形,

卓然不群。相較於蘇育賢與高俊宏作品中的異議性所彰顯出來的行動

主義表徵,許家維則從《和平島故事》(2008)、《花東新村》(2009)、

《鐵甲元帥-龜島》(2012)、《鐵甲元帥-靖思村》(2013)到《回 莫村》(2012)與《廢墟情報局》(2015)練就了一套在現實場景中 考掘塵封事件,並透過異質形態來提煉歷史論題的出眾技藝。距離發

表「回莫村」後短短一年不到的時間,許家維接連地在「2016 台北雙

年展」與聯展「伏流・書寫」中推出系列新作《神靈的書寫》(2016)、

《白色大樓》(2016),及個展「台灣總督府工業研究所」(2017)。 這些新作,一方面延續身為「打開-當代藝術工作站」成員的藝術家 長期於東南亞進行田野調查的視野與成果;另一方面,則奠立於前述

的 各 種 現 場 事 件 中 轉 化 歷 史 涵 義 的 基 礎 上, 辯 證 其 念 茲 在 茲 的 虛 實命題。

首先,展覽「台灣總督府工業研究所」中的《高砂》,即極佳地映現

出許家維的拿手絕活。自《鐵甲元帥》系列以降,直至《廢墟情報 局》與《白色大樓》系列,藝術家對表演情有獨鍾。《鐵甲元帥》

中閩劇唱腔吟唱打油詩與驅魔儀式儺舞、《廢墟情報局》中哈努曼

(Hanuman)木偶戲,及《白色大樓》中柬埔寨魯特琴(Chapei Dong

《高砂》錄像截圖,許家維,2017

History Micro-prober: Chia-Wei Hsu’s “Industrial Research Institute of Taiwan Governor-General's Office”

Industrial Research Institute of Taiwan Governor-General's Office

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Veng)演奏、阿帕撒拉(Apsara)舞蹈與猴子舞,無不是作為體現傳

統與歷史、暴力與當代相互傾軋之下的特殊情狀。簡言之,往往兼備

後設與時空錯置表徵的表演,不是為了招喚已逝的過往或不再的歷史, 就是借古諷今或具有撫慰人心的意義。而在《高砂》中,許家維推進 了調度能劇表演的層次。看似單頻道投影的銀幕,暗藏玄機:框中有 框、畫中有畫、戲中有戲。只見兩位戴著人形面具的老夫妻,一邊回

應未現身的祭司友成與詠唱隊的提問,一邊則吟唱著相生之松分隔兩

地的動人故事。原來能劇表演中的靜態及世阿彌(Motokiyo Zeami,

約 1363- 約 1443)原劇中角色之間的遠距關係,被藝術家藉由一種緩 慢地由左而右的滑軌式「拉幕」方式呈現。由此,框中框的雙頻道音

畫構成既產生了一種劇目上演的特異舞台效果,亦由於淡藍與淡咖啡 色的調色系統而讓畫面上浸染著繪畫般的古典光暈。

值得注意的,此畫中有畫也同時意味著話中有話。許家維援引《高砂》, 用心良苦。它除了是一齣講述化為人形的樹精老夫妻雖心懸兩地,然

而他們的愛情卻恆久不渝的 14 世紀經典能劇,更直接指涉當代藝術

家搬演古典劇碼的地點。這齣由「Global 能樂社」擔綱演出的傳統表

演於平塚市的「高砂香料株式會社」上演,而老夫妻演出的舞台分別 位於工廠的戶外與室內。當高砂遇見高砂,歷史意象蜂擁而至。高砂

香料株式會社並非是一間籍籍無名的香料製造商,它來頭不小,更與

台灣有所淵源。設立於 1920 年的高砂香料株式會社於 1938 年移轉至 台北(大安龍安坡),尤其以冶煉來自殖民地⸺這個早在元和元年

(1615 年)期間即以「高砂國」(タカサグン)稱呼「台灣」⸺的 原料而聞名。如果《高砂》的戲中戲敘述的是關於兩地相隔的愛人天

長地久的情緣,這無非意指著殖民宗主國與殖民地之間不可能遭遇任 何阻撓而被拆散的含義。歌謠中,樹精老夫妻、祭司友成與詠唱隊合

唱「草木雖無心/感戴帝王聖世/土木亦同感」,甚至將此至死靡它、 連枝共塚的愛情提升至對於天皇的效忠。如此一來,「高砂」一詞在

許家維個展「台灣總督府工業研究所」⸺這間尤其於 1939 年 4 月也 即是第二次世界大戰期間成立以提供軍需產業化的研究機構⸺的用 意無疑十分顯著,立意鮮明:一方面,這指向高砂香料株式會社與台 灣工業研究所,以殖民地資源作為開發精油的合作研究;另一方面,

擴大地來檢視「高砂」寓意,這涉及的其實是作為信守不渝的殖民地, 台灣歷經工業化政策導向,及尤其於「總體戰」期間支持日本軍需產 業發展的歷史圖譜。

作為展覽中位在入場顯眼位置的錄像投影《高砂》,故以兼容古代與 當代、後設與時空錯置的巧妙轉化,直截了當地為展名「台灣總督府 工業研究所」破了題。更確切而言,許家維藉由《高砂》所展開的雙

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臺灣總督府工業研究所

歷史微探者:

論許家維「台灣總督府工業研究所」


《飛行器、霜毛蝠、逝者證言》錄像截圖,許家維,2017

重聚合與切換,為展覽中四件和日本殖民史(尤其是第二次世界大戰)

的科學與技術研發項目有關的作品《飛行器、霜毛蝠、逝者證言》、《台 灣總督府工業研究所》、《核衰變計時器》與《統一度假村》,鋪展

了一種不斷往返於紀錄與詩意、歷史與虛構的溯史及塑史的敘事基調。 除了精油的研發,日治時期的工業研究所分別著力於航空燃料所使用

的丁醇發酵技術,及以稀有元素鋯石作為合金用途的探究。《飛行器、 霜毛蝠、逝者證言》以海軍第六燃料廠新竹支廠遺址為背景,透過四 頻道錄像裝置表述了眾聲(生)喧嘩的歷史事件。音畫構成分別呈顯 空拍機拍攝廢棄多時的廠址、棲息於煙囪的霜毛蝠、美軍與中國空軍

轟炸台灣的資料畫面,及尤其 19 位日本員工與戰俘的回憶語聲。顯然,

飛行視覺母題及其從嗡嗡聲到轟隆聲的噪音穿透其間,意象堆疊:在 眼前即是廢墟的景象,既為歷史崩塌的現場,亦為幽靈滋擾的所在。

如果空拍機的探勘與轟炸機空襲畫面之間的交錯,揭露了當時美軍空

中拍攝與中國空軍轟炸台灣等許多不為人知的戰爭實情;如今,年復 一年一再地從北方溫帶南下棲息的霜毛蝠,則成了歷史幽魂回返的詭

譎註腳。而部分摘錄自由林身振與林炳炎編寫的《第六海軍燃料廠探 索:台灣石油/石化工業發展基礎》一書中,以「大部分的檔案,在

投降前夕,就已經放進燃燒爐燒掉了。數量、日期、人物、事件、前 後順序、因果關係,完全沒有依據,只剩下不可靠的模糊印象。這裡 什麼都沒留下,裝置也已經廢棄,要說還有什麼在運轉的話,那就只 有飛行器、霜毛蝠,和逝者證言……」作為溯史的開場白,則為海軍

History Micro-prober: Chia-Wei Hsu’s “Industrial Research Institute of Taiwan Governor-General's Office”

Industrial Research Institute of Taiwan Governor-General's Office

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第六燃料廠在日本戰敗投降之後被中華民國政府接收期間,19 位員工

與戰俘(種種溯及諸如故友、舉辦演場會,及食用圓山動物園的獅子

肉等記憶事件)的話語和歌聲。如果溯史總是一件愈是試圖趨近愈是

更顯遙不可及的事,顯然許家維創造性的藝術實踐,在於讓這些片段 絮語以不可能完整彷彿碎片的形態體現出來。於是,透過電腦程式控 制影像資料庫隨機播放由聲優複述的動人告白,與古今錯置的多頻道

畫面重新糾葛在一起⸺既是記憶的無法追憶,也是記憶的不可轉譯, 更是記憶的不能抑制⸺乃作為藝術家塑史的政治影像。

個展中的一端,以《飛行器、霜毛蝠、逝者證言》代表,是此種非線 性歷史的錯接表述,堪稱詩學檔案。但是,展場裡亦有另一端,則透

過再現與逼真的方式與之對話。以液晶電視螢幕播放的同名短片《台

灣總督府工業研究所》,以結合 3D 動畫與資料影片的作法,還原了 台灣總督府化學部實驗室的室內(工業研究所前身)。值得強調的,

動畫還嵌入了一座播放長崎軍工廠,及 1935 年台灣博覽會民眾參觀飛

機螺旋槳畫面的電視架。這讓我想起許家維在《神靈的書寫》中動用

3D 動畫、Google Map、古寺廟圖檔來繪製鐵甲元帥的「扛乩」,及祂

樂生院-完工照/陳界仁工作室提供

於宋朝時期武夷山上的文曲道觀寺景觀的手法。藝術家有意識地裸露

3D 動畫的數位演算法及構成邏輯,當然總與他擅長於後設與再現、真

實與虛構之間探求的政治影像思維息息相關。與此同時,不可忽略的 還有,隨著運鏡的動畫中被安插進來的兩段資料影片,顯然指陳殖民 現代性的論題。由此,許家維的「台灣總督府工業研究所」分別與陳

界仁在《殘響世界》(2014-16)中的「台灣總督府癩病療養樂生院」 、高俊宏在《博愛》中的「海山煤礦」,乃至李士傑在《冷體計畫》

(2016)中的「台灣電力株式會社」之思辨互通聲息,他們各自透過多

《台灣總督府工業研究所》錄像截圖, 許家維,2017

重視域共同辯證殖民現代性的歷史債務,已成為不同世代的台灣藝術 家積極關注且深刻發展的重要議題。

《神靈的書寫》錄像截圖,許家維,2016 /製片:Le Fresnoy,聯合製片:尊彩藝術中心

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臺灣總督府工業研究所

歷史微探者:

論許家維「台灣總督府工業研究所」


在此脈絡下,《核衰變計時器》是一件非常奇特的作品,它屬於科學 與紀錄的音畫表徵。講得更極端些,從敘述、動畫到桌子和螢幕的陳

設形態,《核衰變計時器》簡直就是一部科普作品。它一開始吸引藝

術家的原因,在於曾謠傳日本人想將在新竹關西馬武督溪河床上發現

具有放射性的鋯石作為核子武器的研發對象。雖然這只是傳言,屬無 稽之談,卻讓藝術家對鋯石作為測定地質年齡並推敲發生板塊運動的

地球史的功能發生了興趣。《核衰變計時器》即以 2D 動畫視覺化地 球史生成的進程,千百萬年的演化史瞬間成形。其中,最有趣的段落, 莫過於許家維擔綱旁白講述台灣島浮出海平面,及後來被日本人所採

集到的鋯石標本,即由地殼深處由上被帶往了馬武督溪河床的部分。 小小一顆看似不起眼的礦物除了表徵地質年代學的時間縮影,更成為

斡旋於各種國族敘事的台灣歷史之源起與演變。由此,圍繞於鋯石的 遠與近、虛與實,及真與假的歷史演化,進一步被藝術家以拼貼手法 《核衰變計時器》錄像截圖,許家維,

2017

繪製在一張題為《統一度假村》的攝影上:在如今已成為知名休閒度 假景點的新竹關西馬武督溪河床上,弔詭地拼湊了一幅由各種渡假村 設施、日治時期地質學家手繪的「竹東圖幅」、原子模擬圖、板塊隱

沒示意圖、核電廠模擬圖,及顯微鏡頭下的鋯石巨晶錯置共存的想像 圖景。

經由「台灣總督府工業研究所」,許家維網羅且再造了其作品的所有 題旨與風格,藉由源起與傳說、歷史與當代,並匯融表演與後設、紀

實與虛構。由史前伊始,藝術家的時間變奏曲,於古籍與近代史之間 來回交錯;不僅以橫向進行跨時代的連結,其視域更自上而下,在躍

升與沉澱之間讓時間逐步地降下之際,動態地探源歷史身份與系譜。 此種承上起下的實踐精神,使得藝術家新作以多重形態辯證處於各種 權力仲介下台灣可能的生成態勢。 《核衰變計時器》電子微探針模型, 許家維,2017

History Micro-prober: Chia-Wei Hsu’s “Industrial Research Institute of Taiwan Governor-General's Office”

或許,展場中那一台用來測定礦物成份以便定年的模型「電子微探

儀」,可視之為許家維及其個展的貼切寫照:台灣歷史微探者的自畫像。

Industrial Research Institute of Taiwan Governor-General's Office

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Marshal Tie Jia – Jingsi Village, Chia-Wei Hsu,

2013 (film still)

Leading up to the solo exhibition of “Huai Mo Village,” Chia-Wei Hsu’s imagery politics and political imagery had already taken shape, and are unique in every way. Hsu’s film work (The Story of Hoping Island (2008), Huatung Village (2009), Marshal Tie Jia – Turtle Island (2012), Marshal Tie Jia – Jingsi Village (2013) to Huai Mo Village (2012) and Memorial Chamber of the Intelligence Bureau (2015)) shows that he has crafted a set of skills that have allowed him to uncover closed chapters and made use of heterogeneity to derive historical topics. And, within a year of organizing “Huai Mo Village,” Hsu exhibited his new series of works Spirit-writing (2016) at the Taipei Biennial of 2016 and White Building (2016) in the group exhibition, “RIVERRUN.” These new artworks, on the one hand continued the Open-Contemporary Art Centre members’ tradition of getting results from long term field research in South East Asia, while on the other hand, the foundation built atop the aforementioned historical implications was transformed by events occurring at the various sites, debating the unforgettable proposition of reality. Takasago, from the “Industrial Research Institute of Taiwan's Governor-General's Office” exhibition, succinctly demonstrated Hsu’s best techniques. Within Takasago, Hsu furthered the level of Noh performance. His simple single channel projector hid secrets: there were frames within frames, picture within picture, acts within acts. All we saw was an old masked couple, replying to questions from priests and singing troupes that have yet to appear on stage, and singing the tale of two pine trees that were joined together by their branches, but forced apart. Noh drama’s static states and what Motokiyo Zeami (est. 1363-est. 1443) refers to as the distance between characters, have been demonstrated via a “drawn curtain,” pulled slowly across from the left. Through that, the frame within frame’s dual channel sound painting created a particularly special stage effect, and left a painting-like classical halo in a mixture of light blue and light brown. Of note, the picture in picture hints at messages within messages. Hsu cited Takasago for very good reasons. It is not only a classic 14th century Noh drama based on a fairy tale of two tree spirits with human forms, though separated physically, whose love transcended time, but it directly refers to current generations of artists recreating

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臺灣總督府工業研究所

歷史微探者:

論許家維「台灣總督府工業研究所」


Ruins of the Intelligence Bureau, Chia-Wei

White Building – Kong Nay, Chia-Wei Hsu,

Hsu, 2015 (film still), Produced by Le Fresnoy

2016 (film still)

classical drama. This traditional performance by Global Nougakusha, was on display at Takasago International Corporation, in Hiratsuka, Japan, while the old couple’s stages were in separate places at the factory, one indoors, and the other, outdoors. When Takasago met Takasago, historical images came to the fore. Takasago International Corporation is not a nameless spices manufacturer, but a company with deep roots in Taiwan. Established in 1920, the company moved to Taipei in 1938 (Daan Long An Po), and it was famed for processing raw materials from colonies (as early as 1615, the first year of the Genna era, Taiwan had given it the name of Takasakun). If the drama within drama of Takasago was alluding to the everlasting love between two lovers fated to be apart from each other forever, then it no doubt also hints at the non-existence of any power that can separate colonial empires and its colonies. In its lyrics, the old tree spirit couple, priest and singing troupe, all sang together, “though the grass and trees do not have a heart,” “bless the emperor’s reign,” and “the earth and the trees felt the same way,” and even kept this belief to their death, elevating that their intertwined love matched their loyalty to the emperor. As such, the name Takasago in Hsu’s solo exhibition “Industrial Research Institute of Taiwan Governor-General's Office,” carries a very distinct purpose: on the one hand, it points to the Industrial Research Institute of Taiwan Governor-General's Office, which was founded in April 1939 during

Takasago, Chia-Wei Hsu, 2017 (film still)

History Micro-prober: Chia-Wei Hsu’s “Industrial Research Institute of Taiwan Governor-General's Office”

Industrial Research Institute of Taiwan Governor-General's Office

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Drones, Frosted Bats and the Testimony of the Deceased, Chia-Wei Hsu, 2017 (film still)

World War II to provide military supplies research, along with Takasago International Corporation’s collaborative research to exploit the colony’s resources to make essential oils; and on the other hand, it extended the investigation into the meaning behind Takasago, which relates to Taiwan’s history as an unwavering, loyal colony that experienced industrialization, and during total war period supported Japan’s military resource development. Situated at the most conspicuous spot of the exhibition, video projection Takasago, combines the ancient and contemporary, along with the ingenious conversion of misplaced time and space, creates an obvious connection between the name of the exhibition “Industrial Research Institute of Taiwan Governor-General's Office” and history. More precisely, through Hsu’s clever convergence and divergence of Takasago, he lays a narrative foundation that constantly trace back to documentaries, poetry, history, and fabricated memoirs for his four Japanese colonial scientific and technological development projects (mostly regarding World War II): Drones, Frosted Bats and the Testimony of the Deceased, Industrial Research Institute of Taiwan Governor-General's Office, Nuclear Decay Timer, and Uni-Resort. Other than the research and development of essential oils, industrial research during Japanese Occupation focused on aviation fuel’s butanol fermentation techniques and using the rare element, zircon, as an alloy. Drones, Frosted Bats and the Testimony of the Deceased, with the navy’s number six fuel factory in Hsinchu as the backdrop, made use of four recording channels to illustrate the historical heteroglossia event. The sound painting component created through drone photography, imagery of ruined factories, frosted bats living in chimneys, the bombing of Taiwan by the American and Chinese air forces, and the historical memories of nineteen Japanese workers and prisoners of war. Clear flight visuals and their associated sounds (the Ong Ong! and Hong Long! of engine noises and explosions) were used to string together an array of images: before our eyes came images of ruins, the sites of history’s collapse where the spirits linger. Just as the crisscrossing of drone exploration and bomber air-raids uncovered the untold war-time truths related to the US air force's air photography and the Chinese air force's bombing of Taiwan, now, year after year, the frosted bats’ annual migration from the north to the south, has become a treacherous footnote to the return of historical spirits.

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臺灣總督府工業研究所

Industrial Research Institute of Taiwan Governor-General's Office, Chia-Wei Hsu,

2017 (film still)

歷史微探者:

論許家維「台灣總督府工業研究所」


Spirit-writing, Chia-Wei Hsu, 2016 (film still), Produced by Le Fresnoy, co-produced by Liang Gallery

Part of the introduction that traced this history came from Lin Shen-Zheng and Lin Bin-Yan’s books The History of the Sixth Naval Fuel Plant, and the Taiwan Petroleum / Foundation Development of Petrochemical Industry: “At the end of the war, most of the documents were burned in an incinerator on the eve of surrender. All evidence of the quantities, dates, persons, accidents, sequence, cause and effect relationship has been completely lost, and only a vague and unreliable image remains. Nothing else remains here, and the equipment has been abandoned. The only things that are still moving are drones, frosted bats, and the testimonies of the deceased.” those being the voices and music of the nineteen employees and prisoners of war (events and memories of old friends, concerts, and the eating of lion meat at Yuanshan Zoo) during the reoccupation period by the Republic of China government post-Japanese surrender. If the truth about tracing history is that the closer you get, the further you are, then Hsu’s creative fine art practice should be presented as paraphernalia, rather than as a complete

Blueprint of Losheng Sanatorium / Courtesy of Chen Chieh-Jen Studio History Micro-prober: Chia-Wei Hsu’s “Industrial Research Institute of Taiwan Governor-General's Office”

Industrial Research Institute of Taiwan Governor-General's Office

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piece of work. So, through the intertwined entanglement of the voice actors’ moving confessions, randomly played by a computer program controlling a video database with channels with different timelines – the impossibilities of clawing back memories, the impossibilities of translating memories, and the impossibilities of suppressing memories – it becomes painfully obvious that artists shape history through political imagery. One side of the solo exhibition was represented by Drones, Frosted Bats and the Testimony of the Deceased, a false description of non-linear history, and was filed under poetics. But the exhibition also had another side, where recreated conversations were realistic. A short film named after the exhibition, Industrial Research Institute of Taiwan Governor-General's Office, was displayed on LCD TV. It integrated 3D animation and documentary techniques to recreate the interior of the chemical research lab within the Taiwan Governor-General’s Office (predecessor to today’s Industrial Technology Research Institute). Of note was the fact that the animation included a TV stand that displayed images of Nagasaki military installations and commoners looking at aircraft rotary engines during the 1935 Taiwan Exposition. This made me think about the 3D animation, Google Map, and the images of old temples used to recreate Marshal Tie Jia’s Kang Ji chair ritual in Spirit-Writing, and the scenery technique from the Song Dynasty’s Wenqu Daoist Temple on Wuyi Mountain. The artist knowingly exposed 3D animation’s algorithms and composition logic, and of course this was closely tied to his thinking concerning political imagery that he mastered when seeking between the meta and reproduction, reality and the virtual. At the same time, it is important to not disregard the two documentary films that were added through camera movements, clearly alluding to the issues of colonialism in today’s world. As such, the critical thinking message from Hsu’s Industrial Research Institute of Taiwan Governor-General's Office echoes that of Chen Chieh-Jen Losheng Sanatorium for Lepers of the Governor-General of Taiwan in Realm of Reverberations, 2014-2016, Kao Jun-Honn’s Yamamoto Coal Mine in Bo Ai, and Lee Shih-Chieh’s Taiwan Power Company in Project Coldware, 2016. They each made use of multiple perspectives to together conduct dialectics on the historical debt of colonial modernity, and have become a topic of intense interest for artists of different generations.

Nuclear Deacy Timer, Chia-Wei Hsu,

2017 (film still)

Under this context, Nuclear Decay Timer, is a very unique piece of work: it is a sound painting representative of science and recording, and at its most extreme, from descriptions, animations, to the way the tables and screens are furnished, Nuclear Decay Timer is basically an entire science project. The reason it held the interest of the artist is because of a rumor that the Japanese wanted to turn zircon found in the riverbed of the Ma'oto River in Guanxi, Hsinchu, radioactive. Even though this is just a rumor without proof, it influenced the artist becoming interested in zircon’s ability to determine geological age and geological movements. Nuclear Decay Timer used 2D animation to present the Earth’s formation visually, and instantly recreated the transformation that took millions of years. Within, the most interesting part was when Hsu narrated the rising of Taiwan from the sea floor, the discovery of the zircon specimen, which was carried from the depths of the crust to the Ma'oto riverbed, by the Japanese. Such a little, unremarkable, mineral rock represented more than just the timelapse of geology, but became the cornerstone of various nations’ narrative of Taiwan’s beginnings and transformations. From there, the far and close, virtual and physical, and real and unreal nature of historical transformation revolving around the zircon, took

18

臺灣總督府工業研究所

歷史微探者:

論許家維「台灣總督府工業研究所」


Nuclear Decay Timer, Chia-Wei Hsu, 2017 (film still)

a further step and turned into a photo collage named Uni-Resort by the artist: on the now famous holiday destination of Ma'oto riverbed, an imaginary picture, seemingly displaced but paradoxically put together, had various resort facilities, a Zhudong Map (Tikutō Sheet) hand-drawn by a geologist from the Japanese occupation period, a nuclear model diagram, a geological plate subduction diagram, a nuclear power plant model diagram, and a picture of the macro-crystalline structure of zircon. Through “Industrial Research Institute of Taiwan Governor-General's Office” Hsu brought together and recreated all of the themes and styles of his artworks via origin stories and folklore, both historical and contemporary, and integrated both performance art and the meta, documentary and fiction. Integrating even prehistoric times, the artist’s time varied form criss-crossed between ancient texts and modern history. Not only did it take a step to connecting across generations, but its top-down perspective dynamically uncovered historical roles and genealogy between the rising and sinking, with time gradually falling away. This practice of continuity, allows the artist’s new work to critically consider, in various ways, the conditions under which Taiwan could have formed, under the influence of various agents of power. Perhaps, the exhibition’s model of the electronic micro-prober, used to determine mineral makeup and age, can be seen as a suitable portrayal of Hsu and his own solo exhibition: the self-portrait of a Taiwanese history micro-prober.

History Micro-prober: Chia-Wei Hsu’s “Industrial Research Institute of Taiwan Governor-General's Office”

Industrial Research Institute of Taiwan Governor-General's Office

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台灣總督府工業研究所計畫

Industrial Research Institute of Taiwan Governor-General's Office Project


台灣總督府 工業研究所

《台灣總督府工業研究所》是許家維 2017 年的創作,台灣總督府工業研究所這

個單位的出現,主要是台灣在日治時期的歷史發展中,因其殖民地工業化的政 策導向,原意設立工業試驗所。前期雖然有「工業化」建設之美好遠景,一時

新興產業紛然而起,研究機構也建立協助支援之技術能量,然時局丕變,隨著 二戰情勢的演變,導致工業傾向於軍需產業化,研究機構也不得不成為「總體

戰」中科學動員之研究機構。因此日本內閣在 1938 年 1 月決定「生產力擴充計

畫」,工業試驗所之構想和中央研究所工業部之擴充結合為一,並於 1939 年 4 月成立工業研究所。

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臺灣總督府工業研究所

台灣總督府工業研究所計畫


Industrial Research Institute of Taiwan Governor-General's Office Chia-Wei Hsu’s Industrial Research Institute of Taiwan Governor-General's Office is a series of works created in 2017. The institute, originally designed as an industrial research lab, was established in accordance with the colonial government’s industrial policy during the Japanese occupation in Taiwan. With such a prospect of industrialization to begin with, the movement welcomed a series of modern industries, while academic institutes offered as much technological assistance as was needed. However, the political situation around the world, especially the shifting tensions of World War II, required an urgent attention to industrialize military supplies, including research institutes that were roused to action in

Industrial Research Institute of Taiwan Governor-General's Office Project

Industrial Research Institute of Taiwan Governor-General's Office

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由於殖民地資源開發的需求,以及總體戰的壓力之下,工業研究所在短時間內 產出了大量的研究項目。綜合起來所產生的研究範疇,大致可以歸類為五項:

航空燃料、稀有元素、油脂、陶瓷器、調味料。航空燃料和稀有元素皆為軍需 物資,而另外還包括台灣自給自足之研究領域,諸如陶瓷器與油脂、調味料等,

以備戰局變動台灣一旦成為孤立無援之緊急狀況。此時的工業研究所在不同的 研究領域上皆有進展,這是台灣在科技發展上大躍進的階段。然而,這段歷史

隨著美軍轟炸以及國民政府將原址改建為空軍總部後,也逐漸地被遺忘與改寫。 這個創作計劃以工業研究所當時的三個主要研究項目作為主題,成為一個特殊 的研究切入點,得以從科學與技術史的角度詮釋殖民歷史。所涉及的內容分別

是航空燃料所使用的丁醇發酵技術,連結了二戰時期位於新竹的海軍第六燃料 廠;當時以鋯石的稀有元素作為合金用途的研究,連結了今日地質學家的進一 步發展;以及研究所與台北的高砂香料株式會社所合作的精油研究。透過這三

個研究項目其中所涉及的科學及工業發展的變遷脈絡,發展出三件迥異但卻相 互交織的錄像裝置。 24

臺灣總督府工業研究所

台灣總督府工業研究所計畫


the middle of total war. Industrial policy responded quickly as the cabinet in Japan authorized “Productivity Expansion Project” in the January of 1938 by combining the plan of the indusial lab and the expansion project of the Industrial Department at the Central industrial Research Institute into the Industrial Research Institute, which was soon established in the April of 1939. Due to the need for developing the natural resources of the colony and the tension of total war, the Industrial Research Institute immediately introduced several research projects, including five major categories as follows: aviation fuels, trace elements, oils, ceramics, and seasonings. The first two were military necessities, while the other categories, such as ceramics, oils, and seasonings, were research projects concerning local resources which Taiwan was self-sufficient in, in case Taiwan was isolated in the war. During this period, the Industrial Research Institute had made impressive progress in various fields, and Taiwan had also taken a big step forward in terms of technological development. Unfortunately, this episode of history has been forgotten and rewritten when the island was bombed by the United States and the Industrial Research Institute was later changed into the Nationalist Government’s Air Force Command Headquarters.

Industrial Research Institute of Taiwan Governor-General's Office Project

Industrial Research Institute of Taiwan Governor-General's Office

25


Three major research categories of the Industrial Research Institute is the theme for this art project, for that they provide a unique perspective for us to look into colonization history through the progress of science and technology. The works touch upon the butanol fermentation technology used to produce aviation fuels, the rare elements of zircon used in alloy production technology, and the collaborative research with Takasago International Corporation on the ingredients for perfume and fragrance, while the three topics are respectively connected with the abandoned site of Hsinchu Branch of the Sixth Japanese Naval Fuel Plant and contemporary geologists’ recent developments. Through these three projects reflecting the development of science and industry at the time, Hsu creates three different but mutually corresponding video installations.

26

臺灣總督府工業研究所

台灣總督府工業研究所計畫


Industrial Research Institute of Taiwan Governor-General's Office Project

Industrial Research Institute of Taiwan Governor-General's Office

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臺灣總督府工業研究所

台灣總督府工業研究所計畫


Industrial Research Institute of Taiwan Governor-General's Office Project

Industrial Research Institute of Taiwan Governor-General's Office

29


《台灣總督府工業研究所》 Industrial Research Institute of Taiwan Governor-General's Office 單頻道錄像裝置/ Single -channel video installation 3’00’’、2017 共六版 +2AP / 6 editions+2AP

30

臺灣總督府工業研究所

《台灣總督府工業研究所》


這件作品是透過兩張 1911 年的

老照片所繪製的 3D 動畫,照片 拍攝地點是台灣總督府化學部的

實驗室室內,此機構是工業研究

所的前身。3D 動畫描繪了老照 片中的可視範圍,隨著動畫的運

鏡,在透視轉變之後裸露出 3D 動畫背後的結構。動畫中嵌入了 一座電視架,電視中播放的是日

治時期的軍工廠畫面,以及 1930 年代的博覽會畫面。這些畫面呈 現了當時對於科技的展示,追求 現代性的慾望與帝國主義背後的 關聯。

Industrial Research Institute of Taiwan Governor-General's Office

This 3D animation is based on two photographs taken in 1911 in the chemistry laboratories of the Taiwan Governor-General’s Office, the predecessor of what we know of today as the Industrial Research In s t i t u t e . T h e 3 D a n i m a t i o n illustrates the visual ranges of these old photographs through skillful camera movements, revealing the construction of the 3D animation as the perspectives change accordingly. A TV stand is also included in the animation – showing clips of a military factory from the Japanese colonial period and views of an expo in the 1930s. These recordings present the technological displays at the time and the desire to seek modernity, along with underlying Imperialism associations.

Industrial Research Institute of Taiwan Governor-General's Office

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臺灣總督府工業研究所

《台灣總督府工業研究所》


Industrial Research Institute of Taiwan Governor-General's Office

Industrial Research Institute of Taiwan Governor-General's Office

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臺灣總督府工業研究所

《台灣總督府工業研究所》


Industrial Research Institute of Taiwan Governor-General's Office

Industrial Research Institute of Taiwan Governor-General's Office

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《飛行器、霜毛蝠、逝者證言》 Drones, Frosted Bats and the Testimony of the Deceased 四頻道錄像裝置/ Four-channel video installation 3’40” ~ 8’40’’、2017 共六版 +2AP / 6 editions+2AP

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臺灣總督府工業研究所

《飛行器、霜毛蝠、逝者證言》


《飛行器、霜毛蝠、逝者證言》

與中國的盟軍轟炸台灣,隨著政

址為背景,這間二戰時期的軍工

蓋。藝術家將飛行物的意象作為

是以海軍第六燃料廠新竹支廠遺

廠,是透過台灣總督府工業研究 所的發酵工業部所研發的丁醇生

產技術,以生產航空器所用的燃 料,在戰火的摧殘下,廢棄的建

貫穿作品的元素,包括工廠作為 生產飛機燃料的原始用途,以及 空拍機、蝙蝠、轟炸機。

築體上有無數彈痕見證了它的過

影片旁白源自於當時工廠員工的

拍機的特殊視點穿梭其間拍攝,

白,由四位配音員以日文錄製,

去。在這件創作中,藝術家以空 一方面空拍機做為裸露的攝影機

具,另一方面也作為影片中的演 員,以擬人化的方式呈現。除了

空拍機所拍攝的畫面之外,還包 括了不同的素材來源,其一是大 煙囪內的霜毛蝠畫面,霜毛蝠主

要分布於日本、韓國與中國大陸 華北等高緯度地區,在不知名的 原因之下,近幾年此北方物種每 年五月至七月皆會到軍工廠的大

煙囪裡產子,也成為台灣唯一的

霜毛蝠棲息地。其二則是二戰期 間的轟炸機影像資料,當時美國

Drones, Frosted Bats and the Testimony of the Deceased

權轉移後,這段歷史也隨之被掩

回 憶 錄, 總 共 有 十 九 篇 口 述 旁 並透過電腦程式隨機播放。影像 也同樣是程式自動從影像資料庫

中挑選並即時剪接,每一次的播 放都會產生不同的影片結構,就 如同旁白中所提到的:「大部分 的檔案,在投降前夕,就已經放 進燃燒爐燒掉了。數量、日期、 人物、事件、前後順序、因果關 係,完全沒有依據,只剩下不可 靠的模糊印象。」透過程式的隨 機運算,呈現回憶的模糊不確定 性,並藉以回應那段難以拼湊的 歷史文本。

Industrial Research Institute of Taiwan Governor-General's Office

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Drones, Frosted Bats and the Testimony of the Deceased is filmed at the abandoned site of Hsinchu

Branch of the Sixth Japanese Naval Fuel Plant. During World War II, the fuel plant was used to produce aviation fuel with butyl alcohol developed by the Department of Industrial Fermentation at the Industrial Research Institute. As a victim of the war, the deserted buildings reveal the stories of the past with the bullet holes on the walls as the eyewitness. The bullet holes on these deserted buildings reveal atrocities of war – scars evident of their pasts. Hsu utilizes the unique mobile perspectives of a drone, using it as exposed photographic equipment and casting it as an actor anthropomorphically in the video. Aside from the shots taken by the drone, this video also includes several different shots, for instance, a scene of frosted bats in a big chimney. Frosted bats are mostly found in the high latitudes of Japan, Korea, and North China. Yet, for unknown reasons, this northern species of frosted bats resides in the chimney of the military plant from

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臺灣總督府工業研究所

《飛行器、霜毛蝠、逝者證言》


voice actors in Japanese and the video archive manipulated by a computer program are arranged randomly on the playlist to constantly shift the structure of the video. As the narrator recounts: “At the end of the war, most of the documents were burned in an incinerator on the eve of surrender. All evidence of the quantities, dates, persons, accidents, sequence, cause and effect relationship has been completely lost, and only a vague and unreliable image remains.�

May to July in recent years. The plant is the only place where the frosted bats can be found in Taiwan. Moreover, the video contains footages of bombers from World War II when the United States allied with China to bomb Taiwan. However, this incident slowly faded as authorities shifted in the Asia-Pacific region. Hsu uses imageries of flying objects as essential elements of this video, including the original function of the fuel plant as an aviation fuel producer, drones, bats, and bombers. The video narration originated from memoirs of factory employees at the time. Nineteen oral accounts dubbed by four

Drones, Frosted Bats and the Testimony of the Deceased

Industrial Research Institute of Taiwan Governor-General's Office

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臺灣總督府工業研究所

《飛行器、霜毛蝠、逝者證言》


Drones, Frosted Bats and the Testimony of the Deceased

Industrial Research Institute of Taiwan Governor-General's Office

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大部分的檔案,在投降前夕,就已經放進燃燒爐燒掉了。 數量、日期、人物、事件、前後順序、因果關係,完全沒有依據, 只剩不可靠的模糊印象。 這裡什麼都沒留下,裝置也已經廢棄, 要說還有什麼在運轉的話,那就只有飛行器、霜毛蝠,和逝者證言。

♪ 花也是花蕾的幼櫻花, 帶著五尺的生命, 為國家大事犧牲, 是我等學徒之體面, 阿!鮮紅的血在燃燒, 在這歌聲中被送出校門是昭和 19(1944)年 7 月下旬。 隨著山本五十六大將戰死,國難已到這種地步, 感覺深入身心而步上學徒動員之途。 「離畢業還有 9 個月,但是時局至此,沒有國家,學校、家都不可 能存在」。 各懷必勝信心與七生報國(轉世七次也要報效國家)的決心, 「在動員的地方要努力奮鬥」,此番校長激勵我們的話猶在耳邊, 8 月 1 日早上,在舊城火車站集合。 同學包括應用化學、機械、電氣各科共約 20 名, 搭上在那裡等待,印有海軍軍徽的卡車進入六燃工廠。

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臺灣總督府工業研究所

《飛行器、霜毛蝠、逝者證言》


At the end of the war, most of the documents were burned in an incinerator on the eve of surrender. All evidence of the quantities, dates, persons, accidents, sequence, cause and effect relationship has been completely lost, and only a vague and unreliable image remains. Nothing else remains here, and the equipment has been abandoned. The only things that are still moving are drones, frosted bats, and the testimonies of the deceased.

♪ Like young cherries blossoms still in bud, still brimming with vigor, it is most honorable for us students to sacrifice to ourselves for our country. Ah! How our red blood burns! It was the end of July 1944 when I left the school gate with this song playing. I felt a profound sense of national crisis with the glorious death of Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto, and joined the student mobilization. The word of principal "Only nine months remain until graduation, but we are at a disadvantage. Without the nation, our schools and homes would not exist. Everyone, do your best with conviction of sure victory and willingness to serve your country for seven lives wherever you are assigned during mobilization." I can still clearly remember these words of encouragement from our principal. In early morning of August 1, we gathered at Jiucheng station. There were around 20 of us graduates from the applied chemistry department, mechanical engineering department, and electrical engineering department. We rode on a truck bearing navy insignia into the Sixth Japanese Naval Fuel Plant.

Drones, Frosted Bats and the Testimony of the Deceased

Industrial Research Institute of Taiwan Governor-General's Office

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臺灣總督府工業研究所

《飛行器、霜毛蝠、逝者證言》


Drones, Frosted Bats and the Testimony of the Deceased

Industrial Research Institute of Taiwan Governor-General's Office

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我們立即視察預定用地時,別府少將的構想很具體, 對環境整備也提出很好的遠見。 如現有的樹木如何使其繼續生長,大水池周圍公園化, 水池與池邊要一體化調和,用地內流動的水要上、下游欄起來, 養許多魚做為食用等,不少浪漫又活躍的想法, 心想:「他不是單純的一個武夫」而敬佩不已。 在梯田形的住居預定地散步時, 「想要活用這難得的斜坡進行設計。 雖然我很討厭給整地負責人與管線配置人員造成麻煩, 但等未來綠樹成長起來之際,肯定會覺得這樣的設計才是對的吧。」 我做這樣的提案時,他立即贊成。 我同時建議「在軍官俱樂部預定地有類似苔寺(西芳寺)的石洗手缽般, 根露在地面外的蟠踞樹木,所以在那裡配上石洗手缽 住宿部分造成敷寄屋(すきや)風」(日本茶室稱為數寄屋,建在庭園中), 他的意見是「務必要實現這個構想。」這使得我設計的欲念愈來愈高漲。 在新工廠的主體逐漸顯現時,判任官俱樂部比其他建築先完成, 我們對這個設計十分用心,希望從日本來的人能夠完全沈浸於日本情趣之中, 所以連細部都很用心,外牆也使用烤杉板, 所以一方面做,一方面教第一次接觸的台灣工作人員烤杉板的烤法。 我自己都不由得為完成傑作而自負。

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臺灣總督府工業研究所

《飛行器、霜毛蝠、逝者證言》


When we soon looked at the plant site, Beppu's ideas were very concrete and constructive, and he also had some excellent ideas concerning site preparation. For example, he believed we could let the existing trees continue to grow, he wanted to make a park around a large reservoir, and harmonize the reservoir and the shore environment. He also suggested that we dam up the flowing water on the site so we could raise fish for food. Hearing his romantic and vivid ideas, I admired him, and thought: "Well, he must not be a simple soldier." When we walked over the terraced fields where houses were planned, I suggested "I'd like to make good use of the slope in design of the homes. Although the personnel in charge of construction and utilities won't like it because it would be troublesome, when trees grow in future, they'll accept this design," and Beppu immediately agreed with me. I also made this recommendation: "In the place where the military club will be, there is a tree whose root is growing above the ground, like the roots around a stone washbasin in Japanese garden. I suggest arranging a stone washbasin there, and make the lodging section be in the sukiya style." His opinion was "I really want you to realize these plans." This support made me determined to fulfill my design plans. As the structure of the new factory gradually emerged, the junior officer's club was completed before the other buildings. We put the greatest effort in this building's design because we wanted people from Japan to be able to immerse themselves in the Japanese spirit and every detail of the club. We even used baked cedar planks, which was the first time the Taiwanese carpenters learned how to use cedar planks. We couldn't help but be proud of completing this masterwork.

Drones, Frosted Bats and the Testimony of the Deceased

Industrial Research Institute of Taiwan Governor-General's Office

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日本國內是採竹槍戰法,在台灣則計劃採化學的火焰戰法, 並企劃在高雄製造火焰放射機用燃料。 為試驗此種燃料之效率要試作火焰放射機,得到修理工廠之支援而進入實施階段。 容器使用大型(附輪子)及小型(手提式)泡沫滅火器, 炸藥則從陸軍部隊轉讓的砲彈中取下的火藥。 記得是在一個滂沱大雨,天色變得幾近黑暗的日子, 從疏散到鄉下的倉庫中接過砲彈,戰戰競競地拔除火藥。 在火焰放射機試作中最傷腦筋的是燃料噴射與點火的連動裝置, 有時噴射了燃料點火裝置卻不動,有時點火裝置動了燃料卻噴不出來。 接著操心的是要如何使火焰飛遠。這兩件都在試作階段時停戰了。 某一個沒睡好的晚上,黎明時分被宿舍的敲門聲吵醒。 據報告,海岸油槽輸送中的燃料重油從管線的接縫處漏了。 急忙跑到現場一看,邊溝不用說,廣大的用地上都沒有落腳的空間,滿地都是油。 一滴油是一滴血,油的海看起像是血的海。說起來似乎很誇張,但是小心如我, 已有被送軍法議處的心理準備,但這件事最後卻沒有獲得任何進一步消息。 因漏油,用地內及邊溝瘧疾蚊好像都死光了, 但是人罰(懲戒、處分)沒有,卻是天罰難免, 我患了瘡疾,還記得持續三、四天 40 度的高燒,天花板好像在旋轉的感覺。

735 工場倉庫原料的蔗糖堆積如山,735 的發酵槽運作不太穩定, 有時會發生把原料液排入河中的情況。 原料液槽大概都還在建造中,好像行道樹一樣排列著。

735 的蒸餾裝置是將原料液塔堆積而成,用鋼索一個個吊上去堆積。 我們是以特別幹部技術員的身分進入工廠, 但每日所做是利用刮刀與銼刀清除鐵鏽、削角,以及使用榔頭敲打的工作。 也利用竹子製作燈火管制用的覆蓋物。 每日辛苦的工作、加班、值夜,還要對抗瘧疾等病及空襲, 加上吃的量少尚需與肚子餓對抗,每一天都非常不輕鬆。 但是 735 待機室有南靜枝小姐、小野富美子小姐、 竹之內和子小姐等年輕貌美的小姐們在工作, 我們對這幾位小姐各取個綽號來緩和一下心中緊張。 據說他們都是新竹高女(高等女學校)、台北第一高女畢業的。

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臺灣總督府工業研究所

《飛行器、霜毛蝠、逝者證言》


Bamboo spears were to be used to fight in Japan, and we planned to use chemical flame devices in Taiwan. Plans called for the fuel for a kind of flamethrower to be produced in Kaohsiung. It was necessary to first produce a flamethrower so that the effectiveness of the fuel could be tested. We started to implement these plans with the support of the repair factory. We used the canisters of large foam fire extinguishers (with wheels) and small, handheld fire extinguishers as the containers, and employed the explosive from artillery shells as the charge. I remembered that we received the shells at a local warehouse on the evening of a rainy day, and then took out the explosive with great anxiety. The most difficult thing was the linkage between the flamethrower's fuel spray and ignition mechanisms. When the fuel spray was effective, ignition did not work, and vice versa. The second difficult thing was to throw flame as far as possible. However, the war ended while we were starting to improve the design. I woke up at dawn one day after someone had knocked very loudly on the door of the billet. According to the report, a heavy fuel oil pipeline near the coast had sprung a leak from one of its junctions. I went there as soon as possible. A lot of oil had leaked and covered a large area. In those days, a drop of oil was a drop of blood. So I saw the sea of oil as a sea of blood. Although I prepared for a trial by court�martial because of this leak, the incident caused no further problems for me. Because of the oil leak, the malaria-carrying mosquitoes in the billet and nearby ditches were entirely wiped out. But although I avoided discipline for the leak, fate caught up with me in the form of an ulcerating illness. I had dizziness and a fever of 40°C for 2 or 3 days at that time.

A mountain of sugar used as a raw material had been piled up in 735 warehouse, but the operation of the 735 fermentation tanks was very unstable, and sometimes the raw material liquid was discharged into a river. Many raw material tanks were under construction, and these were arranged in a line, like a row of trees. The 735 distillation apparatus consisted of fluid distillation towers, which had been placed on top of each other using steel cables. Although we entered the plant as special technical workers, we spent our time scraping rust off with scrapers and chisels, chamfering corners with scrapers and files, and pounding on the metal with hammers. We also made bamboo covers to block the lamps when we had blackouts. Our daily hard work, overtime, and night work, diseases like malaria, air raids, and small food rations made very difficult for us. However, the young and beautiful girls Shizue Minami, Tomiko Ono, and Kazuko Takenouchi worked in the 735 office, and we gave them lovely nicknames to relieve our tension. I heard that they had graduated from Hsinchu Girls' School or the Taipei First Girls' School.

Drones, Frosted Bats and the Testimony of the Deceased

Industrial Research Institute of Taiwan Governor-General's Office

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戰敗後,由於伊藤大尉及主計科各位的籌謀,沒有什麼餓肚子的感覺, 只是日子一久身體自然會察覺需要蛋白質。 誰發現的不知道,據說流經廠內農業用水圳有石斑魚。 在倉庫附近有蛙,以蛙為餌釣起來效果還不錯, 庫存有椰子油,所以使用油炸,雖稍有異味,但總算填飽了食慾。 吃異樣食物的故事也有,吃狗肉等的勇士也有。 據說紅毛狗尤其美味。 我的體質無法配合蛇肉,只要看到身體肌肉會收縮而僵硬,但也吃過一次蛇肉。 看過料理蛇肉的場面,一公尺以上的傢伙一瞬間被剝皮而成為白色的身體。 蛇被切成兩公分長,做成燒烤食物。 因為蛇是吃在甘蔗園成長的老鼠,應該不至於不好吃, 一方面有關含酒精飲料,很早便由農藝化學畢業的軍官們為大家處理。 使用糖與副原料所製造乙醇,脫臭不易,但因為以糖蜜做原料所以味道很好, 從近鄰的專賣局拿到雪莉酒用的橡樹桶,透過把桶削成碎片用來著色, 造出好喝的威士忌酒,這些人手法真是高明。

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臺灣總督府工業研究所

《飛行器、霜毛蝠、逝者證言》


Thanks to the efforts of Captain Ito and the purser department, I did not experience any hunger after our surrender. However, as days passed, my body had a growing need for protein. I don't know who discovered this, but there were groupers living in the irrigation ditches that passed through our plant. I used frogs living near the warehouse as bait to catch groupers, and I caught many groupers that way. We used coconut oil from the warehouse to fry the fish; although it had a strange taste, the fish satisfied our hunger. I can tell a few stories about eating strange things; some of the bolder individuals ate dog, and it was said that red dog was delicious. Although I never took to eating snake, and my muscles would tense up whenever I saw it, I did eat snake once. I saw that someone cooked a snake that was more than a meter in length. It was skinned quickly, leaving its white body. After this, it was cut into sections 2 cm in length, and served with roasted. This snake apparently ate rats living in sugarcane fields, and it was supposedly delicious. However, I found it to be bland and not really delicious. On the other hand, officers who graduated with a degree in agricultural chemistry managed to produce alcohol. It was difficult to deodorize this ethanol produced using sugar and other ingredients, however. But because it was made using molasses, the alcohol had a delicious taste. We got some oak casks used for sherry from the nearby Monopoly Bureau office, then cut them up and used the pieces to color the alcohol. As a result, we made whiskey, which went down well. I thought they were extremely clever to make whiskey.

Drones, Frosted Bats and the Testimony of the Deceased

Industrial Research Institute of Taiwan Governor-General's Office

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♪「湯島通れば思いだす(過湯島曾想起 ......)」 那湯島天神的旋律,給了要從新高返國的我一種特別的回憶。 我們已受中國方面接收,附近的台中航空隊, 將兵 2000 人也被解除武裝下了山丘,並分住於我們燃料廠宿舍, 但因覺得這樣下去會影響大家士氣, 所以由航空隊主辦,在夜空之下舉辦了野外演劇會。 在士兵之中富於演藝才能的人很多,喜劇及次郎長物語都能使大家開心。 接近終場所推出「湯島天神」中的「阿蔦」與「力」兩個角色, 打扮成女人的水兵,比女人還像女人,除了驚異這些女裝從那裡準備來的之外, 忽然湧起對日本的思念之情。

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臺灣總督府工業研究所

《飛行器、霜毛蝠、逝者證言》


♪ “Yushima Toreba Omoidasu...” The song Yushima Tenjin left me with special memories after I left Xingao. We had already been through hand-over procedures, and two thousand soldiers who had been disarmed came down from the hill and were quartered in the dormitories at the Fuel Plant. To raise their spirits, the air corps performed a theatrical play under the night sky. Some of soldiers were good at acting, so they performed a comedy and the play "Jiro Cho Butsu," which delighted the audience. Afterwards, the tragedy "Otsuta, Chikara," by Yushima Tenjin, was performed. A sailor who played a woman seemed more feminine than a real woman. Apart from wondering where the woman's clothing had come from, I suddenly missed Japan after watching these performances.

Drones, Frosted Bats and the Testimony of the Deceased

Industrial Research Institute of Taiwan Governor-General's Office

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昭和 19(1944)年 1 月到了台北機場,預定在當日夜車到高雄履任。 離火車開車還有段很長的時間, 所以去造訪同行的梅村技術大尉姊姊家(台北市長官邸), 這時看到一件事。 因戰況惡化,台北動物園正在依次射殺動物。 這一天獅子肉分配到市長官邸。 這是因為怕空襲時鐵欄被破壞,猛獸跑出來的必要措施,他們會使用電擊的方法, 就是為了珍惜這些肉,現在是戰爭時期啊,死去動物的肉不能浪費。 獅子、老虎和熊的肉都分配給市議員和一些高層人士。 當時是否吃過獅子肉記不起來了,但這是段懷念的回憶。

On January 1944, I arrived at Taipei Airport, and planned to travel to my post in Kaohsiung that night. That day we visited the house of Technical Captain Umemura's sister (the Taipei mayor's house) because we had plenty of time until our departure. At that time, the war situation was deteriorating, and animals in Taipei Zoo were killed one after another. This was done to ensure that no fierce animals escaped if their cages were damaged in an air raid. And in order to not waste any meat during wartime, the animals were killed by electrocution. On that day, meat from a lion was sent to the mayor's house. All the meat of lions and tigers was distributed to city councilman and top officials. I could not remember whether I ate a lion's meat or not, but this is how I remembered what happened at the time.

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臺灣總督府工業研究所

《飛行器、霜毛蝠、逝者證言》


Drones, Frosted Bats and the Testimony of the Deceased

Industrial Research Institute of Taiwan Governor-General's Office

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臺灣總督府工業研究所

《高砂》


《高砂》 Takasago 單頻道錄像裝置/ Single-channel video installation 9’20’’、2017 共六版 +2AP / 6 editions+2AP

《高砂》是結合了日本的能劇以及日本一間迄今仍在經營的香水公司 兩種看似不相干的元素發展其創作。1920 年代高砂香料工業株式會社 成立後,為拓展業務,並受官方支持與中央研究所工業部技術協助, 在台灣設廠,以本地的原物料開發製作香料。高砂香料株式會社名為

「高砂」有兩個原因,其一是舊時日本對台灣的代稱,當時由於原料皆 來自於台灣,於是命名為高砂。其二則是取自高砂這一詞在日本的意

境,在日本室町時代的劇作家世阿彌也有部流傳至今的作品亦稱為《高

砂》,其故事背景是一對化為老夫妻人形的松樹精之間的恩愛與默契, 來表達地域之遙亦無法阻隔彼此。這兩個原因成為香水公司命名的由

來。在這件作品中,藝術家邀請能劇演員在現代化的工廠中演出,而

「高砂」名稱的多義與古老傳說故事的寓意也串結了一種超越歷史記事 的書寫。

Takasago is a video installation combining two seemingly unrelated elements – Noh theatre and a perfume factory currently operating in Japan. Takasago International Corporation was founded in the 1920s in Japan. With the support from the government and technical assistance of the Industrial Department at the Central Industrial Research Institute, it opened its first foreign branch in Taiwan aiming to expand the business, producing perfume and fragrance with local ingredients. The corporation was named Takasago for two reasons. First, owning to the fact that in old times raw materials were imported to Japan from Taiwan, Taiwan was given a Japanese name Takasago. Second, Takasago is also the well-known Noh play by Zeami in the Muromachi era about the lasting love between the twin pines transforming into an old married couple to express that the geographical distance will never separate them. In the work where Noh actors perform in the modern factory, the multiple references of the word “Takasago” and the moral of the ancient tale are connected through a writing beyond the script of history.

Takasago

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(友成) 這位老先生,有一事請教。 (老爺) 您是在叫我們嗎?請問有何貴事? (友成) 請問高砂之松,是指哪棵樹? (老爺) 適才經過綠蔭清雅之樹,便是高砂之松。 (友成) 高砂之松與住吉之松被稱為「相生」。 此地播磨國的高砂,與攝津國的住吉相去甚遠,為 何仍稱「相生之松」呢? (老爺) 如您所知,在《古今集》的假名序中曾提及,「高 砂與住之江的松樹乃從同一樹根分生而來,故被認 為是相生。」順帶一提,我是攝津國住吉的人,這 位老嫗則是本地高砂人。 如果妳也知道其中原委,來向此人說明。 (友成) 這真是不可思議的事。這兩位老人說是夫婦,卻隔 著重山大海,住在相隔遙遠的住吉和高砂,分屬於 兩個國家。究竟是怎麼回事? (老嫗) 容我說句老生常談。即便隔著山川萬里而居,只要 彼此能互通心意,仍舊思念對方,便一點也不遠。

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臺灣總督府工業研究所

《高砂》


(Tomonari) Excuse me, elderly gentleman over there, but would you mind if I ask you a question? (Old Man)

Are you asking us, sir? Of course we do not mind.

(Tomonari)

Which tree is the Takasago Pine?

(Old Man)

Takasago Pine is the one we have just swept beneath.

(Tomonari) Takasago Pine is believed to be a pair (aioi) with Sumiyoshi Pine.

Why are they recognized that way, despite the great distance between Takasago here in Harima Province and Sumiyoshi in Settsu Province?

(Old Man)

As you know, the preface to the KokinshĹŤ tells that pine in Takasago and that in Sumiyoshi grew from one root and split, so people think they are a pair. By the way, I live in Sumiyoshi in Settsu, and this elderly woman is from here, Takasago.

Give these gentlemen some information regarding the Takasago Pine.

(Tomonari) How interesting! Although they are a couple, the old man and woman say that they live distant in Sumiyoshi and Takasago, in different provinces, separated by mountains and oceans. Why does it happen? (Old Woman) Don’t say such foolish things, sir. Even though we live a thousand miles away from each other, separated by peaks and rivers, we do not feel any distance, if we understand each other and our hearts are together.

Takasago

Industrial Research Institute of Taiwan Governor-General's Office

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(老爺)

試請仔細思量。

(老夫婦)

高砂、住吉之松,雖未擁有人類情 感,仍因共存而被稱為「相生」, 更何況我們身為有生命的人類。 多年來已然習慣自住吉跋涉往來, 我倆夫婦與高砂、住吉之松一樣, 至今為止攜手共進,已然是「相生 (相老)的夫婦」了。

(地謠・齊唱) 正如詩歌「拂曉霜正落」所詠,即 便降了霜,此高砂之松的葉依然深 綠不變。 無論朝夕立於樹下,如何打掃收集, 松葉也絕無落盡之時。 松葉無落盡之際,葉色更添蒼翠, 與樹前藤葛長久生長,為象徵時代 之常綠樹。 其中最知名的高砂之松,是世代相 傳直至萬世的相生之松,實乃值得 慶賀之事。

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臺灣總督府工業研究所

《高砂》


(Old Man)

Consider it carefully.

(Old Couple) Although the pines of Taka sag o and Sumiyoshi do not have human emotions, they are still believed to “live together (aioi).” Needless to say, we are humans with life and emotions.

Takasago

From Sumiyoshi, traveling the familiar way to visit her year after year, she and I have grown and walked together, which made us into an old couple much like the Takasago and Sumiyoshi pines.

(Reciters)

"Since olden days, it is said that the frost makes the peal of temple bells travel farther."

Did we have frost at dawn?”

Even if the frost descends as described in this poem, the pine needles at Takasago hold their deep green.

Even if we stop by to sweep away the fallen leaves in the morning and evening, it never stops dropping its needles. Leaves on the pine are never completely gone.

The green of the pine needle increases its deepness. It is an ever-green tree, which is used with the vine with sweet-scented flowers as a metaphor of everlasting era.

Takasago Pine is especially renowned as one of the Paired Pines that people will talk about for generations to come. It is a truly auspicious tree!

Industrial Research Institute of Taiwan Governor-General's Office

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(地謠・齊唱) 如同聞名的松樹。 (地謠・齊唱) 如同聞名的松樹枝梢般長壽,二位以真實本性相告,能否請 教二位尊稱為何? (老夫婦)

事已至此亦無須隱瞞。吾等乃高砂與住吉相生之松的樹精。 為此暫以夫婦形象現身。

(地謠・齊唱) 不可思議。莫非名勝之地的松樹,顯現其靈? (老夫婦)

草木雖無心,

(地謠・齊唱) 感戴帝王盛世, (老夫婦)

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土木亦同感。

臺灣總督府工業研究所

《高砂》


(Reciters)

You two are as dignified as the olden branch of this renowned pine.

(Reciters)

You two are as dignified as the olden branch of this renowned pine. Would you please tell us your name and who you are?

(Old Couple) There is nothing to hide now. We are the spirits of the Paired Pines, Takasago and Sumiyoshi. We are temporarily incarnated as a couple. (Reciters)

What a wonder! The great pines are showing us a miracle!

(Old Couple) Although trees and grasses are heartless, (Reciters)

in this beneficent emperor’s reign,

(Old Couple) all soil and trees.

Takasago

Industrial Research Institute of Taiwan Governor-General's Office

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臺灣總督府工業研究所

《高砂》


Takasago

Industrial Research Institute of Taiwan Governor-General's Office

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《核衰變計時器》

Nuclear Decay Timer

四頻道錄像裝置 / Four-channel video installation 8’40’’、2017 共六版 +1AP / 6 editions + 1AP

在這個計畫中,藝術家與地質學家合作,試圖從科學史的角度重新回看殖民歷史。1923 年的日本關東大地

震之後,由於日本經濟嚴重衰退,為了挽救經濟而訂定了許多金礦業的優惠條件,殖民地台灣的金礦業就此 蓬勃發展。當時在採金礦的過程中,初次發現了副礦物「鋯石」,不過當時並未受到重視。直至二戰期間,

日治時期的地質學家在新竹關西地區的馬武督溪河床,發現了一種特殊的鋯石巨晶,可作為合金用途,並用 以支持二戰期間軍需產業的發展,於是投入研究。起初是作為礦產資源的調查,但最終其產量並不足以作為 礦產資源。雖然這個計畫以失敗告終,但當時所留下來的鋯石標本,卻在不同世代的地質學家手中有了新的 科學發展,透過電子微探儀定出成分,並結合核物理學的方法,讀出其中的時間資訊。鋯石成為了核衰變計 時器,為地質學家展開的是從盤古開天闢地到人類誕生的時空跨度。

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臺灣總督府工業研究所

《核衰變計時器》


For this work, Chia-Wei Hsu collaborated with geologists to look at colonial history from a science history perspective. After the Great Kantō earthquake in 1923, Japan’s economy suffered a steep economic decline. In the hope of reviving the economy, Japanese established several benefits for the gold mining, thus resulting in a rapid development of colonial Taiwan’s gold mining industry. Meanwhile, zircon was discovered for the first time during this gold mining craze, yet it was not taken seriously at the time. It was not until the geologists discovered zircon in the riverbed of Ma'oto River (Hsinchu) that it was put into research. Initially, researches aimed to survey these mineral resources in order to produce alloy and to support military’s development during World War II, however later they realized that the output of zircon was insufficient. Although the plan ended in failure, the zircon samples from the excavation have new scientific applications for the later generations of geologists. With technological advances, such as the electron probe micro-analyzers, geologists can now determine the composition of zircon. In addition, with the help of nuclear physics, they are able to reveal intriguing information about the past. Zircon is like a nuclear decay timer that allows geologists to look at the span of time from the beginning of the world to the birth of humans.

Nuclear Decay Timer

Industrial Research Institute of Taiwan Governor-General's Office

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日治時代科學家發現這些東西, 實際上是在馬武督附近的溪流裡面, 去經過沙子的淘選出來的, 他們的淘選方法跟淘金是差不多的。 這類的鋯石所以會引起興趣是因為產狀非常特別, 它事實上是在鹼性的玄武岩裡面才會有的。 日治時代, 他們來的時候, 一開始的時候對於台灣的地質是完全陌生的, 所以他們等於是從無到有。 所以前輩的這些老師們, 他們來到台灣的時候, 他們所做的事情就是, 先去把整個台灣的地質搞懂。 他們能夠先建構出一個台灣的地質圖,

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臺灣總督府工業研究所

這已經是非常不容易的事情。 由於這些基礎的調查, 我們才能夠去做更細部的發揮。 對於這些鋯石的話, 基於我這一代可以做的事情, 我可以把它成分訂出來。 同時我也可以, 用一些科學的方法, 把鋯石的年齡測定出來, 我們現在使用的這樣的儀器, 叫做電子微探儀, 最重要的就是, 我們把一些電子束集中以後, 打在這些鋯石上。

《核衰變計時器》


Scientists from Taiwan’s Japanese colonial period discovered them in a river near Ma'oto. They were panned from sand, similar to panning for gold. This type of zircon draws a great deal of interest due to its special shape. They are only found in alkali basalts. During Japanese colonial period in Taiwan, when they arrived, they initially knew nothing about Taiwan’s geology, meaning that everything had to be developed from zero. These experts, teachers, when they came to Taiwan, the task they were given, was to first understand the entire geology of Taiwan. They were able to first construct a geological map of Taiwan,

Nuclear Decay Timer

which was already a very uneasy task to accomplish. Because of these fundamental surveys, we were then able to build from it with greater details. As for these zircons, what our generation could do was to categorize them. I’ve also used some scientific methods to assess the age of these zircons. This is the apparatus we are using now. It is called an electron probe x-ray microanalyzer. Most importantly, some electron beams are gathered then targeted on these zircons.

Industrial Research Institute of Taiwan Governor-General's Office

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那這些鋯石就會發射出各種元素的 X 光, 那我們測量這些 X 光的強度, 就可以知道它裡面含有哪一些元素。 那它的百分比也可以去測量出來, 那裡面的鈾含量常常是幾千的 PPM 到幾百個 PPM, 那裡面它的這個衰變, 就足夠我們做為定年的用途。

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臺灣總督府工業研究所

這個是市村毅畫的鋯石示意圖, 在鋯石裡面含有很多元素, 其中像是這個鈾原子, 它具有放射性的同位素, 這個放射性同位素會隨著時間衰變, 自發性的從原子核釋放出阿法粒子, 也會釋放出貝它粒子, 一但放出阿法粒子以後, 原本的原子就會變成釷, 這樣的過程不斷地重複, 原子會慢慢轉變成其他比較穩定 或質量比較輕的元素, 最後會變成穩定的鉛。

《核衰變計時器》


The zircons will then project x-rays of different elements. The intensities of the x-rays are then assessed to find out what elements are contained. We can also measure the percentage. The quantity of uranium is usually several thousand PPM to several hundred PPM. The decay rate is enough for us to date the materials.

Nuclear Decay Timer Takasago

This is an illustration of zircon by Ichimura Takeshi. A zircon consists of many different elements, including something like uranium atom, which consists of radionuclide. Radionuclide decays through time spontaneously releasing alpha particles from the nucleus, and also beta particles. However, after the alpha particles are released, the original atom will turn into thorium. This kind of process is endlessly repeated, as atoms gradually transform into other more stable, or lighter elements, ultimately become stable lead.

Industrial Research Institute of Taiwan Governor-General's Office

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就是這個鋯石裡面具有的放射性同位素, 讓時間的資訊壓縮在這小小的鋯石裡, 因為在這個衰變的過程裡, 隨著時間的增長, 母元素的數量會越來越少, 而子元素的數量則會慢慢增加, 所以就可以透過計算鋯石裡面, 這些母元素和子元素的數量, 例如鈾和鉛的數量, 再套上公式, 加入衰變的速率來計算, 就可以得出鋯石所生成的時間。 就是因為有了這個核物理學的支撐, 才產生了精確的史前定年方法, 這個是日治時期的科學家萬萬想不到的科學發展。 鋯石經歷了幾十個百萬年, 甚至幾百個百萬年的衰變過程, 變成了承裝時間的容器, 有了放射性物理學的方法, 才大大的推進了地質年代學的發展。 透過放射性同位素定年, 可以計算出馬武督鋯石生成的時間, 大約是在四十六個百萬年前, 當時台灣島還沒有露出海平面, 鋯石也還在地殼深處。 這個時候的台灣是位在穩定的大陸邊緣, 後來, 歐亞板塊東部邊緣的地殼開始張裂, 台灣海峽在這個過程裡, 產生一系列北東走向的正斷層, 同時也有大量的沉積物堆積在盆地之上。

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臺灣總督府工業研究所

《核衰變計時器》


Because the zircon consists of radionuclide, allowing information about time to be compressed in a tiny zircon. During the decay process, as time progresses the number of parent elements then decreases. The number of daughter elements on the other hand slowly increases. Through calculating the numbers of parent elements and daughter elements in the zircon, such as the quantities of uranium and lead, then through the use of an equation, and with calculation of the decay rate, we could then find out when the zircon was generated. Because of the support from nuclear physics, a precise way for dating prehistoric materials could then be formed. This scientific development is something that Japanese colonial period scientists couldn’t even imagine. After several millions years, or even decay of several hundreds of millions of years, the zircon then becomes a vessel containing time. With radiation physics, the development of geochronology has made great progress. Through radionuclide dating, the generated time of the zircons in Ma'oto could be calculated, which was about 46 million years ago. The island of Taiwan had yet to rise above sea level then. The zircons were also still contained deep inside the crust of the Earth. Taiwan was securely situated at the continental margin. Then the crust at the eastern edge of the Eurasian plate began to crack. A series of normal faults striking northeast began to form during this process in the Taiwan Strait with a lot of sediments accumulated on the basin.

Nuclear Decay Timer

Industrial Research Institute of Taiwan Governor-General's Office

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一直到大約十五個百萬前, 這個海洋地殼的張裂作用停止, 同時期海洋地殼朝東隱沒到菲律賓海板塊底下, 隱沒的海洋板塊, 因為溫度和壓力增加而產生部分熔融, 岩漿在這個時候上升形成島弧, 一部分就是現在的海岸山脈。

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臺灣總督府工業研究所

About 15 million years ago, this cracking movement on the oceanic crust stopped. The oceanic crust then at this time subducted towards the east under the Philippine Plate. The subducted oceanic crust began to melt partially due to the intensified heat and pressure. Lava then began to elevate and form into island arcs. Part of it is the present day Coastal Range.

《核衰變計時器》


When did the Ma'oto zircons that were originally deep within the crust got pushed into the stratum beneath Taiwan? This will require another dating method.

那原本在地殼深處的馬武督鋯石, 是什麼時候才跑到台灣的地層裡? 這就需要使用到另一種定年方法。 放射性元素在衰變的過程裡, 會釋放出高速的粒子, 這些粒子通過礦物的晶格的時候, 會破壞礦物的晶格, 產生一道刮痕, 這個痕跡只有在溫度降到 235 度的時候, 才會被保留下來, 這個痕跡就叫做核飛跡。 透過計算這些核飛跡的數量, 可以計算出馬武督鋯石露出地表的時間, 這大約是在十個百萬年前。 在十個百萬年前, 海底的沉積物不斷加厚, 海底下薄薄的地殼崩塌。 一些岩漿上湧到了地殼上方, 這個時候, 岩漿在上升的過程裡, 抓住了地殼深處的鋯石巨晶, 把它帶到地表, 之後又被大量來自歐亞大陸的沉積物覆蓋。

Nuclear Decay Timer Takasago

When radioactive elements decay, high-velocity charged particles are released. When these particles pass through crystal lattices of minerals, they will damage the crystal lattices, resulting in scratches. The tracks can only be preserved when the temperature is lower than 235 degrees. This kind of tracks is called a fission track. Through calculated the quantities of fission tracks, when the zircons in Ma'oto were exposed above Earth’s surface can be calculated, which was about 10 million years ago. 10 million years ago, the sediments under the sea deposited continually and became thicker. The thin under ocean crust then collapsed. Some lava oozed above the crust. During this time, when the lava was rising, it grabbed on to the zircon megacrysts deep in the crust and brought them to the surface of the ground, which were later covered again by the influx of sediments from Eurasia.

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在十個百萬年前到五個百萬年前,

這是動輒百萬紀年的宏大敘事,

海岸山脈火山島弧逐漸接近歐亞大陸板塊,

是一種時空嚴重不對等的對話,

隨著這個板塊不斷地向東隱沒入菲律賓海板塊,

這些大規模的板塊運動,

板塊上面的沉積物也不斷地增積,

每一幕都是讓生物都等到滅絕的漫長過程。

露出海平面,

所以如果以一日維度的話,

形成台灣最早的雛形。

要一直到 23 點的最後幾分鐘,

後來火山島弧跟台灣島碰撞擠壓,

時間尺度才會慢慢降下來,

才形成現在的台灣島。

最後才會回到我們身上。

捕獲鋯石的鹼性玄武岩,

顏滄波老師出去野外,

也是在這個時候出露於新竹關西地區,

有機會去河裡面淘洗標本,

這些鹼性玄武岩受到風化侵蝕以後,

他就把它保留下來。

河流把這些被風化後的沉積物往下游帶,

他也知道這種標本,

搬運堆積在河床,

在日後一定還有新的研究方法出現,

也就是日治時期科學家在馬武督採集到的地點。

所以他當時候就把這些標本留下來, 給我們做傳承,

鋯石這個核衰變計時器的時間,

那我現在也退休了。

是從盤古開天闢地就開始了,

所以我這些標本就拿給我當時的學生,

從幾百個百萬年,

日後,

到幾十個百萬年,

還能做出什麼發揮?

再到幾個百萬年,

那我就不知道了。 就像當時候日治時代的那些老師們, 他們也不知道這些鋯石, 在我這一代是能做什麼用途, 做什麼發揮。

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《核衰變計時器》


From 10 million to 5 millions ago, the Coastal Range Volcanic Arc gradually inched closer to the Eurasian Plate. As this plate continued to subduct towards the east into the Philippines Plate, the sediments on the plate also continued to increase, rising above sea level, becoming the earliest shape of Taiwan. The later colliding and compressing of the volcanic arc and the Taiwan island gave shape to the present day island of Taiwan. The alkali basalts where zircons have been found also emerged in the Guanxi, Hsinchu area during this time. After these alkali basalts were weathered and eroded, the river then took these weathered sediments to the downstream, depositing them on the riverbed, which was the collection site of Japanese colonial scientists in Ma’oto. Zircon, this nuclear decay calculator has emerged since the dawn of time, since hundreds of millions of years ago to tens of millions to several million years.

Nuclear Decay Timer

This is a colossal narrative spanning across millions of years. It is a dialogue of intense space-time incongruity. With these large-scale tectonic movements, each scene was a long process that species went extinct waiting over. To use the dimension of a day, it means waiting till the last few minutes of 23:00 then the time scale will gradually lessen, and then returned back to us again. Prof. Yen Tsang-Po was out in the wilderness and had the opportunity to pan for specimens in the river. He then kept them. He knew new research methodology would emerge in the future for specimens like this, which was why he kept them back then to be passed down to us. I am now retired as well. So I’ve given the specimens to my students. In the future, maybe more developments would take place, that’s something beyond me, just like those teachers during Japanese colonial time. They didn’t know how those zircons will be used in my generation, how they would be applied.

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《統一度假村》 Uni-Resort 攝影/ Photography 尺寸依場所而定/ Dimensions variable

2017

共六版 +2AP / 6 editions+2AP

日治時期的地質學家在新竹關西地區的馬武督河床

中,採集到了特殊的鋯石巨晶,並進一步研究此一 地區是否有開採的價值。此地點正是今日的統一度 假村。這組影像作品包含了數個不同來源的現成影 像,例如統一度假村所提供的園區平面圖大圖輸

出、渡假村設施的攝影、日治時期地質學家針對此 地區所繪製的「竹東圖幅」、原子模擬圖、板塊隱 沒示意圖。另外,由於鋯石含有放射性的鈾元素, 也流傳著鋯石可作為核子研究用途的傳說,因此現 場也包含一張核電廠的模擬圖。除了這些現成的影 像素材外,藝術家也呈現了顯微鏡頭底下的鋯石攝 影,以及台大地質系實驗室保存的日治時期鋯石標

本。藉由這些紛雜的影像類型,描繪這段科學與歷 史的模糊印象。

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臺灣總督府工業研究所

《統一度假村》


Geologists discovered zircon in the riverbed of Ma'oto River (Hsinchu) during the Japanese occupation, and further investigated whether this area was suitable for mining. Now, there is a uni-resort built in this exact area. This installation consists of a few ready-made images gathered from different sources, such as a large-scale plan of the resort grounds provided by the resort, an image of the resort facilities, a geological map (TikutĹ? Sheet) of the area used by the Japanese geologists during the colonial period, an atom simulation, and a plate subduction sketch. An image simulation of a nuclear power plant is also included in the installation, since zircon contains radioactive uranium and can be used for the purposes of nuclear research. In addition to these ready-made images, Hsu also presents a photograph of zircon under the microscope, as well as the zircon samples preserved by the Department of Geosciences at National Taiwan University in this installation. With these complex imageries, the artist intends to depict the vague impression of science and history pertained to this period of time.

Uni-Resort

Industrial Research Institute of Taiwan Governor-General's Office

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《統一度假村》


Uni-Resort

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臺灣總督府工業研究所

《統一度假村》


Uni-Resort

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臺灣總督府工業研究所


嶄新地理的可能性⸺ 許家維的影像-歷史-地理學

The Possibility of an Alternative Geography: Chia-Wei Hsu’s Historical Imageography

譯者、戲劇研究員

Translator, Theater Researcher

林立騎

Tatsuki HAYASHI


《回莫村》錄像截圖,許家維,2012

.1.

許家維在多樣化的影像作品中重新審視現代的敘事(narrative)。他的

思索撼動著我們在無意識間賦予的各種敘事,質疑理所當然的事物,

並試驗在今日得以如何述說歷史與政治。他的此種特性,應該無須多

加說明。許家維在國立台灣藝術大學時代的碩士論文即以「新敘事學」 為題,至今對他的評論也都指出,他對敘事與殖民近代性具有明確的 問題意識 。 1

他並不對國家民族的敘事加以直接批判,也不建構正確或錯誤敘事這

種二元的敵對關係。反而是以近現代敘事為母體,在極度抽象的歷史

1 Chou, Freya. “Time, Place Memory: A Look at Chia-Wei Hsu’s Multi-Narrative Language.” LEAP (The International Art Magazine of Contemporary China), vol. 24, 2014. Franke, Anselm.”Unruly Mediations.” 2 or 3 Tigers, Haus der Kulturen der

Welt, 2017.

空間中切割出小型的空間,將觀賞者與具體而特異的場域連結起來;

並且將其他土地、其他歷史、他處的光影、不同的聲響等透過影像傳 達給觀眾,為我們啟發一個「嶄新地理」的存在可能性。

例如回顧當下堪稱他代表作的《回莫村》作品,在泰國與緬甸國境交

界區域的廣袤東南亞高地贊米亞(Zomia)山村中,有一間基督教孤兒

院,其創辦者過往曾經是中國國民黨的諜報員,在國共內戰之後並未 渡台,面對中國大陸即將襲來的衝擊,他選擇隱身此地。歷經四次指

揮官更換,他也四度更名,冷戰過程當中他也為美國 CIA 工作,原本

父親是基督教牧師的他,在所謂金三角(Golden Triangle,泰國、緬甸、

寮國邊境上湄公河與洛克河匯流處的山岳地帶)中收留生活於毒品祕

密製造業陰影下的孤兒們,再加上因為各種特殊境遇而前來的孩子們

一同生活。某次在其他小孩們的包圍下,由其他年長的孩子們負責攝

影、錄音、照明,向一位少女回應了一段訪談,面對此事,某個夜晚 他也在孤兒院前開始講述自己的過往。

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臺灣總督府工業研究所

嶄新地理的可能性⸺

許家維的影像-歷史-地理學


在泰國有著說中文的村落,當我們理解當地世界大戰與冷戰歷史、毒 品買賣的全球性經濟結構,以及產生於東南亞高地與地球整體歷史交

融的事實後,再面對例如台灣對中國的空洞二元對立、以國家為單位 的冷戰與世界史的處理方式,不禁會動搖我們的認知。

觀看他作品的觀眾,大概會產生一種此處土地與我們息息相關的感覺。 因為該處所具有的並非泰國或台灣的歷史,而是捲入世界整體並持續 至今的複合性結構。無論觀眾生活在哪裡,身在何處,都會重新與泰

國的這個村落連結上。這便是我們生存的土地,其型態產生了變化。

民族國家讓我們以為自己生存在國家領土之內,並以此展開所有論述。 但實際上我們不見得活在國境之內,而是活在所有與自己有關、有感 的土地上。追究起來,雖然我們並沒有前往影像中呈現的泰國邊境地 帶,但我們在自己所屬國籍的國家境內,也有無數未曾到過之處。即

便如此,我們鮮少去質疑自己生活於國境之內,即便這種想法係透過 國籍、教育、語言等制度與實踐,讓我們在下意識中自以為與國土有 所關聯。換言之,是敘事創造了我們生存的地理,而且是非常現實、

具體的事實。而且這不是三次元,而是四次元。敘事包含了與歷史的

連結而創造出「地形」的樣態。我們則生活在混合土地與歷史的地理 上。這樣的地理絕非客觀,我們是一面創造地理一面生活於其中。或 者作為地理的一部分,「我」與「我們」也都隨之不斷變化。並非我

們是主體,而地理是客體或對象,我們與地理不可分割,在地理之中, 或作為地理而存在。如果我們希求變化,那麼大概就必須複合空間與 時間的地理,一同形變。

歷史並非不可回溯的直線,歷史無論在何時、在何地,都是未完成的 過程,是流動的地理。創造、重塑歷史性的地理,自古以來正是祭祀

與藝術的機能。許家維稱為敘事的實體,正是這樣的地理學。敘事不

只是單純的資訊處理框架,圍繞著我們的地理正是這樣的實體。而此 種地理認識的形成,端賴當下國家與媒體的作動;然而無論對任何人 而言,我們是否生活在,或者被放置在或對任何事物而言都是符合期 待的地理上呢?如何才能讓當下時代的歷史與政治重新獲得描述,讓 地理更活化,並流傳給下個世代呢?在資訊暴增促成人們移動,所有

事物都朝自由化邁進之下,另一方面也因為資訊與移動自由的擴大, 形成了嶄新的歷史性地理,而這種與鄰人,甚至與他者共同生活的狀 態,對眼下而言才更是方興未艾的課題。也是在這樣的次元上討論, 才能理解許家維的作品既是社會性的,也是政治性的。

The Possibility of an Alternative Geography: Chia-Wei Hsu’s Historical Imageography

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.2.

2016 年於台北鳳甲美術館舉行「回莫村」個展,並獲得第 15 屆台新 藝術獎的許家維,2017 年於尊彩藝術中心舉辦「台灣總督府工業研究 所」個展。由四個作品組成的展覽,係以 1939 年日本統治時代台灣總

督府內設立的「工業研究所」為主題,從該所的科學相關研究為出發點。 放置於展場入口的《核衰變計時器》,是關於日本統治時代科學家在

新竹馬武督溪發現的「鋯石」(zircon)的裝置藝術,該作品是模仿放

射性年代測定儀,又稱電子微探分析儀的裝置,包含環繞著鋯石歷史 與科學的四頻道影像,並配置了鋯石照片、日本統治時代地質圖、顯 示現在馬武督溪週邊休閒地帶開發地圖等的儀表所構成。

1895 年開始統治台灣的日本,並不瞭解台灣的大地,因此展開地質 調查,並於 1897 年由台灣總督府民政局殖產課迅速出版了《台灣島

地質礦物產圖說明書》2。許家維在影像中引用的馬武督溪鋯石素描,

是由市村毅(Takeshi Ichimura,1892-1965)所繪。市村從東京大學地 質學科畢業後,前往朝鮮總督府任職技師,從事資源調查,之後在台

北帝國大學組織地質調查。二戰之後仍以國立台灣大學教授的身份滯

台,至 1947 年返國,1949 年於新制的東京大學任職第 1 屆的地學教

室教授,並擔任自然科的學長 3。

馬武督溪的鋯石,與台灣總督府所期望能振興產業的礦業與煤炭業並

無直接關聯,也與軍事利用沒有關係,然而之後卻走到一個當時科學 家們無法想像得到的境界。台灣大學的鋯石,由下個世代的學生、教

2

呉文星〈東京帝国大学の台湾に 於ける学術調査と台湾総督府の 植民地政策について〉、東京大学 史史料室編《東京大学史紀要》、 17 号、1999 年、第 1-9 頁。

3

東京大学大学院総合文化研究・ 教養学部編《[駒場]2012》、 2012 年、第 2 頁。

員們所繼承,直至今日,並根據往後的核子物理學發展而成為「放射 性年代測定」的對象,成為人類理解人類史之前的地球史線索。

根據計算放射性物質半衰期的鈾鉛定年法(人類能夠知道地球年齡約

45 億年也是依靠放射性定年法),得知馬武督溪發現的鋯石形成於 4600 萬年前。當時台灣尚在海中,馬武督溪的鋯石屬於地殼的一部分。

之後由中國大陸延展過來的歐亞大陸板塊東端,於當前台灣所在地的

海域形成斷層,約 1500 萬年前此斷層開始潛入菲律賓海板塊之下。當 時因為熱度與壓力造成的熔岩,形成火山噴發,打造出了台灣東部的

原型並浮上海面。大約在 1000 萬年到 500 萬年前之間,歐亞大陸板塊

滑入菲律賓海板塊海域的層積漸次擴大,逐漸在海上形成了台灣西部 的原型。接著又與位於東側的火山弧衝突、接合,終於形成了現在的 台灣島。包含台灣大學所藏的鋯石,當時的玄武岩逐漸出現在地表,

而岩石經過風化侵蝕,侵削後經過河川搬運,最終來到馬武督溪河床

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嶄新地理的可能性⸺

許家維的影像-歷史-地理學


《核衰變計時器》錄像截圖,許家維,2017

上,而被日本統治時代的科學家們所採集,這便是該鋯石的由來。 許家維的影像,在傳達於馬武督溪發現鋯石,並存留於台灣大學經緯 的同時,也以動畫說明了鈾鉛定年法及台灣島形成的過程。其中包含 了如何透過日本統治時代科學家留存下來的鋯石,闡明台灣歷史的轉

折。這也是所有靠著外來傳入科學來確立國家、國民認同的所有國家 都必須面對的近代性轉折。另一方面,雖然近代的台灣總督府科學調 查確實採用現代科學,但對立的兩點從宏大的地球史來看卻形變為三

角形,透過「遙遠往事」(大敘事,colossal narrative)而相對化。這

個作品並非讓近代與現代對立而走向窒息,而是保持著緊張感,輕微 地解放了歷史與藝術。

重新挖掘日本統治時代下幾乎被忘卻的科學調查史,透過動畫教導現 代的科學定年法,以照片顯示「時間之器」的鋯石之美,以模型或儀

表讓人得見測定儀的形狀與現今馬武督溪模樣的作品,將科學、教育、 歷史、政治與藝術全部大膽而纖細地混和,使其結晶。法國哲學家布

魯諾.拉圖(Bruno Latour,1947-)說明,近代的程序可以始見於 17

世 紀 的 英 國, 這 與 霍 布 斯(Thomas Hobbes,1588-1679) 及 波 以 耳

4 Latour, Bruno.“We Have Never Been Modern.” 原著法語 1991 年、日語翻譯 2008 年。

(Robert Boyle,1627-1691)見解類似,政治與科學分離,讓法庭上的 證言與實驗室產生的證言有了顯著分別,這也是區別政治家為民眾代

理人而科學家為物質代理人的時代。然而拉圖認為政治與科學、社會 與自然、物質與歷史為共同體,不可能分離,主張應該返回到能將上

述對立平等討論的「非近代」4。我們生存的現代社會,依然把科學與

政治切割,而放射性定年測定的礦物,並不著重是由誰在什麼樣的政 治脈絡下發現,而被當作科學的成果來傳達,在談論近現代史之際, The Possibility of an Alternative Geography: Chia-Wei Hsu’s Historical Imageography

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卻沒教導人們台灣總督府的科學調查與當下科學之間存在著什麼樣的

連結。我們無法把 100 年前與 4600 萬年前同時等同而論。拉圖提倡不

只 有 人 類, 其 他 動 物、 物 體、 自 然 環 境 也 能 發 聲 的「 物 的 議 會 」

(Parliament of Things)。如果我們能夠同樣聽取人類生產的故事與石 頭訴說的證言,那麼或許我們就能夠活在一個嶄新的地形上,那是一 個沒有切割科學與政治、物質與社會、石頭話語和人類話語、機械與

人心的所在。許家維的作品已經實踐了這樣的地理狀態,面對想要切 割科學與政治的近代制度管理,創出了一個逃離的時間與空間。無論

是過去的事情,被遺忘的人或物,他們在歷史的進程中總是不斷轉變 角色,變換機能。我們所生活的地形會改變。今後,我們究竟能否去

傾聽另一方傳來什麼聲音,相信今日的我們依然不甚清楚。重要的是, 不該去聆聽已經遭制度化的政治、科學、藝術內部空間所傳來的聲音, 而應該持續去發明讓這些複數的空間得以意料之外的形式串接,能夠 動搖任何前提與社會規範的,新的傾聽模式。即便乍看之下與政治沒 有相關,實際上那仍是政治,仍是抵抗。

.3.

走進藝廊空間的最深處,迎面而來的牆壁上設置了影像作品《飛行器、 霜毛蝠、逝者證言》。四周的螢幕上各別放映著不同的場景,有工廠

設施的廢墟及巨大煙囪的影像、有紀錄廢墟的飛行拍攝器被另一台飛 行拍攝器拍攝下來的影像、有煙囪中群集的蝙蝠及振翅飛翔的蝙蝠影 像、有日軍戰鬥機並排交戰的紀錄影像等。此處播放的廢墟,是舊日

本海軍第六燃料廠新竹分廠。從頭頂上則可以聽到在該廠或在台灣各

地分廠工作的人們戰後留下的回憶錄《第六海軍燃料廠探索:台灣石 油/石化工業發展基礎》朗讀片段。螢幕帶著彷彿包上藍白色薄膜般

的色調,看起來既像朝陽又像夕陽。廢墟中生長的雜草樹葉隨風搖曳, 無數的蝙蝠消失於天空彼方,彷彿喪失了時間。另一方面被特寫播放 的飛行拍攝器與靠近地面漂浮的影像,其觸感與蠢動蝙蝠們的眼睛、 耳朵、鼻子、嘴巴重疊,而蝙蝠的四肢骨頭則宛如飛行拍攝器的白色

機械臂,在此擺盪著已然超越現實的現實感。淡淡朗讀回憶錄的諸般 聲音,與飛行拍攝器螺旋槳的聲音、飛行拍攝器照明燈低鳴的聲響、

蝙蝠的聲音、振翅的聲響等,重疊、串接,接著又分離。此作品透過 特殊的程式編排上映,四組影像和從頭上降下的人聲以隨機方式組合, 不會重複出現同一種組合片段。如同飛行拍攝器、蝙蝠、戰鬥機與已

逝者證言一般,影像與聲音浮現又消失,又接著浮現,然後再度消失。 海軍第六燃料廠主要是開發、製造戰鬥機燃料的軍需工廠,本廠在高

雄,分廠在新竹與新高(今台中清水)。燃料,也就是能源,是近代 產業甚至近代戰爭所無法逃避面對的問題。當時的日本利用台灣甘蔗

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臺灣總督府工業研究所

嶄新地理的可能性⸺

許家維的影像-歷史-地理學


《飛行器、霜毛蝠、逝者證言》錄像截圖,許家維,2017

5

やまだあつし〈植民地時代末期台 湾工業の構造―国民党の接収記 録を利用して―〉、《人文學報》 79 号、1997 年、第 62 頁。

6

陳慈玉〈日本統治期における 台湾輸出産業の発展と変遷 (下)〉、《立命館經濟學》61 号(1)、2012 年、第 115 頁。

所榨得的糖蜜和甘蔗榨汁製造無水酒精(乙醇),並與石油混合使用 以彌補石油不足。在「農業台灣、工業日本」的口號下,以稻米和甘

蔗栽培為重心而不斷推進的台灣產業,在 1937 年明確轉向走向工業

化,有一說法認為這剛好是以中日戰爭開始為契機5。1939 年 1 月日本

政府閣議決定「生產力擴充計畫」,導致同年 4 月台灣總督府修正一

直以來的組織結構,設立了「工業研究所」。台灣被要求大量增產無

水酒精,但糖蜜產量有其上限,因此研究所也開發利用蕃薯發酵生產

無水酒精的方法6。因為日本海軍想要靠著蕃薯芋頭讓戰鬥機飛行。為

此,來自台灣各地與日本本土來的年輕人們,都在美軍的空襲之下持 續工作。  

現在,飛行拍攝器在廢墟中飛翔,蝙蝠們在此生活,過往年輕人們的

記憶則透過其他人的聲音重新發聲。影像中出現的霜毛蝠,原本是不 存在台灣的物種。這種蝙蝠主要棲息在北方的溫帶地區,如西伯利亞

東部、中國東部、朝鮮半島、日本各地(沖繩除外)等。台灣算是霜 毛蝠最南端的棲息地,而且也被確認過,只有這唯一的一群,在新竹

此廢墟中存在著。從 2010 年發現霜毛蝠以來,每年春天到秋天,也就

是 4 月到 9 月之間,牠們都滯留在這個現在被稱為「亞洲矽谷」的都市, 5 月到 7 月築巢產子,俟秋天又攜子往北方飛去。

 

許家維的這個影像作品,鑲嵌了許多片段。這些片段,並非大歷史的

一部分,而是成為不了歷史,遭人丟棄如殘渣一般的東西。日軍想使

用蕃薯芋頭製作燃料這件事情,究竟還有誰記得?不過這些被打掉丟

棄的殘渣,卻給了歷史另一副面貌,改變了我們所生存的歷史性地理。 從各處各地集中到工廠,散落飄零的逝者們(二戰後來自中國大陸的

國民黨軍隊士兵及其眷屬,住進了這處廢墟,據說一直住到 2014 年為

止),與集中來的農作物、今日仍茂盛生長的植物、每年來去的蝙蝠等, The Possibility of an Alternative Geography: Chia-Wei Hsu’s Historical Imageography

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在這些複數的移動與交錯,片段與片段銜接之中,遭歷史扔棄的更為 枝節的片段凋零飄落而下。例如在《第六海軍燃料廠史》的朗讀中便 可聽到如下部份。

昭和 19 年(1944)1 月到了台北機場,預定在當日搭夜車到 高雄履任。離火車開車還有段很長的時間,所以去造訪同行的 梅村技術大尉姊姊家(台北市長官邸),剛好遇上一件事,因 戰況惡化,台北動物園正在依次射殺動物,這一天適逢獅子肉 配送到市長官邸。因為怕空襲時萬一動物園鐵欄遭破壞,為了 防止猛獸跑出來,再加上戰爭期間不願浪費這些獸肉的緣故, 所以採用電擊的方法殺獸。獅子、老虎、熊的肉,全部都分配 給市議員與高層人士。當時是否吃過獅子肉記不起來了,但這 是段懷念的回憶。 有誰會把動物園裡被殺死並分配給市長與市議員們的動物們的事情, 當作是太平洋戰爭歷史的一環來記憶?這樣的事實再加上知道今日移

居到舊海軍工廠煙囪的蝙蝠們,為我們形塑了新的歷史性地理。不再 僅以人類的問題來處理歷史,伴隨變成食用肉品的獅子、移居到工廠

的蝙蝠、甘蔗與蕃薯、汽油與丁醇(butanol),戰鬥機與飛行拍攝器,

我們聽取廢墟裡所有的聲響,也同時被聲響所觸摸。歷史性地理的形 成,是身體觸覺的課題。不斷隨機降下各種片段的這個作品,彷若在 教導我們這件事情。在回憶錄的播放空檔間,有如下的朗讀:「大部

分的檔案,在投降前夕,就已經放進燃燒爐燒掉了。數量、日期、人物、 事件、前後順序、因果關係,完全沒有依據,只剩下不可靠的模糊印 象。這裡什麼都沒留下,裝置也已經廢棄,要說還有什麼在運轉的話, 那就只有飛行器、霜毛蝠,和逝者證言。」確實,影像與聲音都不過 是曖昧之物,即便是上述引用的回憶之一,究竟是射殺或者是電擊,

我們都無法得知最終的事實。即便我們依舊不信任,但只能接受持續 不斷變動的片段,而我們所追求的,不正也是讓這些曖昧不確定的敘 事構成另一種形式的歷史,追尋一種片段的、非固定化的,創出之後 再摧毀的、修正的歷史嗎?

.4.

第三件作品《台灣總督府工業研究所》,是以研究所內所拍攝的兩張 實驗室舊照片為製作契機。觀眾站在牆壁與螢幕之前,以牆壁中央為 界左右塗成深藍與綠色。螢幕中的影像也以相同的雙色牆壁為始。當

影像的觀點往牆壁內側移動,可以看見透過 3D 動畫呈現出照片中遺

留下來的工業研究所實驗室。擺滿大量瓶子的架子、各種造型的燒瓶、

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臺灣總督府工業研究所

嶄新地理的可能性⸺

許家維的影像-歷史-地理學


《台灣總督府工業研究所》錄像截圖,許家維,2017

顯微鏡、實驗器具等,此外還站著一位科學家,具體而細緻地盡力重 現照片中的模樣,照片中所沒有的東西,動畫中也沒有。天花板只有 一部份,正對著的牆壁薄如紙張,地板截取且失去一部分,靠著簡易

屏風區隔各房間,看起來彷彿沒有觀眾的舞台美術。實驗室內有六面 巨大的窗戶,滿溢著白色光線,讓人無法看到外邊,影像的觀點移動 於該空間的各角落,全部繞過後,突然速度改變,朝向實驗室的另外

一側。3D 照片重現的空間並非這個影像的全部,原來還有另外半側, 可以見到實驗室的盡頭與觀眾在現實空間裡面對的同樣牆壁,在牆壁

之前則有一個螢幕。這個畫面中的小畫面播放著舊紀錄片,有著博覽 會上參觀展示飛機的小學男孩們、成年男女,以及在工廠中生產飛機

零件、產品的模樣。小畫面的紀錄片影像逐漸擴大並充滿了整個螢幕,

影像中映照出工業研究所的窗戶與燒杯的黑影,接著影像又再度移動, 讓觀眾可以看清整個想像的空間。此處有實驗室,也有與隔壁藝廊展 示空間一樣的牆壁和螢幕設置。不斷移動的鏡頭又繞過整個空間,回 到一開始的雙色牆壁前,影像至此結束,接著又反覆開始。  

回到原本的照片,流露出奇妙的安靜感。1939 年因「生產力擴充計畫

策定」而規劃的台灣總督府工業研究所實驗室,給人一股難以想像的

沉著與秩序,3D 動畫確實重現出這樣的狀態,宛如科學與戰爭一切無 關。在螢幕中出現的紀錄片畫面,可以看出孩童們的關心、大人們焦 點不定的視線,這與工廠中辛勤工作的人們,又有著什麼樣的關係?

在影像之中的孩子、飛機、工廠畫面,都反射出工業研究所的實驗室, 這又意味著什麼? The Possibility of an Alternative Geography: Chia-Wei Hsu’s Historical Imageography

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在台灣統治與科學之間扮演著決定性角色的,是台灣總督府民政長官

後藤新平(Shinpei Gotō,1857-1929)。後藤新平本身也是位醫師, 1898-1906 年在台灣的統治上獲得相當成效,日後歷任南滿鐵道第一任 總裁、外務大臣,關東大震災之後擔任東京市長。日本統治台灣其實 與西歐列強的殖民地不同7。西歐列強會長期不斷派任傳教士進入殖民

地,一方面進行傳教活動,一方面進行當地的語言和風俗習慣調查,

7

以下的論述大致引自下述論文。野 村明宏〈植民地における近代的統 治に関する社会学:後藤新平の台 湾統治をめぐって〉、《京都社会 学年報》7 号、1999 年、第 1-24 頁。

在累積了能夠展開工商業的知識與資訊之後,進一步走上殖民統治。 另外傳教士們還有聖經這種作為教化基礎的文本。缺乏這些西方基礎

的後藤新平,他的殖民統治理想並非依賴軍事與法律的強制力,而是 從基於自然科學(生物學)的「科學性行政」去尋找方法。他訴求增 進「科學性的生活」,伴隨著大規模的調查研究與統計事業,透過這 樣的統治手段,實現了科學的、物質的幸福(後藤稱之為「生理的圓 滿」)。他的統治原理,並非抽象價值觀,而是透過科學技術帶來的

物質繁榮。此處存在著科學的政治性,科學也再次成為敘事,通過人

們的充足感與帶來幸福的生產,建構起支配性的關係。實際上近代科 學與政治並沒有分離。  

由 3D 動畫與紀錄影像交織而成的複合作品《台灣總督府工業研究

所》,將觀眾逐步引導進入科學與政治、科學家與公民這種複雜的關 係當中。畫面內有著與實際展示空間相同的螢幕,科學家與實驗室,

公民與工廠,除此之外,也加入了觀眾與藝廊空間。這展現出了非二

元對立的三角力學關係。我們在這個空間外部欣賞作品的同時,也被 定位進了作品內部產生的新地理當中。科學家、公民與觀賞藝術的人 們,實驗室、工廠與藝廊,又交織出什麼樣的關係呢?如同科學對敘 事、統治、戰爭有所關聯,藝術加上觀看藝術的我們,也同屬這個結

構的一部分。今日的我們在什麼樣的科學與敘事中,透過幸福的表象 被統治?在這個結構中,藝術如何成為幫凶,或者反過來加以抵抗?

內部與外部的區別並非不證自明亦非固不可摧,無論中間加諸任何區

隔,所有的事物仍舊彼此相關。透過 3D 動畫將紀錄與現實結合,把

觀眾引導入假想中的地理,這個作品將沒有旁觀者的過往與現在的質 問劃上等號,並將我們捲入其中,讓我們停佇在這個當場。

.5.

循著藝廊的空間回到入口方向,可以看見一個單一頻道的影像作品《高 砂》。畫面上出現的,是日本古典藝能的能樂,在工廠設施內演出的

樣子。在戶外的老翁與在室內的老嫗臉上掛著能樂面具,他們的影像 係分別拍攝,畫面也分割為二。然而兩者在隔離的畫面空間中,不斷

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嶄新地理的可能性⸺

許家維的影像-歷史-地理學


《高砂》錄像截圖,許家維,2017

地自左而右緩慢移動,兩個影像的大小比例也不斷變化,當一方的畫 面佔滿整個螢幕時,左側便會出現、移入新的畫面空間。影像的顏色 經過加工,老翁的畫面顏色偏黃,老嫗的畫面偏藍,特別是下邊色調

更為明顯。捕捉倆人的畫面相當接近演員,拍攝到實際去能樂堂觀看

公演時無法企及的近距離胸景(chest shot),當鏡頭慢慢拉遠,又可 以看見工業場地與傳統藝能的異質感。  

這個作品合併了複數的脈絡。上演的能劇名稱為《高砂》,攝影場地

在東京近郊的「高砂香料工業株式會社」工廠,此外「高砂」也是日 本人另一種稱呼台灣的名稱。此處也存在著一種三角力學關係。   8

横田きよ子〈日本における「台湾」 の呼称の変遷について:主に近世 を対象として〉、《海港都市研究》 4 号、2009 年,第 163-183 頁。

日本在 16、17 世紀出現了幾種對台灣的稱呼,其中 1593 年豐臣秀

吉(Toyotomi Hideyoshi,1537-1598)的國書中尚留下「高山國」 的表記方式。豐臣秀吉透過此封書信,要求現在我們稱為台灣之地, 帶 著 貢 品 前 來 臣 屬。 據 說, 當 時 的 人 們 把 高 山 國 讀 成

「 Takasankoku 」,在口頭傳達過程中,逐漸變音成「 Takasakun 」,

之後又變化成「 Takasako 」及「 Takasago 」,人們根據這個發音,

9

矢内原忠雄《帝国主義下の台 湾》、岩波書店、1988 年(初版 1929 年)、第 11 頁。

使用對應的漢字而寫成「高砂」,之後便如此固定下來8。那麼,「高 山國」這個名稱又來自何處,有人主張當時的日本人最常造訪的是打

狗(Takao,現在的高雄),也就是從原住民「Takoasan 社」的名稱

訛轉而來,但並無明確的證據 9。  

The Possibility of an Alternative Geography: Chia-Wei Hsu’s Historical Imageography

Industrial Research Institute of Taiwan Governor-General's Office

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另一方面,能樂謠曲的《高砂》,則是能樂集大成者世阿彌(Motokiyo Zeami,約 1363- 約 1443)的作品。這裡稍微簡單介紹故事內容。在 醍醐天皇的治世(901-923),社會上實行著理想的政治,在這期間一 位在九州名為友成的神主(主祭神官),前往當時的國都京都旅行。 當時適逢春天,航路順著春風前行,十分愜意。在旅途中暫停於兵庫 縣的著名場所,名為「高砂」的海濱。友成請教正在松樹樹蔭下清掃

的老夫婦:「有名的高砂之松在何處?」老夫婦回答正是這棵松樹。 友成繼續請教,高砂之松與大阪住吉的松樹,何故被合稱為「相生之

松」,老夫婦回答倆老中的太太住在高砂,丈夫住在住吉,雖然身為 夫婦卻隔著高山大海,別居於不同的土地。老夫婦又說,只要兩顆心 相依,道途便不算遙遠,我們是與松樹相生偕老的夫婦。根據他們所

言,「相生之松」的意義,往昔與今日一致。亦即,高砂之松是日本 最古老的歌集《萬葉集》編纂時代的樹,而住吉之松則存於現在,松

樹為常綠樹,葉子無凋落之時,這也意味著「言」、「葉」永無消失 之意(譯註:日語中「言葉」有話語、言詞之意。此處引用《萬葉集》 紀貫之序文的第一句「やまとうたは、人の心を種として、万の言の

葉とぞなれりける/和歌做為人心的種子,衍生出各式各樣的語言之 葉」)。言詞與歌謠的繁盛,正是施行理想政治的表現,「相生之松」

便是一種即便過往與現在有所隔閡但仍連結一起的象徵。言語至此, 老夫婦也揭露自己的真正身份,他們便是「相生之松」的樹精,並告

訴友成有人會在住吉等候,說畢便消失了。友成搭上甫打造好的新舟, 在明月中出航,抵達住吉時,海岸上出現了住吉的神明正在踊舞。友

成感受到神明之道與政治之道相互一致,這趟春天的京都旅程使他心 情煥然一新。友成切實感受到風吹拂過松樹的聲音、神之聲響、神的 舞踊,並深自感到歡愉。  

《高砂》到近代為止,一直都是日本上演最多,一般市民最常吟唱的能

樂曲,是人們非常熟悉的能樂謠曲 。因為也表現了共生、偕老的夫婦,

不知從何時起,此闕能樂也成為婚禮上歌頌的一節。而以老夫婦為主 題的「高砂人偶」,也成為婚約之際贈予新人的禮品之一(然而不管

10

大谷節子〈能《高砂》の解釈史〉、 《神戸女子大学古典芸能研究センタ ー紀要》9 号、2015 年、第 1-14 頁。

是歌曲或人偶,在現代婚禮幾乎已不復得見)。另一方面,根據至今

為止的研究,現在的台灣被日本人們稱呼為高砂,以及能被一直如此 稱呼,其實與能樂謠曲《高砂》內容無直接關聯,兩處分別的土地遭 一方當作殖民地佔有成為一體,追溯這些歷史,似乎只是一種偶然。

然而,持續把台灣稱為高砂的日本人意識深處,仍有一種希望對遠隔 土地的人們能互通心意、共同成長,一起邁步前進的夢想與理想,或 者,這也僅可能是侵略上的場面話。兩種可能似乎我們都無法否認 10。

 

高砂香料工業的總公司在今天的東京蒲田,是一家過往曾在台北設立

總公司的企業11。 創 業 者 是 擁 有 楠 木 正 成(Masashige Kusunoki, 約

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臺灣總督府工業研究所

11

以下論述參照下述文獻。鈴木隆〈高 砂香料創業前夜(第 1 回)香料の 島 台湾〉、《高砂香料時報》178 号、 第 40-43 頁、2016 年。高砂香料 50 年史編集員会・編《高砂香料 50 年 史》、1973 年。80 年史編纂委員会 ・編《80 年史》、2003 年。

嶄新地理的可能性⸺

許家維的影像-歷史-地理學


1294-1336)血脈的甲斐庄楠香(Tadaka Kainoshō,1880-1938),年 輕時曾任京都大學助裡教授,但為了學習香料化學而於 1910 年前往歐 洲,在位於法國南部今日仍被稱為「香水之都」的格拉斯(Grasse)學 習,日後更前往日內瓦(Geneva),在當今世界最大香水製造廠商的 奇華頓(Givaudan)研究學習,之後於 1913 年回國,1920 年設立「高 砂香料株式會社」。將公司命名為「高砂」,除了取能劇謠曲《高砂》 的祝福之意及期許未來發展外,也因為在台灣設立工廠,以此為旨趣 使用台灣別稱高砂。除了香料產業,另外對當時日本經濟而言更重要 的,是由台灣的樟木及由其枝、葉切片透過水蒸氣蒸餾後取得的有機

化合物樟腦。樟腦被當成醫療用品、驅蟲劑、除臭劑、火藥原料,以 及膠卷及玩具的賽璐珞(celluloid)原料來使用。領有台灣的日本是當 時世界最大的樟腦生產國,早在 1899 年後藤新平便確立了樟腦專賣制

度,為了建構管理制度,高砂香料與台灣總督府締結關係,並於 1935

年完成台北工廠,1938 年更將總公司移往台北。身為公司創業者的甲

斐 庄「 楠 香 」, 對 於 自 己 公 司 透 過「 樟 」( 日 語 稱「 楠 」, 讀 成

Kusunoki)製作「香」料,不禁感到一種不可思議的緣份。當時中日

戰爭已然展開,高砂香料也變更公司名稱,著手進行軍需品與工業產 品製造,以相關公司的身份製造並販售作為飛機燃料的乙醇,正在建 設新竹工廠的設備時,迎來了二戰結束。  

如此複雜的政治、藝術與產業的歷史脈絡,在 10 分鐘不到的影像中結

合。許家維從整段上演將超過 60 分鐘的能樂謠曲《高砂》中,擷取了 老夫婦敘述分隔而居,以及兩人闡明自身乃松樹樹精的兩個片段,而 非月夜之下住吉之神說出神諭的知名結尾片段。在大量能樂作品裡特 別具備抽象性理念的《高砂》謠曲中,世阿彌宣言歌道與治道,也就 12

前掲、大谷、第 1 頁。

是藝術與政治一致,並透過社會最小單位共同體的夫婦,將此概念具

體視覺化12。許家維一方面在現代重現近代史上香料工業、能樂及台灣 的相遇,另一方面更將能樂謠曲切割片段化,提煉所有成雙成對的關 係,並質問這些擁有成雙關係的雙方,是否真的即便遠隔兩地,也能

共同生活,共同偕老嗎?這個問題的解答大概不僅限於台灣與日本的

關係吧!寧可說本作品持續展示了人們所知的能樂與科學連結的歷史, 就像在今天仍能把能樂帶到工廠一般,能把遙遠之物連結,能將平常

無關的事物誘導為成雙成對。歌謠與政治、藝術與權力、香料與國家、 樹木與戰爭、影像與歷史,讓他們各自成對生存,成雙偕老,將會是

什麼情況?世阿彌讓兩棵松樹、兩片土地與兩個時代相會,獨力將空 間與時間複合化,形塑歌謠與政治共榮的歷史性地理,並賜予祝福。

《高砂》是從松樹之「影」開始的謠曲,藝術將表面世界中無法相連的 事物相接,利用在陰影中的異質成對關係,構想出另一番地理。  

藝術透過人工重新打造歷史性的地理,在工廠上演能樂,這是極度人 The Possibility of an Alternative Geography: Chia-Wei Hsu’s Historical Imageography

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工,極為不自然的。再加上近距離攝影,透過色彩加工後上映,影像

的空間還不斷移動。然而正因透過人工的操作,讓戲服脹起的風、掃

帚在水泥地上發出的聲響、能樂面具、假髮與頸項、透明布匹的精美、 畫面中轉瞬即逝卻很明顯的蟲子,讓人聯想到該處不存在的海洋與沙 灘,無論是古典謠曲還是工廠設備,各自擁有的歷史,都在重新被認

知、理解後,成為我們地理的一部分。人工性是對直覺的一種批判性。 我們正因透過人工性,才能與某些事物鏈結,連接上這些事物後,再 創出新的地理。此事教導人類的另一件事情,或許就是香味。今天意

味著香味或香水的 perfume 這個語詞來源,來自拉丁語的 per(連接)

與 fumum(煙)。已經懂得用火的上古人們,知道在極少數的情況下

燃燒物品會散發出香味。他們透過此種煙霧向神祈禱,傳達願望與感

謝13。今日的我們,不只透過香味,也透過影像與藝術對抗侵略、統治

與戰爭的煙霧,藉此表現出潛在的可能性,並紀錄特殊的相遇。將分

離的事物連接,產生新的對偶,透過將制度化的地理經由歷史性重新

13

堀内喜間多 . 〈香りの歴史と高砂香 料コレクション〉 平塚市美術館 . 香 りの美展 古代から現代まで⸺ ヨーロッパ・中国・日本の香水瓶 ・香炉の歴史をたどって 《高砂 香料コレクション》の魅力図録、 2000 年、第 5 頁。

形塑「相生、相偕老」的區隔,重新創造出共生偕老的人事物的共同性。 高砂香料、能樂與台灣在近代遭政治捲入,並在現代轉變成為一種藝 術表現。表現與歷史共生、偕老,或許也意味著歷史能夠經常變形為 其他地理,擁有救贖的可能性。《高砂》在大膽的人工性與如風拂過 的輕揚中,實現了重新救贖歷史的邂逅。

.6.

德國哲學家維爾納.哈馬赫(Werner Hamacher,1948-2017)在對華 特.班雅明(Walter Benjamin,1892-1940)《暴力批判》的註釋文本

〈Afformativ, Streik〉中,論及了解構遭制度化的歷史。根據他的論述, 所有的歷史性變化都源自暴力。但該變化一旦被確立為制度,制度本

身就會「自我目的化」(activity trap,把原本要達成目的的手段,變

成了目的)、僵固化,拒絕更進一步變化的可能性。然而,打開這些

遭制度化歷史的,也正是這些暴力,因為暴力必定還會帶來新的制度 化與固定化。毋寧需要的是沒有形體之物,創出尚未被固定型態的事

物,也就是無定型化(Amorphisierung)。不替人們設定方向,不進行 組織化,反而是去除方向與組織。哈馬赫指出:「產生這種無定型化 之物,是一種內容與媒介無法分離的困難設問(Aporia)14。」

14 Hamacher, Werner. “Afformativ, Streik”, in L. Hart Nibbrig, Christiaan (Hrsg.) “Was heißt ‘Darstellen’?”, Suhrkamp Verlag, Frankfurt am Main, 1994, S. 340-371.

 

內容與媒介無法分離,不為人們設定方向,在被制度化的歷史當中導 引出別樣歷史可能性的設問,這就是許家維的作品吧。他的作品,並

無摹寫已然遭政治化且被社會與媒體認可的主題,並加強其制度化的 問題。此外,也沒有基於特定的意識形態導引觀眾方向的問題。毋寧 是讓我們意識到我們平常在無意識中生活的、被置入的地形、地理,

並且對此加以扭曲。他的影像,將每日生活當中,被視為理所當然的

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臺灣總督府工業研究所

嶄新地理的可能性⸺

許家維的影像-歷史-地理學


細緻地理,如學校或媒體中所教導的歷史認知、國家理解、科學與政 治的分離、藝術與教育的分離、大敘事與小敘事的分離等,拉上另一 條切割線,促使這些地形瞬間化為無形。這對觀賞者而言,彷彿是對

每個人產生一種地震或地殼變動。透過體驗作品讓我們朝著新地理的 方向邁進。看完作品的當下,我們將如何觀看世界、歷史,如何繼續

邁步,在這其中又該如何立身自處?他的所有作品當中,都存在有這 種撼動我們的契機。

在許家維被稱為往後作品出發點的《和平島故事》(2008)中,已然明

確表現這種態度。作品的舞台是基隆港外的和平島,該處從日本統治時 代開始便一直是造船廠。影像呈現出現在的造船廠,聲音則是許家維祖 母體驗過的,日軍進行「學徒動員」這段歷史的記憶,將整體以有如科

幻故事般混和描述。聲音來自他祖母的日語,那不是「普通」的日語, 而是帶有歷史性斷絕痕跡與多種語言間交織翻譯軌跡的日語。在這個作

品中出現了稱為 Ni-Ku(泥琥)的想像生物。這個生物生活在和平島岸

邊,長相似螃蟹,擁有巨螯,傍晚時分會發出光亮,並且會在地下挖掘 既深且長的隧道。很快地這個生物便開始在造船廠外邊的石板道底下挖

掘隧道,也開始在遭「學徒動員」的小學生身上挖掘洞穴,而他們的身

體如砂般的脆弱易掘。保持不分割現實與想像,許家維祖母的聲音如此 《和平島故事》錄像截圖,許家維,2008

訴說:「它們挖掘了太多的坑道,甚至連接到我深層的夢境裡來。夢境

是最深層的終點。Ni-Ku(泥琥)在我的夢境中全部死亡了。而為數眾 多的屍體發出的光芒,阻礙了我的夢境。」 《和平島故事》表現出了創作者至今為止一貫的深度。島嶼的岸邊、都

市的石板、孩童們的身體,貫穿祖母夢境裡看不見的隧道。歷史、記憶、 現實、身體與夢境皆無區別,因為有著貫通一切的隧道。而挖掘這種隧 道,則是一件可怕的事情,這既暴力又可怕,無論在哪個時代都有這樣

15

野家啓一《歴史を哲学する》、岩 波現代文庫、2016 年。

16

此點及其後論述,參照許家維參加 威尼斯雙年展台灣館時發表的談話。 引自 Lu, Esther. “In Conversation with

Hsu Chia-Wei,” 2013. Liang Gallery 中的許家維卷宗檔案。

的隧道,而我們就在這些隧道的貫穿之中生活。物質與非物質、現實與

印象無法分離的基礎設施,複雜延展的眾多隧道,這就是我們生活的地 理,而其出口之一,便是播放影像的螢幕。

許家維一貫追求的「島嶼」主題,也把握了這種隧道的出口。和平島、 身為孤島的回莫村、花東新村(《花東新村》,2009 年)、馬祖群島 及龜島(《鐵甲元帥》計畫,2012-16 年)、日本及其週邊島嶼,巡迴

之後又再次浮現台灣。在現代歷史哲學的基礎認識中,所謂的歷史就 是敘事的網絡15,許家維在伴隨著被捨棄土地與遭忘卻歷史的人們生

活文化中,找出了歷史脈絡不去觸及的線條與連結。他的關懷,一直

以來都在把公開記憶中缺失的記憶具體「視覺化」16。他不斷地移動, 與人、事、物相會,不帶事前結論地持續「發掘」。不以題目來決定 作品,透過拍攝的過程來產生對話,並打開對話背後的結構。從現

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實出發,將新的現實感覺凝聚成形,從這點而言,可以看出他本身 作品的政治性。

如同早期的《和平島故事》或在台北近郊的阿美族村落拍攝的《花東 新村》,透過影像與聲音、印象與故事不一致的手法,摸索如何解構

與建構敘事的時期為始,接著他透過使用包含作品製作過程與紀錄媒 體的影像,重新同時審視現實與敘事的手法,再加上極度人工的影像

與畫面加工,許家維的風格便如此一路演變而來。不過這樣的變化之 中,如何能將現實感受更新轉變為與今不同的其他事物,這樣貫穿所 有作品的問題意識,則是具有一貫性的。他的作品經常是人工性的,

將方法論本身轉變為作品的。不過把我們包攝其中的敘事,則是基於

「自然」,抑或未被人工化、文明化的方法論,這是為了明確表達在這 樣的創作情況中,創作者採取什麼樣的態度。在各式各樣的時代所發 的生各式各樣事情,都流入到「今日、此處」,然而人們談起這些故

事,一定會經過一定取捨選擇,人們書寫著班雅明稱之為「對勝利者

的情感轉移」的公開歷史、敘事。許家維則在這些敘事的內外間移動, 使用新的表現技術,將這些敘事以自己的軀體,在具體的場所中、社

會中、世界中建構起新的隧道。據此也產生出了與今日不同的另一種

《鐵甲元帥-龜島》錄像截圖,許家維,

2012

歷史性地理,並摸索與今日不同的其他諸般島嶼呈現出來的可能性。 那是一種既包含時間也包含空間,既包含知覺也包含感情,包含了我

也包含了你,對包含了所有的一切,進行一種四次元地理的重新測量。  

「台灣總督府工業研究所」根據這樣的問題意識,以日本統治時代的科 學為主題,進行更深度的挖掘。對於個展標題,作品中混合了近代人 們歷史中毫無停滯的多樣化時間、多樣化聲響,彼此互相震盪。礦物

(鋯石)、動物(蝙蝠)、植物(相生之松)、大地與海、火與油與酒精、 科學與政治與藝術與產業,許家維去質問混和所有歷史的現在,究竟 作為什麼樣的地理,作為什麼樣的宇宙學(cosmology)而存在著。  

許家維的影像-歷史-地理學,並非利用影像對已經被政治、經濟、

科學等認可的歷史與地理進行摹寫實踐。他的影像持續撼動歷史,讓

人感受新歷史的可能性;持續撼動地理,讓人感受到新地理的可能性。 影像並非自然之物。這與歷史、地理亦非自然之物相同。人工影像讓

人對體驗這件事情的快速程度,以及在其中可以看到產生的複雜結構 感到驚訝。觀眾會浮現想要持續觀看的心情,以及想要知悉更多的欲 望。許家維的影像所帶來的,與遭制度化的敘事所能給予的內容,看

來或許相似。但其相異之處,在於他不會把自己的影像當作自然的畫 面來強加於觀眾。許家維的影像作品每一件都是人工性的,這是具備

一定倫理的。出現於 1569 年的麥卡托投影法(Mecator projection)被

當成世界地圖,並被認為能夠描繪出客觀世界的身姿,因此能四處流

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《花東新村》錄像截圖,許家維,2009

通,但實際上為了能夠具體易懂地呈現歐洲殖民地交通路線,實際上 西歐被畫得更大,而非洲與南美被繪製得比實際小上許多,此點至今

依舊如此,這也說明了地圖經常只是立場的投影(projection),我們 日常生活的地理也如此。花費長時間製作出來的今日現實感受,有必 要再度花費長時間將其轉換成別的現實感覺。若非如此,我們將一直 根據地圖來理解領土,不知不覺中被各式各樣的制度所管理掌控,並 無法從替這些制度服務的狀態中脫離。許家維的影像作品便是朝向這

種新現實感覺的階梯,那是既簡單又讓人感受到希望的作品。換句話 說,只要生成新的表現,伴隨著古老的土地、古老的歌謠、被遺忘的

人與事實、石頭、樹木、風、獸、人們也能生活在與今不同的別的敘事、 別的歷史、別的地理當中。相對於小時候被灌輸的現實,或許存在著 一種簡單、輕盈、透澈的希望,一種別的現實的可能性,能夠去拯救 這些超越我們熟知現實的聲音、光線與所發生的事情。

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Huai Mo Village, Chia-Wei Hsu, 2012 (film still)

.1. Through his diverse videography, Chia-Wei Hsu has been reconsidering the narrative of contemporary times. He disturbs the narrative that we unconsciously take for granted, questions its seemingly obvious validity, and experiments with ways that we deal with history and politics in our times. This tendency goes without saying, as his master’s thesis for the National Taiwan University of Arts was titled A New Narratolog y, and his awareness of issues surrounding narratives and colonial modernity was pointed out precisely in his past critiques 1 . He avoids direct criticism of the narrative provided by the nation-state, and he does not provoke an antagonism between “right” narratives and “wrong” narratives either. What he does is create small cracks in the overly abstract historical space that gives birth to modern narratives, connecting the viewer to a specific and unique place. By presenting us a different place, a different history, a different light, and a different voice through his videos, he shows us the possibilities of living in an “alternative geography.”

1 Chou, Freya. “Time, Place, Memory: A Look at Hsu ChiaWei’s Multi-Narrative Language.” LEAP (The International Art Magazine of Contemporary China), vol. 24,

2014. Franke, Anselm. “Unruly Mediations.” 2 or 3 Tigers, Haus der Kulturen der Welt, 2017.

Take for example the project Huai Mo Village, which could be said to be his signature piece so far. In a village in the Zomia plateau spreading on the border between Thailand and Myanmar, there is a man managing a Christian orphanage. Formerly a spy for the Kuomintang of China, he did not cross to Taiwan following the Chinese Civil War, and chose to hide in his current location to prepare for the battle in mainland China that was expected to happen. As his commanders changed four times, he changed his name accordingly, and he also worked for the American CIA during the Cold War. Being the son of a Christian priest, he now welcomes children orphaned amidst drug production in the so-called “Golden Triangle” (the mountain area where the borders of Thailand, Myanmar, and Laos meet, and the Mekong River and Ruak River come together). One night, in response to an interview by a girl, he recalls his past in front of the orphanage as little children surround him, and older children operate the lighting and record his speech on video and audio. When we learn the fact that there is a Chinese-speaking village in Thailand, and that the histories of World War II and the Cold War converge here with the global

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economic structure surrounding drug dealing, and the geohistory that led to the creation of the plateau, the somewhat hollow dichotomy of Taiwan vs. China or the way of thought that perceives the Cold War or world history on a national basis is shaken. The viewer might as well feel that this place has something to do with him/her. This is because the complex structure existing there that continues to this day involves not only the histories of Thailand and Taiwan, but the whole world as well. Wherever the viewer may live or be at, a new connection stretches from there to this village in Thailand. This means that the shape of the land that we live on changes. While the nation-state gives us all kinds of stories to make us feel that we live only within its territory, we are actually living not only within its borders, but in all places that we feel connection with. This is evident as while I certainly have not been to the borderland region in Thailand that appears in the video, I have not been to innumerable places within my native country as well, but yet I never doubt that I belong to this country. This is because there are many subconscious connections established through systems and practices, such as nationality, education, and language. In other words, narratives construct the geography we live in, in very realistic and specific ways. And this geography is not three-dimensional but four-dimensional, because narratives take the land’s relation to history into consideration as they shape “landforms.” The geography we live in is a mixture of the land and its history. It is never objective, and we transform it as we live in it. Or perhaps “I” and “us” change along with it as a part of it. It is not that we are the subject and geography is the object: we are inseparable from geography, and can only exist within it, as part of it. If we seek to change, we must change along with this geography, which is a composite of space and time. History is not an irreversible straight line, but a thoroughly and eternally unfinished process, geography in motion. In ancient times, it was the function of religion and art to create and recreate historical geography. It is this geography that Chia-Wei Hsu refers to as a “narrative.” Narratives are not merely frameworks for information processing, but the very geography that surrounds us. Nowadays, the shaping of this geography has been left to the hands of nations and mass media. But whose tastes and what purposes is the geography that we live in – or are forced to live in – made to suit? What can we do to discuss history and politics differently in our times, live in a better geography, and pass it to the next generation? While information exchange has increased, travel has been stimulated, and all kinds of liberalizations have progressed, the issue of forming a new historical geography that suits this growth in information, travel, and liberty, and living in it with neighbors and strangers, has only just begun. It is in such dimensions that Hsu’s works are social and political.

.2. After winning the Annual Grand Prize at the 15th Taishin Arts Awards for his 2016 solo exhibition “Huai Mo Village,” held at the Hong-Gah Museum in Taipei, Chia-Wei Hsu held the solo exhibition “Industrial Research Institute of Taiwan Governor-General's Office” at the Liang Gallery in 2017. This four-piece exhibition began from research on the Industrial Research Institute, which was established in 1939 within the Taiwan GovernorGeneral’s Office under Japanese colonial rule, and its scientific studies.

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Nuclear Decay Timer, Chia-Wei Hsu, 2017 (film still)

Nuclear Decay Timer, which is displayed beside the venue’s entrance, is an installation about zircon, a mineral discovered by scientists at Ma'oto River in Hsinchu during Japanese rule. The work consists of a device mimicking a radiometric dating device (electron microprobe), a four-channel video about the history and science surrounding zircon, and a panel made of photographs of zircon, a geological map from the Japanese colonial era, and graphics showing the current resort development of the Ma'oto River area. When Japan started governing Taiwan in 1895, the establishment lacked knowledge of Taiwanese soil. Thus a geological survey was conducted, and the Civil Affairs Department Production Division of the Taiwan Governor-General’s Office published The Map of Geological Features and Mineral Resources of the Island of Taiwan as early as 1897 2 . The sketch of Ma'oto River zircon that Hsu showed within the video was drawn by Takeshi Ichimura (1892-1965). Ichimura graduated from the University of Tokyo’s Geology Department, and after working at the Korea Governor-General’s Office as an engineer engaging in resource surveys, he worked on geological surveys at Taihoku (Taipei) Imperial University. He stayed in Taiwan after World War II as a professor at the National Taiwan University until returning to Japan in 1947. In 1949, he became the first professor of geology at the reorganized University of Tokyo, and served as the head of the Department of Science 3 .

2

呉文星 . “東京帝国大学の台湾 に於ける学術調査と台湾総督府 の植民地政策について .” 東京 大学史紀要 , vol. 17, 1999.

3

東京大学大学院総合文化研 究科・教養学部編 . [駒場] 2012, 2012, pp. 2.

While Ma'oto River zircon did not lead to industrial development the way gold mining and coal mining did, as the Taiwan Governor-General’s Office expected, and nor did it contribute militarily, it later tread a path that the scientists back then could not have predicted. The zircon preserved at the National Taiwan University has been passed down to generation after generation of students and teachers to this day, and due to developments in nuclear physics that took place meanwhile, it became a subject of radiometric dating and served as a clue to learn about the Earth’s pre-human past. Through uranium-lead dating (the method of radiometric dating that taught us that the Earth is about 4.5 billion years old), which makes calculations based on the half-life of radioactive substances, it was revealed that the zircon discovered at Ma'oto River was formed about 46 million years ago. At this time, Taiwan was still under the sea, and Ma'oto zircon was a part of the Earth’s crust. Afterwards, a fault occurred on the east

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end of the Eurasian Plate stretching from the Chinese continent, in the sea area where Taiwan is currently located. Approximately 15 million years ago, this fault started to dive under the Philippine Sea Plate. The magma created from the heat and pressure here surfaced as a volcano, forming what would become the eastern part of Taiwan above the sea. From 10 million to 5 million years ago, the sediment at the sea area where the Eurasia Plate went under the Philippine Sea Plate built up and formed what would become the western part of Taiwan above the sea. This crashed and merged with the eastern volcanic arc, creating the current island of Taiwan. It was also during this period that the basalt containing the zircon preserved at the National Taiwan University came above the ground. Due to weathering and erosion, the rock released pieces that were carried away by the river. These pieces formed the riverbed of Ma'oto River, and here the scientists of the Japanese colonial regime collected zircon. Hsu’s video not only tells the story of how zircon was discovered at Ma'oto River and preserved at the National Taiwan University, but it also explains through animation how uranium-lead dating works and how the island of Taiwan was formed. The twist here is that the history of Taiwan is revealed from stones left by Japanese scientists working under the colonial regime. This modern twist is within all countries attempting to build national identity on science brought in by outer forces. But at the same time, while there surely is a dichotomy between the scientific research of the Taiwan GovernerGeneral’s Office and modern-day science, these two conflicting points form a huge triangle with the inclusion of the vast history of the Earth, and are thus relativized through a colossal narrative. Rather than putting modern and contemporary times into a suffocating conflict, this work breathes new air into history and art in a liberating manner while maintaining the tension between them.

4 Latour, Bruno. “We Have Never Been Modern.” French original 1991, Japanese translation 2008.

The Possibility of an Alternative Geography: Chia-Wei Hsu’s Historical Imageography

By digging up the almost forgotten history of scientific research under Japanese colonial rule, teaching through animation a contemporary method of scientific measurement, presenting through photographs the beauty of zircon, “the vessel of time,” and showing the shape of a radiometric dating device with a model and the current situation of Ma'oto River with a panel, this work combines science, education, history, politics, and art in a bold and yet delicate fashion, and distills all of them into one single crystal. The French philosopher Bruno Latour (b. 1947) regards the 17th century Britain as the starting point of modernity. This was the time when politics and science were separated, a distinction was drawn between testimonies from the courtyard and testimonies from the laboratory, and politicians were separated from scientists – the former being the agents of citizens and the latter being the agents of materials – along with the emergence of Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679) and Robert Boyle (1627-1691). However, Latour argues that politics and science, society and nature, or material and history and community, are thoroughly inseparable, and thus we shall return to a “nonmodernity” where these can be discussed as equals4 . The modern society that we live in continues to separate science and politics. In radiometric dating, only the scientific results are mentioned without regard to who discovered the minerals in what political contexts. In modern and current history classes, the connection between scientific research by the Taiwan Governor-General’s Office and current science is not taught. Events that took place 100 years ago and 46 million years ago are never mentioned in a single breath. Latour proposed a “Parliament of Things,” in which not only human beings but also animals, materials, and the natural environment, could speak. If we could listen to the stories of human beings and the testimonies of stones in the same way, we could live on a new terrain on which science

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and politics, materials and society, the voices of stones and the voices of human beings, and machines and hearts are never separated. Chia-Wei Hsu’s work is already practicing this geography, creating a time and space free from the rules of the modern system that tries to pre-separate science and politics. In the process of history, even events long past and people long forgotten ceaselessly take on new roles and functions. The terrain that we live on changes. We cannot know now what voices will be heard from where in the future. What is important is to listen to those voices not within the institutionalized spaces of politics or science or art, but to keep on inventing new ways to hear those voices in which the various spaces will be connected in unpredictable ways, and all premises and social norms will be shaken. Even if that seems to have nothing to do with politics, that is actually politics itself, and an act of resistance.

.3. The video piece Drones, Frosted Bats, and the Testimony of the Deceased is exhibited on the wall at the furthest end from the entrance of the gallery. The four screens each show a different scene: images of the ruins of a factory and its enormous chimney, images of a drone recording the ruins, taken by another drone, images of bats flocking within the chimney or flying in the air, and recorded footage of the Imperial Japanese Army planes lining up and engaging in battle. The ruins shown here are of the former Sixth Japanese Naval Fuel Plant Hsinchu Branch. From above, fragments of a recitation of The History of the Sixth Naval Fuel Plant, a memoir left after the war by workers at this factory and other branches throughout Taiwan, can be heard. The color of the screens resembles a pale blue membrane, taking on the appearance of both dawn and dusk. As the grass and leaves growing from the ruins sway, and innumerous bats vanish far off in the sky, it feels as if sense of time is lost. On the other hand, the textures of the drone or the ground shown close-up in other screens, the eyes/ears/noses/mouths of the bats moving together in piles, and the similarity between the bones of the bats’ limbs and the drone’s white arms disturb our perception with a sense of reality even stronger than reality itself. The voices dryly reciting the memoir, the sounds of the drone’s propellers spinning and its light buzzing, the cries of the bats, and the sounds of their wings all overlap, connect, and then fall apart. The work is screened according to a computer program in which the four videos and the voices heard from above are combined randomly, so the same sequence is never repeated twice. Like the drones and bats and battleplanes and testimonies of the deceased themselves, the images and sounds appear and disappear again and again. The Sixth Japanese Naval Fuel Plant was an arsenal that mainly developed and manufactured fuel for battleplanes. Its headquarters were in Kaohsiung, and there were branches in Hsinchu and Hsinkao (now Qingshui, Taichung). Fuel, or energy, was an unavoidable problem in modern industries and warfare. Back then, Japan made up for its oil shortage by using a mixture of gasoline and absolute alcohol (butanol) made out of Taiwanese sugarcane juice and molasses. Under the slogan “Agricultural Taiwan, Industrial Japan,” industry in Taiwan was initially focused on production of rice and sugarcane, but the start of the Sino-Japanese war in 1937 led to a clear shift towards manufacturing5 . The Japanese cabinet passed the “Productivity Expansion Project” in January 1938, and as a result, pre-existing organizations within the Taiwan GovernorGeneral’s Office were reorganized into the Industrial Research Institute that April. Taiwan was requested to drastically increase its produce of butanol, but as the amount of molasses was limited, a method to extract butanol from fermented sweet potatoes

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5

やまだあつし . “植民地時代末 期台湾工業の構造 ―国民党の 接収記録を利用して―.” 人文 學報 , vol. 79, 1997, pp. 62.

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Drones, Frosted Bats and the Testimony of the Deceased, Chia-Wei Hsu, 2017 (film still)

6

陳慈玉 . “日本統治期におけ る台湾輸出産業の発展と変遷 (下).” 立命館經濟學 , vol. 61,

no. 1, 2012, pp. 115.

was developed 6 . In other words, the Japanese Army was trying to fly battleplanes with potatoes. For that purpose, youngsters from all over Taiwan and mainland Japan worked while the US Military air-raided them. But now, drones are flying over those ruins, bats are living there, and the memories of those who were once young now resonate through the voices of strangers. The Asian frosted bats, which appear in the video, are actually a species that are not native to Taiwan. These bats are mainly in the temperate regions to the north, and inhabit east Siberia, east China, the Korean Peninsula, and throughout Japan (except Okinawa). Taiwan is their southmost habitat, and even here, they are nowhere to be found but within the chimney of these ruins in Hsinchu. Ever since their discovery in 2010, the bats stay every year from spring to autumn in this city, now known as “Asia’s Silicon Valley.” Their residence is limited to April through September, building nests and breeding between May and July and leaving for the north again with their offspring in autumn. In this video piece by Hsu, “fragments” are scattered throughout. These fragments are not pieces of a larger history, but rather like the residue of what was tossed aside without becoming a part of history. While nobody remembers that the Japanese Military tried to convert potatoes into fuel, this discarded residue shows a different side of history and transforms the historical geography that we live in. The people who gathered at the factory from many regions and then left (after the war, soldiers of the Kuomintang army brought their families from the Chinese continent and took up residence in the ruins until 2014), the crop collected here, the plants that are now overgrown, and the bats who come and go every year – as these various movements intersect here, and fragments get joined with other fragments, even smaller fragments left out from history come falling through the gaps. Take for example this extract that can be heard in the recitation of The History of the Sixth Naval Fuel Plant:

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On January 1944, I arrived at Taipei Airport, and planned to travel to my post in Kaohsiung that night. That day we visited the house of Technical Captain Umemura's sister (the Taipei mayor's house) because we had plenty of time until our departure. As the war situation was worsening, the animals at Taihoku Zoo were being shot one by one, so lion meat was distributed to the Mayor's house that day. In order to prevent the beasts from escaping if their cages got wartimes, they were being electrocuted to death. All the meat of lions and tigers was distributed to city councilman and top officials. I could not remember whether I ate a lion's meat or not, but this is how I remembered what happened at the time. Who remembers the animals who were killed at Taihoku Zoo, their meat distributed to the mayor and city council members, as a part of the history of the Asia-Pacific War? By learning about them along with the fact that bats are now migrating to the chimney of the former naval plant, a new historical geography is formed. History becomes an issue not only for human beings, but also for the lions who became meat, the bats who moved in, the sugarcane and the sweet potatoes, gasoline and butanol, and battleplanes and drones. All of their voices can be heard and felt within the ruins. The shaping of historical geography is a physical and tactile issue, and this work, in which random fragments continuously pour down on us, seems to show that. Between the recitations of the memoir, the following words are read: "At the end of the war, most of the documents were burned in as incinerator on the eve of surrender. All evidence of the quantities, dates, persons, accidents, sequence, cause and effect relationship has been completely lost, and only a vague and unreliable image remains. Nothing else remains here, and the equipment has been abandoned. The only things that are still moving are drones, frosted bats, and the testimonies of the deceased." Indeed, images and voices are vague, and even in the citation above, it is unclear whether the animals were shot or electrocuted. But perhaps it is our duty to take on these fragments that barely live on, as unreliable as they are, and keep on constructing and deconstructing histories in different unfixable shapes piece by piece, no matter how ambiguous they may be.

.4. The third piece, Industrial Research Institute of Taiwan Governor-General’s Office, starts with two old photographs of the Institute’s laboratory. The viewer stands in front of the wall and a monitor. The wall is divided vertically in the middle, with the left side painted in navy and the right side in light green. The video played in the monitor starts with the same two-toned wall as well. The perspective in the video moves to the other side of the wall, where the Industrial Research Institute laboratory left in the photographs is replicated in 3D animation. Amidst shelves containing many bottles, flasks of various shapes, microscopes, and labware, a scientist is standing. Whatever is shown in the photographs even slightly is replicated truthfully, and whatever is not shown is not there. The ceiling exists only partially, the wall at the far end is paperthin, the floor abruptly breaks off, and rooms are separated with partitions. The whole scene resembles a propped theater stage without an audience. While there are six large windows, they are filled with white light, and what is outside cannot be seen. The video moves around the edges of this space, and once everything is seen, it suddenly changes speed, turning around to the opposite side of the laboratory. The 3D replication of the photographs is not all that is there: there is another half on the other side. Besides the laboratory are the same wall and monitor that the viewer is actually facing. The

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monitor-within-the-monitor shows old footage of elementary school boys and men and women seeing airplanes exhibited at an exposition, and airplane parts and manufactured goods being produced in factories. The footage is gradually enlarged, filling up the whole screen, but the reflections of the laboratory’s windows and flasks are visibly cast on it. The video zooms out again slowly, revealing the whole virtual space. There is the laboratory, and right beside it is the same wall and monitor as the ones placed in the gallery. The restless video moves to the back of the space, returning to the two-toned wall shown in the beginning. The video ends there, and then repeats itself. The two photographs that inspired this work possess a peculiar stillness. The Industrial Research Institute of Taiwan Governor-General’s Office was established in 1939 following the “Productivity Expansion Project,” but the laboratory shown in the photographs looks so calm and orderly that it does not evoke its background. The 3D animation expresses this sense accurately. It even seems as if science had nothing to do with the war. What does this have to do with the presented footage, the interest that the children showed, the somewhat unfocused gazes of the adults, and the diligence of the factory workers? In the video, the shadows of the Industrial Research Institute laboratory were cast upon the children, the airplanes, and the factories. What does that mean?

Takasago, Chia-Wei Hsu, 2017 (film still)

7 Argument below mainly refers to following: 野村明宏“植民地に

おける近代的統治に関する社会 学:後藤新平の台湾統治をめぐ って .”京都社会学年報 , vol. 7,

1999, pp. 1-24.

The Possibility of an Alternative Geography: Chia-Wei Hsu’s Historical Imageography

It was Shinpei Gotō (1857-1929), head of civilian affairs for the Taiwan GovernorGeneral’s Office, who determined the relation between science and Japanese governing of Taiwan. Gotō was a former doctor, and he later served as the first Director of the South Manchuria Railway, Foreign Minister, and Mayor of Tokyo following the 1923 Great Kantō Earthquake, all on the strength of his achievements governing Taiwan from 1898 to 1906. Japan’s governing of Taiwan was very different from the colonial rule of the Western great powers 7 : in the case of the great powers, missionaries would reside in the colonies for a long time, researching the local language, culture, and customs while propagating Christianity. Only after expanding commerce and industry, and accumulating knowledge and information, would they step in to colonize. They also had a text, namely the Bible, which would serve as the basis for enlightenment. Lacking all of these, Gotō found his ideal for colonial rule not in the force of military power or law, but in “scientific governance” based on natural science (biology). He advocated the

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promotion of a “scientific lifestyle,” and used large scale research and statistics as a means of governing to realize happiness scientifically/materially (Gotō referred to this as “physiological satisfaction”). Here, material prosperity through science technology, not values, became the principle for ruling. Herein lies the political nature of science: science itself becomes a narrative, achieving dominance by providing satisfaction and happiness to the people. Modern society had not actually separated science from politics after all. Industrial Research Institute of Taiwan Governor-General’s Office, which combines 3D animation with video footage, slowly draws the viewer into this complex relation between science and politics, or scientists and citizens. Within the screen is the same monitor as the one in the gallery. The viewer in the gallery joins the scientist in the laboratory and the citizens in the factories. Once again, the relation is not a dichotomy but a triangle here as well. While we view the work outside this space, we are also positioned in the new geography that has emerged within it at the same time. How do the scientist/laboratory, the citizens/factories, and the viewer/art gallery interact with each other? Just as science was not unrelated to narratives, control, or warfare, art and its viewers are also part of the same structure. In what kind of science and narrative are we ruled through happiness? How is art siding with, or resisting against, that process? The distinction between outside and inside is neither as obvious nor as firm as it seems, and as separate as things may be, they all interact with each other. By joining recordings with reality through 3D animation, and drawing the viewer into a virtual geography, this work involves us in a question equally relevant to both the past and the present that we cannot ignore, making us stay put in front of it.

.5. After going around the gallery and returning to the entrance side, the viewer will find the single channel video piece Takasago. The video shows Nōgaku, a traditional Japanese performance art also known as Noh, being enacted in a factory. The okina (old man) outside and the ouna (old woman) inside are both wearing nohmen (masks for Nōgaku). Their images are shot separately, but while the screen is divided into two, the borderline separating them is constantly moving slowly from left to right, ever changing the ratio of the two images. Once one image takes up the whole screen, a new borderline shows up on the left end and starts moving again. Color filters are applied to the entire images, with the colors getting darker on the bottom side: yellow for the okina, and blue for the ouna. The cameras show them closely in a proximity never found in actual Nōgaku performances. Initially showing the chest and above, the camera slowly draws out, enhancing the sense of misplacement caused by the coexistence of a traditional performance art and an industrial backdrop. This work is the meeting point of different contexts as well. The Noh play performed here is Takasago, and the location of the video is a factory in the suburbs of Tokyo owned by Takasago International Corporation. Takasago is also the old Japanese name for Taiwan, and so once again, a triangle is formed. It was during the 16th and 17th centuries that some of the names applied to what is now Taiwan first appeared in Japan. In 1593, in a sovereign message of the Toyotomi Hideyoshi (1537-1598) regime, the name “Takasankoku” is written. In this message, Hideyoshi requested Taiwan to pay tribute to Japan and fall under Japanese rule. “Takasankoku” gradually changed to “Takasakun,” and then “Takasako” and

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8

横田きよ子 . ”日本における「台 湾」の呼称の変遷について:主 に近世を対象として .”海港都 市研究 , vol. 4, 2009, pp. 163-183.

9

矢内原忠雄 . 帝国主義下の台 湾 . 岩波書店 , 1988 (first edition

1929), pp. 11.

10

大谷節子 . “能「高砂」の解釈 史 .” 神戸女子大学古典芸能研 究センター紀要 , vol. 09, 2015,

pp. 1-14.

The Possibility of an Alternative Geography: Chia-Wei Hsu’s Historical Imageography

“Takasakun” as the name spread amongst the people of the time. The characters “ 高砂 ,” which were traditionally associated with that sound, were applied to that name, and that is how the name stuck8 . Then where did the name “Takasankoku” come from in the first place? While there are many hypotheses, such as it being a corruption of “Takoasan,” the name of a community in Takau (now Kaohsiung, or Takao in Japanese) that many Japanese visited, it remains unclear 9 . On the other hand, the Noh play Takasago was written by Motokiyo Zeami (est. 1363-est. 1443), who perfected the art of Noh. Here is a plot summary; in the times of Emperor Daigo (901-923), who is said to have carried out ideal politics, a Shinto priest in Kyūshū named Tomonari sets off on a trip to Kyoto, the capital of Japan. It is springtime, and the sea trip is peaceful with a spring breeze blowing. On the way, Tomonari visits a shore named “Takasago”, a sight in Hyōgo known for its beauty. “Which tree is the famous Pine Tree of Takasago,” he asks an elderly couple sweeping the shade of a pine tree. The couple answers that the very tree they were sweeping under is it. Upon hearing why the Pine Tree of Takasago and the Pine Tree of Sumiyoshi in Osaka are called the “Paired Pines,” it is revealed that the couple is also living separately, the wife in Takasago and the husband in Sumiyoshi, with mountains and ocean in between. The elderly couple say that as long as their hearts feel the same way, distance does not matter, and that they became pairs along with the Pines, living and aging together even when they are far away. According to them, the true meaning of the Paired Pines is the perfect matching between the past and the present. The Pine Tree of Takasago symbolizes the times when Man’yōshū, Japan’s oldest poetry collection, was edited (mid-8th century), while the Pine Tree of Sumiyoshi symbolizes the present. Being evergreen, pine trees never lose their leaves, meaning that words (kotoba) and poetry never die. The prosperity of words and poetry is synonymous with the enactment of ideal politics, and the Paired Pines signify the connection between the past and the present, as separate as they may be. After saying this, the elderly couple reveal their identities, saying that they are the spirits of the Paired Pines. They tell Tomonari that they will be waiting for him at Sumiyoshi, and then disappear. Tomonari boards a newly made boat and sets sail amidst the moonlight. Upon arrival at Sumiyoshi, the god of Sumiyoshi shows up on the coast, singing and dancing. Feeling that the path of faith and the path of politics are the same, Tomonari feels a refreshed determination to visit Kyoto. The voice and flutters of the god of Sumiyoshi can be felt strongly in the sound of the wind blowing through the Pine Tree, and Tomonari is overjoyed. Takasago is the most widely performed Noh play in Japan up to modern times, and it is also the one most sung and most popular among the people10 . This is because the passage in which the elderly couple who live and age together appears had come to be sung at weddings since some time or another, and “Takasago Dolls” modeled on the couple had become a popular engagement gift (neither of these practices are frequently seen nowadays). According to research up to now, the fact that what is now Taiwan came to be called Takasago by the Japanese has no direct relation to the Noh song Takasago – it is a mere coincidence that these two separate locations became unified when Taiwan was colonized. However, it is undeniable that within the psyche of the Japanese who continued referring to Taiwan as Takasago, there might have been a dream, ideal, or excuse for invasion that these separate lands will sympathize with each other, and grow together on the same path.

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Takasago International Corporation now has its headquarters in Kamata, Tokyo, but it used to be based in Taipei 11 . Its founder, Tadaka Kainoshō (1880-1938), is a descendant of the famous warrior Masashige Kusunoki (est. 1294-1336). Despite becoming an assistant professor at Kyoto University at a young age, he traveled to Europe in 1910 to study perfumery chemistry. After training first in south France at a company in Grasse, still considered the “capital of perfume,” and then in Geneva at Givaudan, now the world’s largest fragrance maker, he returned to Japan in 1913 and established Takasago Perfumery Company Limited in 1920. The company was named “Takasago” in hope that the company would thrive in the future following the story of Takasago, but another reason for the naming was that opening a factory in Taiwan was part of the founding plans, and thus Taiwan’s Japanese alias was chosen. Camphor, an organic compound obtained by distilling the leaves and branch chips of the camphor tree grown in Taiwan, was important back then not only for the fragrance industry but for Japanese economy in general. Camphor was used for medical products, insect repellents, deodorants, gunpowder, and celluloid, which was an ingredient of film and toys. The acquisition of Taiwan had made Japan the world’s largest producer of camphor at the time. Shinpei Gotō had established a monopoly of Taiwan camphor in 1899 and put sales under governmental control, so Takasago Perfumery established connections with the Taiwan Governor-General’s Office in order to build its Taipei factory in 1935. Afterwards, the company relocated its headquarters to Taipei in 1938. One cannot help but feel destiny in that a man named “Tadaka” (scent of camphor) founded a company to produce fragrance from the camphor tree. The SinoJapanese War had already begun, and Takasago Perfumery started producing war supplies and manufactured goods under a new moniker, while an affiliated company produced and sold butanol as fuel for aircraft. The war ended while they were building a factory in Hsinchu. The histories of politics, art, and industry all converge and tangle up within this video just short of 10 minutes in length. While the Noh play Takasago takes more than an hour to perform in its entirety, Chia-Wei Hsu excerpts only two scenes: leaving out the famous ending in which the god of Sumiyoshi speaks in the moonlight, he instead uses the scene in which the elderly couple reveal that they are living separately, and the scene in which they reveal that they are the spirits of the Paired Pines. In Takasago, which is considered to be one of the most abstract and conceptual of the many existing Noh plays, Zeami declared that the way of song and the way of governance, or art and politics, are the same, and he visualized this by showing a couple as the smallest community possible 12 . Hsu reenacts in our times the modern encounter between the fragrance industry, Nōgaku, and Taiwan, while at the same time fragmenting a Noh song to question the relationship between all pairs, and what it means for a couple to live together and age together while being separated. The relation between Taiwan and Japan is not all that is put in question here: rather than that, by presenting the unknown historical connection between Nōgaku and science, and bringing Nōgaku back to the factory, this work encourages us to connect separate things, and putting things that are usually unrelated with each other into pairs. What does it mean for song and politics, art and authority, fragrance and nation, or video and history, to live together and age together? Zeami made two pine trees, two places, and two eras meet via Noh; conjugated space and time in a unique manner; and created a historical geography in which song and politics prospered side by side in a celebratory piece of work. The story of Takasago starts in the shade of a pine tree. Art connects what cannot be connected in the bright side of the world and imagines a peculiar couple, and an alternative geography, in the shadows.

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11 Account below mainly refers to following: 鈴木隆 . “高砂香料 創業前夜(第 1 回)香料の島 台湾 .”高砂香料時報 , vol. 178, 2016, pp. 40-43 頁 . 高砂香料 50 年史編集員会・編 . 高砂香料 50 年史 . 1973. 80 年史編纂委員会 ・編 . 80 年史 . 2003.

12

大谷 , as cited above, pp. 1.

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13

堀内喜間多 . “香りの歴史と高砂 香料コレクション .” 平塚市美術 館 . 香りの美展 古代から現代ま で――ヨーロッパ・中国・日本 の香水瓶・香炉の歴史をたどって  「高砂香料コレクション」の魅力 図録 . 2000, pp. 5.

Art creates new historical geographies through its artificiality. Performing Nōgaku in a factory is a highly artificial and unnatural situation. To add to this, the performance is captured from an unusual proximity and screened with added colors, and has a borderline moving on the screen. But only through these artificial maneuverings are the wind inflating the costumes, the sound of brooms sweeping the concrete floor, the Noh masks, the napes under the wigs, the beauty of the transparent clothes, and the insects that suddenly climb up the screen and disappear emphasized. This way, an imaginary sea and beach that is not there is evoked, and the classic Noh play and the factory, along with their distinct histories, are perceived and understood in new ways and integrated as part of our geography. Artificiality serves as a critique against perception. It is through artificiality that we connect to things, join things together, and create a new geography. Maybe it was fragrance that first taught us that, as the word “perfume” is derived from the Latin words “per” (through) and “fumum” (smoke). Upon learning how to use fire, the ancients discovered that some materials emit a fragrance when burnt. They began to use that scented smoke to pray to the gods, and express their wishes or gratitude 13 . Now we use not only scent but also video and art to express hidden possibilities and record peculiar encounters, in resistance towards smoke rising from invasion, dominance, and warfare. By drawing lines that connect separate things and lead to new couples, the institutionalized geography is historically reshaped, and a sense of community is reestablished amongst those who shall live together and age together. Takasago Perfumery, Nōgaku, and Taiwan were engulfed in politics in modern times, but now they have taken on an expressional role. For expression and history, to live together and age together may mean the potential of salvation by constantly transforming history into a new alternative geography. Through its bold artificiality and breezy lightness, Takasago has realized a meeting that saves history.

.6. 14 Hamacher, Werner. “Afformativ, Streik.” L. Hart Nibbrig, Christiaan (Hrsg.) Was heißt ‘Darstellen’?, Suhrkamp Verlag, Frakfurt am Main, 1994, pp. 340371.

The Story of Hoping Island, Chia-Wei Hsu,

2008 (film still)

The Possibility of an Alternative Geography: Chia-Wei Hsu’s Historical Imageography

In Afformativ, Streik, an explanatory text for Walter Benjamin’s (1892-1940) The Critique of Violence, the German philosopher Werner Hamacher (1948-2017) discusses the deconstruction of institutionalized history. According to him, all historic changes are brought by violence. However, once those changes are institutionalized, the system itself becomes its own goal and fixates itself, coming to reject any possibilities of further changes. What reopens this institutionalized history is not more violence. This is because violence will surely lead to institutionalization and fixation again. Rather than that, what is needed is “Amorphisierung,” or to create something that neither has a shape nor can be fixed into a shape, something that does not give a sense of direction or organization to the people, but instead annihilates direction and organization. Hamacher argues that “aporia,” or difficult questions that cannot be separated into content and medium, are what lead to Amorphisierung 14 . Pulling out from institutionalized history the possibility of an alternative history through questions, without separating content and medium, and without forcing people into a certain direction – is this not exactly what Hsu’s works do? His works do not trace themes that are already regarded by society and media to be political, or aim at reinforcing the system. They also do not guide the viewer with any specific ideology. What they do is make us conscious of the landscape and geography that we thoughtlessly live in, or are unconsciously forced to live in, and thus distort it. His videos draw new lines on the bits of geography that form the premises of our daily lives, such as the understanding of history that we are taught by schools and media, the concept of nation, the separation of science and politics, the separation of art

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Huatung Village, Chia-Wei Hsu, 2009 (film still)

and education, and the separation of large-scale history and small-scale history. In his works, such landforms lose their shape for a while. This is an individual earthquake, a diastrophism that happens within each and every viewer. By experiencing his works, we set out to form a new geography. All of his work contains cues that, upon being experienced by us, shake the basis of how we view and walk through the world and its history, and what we shall be in it. This was already evident in The Story of Hoping Island (2008), which Hsu calls the starting point of his later works. This work is set in a shipyard on Hoping Island, right beyond Keelung Port, which has been in business since colonial times. The video combines images of the present shipyard with a narration that mixes the history of student mobilization by the Japanese Military, the memories of Hsu’s grandmother who experienced this on this land, and a science fiction story. The narration is provided by Hsu’s grandmother in Japanese – not “normal” Japanese, but Japanese with traces of historical discontinuity and translation between several languages. The work mentions a fictitious animal species named “Ni-Ku.” These creatures inhabit the beaches of Hoping Island, look similar to crabs with large claws, and glow once the sun goes down. They are digging a deep and long tunnel underground. Eventually, these creatures go beyond the premises of the shipyard and start digging under a stone-paved road. They end up digging holes in the bodies of the elementary school children who were recruited for student mobilization. Their bodies are brittle like sand and easy to dig. Without drawing any distinction between reality and imagination, the voice of Hsu’s grandmother says, “They dug so many tunnels that they gained access to my deepest dreams. Those dreams were their deepest destination. The Ni-Ku all died in my dreams, and the glow emitted from their many dead bodies blocked my dreams.” The Story of Hoping Island indicates a deeply rooted consistency within its creator that is maintained to this day. There is an invisible tunnel that penetrates the beach of the island; the stone pavement of the city; the bodies of children; and the dreams of Hsu’s grandmother, without any distinction between history, memory, reality, material, and dream. That such a tunnel shall be dug is a horrendous thought. But as violent and horrendous as that may be, perhaps such tunnels have existed throughout history, and we are living our lives while being penetrated by them. The geography we live in is an infrastructure that cannot be separated into material and nonmaterial or reality and imagination, a group of complex tunnels that stretch on and on. Among its exits are the monitors and screens on which videos are projected. Maybe “islands,” a motif that Chia-Wei Hsu has constantly pursued, shall be understood as an exit of such tunnels as well. Among these are Hoping Island; the

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15

野家啓一 . 歴史を哲学する . 岩 波現代文庫 , 2016.

16 This point and account below refer to following conversation with Hsu when he participated in Taiwan Pavilion at Venice Biennale: Lu, Esther. “In Conversation with Hsu Chia-Wei,” 2013. From Chia-Wei Hsu’s portfolio by Liang Gallery.

villages of Huai Mo and Huatung (Huatung Village, 2009) as isolated “islands,” the Matsu Islands and Turtle Island (Marshal Tie Jia Project, 2012-2016), Japan, and Taiwan, which returns to the front through the examination of its neighboring islands. The basic understanding in contemporary historical philosophy is that history is a network of narratives 15 , but what Hsu does is discover lines and connections excluded from the network of history amongst deserted lands, forgotten histories, and the people and culture living in association with those. His interest has always been to visualize memories that elude the collective public memory 16 . He travels, encounters people and things, and continues to “excavate” without any preestablished conclusion. Rather than producing works under a certain theme, the process of shooting leads to dialogues, and the dialogues reveal the structures in the background. Hsu finds his works to be political in that they start from reality and end up shaping a new sense of reality. Hsu’s style has shifted from seeking to deconstruct and reconstruct narrative by mismatching video and sound, or image and story – as can be seen in The Story of Hoping Island, or Huatung Village which showed an Ami village on the outskirts of Taipei – to reexamining reality and narrative at the same time by including the process of production and the recording media itself in the videos, and using extremely artificial video editing methods. This stylistic change, however, is consistent as Hsu always shows his awareness towards the issue of how to update our current sense of reality into something else. His works always contain artificial elements, and his very production methods are incorporated into them. But this is because the narrative that surrounds us, and the concept of “naturalness,” are artificial to begin with, and based on inexplicit methodology. What Hsu is doing is show clearly what attitude an artist would take under such circumstances. Even though various events from various times are flowing into the now and here, people always select what they feel to be important upon telling others of those events, thus giving birth to the official history – narrative that Benjamin refers to as “empathy with the victor.” While moving in and out of that narrative, Hsu digs new tunnels through that narrative, his own body, specific places, society, and the world using new expression techniques. By doing so, an alternative historical geography is born, and possibilities of the emergence of alternative islands can be explored. This is a four-dimensional re-survey of geography that encompasses everything, from time and space to sense and emotion, and you and I. Industrial Research Institute of Taiwan Governor-General’s Office deepened such issues through the exploration of science during the Japanese colonial regime as its theme. In contrast to the exhibition title, a variety of times and voices not restricted to modern history merged together and resonated with each other there. The present is a mixture of all kinds of histories: minerals (zircon), animals (bats), plants (the Paired Pines), land, sea, fire, oil, alcohol, science, politics, art, and industry. The exhibition questioned what kind of geography or new cosmology shall we treat this present as, and how we shall live in it. Chia-Wei Hsu’s historical imageography is not meant to be a practice in tracing the history and geography that is approved by politics, economy, and science. His videos disturb the preexistent history and geography while suggesting the possibilities of an alternative history and geography. His videos are unnatural, just as history and geography are. The artificiality of his videos provide, along with a pleasant experience, a sense of surprise towards the complexity of underlying structures, and the viewer will

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feel the desire to both watch again and again and learn more about the backgrounds. While what his videos bring may be similar to what institutionalized narratives bring, they differ in that they do not try to come across as natural or imprint images. Hsu’s video works are ethical to the extent that they are thoroughly artificial. Despite being distributed as an objective depiction of the world, Mercator maps, which were created in 1569, actually draw Africa and South America much smaller than they are, and depict West Europe to be much larger than it is. This is because they were intended back in the time to visualize the trade routes of European colonies in a way that is easy to understand. As can be seen from the fact that Mercator maps have remained the same over the years, maps are merely projections of certain standpoints, and the same goes for the geography that we live in every day. Our current sense of reality was constructed over a long period of time, so we must once again take a long period of time to transform it into a different sense of reality. If not, we will never escape the territories imprinted within our minds through maps; the systems that control us subconsciously; and the state of being servants to those systems. Hsu’s video works are steps towards this new sense of reality. His works evoke a very simple hope. It is a very simple, lighthearted, and yet vivid hope that if new expressions are born, people can live in a different story/history/geography along with old lands and old songs, forgotten people and facts, stones and trees and winds and animals; and that an alternative reality, which salvages the voices and lights and events excluded from the reality forced upon us since we were children, is possible.

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The Story of Hoping Island, Chia-Wei Hsu,

2008 (film still)

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The Story of Hoping Island, Chia-Wei Hsu,

2008 (film still)

Marshal Tie Jia-Turtle Island, Chia-Wei Hsu,

2012 (film still)

The Possibility of an Alternative Geography: Chia-Wei Hsu’s Historical Imageography

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許家維

Hsu Chia-Wei

簡介


與許家維對話

Conversation with Chia-Wei Hsu

前打開 - 當代藝術工作站總監

Former Director of Open-Contemporary Art Center

陳嘉壬

Chia-Jen CHEN


1. 這次的展覽主題主要以日本時代台灣的工業及科學為軸,是怎樣的 契機開始這個脈絡的創作?

這次的展覽主題「台灣總督府工業研究所」,起源於我針對台北市前

空軍總部基地的一些研究。我意外地發現,在日治時期這個地點曾經 是台灣總督府工業研究所,一個二戰期間成立的研究機構。由於當時 推行的「總體戰」政策,導致所有研究皆有軍需產業化的傾向,成為

戰時科學動員的一環。因此,在這種壓力之下,短短幾年間產出了大

量的研究項目,可以說是台灣在科技發展上大躍進的階段。不過後來 隨著美軍轟炸,以及國民政府將原址改建為空軍總部之後,就逐漸地 被遺忘與改寫。我在進一步地了解這個日治時期的研究單位後,開始 進行這一系列的創作。

這個日治時期的科學研究機構提供了我一些特殊的切入點,一方面是

得以從科學與技術史的角度來處理殖民歷史;另外也可以藉此處理幾 種不同的時間性概念,例如殖民與戰爭是一種斷裂的時間,而科學研 究卻是一種連續性的時間⸺透過這個主題,可以不斷地往返於不同 的時間概念之中。在創作的過程裡,也意外地碰觸到不同的時空觀,

例如有關當時的精油研究項目,連結了 14 世紀的古代能劇;有關鋯石 的礦物研究,則連結了人類未曾經歷過的史前時空。除了這個主題所 帶來的殊異時間性之外,也帶來了一種以「物」或「非人」作為切入 點的角度,從當時三個不同的研究項目:精油、丁醇與鋯石所開展出

的關係網絡,連結了北方物種霜毛蝠、廢棄軍工廠、鈾元素、板塊運動、 古代能劇、松樹精等等,這些由工業研究所所開展出來的殊異時間性 以及物與非人的關係網絡,成為我這次創作計劃所發展的重點。

2. 在《高砂》這件作品中,能劇的唱演是相當重要的元素,我們不再 只是看一個單純的劇碼,而你的作品也讓這齣能劇又增添了其他脈 絡的交疊,那麼你是如何思考這樣的脈絡混融的關係,又如何在創 作時看待錄像影像的構成方式與唱演之間的關係?

《高砂》這件作品是關於工業研究所當時的精油研究項目,在日治時期, 台灣曾經是世界上最大的樟腦出產國,因此有關這方面的精油研究也 是日治時期的重點項目之一。這部片是在日本平塚市高砂香料工業株

式會社的工廠裡拍攝,這間香料公司成立於 1920 年代,爾後為拓展業

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位於日本平塚市的高砂香料株式會社

訪談


務,並受官方支持與中央研究所工業部技術協助,1937 年將總部搬到 台北,以台灣本地的原物料開發與製作香料。戰後,這間公司搬回日

本並持續運作,現今已是日本最大的香料公司。高砂香料株式會社名 為「高砂」有兩個原因,其一是舊時日本對台灣的代稱,當時由於原 料皆來自於台灣,於是命名為高砂。其二則是取自「高砂」這一詞在

日本的意境:來自日本室町時代流傳至今,劇作家世阿彌所創作同名 為《高砂》的作品。描述對化為老夫妻人形的松樹精之間的恩愛與默 契,來表達即使地域之遙亦無法阻隔彼此。

為了這個影片的拍攝,我邀請了日本國立能劇團來到高砂香料公司的

工廠演出《高砂》這齣劇。傳統表演藝術的元素經常在我的創作中出 現,其中一個吸引我的原因是,許多古老且具有精神性的元素,往往

在日常生活中已不多見,但卻由於表演藝術的特殊格式,這些東西得 以被封存而保留下來。而我所做的,就像是從這之中抽取出古老的元 素,並讓它脫離表演藝術的格式/舞台,進入現實的日常空間。藉由 這樣的做法,「高砂」本身的多義性,可以在象徵的意義之外,變成 一個新的事件。

能劇的演出是相對的內斂與靜態,劇本更是相當富有文學性,正在演 出的演員有時候甚至會跳脫出劇情結構,對劇的本身進行評論,或是 談論文學的意義。此次演出其中的主要演員是一對老夫妻,他們的唱 詞推動了劇情的進展,但另外還有名為友成一行的祭司,以及舞台後 方的一群詠唱者稱之為「地謠」。祭司與地謠在劇中與老夫妻對話,

但同時也經常跳脫劇情,有著許多後設的唱詞。這是相當有趣的手法, 《高砂》拍攝過程

古老能劇的特殊結構,產生類似現代戲劇的疏離化效果。而當我將這 個表演呈現在影像上時,畫面中只看得到老夫妻,祭司與地謠僅以畫 外音的方式出現。我試圖將這種戲劇結構轉化為影片與觀眾之間的關

係,祭司與地謠的角色就像是現場看這部影片的觀眾,出於對老夫妻 的好奇而提問,透過觀眾、老夫妻與影片這三者之間的關係,轉化原 本的能劇結構。

拍攝影片時,老嫗在工廠的室內演出,老翁則是在戶外演出,並由兩 個畫面接續由左至右緩慢推移的方式來呈現這場表演。如上所述,能 劇的表演相當靜態,只有非常內斂的肢體動作;而這齣劇原本在舞台 上的設定為,老夫妻通常站在舞台的左右兩端,時而面對觀眾,時而

對視。兩個角色分別在左右相隔出一段距離,若要以一般影片的拍攝

手法呈現二人的對話,必須拍攝舞台的全景鏡頭,不然就得透過跳接

呈現二人對話的中景或特寫鏡頭。而透過這次使用的雙畫面推移方式, 一方面呈現了兩個角色的特寫,同時也保留了全景鏡頭的延續性空間 特色,可稱作是一種另類的一鏡到底。

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3. 在《核衰變計時器》你導入了一種科教性的手法在錄像中,並由自 己配音講述,是否可談談這件作品錄像部分的建構考量。

《核衰變計時器》這件作品也是源自於工業研究所其中的一個研究項 目,在日治時期台灣的金礦業曾經蓬勃發展,日本人在採金礦的過程

中首次發現了副礦物「鋯石」,不過當時並未受到重視。直至二戰期間, 一些研究員發現鋯石很適合作為合金的材料,在軍需產業的需求之下, 工業研究所才開始投入研究。當時的研究員包括市村毅及國府健次都

國府健次 1934 年發表於台灣地學記事的論文

針對新竹關西馬武督地區的鋯石做了研究,因為此地富含特殊的鋯石 巨晶。然而,這個研究起初引起我的興趣是因為鋯石含有放射性的鈾 元素,且謠傳當時日本研究員的動機可能是為了核子用途。於是我聯

絡了台大地質系專門做礦物研究的陳正宏教授,在與他訪談的過程中, 才發現鋯石作為核子研究的可能性不高,但是卻具有原先我所不知道 的重要學術用途。

陳教授給我看了日治時期研究員所傳承下來原為合金研究用途的鋯石

標本,到了今日的地質學家手中,卻發現鋯石中放射性鈾元素的其他 用途,便是能夠進一步測定礦物的生成年代。經過特殊的定年方法測

《核衰變計時器》裝置製作過程

得這些鋯石生成於 4600 萬年前,台灣島都還尚未形成的時間;也就是

說,這小小的礦物裡頭承載了時間的資訊,這些不同的資訊也成為了推 算地球板塊運動以及地質時間的重要線索。

這個影片中,我拍攝了教授在實驗室工作的過程與訪談,並穿插置入 日治時期的文獻資料。其中還有一段動畫的內容部分,是我與兩位地 質顧問許緯豪、張秋蓮所合力完成的。鋯石分析轉化為地質資訊的過 程,在原本的科學研究中,都僅以公式及數據呈現。而這個動畫的繪

製,則是試圖把理論與數據轉化為視覺性的呈現。部分旁白的口述是 由我自己配音,呈現我在這工作過程中,與地質專業領域的交會、互

動與發現。整個作品是以類紀錄片的方式呈現,甚至可以說像是科學 教育片,並沒有太多看似藝術語言的建構方式。不過如果進一步思考 這個動畫,雖然看似客觀中性,但事實上對我來說卻是一個充滿想像 的過程,這是人類用有限的知識與能力,針對與自身完全不對等的宏 大時空觀進行想像,這樣的地球科學領域本身就已經極富詩意了。

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訪談


4. 延續這件作品的討論,這件作品的裝置有一台電子微探針雕塑的呈 現,它看似簡約化的造型,但卻也讓人感受到可能是某種實驗室內 的儀器裝置,你如何構思它在裝置中的角色?

這件作品的展示方式是參考實驗室裡的設備,包括使用電腦螢幕、實 驗室桌,以及依電子微探針所製作的模型。電子微探針是透過將電子

束打在樣本上,使樣本產生 X 射線,藉以觀察與分析樣本所含有的元 素。會製作這個模型的原因,是因為當我第一次看到實驗室裡的這台 機器,就對它很著迷,因為這台機器長得很像機器。聽起來很奇怪,

不過其實現在已經很少看到長得這麼像機器的機器了;現在的實驗室

設備很多都已經數位化,包括我們平常使用的數位化產品,像是電腦 手機等,體積越來越小,也具有流暢的線條設計。而這台電子微探針

卻還是很機械式的運作方式,是屬於很末代的實驗室儀器,未來也將 被淘汰。這台機器滿足了我這個科學門外漢對於實驗室的想像。在這 個動機底下製作這個模型,它並不是擬真,而是經過造型簡化,像是

積木或是玩具,這樣的性質也很類似於一些科學期刊,會設計一些小 玩具附在書裡,讓不懂科學的人能夠把玩。也就是說這個電子微探針 模型,是以我這個不懂科學的腦袋,基於對科學的想像所製作的,也 像是我的視點與地球科學實驗的交會。

5.《統一度假村》這件裝置中,有許多活潑且色彩鮮明的地圖與照片 並列,有別於其他作品的冷調處理,它的調性反而顯得格外突出, 何以有這樣的想法表現?並談談這件裝置在這個展中的部署方式?

當初日治時期的研究員在新竹關西馬武督溪的河床裡淘選鋯石的地點, 如今正是統一度假村;我展出了度假村的平面圖、度假村的場景照、

以及我透過顯微鏡所拍攝的鋯石畫面和其他收集來的現成影像。對我

來說,這整組影像像是一幅攝影,只不過它不是以相機對著現實世界 拍攝,而是透過各式各樣的素材所組成;如同我們今天在網路搜索引 擎上,輸入關鍵字以後所出現的不同畫面。這些紛雜的畫面可能有藝

術性的、通俗的、日常的或是詩意的等等,各自有不同的原因而產生, 這也是今日我們在接受影像的一種方式。我在挑選這些影像時,除了

內容以外,我也關注影像的質地,例如 3D 數位的質感、2D 動畫、日 治時期的文件、顯微鏡攝影等等,由不同的影像類型並置,所呈現的 一幅有關馬武督的攝影。

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6. 在《飛行器、霜毛蝠、逝者證言》這件四頻道錄像,當你進行田調, 發現大半關於當時時空的資訊多以付之闕如,在這樣零碎不完整的 現實條件下,你如何用影像回應這樣的境況?延續這個問題,錄像 的開端提到這裡僅剩飛行器、霜毛蝠與逝者證言,這裡相當有趣,

因為影片中的空拍機是你在創作中加入的元素,它們並非原屬於此 地,但在此卻又銘刻在與這個工廠遺跡的歷史關係式中,為何有這 樣的想法產生?

《飛行器、霜毛蝠、逝者證言》拍攝過程

《飛行器、霜毛蝠、逝者證言》這件作品的拍攝地點是在新竹的一座廢

棄工廠裡,是日治時期的海軍第六燃料廠。這個作品是針對工業研究 所的研究項目中,關於生質能源丁醇的研究。在二戰期間,由於海上

運輸路線中斷,燃料的進口越來越困難,於是當時的日本政府便開始 進行替代能源的研究。當時他們佔領了廣東與海南島以後,派了許多 研究員對當地各項資源進行調查,並帶回了一種特殊的丁醇菌珠,用 以發酵台灣的地瓜,產生高品質的丁醇,可添加於飛機燃料中,增加

燃料的效率,這座海軍第六燃料廠就是當初主要生產丁醇的軍工廠。

我所找到的線索,包括了工業研究所當時有關丁醇的研究論文,以及

這座廢棄多年的軍工廠遺跡,另外我也找到了一本 1986 年在日本所出

版的《第六海軍燃料廠史》,這本書在 2013 年被翻譯成中文在台灣出

版。當時在日本出版時,為了戰後 40 週年的紀念活動,重新聚集了二

戰期間曾在這座工廠裡工作的工員,這些工員提供了他們所寫的共 50 多篇回憶錄,最後收錄在這本書裡。現在距離當初出版的時間,已經

又過了 30 多年,這些工員已經全都不在了,僅剩下這些回憶錄能夠拼 湊二戰期間的可能樣貌。

在這些回憶錄中,許多篇章都提到在投降前夕,不少檔案資料都被丟 進燃料爐裡銷毀了,所以他們所描述的內容,都是個人的回憶,其中 的人物、事件、因果關係等,都是模糊無法確定的狀態。於是我試圖

去呈現這種回憶的狀態本身,沒有所謂真正的事實,有的只有個人的 視點、記憶與想像。影片的旁白是來自於這些工員所寫的回憶錄,我

從 50 多篇的回憶錄當中挑選出了 19 篇,並在日本邀請 4 位不同年齡

的配音員來錄製這些回憶錄。由於這些回憶錄並不是口語化的表述, 而是以文字所書寫而成的,所以我邀請這些配音員以一種介於朗讀與 演出之間的方式來錄製旁白。

由於這個工廠主要生產飛機燃料,在影像的處理上,我以三種不同的 飛行元素作為主軸,藉此回應這座工廠的身份。第一個飛行元素是空 拍機,這個地方已經沒有任何人類活動,只剩下偌大的工業廠房。空

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拍機一方面是攝影機,以創造不同於人的視角,另一方面它的特性正 如同機器人一般,一種非人的存在與運動方式,透過裸露這個拍攝機 具,空拍機成為了演員,並且是一種擬人化的呈現。第二個飛行元素

為蝙蝠,我在實地探勘工廠時,意外地發現工廠裡面有一支巨大的煙 囪,裡面住了一種特殊的霜毛蝠。這種北方的物種一般是生活在高緯 度地區,如中國華北地區、韓國與日本;但不知是何緣故,這些霜毛

蝠在每年的 5 月到 7 月會到這煙囪裡產子,也成為台灣唯一的霜毛蝠 棲息地,這也是此物種在地球最南端的棲息地。霜毛蝠的遷徙意外地

聯繫了這座工廠與日本的關係,這是一種神秘的巧合。因此在作品中, 也穿插了霜毛蝠在煙囪當中的畫面,以及空中盤旋覓食的畫面,蝙蝠 是另一種非人的存在,為第二種飛行的元素。第三種飛行的元素則是 來自於二戰期間的資料畫面,美國與中國的盟軍轟炸台灣的畫面。當 時新竹是受到最密集轟炸的地區,許多篇回憶錄都提到轟炸的種種細

節,而這段歷史在中國接收台灣之後,官方的歷史書寫大多是避而不 談,在影像中,這些轟炸機便是作為第三種飛行的元素。

在整個錄像裝置的呈現上,我與工程師設計了一個電腦程式,這個程

式每一次會隨機選取一段回憶錄旁白播放,並且將資料庫中的空拍機、 霜毛蝠與轟炸機畫面自動剪接並呈現在四個投影畫面上。透過這個程 式的運算,打破了電影剪接的邏輯,也不同於一般錄像作品的概念,

每一次觀眾所聽到的故事及看到的畫面皆不一樣;影像與影像之間、

影像與畫外音之間沒有固定的因果關係,就像是回憶本身的不確定狀 態。每一次影像敘事的即時生成,與觀眾之間就是一種巧遇,歷史碎 片、個人回憶與現場的觀眾構成了一個記憶的迴圈。

7. 在《台灣總督府工業研究所》這件作品中,你用了 3D 動畫的方式呈 現了一個虛擬的實驗室場景,這裡似乎延續你過去創作中經常以虛 實交織的方式來回應某種歷史與不可知的關係,我們知道在今日 3D

動畫上的技術可以呈現相當細緻虛實莫辨的景象,但你卻選擇的是 《台灣總督府工業研究所》所參考的 研究所室內老照片

讓我們看到一種「模」而非一個仿真的場景,你怎麼拿捏這樣的影 像處理?

這件作品的 3D 動畫繪製是參考兩張拍攝於研究所室內的老照片,我

只針對這兩張老照片的可視範圍建模,所以當鏡頭移動時,在透視的

變化之下,3D 的構造會被裸露而變得破碎。另外在質感上,是以接近

老照片裡物件的造型,但呈現的是一種 3D 的光滑質感,這樣的動畫

並不是企圖做到寫實的再現,而是在觀看這些老照片時,同時也呈現

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了介面的作用,凸顯的是我們今日以什麼方式在「看」過去。在動畫裡, 我另外放了一組電視架在裡面,並嵌入了日治時期的博覽會畫面及軍

工廠畫面。這組動畫中的電視架,與展覽現場呈現這部影片的電視架 是一樣的,透過這個元素,反身性地指向這個展覽的現場。

有一些思考是延續自我過去的作品,往往我的作品會呈現兩個層面, 一方面可以看到故事的內容,一個有關過去的故事世界;但另一方面 也可以看到說故事的「動作」,例如拍攝機具以及場面調度的裸露,

這是一個今日的現場。而這次的展覽,我則是將這個說故事的「動作」 /今日現場,轉向觀看介面的思考,我與歷史文本、觀眾與作品之間 的關係。

8. 在你的創作脈絡上,你怎麼看待自己這個主體與這些大歷史的位置? 這次的創作計劃與日治時期有關,不過我並不是試圖還原史實,或是 為任何事件平反。對我來說,歷史是沒有客觀的可能。比如我過去的

幾件作品,包括在馬祖所做的有關鐵甲元帥系列作品,或是在泰緬邊 境有關孤軍的作品,這些人事物都與台灣有些關係,但是若我們把日 治時期有關的歷史放到這些地方,卻會顯得格格不入。例如馬祖從未

經歷過日治時期,1895 年的馬關條約清朝政府只割讓了台灣與澎湖,

馬祖與台灣發生密切的關係,實是至二戰後,甚至是國共分裂以後才

變得緊密相關。而泰緬邊境的孤軍與國民黨有關,與台灣則是間接又 複雜的關係。所以像這樣日治時期的歷史書寫,對於這兩個地方的人 來說,就像是平行時空,也就是說不可能有種歷史書寫是符合所有人 的認同,或是說每個人都有自己的一套歷史書寫。所謂的客觀事實上 並不存在,唯一能夠把握的只有主觀的歷史書寫,充滿個人角度、情 感、記憶與想像的主觀視點,而且是在模糊不定的狀態中,隨著時間 而流變。

我的創作常常運用了影像敘事作為方法,不過這樣的方式有一個危險

的地方,因為不同的政權會去抹除或創造官方記憶,是用說故事的方 式來建立意識形態;而我如何在創作中既說故事、但又不落入官方記 憶的書寫邏輯,也是我在創作中不斷保持著警覺的部分。我的工作方 式是從各種不同的相遇開始,建立在與不同的人事物面對面的關係之 上,這個過程充滿許多巧合,不斷地處於我被他人介入,或是我介入

他人的過程,往往我自己都沒辦法預知最後會生產出什麼樣的影像。 這種方式不同於鳥瞰式的計畫,而是從每個個體出發,一個一個的端

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點逐漸連結成一個網絡,然後才形成一個可能的全景。 另外也是因為說故事的方式有它危險的成分,所以我在創作中,更關 注於說故事的「動作」本身,就像是我前面所提到的今日現場。放在

影像拍攝上來說,這個拍攝的過程本身就是一場真實的行動,是在不 同地方與不同的人事物所形成的臨時工作社群,甚至可以極端一點地 說,雖然是影像作品,但也像是一種行為藝術。並不是要帶著觀眾進 入故事的世界,然後讓觀眾信以為真;而是在聽故事的同時,看到這

當中敘事者的主觀性。這是既關於過去,但也是在當下所處的地方所 新生成的事件。

這次的創作計劃有一點與過往作品不太一樣的地方,也就是前述有關

觀看介面的思考,可以再補充一些說明。我過去的作品比較多是與不 同地方的當事人合作,進而發展出作品;不過這一次的創作主題圍繞

著日治時期的科學研究機構為主,距離今天已相隔了 70、80 年,相關 的當事人已經都不在了,甚至是我的父執輩也不曾經歷過那個年代, 因此我其實是以一定程度的距離來處理這個主題。透過閱讀論文、收 集相關文獻,或是尋找今日可見的片段線索,作為主要的材料,也就

不同於之前與當事人所共同形成的臨時工作社群的狀況。原先這種臨 時工作社群的狀態,凸顯的是說故事的動作,以及與當事人合作的拍

攝行動;而這次的計畫則是轉向觀看故事的介面,這個介面是關於今 日我們是用什麼工具在思考或想像我們所不曾經歷過的事物。這個介

面的運作可以看到像是這次創作中運用 Google 搜尋引擎來思考攝影、

雙畫面不斷推移的方式呈現能劇演出、近 5 年才發展出來的空拍機作 為演員、程式的即時運算剪接以及 3D 虛擬空間或 2D 動畫對史前地質

的描述等等。前面我有提到地球科學的研究是充滿想像力的,是人類 用現有的知識去想像一個人類所不曾經歷過的時代,但事實上不需回

推到史前時代,即便是距離我們才 70、80 年的日治時期,也同樣是沒 剩幾個人親身經歷過,也就是說我們是透過各種介面去想像與碰觸這

個時空。因此這種轉向介面的想法,比較像是將關注的重點放到我們 是怎麼面對、詮釋或想像這些歷史文本,這個想像的過程就不是歷史 性的了,而是當下的狀態。

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9. 近年藝術圈對於歷史與檔案化的討論不曾間斷,然而檔案化以及歷 史的書寫仍須相當的人文與自然科學的嚴謹考查與研究,對於你的

創作而言,你是如何思考這之間的關係?或者你採取的姿態是什麼? 雖然我的作品好像是與歷史有關,不過我的出發點其實常常基於對人 與地方的好奇,例如我們詢問一個人的過去,當他述說時,可能就變

成是一種個人化的歷史。另外我的創作過程,常有著類似田野調查的

方法,外觀上看似在做文史工作,但對我來說這樣的過程並不是為了 建立檔案或書寫歷史,而是有著藝術創作上的內在需求。第一個是為 了處理虛構化影像空間的問題,影像創作在本質上,是一個虛幻的流 動影像,不如雕塑一般具有扎扎實實的物質性,而且很容易落入一個 陷阱,淪為創造虛構意識形態的敘事工具。所以在我的創作中,如何

讓影像迴避象徵與再現的邏輯,具備扎扎實實的現實量感,就是我在 影像實踐上一直思考的核心問題。

在我比較早期的作品像是《和平島故事》或是《花東新村》等作品,

我的方式是透過影音的不同步,或是故事時空與畫面視覺的不同步等 方式,我稱為「敘事內在調度」的手法,處理影像與觀眾一種面對面

的關係。而後來的作品像是《鐵甲元帥》系列,或是《回莫村》系列, 則是考慮了更多敘事的「場外調度」,透過在不同的地點組織臨時的 工作社群,與不同的人事物之間形成一場真實的行動,這樣的影像除 了敘事之外,還包括了更多畫外場的動員過程,也就模糊了虛幻影像 空間與現實空間的界線。這樣的影像創作思考,使我必須不斷地與不

同的人事物面對面,而且將問題從影像的內容,轉向影像的生產過程, 也就是因為這樣的工作過程,乍看好像是在做田野調查工作。

除此之外,許多的研究與調查工作其實是與創作過程同步進行的,也 就是說我並不是先做好全部的研究,確定計畫之後再執行;而是與不

同的人事物不斷地協商交涉,互相介入修改,過程中一直有新的發現, 或是推翻原本的想法,在這樣的過程中逐漸形成作品。因此初期的創 作計劃對我來說只是一個溝通工具,藉由這樣的工具,激化我與他者 之間的關係,推進互相的合作關係,而最後所呈現的結果往往是我無 法預期的,與原初的創作計劃是否一致,便一點都不重要了。我是把

自己放入各種不同的關係網絡中,在許多綿密的互動過程中生產作品, 就像是代替觀眾去接觸比較陌生的事物,然後在展覽中呈現。

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1 The theme of the exhibition is mainly about the development of science and industry in Taiwan during the Japanese Occupation. Has any particular reason inspired you to start the project? The theme of the exhibition “Industrial Research Institute of Taiwan Governor-General's Office” derives from my previous research on the original site of the Air Force Command Headquarters in Taipei. By accident, I found out that during the Japanese Occupation the Industrial Research Institute of Taiwan Governor-General's Office, a research institute established during World War II, was located on this site. Soon, it became a unique beginning point allowing me not only to deal with the colonial history from the perspective of science and technology but also to manage the diverse concepts of time. For example, colonization and war signify the discontinuity of time while scientific research represents its continuity, and the theme makes it possible to travel between the various concepts of time unceasingly. During the art-making process, I discovered different concepts about space and time, such as the association between the research project of essential oil and the fourteenth-century Noh theatre, or the study of zircon and prehistory time when no human existed. Apart from the several concepts of time, the theme also provides a perspective from “non-human” materials. Three different projects based on the research of essential oil, butanol, and zircon construct a web, which extends to connect with things like Asian particolored bats (frosted bats; a species usually found in Northern Asia), abandoned military plant, uranium, plate tectonics, traditional Noh theatre, and a story about the spirits of pine trees. Elaborated from the Industrial Research Institute, the web connecting the diverse concepts of time and nonhuman materials thus becomes the focus of my art project.

2. The Noh-style singing and acting are the major elements in Takasago, and it is not just a Noh theatre production but also a juxtaposition with other contexts. I am wondering how do you deal with the intertextual connection and how do you manage the relation between stage performance (singing and acting) and the structure of the video? Takasago International Corporation building in Hiratsuka, Japan

The video was filmed in the factory of Takasago International Corporation in Hiratsuka, Japan. In 1937, the company moved its headquarters to Taipei because it depended mostly on the raw materials from Taiwan to produce perfume and fragrance. After the end of the war, its headquarters was moved back to Japan. It is still operating now and has become one of the biggest fragrance firms in Japan. Meanwhile, Takasago is also an ancient Japanese name for Taiwan and the title of the well-known Noh play by Motokiyo Zeami. I invited the National Noh Theatre in Japan to perform Zeami’s Takasago in the factory of Takasago International Corporation for filming. The plot progressed

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The filming of Takasago

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with a scene of two actors, an old married couple, singing a libretto. The other actors included a priest Tomonari and the chorus (known as Jiutai in Noh theatre) at the upper stage. The priest and chorus at times conversed with the old married couple, but at times they were commenting on what happened on stage. For me, it was interesting to see how the unique Noh structure somehow creates the alienation effect like what we usually see in a modern theatre. When I put the performance in my video, I only included the part where the old married couple was visible, and the priest and chorus were heard as the voice-over. I tried to transform the theatrical structure into the video-and-audience relationship, while the roles of the priest and chorus were like the audience of the live performance asking questions out of their curiosity about the old married couple. Through the relationship with the audience, the old married couple, and the video, the original Noh theatre structure was thus transformed. When we filmed the video in the factory, the old woman was acting indoor, and the old man was performing outdoor. We put the two scenes together on left and right to present the performance. In the staged version, the old married couple often stood far away from each other at the both ends of the stage, where they at times faced the audience and at times looked at each other. The coupled scenes and the movement of the shots not only highlight the two characters with closeups but also maintain the panoramic spatial continuity like a special kind of oneshot video.

3. In Nuclear Decay Timer, you adopt a science education-like approach as you narrate the whole video. Could you talk more about your artistic decision regarding the video’s structure? Also, the installation includes a sculpture of an electron microprobe. Its simple shape is reminiscent of some lab device. How do you define its role in the installation? Today’s geologists use the radioactive uranium found in zircon as a dating technique to determine that the rocks were formed 46 million years ago, even before the island of Taiwan was formed. In other words, a tiny piece of stone like this, in fact, carries the message of time, while these various messages become an important lead to speculate plate tectonics and geologic dating.

Takeshi Ichimura’s thesis Memoirs of the Faculty of Science Taihoku Imperial University published in 1943

Interview

In the usual science reports, the process to convert the analysis of zircon into the geologic data is shown as formulas or statistics. Here in the making of my animation, I try to transform theories and statistics into visual images. I am the narrator of the video, in which I talk about my encounter with geology, especially what I have learned and discovered from geologic studies. The video is a semidocumentary, or you can even consider it a film for science education since it does not use much artistic vocabulary. However, if we take a closer look, the presumably objective and neutral animation, in fact, is an imagination-oriented process, where humans exercise their limited knowledge and ability to imagine the unfathomable vastness of the Universe. For me, it is what makes geoscience so fascinatingly poetic.

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The display of the work is an imitation of a lab, especially the computer monitors, lab desk, and a model of an electron microprobe. Nowadays, most of the labs are digitally equipped, but electron microprobes – the device from the last generation yet probably without a future anymore – still depend on a mechanical operation. The device satisfied all my imagination about a lab, and it thus became my motivation to create the model. It is not to imitate the real one but a simplified shape like a toy block or any kind of plaything. It is also like the science-education magazines which include specially-designed toys for those who don’t have much knowledge in science to play with them. In other words, the electron microprobe model is a creation and an imagination of science by someone who knows nothing about science. It is the encounter between my vision and geoscience.

Producing installation work Nuclear Decay Timer

4. In your field research for the four-channel video Drones, Frosted Bats and the Testimony of the Deceased, you found out that most of the related information from that period was lost. How do you visually respond to such an experience of fragmentation and incompleteness in your video? To follow up, at the beginning of the video, it mentions that the only things left here are the aircraft, frosted bats, and the testimony of the deceased. It is an interesting statement knowing that the aircraft does not come from this particular site, but you have put it here in your work. It is thus being engraved to be historically connected with the traces of the military plant. Could you talk more about your idea behind this? The narration of the video comes from the memoirs of the former workers. All of them are departed now, so the only thing left is their accounts which help me to map out a possible image of the World War II. I chose nineteen memoirs out of more than fifty and had them narrated and recorded by four Japanese voice actors in different ages. Since the language used in the memoirs seems much more formal rather than colloquial, I asked the voice actors to add a tone between acting and reading-out. The plant was designed to produce aviation fuel. Therefore, in the video, I adopt three flying-related concepts as the main theme to reflect the role of the plant. The first concept is the drone. Since there is no human activity in this place anymore, the only thing left here is the big empty factory buildings. The drone is a camera, creating a perspective different from a human one, while it also functions as a robot, using non-human movements to present its non-human existence. By exposing the filming device, the drone becomes an actor through its personification. The second concept is the bat. When I did my field research in the plant, I was surprised to find Asian particolored bats, a rare species, living inside the giant chimney. The usual habitat of these bats, known as a species coming from the north, is in high-altitude regions, including Northern China, Korea, and Japan. However, for some unknown reason, these Asian particolored bats come to the chimney every year, from May to July, to give birth. It is the Asian particolored bat’s only habitat in Taiwan, also the southernmost on earth. The bats’ migration

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unexpectedly connects the plant with Japan. With such a mysterious coincidence, I used the scenes in which the bats are flying inside the chimney or hovering in the air for preys. Bats, another non-human existence, thus become the second flyingrelated concept. The third is World War II footage of the air raids on Taiwan by the Allied Air Forces of US and Nationalist China. During the war, Hsinchu was the most severely bombed area, as documented in the memoirs in great detail. Unfortunately, after the Chinese Nationalist government took over Taiwan from Japan, this part of history was eliminated from the government’s version. These bombers are the third flying-related concept in the video. To display the video installation, I collaborated with an engineer to design a computer program which plays the recorded memoirs one track at a time in a random way. Meanwhile, the images from my research, including the drone, bats, and bombers, are auto-edited to be shown on a four-channel projection. The programmed operation not only collapses the usual rules of film-editing but also challenges the idea of video art, for that every time the audience sees a different image and hears a different story. There is no causal relation between images or between the image and the voice-over as if to reflect the ambiguity of the memory.

5. How do you define your relation with the grand histories in your artistic practice? Although this art project is about the Japanese Occupation, my intention is not to pursue its authenticity or to justify this episode in the history. For me, history is never entirely objective. The only thing we can depend on is the subjective writing of history, which features an individual perspective supported by personal experiences, emotions, memories, and imaginations, while it is also a constantly changing idea, always ambiguous with the passage of time. The filming of Drones, Frosted Bats and the Testimony of the Deceased

Interview

The theme of the project mainly surrounds the science research institutes during the Japanese Occupation. It has been seventy or eighty years now, and those related to the institutes are all gone. It was even before my father’s time, so I had to deal with it with a certain distance. By reading academic papers, collecting related documents, or searching for any possible lead still available nowadays, I try to build my own database for the project. I focus on transforming the interface through which we see the story, and the interface means our tool to speculate or to imagine the scenes we have never experienced. The mediated interface includes my use of Google search which allows me to come up with a dual image/moving shot to present Noh performance, drone (with its less-than-five-year history) as the performer, programmed real-time editing, 3D virtual space, 2D animation of the prehistoric geology, etc. I have mentioned earlier that the study of geoscience requires imagination because it is how humans exercise the inexistent knowledge to imagine a period where they did not exist. But the fact is, we do not have to return to the prehistoric time. The Japanese Occupation, which was only seventy or eighty years ago, is an example that not many of us have experienced and we have to use various interfaces to imagine and to approach this particular era. To transform the interface means to focus on how we confront, interpret, or imagine

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historical text. The process of imagining is no longer historical but the next state of presence.

6. For the past several years, history and documentation have been a heated issue in the art scene. However, both the writing of history and documentation require a solid research in humanity and natural science. As an artist, what do you think about the relation between the two in your artistic practice? Or, what is your attitude when you deal with it? A significant part of my art-making is based on my field research. It looks like I am working on history and culture, but for me, the whole process is not to document or to write history. Instead, the motivation comes from the inner need as an artist. The first thing is how I deal with the visual space in the video. The essence of video art is an illusionary moving image without the solid materiality as featured in sculpture art, and it has the risk of being exploited as a narrative tool to create fictional ideology. Therefore, it has always been my artistic concern for my video not to be symbolic and representational, yet carrying a solid volume of reality. My concern is more about the mise-hors-scène of the narrative. The temporarily gathered work team at different locations or organizations creates a real action bringing different people, places, and things together. My videos are more than the narrative itself. It is about the production process of how everything is put together, which is mostly excluded from the framed scenes we see in the video. It thus blurs the boundary between the illusionary video and the reality. It is how I think of my video art, and it is why I have to bring myself face-to-face with different people and different things regularly. Meanwhile, my focus switches from the content of the video to the process of how it is produced, like a field research. Also, most of the research is going on simultaneously with art-making. To be more specific, it is not a step-by-step process which begins with research, followed by the design of the project until the whole thing is accordingly finalized. Instead, it is a continuous negotiation among all the people involved, to revise and to adapt, again and again, even to abandon the original ideas. Throughout the process, the artworks have gradually become what they are now. For me, an original project concept is just a communicational tool to activate my relation with others and to encourage collaboration. Since the final result can never be envisioned, it does not matter at all how original idea is fulfilled. I put myself in the web built with various relations, where I create my works through these intimate interactions. I think of myself as the replacement of audience to bring in strange objects and to represent them in the exhibition.

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訪談


An old photograph used as reference for the artwork Industrial Research Institute of Taiwan GovernorGeneral’s Office

Interview

Industrial Research Institute of Taiwan Governor-General's Office

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許家維

Hsu Chia-Wei

簡介


簡介

Biography


許家維

Chia-Wei Hsu

許家維,1983 出生於台灣台中,現生活與工作於台灣台

北。2016 畢業於法國國立當代藝術工作室,在藝術的實 踐方式上,特別著力於影像創作背後的行動性,並透過 建立鏡頭以外的事件,連結正規歷史描述所未及的人、

物質與地方的關係。曾經舉辦的個展包括台北尊彩藝術 中心「台灣總督府工業研究所」(2017)、台北鳳甲美術館

「回莫村」(2016) 獲第 15 屆台新藝術獎-年度大獎、香 港巴塞爾藝術展「回莫村計畫」(2016)、荷蘭凡・阿比美

術館「Positions #2」(2015) 等。參與過的展覽包括澳洲

當代藝術館「雪梨雙年展- SUPERPOSITION」(2018)、

柏林世界文化之家「2 or 3 Tigers」(2017)、台北市立美 術館「台北雙年展-當下檔案 ・ 未來系譜:雙年展新語」

(2016)、上海外灘美術館「Hugo Boss 亞洲藝術大獎」 (2013)、第 55 屆威尼斯雙年展台灣館「這不是台灣館」 (2013)、法國網球場美術館「Faux Amis / An Ephemeral Video Library」(2010) 等。他同時也與一群藝術家共同 經營一個在台北的藝術空間:打開-當代藝術工作站。

同時具有策展、創作、論述、跨領域交流,以及藝術教

育推廣多功能之組織,持續地致力於當代藝術中的每一

種創造溝通的可能。他身兼策展人角色所策劃的展覽包 括台北鳳甲美術館「台灣國際錄像藝術展」(2018)、曼

谷文化藝術中心「理解的尺度-台泰當代藝術交流展」

(2012) 等。

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簡介


Chia-Wei Hsu, born in 1938 Taichung, Taiwan, currently lives and works in Taipei, Taiwan. In 2016, he graduated from Le Fresnoy – Studio National des Arts Contemporains, France. Hsu stresses specifically on the actionability underneath image creation when it comes to the practice of art, while linking up the relationships of humans, materials, and places omitted in the narrative of the conventional history through establishing the incidents beyond camera. Hsu has hold solo exhibitions including “Industrial Research Institute of Taiwan Governor-General’s Office” at Liang Gallery, Taipei, Taiwan (2017), “Huai Mo Village” at HongGah Museum, Taipei, Taiwan (2016) that was recognized by the Annual Grand Prize of The 15th Taishin Arts Award, “Huai Mo Village Project” at Art Basel, Hong Kong Convention and Exhibition Centre, Hong Kong, China (2016), and “Positions #2” at Van Abbemuseum, Eindhoven, Netherlands (2015). The artist has participated in exhibitions such as “21st Biennale of Sydney – SUPERPOSITION” at Museum of Contemporary Art Australia, Sydney, Australia (2018), “2 or 3 Tigers” at Haus der Kulturen der Welt, Berlin, Germany (2017), “2016 Taipei Biennial - Gestures and Archives of the Present, Genealogies of the Future” at Taipei Fine Arts Museum, Taipei, Taiwan (2016), “Hugo Boss Asia Art” at Rockbund Art Museum, Shanghai, China (2013), “The 55th International Art Exhibition - la Biennale di Venezia: This Is Not a Taiwan Pavilion” at Palazzo Ducale, Venice, Italy (2013), and “Faux Amis / An Ephemeral Video Library” at Jeu De Paume, Paris, France (2010). He and a group of artists also run an art space in Taipei: Open-Contemporary Art Center, an organization with functions of curation, creation, narrative, inter-disciplinary exchange, education as well as promotion of art that strives to seek every possibility to create communication in contemporary art. He is also the curator of “Taiwan International Video Art Exhibition” at Hong-Gah Museum, Taipei, Taiwan (2018) and “THAITAI: A Measure of Understanding” at Bangkok Art and Culture Centre, Bangkok, Thailand (2012).

Biography

Industrial Research Institute of Taiwan Governor-General's Office

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學 歷 2016 2010

法國菲諾爾國立當代藝術工作室,圖爾寬,法國 國立台灣藝術大學造形藝術研究所,台北,台灣

經 歷 2017 2016 2014 2011-13 2010

藝術家駐村計畫,新加坡南洋理工大學當代藝術中心(NTU CCA),新加坡 藝術家駐村,莎莎藝術計畫,金邊,柬埔寨 藝術家駐村,貝塔寧藝術中心,柏林,德國

擔任打開-當代藝術工作站站長一職,台北,台灣

藝術家駐村計畫 The International Studio & Curatorial Program (ISCP),紐約,美國

個 展 2017 2016 2015 2014 2013 2011 2009

「台灣總督府工業研究所」,尊彩藝術中心,台北,台灣 「回莫村」,鳳甲美術館,台北,台灣

「回莫村計畫」,香港巴塞爾藝術展|亞洲視野,香港會議展覽中心,香港,中國 「Positions #2」,凡阿比美術館,艾因霍芬,荷蘭

「On the Margin of Places」,貝塔寧藝術中心,柏林,德國

「SH-SY5Y」,台灣藝術大學文化創意產業園區,台北,台灣 「疊錄」,夏可喜當代藝術,台北,台灣

「3 月 14 日,紅墈體育館」,乒乓藝術空間,台北,台灣

聯 展 2018

2017

「雪梨雙年展- SUPERPOSITION」,澳洲當代藝術館,雪梨,澳洲 「影像的謀反」,台北當代藝術館,台北,台灣

「Travelers: Stepping into the Unknowm」,國立國際美術館,大阪,日本 「疆域-地緣的拓樸」,OCAT,上海,中國

「Art Sanya:華宇青年獎」,亞龍灣華宇藝術中心,三亞,中國 「2017 杜塞道夫藝術博覽會」,Areal Böhler,杜塞道夫,德國

「All the Light We Cannot See」,Art Sonje Center,首爾,韓國

140

臺灣總督府工業研究所

簡介


「Parapolitics: Cultural Freedom and the Cold War」,世界文化中心,柏林,德國 「Ex-ante」,ARTSPACE,奧克蘭,紐西蘭

「大內藝術節:解/嚴」,尊彩藝術中心,台北,台灣

「When the River Reverses」,莎莎藝術計畫,金邊,柬埔寨

「Ghosts and Spectres」,南洋理工大學當代藝術中心,新加坡

「第二屆亞洲電影和錄像藝術論壇」,國立現當代美術館,首爾,韓國 「公路雙年展」,普里茲倫,科索沃

「LOOP Barcelona」,Catalonia Ramblas Hotel,巴賽隆納,西班牙 「自我批評」,中間美術館,北京,中國

「2 or 3 Tigers」,世界文化中心,柏林,德國

「Kino der Kunst Festival」,慕尼黑電視電影大學,慕尼黑,德國

「近未來的交陪- 2017 蕭壠國際當代藝術節」,蕭壠文化園區,台南,台灣 「伏流・書寫」,台北市立美術館,台北,台灣 「創意操作式方案」,Para Site,香港,中國

2016

「China Remixed Initiative」,印第安納大學媒體學院,印第安納波利斯,印第安纳州,美國 「現實秘境」,TKG+,台北,台灣

「2016 台北國際藝術博覽會」,台北世界貿易中心,台北,台灣 「大台北當代藝術雙年展」,北區藝術聚落,台北,台灣

「Kaunas in Art – International Contemporary Art Festival」,Kaunas Gallery,考那斯,立陶宛 「Panorama 18」,法國菲諾爾國立當代藝術工作室,圖爾寬,法國 「公共精神」,烏維雅士都城堡當代藝術中心,華沙,波蘭

「2016 台北雙年展-當下檔案 ・ 未來系譜:雙年展新語」,台北市立美術館,台北,台灣 「2016 光州雙年展:河流-轉換中的生存之道/亞洲當代藝術連線」,光州市立美術館, 光州,韓國

「NexT International Film Festival」,Cinema Muzeul Țăranului,布加勒斯特,羅馬尼亞

2015

「另一種旅行紀事」,國立台灣美術館,台中,台灣

「Hors Pistes Bruxelles 2015」,Cinema Galeries,布魯塞爾,比利時 「織本主義」,鳳甲美術館,台北,台灣

「圍繞海之間」,三菱地所 Artium,福岡,日本

「Panorama 17」,法國菲諾爾國立當代藝術工作室,圖爾寬,法國 「←→」,A+ Contemporary 亞洲當代藝術空間,上海,中國

「河流-轉換中的生存之道/亞洲當代藝術連線」,駁二藝術特區,高雄,台灣 「第二屆 CAFAM 未來展:創客創客」,K11 Art Foundation,香港,中國

「香港巴塞爾藝術展-光映現場」,香港藝術中心 agnès b. 電影院,香港,中國 「南方上岸- 2015 影像典藏展」,高雄市立美術館,高雄,台灣

2014

Biography

「第二屆 CAFAM 未來展:創客創客」,中央美術學院美術館,北京,中國 「第四屆台灣國際錄像藝術展-鬼魂的回返」,鳳甲美術館,台北,台灣

Industrial Research Institute of Taiwan Governor-General's Office

141


「蘋果核-當代藝術展」,尊彩藝術中心,台北,台灣 「釜山藝術博覽會」,BEXCO,釜山,韓國

「My Voice Would Reach You: Contemporary Art from Asia」,Chao Center for Asian Studies and

2013

Museum of Fine Arts,休士頓,美國

「理解的尺度-台泰當代藝術交流展」,中山創意基地,台北,台灣 「語法學:當代錄像趨勢」,鳳甲美術館,台北,台灣

「Queens International 2013」,皇后美術館,紐約,美國

「Hugo Boss 亞洲藝術大獎」,上海外灘美術館,上海,中國

「inToAsia: Time-based Art Festival 2013 – MicroCities」,皇后美術館,紐約,美國

「第五十五屆威尼斯雙年展台灣館-這不是台灣館」,普里奇歐尼宮邸,威尼斯,義大利

2012

「Cutlog New York: Urbanity – Video Arts Film Festival」,紐約,美國

「理解的尺度-台泰當代藝術交流展」,曼谷文化藝術中心,曼谷,泰國 「台灣國際紀錄片雙年展」,國立台灣美術館,台中,台灣

「2012 台北雙年展-現代怪獸」,台北市立美術館,台北,台灣

「2012 利物浦雙年展-台北,不可思議城:台灣藝術家與都市形態學」,LJMU Copperas Hills, 利物浦,英國

「曖昧的存在:是誰在懼怕認同?」,tamtamART Gallery,柏林,德國、Kav 16 –Community

Gallery for Contemporary Art,台拉維夫,以色列、鳳甲美術館,台北,台灣

2011

「Rencontres à Beyrouth」,Beirut Art Center,貝魯特,黎巴嫩 「當代國際錄像藝術對話」,國立台灣美術館,台中,台灣

「Rencontres Internationales Paris/Berlin/Madrid」,龐畢度藝術中心,巴黎,法國

「第十一屆里昂視覺藝術雙年展 活體詩學-驚蟄詩囚︰台灣青年藝術家展覽」,Olivier Houg

Galerie,里昂,法國 「Rencontres Internationales Paris/Berlin/Madrid」,世界文化中心,柏林,德國 「流感疲勞」,台北當代藝術中心,台北,台灣

「Rencontres Internationales Paris/Berlin/Madrid – New Cinema and Contemporary Art – Films ]

And Video Screenings」,索菲亞皇后美術館,馬德里,西班牙

「活彈藥」,台北當代藝術館,台北,台灣

2010

「Conjecture Horizon」,Forum des Arts et de la Culture,Talence,法國 「台灣響起-超隱自由」,Műcsarnok,布達佩斯,匈牙利 「後學院」,國立台灣藝術大學藝術博物館,台北,台灣

「Faux Amis - An Ephemeral Video Library」,法國國家藝廊 Jeu de Paume,巴黎,法國

「Rencontres Internationales Paris/Berlin/Madrid – New Cinema and Contemporary Art – Media

Art Exhibition」,La Tabacalera – Future National Centre for Visual Arts,馬德里,西班牙

「台北當代藝術中心 TCAC 開幕展 2」,台北當代藝術中心,台北,台灣 「非常姿態」,國立台灣美術館,台中,台灣

「The 39th International Film Festival Rotterdam」,De Doelen,鹿特丹,荷蘭

142

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簡介


2009

2008

「Rencontres Internationales Paris/Berlin/Madrid」,龐畢度藝術中心,Theatre du Chatelet,巴黎,法國 「後地方-地方性的逆轉」,台北當代藝術館,台北,台灣 「Dandy & Angel」,打開-當代藝術工作站,台北,台灣 「2008 台北美術獎聯展」,台北市立美術館,台北,台灣

策 展 經 歷 2018 2013 2012 2009 2006 2004

獲 獎 2017 2016 2013 2009 2008

典 藏 2018

「2018 台灣國際錄像藝術展-離線瀏覽」,鳳甲美術館,台北,台灣 「理解的尺度-台泰當代藝術交流展」,中山創意基地,台北,台灣

「理解的尺度-台泰當代藝術交流展」,曼谷文化藝術中心,曼谷,泰國 「Dandy & Angel」,打開-當代藝術工作站,台北,台灣

「文件 321 -打開當代藝術工作站五周年文件展」,打開-當代藝術工作站,台北,台灣 「情境空間」,國立台灣藝術大學,台北,台灣 「超 薄」,華山創意文化園區,台北,台灣

《回莫村》,獲第十五屆台新藝術獎-年度大獎,台灣

《御甲戲園》,獲第四十九屆休士頓影展最佳紀錄片金獎,美國 入圍 Hugo Boss 亞洲藝術大獎,中國

《3 月 14 日,紅墈體育館》,世安美學獎,台灣 《和平島故事》,台北美術獎,台灣

《廢墟情報局》,台北市立美術館,台北,台灣

《白色大樓-貢奈》,台北市立美術館,台北,台灣 《白色大樓-姊妹》,台北市立美術館,台北,台灣 《白色大樓-天台》,台北市立美術館,台北,台灣

《白色大樓-猴子舞》,台北市立美術館,台北,台灣

2016 2015 2014 2013 2010

Biography

《神靈的書寫》,台北市立美術館,台北,台灣 《文曲道觀寺》,國立台灣美術館,台中,台灣

《鐵甲元帥-龜島》,國立台灣美術館,台中,台灣

《鐵甲元帥-靖思村》,國立台灣美術館,台中,台灣

《鐵甲元帥-龜島》,ArtNow International,舊金山,美國 《和平島故事》,國立台灣美術館,台中,台灣

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EDUCATION 2016 2010

Le Fresnoy Studio National des Arts Contemporains, Tourcoing, France MFA, Department of Fine Arts, National Taiwan University of Arts, Taipei, Taiwan

EXPERIENCE 2017 2016 2014 2011-13 2010

Artist Residency Program, NTU Centre for Contemporary Art Singapore (NTU CCA), Singapore Artist Residency Program, Sa Sa Art Project, Phnom Penh, Cambodia Artist Residency Program, Künstlerhaus Bethanien, Berlin, Germany Appointed as Director of Open-Contemporary Art Center, Taipei, Taiwan Artist Residency Program, The International Studio & Curatorial Program (ISCP), New York, NY, USA

SOLO EXHIBITONS 2017 2016 2015 2014 2013 2011 2009

“Industrial Research Institute of Taiwan Governor-General's Office“, Liang Gallery, Taipei, Taiwan “Huai Mo Village”, Hong-Gah Museum, Taipei, Taiwan “Huai Mo Village Project”, Art Basel Hong Kong | Insights, Hong Kong Convention and Exhibition Centre, Hong Kong, China “Positions #2”, Van Abbemuseum, Eindhoven, Netherlands “On the Margin of Places”, Künstlerhaus Bethanien, Berlin, Germany “SH-SY5Y”, National Taiwan University of Arts Cultural and Creative Industry Park, Taipei, Taiwan “Overdubbing”, Sakshi Gallery, Taipei, Taiwan “March 14, Hong Kong Coliseum”, Ping Pong, Taipei, Taiwan

GROUP EXHIBITIONS 2018 2017

144

“21st Biennale of Sydney – SUPERPOSITION”, Museum of Contemporary Art Australia, Sydney, Australia “The Rebellion of Moving Image”, Museum of Contemporary Art, Taipei, Taiwan “Travelers: Stepping into the Unknowm”, The National Museum of Arts, Osaka, Japan “Frontier Vision – Regional Topology and Politics of Post-Globalization”, OCAT, Shanghai, China “Art Sanya: Hauya Youth Award”, Hauyu Art Center, Sanya, China “Art Düsseldorf 2017”, Areal Böhler, Düsseldorf, Germany “All the Light We Cannot See”, Art Sonje Center, Seoul, Korea “Parapolitics: Cultural Freedom and the Cold War”, Haus der Kulturen der Welt, Berlin, Germany “Ex-ante”, Artspace, Auckland, New Zealand

臺灣總督府工業研究所

簡介


2016 2015 2014

Biography

“Taipei Art District Festival | The Aftermath: The Lift of Martlal Law”, Liang Gallery, Taipei, Taiwan “When the River Reverses”, Sa Sa Art Project, Phnom Penh, Cambodia “Ghosts and Spectres”, NTU Centre for Contemporary Art Singapore, Singapore “2nd Asian Film and Video Art Forum”, National Museum of Modern and Contemporary Art, Seoul, Korea “Autostrada Biennale”, Prizren, Kosova “LOOP Barcelona“, Catalonia Ramblas Hotel, Barcelona, Spain “Self-Criticism”, Inside-Out Art Museum, Beijing, China “2 or 3 Tigers“, Haus der Kulturen der Welt, Berlin, Germany “Kino der Kunst Festival“, Kino der Kunst, Munich, Germany “Kau-Puê, Mutual Companionship in Near Future: 2017 Soulangh International Contemporary Art Festival“, Soulangh Cultural Park, Tainan, Taiwan “Riverrun“, Taipei Fine Arts Museum, Taipei, Taiwan “Creative Operational Solutions“, Para Site, Hong Kong, China “China Remixed Initiative“, The Media School of the University of Indiana, Indianapolis, IN, USA “Towards Mysterious Realities”, TKG+, Taipei, Taiwan “Art Taipei 2016”, Taipei World Trade Center, Taipei, Taiwan “Greater Taipei Biennial of Contemporary Arts”, Northern Art Village, Taipei, Taiwan “Kaunas in Art – International Contemporary Art Festival”, Kaunas Gallery, Kaunas, Lithuania “Panorama 18”, Le Fresnoy, Tourcoing, France “Public Spirits”, Centre for Contemporary Art Ujazdowski Castle, Warsaw, Poland “Taipei Biennial 2016: Gestures and Archives of the Present, Genealogies of the Future”, Taipei Fine Arts Museum, Taipei, Taiwan “Gwangju Biennale 2016: Rivers – The Way of Living in Transition/Asia Contemporary Art Links”, Gwangju Museum of Art, Gwangju, Korea “NexT International Film Festival”, Cinema Muzeul Țăranului, Bucharest, Romania “An Alternative Travelogue”, National Taiwan Museum of Fine Arts, Taichung, Taiwan “Taipei Art District Festival: Sleepless Dwelling”, Liang Gallery, Taipei, Taiwan “Hors Pistes Bruxelles 2015”, Cinema Galeries, Brussel, Belgium “Modern Weavolution”, Hong-Gah Museum, Taipei, Taiwan “Local Prospective”, Mitsubishi-jisho Artium, Fukuoka, Japan “Panorama 17”, Le Fresnoy, Tourcoing, France “←→”, A+ Contemporary, Shanghai, China “Rivers – The Way of Living in Transition / Asia Contemporary Art Links”, The Pier-2 Art Center, Kaohsiung, Taiwan “The 2nd CAFAM Future Exhibition: Observer – Creator”, K11 Art Foundation, Hong Kong, China “Art Basel Hong Kong – Film Sector”, agnès b. Cinema – Hong Kong Arts Centre, Hong Kong, China “Contemporary Images from the Museum Collection”, Kaohsiung Museum of Fine Arts, Kaohsiung, Taiwan “The 2nd CAFAM Future Exhibition: Observer – Creator”, CAFA Art Museum, Beijing, China “The 4th Taiwan International Video Art Exhibition”, Hong-Gah Museum, Taipei, Taiwan

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2013 2012 2011 2010 2009

146

“Apple Core Contemporary Art Exhibition”, Liang Gallery, Taipei, Taiwan “Artshow Busan”, BEXCO, Busan, Korea “My Voice Would Reach You: Contemporary Art from Asia”, Chao Center for Asian Studies and Museum of Fine Arts, Houston, TX, USA “Thaitai: A Measure of Understanding”, Chung Shan Creative Hub, Taipei, Taiwan “Grammararianism: Trends in Contemporary Videography”, Hong-Gah Museum, Taipei, Taiwan “Queens International 2013”, Queens Museum, NY, USA “Hugo Boss Asia Art”, Rockbund Art Museum, Shanghai, China “inToAsia: Time-based Art Festival 2013 – MicroCities”, Queens Museum, NY, USA “The 55th International Art Exhibition – la Biennale di Venezia: This Is Not a Taiwan Pavilion”, Palazzo Ducale, Venice, Italy “Cutlog New York: Urbanity – Video Arts Film Festival”, NY, USA “Thaitai: A Measure of Understanding”, Bangkok Art and Culture Centre, Bangkok, Thailand “Taiwan International Documentary Festival”, National Taiwan Museum of Fine Arts, Taichung, Taiwan “Taipei Biennial 2012 – Modern Monsters”, Taipei Fine Arts Museum, Taipei, Taiwan “Liverpool Biennial 2012 – Taipei, Metro – Wonderland: Taiwanese Artists and Urban Morphology”, LJMU Copperas Hills, Liverpool, UK “Ambiguous Being: Who’s Afraid of Identity?”, tamtamART Gallery, Berlin, Germany; Kav 16 – Community Gallery for Contemporary Art, Tel-Aviv, Israel; Hong-Gah Museum, Taipei, Taiwan “Rencontres à Beyrouth”, Beirut Art Center, Beirut, Lebanon “Videonale: Dialogue in Contemporary Video Art”, National Taiwan Museum of Fine Arts, Taichung, Taiwan “Rencontres Internationales Paris/Berlin/Madrid”, Centre Georges Pompidou, Paris, France “Une Terrible Poétique: Jeunes Artistes Taïwanais à Lyon”, Olivier Houg Galerie, Lyon, France “Rencontres Internationales Paris/Berlin/Madrid”, Haus der Kulturen der Welt, Berlin, Germany “Flu-Fatigue”, Taipei Contemporary Art Center, Taipei, Taiwan “Rencontres Internationales Paris/Berlin/Madrid – New Cinema and ContemporaryArt – Films and Video Screenings”, Reina Sofia National Museum, Madrid, Spain “Live Ammo”, Museum of Contemporary Art, Taipei, Taiwan “Conjecture Horizon”, Forum des Arts et de la Culture, Talence, France “Taiwan Calling – The Phantom of the Liberty”, Műcsarnok, Budapast, Hungary “Post Academic”, National Taiwan University of Arts Museum, Taipei, Taiwan “Faux Amis – An Ephemeral Video Library”, Jeu de Paume, Paris, France “Rencontres Internationales Paris/Berlin/Madrid – New Cinema and Contemporary Art – Media Art Exhibition”, La Tabacalera – Future National Centre for Visual Arts, Madrid, Spain “Taipei Contemporary Art Center – Opening Exhibition 02”, Taipei Contemporary Art Center, Taipei, Taiwan “Beyond Outward Gestures”, National Taiwan Museum of Fine Arts, Taichung, Taiwan “The 39th International Film Festival Rotterdam”, De Doelen, Rotterdam, Netherlands “Rencontres Internationales Paris/Berlin/Madrid”, Centre Pompidou, Theatre du Chatelet, Paris, France “Post. O”, Museum of Contemporary Art, Taipei, Taiwan

臺灣總督府工業研究所

簡介


2008

“Dandy & Angel”, Open-Contemporary Art Center, Taipei, Taiwan “2008 Taipei Arts Awards”, Taipei Fine Arts Museum, Taipei, Taiwan

CURATORIAL EXPERIENCE 2018 2013 2012 2009 2006 2005 2004

“Taiwan international Video Art Exhibition 2018 – Offline Browser”, Hong-Gah Museum, Taipei, Taiwan “Thaitai: A Measure of Understanding”, Chung Shan Creative Hub, Taipei, Taiwan “Thaitai: A Measure of Understanding”, Bangkok Art and Culture Centre, Bangkok, Thailand “Dandy & Angel”, Open-Contemporary Art Center, Taipei, Taiwan “Document 321: The 5th Anniversary of Open-Contemporary Art Center”, Open-Contemporary Art Center, Taipei, Taiwan “Illumination Function – One Piece Work 8”, Open-Contemporary Art Center, Taipei, Taiwan “Context Space”, National Taiwan University of Arts, Taipei, Taiwan “Ultra Thin”, Huashan Culture Park, Taipei, Taiwan

AWARDS 2017 2016 2013 2009 2008

Huai Mo Village, The 15th Taishin Arts Award, Annual Grand Prize, Taiwan Theatre of Sacred Armour, “The 49th WorldFest-Houston International Film and Video Festival”, Gold Award for Documentary, USA Hugo Boss Asia Art Award, Finalist, China March 14, Hong Kong Coliseum, S-An Cultural Foundation Award, Taiwan The Story of Hoping Island, Taipei Arts Award, Taiwan

COLLECTIONS 2018 2016 2015 2014 2013 2010

Biography

Ruins of the Intelligence Bureau, Taipei Fine Arts Museum, Taipei, Taiwan White Building – Kong Nay, Taipei Fine Arts Museum, Taipei, Taiwan White Building – Sisters, Taipei Fine Arts Museum, Taipei, Taiwan White Building – Rooftop, Taipei Fine Arts Museum, Taipei, Taiwan White Building – Sva Pul, Taipei Fine Arts Museum, Taipei, Taiwan Spirit-writing, Taipei Fine Arts Museum, Taipei, Taiwan Wenqu Daoist Temple, National Taiwan Museum of Fine Arts, Taichung, Taiwan Marshal Tie Jia –Turtle Island, National Taiwan Museum of Fine Arts, Taichung, Taiwan Marshal Tie Jia – Jingsi Village, National Taiwan Museum of Fine Arts, Taichung, Taiwan Marshal Tie Jia – Turtle Island, ArtNow International, San Francisco, CA, USA The Story of Hoping Island, National Taiwan Museum of Fine Arts, Taichung, Taiwan

Industrial Research Institute of Taiwan Governor-General's Office

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許家維

Hsu Chia-Wei

簡介


工作人員

Team


《飛行器、霜毛蝠、逝者證言》

Drones, Frosted Bats and the Testimony of the Deceased

四頻道錄像裝置

Four-channel video installation 3’40’’ ~ 8’40’’, 2017

聲音演出 Voice appearance 生実慧 Satoshi Ikuzane、井上達夫 Tatsuo Inoue、 大庭裕介 Yusuke Ooba、島 崇 Takashi Shima 製作經理 Production manager 田中沙季 Saki Tanaka 空拍機團隊 Drone team 紅隼影像製作工作室 Akfly 空拍機操作員 Drone operator 何文欽 Janson Ho、何文杉 Vinson Ho 空拍機助理 Drone assistant 陳彥昇 Sam Chen 攝影組 Camera team 宏達數位影業 Taipei Di Cinema 攝影 Cinematographer 白杰立 Jie-Li Bai 攝影大助 1st Assistant cinematographer 黃孝強 Xiao-Qiang Huang 攝影二助 2nd Assistant cinematographer 黃舜鴻 Shun-Hong Huang 蕭世豪 Shih-Hao Hsiao 燈光組 Gaffer team 東罄文化事業 DEEWATCH CULTURE CO., LTD

150

臺灣總督府工業研究所

燈光師 Gaffer 劉議友 Yi-You Liu 燈光助理 Best boy electrician 林耿力 Stevent Lin、曾翊愷 Yi-Kai Zeng 現場錄音 Location audio mixer 馮志銘 Chih-Ming Feng 場務助理 Best boy grip 莊立豪 Chuanh-Li Hao 旁白錄音 Voice over record 藤口諒太 Ryota Fujiguchi 後期混音 Sound mixer 馮志銘 Chih-Ming Feng 後期影像 Post production 時間軸影像製作公司 Time line studio 數位調光 Colorist 姚良奇 Theo Yao 程式設計 Program designer 鄭先喻 Hsien-Yu Cheng 中文翻譯 Chinese translator 黃耀進 Yaochin Huang

工作人員


英文翻譯 English translator 櫻井司 Tsukasa Sakurai 拍攝協力 Filming cooperation 新竹市文化局 Cultural Affairs Bureau, Hsinchu City 特別感謝 Special thanks 林炳炎 Pin-Yen Lin 許進發 Chin-Fa Hsu 林立騎 Tatsuki Hayashi 資料影像提供 Data and images 視群傳播事業有限公司

Taiwan Original Vision Communication CO., LTD Shutterstock

Team

Industrial Research Institute of Taiwan Governor-General's Office

151


《核衰變計時器》

Nuclear Decay Timer

四頻道錄像裝置

Four-channel video installation 8’40’’ / 2017

地質系教授 Geology professor 陳正宏 Cheng-Hong Chen

數位調光 Colorist 姚良奇 Theo Yao

地質顧問 Geology adviser 許緯豪 Wei-Hao Hsu、張秋蓮 Chiu-Lien Chang

英文翻譯 English translator 廖蕙芬 Hui-Fen Liao

實驗室助理 Laboratory assistant 邱宜佳 Yi-Chia Chiu

特別感謝 Special thanks 數位荒原 No Man's Land 黃文浩 Wen-Hao Huang 許進發 Chin-Fa Hsu 王興麟 Shing-Lin Wang 李文德 Wen-De Li 劉宥宜 You-I Liu

攝影 Cinematographer 盧彥中 Adiong Lu 錄音 Sound recorder 馮志銘 Chih Ming Feng、張能禎 Chang-Neng Chen

2D 動畫 Animation 李亦凡 Yi-Fan Li 後期混音 Sound mixer 馮志銘 Chih-Ming Feng 後期影像 Post production 時間軸影像製作公司 Time Line Studio

152

臺灣總督府工業研究所

工作人員


《統一度假村》

Uni-Resort

攝影

Photography

尺寸依場所而定 Dimensions Variable / 2017

圖像提供 Photo source 國立台灣大學圖書館數位典藏館 National Taiwan University Library 經濟部中央地質調查所 Central Geological Survey, MOEA 統一渡假村 UNI-RESORT

Shutterstock

特別感謝 Special thanks 數位荒原 No Man’s Land 統一渡假村 UNI-RESORT 陳正宏 Cheng-Hong Chen 黃文浩 Wen-Hao Huang 王興麟 Shing-Lin Wang 許緯豪 Wei-Hao Hsu 張秋蓮 Chiu-Lien Chang 邱宜佳 Yi-Chia Chiu

Team

Industrial Research Institute of Taiwan Governor-General's Office

153


《高砂》

Takasago

單頻道錄像裝置

Single -channel video installation 9’20’’ / 2017

主要演出 Principal cast 老爹 Old man 武田友志 Tomoyuki Takeda 老嫗 Old woman 武田宗典 Munenori Takeda

攝影師 Cinematographer 森内康博 Yasuhiro Moriuchi

表演助理 Stage assistant 武田宗和 Munekazu Takeda、武田尚浩 Naohiro Takeda、 武田祥照 Yoshiteru Takeda、武田崇史 Takafumi Takeda

錄音 Sound recorder 西垣太郎 Taro Nishigaki

音樂演出 Musicians 老爹 Old man 武田宗典 Munenori Takeda 友成 Tomonari 大日方寛 Hiroshi Obinata 老嫗 Old woman 髙梨万里 Banri Takanashi 笛 Flute 杉信太朗 Shintaro Sug 小鼓 Shoulder drum 住駒充彦 Mitsuhiko Sumikoma 大鼓 Stick drum 原岡一之 Kazuyuki Haraoka 地頭 Chorus leader 観世銕之丞 Tetsunojo Kanze 地謡 Chorus 馬野正基 Masaki Umano、武田文志 Fumiyuki Takeda、 長山桂三 Keizo Nagayama、武田祥照 Yoshiteru Takeda、 小早川泰輝 Yasuki Kobayakawa 製作經理 Production manager 田中沙季 Saki Tanaka

154

臺灣總督府工業研究所

燈光師 Gaffer 浅見貴宏 Takahiro Asami

場景陳設 Set decorator 鈴木暁生 Akio Suzuki 製作協力 Production cooperation 芥川美穂子(Global 能樂社) Mihoko Akutagawa(Global Nohgaku) 後期混音 Sound mixer 馮志銘 Chih-Ming Feng 後期影像 Post production 時間軸影像製作公司 Time Line Studio 數位調光 Colorist 姚良奇 Theo Yao 中文翻譯 Chinese translator 黃耀進 Yaochin Huang 特別感謝 Special thanks 高砂香料工業株式會社 Takasago International Corporation 林立騎 Tatsuki Hayashi 鈴木隆 Takashi Suzuki 中村雅之 Masayuki Nakamura 許進發 Chin-Fa Hsu

工作人員


《台灣總督府工業研究所》 Industrial Research Institute of Taiwan Governor-General's Office 單頻道錄像裝置

Single -channel video installation 3’00’’ / 2017

3D 動畫 3D animator 黃柏壬 Boren Huang 影片素材來源 Footage source

Shutterstock

參考照片提供 Reference photos 許進發 Chin-Fa Hsu

Team

Industrial Research Institute of Taiwan Governor-General's Office

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發行人 Excutive director

余彥良 Yen-Liang Yu

總經理 Director

陳菁螢 Claudia Chen

出版者 Publisher

尊彩國際藝術有限公司 Liang Gallery Co., Ltd.

策劃編輯 Editor

許家維、修天容 Chia-Wei Hsu, Daisy Shiou

編務協力 Editor assistants

田中沙季、陳嘉壬、劉宥宜、陳映芃、徐育婷 Saki Tanaka, Chia-Jen Chen, You-I Liu, Ying-Peng Chen, Yuting Hsu

專文作者 Article

孫松榮、林立騎 Song-Yong Sing, Tatsuki Hayashi

翻譯 Translation

白斐嵐、李樂蓉、黃耀進、管梓 Siraya Pai, Laura Lygaityte, Yaochin Huang, Azusa Suga

展場執行 Diplay executive

洪鼎鈞、藝術戰爭 Ding-Jiun Hong, Art War Company

攝影 Photographer

劉光智、黃嘉達 KC, JD

設計 Designer

劉銘維 Ming-Wei Liu

印刷 Printing

日動藝術印刷有限公司 Jih-Tung Art Printing Co., Ltd.

出版 Publishing Date

2018 年二月初版

ISBN

978-986-94070-3-8

First Edition, February, 2018


許家維—臺灣總督府工業研究所|Hsu Chia-Wei–Industrial Research Institute of Taiwan Governor-General's Office  
許家維—臺灣總督府工業研究所|Hsu Chia-Wei–Industrial Research Institute of Taiwan Governor-General's Office  
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