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dwell.t own nothing access everything

leo claudius bieling basant elshimy ariadna lopez


Architectural Association School of Architecture Design Research Lab 2017 Design Research Agenda: Constructing Agency Tutors: Shajay Bhooshan | Alicia Nahmad Team: Leo Claudius Bieling Basant Elshimy Ariadna Lopez www.dwell-t.com mail@dwell-t.com


Table of Contents 06

Introduction

14

Research

44

Thesis

60

Design Process

106 112

1.1 Preface 1.2 Overview

2.1 City of London 2.2 Shared Living Models 2.3 References 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5

Architectural Opportunity Subscription Living User Profiles Evaluative Metrics Site Criteria Units Catalogue Path Catalogue Organizational Strategy Architectural Diagram

Appendix Bibliography


Introduction


1.1 Preface dwell.t is a proposal for a new model of living catering to the social phenomenon of the subscription model. The focus of the research finds an architectural opportunity in the current division between short term visitors and long term residents of London. The task at hand is to construct a new typology which resides in the gradient between a hotel and a residence.

dwell.t will use the studio agenda “Constructing Agency� as a framework to research models of shared living and data-driven occupancy modelling to endeavour in the task of establishing an architectural methodology which addresses the growing need of bridging the gap between opposing user profiles within London’s dynamic demographic.

dwell.t is the architectural expression of the inevitable future own nothing, access everything.

8


Own Nothing Access Everything

8:22

Mass-Customized

On-Demand Distributed

9


1.2 Overview Sharing Economy + Shared Living Models Collaborative Consumption

Subscription

Peer-to-Peer Exchange

On-Demand

Frictionless Customer Experience

Pay as you go

+

10

$


Data-Driven Design Macro-Scale

Micro-Scale

MIT Sensor Data Site Criteria

Occupancy Modelling

11


Architectural Opportunity New Typology

User Profiles

Evaluative Metrics

Sporadic Gradient:

Constant

Hotel - Residence

Recurring

Hotel

Stay at dwell.t: 24 days / years

dwell.t

Stay at dwell.t: 180 days / years Stay at dwell.t:

Residence

12

335 days / years

User Paths


Architectural Diagram Organizational Strategy

User Paths

Site Specific

Number of Interactions

13


Research


2.1 City of London Location: Inner London, UK Area: 319 km2 Population: 3.232 million 01 Boroughs: Camden, Greenwich, Hackney, Hammersmith and Fulham, Islington, Kensington and Chelsea, Lambeth, Lewisham, Southwark, Tower Hamlets, Wandsworth, Westminster Average Rent for One Bedroom Flats in Inner London: > £7 per square meter / per week 02 > £366 per square meter / per annum 02 (fig. 2.1.1) Average Income in Inner London: £63,170 per household / per annum 03 Average Household size in Inner London: 1.4 people 04

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Data according to Office of National Statistics, Census 2011. 02 JLL, May 2016, ‘London Residential Heatmaps 2016’. http://residential.jll.co.uk/ new-residential-thinking-home/ research/london-residentialheatmaps-2016. 03 Average Household Income 2012-2013. Average https:// data.london.gov.uk/apps_ and_analysis/gla-householdincome-estimates/ 04 Average Household London according to Office of National Statistics, Census 2011. 01


Highest Rent Middle Rent Lowest Rent Figure 2.1.1: Inner London residential rent average per borough (statutory definition).

2.1.1

17


2.2 Shared Living dwell.t is historically and contemporarily situated within the context of co-operative living. The research begins with living models following a structure of shared spaces ranging from private to public amenities in order to fulfil goals of community building. dwell.t takes the advantages and disadvantages of such examples to build upon. The examples in this section stem from a shared economy model, which relies on the idea of peer-to-peer exchange of physical and intellectual resources; thus, demanding user participation. Such participatory schemes gives rise to a close dependency between the larger system in place and the individual users. The advantages of any sharing model rely on the fundamental creation of a global network built upon individual efforts and localized actions.

The Amalgamated Housing Cooperative Location: Bronx, NY, USA (fig. 2.2.1) Number of Units: 1927 -- 300 units | 1971 -- 25,000 unit (fig. 2.2.2) Target User: Industrial workers and their families Sharing Model: Private units. Communal day-cares and domestic teaching centres for women.05

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Co-operative living: membership-based corporation or cooperative which owns real state. Each member is legally regarded as a shareholder with the right to occupy a housing unit. Alternative cooperative arrangements include communes and student accommodations.

“Cooperation for Service, Not Profit.� n.d. Amalgamated Housing Cooperative. http:// www.amalgamated-bronx. coop/.

05


Figure 2.2.1: The Amalgamated Housing Cooperative located in Brox, NY, USA. Figure 2.2 .2: The first compound of cooperative buildings.

Bronx, NY, USA

2.2 .1

2.2. 2

19


PodShare Location: Distributed in the Los Angeles, CA, USA (fig. 2.2.3) Downtown Art District | Hollywood | Los Feliz | Venice Beach Number of Units: Downtown Art District: 18 pods Hollywood: 10 pods Los Feliz: 10 pods Venice: 32 pods Target User: Users looking to create a social network, ranging from single users to groups. 06 Sharing Model: Membership based co-living. Sleeping units are bunk-beds in an open space (fig.2.2.4) Kitchen, shower and computer stations are shared by the community. Average membership cost: $60 per 24 hours. Usable in all locations. Commodities provided: Bedding, towel, toothpaste, body-wash, shampoo, TV, use of kitchen wares, WIFI.

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“Membership Based CoLiving.� n.d. PodShare. http:// podshare.co/. 06


Hollywood

Los Feliz

Figure 2.2.3: PodShare location distribution in the area of Los Angeles, CA,USA Figure 2.2.4: PodShare sleeping units.

Los Angeles, CA, USA Venice DTLA

2.2.3

2.2.4

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ROAM Location: Covering all continents (fig. 2.2.5) London, UK | Tokyo, Japan | Miami, USA | San Francisco, USA | Bali, Indonesia Number of Units and Average Price: London, UK: 34 rooms | $800 per week Tokyo, Japan: 20 rooms | $700 per week Miami, USA: 38 rooms | $600 per week San Francisco, USA: coming soon Bali, Indonesia: 24 rooms | $500 per week Target User: Users looking to work remotely and travel constantly looking for adventures. 07 Sharing Model: Membership based co-living and co-working. Sleeping units are private rooms including bathrooms. (fig.2.2.6) Kitchen, co-working spaces and entertainment lounge shared by the community. Commodities provided: Bedding, body-wash, shampoo, TV, use of kitchen wares, WIFI. Weekly events organized for the community. i.e: yoga classes, cooking classes, workshops, etc.

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07 “International Network of Coliving Spaces.� n.d. ROAM. https://www.roam.co/.


Figure 2.2.5: ROAM location distribution worldwide. Figure 2.2.6: ROAM upgraded sleeping unit, including small kitchenette.

2.2.5

2.2.6

23


2.3 References dwell.t takes on three categories of case studies: occupancy modelling, user interface and architectural language. Each category engages a different design front and serves as reference to further customize the design criteria. The collection of case studies presented investigate practical methods to accomplish a subscription, on-demand, mass-customised and distributed model of living.

Data-Driven Occupancy Modelling The first case study within this category belongs to a project conducted Randy Rockinson and Emmanuel Munguia Tapia as part of the MIT Media Lab “Pattern Recognition and Analysis” course. The objective of this analysis was to develop machine learning algorithms that would respond to real-time human activities collected from sensor data throughout test homes. (fig. 2.3.1) The data was then collected by placing sensors at different locations, including every day objects such as refrigerator, etc. (fig.2.3.2) The data provided an understanding of the level of interaction and dependency of the user and his/her homes as well as the time spent in each room08 Detailed data collection, such as the one by Rockinson and Tapia, gives the opportunity for further understanding of the home use. The data collected shows spaces in the house, such as the living room as a completely obsolete space in daily life. The research provides and insight to better residential space planning.

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Data-driven occupancy modelling: Refers to the method of collecting user data, either by sensors or time use surveys, in order to make inferred simulations of user behaviour. 08 Mungia Tapia, Emanuel and Rockinson, Randy. “Activity Recognition in the Home Setting Using Simple and Ubiquitous Sensors.” MIT Media Lab. Accessed April 6, 2017. http://courses.media. mit.edu/2004fall/mas622j/04. projects/home/.


Figure 2.3.1: Visualized data collected from 77 sensor distributed through home 1 Figure 2.3.2: Location of sensors attached to everyday use objects.

2.3.1

2.3.2

25


Data-Driven Occupancy Modelling The second case study, refers to the “Exploratory Sequential Data Analysis for MultiAgent Occupancy Simulation Results” by Autodesk Research. The research focuses on creating a digital simulation of occupants in a building through the use of Sequential Data Analysis. The objective of such detailed building occupancy mapping is to help better understand user behaviour, thus, more effectively predicting future needs and behaviour. The occupancy simulation took place in a hotel building, both employees’ and guests’ paths were traced in different floor plans (fig. 2.3.3). The data gathered and the visualized in three-dimensional space, gave insight to space utilization in the hotel. (fig 2.3.4) 09

dwell.t recognizes the importance in data-driven occupancy modelling as a design methodology which is able to give insight into user behaviour and his/her daily activities. The visualised data, provides an understanding of the hierarchy of use of living spaces, in both a residential and commercial setting.

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Breslav, Simon, Rhys Goldstein, Azam Khan, and Kasper Hornbaek. 2017. “Exploratory Sequential Data Analysis for Multi-Agent Occupancy Simulation Results.” Autodesk Research, Toronto, Canada. Accessed April 6. https://d2f99xq7vri1nk. cloudfront.net/legacy_app_ files/pdf/Breslav__Data_ Analysis_Occupancy_Apr21. pdf.

09


Figure 2.3.3: Floor plans of hotel depicting recurring user paths. Figure 2.3.4: Yellow paths are for hotel guests and purple paths for employees; the green circle indicates a window opening.

2.3.3

2.3.4

27


Architectural Language: Pilotis Year: 1929–1931 Location: International Architect: Le Corbusier

dwell.t value: Replaces supporting walls with a grid of concrete columns that carry the structural load. Provides some flexibility in terms of site by lifting the architecture away from the ground.10

Le Corbusier’s Five Points of Architecture. (2017, April 11). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 15:27, April 23, 2017, from https:// en.wikipedia.org/w/index. php?title=Le_Corbusier%27s_ Five_Points_of_Architecture&oldid=774952830Architecture&oldid=774952830

10

Figure 2.3.5: Villa Savoye Side Elevation.

28

2.3.5


Figure 2.3.6: Exterior view of Villa Savoye

2.3.6

29


Architectural Language: New Babylon Year: 1959-74 Location: Speculative Visual Art Architect: Constant Nieuwenhuys

dwell.t value: New Babylon is a mega-structure that would rise above the city. It consisted of interconnected sectors resting on tall columns, allowing traffic to rush above and below. The roofs of the buildings were appropriated for landing of air borne vehicles. Inhabitants would have the ability to constantly reconstruct their spaces. Every aspect of their living environment is customizable.11

Figure 2.3.7: New Babylon conceptual model

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Wigley, Mark. Constant’s New Babylon, 1988.

11

2.3.7


Figure 2.3.8: New Babylon conceptual model

2.3.8

31


Architectural Language: Antwerp Port House Year: 2016 Location: Antwerp, Belgium Architect: Zaha Hadid Architects

dwell.t value: An example of a project that has to respond to existing architecture by integrating it and positioning itself around it. This was due to the existing building, below, being a historical building.12

â&#x20AC;&#x153;Antwerp Port House / Zaha Hadid Architectsâ&#x20AC;? 22 Sep 2016. ArchDaily. Accessed 23 Apr 2017. <http://www. archdaily.com/795832/antwerp-port-house-zaha-hadid-architects/>

12

Figure 2.3.9: Antwerp Port House exterior. Figure 2.3.10: Antwerp Port House interior and structure.

32

2.3.9

2.3.10


Figure 2.3.11: Antwerp Port House exterior.

2.3.11

33


Architectural Language: Rooftop Falkestrasse Year: 1983/1987-1988 Location: Vienna, Austria Architect: Coop Himmelblau

dwell.t value: “There are no alcoves or turrets on the roof, no context of proportions, materials or colors but, instead, a visualized line of energy which, coming from the street spans the project, thus breaking the existing roof and thereby opening it.” (CoopHimmelblau, 2017)13

Coop Himmelblau. “Coop-Himmelblau.” COOPHIMMELBLAU Wolf D. Prix & Partners, n.d. http://www. coop-himmelblau.at/architecture/projects/rooftop-remodeling-falkestrasse.

13

Figure 2.3.12: Rooftop section.

34

2.3.12


Figure 2.3.13: Rooftop Falkestrasse

2.3.13

35


Architectural Language: Tamedia Office Building, Shigeru Ban Year: 2013 Location: Zurich, Switzerland Architect: Shigeru Ban

dwell.t value: The timber structural system is the most notable innovation of the project. Columns, beams and joint connections consist of wood and beech plywood dowels transmit load and reinforce construction components. All components were created as a precise, CNC milled construction kit and assembled on-site.14

Figure 2.3.14: Timber columns Figure 2.3.15: Timber connections

36

2.3.14

2.3.15

14 â&#x20AC;&#x153;Tamedia Office Building / Shigeru Ban Architectsâ&#x20AC;? 24 Feb 2014. ArchDaily. Accessed 23 Apr 2017. <http://www.archdaily.com/478633/tamedia-office-building-shigeru-ban-architects/>


Figure 2.3.16: Tamedia Office Building exterior

2.3.16

37


Architectural Language: Discrete Network Assembly Year: 2017 Location: London, England Architect: Begum Aydinoglu, Federico Borello, Philipp Siedler

dwell.t value: This project is used as reference for its material and structural system. The structural system is a three dimensional manifestation of graphic statics as polyhedral frames surrounded by a membrane that acts as a uniform boundary load distribution condition.15

Figure 2.3.17: Structure and floor slab detail. Figure 2.3.18: Architectural proposal

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Begum Aydinoglu, Federico Borello, Philipp Siedler .â&#x20AC;&#x153;DNAâ&#x20AC;?. Architectural Association Design Research Lab. Accessed 23 Apr 2017.

15

2.3.17

2.3.18


Figure 2.3.19: Physical model showing network and membrane

2.3.19

39


User Interface: Car2go Car2go is a service which facilitates car rentals. The basic operation of the companies relies on different types of cars distributed around city streets and designated lots. Through Car2go mobile app, the user can see a live map indicating car locations and availability. 16 Subscription model: Initial subscription fee $5 -- receive $10 time credit Charge by time used: $0.45 per minute $17 per hour $69 per day Customization model: Through the mobile app the user can choose between 5 different car models. Advantages: Available in multiple cities Newest car models On-demand Free parking No surge pricing No gasoline expense No insurance payment No taxes No car maintenance

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â&#x20AC;&#x153;Car2go.â&#x20AC;? n.d. https://www. car2go.com/US/en/#152742. 16


Figure 2.3.20: Car2go pricing model in which the user only pays for the number of minutes the car is being in use.

2.3.20

41


User Interface: AmazonGo AmazonGo is an interface which allows the user to access a new kind of shopping frictionless customer experience. This interface is made possible using the similar technology by self-driving cars, in which a computer vision, sensor data and deep learning creates a virtual shopping cart which gets charged to your payment method as soon as the user walks out of the store. AmazonGo provides a check-out free shopping experience. 17 Subscription model: Free Amazon account Smart-phone Free AmazonGo mobile app Customization model: Through the mobile app the customer can keep detailed track of products favorite products. Advantages: No wait at check-out Seamless shopping experience Live update on product availability

Frictionless Customer Experience: Refers to a new shopping interface developed by Amazon. Through facial recognition and data collection through sensors the experience of shopping becomes check-out free. 17 â&#x20AC;&#x153;AmazonGo.â&#x20AC;? n.d. https:// www.amazon.com/ b?node=16008589011.

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Figure 2.3.21: AmazonGo introduces a friction free consumer experience.

2.3.21

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Thesis


3.1 Architectural Opportunity Architectural opportunity represents social and spatial areas where dwell.t aims to intervene or improve. Separation between hotel and residence: a harsh demarcation between hotels and residential areas exists in the city. Hotels are concenrated in the center, residential areas appear on the outskirts of that zone, with minimal overlap between the two (see fig. 3.1.2). An implication of this condition is that visitors of the city do not have a spatial overlap with long-term residents. There is an architectural opportunity to bring these two groups of people together (visitors and residents) and allow them to have mutually beneficial interactions, thus blurring the aforementioned demarcation. Existing home extensions: Home extensions are evidence that the home is already being fragmented and distributed throughout the city, which supports the ambitions of dwell.t. Home extensions include the pub, cafe, restaurant and even laundromat. At these locations, people socialize, eat, watch TV and spend their free time with others in public rather than at home. This renders their home kitchens and living rooms obsolete. In a survey conducted amongst AADRL students, it was noted that most prefer to eat and socialize in a location closer to their work place rather than near home (see fig. 3.1.3). It is important to be able to access spaces, services and amenities on-demand. There is opportunity to create an architectural manifestation of the on-demand culture, particularly the living aspect of it. This means that one has access to any required component of the home regardless of location or time. Demarcation: noun. delimit. a plot of land demarcated by a low stone wall.

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Hotel

dwell.t

Figure 3.1.1: Gradient between hotel and residence.

Residence 47


Site Hotels Residential Zone

Figure 3.1.2: Hotels shown in orange, residential areas shows in blue. dwell.t site is shown in the magenta circle. This diagram illustrates the demarcation mentioned above.

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3.1.2


Site Points of Interest Residential Zone

Figure 3.1.3: This diagram shows the density of points of interest such as cafes, restaurants and pubs in Central London. dwell.t site is shown in the magenta circle.

3.1.3

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3.2 Subscription Model This section will explain what the subscription model is and illustrate the details of how dwell.t employs it as a model for living (see fig. 3.2.1). dwell.t equates subscription to consistent availability of living on-demand. Distribution: The subscription living model of thinking is based on the desire to own nothing yet have access to everything. All the functions of living, which are conventionally contained within a home, become fragmented and distributed throughout the city so they can be accessed by the user in multiple locations. This model of living is responsive to and dependent on transience in current lifestyles. On-Demand: This model of living provides the user with access to functions of living on a need-basis. Thus, the living model caters to the needs of varying user profiles. We see this as an opportunity, and it is our aim to facilitate mutually beneficial interactions between complimentary user profiles. Time-based: Time-based use means that the user pays only for the number of minutes spent within the premise. This contrasts the normative conditions of living today, where one usually pays rent and bills for a flat, even when unoccupied, such as during holidays or even during work hours. Thus, this model removes excess spending. Mass customization: The mass customization aspect of this living model is vital, but has not been clearly defined as of yet. It will be informed by user needs as per the datadriven occupancy analysis in the coming stages of the project.

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Subscription: noun. an arrangement for providing, receiving, or making use of something of a continuing or periodic nature on a prepayment plan: such as a : a purchase by prepayment for a certain number of issues (as of a periodical) b : application to purchase securities of a new issue c : a method of offering or presenting a series of public performances d British : membership dues Distributed: In the context of dwell.t, distribution refers to the availability of home components throughout the city fabric. Ideally, this means that one’s ‘kitchen’ is not in one’s ‘home’, but in a number of location so it can be accessed with more ease and speed. Distribute: verb. a : to spread out so as to cover something: scatter evenly distribute the seeds.


The subscription: Bedding and toiletries are provided within each unit (see fig. 3.2.23.2.3). In addition, the user has access to all shared services within the premise, such as kitchens, lounges and work spaces. An infrastructure hosts small, deliverable personal storage units connecting all sites. This means that one can access personal items from different locations as well.

Own Nothing Access Everything

8:22

Figure 3.2.1: This diagram shows the aspects of subscription living in dwell.t.

Mass-Customized

On-Demand Distributed

Transient: adj. a : passing especially quickly into and out of existence : transitory transient beauty. Complimentary user profile: User profiles that are fitting, so they need the same space during different hours or they can exchange valuable information/skills. Mass customization: noun. the mass production of individually customized products, goods, and services This courting of the customer has created a new trend. “We are moving from mass production to mass customization; from providing a customer with a car of “any color he chooses, provided it is black” to offering the customer so many choices and options that the product is almost tailor made to his or her specifications.” — Joseph Kelada, Integrating Reengineering With Total Quality, 1996.

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User Needs

Eat

Store Cleanse

Cafe

Cook

Sleep

Private Unit

Work

Bar

Private Storage Unit

Kitchen

Read

Stocked Fridge

Toiletries Bedding

Computer Lab First Aid Kit

Clean

Research

Laundry

Exercise

Quiet Room Basic Clothing

Gym

Pharmacy Recreation Room

Network Figure 3.2.2: This diagram shows the services and amenities provided to all users in dwell.t.

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Shop Break-out Space

Socialise Relax

Spa

Health Lounge

Shop


Check-in to Check-out Experience Step 1

Download the dwell.t application

Step 2

Create a profile and answer some questions about yourself: Name Age Personal ID number Occupation Selection of user type Payment details Unique membership barcode created

Step 3

Step 4 Step 5

Locate nearest premise Reserve sleeping unit [hold time 30 min.] Walk-in social unit Arrive Check-in by swiping unique barcode Access unit and all amenities and services in dwell.t Check-out by swiping given barcode Credit card is charged based on number of minutes and type of unit used

Figure 3.2.3: This diagram shows the step by step process of becoming a member and using dwell.t.

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3.3 User Profiles This section explains the potential user profiles the project is tailored to as part of the aim to use data-driven occupancy modelling. It identifies the profiles of individuals who would be interested in occupying dwell.t and what is offered to them. Benefits to different users: The aim of this living model is to combine the desire of longterm and short-term residents. It provides the long term resident with flexibility in living conditions, increasing mobility, customization and ease of access. It also provides short term residents with a richer interaction with the city and its residents. Living within close quarters with long term residents allows exposure to the culture and city. Profiles: Three user profiles (see fig. 3.3.1) divide potential users in order to be able to cater to their needs more specifically. The three profiles are: sporadic user profile, recurring user profile and constant user profile. Each user receives a designated profile based on their subscription lifetime. This means that it is determined by how much time they spend in a private unit and shared spaces, how much space they require in their private unit, and their desired degree of interaction with other users. Figure 3.3.2 speculates their likely movement through dwell.t.

Occupancy modelling looks at how individuals occupy a space and move through it over time. Usually, motion sensors are used to document a personâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s presence in the space. Documenting the locations of individuals at regular intervals can then be translated into a motion path in the space. This can be used to deduce likely patterns of movement in a space. Sporadic: adj. Occurring occasionally, singly, or in irregular or random instances, sporadic protests, a sporadic disease. Recurring: verb. To occur again after an interval : occur time after time. The cancer recurred. Constant: adj. Continually occurring or recurring : regular. A constant annoyance. Suffers from constant headaches.

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Sample Profiles Economic

Social

Cultural

Income: 95,000 GBP/ year Savings: 10% of income Assets: 2-bedroom apartment Spending: Rent, food, travel, leisure

Married

Trendy restaurants Lounges Travel Politics Film

Income: 8,000 GBP/ year Savings: None Assets: None Spending: Tuition, rent, food

Single

Sporadic Age: 35 years old Occupation: Banker Stay: 24 days/year

No children Works remotely Socializes with co-workers

Recurring Age: 21 years old Occupation: Student Stay: 180 days/year

Figure 3.3.1: This chart uses an example to illustrate each user type. For each user, an age, occupation and set of social, economic and cultural parameters are given. This is important in order to be able to tailor the spaces to suite the needs of different users more closely.

No children Works part-time

Bars Concerts Museums Galleries Music events

Socializes with other students

Constant Age: 27 years old Occupation: Nurse Stay: 335 days/year

Salary: 30,000 GBP/ year Savings: 10% of income Assets: None Spending: Rent, food, leisure

Engaged No children Works night shifts

Coffee Comedy clubs Sports events Sports classes

Socializes with other gym-goers

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Sporadic User Recurring User Constant User Possible Interaction Vertical: Path Crossing Horizontal: Space Sharing

Figure 3.3.2 This graph shows the likely movement of different user types over the course of 24 hours. The magenta line represents the sporadic user, the blue line represents the recurring user and the cyan line represents the constant user.

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Eat Cook Work Read Research Shop Health Lounge Relax Socialise Network Exercise Clean Sleep Cleanse Store Check in Check out 10 am

11 am

12 pm

1 pm

2 pm

3 pm

4 pm

5 pm

6 pm

7 pm

8 pm

9 pm

10 pm

11 pm

12 am

1 am

2 am

3 am

4 am

5 am

6 am

7 am

8 am

9 am


3.4 Evaluative Metrics This section explains the dwell.t architectural diagram and the method used for evaluating the effectiveness of unit arrangements and user interactions. Possible unit organisations: Every combination of the units was 3D modelled in arrangements of 2-4 units. This included units of different types and sizes. Occupants were then assigned to each unit and their travel path was deduced based on their user profile. Sporadic users have shorter, more direct paths while constant users have longer, more winding paths (see fig. 3.3.3 - 3.3.4). Finally, the resulting public spaces were evaluated based on the number of user path overlaps. The next step is to evaluate these overlaps. Qualifying user interactions: The next step is to play out the qualification system for user interactions. Not every overlap equates to an interaction, and it is important to understand which overlaps qualify. Human qualification: Benefits of interaction Desire for interaction Spatial qualification: Light | Size Proximity to private unit Proximity of shared spaces of interest

3D Modelling Autodesk Maya and Rhinoceros were used to 3D model the individual units and unit organisations.

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Mapping User Paths: Existing Aprtments Sporadic User Recurring User Constant User

Figure 3.4.1: The movement path of occupants in conventional home between the hours of 7 am and 10 am. The flats shown are a studio, one-bedroom, two-bedroom, and three-bedroom (from left to right). The magenta path represents the movement of the sporadic user, the blue line represents the movement of the recurring user and the cyan line corresponds to the constant user. The path information was collected through a questionnaire to students at the Architectural Association in London, and the flats are modelled after their homes. The questionnaire asked questions about the studentsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; movement through their homes, and how much time they spend in each room. This is the first step in the occupancy modelling process.

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Mapping User Paths: dwell.t Units Sporadic User Recurring User Constant User

Figure 3.4.2: After modelling the three private unit sizes, it was important to speculate the movement of the users through the units. This diagram shows the path of movement for a sporadic, recurring and constant user in each of the units. Mapping the movement of the user outside the private unit, through the core and shared spaces is equally important and is the next step in the research. Note: The two figures are not to the same scale.

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Design Process


4.1 Site Criteria A set of selection rules that qualify a site for dwell.t. This criteria is used as a constructive set of constraints for the project, to make it responsive and clear in how it positions itself. The criteria includes limitations for location within London, connectivity to the rest of the city, the shape and size of the plot. (fig. 3.3.0) Gradation: This includes the unification of the residential and hotel-containing areas of the city by creating a gradation at the separation line between them. The gradation will be composed of dwell.t units designed for both short and long-term residents. Connectivity: This includes cultural, transport and social connectivity to the rest of the city. Cultural connectivity includes galleries and museums. Transport connectivity includes bus and tube stations. Social connectivity includes restaurants and bars. This ensures an existing interest in the area and means that occupants have access to these amenities and services in the vicinity. Infill sites: dwell.t is limited to infill sites only, including disused alleyways, parking lots and other plots of unconventional shapes and sizes that would otherwise remain unbuilt. Here, the architectural diagram can clearly exhibit response to location and take advantage of the façades and roofs of neighbouring buildings. Infill sites are affordable and available in Central London. Some infill sites are open to the street on one side, with neighbouring buildings on the three remaining sides, where the diagram can further expand as back sites are more affordable. Others are neighboured on two sides only, such as a corner site (see fig. 3.3.1-3.3.6).

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Constraints: noun. a constraining condition, agency, or force : check put legal constraints on the boardâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s activities Budget constraints have forced me to revise my travel plans. Responsive: noun. quick to respond or react appropriately or sympathetically : sensitive. Gradation: noun. a series forming successive stages the gradations of evolutionary development. A gradual passing from one tint or shade to another. Amenities: noun. something that helps to provide comfort, convenience, or enjoyment hotels with modern amenities providing residents with the basic amenities.


Site Criteria

Figure 4.1.1: Diagrams illustrating site criteria.

1. Unused

2.Street Access

3. Infill

4. Availability Roof Expansion

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Site 01: 16 Northington St. London, England

Figure 4.1.2: Location: 16 Northington St. Size: 13 m x 4 m Neighbouring buildings: Mixed use & serviced apartments. Neighbouring height: 12 m Number of access points: 2 Value of plot: >1000ÂŁ PSF Planning zone: Central Activities Zone Points of interest within 1 kmTube station: 632 m Bus station: 181 m Pharmacy: 600 m Supermarket: 280 m Pub: 69 m Cafe: 174 m Restaurant: 186 m ATM: 175 m

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Site 02: 154 Grays Inn Road. London, England

Figure 4.1.3: Location: 154 Grays Inn Rd. Size: 17 m x 2 m Neighbouring buildings: Mixed use Neighbouring height: 8 m & 12 m Number of access points: 1 Value of plot: >1000ÂŁ PSF Planning zone: Central Activities Zone Points of interest within 1 kmTube station: 463 m Bus station: 7 m Pharmacy: 741 m Supermarket: 732 m Pub: 121 m Cafe: 54 m Restaurant: 54 m ATM: 51 m

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Site 03: 54 Mount Pleasant. London, England

Figure 4.1.4: Location: 54 Mount Pleasant. Size: 12 m x 20 m Neighbouring buildings: Residential Neighbouring height: 12 - 44 m Number of access points: 1 Value of plot: >1000ÂŁ PSF Planning zone: Central Activities Zone Points of interest within 1 kmTube station: 665 m Bus station: 153 m Pharmacy: 510 m Supermarket: 548 m Pub: 46 m Cafe: 174 m Restaurant: 141 m ATM: 51 m

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Site 04: 15 Eyre St Hill. London, England

Figure 4.1.5: Location: 15 Eyre St Hill. Size: 17 m x 54 m Neighbouring buildings: Mixed use Neighbouring height: 12 m Number of access points: 1 Value of plot: >1000ÂŁ PSF Planning zone: Central Activities Zone Points of interest within 1 kmTube station: 584 m Bus station: 176 m Pharmacy: 393 m Supermarket: 121 m Pub: 24 m Cafe: 154 m Restaurant: 121 m ATM: 826 m

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Site 05: 5 Topham Street. London, England

Figure 4.1.6: Location: 5 Topham Street. Size: 15 m x 17 m Neighbouring buildings: Mixed use Neighbouring height: 24 - 40 m Number of access points: 2 Value of plot: >1000ÂŁ PSF Planning zone: Central Activities Zone Points of interest within 1 kmTube station: 626 m Bus station: 47 m Pharmacy: 384 m Supermarket: 19 m Pub: 196 m Cafe: 99 m Restaurant: 76 m ATM: 56 m

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Site 06: 69 Margery St. London, England

Figure 4.1.7: Location: 69 Margery Street. Size: 13 m x 10 m Neighbouring buildings: Residential and childrenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s society Neighbouring height: 12 - 16 m Number of access points: 1 Value of plot: >1000ÂŁ PSF Planning zone: Central Activities Zone Points of interest within 1 kmTube station: 859 m Bus station: 72 m Pharmacy: 403 m Supermarket: 112 m Pub: 63 m Cafe: 100 m Restaurant: 241 m ATM: 316 m

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4.2 Unit Catalogue The unit catalogue includes basic diagrams of the private and shared units. Currently, these diagrams are intended to show the dimensions and various components and layouts for each of the units, but do not represent the form, material or structure. The different iterations also show options for openings to the outside and entry points. Smaller units, measuring 4 sqm, have the lowest degree of customization. The degree of customization increases with the size of the unit. The largest units can also be occupied by multiple users, making them suitable for families or couples. The shared units are 60 sqm in size and can be customized to serve as lounges, gyms or as any of the amenities mentioned above.

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Unit Catalogue

Figure 4.2.1: 2m by 2m unit with 4 sq. meters for 1 occupant and a low degree of customization.

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Figure 4.2.2: 2m by 4m unit with 8 sq. meters for 1-2 occupants and a medium degree of customization.

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Figure 4.2.3: 2m by 4m unit with 8 sq. meters for 1-2 occupants and a medium degree of customization.

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Figure 4.2.4: 3m by 6m unit with 18 sq. meters for 1-2 occupants and a high degree of customization.

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Figure 4.2.5: 3m by 6m unit with 18 sq. meters for 1-2 occupants and a high degree of customization.

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Figure 4.2.6: Social Unit with 60 sq. meters for 12 occupants and a high degree of customization.

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Figure 4.2.7: Social Unit with 60 sq. meters for 12 occupants and a high degree of customization.

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4.3 Path Catalogue The following pages catalogue the variety of private units, showing their dimensions and spatial relation to one another. For each combination of units, the path of a user is traced within the unit and is based on the user profile. Users that spend more time checked-in have longer paths. The space between the units, where users are likely to interact, is highlighted. Visibility from this space into the units is also noted. The next step is to catalogue the movement of users between the private units and through the shared spaces. The arrangement of the units in relation to the shared spaces is to be determined by the user profile. For example, users most likely to use the kitchen will be located closest to it, with predetermined path overlaps with users they can engage in mutually beneficial interactions with.

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Sporadic User Recurring User Constant User

Figure 4.3.1: Unit Path Metrics Units: 4 Interactions: 8 Place of interactions: Framed space circulation

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Size: 1 x 3 m Visibility: None

Size: 3 x 6 m Visibility: Varied

Size: 1 x 6 m Visibility: All

Size: 2 x 4 m Visibility: Varied

Size: 1 x 2 m Visibility: All

Size: 1 x 2 m Visibility: None

Size: 1 x 2 m Visibility: Toilet

Size: 1 x 2 m Visibility: Bed

Size: 1 x 2 m Visibility: Toilet

Figure 4.3.2: Unit Path Catalogue Metrics Units: 2 Interactions: 2 Place of interactions: Framed space Circulation

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Component: RC2 Interactions: 0

Component: SC4 Interactions: 2

Component: SC3 Interactions: 2

Component: SC3 Interactions: 2

Component: SR4 Interactions: 2

Component: SC2 Interactions: 0

Component: RC2 Interactions: 2

Component: SR3 Interactions: 0

Component: SC1 Interactions: 2

Component: RC1 Interactions: 2

Component: SR2 Interactions: 2

Figure 4.3.3: Unit Path Catalogue

Component: SR1 Interactions: 2

Metrics Units: 2 Interactions: varies Place of interactions: Framed space Circulation

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Component: CSC2 Interactions: 4

Component: SSC1 Interactions: 6

Component: RCR2 Interactions: 6 Component: SCC1 Interactions: 2

Component: RRS1 Interactions: 6

Component: SCS1 Interactions: 6 Component: SCC1 Interactions: 2 Component: SRS1 Interactions: 6 Component: CSC1 Interactions: 6 Component: SRS1 Interactions: 6

Component: RCR1 Interactions: 6

Component: RSR1 Interactions: 6

Figure 4.3.4: Unit Path Catalogue Metrics Units: 2 Interactions: 2-6 Place of interactions: Framed space Circulation

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Component: CRRS1 Interactions: 8

Component: RSCC1 Interactions: 8

Component: CSRR1 Interactions: 8

Component: CCSR1 Interactions: 2

Component: SCRR1 SCRR Interactions: 8

Figure 4.3.5: Unit Path Catalogue Metrics Units: 4 Interactions: 2-8 Place of interactions: Framed space Circulation

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Component: SCRR2 Interactions: 8

Component: RSCR1 Interactions: 8

Component: RSCR2 Interactions: 8

Component: SRRC1 Interactions: 8 Component: RRSC Interactions: 8

Component: SRRC2 Interactions: 8

Component: RRSC Interactions: 8

Component: SRRC2 SRRC Interactions: 6

Figure 4.3.6: Unit Path Catalogue Metrics Units: 4 Interactions: 6-8 Place of interactions: Framed space Circulation

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Component: SSRC1 Interactions: 8

Component: RSSC1 Interactions: 8

Component: CSSR1 Interactions: 2 Component: RSSC2 Interactions: 8

Component: SSRC2 Interactions: 8

Component: CSSR2 Interactions: 8

Component: SSCR1 Interactions: 8

Figure 4.3.7: Unit Path Catalogue Metrics Units: 4 Interactions: 8 Place of interactions: Framed space Circulation

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4.4 0rganizational Strategy The purpose of the organizational strategy is to set parameters for arranging the units on site in a manner that responds to the surroundings and user demand. These rules are applied at each step of aggregation, determining the type, location and orientation of the unit to be added. The following page shows the pseudo code for the initial condition and growth conditions of the architectural diagram.

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The unit aggregation strategy in dwell.t is organized as a set of rules that are applied with the addition of every unit or social space. The rules can be explained as follows:

Initial Condition:

Growth Condition:

Following stages:

Vertical Core: • place facing street access

Subsequent units must be placed on-demand

Ground Floor: • place only social units • if, corner site then, open up corner to street • if, infill site then, place only social units

• place (1) large social unit connected to the core • place (2) smaller social units opposite from each other • place private units around the perimeter • required ratio of 2:1 (private:social)

Repeat: • “growth conditions” • if, vertical growth surpassed neighbouring building heights then, extend growth above neighbouring roofs. • if, growth extends above neighbouring roofs then, double area of social units

First Floor • L-shape organization of social units • place private units around the perimeter • required ratio of 2:1 (private:social)

Repeat: • place private units around the perimeter • required ratio of 2:1 (private:social)

Core: within dwell.t context, refers to a vertical, street facing component that contains circulation and infrastructure.

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4.5 Architectural Diagram The architectural diagram is the first attempt at constructing architectural proposals for the selected sites. These diagrams illustrate the function of the site criteria and organizational strategies and how they come together to achieve the goals of dwell.t. This includes taking advantage of affordable infill sites and occupying neighbouring roofs. The diagrams note the ratio of social to private units and of one user profile to another, which depend on the site. This is a customizable aspect of dwell.t, the type of units available corresponds to the type most on demand by users. As shown in figures 4.3.15 - 4.3.26, the diagram is not predetermined, but occurs in stages over time. The type, number and organization of units in each stage is informed by user response to the previous one.

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Site 01: 16 Northington St. London, England

Figure 4.5.1: Furnished aggregation with different user profiles.

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Figure 4.5.2: Initial stage with social units on the ground floor, core and first private units. Metrics: Number of social units: 3 Number of private units: 8 Site speciďŹ c user proďŹ le: 20% Sporadic 60% Recurring 20% Constant

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Figure 4.5.3: Second stage of aggregation. Metrics: Number of social units: 6 Number of private units: 16 Site speciďŹ c user proďŹ le: 20% Sporadic 60% Recurring 20% Constant

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Figure 4.5.4: Third stage of aggregation. Metrics: Number of social units: 6 Number of private units: 25 Site speciďŹ c user proďŹ le: 20% Sporadic 60% Recurring 20% Constant

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Figure 4.5.5: Final architectural diagram. Metrics: Total number of social units: 20 Total number of private units: 49 Site speciďŹ c user proďŹ le: 20% Sporadic 60% Recurring 20% Constant

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Sporadic User Recurring User Constant User

Figure 4.5.6: Path Prediction and Interaction Metrics Number of Interactions: 100 Site speciďŹ c user proďŹ le: 20% Sporadic 60% Recurring 20% Constant

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Figure 4.5.7: Path Prediction and Interaction Metrics Number of Interactions: 100 Site speciďŹ c user proďŹ le: 20% Sporadic 60% Recurring 20% Constant

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Sporadic User Recurring User Constant User Figure 4.5.8: User Path Mapping and Interactions

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Ground Level

Second Level


Figure 4.5.9: User Path Mapping and Interactions

Third Level

Fourth Level

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Sporadic User Recurring User Constant User Figure 4.5.10: User Path Mapping and Interactions

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Fifth Level


Figure 4.5.11: User Path Mapping and Interactions

Sixth Level

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Site 02: 154 Grays Inn Road. London, England

Figure 4.5.12: Site 02 Aggregation Metrics: Total number of units: 49 Number of interactions: 80 Site speciďŹ c user proďŹ le: 60% Sporadic 20% Recurring 20% Constant

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Site 03: 54 Mount Pleasant. London, England

Figure 4.5.13: Site 03 Aggregation Metrics: Total number of units: 101 Number of interactions: 273 Site speciďŹ c user proďŹ le: 10% Sporadic 10% Recurring 80% Constant

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Site 04: 15 Eyre St Hill. London, England

Figure 4.5.14: Site 04 Aggregation Metrics: Total number of units: 123 Number of interactions: 297 Site speciďŹ c user proďŹ le: 20% Sporadic 20% Recurring 60% Constant

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Site 05: 5 Topham Street. London, England

Figure 4.5.15: Site 05 Aggregation Metrics: Total number of units: 152 Number of interactions: 304 Site speciďŹ c user proďŹ le: 40% Sporadic 20% Recurring 40% Constant

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Site 06: 69 Margery St. London, England

Figure 4.5.16: Site 06 Aggregation Metrics: Total number of units: 73 Number of interactions: 94 Site speciďŹ c user proďŹ le: 80% Sporadic 10% Recurring 10% Constant

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Figure 4.5.17: Site model illustrating the location of the (6) architectural diagrams.

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Appendix


5.1 Appendix This section includes the work developed after completing the first cycle of research. The work explores the possibility of using algorithmic design as a tool for generating site-specific architectural diagrams. The work in this section will serves as a starting point to further the research of dwell.t into the algorithmic realm.

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Presentation Models

Figure 5.1.1: Presentation models illustrating the stages of the organizational strategies presented in the previous chapter

Site 01

Site 02

Site 01

Site 02

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Algorithmic Representation using C++ The ideas represented through the C++ code serve as framework to further develop the organizational strategies presented in the previous chapter. The goal of using algorithmic logic is to develop an architectural system which operates with different parameters to develop site-specific architecture. By codifying an architectural system, dwell.t can be applied seamlessly to different site conditions without loosing its fundamental organizational characteristics. GitHub Repository https://www.github.com/LeoClaudiusBieling/dwell.t

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Figure 5.1.2: Screen-shots of the algorithm visualisation

1. Top View

2. Core Placement

3. Stage #1 Aggregation

4. Stage #XX Roof Expansion

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Bibliography


Bibliography 02_Research 01

Data according to Office of National Statistics, Census 2011. Accessed 15 Apr 2017

JLL, May 2016, ‘London Residential Heatmaps 2016’. http://residential.jll.co.uk/new-residential-thinking- home/research/london-residential-heatmaps-2016. Accessed 15 Apr 2017

02

Average Household Income 2012-2013. Average https://data.london.gov.uk/apps_and_analysis/gla- household-income-estimates/. Accessed 15 Apr 2017

03

04

Average Household London according to Office of National Statistics, Census 2011. Accessed 15 Apr 2017

“Cooperation for Service, Not Profit.” n.d. Amalgamated Housing Cooperative. http://www.amalgamated- bronx.coop/. Accessed 19 Apr 2017

05

06

“Membership Based Co-Living.” n.d. PodShare. http://podshare.co/. Accessed 19 Apr 2017

07

“International Network of Coliving Spaces.” n.d. ROAM. https://www.roam.co/. Accessed 19 Apr 2017

Mungia Tapia, Emanuel and Rockinson, Randy. “Activity Recognition in the Home Setting Using Simple and Ubiquitous Sensors.” MIT Media Lab. Accessed April 6, 2017. http://courses.media.mit.edu/2004fall/ mas622j/04.projects/home/.

08

Breslav, Simon, Rhys Goldstein, Azam Khan, and Kasper Hornbaek. 2017. “Exploratory Sequential Data Analysis for Multi-Agent Occupancy Simulation Results.” Autodesk Research, Toronto, Canada. Accessed April 6. https://d2f99xq7vri1nk.cloudfront.net/legacy_app_files/pdf/Breslav__Data_Analysis_Occupancy_ Apr21.pdf. 09

Le Corbusier’s Five Points of Architecture. (2017, April 11). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 15:27, April 23, 2017, from https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Le_Corbusier%27s_Five_Points_of_ Architecture&oldid=774952830 10

11

114

Wigley, Mark. Constant’s New Babylon, 1988.


12 “Antwerp Port House / Zaha Hadid Architects” 22 Sep 2016. ArchDaily. Accessed 23 Apr 2017. <http://www. archdaily.com/795832/antwerp-port-house-zaha-hadid-architects/>

Coop Himmelblau. “Coop-Himmelblau.” COOPHIMMELBLAU Wolf D. Prix & Partners, n.d. http://www.coop- himmelblau.at/architecture/projects/rooftop-remodeling-falkestrasse. 13

“Tamedia Office Building / Shigeru Ban Architects” 24 Feb 2014. ArchDaily. Accessed 23 Apr 2017. <http:// www.archdaily.com/478633/tamedia-office-building-shigeru-ban-architects/>

14

Begum Aydinoglu, Federico Borello, Philipp Siedler .“DNA”. Architectural Association Design Research Lab. Accessed 23 Apr 2017.

15

16

“Car2go.” n.d. https://www.car2go.com/US/en/#152742. Accessed 23 Apr 2017.

17

“AmazonGo.” n.d. https://www.amazon.com/b?node=16008589011. Accessed 23 Apr 2017.

Terms Definition

“Co-operative living”. Definition by dwell.t

“Data-Driven Occupancy Modelling”. Definition by dwell.t

“Frictionless Customer Experience”. AmazonGo. https://www.amazon.com/b?node=16008589011

03_Thesis Terms Definition “Sporadic.” Merriam Webster, n.d. https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/sporadic.

“Recurring.” Merriam Webster, n.d. https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/recurring.

“Constant.” Merriam Webster, n.d. https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/constant.

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“Transient.” Merriam Webster, n.d. https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/transient.

“Complementary User Profiles” . Definition by dwell.t

“Mass Customization.” Merriam Webster, n.d. https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/mass- customization.

“Subscription.” Merriam Webster, n.d. https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/subscription.

“Distribute.” Merriam Webster, n.d. https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/distribute.

“Demarcation.” Merriam Webster, n.d. https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/demarcation.

“Aggregation.” Merriam Webster, n.d. https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/aggregation.

04_Design Process Terms Definition

116

“Constraint.” Merriam Webster, n.d. https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/constraint.

“Responsive.” Merriam Webster, n.d. https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/responsive.

“Gradation.” Merriam Webster, n.d. https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/gradation.

“Amenity.” Merriam Webster, n.d. https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/amenity.

“Core” . Definition by dwell.t


Visual Reference 02_Research

Figure 2.1.1: Made by dwell.t

Figure 2.2.1: Made by dwell.t

Figure 2.2.2: “Cooperation for Service, Not Profit.” n.d. Amalgamated Housing Cooperative. http://www. amalgamated-bronx.coop/. Accessed 19 Apr 2017

Figure 2.2.3: Made by dwell.t

Figure 2.2.4: “Membership Based Co-Living.” n.d. PodShare. http://podshare.co/. Accessed 19 Apr 2017

Figure 2.2.5 - Figure 2.2.6: “International Network of Coliving Spaces.” n.d. ROAM. https://www.roam.co/. Accessed 19 Apr 2017

Figure 2.3.1- Figure 2.3.2: Mungia Tapia, Emanuel and Rockinson, Randy. “Activity Recognition in the Home Setting Using Simple and Ubiquitous Sensors.” MIT Media Lab. Accessed April 6, 2017. http://courses.media. mit.edu/2004fall/ mas622j/04.projects/home/. Figure 2.3.3- Figure 2.3.4: Breslav, Simon, Rhys Goldstein, Azam Khan, and Kasper Hornbaek. 2017. “Exploratory Sequential Data Analysis for Multi-Agent Occupancy Simulation Results.” Autodesk Research, Toronto, Canada. Accessed April 6. https://d2f99xq7vri1nk.cloudfront.net/legacy_app_files/pdf/ Breslav__Data_Analysis_Occupancy_Apr21.pdf.

Figure 2.3.5- Figure 2.3.6: Villa Savoye. “http://www.villa-savoye.fr/en”. Accessed 19 Apr 2017

Figure 2.3.7- Figure 2.3.8: New Babylon. “https://lebbeuswoods.wordpress.com/2009/10/19/constant- vision/”. Accessed 19 Apr 2017

Figure 2.3.9- Figure 2.3.11: Antwerp Port House. “http://www.zaha-hadid.com/architecture/port-house/” . Accessed 19 Apr 2017

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Figure 2.3.12- Figure 2.3.13: Rooftop Falkenstrasse. “http://www.coop-himmelblau.at/architecture/projects/ rooftop-remodeling-falkestrasse”. Accessed 19 Apr 2017

Figure 2.3.14- Figure 2.3.16: Tamedia Office Building, Shigeru Ban “http://www.world-architects.com/en/ projects/41967_Bueroneubau_Tamedia” . Accessed 19 Apr 2017

Figure 2.3.17- Figure 2.3.19: DNA. Begum Aydinoglu, Federico Borello, Philipp Siedler .“DNA”. Architectural Association Design Research Lab. Accessed 23 Apr 2017.

Figure 2.3.20: “Car2go.” n.d. https://www.car2go.com/US/en/#152742. Accessed 23 Apr 2017.

Figure 2.3.21: “AmazonGo.” n.d. https://www.amazon.com/b?node=16008589011. Accessed 23 Apr 2017.

03_Thesis

Figure 3.1.1 - Figure 3.1.3 : Made by dwell.t

Figure 3.2.1 - Figure 3.2.3 : Made by dwell.t

Figure 3.3.1 - Figure 3.3.2 : Made by dwell.t

Figure 3.4.1 - Figure 3.4.2 : Made by dwell.t

04_Design Process

Figure 4.1.1 - Figure 4.1.7 : Made by dwell.t

Figure 4.1.1 - Figure 4.1.7 : Made by dwell.t

Figure 4.2.1 - Figure 4.2.7 : Made by dwell.t

Figure 4.3.1 - Figure 4.3.7 : Made by dwell.t

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Figure 4.5.1 - Figure 4.5.17 : Made by dwell.t


05_Appendix

Figure 5.1.1 - Figure 5.2.2 : Made by dwell.t

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dwell.t  

First Cycle of Research. AA DRL (Architectural Association Design Research Lab) Studio Bhooshan Nahmad 2016-2018

dwell.t  

First Cycle of Research. AA DRL (Architectural Association Design Research Lab) Studio Bhooshan Nahmad 2016-2018

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