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Cloud Living Combinatorial Subscription Living: Own Nothing, Access Everything Robotically woven, lightweight timber structures for infill sites in high density cities.

Leo Clausius Bieling | Basant Elshimy | Ariadna Lopez Rodriguez


Director: Theodore Spyropoulos Founder: Patrik Schumacher Course Masters: Theodore Spyropoulos, Shajay Bhooshan, Patrik Schumacher Programme Coordinator: Ryan Dillon Course Tutors: Pierandrea Angius, Apostolos Despotidis, Mostafa El-Sayed, Alicia Nahmad Vasquez, Alexandra Vougia, Klaus Platzgummer Software Tutors: Dave Reeves, Torsten Broeder, Octavian Mihai Gheorghiu, Eva Magnisali, Paul Jeffries, Tyson Hosmer The Design Research Laboratory (DRL) is a 16-month post-professional design research programme leading to a Masters of Architecture and Urbanism (MArch) degree. For the last 20 years, the world-renowned lab has been at the forefront of design experimentation, pioneering advanced methods in design, computation and manufacturing. The lab is structured around an evolving framework of three-year research cycles that interrogate architecture and urbanism, design and engineering. The AADRL pursues innovation and interdisciplinary design fostered through partnerships with companies such as Ferrari, Festo, AKTII, Reider and Odico Robotics. The lab remains a space of collaboration and curiosity and looks to develop the next generation of architects who will create research groups or teach at schools worldwide.


Architectural Association School of Architecture Design Research Lab 2017 - 2018 Design Research Agenda: Constructing Agency Tutors: Shajay Bhooshan | Alicia Nahmad Team: Leo Claudius Bieling Basant Elshimy Ariadna Lopez Rodriguez www. aaschool-drl-cloudliving.com.


Table of Contents


Cloud Living Combinatorial Subscription Living: Own Nothing, Access Everything Robotically woven, lightweight timber structures for infill sites in high density cities.


01_Own Nothing. Access Everything 1.1 Design Research Agenda: Constructed Agency 1.2 House.Occupant.Science Tech.data (HOSTd) 1.3 Thesis Statement: Own Nothing, Access Everything 1.4 Research Framework

9

02_Primitive Selection 2.1 Seminal Projects: Dimensional Metrics 2.2 Contextual Research: Metrics of Co-Living 2.3 Primitive Selection

23

03_Combinatorial Subscription Model 3.1 Seminal Projects: Data Collection and Analysis 3.2 Contextual Research: Spatial Organization 3.3 Subscription Categories 3.4 Combinatorial Logic

65

04_Site Criteria 4.1 Site Criteria 4.2 Contextual Research

85

05_Planning Envelope 5.1 Seminal Projects: Architectural Geometry and Form-Finding Diagram 5.2 Contextual Research: Form-Finding Diagram 5.3 Planning Envelope: Rules On-Site

95

06_Digital Fabrication 6.1 Seminal Projects: Wood Bending + Robotic Weaving 6.2 Digital Timber and 3-Dimensional Robotic Weaving 6.3 Digital Prototype: Bedford Square 6.4 Construction Manual 6.5 Timber and Reinforced Fibreglass Fabrication

139

07_Occupaying the Planning Envelope 7.1 Occupying the Envelope 7.2 Contextual Research: Programme-On-Site 7.3 Architectural Proposal

199

08_Appendix 8.1 Conversations: Final Jury 8.2 Studio Life

249

09_References 8.1 Bibliography 8.2 Image Credits

270


Own Nothing, Access Everything 1.1 Design Research Agenda: Constructed Agency 1.2 Brief: House.Occupant.Science.Tech.data (HOSTd) 1.3 Thesis Statement: Own Nothing, Access Everything 1.4 Research Framework


1.1 Design Research Agenda: Constructed Agency

Our new agenda, Constructing Agency, explores expanded relationships of architecture by considering the future of living, work and culture. The aim of the research is to expand the field of possibilities through exploiting behaviour as a conceptual tool in order to synthesise the digital world with the material world. Advanced computational development is utilised in the pursuit of architectural systems that are adaptive, generative and behavioural. Using the latest in advanced printing, making and computing tools the lab is developing pioneering work that challenges today’s design orthodoxies. Architecture that is mobile, transformative, kinetic and robotic are all part of the AADRL agenda with the aim to expand the discipline and push the limits of design within the larger cultural and technological realm.

10 _1.1 Design Research Agenda: Constructed Agency


1.1 Design Research Agenda: Constructed Agency_ 11


1.2 House.Occupant.Science Tech.data (HOSTd)

The three-year research agenda of the studio, starting from January 2017, is motivated by the following observations regarding contemporary design, fabrication technologies and trends in contemporary living. 1. Digital design and fabrication technologies are maturing with significant progress being made by researchers in the fields of computational architectural design (Thomsen et al. 2015), computational geometry (Adriaenssens et al. 2016), structural design (Anon 2015), robotic manufacture (Reinhardt et al. 2016) etc. 2. Social, economic and political conditions in large, high-productivity cities such as Tokyo, London, New York, etc. have evolved (Jon Earle & Irene Pereyra, IKEA 2017) such that the market conditions are now suitable (Bardakci & Whitelock 2003) to engender a demand for mass customised housing (Chong et al. 2009; Gann 1996). These two observations together yield the premise of the research agenda: high-productivity cities can be a prime avenue for the application of the maturing domain of digital design and fabrication with the aim to develop a real-estate solution for contemporary living. In other words, the promise made by seminal design research and polemic publications on mass-customisation and housing such as Negotiate my boundary (Steele 2006) and the generation of a vibrant community fabric of a residential community as seen in The Autopoiesis of Architecture: A New Framework for Architecture, Volume 1 (Schumacher 2002) ) can now indeed be realised.

12 _1.2 Brief: House.Occupant.Science.Tech.data (HOSTd)


1.2 Brief: House.Occupant.Science.Tech.data (HOSTd)_ 13


1.3 Thesis Statement: Own Nothing. Access Everything Own nothing, access everything; that is the aim of Cloud Living. An increase in demand for subscription services such as Netflix, Adobe CreativeCloud and DriveNow raise the question of an architectural manifestation for a subscription living model, where there are no tenants but rather subscribers. Cloud Living explores the benefits of subscription, including scalability and exchangeability of home functions which are transformed by data collection on usage and peer-to-peer space exchange. Cloud Living proposes subscription living as a model of collaborative consumption, where the cost of living is not borne by an individual, but rather negotiated within a larger group. The aim is to build a dynamic community in Inner City London which is fostered by technologies which enable data-driven design and combinatorial spatial customization. This yields a contemporary living model which adapts to the increasingly complex lifestyle of the subscriber in high density cities. The proposal is comprised of robotically woven reinforced fibreglass components and a light weight timber structure assembled from developable surfaces. This method combines geometry, fabrication and statics within a digital common ground. Cloud Living targets underutilised plots dispersed through East-Central London requiring phased construction to exploit the potential of infill sites. The living model implements seven subscription categories, each one of them catering to user-specific spatial requirements. Those spatial requirements are manifested architecturally through customized three-dimensional weaving in the form of hyperbolic paraboloids which range in terms of size, portability and complexity. Coupled with the timber structure, the hyperbolic paraboloids are used as a tool for subdivision and further spatial customization. Cloud Living challenges current concepts of home ownership by means of subscription living, where the subscriber owns nothing yet has access to everything.

14 _1.3 Thesis Statement: Own Nothing. Access Everything


01 Social Methodology - Primitive Selection - Combinatorial Subscription

02 Deployment Methodology - Site Criteria - Planning Envelope

03 Architectural Methodology - Digital Fabrication - Occupying the Planning Envelope

Figure 1.3.1: The research is divide in three distinct threads of investigation. Each thread seeks to provide design solutions that will contribute to the physicalization of a subscription Figure 1.3.1

model for living.

1.3 Thesis Statement: Own Nothing. Access Everything_ 15


1.4 Research Framework The research is divide in three distinct threads of investigation: 1. Social Methodology 2. Deployment Methodology 3. Architectural Methodology Each thread of investigation seeks to provide design solutions that contribute to the physicalization of a subscription model for contemporary living in high density cities.(Figure 1.3.1) 1.4.1 Social Methodology Collaborative Consumption Cloud Living proposes a model of living which participates within a model of collaborative consumption, in which the cost of living is not borne by an individual but rather a larger group of subscribers. A collaborative consumption model: • Relies on the use and access of shared resources and assets. • Enables a new form of value exchange (Matofska, 2016). Co-living The inherent ideals of the collaborative consumption model allows Cloud Living to integrate principles of subscription and on demand housing. Cloud Living is situated within historic and contemporary models of cooperative and subscription living. Relevant examples of co-living developments include:

• The Amalgamated Housing in New York. (Figure 1.4.1)

The development was tailored for industrial workers and their families. The building provided amenities such as day-care for children as well as domestic courses for women. The Collective in London. (Figure 1.4.2) Currently, the largest co-living community in the world, with more than 500 users. The Collective targets creative professionals looking for a community of like-minded people.

Primitive Selection The primitive selection is the first step in the research to physicalize a model of subscription. The primitive selection encompasses the following steps: • Tailoring the primitive according to dimensional metrics and user requirements. 16

_1.4 Research Framework


Figure 1.4.1

Figure 1.4.1: Photograph of the Amalgamated Housing Cooperative in the Bronx, New York. Built in 1927 for industrial workers and their families, the spatial planning and location are tailored to the prospective residents. Figure 1.4.2: Concept render of The Stratford Tower by the Collective, a new 29 story residential tower. The proposal is shared living community aimed at young Figure 1.4.2

professionals. 1.4 Research Framework_ 17


Figure 1.4.3

Figure 1.4.4

Figure 1.3.3: Diagram showing the beginnings of subscription based co-living models around the world since 2008. Figure 1.3.4: Advertisement for Airbnb which encourages users to feel at home or “belong anywhere� by using their services. Figure 1.3.5: Visualization sequence of Transpose by Airbus customizable aircraft cabins. The proposal is modular cabins with a variety of functions, including business class seats, bar, gym, children cabin, etc. 18

_1.4 Research Framework

Figure 1.4.5


• Ability to host a variety of living functions such as bedroom, kitchen, bathroom and living.

• Aggregate in a combinatorial logic while retaining connectivity. The aim of the primitive selection is to provide a dimensional framework with spatial qualities and dimensional metrics to be placed on site and further developed in the architectural methodology. Combinatorial Subscription Model Cloud Living implements seven subscription categories, which are derived from BBC’s social survey of 2011. The subscription categories aim to represent the demographics of high-productivity cities, in the like of London. Each subscription category is physicalized based on lifestyle requirements. The spatial manifestation of these subscriptions follows a combinatorial logic in which the spaces are able to change in terms of size and geometrical complexity. Relevant examples leading to the subscription model include:

• ROAM, a worldwide community of co-living and co-working • PodShare, a membership based co-living with multiple locations in Los Angeles. (Figure 1.4.3)

The primary motivations of building a subscription community are:

• To build a unique community, situated amongst contemporary models of subscription living such as Airbnb. (Figure 1.4.4)

• To provide living spaces which are specific to the user’s lifestyle,

while allowing for a combinatorial logic among to provide scalability and customization of spaces, such aircraft concept by Transpose by Airbus. (Figure 1.4.5) To foster knowledge and skill exchange between different age and social groups, in order to foment mutually beneficial relationships within an urban setting.

1.4.2 Deployment Methodology Site Criteria Cloud Living targets underutilised plots dispersed through EastCentral London requiring phased construction to exploit the potential of infill sites. The proposal makes use of infill sites to create a progressive architecture that meets the demands temporal living in high density cities. The motivations of Cloud Living include:

• Designing a lightweight architecture that is fast and easy to •

construct. This is the kind of architecture that can be quickly edited to respond to the changing demands of the users. Developing a construction system that responds to London

1.4 Research Framework_ 19


specifically by having hybrid construction system of robotically woven reinforced fibreglass components that get delivered to the site and a light weight timber structure assembled on site from developable surfaces. This hybrid system eliminates the need for large trucks or cranes on the narrow city streets and sites. These motivations combine geometry, fabrication and statics within a digital common ground. Planning Envelope Cloud Living endeavours in the task of establishing an architectural expression for the future of subscription living in high-productivity cities, while fulfilling the goals of spatial flexibility within a combinatorial logic. The research proposes a Planning Envelope as a method to fulfil the previously mentioned goals. The Planning Envelope will serve as follows:

• Provide an open framework which can accommodate • •

combinatorial logic of spaces corresponding to the subscription categories. Provide spatial qualities which are specific to each subscription category. Establish a non-orthogonal geometry network of developable surfaces which create a lightweight structural system.

1.4.3 Architectural Methodology Digital Fabrication The priorities of digital fabrication within the context of Cloud Living are: • Use lightweight materials efficiently, leading to a construction process that doesn’t require high-skill or large equipment. • A hybrid system made up of reinforced fibreglass components that get delivered to the site in combination with on-site assembly of flat-packed developable surfaces. • Employ a structural and fabrication system that is open to addition and/or modifications as user demands vary over time. The digital fabrication aspect of the project is comprised of two areas:

• Timber bending, taking as reference the plywood chairs of Charles and Ray Eames. (Figure 1.4.6)

• 3D robotic weaving, taking as reference the research pavilions developed by ICD / ITKE. (Figure 1.4.7)

It is crucial that the two are spatially and structurally codependent; one cannot stand without the other. 20

_1.4 Research Framework


Occupying the Planning Envelope The Planning Envelope is occupied as follows: • A total number of subscription households is determined by the total area of the chosen plot. • The total subscription categories are classified between those who are spatially capable to exchange home functions and those who aren’t. This step is dependent upon the unique size of each subscription space. • A ratio of 1:2 is established between those subscriptions that are spatially capable to exchange space and those that are not. The Planning Envelope is design to foster spatial flexibility in two ways: • Peer-to-peer exchange of space. This means neighbouring subscriptions can exchange home functions according to their specific needs. • Curation by collected data on space usage. The proposal will be equipped with BLE technology to collect data on space useage, which will inform which spaces have high and/or low demand. Spaces with low demand will be transformed over time to better suit the needs of the community.

Figure 1.4.6

Figure 1.4.6: Charles and Ray Eames Plywood chair prototype sets a powerful precedent for lightweight bent timber fabrication (1945). Figure 1.4.7 ICD/ ITKE Research Pavilion, Figure 1.4.7

woven out of carbon fibre filaments. 1.4 Research Framework_ 21


Primitive Selection 2.1 Seminal Projects: Dimensional Metrics 2.2 Contextual Research: Metrics of Co-Living 2.3 Primitive Selection


2.1 Seminal Projects

The research of the primitive selection is anchored by seminal projects which provide a foundation for cataloguing spatial requirements and dimensional metrics for interactions: The geometrical primitive is informed by the following:

• Frankfurt Kitchen by M. Schutte - Lihotzky, 1926. (Figure 2.1.1)

- The project is an attempt at “rationalising the housewife’s work” (Schutte, 1927) by carefully studying logical work-flow sequences within the kitchen. The project presents the potential for Cloud Living to re-design spaces according to space usage patterns.

• Architect’s Data by E. Neufert, 1936. (Figure 2.1.2)

24 _2.1 Primitive Selection: Seminal Projects

- The book provides an extensive compilation of space layout according to ergonomic principles and building typology (Neufert, 1970). The layouts present an initial reference for spatial requirements in building design, which Cloud Living seeks to apply to shared living spaces.

Proxemics by E. Hall, 1963. (Figure 2.1.3) - A branch of knowledge developed by an American anthropologists which studies “the human use of space and the effects it has on behaviour, communication and social patterns” (Hall, 1966). Proxemics provides a foundation for Cloud Living to differentiate dimensional metrics of interactions between users.


Figure 2.1.1

Figure 2.1.2

Figure 2.1.1: Image of original kitchen. Floor plan of kitchen layout outlining the recurring usage paths. (Schutte, 1927) Figure 2.1.2: Diagrams illustrating the distinct ergonomic dimensions depending on activities in the kitchen. (Neufert, 1970) Figure 2.1.3: Diagram demarcating zones of interpersonal distances. (Hall, Figure 2.1.3

1966)

2.1 Primitive Selection: Seminal Projects_

25


2.2 Contextual Research: Metrics of Co-Living Cloud Living sets out to investigate the metrics of co-living as a point of departure to develop a subscription living model. The metrics of co-living include: • User Behaviour and Path Simulation • Co-Living Neufert Both metrics have as motivation spatial customisation, meaning customisation which hinges on data driven design to make informed inferences on user preferences. Data driven design provides an opportunity to leverage specific spatial organizations which cater to a spectrum of user profiles, which will later be classified by subscription categories. 2.2.1 User Behaviour and Path Simulation This branch of the research takes as initial framework an Electrical Survey of 260 households across the UK in 2012 in order to extract usage patterns of functions such as kitchen and living rooms. ( Figure 2.2.1.1) The data presented is extracted and analysed as follows: • Type of household by category, i.e: single person, multiple person, pensioner, etc. • Inference of amount of time spent at home daily • Extraction of time and duration each house appliance is used. The research concluded the following results: • Categorization of users into behavioural profiles: sporadic, recurring and constant. As well as daily time-use schedules for every user type ( Figure 2.2.1.2) • Informed deduction of the movement of distinct user around the house. The aim of the User Path Simulation is to visualise space usage within a spatial aggregation. A catalogue of furnished co-living scenarios was produced in order to simulate the data abstracted from the Electrical Use Survey. The configurations are used as framework to map behavioural patterns for three distinct user profiles. ( Figure 2.2.1.3) The simulation provides an understanding of the following: • Areas of highest density: kitchen • Areas of highest interaction between users: vertical core 26 _2.2 Primitive Selection: Metrics of Co-Living


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3 pm 1-2 hrs Socialise 1-2 hrs Socialise Stay: 500 4 pm - 9 pm 1-2 hrs Entertainment 0-1 hrs Entertainment 335 days/year 115am 0-1 hrs Cook Eat 0-30 min pm- -12 6 pm & 4 pm - 6 pm Trendy restaurants Married 400 0-1 hrs Cook Bars Single Recurring Income: 8,000 GBP/ year 0-30 min Eat Sleep 4-6 hrs 12 am - 6 am Lounges No children No Concerts Age:300 Savings: None 6-8 hrs Sleep Work 2-3 children hrs 10 am - 5 pm Travel Works remotely Eat Income: 18,000 GBP/year Libraries Widow 303-4 min-1hr Constant Works part-time 21with years old Assets: None hrs Work Clean 0-20 min 9am am- -13pm pm& 4 pm - 6 pm Museums Politics Socialises co-workers 11 0-30 min Eat Coffee Engaged Sleep Savings: Pension Museums NoSocialises children with other students 6-80-20 hrs min Age: Galleries Occupation: Spending: Tuition, rent, food Clean Exercise 30 min-1 hr 125am am- -76am am Film 200 6-8 hrs Sleep 2-year-old son Comedy clubs Cook Assets: Owns 2-bedroom home Long walks Baby sits during free time 3-41-2 hrshrs 67 Student years old Music events Socialise 10 am - 11 pm 3-4 hrs Work Sports events Works night shifts Read Spending: Rent, food, travel Baking Socialises with book club hrshrs Occupation: Stay:other Entertainment 1-21-2 100 8 am - 1 pm & 6 pm - 9 pm 0-20 min Clean Sports classes Socialises with gym-goers Clean 0-20 Pensioner 180 days/year 0-1min hrs Cook 1 pm - 3 pm 1-2 hrs Exercise Socialise 1-2 hrs Stay: 0 2 pm - 4 pm 1-2 hrs Socialise Entertainment 0-2 hrs 335 days/year 7 pm - 8 pm 0-10-30 hrs min Entertainment Bars Single Leisure 11 am - 12 pm & 5 pm - 6 pm Eat 0-1 hrs Income: 0-30 min Eat 1211 pmpm - 1-pm & 5 pm - 6 pm Coffee 0-1Engaged hrshrs Cook Concerts30,000 GBP/year No children Constant 7 am 6-8 Sleep Hours User Economic Social Cultural clubs Usage Savings: 6-8 hrs Sleeppattern Duration/day Comedy 2-year-old Museums10% of incomeWork WorksProfile part-time Age: 3-4 hrs son 7 am - 11 pm Eat 0-30 Married Assets: None 3-4min hrs Work Sports events Works night shifts Income: 25,000 GBP/year Recurring Vintage car shows Galleries Socialises other 4 ICT pm - 6- 5 pm EatClean Widow 300-20 min-1hr 27with years old students 8 am pm min Cold appliances Libraries Cooking Lighting Audiovisual Sleep 4-6 hrs min 26-8 daughters Spending: Rent, food, leisure 0-20 Clean Sports classes Socialises with other gym-goers Savings: Pension Age: Cafes Music events 11 am 3 pm & 12 am 4 am Sleep No children Museums hrshrs Occupation: 11 am - 3 pm Socialise DEFRA, DECC, EST Washing/drying Water heating Other Not1-2 known Socialise 2-3 hrs Occasionally visits daughters in London 1-2min hrs Income: 95,000 GBP/ year EatExercise 0-30 Trendy restaurants Assets: Owns 4-bedroom home yearsfree old time Long walks Sporadic 4 pm - 6-pm Cook Baby sits72 during Long walks 3-41-2 hrshrs Nurse 4 pm 9 pm Entertainment Married Entertainment 1-21-2 Owns restaurant 1 pm - 10 pm Socialise Savings: 10% offood, income Sleep 4-6 hrshrs No children Spending: Rent, travel Occupation: Jazz Age: Read Socialises with clubStructure of the average Baking 1-20-1 hrs Stay:book279 11 amhousehold - 12 pm & 4 pm - 6 Lounges pm clubs hrs Cook– Holidays Figure hourly load curve – Multiple person Lounge 1-20-1 Entertainment 2-3 Assets: 2-bedroom apartment Work hrshrs Works remotely 9 am - 12 pm Travel Pensioner 44335 years old Clean 0-20 min days/year with no Spending: dependent children - Without electric heating 0-1min hrs Cook Rent, food, travel, leisure Clean 0-20 Socialises with co-workers Politics Stay: Occupation: 1 pm - 11 pm Socialise 1-2 hrs Exercise 30 min-1 hr Film 180 days/year Banker 1 pm - 11- pm Entertainment 0-20-30 hrs min 11 am 1 pm & 4 pm - 6 pm Eat Coffee Engaged Stay: Income: Eat Libraries 4 pm - 6 pm Leisure 30 min-1hr Constant 0-1Widow hrshrs 12 am - 7 am 6-8 Sleeppattern Duration/day Comedy clubs GBP/year 2-year-old son Social Cultural18,000 Usage Time 24Age: days/year Savings: Pension Sleep Museums No 6-8 hrs 10 am - 11 pm 3-4 children hrs Work Sports events Works night shifts Assets: OwnsGBP/year 2-bedroom home Long walks Baby sits during free time 0-30 EatCook Income: 20,000 Sporadic Single Techno clubs 3-4min hrs 67with years old gym-goers 8 am 1 pm & 6 pm 9 pm 0-20 min Clean Sports classes Socialises other Eat 11 am club - 12 pm 0-30 min Married Age: Vintage car shows Spending: Rent, food, travel Read Baking Socialises with book 4-6 hrshrs Sleep Savings: None No children Japanese food 1-2 Occupation: 1am pm 3pm pm& 1 am - 5 am 1-2 hrs EatExercise 0-30 min 5 -6 Trendy restaurants Sleep 11pm - -3pm 4-6 hrs 2Married daughters Cafes Clean 0-1 hrs Socialise Assets: None 32 years old Pursuing online degree in psychology Volunteer projects 0-20 min Pensioner Single Bars Recurring Income: 8,000 GBP/ year 0-30 min Eat 2am pm - 4am pm hrs Socialise Sleep 4-61-2 12 -6 Lounges No children visits daughters in London 8 am - 11 pm 2-3 hrs Occasionally Long walks Socialise 0-11-2 hrshrs Entertainment Spending: Food, leisure,Socialise shopping Occupation: rugby Stay: No children Concerts Age: Savings: None 6-8 hrs Sleep 7am pm - 8pm pm Entertainment Plays Work 2-30-1 hrshrs 10 5 Worksrestaurant remotely Travelclubs Entertainment 5 pm - -11 1-2 Owns Jazz Entertainment 0-1 hrs Lounge Cabin crew 0-2 hrs 335 days/year Works part-time Museums 21with years old Assets: 3-4 hrs Work 12 pm -pm 1 pm & 5 pm - 6 pm 0-1 hrs Cook Clean 0-20 min 9 -3 Politics None Socialises co-workers Lounge 5 am pm 11pm 1-2 hrs Leisure Stay: 0-1min hrs Socialises Galleries Occupation: Spending: Tuition, rent, food 0-20 Clean Exercise 30 min-1 hrwith other 5 amstudents - 6 am Film 24 days/year Music events 1-2 hrs Socialise 4 pm - 6 pm Eat WidowStudent Libraries 30 min-1hr Stay: 1-2 hrs Entertainment Eat Married 0-30 min 11 am - 3 pm & 12 am - 4 am Sleep No children Museums 6-8 hrs Vintage car shows Income: 25,000 GBP/year Recurring 180 days/year 0-14-6 hrshrs Cook Sleep 23-4 daughters 4 pm - 6 pm Cook Baby sits during free time Long walks hrs Cafes Savings: Pension Age: Income: 55,000 Sporadic EatSocialise 0-30 Single Occasionally visits daughters 2-3min hrs 1am pm -12 10pm pmin London Museums Read Socialises book Baking 1-2min hrs Long walks Assets: OwnsGBP/year 4-bedroom home 72with years old club 11 0-30 Eat Single Techno clubs Savings: 10%Rent, of income Age: Sleep 4-61-2 hrshrs NoOwns children Galleries Entertainment restaurant 9 am 12 pm Clean 0-20 min Jazz clubs Spending: food, travel Occupation: 4lectures pm pm 4-6 Sleep No children Japanese food Single Bars None am- -612 pmreviews & 5 pm - 6 pm 0-30hrs min Eat Assets: 40 Pensioner years old Socialise 0-1 hrs Visits London for11 and ConferencesFigure 2.2.1.1: 1-2 hrs 1 pm - 11 pm Socialise Income: 30,000 GBP/year 0-30 min EatLounge Engaged Coffee 1-2 hrs 8 pm 11 pm 0-1 hrs Socialise Pursuing online degree in psychology Volunteer projects Concerts No children Constant 11 pm - 7 am 6-8 hrs Sleep Spending: Rent, research, food Occupation: Exercise 1 pm9-pm 11 pm Entertainment 2-year-old Savings: 6-8 hrs hrs Sleep average 0-1 Comedy clubs 0-2 hrs son 6 pm Stay: Chart indicating 0-1 Plays Worksrugby part-time Museums10% of incomeEntertainment Age: 7 am -- 11 pm 3-4 hrs hrs Work Academic and Research 0-1 hrs 4 pm 6 pm Leisure Assets: None 3-4 hrs Work Works night shifts Sports events 0-1 hrs 180 days/year 6 am pm -- 5 9 pm pm 0-1 Lounge Socialises other Galleries 27with years old students 8 0-20hrs min Clean hourly use of a multiple 0-1 Entrepreneur Work Spending: Rent, food, leisure 0-20hrs min Clean Socialises with other gym-goers Sports classes Music events Occupation: 11 am - 3 pm 1-2 hrs Socialise Stay: Lounge 0-1 1-2 hrs hrs Exercise in the UK. person household Nurse 4 pm - 9 pm 1-20-30 hrs min Eat 11 am - 12 pm Married Vintage car shows Entertainment 24 days/year 1-20-30 hrs min Socialise Income: 20,000 GBP/year Eat Sporadic Techno clubs Single Stay: 1111 amam - 12 0-14-6 hrshrs Cook Sleep - 3pm pm&&41pm am- -65pm am 2 daughters Cafes Electricity Survey 0-14-6 hrshrs Entertainment Savings: None Sleep Age: Japanese “Household food No 335 days/year Socialise 8 am - 11 pm 2-3 children hrs Occasionally visits daughters in London Long walks 0-1 hrs Cook Income: 20,000 Spends weekends degree with girlfriend outside Cinemas Recurring 0-30 min Assets: NoneGBP/year 0-1 hrs Socialise Electrical 32 years old Volunteer projects Pursuing in psychology A Study ofEat Domestic pm- -12 11pm pm 1-2 hrs online Owns restaurant 115am EatEntertainment 0-30 min Single Museums Jazz clubs Savings: None London Theatres Age: Sleep hrshrs Spending: Food, leisure, shopping Entertainment 6-80-1 Plays rugby 4 pm pm -pm 11 1-2 hrs - -61 Sleep 4-6 hrs No childrenOccupation: Galleries 115am pmpm & 4 pm - 6 pmGyms 0-30 min EatLounge Coffee None Engaged 25 years crew old Assets: No children Socialise 0-10-1 hrshrs Product Usage.”, 2012 30 Income: 18,000 GBP/year Eat Widow Libraries Lounge Cabin Constant min-1hr 8 pm pm Socialise 0-1 Visits London Conferences 12 am- -11 7 am 6-8hrs hrsbuff Sleep 2-year-old sonfor lectures and reviews Comedy clubs Occupation: Spending: Rent, food, travel Movie Parks Exercise 1-2 hrs Savings: Pension Sleep No children Stay: Age: 6-8 4 am ampm & 1 pm - 3 pm Museums Exercise 0-1 10 am- 6 - 11 3-4hrs hrs Work Sports events Works night shiftstrainer Personal Entertainment 0-2 hrs Assets: Owns 2-bedroom home Cook Baby sits during free time Long walks days/year 6724 years old 3-4 12am pm- 1- 11 pm Research 0-1 hrs 8 pm & 6 pm - 9 pm 0-20 min Clean Socialises with other gym-goers Sports classes Stay: Work 0-1 hrs Spending: Rent, food, travel Read Socialises with book club Baking Occupation: 1-2 Figure 2.2.1.2: 12pm pm- 3 - 11 Work 0-1 1 pmpm 1-2hrs hrs Exercise 180 days/year Lounge 0-1 hrs Clean Pensioner 0-20 min 6 pm 9 pm Lounge 0-1 hrs 2 -4 1-20-30 hrs min Socialise 11 am - 12 pm Eat Single Techno clubs Diagram categorizing user Socialise Stay: 1-2 hrsmin Eat 0-30 Income: 55,000 Sporadic Museums 7 pm - 8-pm 0-1Single hrshrs Entertainment 4 pm 6 pm 4-6 Sleep No children Japanese food GBP/year Entertainment 335 days/year 0-2 hrs Sleep 4-6 hrs Savings: 10% of income Age: Galleries No children behavioural profiles: sporadic, 12 pm 1 pm & 5 pm 6 pm 0-1 hrs Cook 8 pm - 11 pm 0-1 hrs Socialise Pursuing online degree in psychology Volunteer projects Leisure 0-1 hrs Income: 20,000 Cinemas 0-30 min Eat Socialise 0-1 hrs Assets: NoneGBP/year Entertainment Single 40 years old Conferences Visits and reviews Constant 6lectures pm12 - 9pm pm 0-1min hrsLondon for Playsweekends rugby 7 am, & 4 pm - 6 pm Spends with girlfriend outside Cinemas Eat 0-30 recurring Sleep and constant based on Savings: None No children Shopping 6-8 hrs Exercise 0-1 hrs Spending: Rent, research, food Occupation: Age: 6pm pm 9am pm 4 - -6-5pm EatLounge Widow Libraries 300-1 min-1hr 11pm London Theatres Sleep 6-8 hrshrs Assets: None Travels to fashion shows High end restaurants 0-1 hrs Socialise Research 0-1 hrs Academic 33 years old and Figure 2.2.1.2 unique time-use schedules. Eat Married 0-30 min Income: 25,000 GBP/year Recurring Vintage car shows 11 am 3 pm & 12 am 4 am Sleep No children Museums 6-8 hrs 4 pm - 11 No children Gyms Socialise 0-1 Spending: Rent, food, travel, shopping Coffee shops 1-2 hrs Exercise Work 0-1 hrs Entrepreneur Occupation: Sleep 2 daughters 4-6 hrs Savings: Pension Age: Cafes 4 pmam Cook Baby sits during free time Long walks 3-4 10pm am- 6 - 11 Movie buff Parks Exercise 1-2 hrs 0-2 hrs Entertainment Lounge 0-1 hrs Stay: Travel and Socialise Occasionally visits daughters in London 2-3 hrs Assets: Owns 4-bedroom home 72 years old Long walks 1 Read Socialises with book club Baking 1-2 hrs 4 pm - 10 11 pm Entertainment 0-2 0-1 hrs Work 24 days/year fashion blogger Entertainment Owns restaurant 9 am - 12 1-2 hrs Spending: Rent, food, travel Occupation: Jazz clubs Clean 0-20hrs min 11 pm am & 1 pm - 2.2 3 pm Work 0-1 Primitive Selection: Metrics of Co-Living_ 27 0-1 hrs Lounge Stay: Lounge 1-2 hrs 1 - 11 Socialise 1-2 4 pm 7 pm Lounge 0-1 hrsmin Eat 0-30 11 am -pm 12 pm SinglePensioner Museums 335 days/year Income: Spends with outside Cinemas Recurring Eat 0-30 min Stay: 1 pm - 11 Entertainment 0-2 hrs Sleep 4-6 hrs weekends 4 pm - girlfriend 6pm pm No children Galleries20,000 GBP/year Age: Savings: None London Theatres Sleep 6-8 hrs days/year 4 pm - 6-pm Leisure 0-1 hrs Socialise 0-1 hrs 8 pm 11 pm Visits 180 London for lectures and reviews Conferences 25 years old Assets: None No children Gyms Socialise 0-1 hrs Exercise 0-1min hrs am- -12 6 am 114am pm & 1 pm - 3 pm Single Cinemas 0-30 Eat Occupation: Spending: Rent, food, travel Movie buff Parks Exercise 1-2 hrs Research 0-1 hrs 12 pm 11 pm 4 pm pmpm No children Shopping 6-8 Sleep Eat 11 am- -612 0-30hrs min Married Vintage car shows Personal trainer Entertainment 0-2min hrs Income: 20,000 GBP/year Sporadic 0-30 Eat Single Techno clubs Power (W)

ear

Multiple person household with no dependent children

00 :0 0 01 :0 0 02 :0 0 03 :0 0 04 :0 0 05 :0 0 06 :0 0 07 :0 0 08 :0 0 09 :0 0 10 :0 0 11 :0 0 12 :0 0 13 :0 0 14 :0 0 15 :0 0 16 :0 0 17 :0 0 18 :0 0 19 :0 0 20 :0 0 21 :0 0 22 :0 0 23 :0 0

year me partment travel, leisure

Intertek Report R66141 Page 210 of 600

5 pm 12 am 1110 amam 129am am105am am8 am - 1 1 pm - 3 2 pm - 4 7 pm - 8 12 pm 11 am 11 pm 4 pm - 6 7 am 11 am 8 am 4 pm - 6 11 am 1 pm - 1 4 pm 9 am - 1 11 am 1 pm - 1 1 pm - 1 4 pm - 6 11 am Time 12 am 1110 amam 118am am8 am 1 1 pm6 5 pm 5 pm - -1 2am pm 12 5 pm - -1 7am pm 10 12 pm 9 am -3 5 am - 6 4 pm 11 am pm114am 1 pm 4 pm -6 9 am 8 pm - -1 11 am 1pm pm 6 pm - -9 11 1 pm 6 pm 7 am -- 19 4 pm 8 am -5

11 am 4 pm -9 11 am 1111 amam 118am am4 pm -6 5 pm 8 pm - -1 5am pm 11 4 am 12 am- -6 12 am pm -10 pm- 1812am pm -- 39 16 pm

2 pm -4 11 am 7 pm -8 4 pm 12 7 am, 8pm pm1 116pm pm4 pm - 16 6 pm 10 am 11 4 pm - 61 am - 1 19 pm pm - 17 94 am 1 pm -1 11 am 1 pm -1 4 pm 411pm - 68am pm 4 pm -6 4 am 8 pm - -1 12 11 ampm 4 am 12 pm 11 am -6 pm 6 pm 86 am -- 19 pm- 1512pm pm -- 19 56 pm

7 am, 11 pm 4 pm 10 am pm114am


Size: 1 x 3 m Visibility: None

Size: 1 x 6 m Visibility: All

Size: 3 x 6 m Visibility: Varied

Size: 2 x 4 m Visibility: Varied

Size: 1 x 2 m Visibility: All

Size: 1 x 2 m Visibility: None

Size: 1 x 2 m Visibility: Toilet

Size: 1 x 2 m Visibility: Bed

Size: 1 x 2 m Visibility: Toilet

Component: RC2 Interactions: 0

Component: SC4 Interactions: 2

Component: SC3 Interactions: 2

Component: SC3 Interactions: 2

Component: SR4 Interactions: 2

Component: SC2 Interactions: 0

Component: RC2 Interactions: 2

Component: SR3 Interactions: 0

Component: SC1 Interactions: 2

Component: RC1 Interactions: 2

Component: SR2 Interactions: 2

Component: SR1 Interactions: 2

Figure 2.2.1.3 28 _2.2 Primitive Selection: Metrics of Co-Living


Component: SSRC1 Interactions: 8

Component: RSSC1 Interactions: 8

Component: CSSR1 Interactions: 2 Component: RSSC2 Interactions: 8

Component: SSRC2 Interactions: 8

Component: CSSR2 Interactions: 8

Component: SSCR1 Interactions: 8

Component: SCRR2 Interactions: 8

Component: RSCR1 Interactions: 8

Component: RSCR2 Interactions: 8

Component: SRRC1 Interactions: 8 Component: RRSC Interactions: 8

Component: SRRC2 Interactions: 8

Component: RRSC Interactions: 8

Component: SRRC2 Interactions: 6

Figure 2.2.1.3 2.2 Primitive Selection: Metrics of Co-Living_

29


Figure 2.2.1.4: Diagram mapping user paths and interactions in aggregation Figure 2.2.13. Number of Interactions: 103

Figure 2.2.1.4

30 _2.2 Primitive Selection: Metrics of Co-Living


Figure 2.2.1.5: Sample floor plan of the furnished aggregation illustrating paths and interactions between distinct Figure 2.2.1.5

user profiles.

2.2 Primitive Selection: Metrics of Co-Living_

31


Further investigation of Path Simulation lead to the following insights:

• Users can be located in space with a four coordinate system consisting of: x, y, z, time.

• Each path can be given a gradient of colour to better visualize the time of the day a user was at a given space. ( Figure 2.2.1.6)

• The simulation can precisely locate any given user in time and space.

• User paths can be cross-referenced to find specific moments of path interactions. ( Figure 2.2.1.7)

The research concluded the following difficulties:

• Difficulty providing an evaluative method to qualify meaningful interactions between users.

• Difficulty translating such interactions into meaningful spatial organizations within a co-living environment.

Profile

Figure 2.2.1.6: Time-use simulation of individual users, following a day cycle extracted from UK government Electrical Survey, 2012. 32 _2.2 Primitive Selection: Metrics of

Sporadic Profile Age: 44 years old Occupation: Sporadic Banker Age: Stay: 44 old 24 years days/year Occupation: Banker Stay: Recurring 24 days/year Age: 21 years old Occupation: Recurring Student Age: Stay: 21 years old 180 days/year Occupation: Student Stay: Constant 180 days/year Age: 27 years old Occupation: Constant Nurse Age: Stay: 27 old 335years days/year Occupation: Nurse Stay: Constant 335 Age:days/year 67 years old Occupation: Constant Pensioner Age: Stay: 67 old 335years days/year Occupation: Pensioner Stay: Recurring 335 days/year Age: 72 years old Occupation: Recurring Pensioner Age: Stay: 72 old 180years days/year Occupation: Pensioner Figure 2.2.1.6 Stay: Sporadic 180 Age:days/year

32 years old Occupation: Co-Living Sporadic Cabin crew Age: Stay: 32 old 24 years days/year Occupation: Cabin crew Stay: Sporadic 24 days/year

User

User

User

Economic

Profile Social

Income: 95,000 GBP/ year Economic Savings: 10% of income Assets: 2-bedroom apartment Spending: Rent, food, travel, leisure Income: 95,000 GBP/ year Savings: 10% of income Assets: 2-bedroom apartment Spending: Rent, food, travel, leisure

Sporadic Married Age: Social No children 44 years old Works remotely Occupation: Socialises with co-workers Banker Married Stay: No children 24 days/year Works remotely Socialises with co-workers

Income: 8,000 GBP/ year Savings: None Assets: None Spending: Tuition, rent, food Income: 8,000 GBP/ year Savings: None Assets: None Spending: Tuition, rent, food Income: 30,000 GBP/year Savings: 10% of income Assets: None Spending: Rent, food, leisure Income: 30,000 GBP/year Savings: 10% of income Assets: None Spending: Rent, food, leisure Income: 18,000 GBP/year Savings: Pension Assets: Owns 2-bedroom home Spending: Rent, food, travel Income: 18,000 GBP/year Savings: Pension Assets: Owns 2-bedroom home Spending: Rent, food, travel Income: 25,000 GBP/year Savings: Pension Assets: Owns 4-bedroom home Spending: Rent, food, travel Income: 25,000 GBP/year Savings: Pension Assets: Owns 4-bedroom home Spending: Rent, food, travel Income: 20,000 GBP/year Savings: None Assets: None Spending: Food, leisure, shopping Income: 20,000 GBP/year Savings: None Assets: None Spending: Food, leisure, shopping Income: 55,000 GBP/year

Economic

Cultural

Social Usage pattern

Durat

Income: 95,000 GBP/ year Married Eat Trendy restaurants Savings: 10% of income No children0-30 Cultural Usage Durati Sleep pattern 4-6 h Lounges Assets: 2-bedroom apartment Works remotely Travelfood, travel, leisureWork Socialises 2-3 Spending: Rent, withh Clean 0-20 Politics Eat 0-30 Trendy Exercise 30 mm Film restaurants Sleep 4-6 hr Lounges Work 2-3 hr Travel Clean 0-20 m Politics Exercise 30 mi Film Single Recurring Income: 8,000 GBP/ year Single Bars Eat No children0-30 Age: Savings: None children Concerts 6-8 h Sleep Works part-time 21No years old Assets: None Works part-time Museums Work Socialises 3-4 withh Occupation: Spending: Tuition, rent, food Socialises with other students Galleries 0-20 Clean Student Bars Single Music events 0-30 Eat 1-2 hm Socialise Stay: Concerts No children Sleep 1-2hr h Entertainment 6-8 180 days/year Works part-time Museums 3-4 Work 0-1hr h Cook Socialises with other students Galleries 0-20 m Clean Music events 1-2 hr Socialise Income: 30,000 GBP/year Engaged Constant 1-2 hr Entertainment 0-30 Eat Engaged Coffee Savings: 10% of income 2-year-old0-1 son Age: hr Cook 6-8 h Sleep Works night 2-year-old son Comedy clubs Assets: None shi 27 years old 3-4 Work Works night shifts Sports events Spending: Rent, food, leisure Socialises withh Occupation: 0-20 Clean Socialises with other gym-goers Sports classes Nurse 0-30 Eat Engaged Coffee 1-2 hm Exercise Stay: 6-8 Sleep 2-year-old son Comedy clubs 1-2hr h Socialise 335 days/year Work Sports events Works night shifts 0-1hr h Entertainment 3-4 0-20 Clean Sports classes Socialises with other gym-goers 0-1 hm Cook 1-2 hr Exercise Income: 18,000 GBP/year Widow Constant 1-2 hr Socialise Eat Widow Libraries Savings: Pension No children30 m Age: 0-1 hr Entertainment children Museums 6-8 h Assets: Owns 2-bedroom home Sleep Baby sits during 67No years old 0-1 hr Cook Cook Baby sits during free time Long walks Spending: Rent, food, travel Socialises 3-4 withh Occupation: Read Socialises with book club Baking 1-2 h Pensioner Eat Widow Libraries 30 mi Clean 0-20 Stay: Sleep No children Museums 6-8 Socialise 1-2hr h 335 days/year Cook Baby sits during free time Long walks Entertainment 3-4 0-2hr h Read Socialises with book club Baking 1-2 Leisure 0-1hr h Clean 0-20 m SocialiseMarried 1-2 hr Recurring Income: 25,000 GBP/year Eat 0-30 Married Vintage car shows 2 daughters Entertainment Age: Savings: Pension 0-2 hr Sleep Occasionally 4-6vis h daughters Cafes 722years old Assets: Owns 4-bedroom home Leisure 0-1 hr Socialise 2-3 h Occasionally visits daughters in London Long food, walkstravel Owns restauran Occupation: Spending: Rent, Entertainment 1-2 h Owns restaurant Jazz clubs Pensioner Eat 0-30 Married Vintage car shows Lounge 1-2 hm Stay: Sleep 4-6 hr 2 daughters Cafes 180 days/year Socialise 2-3 hr Occasionally visits daughters in London Long walks Entertainment 1-2 hr Owns restaurant Jazz clubs Lounge 1-2 hr Sporadic Income: 20,000 GBP/year Single Eat Single Techno clubs Age: Savings: None No children0-30 4-6 h Sleep Pursuing online children Japanese food 32No years old Assets: None Pursuing online degree in psychology Volunteer projects Occupation: Spending: Food, leisure, shopping Socialise Plays rugby0-1 h 0-1 h Entertainment Plays rugby Cabin crew 0-30 Eat Single Techno clubs 0-1 hm Lounge Stay: 4-6 hr Sleep children Japanese food 24No days/year 0-1 hr Socialise Pursuing online degree in psychology Volunteer projects 0-1 hr Entertainment Plays rugby 0-1 hr Lounge Sporadic Income: 55,000 GBP/year Single Eat 0-30 m Single Museums Age: Savings: 10% of income No children


Δx 2 +Δy 2 +Δz 2 +Δt 2

= User Intersections

Areas of highest intersections

2.2 Primitive Selection: Metrics of Co-Living_

33


Furthermore, the research proposes data-driven design as a tool to make informed decisions regarding spatial combinatorial customization. Bluetooth-Low-Energy Becons are an emerging technology which merge the physical and the digital world by triggering an action on the user’s smartphone when approaching a beacon. This action provides the user with real-time information of their surroundings. (Figure 2.2.1.7.) Cloud Living, conducted a Data Collection Prototype which aims to fulfil the following requirements: • • •

Deployment of sensors using BLE (Figure 2.2.1.8 - 2.2.1.9) Collection of real-time occupancy data (Figure 2.2.1.10) Visualisation of data through mobile application (Figure 2.2.1.11)

By making use of BLE beacon technology, we can collect data on space usage. This video shows a phone which is receiving the signal of multiple beacons in a room. By calculating the signal strength of each beacon the precise location can be defined. In this manner, the research explores real-time occupancy data, which gives the opportunity for spaces to be organized and modified according to their use.

Figure 2.2.1.7

Figure 2.2.1.7: Illustration by Estimote outlining the benefits of BLE technology in a retail space. Figure 2.2.1.8: Location beacon used for timeuse occupancy.

Figure 2.2.1.8

34 _2.2 Primitive Selection: Metrics of Co-Living


Figure 2.2.1.9

Figure 2.2.1.10

Figure 2.2.1.9: Catalogue of beacons, including location, proximity and tag beacons. Figure 2.2.1.10: On-site deployment of beacons Figure 2.2.1.11: Figure 2.2.1.11

Collection of real-time data through mobile application.

2.2 Primitive Selection: Metrics of Co-Living_

35


2.2.2 Co-Living Neufert Co-Living Neufert refers to the combination of dimensional accuracy and proxemics as a way to digitalize spatial requirements for shared living. This combination provides a new measure of space which delineates the minimum distance required by each user type to initiate verbal / social interactions. ( Figure 2.2.2.1) The research investigates digital proxemics within different social functions such as kitchen, work and lounge areas. (Figure 2.2.2.2 - 2.2.2.4)The contextual functions of the space directly correlate to the size of the bubbles around the users. Each of these sample catalogues illustrate the space at a maximum capacity, even though each user has a different time schedule, as seen in section 2.2.1 “User Behaviour and Path Simulation”. The research concluded the following difficulties:

• Generalization of proxemics as a measurement of interaction. • Difficulty translating proxemics into meaningful spatial organizations within a co-living environment.

Zone of interaction: Arms side to side

Sporadic User

Zone of interaction: Elbows bent

Recurring User

Zone of interaction: Arms extended

Constant User

Figure 2.2.2.1: Dimensional diagram demarcating the minimum interpersonal distance required by each user type to initiate verbal or social interactions.

Figure 2.2.2.1

36 _2.2 Primitive Selection: Metrics of Co-Living


Kitchen

User Ratio:

User Ratio:

User Ratio:

User Ratio:

Figure 2.2.2.2: Sample catalogue of kitchen iterations, outlining spatial requirements according to user Figure 2.2.2.2

ratio within a group of 10 users.

2.2 Primitive Selection: Metrics of Co-Living_

37


Work Area

User Ratio:

User Ratio:

User Ratio:

User Ratio:

Figure 2.2.2.3: Sample catalogue of work area iterations, outlining spatial requirements according to user ratio within a group of 10 users.

Figure 2.2.2.3

38 _2.2 Primitive Selection: Metrics of Co-Living


Lounge

User Ratio:

User Ratio:

User Ratio:

User Ratio:

Figure 2.2.2.4: Sample catalogue of lounge iterations, outlining spatial requirements according to user Figure 2.2.2.4

ratio within a group of 10 users.

2.2 Primitive Selection: Metrics of Co-Living_

39


Step 1

Step 2

Step 3

Step 4

Figure 2.2.2.5: A step-by-step of investigations combining Neufert’s living metrics with Proxemics. Figure 2.2.2.6: Further exploration of Co-Living Metrics combining Neufert’s living metric and Proxemics.

Figure 2.2.2.5

40 _2.2 Primitive Selection: Metrics of Co-Living


Figure 2.2.2.6 2.2 Primitive Selection: Metrics of Co-Living_

41


2.3 Primitive Selection

Cloud Living seeks to find a social methodology which will have clear spatial impact. The primitive selection is the first step in the research to physicalize a model of subscription. The primitive selection encompasses the following steps: • Tailoring the primitive according to dimensional metrics and user requirements discovered in the previous sections. • Ability to host a variety of living functions such as bedroom, kitchen, bathroom and living. • Aggregate in a combinatorial logic while retaining connectivity. The aim of the primitive selection is to provide a dimensional framework with spatial qualities and dimensional metrics to be placed on site and further developed in the architectural methodology. The research identifies four distinct primitives. (Figure 2.3.1.) All primitives have the following properties:

• Height of 3 meters. • Floor Area of 9 sqm. • Same cross-section along a length; making them prisms. In order to identify the primitive which is best suited for a subscription model, each primitive is evaluated with the following criteria: (Figure 2.3.2 - 2.3.5)

Figure 2.3.1 42 _2.3 Primitive Selection


• • • •

Ability to aggregate by face-to-face connection Ability to be translated to structural timber components Ability to place woven hyperbolic paraboloid Ability to host a variety of programme such as bedroom, kitchen, bathroom, living, etc.

The criteria yields two distinct results:

• Primitive configurations which are able to accommodate desired furniture configurations. (Figure 2.3.6)

• Primitives which are not able to accommodate furniture

configurations. (Figure 2.3.7) The research of the primitive selection continues by cataloguing the previous criteria for each one of the primitives.

The primitive catalogues have the following properties: (Figure 2.3.8 - 2.3.15) • Each columns corresponds to a different living function: bedroom, bathroom, kitchen and living. • Each colour corresponds to a gradient of sharing. Cyan = Private. Blue = Semi-Private. Magenta = Shared. The primitive catalogues also take into consideration unit aggregation, ranging from one to three primitives.

Figure 2.3.1: Primitives selected for further investigation: triangular prism, cubic prism, pentagonal prism Figure 2.3.1

and hexagonal prism. 2.3 Primitive Selection_

43


Figure 2.3.2

Figure 2.3.3

Figure 2.3.2: Primitive dimensions. Figure 2.3.3: Translation of primitive boundary to structural timber components. Figure 2.3.4: Primitive envelope within structural framework. 44 _2.3 Primitive Selection

Figure 2.3.4


Figure 2.3.5

Figure 2.3.6

Figure 2.3.5: Placement of hyperbolic paraboloid following the structural framework. Figure 2.3.6: Successful furniture arrangement. Figure 2.3.7: Unsuccessful furniture Figure 2.3.7

arrangement. 2.3 Primitive Selection_

45


Bedroom

Private

Semi-Private

Shared

Private

46 _2.3 Primitive Selection

Bathroom


Kitchen

Living

Figure 2.3.8 2.3 Primitive Selection_

47


Bedroom

Semi-Private

Shared

Semi-Private

Shared

48 _2.3 Primitive Selection

Bathroom


Kitchen

Living

Figure 2.3.9 2.3 Primitive Selection_

49


Bedroom

Private

Semi-Private

Shared

Private

50 _2.3 Primitive Selection

Bathroom


Kitchen

Living

Figure 2.3.10 2.3 Primitive Selection_

51


Bedroom

Semi-Private

Shared

Semi-Private

Shared

52 _2.3 Primitive Selection

Bathroom


Kitchen

Living

Figure 2.3.11 2.3 Primitive Selection_

53


Bedroom

Private

Semi-Private

Shared

Private

54 _2.3 Primitive Selection

Bathroom


Kitchen

Living

Figure 2.3.12 2.3 Primitive Selection_

55


Bedroom

Semi-Private

Shared

Semi-Private

Shared

56 _2.3 Primitive Selection

Bathroom


Kitchen

Living

Figure 2.3.13 2.3 Primitive Selection_

57


Bedroom

Private

Semi-Private

Shared

Private

58 _2.3 Primitive Selection

Bathroom


Kitchen

Living

Figure 2.3.14 2.3 Primitive Selection_

59


Bedroom

Semi-Private

Shared

Semi-Private

Shared

60 _2.3 Primitive Selection

Bathroom


Kitchen

Living

Figure 2.3.15 2.3 Primitive Selection_

61


The catalogues yield the following results: • The triangular prism and the hexagonal prism are not suited for subscription living. Their internal angles are not suited for off-the shelf furniture which is later important for combinatorial purposes. From this conclusion, the cubic prism and the pentagonal prism are the two primitives which successfully fulfil the criteria. Thus, in order to discern between the cubic prism and the pentagonal prism a further evaluation process must take place. A priority for combinatorial subscription living is connectivity of space, as this allows for the following: • A higher variety of space combinations within the subscriptions

Figure 2.3.16: Sequence of cubic prism aggregation in order to evaluate primitive connectivity. The cubic prism resulted unsuccessful. 62 _2.3 Primitive Selection

Figure 2.3.16


• Ensuring that circulation is flexible and can change dependent upon combination of spaces.

The next primitive evaluation consists of the following: (Figure 2.3.16) Aggregation of primitives. Identification of face-to-face connections. Removal of three primitives from the aggregation. Evaluation of remaining face-to-face connections. Abstraction of continuous path connecting all remaining primitives.

• • • • •

Following this evaluation, the research concludes the pentagonal prism is the best suited for combinatorial subscription living.

Figure 2.3.17: Sequence of pentagonal prism aggregation in order to evaluate primitive connectivity. The cubic Figure 2.3.17

prism resulted successful. 2.3 Primitive Selection_

63


Combinatorial Subscription Model 3.1 Seminal Projects: Data Collection and Analysis 3.2 Contextual Research: Spatial Organization 3.3 Subscription Categories 3.4 Combinatorial Logic


3.1 Seminal Projects

Cloud Living implements seven combinatorial subscription categories, each subscription category is physicalized based on lifestyle requirements. The subscription spaces are able to change in terms of size and geometrical complexity based on a peer- to-peer exchange as well as a transformation informed by data collection and analysis. Relevant examples contributing to the physicalization of the subscription model include: • BBC, Great Britain Social Survey of 2011. The survey seeks to have a deeper understanding of social classes by taking into account not only economical capital but also social and cultural capital. This yields a “multi-dimensional model of social class” (Savage et al, 2013) (Figure 3.1.1) • A project conducted at the MIT Media Lab “Pattern Recognition and Analysis” course. The objective of this analysis was to develop machine learning algorithms that would respond to realtime human activities collected from sensor data throughout test homes (Mungia Tapia et al, 2017). (Figure 3.1.2) • A data analysis study "Multi-Agent Occupancy Simulation" by Autodesk Research. The research focuses on creating a digital simulation of occupants in a hotel through the use of Sequential Data Analysis. (Breslav et al, 2017). (Figure 3.1.3) The primary motivations of building a subscription community are:

• To provide living spaces which are specific to the user’s lifestyle, •

while providing scalability and customization of spaces based on demand. To foster knowledge and skill exchange between different age and social groups, in order to foment mutually beneficial relationships within an urban setting.

66 _3.1 Combinatorial Subscription Model: Seminal Projects


Figure 3.1.1

Figure 3.1.2 Figure 3.1.1: Illustration showing four out of the seven social classes identified by BBC Great Britan Social Survey of 2011 Figure 3.1.2: Illustration from “Pattern Recognition and Analysis� depicting sensors installed in a residential setting for data collection on space use. Figure 3.1.3: Illustrations from "Multi-Agent Occupancy Simulation" by Autodesk Research which simulates two distinct user Figure 3.1.3

types in a hotel scenario.

3.1 Combinatorial Subscription Model: Seminal Projects_

67


3.2 Contextual Research: Spatial Organization In order to arrive at a coherent spatial organization, Cloud Living investigates the following: • Methods by which a primitive can be translated into architectural language, in this case weaving strategy. • Methods by which living spaces can be differentiated in terms of size and functions. Large Dwelling

Compact Dwelling

Figure 3.2.1: Illustration investigating different living arrangements depending of user preferences.

Figure 3.2.1

68 _3.2 Combinatorial Subscription Model: Contextual Research


Compact Dwelling

Group Dwelling

Micro Dwelling

Nano Dwelling

Communal Spaces

Communal Spaces

Figure 3.2.1 3.2 Combinatorial Subscription Model: Contextual Research_

69


71


3.3 Subscription Categories The implementation of seven subscription categories is derived from " A New Model of Social Class? Findings from the BBC’s Great British Class Survey Experiment" (Savage, et al 2013). The publication gives the following social insights: • Social class should not be reduced to the sole measure of economical capital and occupation, as per the commonly used Goldthrope class schema. • A "multi-dimensional" method of representing class is through the combined measure of economical, social and cultural capital. • Finally, seven distinct social classes are identified. Based on the previous insights, Cloud Living proposes the following: • Seven subscription categories, which range in economical, social and cultural capital. (Figure 3.3.1) • A modular spatial manifestation of every subscription category. All subscription spaces have the following properties: • A spatial framework of a pentagonal prism, as per the conclusion in chapter 1: "Primitive Selection" • A boundary timber structure. • A set of woven hyperbolic paraboloids, which range in terms of size, portability and complexity. In order to cater to a range of users and their increasingly complex lifestyle, each subscription space is customized as depicted in Figure 3.3.3.

Figure 3.3.1: Illustration of seven subscription categories with their corresponding level of economical, social and cultural capital. 72 _3.3 Subscription Categories

Figure 3.3.1


Figure 3.3.1: Illustration of seven subscription categories with their corresponding level of economical, social and cultural Figure 3.3.1

capital. 3.3 Subscription Categories_

73


Extensive Subscription Residential Unit:

90 sqm

Bedroom: Private Bathroom: Private Kitchen: Private Living Room: Private Figure 3.3.3

Comprehensive Subscription Residential Unit:

63 sqm

Bedroom: Private Bathroom: Private Kitchen: Private Living Room: Private Figure 3.3.3

Detached Subscription Residential Unit:

36 sqm

Bedroom: Private Bathroom: Private Kitchen: Private Living Room: N/A Figure 3.3.4 74 _3.3 Subscription Categories


Standard Subscription

Residential Unit:

27 sqm

Bedroom: Private Bathroom: Private Kitchen: Private

Communal:

9 sqm

Figure 3.3.3: Visualization of Extensive subscription space. All functions of living are private

Living Room:

Shared

Figure 3.3.3: Visualization of Comprehensive subscription space. All functions of living are private Figure 3.3.4: Visualization of Detached subscription space. All functions of living are private Figure 3.3.5: Visualization of Standard subscription space. All functions of living are private except for

Figure 3.3.5

living room which is communal. 3.3 Subscription Categories_

75


Sociable Subscription Residential Unit:

27 sqm

Bedroom: Shared Bathroom: Shared Communal Kitchen:

Communal Living:

Figure 3.3.6: Visualization of Sociable subscription space. All functions of living are shared. 76 _3.3 Subscription Categories

Figure 3.3.6

27 sqm

Kitchen:

Shared

Living Room:

Shared

36 sqm


Moderate Subscription

Residential Unit:

9 sqm

Bedroom:

Private

Shared:

9 sqm

Bathroom:

Shared

Communal:

18 sqm

Kitchen:

Shared Figure 3.3.7: Visualization of Moderate subscription space. All functions of living are shared, except for Figure 3.3.7

the bedroom which is private. 3.3 Subscription Categories_

77


Essential Subscription Residential Unit:

Shared:

Communal:

Communal:

9 sqm

Bedroom:

Shared

Bathroom:

Shared

Kitchen:

Shared

Living Room:

Shared

9 sqm

18 sqm

27 sqm

Figure 3.3.8: Visualization of Essential subscription space. All functions of living are shared. 78 _3.3 Subscription Categories

Figure 3.3.8


3.4 Combinatorial Logic The combinatorial logic embedded in the primitive and the architectural manifestation of the subscription categories promotes spatial transformation in two ways: • Peer-to-Peer exchange, in which spaces can be traded between neighbouring subscription. (Figure 3.4.1 - 3.4.6) • Space transformation by data collection, in which spaces are curated according to analysis of space usage data as per chapter 2.2 Co-Living Metrics. (Figure 3.4.7 - 3.4.10) 3.4.1 Peer-To-Peer Space Exchange Cloud Living seeks to build a community of mutually beneficial relationships, in which different categories of subscription develop a close relationship with each other. Spaces which are transformed by Peer-To-Peer exchange undertake the following changes: • A temporary change of subscription inhabitancy. i.e: Living functions which are not used regularly by a subscription can be exchanged with other subscription categories. (Figure 3.4.4) • A temporary adjustment of internal circulation through removal of internal partitions. • An affiliation between two subscription categories who agree to share living functions permanently or temporarily. (Figure 3.4.6) Peer-To-Peer Space Exchange is mutual agreement between two or more subscriptions. The research identifies peer-to-peer space exchange as a method to foster a tight-knit living community. 3.4.3 Space Transformation by Data Collection Cloud Living seeks to implement data on space-usage as a tool to achieve the following: • Spatial customization, in which spaces get customized based on user data. i.e: A living room within a subscription category gets converted into a bedroom. (Figure 3.4.8) • Space transformation, in which spaces get transformed based on community data. i.e: A private kitchen gets converted into a communal kitchen. (Figure 3.4.10) Space Transformation by Data Collection provides Cloud Living with the opportunity to create a living environment which is in a state of continuous change, further adjusting and customizing spaces to the needs of the user and the community.

3.4 Combinatorial Logic_

79


Sequence of Peer-to-Peer Space Exchange Step 1: Comprehensive Subscription

Comprehensive: 63 sqm Figure 3.4.1

Step 2: Circulation

Figure 3.4.3

Step 3: Neighbouring Moderate Subscription

Comprehensive: 63 sqm Moderate: 9 sqm Figure 3.4.3 80 _3.4 Combinatorial Logic


Step 4: Exchange of Living Room

Comprehensive: 54 sqm Moderate: 18 sqm Figure 3.4.4

Step 5: Exchange of Kitchen

Comprehensive: 36 sqm Moderate: 36 sqm Figure 3.4.5

Step 6: Sharing Living Room and Kitchen

Comprehensive: 49.5 sqm Moderate: 22.5 sqm Figure 3.4.6 3.4 Combinatorial Logic_

81


Sequence of Space Transformed by Data Collection Step 1: Comprehensive Subscription

Comprehensive: 63sqm

Figure 3.4.7

Step 2: Transformation of Living Room to Bedroom

Comprehensive: 54sqm Detached: 9 sqm

Figure 3.4.8 82 _3.4 Combinatorial Logic


Step 3: Transformation of Circulation Unit to Bedroom

Comprehensive: Detached: Essential:

54 sqm 9 sqm 9 sqm Figure 3.4.9

Step 4: Transformation of Private Kitchen to Communal Kitchen

Comprehensive: Detached: Essential: Communal Kitchen:

36 sqm 9 sqm 9 sqm 18 sqm Figure 3.4.10

3.4 Combinatorial Logic_

83


Site Criteria 4.1 Site Criteria 4.2 Contextual Research


4.1 Site Criteria Cloud Living targets underutilised plots dispersed through EastCentral London requiring phased construction to exploit the potential of infill sites. (Figure 4.1.1) The proposal makes use of infill sites to create a progressive architecture that meets the demands temporal living in high density cities. The motivations of Cloud Living include: • Designing a lightweight architecture that is fast and easy to construct. This is the kind of architecture that can be quickly edited to respond to the changing demands of the users. • Developing a construction system that responds to London specifically by having hybrid construction system of robotically woven reinforced fibreglass components that get delivered to the site and a light weight timber structure assembled on site from developable surfaces. This hybrid system eliminates the need for large trucks or cranes on the narrow city streets and sites. These motivations combine geometry, fabrication and statics within a digital common ground. The selection rules are as follows:

• Infill sites which show a disparity between street front and open • •

space. This rule directly responds to high land value in London’s urban setting. Underutilised sites which require phased construction. This rule directly responds to narrow street access. Sites with a high rate of transportation,social and cultural connectivity. This criteria ensures that subscription community will have access to the services and amenities in the vicinity.

Figure 4.1.1: Illustration of site selection in East-Central London. Figure 4.1.2: First site located Clerkenwell, borough of Islington. Figure 4.1.3: Second site located Clerkenwell, borough of Islington. 86 _4.1 Site Criteria

Figure 4.1.1


Location: 16 Northington St. Size: 13 m x 6 m Neighbouring Buildings: Mixed Use Neighbouring Height: 12 m Number of Access Points: 2 Value of Plot: >1000£ PSF Planning Zone: Central Activities Zone Figure 3.1.2

Location: 5 Topham Street. Size: 15 m x 17 m Neighbouring Buildings: Mixed Use Neighbouring Height: 24 - 40 m Number of Access Points: 2 Value of Plot: >1000£ PSF Planning Zone: Central Activities Zone Figure 3.1.3

Location: 15 Eyre St Hill. Size: 17 m x 54 m Neighbouring Buildings: Mixed Use Neighbouring Height: 12 m Number of Access Points: 1 Value of Plot: >1000£ PSF Planning Zone: Central Activities Zone Figure 4.1.4 4.1 Site Criteria_

87


Location: 54 Mount Pleasant. Size: 16 m x 30 m Neighbouring Buildings: Residential Neighbouring Height: 12 - 44 m Number of Access Points: 1 Value of Plot: >1000ÂŁ PSF Planning Zone: Central Activities Zone 88 _4.1 Site Criteria


4.1 Site Criteria_

89


4.2 Contextual Research To further maximize the potential of infill sites, Cloud Living investigates a primitive packing game on site which negotiates the following: • Structural requirements, i.e: minimizing of cantilevers. • Sunlight and ventilation for all social and private units • Street frontage which provides public space on the ground floor as well as terracing throughout the aggregation. Each iteration in the catalogue has a unique starting condition and prioritizes a maximum of two criteria at a time. (Figure 4.2.1) Negotiation Site 01 Sunlight + Structure

Game 01

Game 02

Game 03

Figure 4.2.1: Catalogue illustrating primitive packing game in which in structure and street frontage are negotiated.

Game 04 Figure 4.2.1

90 _4.2 Site Criteria: Contextual Research


The resulting iterations from the primitive packing game are evaluated by the following parameters: Firstly, • Number of private units achieved in the final aggregation. • Total of square meters on the ground floor available to the public • Total of square meters dedicated to terracing throughout the aggregation.

16 Units

23 Units

21 Units

19 Units

4.2 Site Criteria: Contextual Research_

91


Negotiation Site 01 Structure + Street Frontage

Game 05

Game 06

Game 07

Game 08

Game 09

Figure 4.2.2: Catalogue illustrating primitive packing game in which in structure and street frontage are negotiated.

Game 10 Figure 4.2.2

92 _4.2 Site Criteria: Contextual Research


20 Units

11 Units

8 Units

17 Units

6 Units

23 Units

4.2 Site Criteria: Contextual Research_

93


Planning Envelope 5.1 Seminal Projects: Architectural Geometry 5.2 Contextual Research: Form-Finding Diagram 5.3 Planning Envelope Rules On-Site


5.1 Seminal Projects: Architectural Geometry and Form-Finding Diagram The term Architectural Geometry is referring to a field of research which is located at the junction of applied geometry and architecture (H. Pottmann, 2007). Helmut Pottmann coined that term in his book “Architectural Geomtery” (Figure 5.1.1) In the context of Cloud Living, Architectural Geometry is used a tool to explore the following concepts: • Developable structural skeletons • Developable surfaces of timber Further, the research investigates techniques of form-finding through 3D Graphic Statics. Graphic statics is a intuitive way of structural form finding. In graphic statics, the geometry and equilibrium of forces are represented by two reciprocal diagrams: form and force. The geometrical relationship between these diagrams provides the following: • Explicit control over both form and forces of a structure simultaneously. • An axially loaded structure, which is translated into, structures that are compressive or tensile only. 2D Graphic statics dates back to 1725 to the work of P. Varignon and later continued by W.J.M Rankine in 1864. (Figures 5.1.2 - 5.1.3) Both, investigated in drawing the static equilibrium through geometric constructions using polygons of forces. In the 19th century this method was further investigated and devolved to a 3D reciprocal diagram method using polyhedra packing. The research lead by Block Research Group and M. Akbarzadeh expand on the application of 3D graphic statics. (Figures 5.1.4)

Figure 5.1.1: Cover of the book “Architectural Geometry” by H. Pottmann, 2007

Figure 5.1.1

96 _5.1 Planning Envelope: Seminal Projects


Figure 5.1.2

Figure 5.1.3

Figure 5.1.2: P. Varignon “Nouvelle mechanique ou statique.”, (1725) Figure 5.1.3: W.J.M Rankine “A Manual of Applied Mechanics”, (1864) Figure 5.1.4: M. Akbarzadeh “Threedimensional graphic statics”, Figure 5.1.4

(2016)

5.1 Planning Envelope: Seminal Projects_

97


5.2 Contextual Research: Form-Finding Diagram Cloud Living seeks to investigate geometrical methods which will aid in the design of a structural framework for subscription living in urban infill sites. Thus, the research identifies the method of 3D Graphic Statics as an initial too to deliver highly efficient structures. The research developed in this section, take as foundation a cubic prism, as it equilateral faces make geometrical operations simpler. (Figure 5.2.1) The research begins with the investigation of several unitary form diagrams.(Figure 5.2.2) Following by aggregate form diagrams. (Figure 5.2.3 - 5.2.6) As the research develops it aims to link the primitive selection and its corresponding form-finding diagram. In order to achieve so, it is necessary construct the volume of the original primitive with polyhedra connecting face-to-face. As shown in Figure 5.2.7. Geometric catalogues are developed in order to investigate the following geometrical operations: • Subdivision of space within a single primitive to articulate spatial qualities. (Figure 5.2.8 - 5.2.9) • Subdivision at a larger scale and the geometrical repercussion to the space by changing the central arrangement of the polyhedra packing. (Figure 5.2.10) • Vertical transitions from floor to floor and the geometrical implications to the neighbouring polyhedra. (Figure 5.2.11)

Figure 5.2.1: Sequence of form-finding diagram. Starting with extracting the faces of the cubic polyhedron. Followed by the application of forces perpendicular to the face. The amount of force is represented in the area of the face. If the area of the face gets doubled, the force diagram adjust accordingly. Forces travel always perpendicular to the faces.

Figure 5.2.1

98 _5.2 Planning Envelope: Contextual Research


Figure 5.2.2: Catalogue of unitary form and force diagrams using 3D graphic Figure 5.2.2

statics.

5.2 Planning Envelope: Contextual Research_

99


Polyhedra Packing

Figure 5.2.3 100 _5.2 Planning Envelope: Contextual Research

Force Diagram

Form Diagram


Polyhedra Packing

Force Diagram

Form Diagram

Image Captions here: Numbering of images by section. I,e: 1.1 Preface Image: 1.1.1 1.2 Introduction Image: 1.2.1

5.2 Planning Envelope: Contextual Research_ 101


Polyhedra Packing

Figure 5.2.4 102 _5.2 Planning Envelope: Contextual Research

Force Diagram


Form Diagram

Form Diagram + Connection Surfaces

Image Captions here: Numbering of images by section. I,e: 1.1 Preface Image: 1.1.1 1.2 Introduction Image: 1.2.1

5.2 Planning Envelope: Contextual Research_ 103


Polyhedra Packing

Figure 5.2.5 104 _5.2 Planning Envelope: Contextual Research

Force Diagram


Form Diagram

Form Diagram + Connection Surfaces

Image Captions here: Numbering of images by section. I,e: 1.1 Preface Image: 1.1.1 1.2 Introduction Image: 1.2.1

5.2 Planning Envelope: Contextual Research_ 105


Polyhedra Packing

Figure 5.2.6 106 _5.2 Planning Envelope: Contextual Research

Force Diagram


Form Diagram

Form Diagram + Connection Surfaces

5.2 Planning Envelope: Contextual Research_ 107


Translation of Cubic Primitive To Geometrical Surface Network through Polyhedra Packing

Figure 5.2.7 The primitive unit (yellow) is translated by the necessary polyhedra (blue) to the architectural geometry.

Figure 5.2.7

108 _5.2 Planning Envelope: Contextual Research


Translation of Private Unit To Geometrical Surface Network through Polyhedra Packing

Figure 5.2.8: Single primitive unit gets translated. Figure 5.2.9: Showing the variety of outcome with the primitive unit (magenta) Figure 5.2.8

as reference.

5.2 Planning Envelope: Contextual Research_ 109


Catalogue of Geometrical Translation

Figure 5.2.9 110 _5.2 Planning Envelope: Contextual Research


5.2 Planning Envelope: Contextual Research_ 111


Sequence of Vertical Transitions

Figure 5.2.10 112 _5.2 Planning Envelope: Contextual Research


5.2 Planning Envelope: Contextual Research_ 113


Vertical Transitions of Polyhedra Packing To Geometrical Surface Network

Figure 5.2.11 Geometric outcome after transitioning between to different types of polyhedra packing.

Figure 5.2.11

114 _5.2 Planning Envelope: Contextual Research


5.2 Planning Envelope: Contextual Research_ 115


116


117


118


119


5.3 Planning Envelope: Rules on Site Cloud Living endeavours in the task of establishing an architectural expression for the future of subscription living in high-productivity cities, while fulfilling the goals of spatial flexibility within a combinatorial logic. The research proposes a Planning Envelope as a method to fulfil the previously mentioned goals. The Planning Envelope will serve as follows: • Provide an open framework which can accommodate combinatorial logic of spaces corresponding to the subscription categories. • Provide spatial qualities which are specific to each subscription category. • Establish a non-orthogonal geometry network of developable surfaces which create a lightweight structural system. To generate a Planning Envelope on site, 16 geometrical rules must be followed in order to transition from a Primitive Aggregation on site to a Surface Network. (Figure 5.3.2.)These rules ensure that a systematic set of operations is in placed which could be applied to any geometric primitive in any given site. (Figure 5.3.3 - 5.3.5.) The geometrical rules give the research a generative method to iterate Planning Envelopes which are evaluated on: • Spatial qualities • Feasibility of fabrication

Figure 5.3.1: An iteration of a Planning Envelope on site. 120 _5.3 Planning Envelope Rules On Site

Figure 5.3.1


5.3 Planning Envelope Rules On Site_ 121


122 _5.3 Planning Envelope Rules On Site

Rule #1 Height equals 2 times the surrounding average

Rule #2 Initial primitive is placed at the centre of the street facing edge

Rule #5 Primitives not facing the front are selected for staircase and elevator

Rule #6 Social primitives are placed according to given ratio. One has to be adjacent to the staircase

Rule #9 Each primitive is translated to the structural system

Rule #10 Faceto-face polyhedra encasing the primitive

Rule #13 Low polygonal strips are subdivided and extended

Rule #14 All strips get trimmed by each other


Rule #3 Following primitives are added face-toface within the site boundary

Rule #4 Primitives with only 2 face connections are potential vertical circulation

Rule #7 Not street facing, peripheral primitives are assigned for private primitives. Social primitives get connected by circulation

Rule #8 Social primitives are placed as an initial condition on each floor

Rule #11 A line network out of the polyhedron face normals is created

Rule #12 Faces of the polyhedron define the profiles. Triangular or quadratic.

Rule #15 This method gets applied to all encasing polyhedra

Rule #16 Nodes serve as connection points for hyperbolic paraboloid weaving

5.3 Planning Envelope Rules On Site_ 123


Location: 16 Northington St.

Step 1

Step 2

Step 5

Step 5

Step 9

Step 10

Step 13

Step 14

124 _5.3 Planning Envelope Rules On Site


Step 3

Step 4

Step 7

Step 8

Step 11

Step 12

Step 15

Step 16 5.3 Planning Envelope Rules On Site_ 125


Location: 5 Topham Street.

Step 1

Step 2

Step 5

Step 5

Step 9

Step 10

Step 13

Step 14

126 _5.3 Planning Envelope Rules On Site


Step 3

Step 4

Step 7

Step 8

Step 11

Step 12

Step 15

Step 16 5.3 Planning Envelope Rules On Site_ 127


Location: 15 Eyre St Hill.

Step 1

Step 2

Step 5

Step 5

Step 9

Step 10

Step 13

Step 14

128 _5.3 Planning Envelope Rules On Site


Step 3

Step 4

Step 7

Step 8

Step 11

Step 12

Step 15

Step 16 5.3 Planning Envelope Rules On Site_ 129


Location: 85 Margery St.

Step 1

Step 2

Step 5

Step 5

Step 9

Step 10

Step 13

Step 14

130 _5.3 Planning Envelope Rules On Site


Step 3

Step 4

Step 7

Step 8

Step 11

Step 12

Step 15

Step 16 5.3 Planning Envelope Rules On Site_ 131


Step 1

Step 6

Step 2

Step 7

Step 3

Step 8

Step 4

Step 9

Step 5

Step 10


Step 11

Step 16

Step 12

Step 17

Step 13

Step 18

Step 14

Step 19

Step 15

Step 20

Figure 5.3.3


Step 1

Step 2

Step 3

Figure 5.3.4: A step by step sequence of Planning Envelope on site. Step 1: Primitive Aggregation to Surface Network Step 2: Surface Network Step 3: Nodes with largest cross-section, for structural purposes

Step 4

Step 4: Nodes with medium cross-section.

Figure 5.3.4

134 _5.3 Planning Envelope Rules On Site


Step 5

Step 6

Step 7

Figure 5.3.5: Step 5: Nodes with thinnest cross-section Step 6: Surface Network Step 8 Figure 5.3.5

Step 7: Added tension cables Step 8: Reinforced Fiberglass Woven Facade 5.3 Planning Envelope Rules On Site_ 135


136 _5.3 Planning Envelope Rules On Site


5.3 Planning Envelope Rules On Site_ 137


Digital Fabrication 6.1 Seminal Projects: Wood Bending + Robotic Weaving 6.2 Digital Timber and 3D Robotic Weaving 6.3 Digital Prototype: Bedford Square 6.4 Construction Manual 6.5 Timber and Reinforced Fibreglass Fabrication


6.1 Seminal Projects: Wood Bending and Robotic Weaving The priorities of digital fabrication within the context of Cloud Living are: • Use lightweight materials efficiently, leading to a construction process that doesn’t require high-skill or large equipment. • A hybrid system made up of reinforced fibreglass components that get delivered to the site in combination with on-site assembly of flat-packed developable surfaces. • Employ a structural and fabrication system that is open to addition and/or modifications as user demands vary over time. The digital fabrication aspect of the project is comprised of two areas:

• Timber bending, taking as reference the plywood chairs of Charles and Ray Eames. (Figure 6.1.1)

• 3D robotic weaving, taking as reference the research pavilions developed by ICD / ITKE. (Figure 6.1.2)

• A hybridize system, as proposed by a former AADRL project, DNA (Figure 6.1.3)

It is crucial that the two are spatially and structurally codependent; one cannot stand without the other.

Figure 6.1.1: Charles and Ray Eames Plywood chair prototype sets a powerful precedent for lightweight bent timber fabrication (1945).

Figure 6.1.1

140 _6.1 Digital Fabrication: Seminal Projects


Figure 6.1.2

Figure 6.1.2: ICD/ ITKE Research Pavilion, woven out of carbon fibre filaments. (2013) Figure 6.1.3: AADRL DNA project, using wood, polypropylene and metal wire. (2016) Figure 6.1.3 6.1 Digital Fabrication: Seminal Projects_ 141


6.2 Digital Timber and 3-Dimensional Robotic Weaving

Cloud Living takes effort in developing a fabrication method which will facilitate the deployment of customizable spaces in Inner City London. The research proposes the following architectural components to develop a customizable fabrication system: (Figure 6.2.1) • Hollow timber node structure. • Woven Reinforced Fibreglass Hyperbolic Paraboloids • Woven Reinforced Fibreglass Slab Weaving • Woven Reinforced Fibreglass Window Weaving with Glazing Enclosure The challenges in developing a customizable fabrication system are as follows: • All materials and methods used must be scalable and contribute to spatial articulation. • Fabrication system must resolve complex geometry of digital structure. • Developing joints that will function to assemble nodes, connect nodes and facilitate the robotic weaving. Thus, digital fabrication focuses on the following:

• Translate complex architectural geometry into fabricable

geometry. (Figure 6.2.2 - 6.2.3) This means geometry which has zero Gaussian curvature, which can be flatten onto a plane without distortion. This property is important for the fabrication of structural components that can be delivered flat-packed and assembled on site. Fabrication of robotically woven components. Weaving with the robot gives restrictions to weave linearly, which the research takes advantage of by weaving doubly ruled surfaces like Hyperbolic Paraboloids. By doing so we can create complex curvature out of these line segments.

The following explorations seek to give answers a system of fabrication which will contribute to the spatial qualities generated in the digital design.

142 _6.2 Digital Timber and 3-Dimensional Robotic Weaving


Figure 6.2.1


144 _6.2 Digital Timber and 3-Dimensional Robotic Weaving


Figure 6.2.3 6.2 Digital Timber and 3-Dimensional Robotic Weaving_ 145


Catalogue of Singular Hollow Timber Nodes

Figure 6.2.4

1.5 mm plywood 50 mm profile 12 zip ties

Figure 6.2.4: Node #1: Open node, not stable. Figure 6.2.5: Node #2: Closed node, using bending jigs.

Figure 6.2.5

146 _6.2 Digital Timber and 3-Dimensional Robotic Weaving


5.5 mm plywood 50 mm profile 192 zip ties

Figure 6.2.6

1.5 mm plywood 50 mm profile 144 zip ties

Figure 6.2.6: Node #3: Open node. Wood thickness does not allow for bending. Figure 6.2.7: Node #4: Closed node. Using cable ties at the inflection points

Figure 6.2.7

of the curve.

6.2 Digital Timber and 3-Dimensional Robotic Weaving_ 147


Assembly of Multiple Hollow Timber Nodes

Step 1

Step 2

Figure 6.2.8

Figure 6.2.9

Step 3

Step 4

Figure 6.2.10

Figure 6.2.11

148 _6.2 Digital Timber and 3-Dimensional Robotic Weaving


Figure 6.2.12

Figure 6.2.8: Step #1: Assembly of top developable surface connected with finger details and cable ties Figure 6.2.9: Step #2: Assembly of bottom developable surfaces connected with finger details and cable 3 mm plywood

ties.

50 mm profile

Figure 6.2.10: 500 zip ties

Step #3: Assembly of connecting side surfaces. Figure 6.2.11: Step #4: Completed assembly. Figure 6.2.12: Node to Node Connection Detail Figure 6.2.13:

Figure 6.2.13

Analysis diagram.

6.2 Digital Timber and 3-Dimensional Robotic Weaving_ 149


Structural Test: Single Hollow Timber Node

Before Figure 6.2.14

Stress Test Figure 6.2.15

After Figure 6.2.16 150 _6.2 Digital Timber and 3-Dimensional Robotic Weaving


Structural Test: Assembly of Four Hollow Timber Nodes

Before Figure 6.2.17

After Figure 6.2.19

Stress Test Figure 6.2.18 6.2 Digital Timber and 3-Dimensional Robotic Weaving_ 151


Hybrid System: Hollow Timber Nodes and Weaving Step1: Force Diagram

Step 3: Fasteners for Weaving

Step 5: Fasteners to increase tension

Figure 6.2.4: Node #1: Open node, not stable. Figure 6.2.5: Node #2: Closed node, using bending jigs.

Figure 6.2.5

152 _6.2 Digital Timber and 3-Dimensional Robotic Weaving


Step 2: Hollow Timber Nodes

Step 4: Weaving

Step 6: Compression + Tension

Figure 6.2.6: Node #3: Open node. Wood thickness does not allow for bending. Figure 6.2.7: Node #4: Closed node. Using cable ties at the inflection points Figure 6.2.7

of the curve.

6.2 Digital Timber and 3-Dimensional Robotic Weaving_ 153


Details of Hollow Timber Node Assembly

Figure 6.2.19

Figure 6.2.19: Interlocking and extended finger detail, which holds faces of node together and serve as hooks for weaving purposes. Figure 6.2.20: Detail of Hollow Timber Nodes with additional fasteners for weaving purposes.

Figure 6.2.20

154 _6.2 Digital Timber and 3-Dimensional Robotic Weaving


Figure 6.2.21

Figure 6.2.21: Interlocking and extended finger detail with reinforced fibreglass weaving. Figure 6.2.22: Interlocking and extended finger detail with reinforced fibreglass Figure 6.2.22

weaving.

6.2 Digital Timber and 3-Dimensional Robotic Weaving_ 155


Weaving Studies

Figure 6.2.23

Figure 6.2.23: Wood Frame. Nylon Cord Weaving. Figure 6.2.24: Wood Frame. Nylon Cord Weaving.

Figure 6.2.24

156 _6.2 Digital Timber and 3-Dimensional Robotic Weaving


Figure 6.2.25

Figure 6.2.25

Figure 6.2.25: Wood Frame. Carbon Fibre. Figure 6.2.26: Stress test of carbon fibre Figure 6.2.26

weaving.

6.2 Digital Timber and 3-Dimensional Robotic Weaving_ 157


Robotic Weaving: Test One 2

4

6

Cubic nodes

Circular motion

1

3

7

5

Linear motion

2

1

5

4 3

2

1

Figure 6.2.27

End Effector 1: Nylon Rope Weaving Detached Material Spool Rigid Nozzle

Figure 6.2.27: Diagram depicting robotic path of initial weaving studies Figure 6.2.28: Initial End-Effector. 3D Printer and metal nozzle.

Figure 6.2.28

158 _6.2 Digital Timber and 3-Dimensional Robotic Weaving

8

7 6

4

3

10 9

6

5

7


Figure 6.2.25

Figure 6.2.29: Image of first weaving test with robotic arm Nachi MZ07. Figure 6.2.30: Initial robotic weaving studies. Frame: MDF Figure 6.2.30

Weaving: Nylon Cord and Wire.

6.2 Digital Timber and 3-Dimensional Robotic Weaving_ 159


Robotic Weaving: Test Two

Figure 6.2.31

End Effector 2: Nylon Rope Weaving Integrated Material Spool Flexible Nozzle

Figure 6.2.31: Image of weaving test KuKa KR60 robotic arm. Figure 6.2.32: Second End-Effector. 3D Printer and flexible metal nozzle. Tensioner and Nylon Cord

Figure 6.2.32

160 _6.2 Digital Timber and 3-Dimensional Robotic Weaving


Figure 6.2.33

Figure 6.2.29: Image of first weaving test with robotic arm Nachi MZ07. Figure 6.2.30: Initial robotic weaving studies. Frame: MDF Figure 6.2.34

Weaving: Nylon Cord and Wire.

6.2 Digital Timber and 3-Dimensional Robotic Weaving_ 161


Robotic Weaving: Test Three

Figure 6.2.35

Figure 6.2.31: Image of weaving test KuKa robotic arm. Figure 6.2.32: Second End-Effector. 3D Printer and flexible metal nozzle. Tensioner and Nylon Cord

Figure 6.2.36

162 _6.2 Digital Timber and 3-Dimensional Robotic Weaving


Figure 6.2.37

Figure 6.2.29: Image of first weaving test with robotic arm Nachi MZ07. Figure 6.2.30: Initial robotic weaving studies. Frame: MDF Figure 6.2.38

Weaving: Nylon Cord and Wire.

6.2 Digital Timber and 3-Dimensional Robotic Weaving_ 163


6.3 Digital Prototype Cloud Living developed a Digital Prototype as part of an application for a residency at Autodesk BuildSpace in Boston, MA. Autodesk BuildSpace is a research and fabrication workshop which will serve as a platform for prototyping at full-scale. The proposal used to apply for a month-long residency at BuildSpace. The 1:1 prototype is constituted of a series of hollow timber nodes. The unique shape of each node is derived to achieve an optimal distribution of weight and forces throughout the structural timber skeleton. Each node is composed of 9 - 12 developable timber strips that connect to each with interlocking finger joints.

Figure 6.3.1

Visualization of 22- hallow timber node components.

7.70 m

Figure 6.3.1:

4.35 m

Figure 6.3.2: Volume: 216.3 m3 Bounding Box: 7.70 x 6.45 x 4.35m Nodes: 22 Smallest Node: 0.95 x 1.10 x 2.3 m

6.45 m

Largest Node: 2.05 x 2.15 x 2.3 m 164 _6.3 Digital Prototype

Figure 6.3.2


6.3 Digital Prototype_ 165


6.4 Construction Manual A. Digital Process 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Cube polyhedra input to Spatial Slur Grasshopper script. Spatial slur, using 3D graphic statics, outputs a 6-armed node. Bake low polygonal geometry. Loft individual strips to produce 12 strips. Assign a number to each edge of every strip. Unroll strips and obtain their outlines. Define pairs of edges (length based) and order of fingers. Add finger joints to strips with FingerOnCurve Grasshopper script. 9. Add circular openings for rope bending/assembly. 10. Prepare CNC files, 2 strips per 8x4’ 1/4” Birch plywood sheet. 11. Prepare caps to cover open ends of node. 12. CNC strips using 1/4’ drill bit for cutting and v-bit for engraving. 13. Package and ship to site. B. Physical Process 14. Sand-down any excess chipping on the strips. 15. Fill inflatable pool and soak all strips for 2 hours. 16. Bend strips to a right angle using a Taut Line Hitch and 1/8” nylon para-cord. 17. Using the same knot and rope, assemble the bent strips together. Match edges together using numbering from digital model. Plywood must remain moist during this process. 18. Allow the node to dry and cut away excess rope. 19. In a spray chamber, finish the node with 5-8 layers of alternating Hi-Gloss enamel paint and clear, wood lacquer. 20. After the paint dries, use robotic weaving to seal seams and apply force to open ends of the node. 21. After the weaving is complete, fully remove the rope used to attach the strips together.

Figure 6.4.1: Detailed labelling on every edge of each strip for identification during assembly. 166

_6.4 Construction Manual

Figure 6.4.1


I O I O I ...

O I O I O ...

I O I O I ...

O I O I O ...

I O I O I ...

O I O I O ...

I O I O I ...

O I O I O ...

Figure 6.4.2

O I O I O ...

O I O I O ...

O I O I O ...

O I O I O ...

O I O I O ...

O I O I O ...

O I O I O ...

O I O I O ...

Figure 6.4.2: Unrolled surfaces from node. Figure 6.4.3: Paired edges, each pair must have finger patterns that will fit Figure 6.4.3

together. 6.4 Construction Manual_

167


the CNC. 168

_6.4 Construction Manual

Figure 6.4.5

I O I O I ...

O I O I O ...

I O I O I ...

O I O I O ...

I O I O I ...

O I O I O ...

I O I O I ...

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sheet 1.5m x 2m, ready for

O I O I O ...

Strips laid out on a plywood

O I O I O ...

Figure 6.4.5:

O I O I O ...

related openings are applied.

O I O I O ...

patterns and construction-

O I O I O ...

Strip outlines after finger

O I O I O ...

Figure 6.4.4:

O I O I O ...

O I O I O ...

Figure 6.4.4


Figure 6.4.6

Figure 6.4.7

Figure 6.4.6: Plywood sheet on the CNC bed. The machine cuts all holes and openings, engraves the labels and then cuts out the outline of the strip. Figure 6.4.7: Preparing the strips for assembly by sanding away any excess chipping using a Dremmel and a wood file. Figure 6.4.8: The wooden strips soaking in water for two hours prior to bending and assembly. The container is a standard inflatable children’s pool with a double layer of plastic sheeting Figure 6.4.8

on it. 6.4 Construction Manual_

169


Figure 6.4.9

Figure 6.4.9: The top and the bottom sides

Figure 6.4.10

of a Taut Line Hitch knot. On one end is the knot and on the other is a stopper, here a simple screw. The knot behaves like a zip-tie in that it can only be tightened in one direction, without slipping. Figure 6.4.10: One sheet of plywood bent using the Taut Line Hitch. Figure 6.4.11: Top view of the assembly area with some of the bent strips ready for assembly. 170

_6.4 Construction Manual

Figure 6.4.11


Figure 6.4.12

Figure 6.4.12: Top view of some assembled strips and some others in the process of assembly. The same knot used to bend them is employed here. In this case, Figure 6.4.13

the rope runs through two strips at a time. This happens to four strips, pairing them in twos that are pulled together until they all lock into place using the fingers. Figure 6.4.13: The assembled node being finished using a spray gun, high gloss white enamel and high gloss clear wood lacquer. Figure 6.4.14: The finished, mounted node being woven by an ABB robot to seal its seams and allow the interior rope holding it together to be cut away. Weaving the limbs back towards the core of the node applies necessary

Figure 6.4.14

force to stabilize it structurally. 6.4 Construction Manual_

171


Set-Up Details

Figure 6.4.15

Figure 6.4.16

Figure 6.4.15 Flat plywood sheets and Taut Line Hitch knot ropes required for bending. Figure 6.4.16: Soaking of flat plywood sheets to prepare for bending. Figure 6.4.17: Bent sheets laid out to prepare for assembly 172

_6.4 Construction Manual

Figure 6.4.17


Node Assembly

Figure 6.4.18

Figure 6.4.19

Figure 6.4.18: Assembly of bent plywood sheets belonging to the top part of the node. Figure 6.4.19: Assembly of bent plywood sheets belonging to the bottom part of the node. Figure 6.4.20: Figure 6.4.20

Full assembly of node. 6.4 Construction Manual_

173


Node Assembly Details

Figure 6.4.21

Figure 6.4.22

Figure 6.4.21: View to the centre of the node showing the overlap of all assembly ropes. Figure 6.4.22: The ropes tie opposite (facing) strips to one another in order to pull them into place, allowing the finger joints to lock into each other. Figure 6.4.23: The process of gradually closing the gaps between the strips by tightening the Taut Line Hitch knots. 174

Figure 6.4.23 _6.4 Construction Manual


Node Details

Figure 6.4.24

Figure 6.4.25

Figure 6.4.24: Detail of node centre. Figure 6.4.25: Detail of finger and sheet surface registration. Figure 6.4.26: Figure 6.4.26

Scale of node. 6.4 Construction Manual_

175


Set-Up for Robotic Weaving

Figure 6.4.27

Figure 6.4.28

Figure 6.4.27: Node mount, adjustable x-y-z axis. Figure 6.4.28: Calibration of robotic arm. Figure 6.4.29: Robotic weaving in process. 176

_6.4 Construction Manual

Figure 6.4.29


Weaving Details

Figure 6.4.30

Figure 6.4.31

Figure 6.4.30: Detail of node weaving. Figure 6.4.31: Detail of node weaving. Figure 6.4.32: Figure 6.4.32

Detail of node weaving. 6.4 Construction Manual_

177


6.5 Timber and Reinforced Fibreglass Fabrication Cloud Living investigates methods of fabrication which will provide customizable spatial qualities. Thus the next part of the research focuses on creating architectural components which are scalable and portable by using resin reinforced fibreglass. End Effector 3: Resin + Fibreglass Weaving Integrated Material Spool Integrated Resin Chamber Rigid Nozzle

Figure 6.5.1

Figure 6.5.1: Third iteration of End-Effector. Spool of fibreglass running through resin chamber and finally through rigid metal nozzle. Figure 6.5.2: Timber node dual. Resin and Fibreglass Weaving. 184

Figure 6.5.2

_6.5 Timber and Reinforced Fibreglass Fabrication


Figure 6.5.3

Figure 6.5.3: Resin and Fibreglass Weaving is finished with white spray paint. Figure 6.5.4: Detailed of reinforced fibreglass Figure 6.5.4

weaving.

6.5 Timber and Reinforced Fibreglass Fabrication_

185


Timber and Reinforced Fibreglass Node Weaving.

Figure 6.5.5

Figure 6.5.6

Figure 6.5.5: Set up for reinforced fibreglass weaving between timber surfaces. Figure 6.5.6: Set up for spatial weaving of hyperbolic paraboloid. Figure 6.5.7: Completion of hyperbolic paraboloid resin + fibreglass weaving. 186

Figure 6.5.7

_6.5 Timber and Reinforced Fibreglass Fabrication


Figure 6.5.8

Figure 6.5.8: Completed woven node Figure 6.5.4: Detailed of reinforced fibreglass weaving. The combination of materials results in a completely Figure 6.5.9

hardened surface.

6.5 Timber and Reinforced Fibreglass Fabrication_

187


Spatial Weaving Prototype The 1:4 Spatial Weaving Prototype aims to fulfil the following requirements:

• • • •

Node Hierarchy and Connectivity Timber Weaving (Fibreglass + Resin) Dual - Dual Weaving (Fibreglass + Resin) Window Weaving (Fibreglass + Resin)

Figure 6.5.10

Figure 6.5.10: Interior render of architectural proposal. The coloured circles indicated three different node types which will be prototyped. Figure 6.5.11: Timber and reinforced resin prototype at 1:4 scale. 188

Figure 6.5.11

_6.5 Timber and Reinforced Fibreglass Fabrication


Figure 6.5.12

Angle Curvature Orthogonal

Angle Curvature Orthogonal

Figure 6.5.12:

Angle Curvature Orthogonal

Digital model of partition prototype. The colour differentiates the hierarchy between nodes. 6.5 Timber and Reinforced Fibreglass Fabrication_

189


Figure 6.5.13

Figure 6.5.13: Detail of timber weaving with reinforced resin. Figure 6.5.14: Detail of weaving connection. 190

Figure 6.5.14

_6.5 Timber and Reinforced Fibreglass Fabrication


Figure 6.5.15

Figure 6.5.15: Detail of reinforced fibreglass weaving. Figure 6.5.16: Detail of weaving creating Figure 6.5.16

complex curvature.

6.5 Timber and Reinforced Fibreglass Fabrication_

191


Hyperbolic Paraboloid Resin and Fibreglass Weaving

Figure 6.5.17

Figure 6.5.17: Hyperbolic Paraboloid 01 Figure 6.5.18: Hyperbolic Paraboloid 02 192

Figure 6.5.18

_6.5 Timber and Reinforced Fibreglass Fabrication


Figure 6.5.20

Figure 6.5.20: Hyperbolic Paraboloid 03 Figure 6.5.21: Figure 6.5.19

Hyperbolic Paraboloid 04

6.5 Timber and Reinforced Fibreglass Fabrication_

193


Step 1

Step 2

Step 3

Step 4

Step 5

Step 6

194

_6.5 Timber and Reinforced Fibreglass Fabrication


195


196


197


Occupying the Planning Envelope 7.1 Occupying the Envelope 7.2 Contextual Research: Programme-On-Site 7.3 Architectural Proposal


7.1 Occupying the Envelope

The Planning Envelope is occupied as follows: • A total number of subscription households is determined by the total area of the chosen plot. • The total subscription categories are classified between those who are spatially capable to exchange home functions and those who aren’t. This step is dependent upon the unique size of each subscription space. • A ratio of 1:2 is established between those subscriptions that are spatially capable to exchange space and those that are not. The Planning Envelope is design to foster spatial flexibility in two ways: • Peer-to-peer exchange of space. This means neighbouring subscriptions can exchange home functions according to their specific needs. • Curation by collected data on space usage. The proposal will be equipped with BLE technology to collect data on space useage, which will inform which spaces have high and/or low demand. Spaces with low demand will be transformed over time to better suit the needs of the community.

200 _7.1 Occupying the Envelope


Figure 7.1.1: Elevation of the main facade facing the street of the occupied Planning Envelope. 7.1 Occupying the Envelope_ 201


7.2 Contextual Research: Programme-On-Site

Figure 7.2.2: Early visualisation of Structural Skeleton and Weaving on site including different types of subscribers 202 _7.2 Contextual Research: Programme-On-Site


Figure 7.2.3: Early visualisation of Structural Skeleton and Weaving on site including different types of subscribers 7.2 Contextual Research: Programme-On-Site_ 203


Figure 7.2.4: Early visualisation of Structural Skeleton and Weaving in urban context showing different subscribers 204 _7.2 Contextual Research: Programme-On-Site


Figure 7.2.5: Early visualisation of Public Ground Floor 7.2 Contextual Research: Programme-On-Site_ 205


Figure 7.2.6: Early visualisation of Structural Skeleton and Weaving on site 206 _7.2 Contextual Research: Programme-On-Site


Figure 7.2.7: Elevation of early Structural Skeleton and Weaving on site 7.2 Contextual Research: Programme-On-Site_ 207


Figure 7.2.8: Planning Envelope with 3 dimensional Weaving and occupants 208 _7.2 Contextual Research: Programme-On-Site


Figure 7.2.9: Planning Envelope plans 7.2 Contextual Research: Programme-On-Site_ 209


Figure 7.2.10: Section of early Planning Envelope 210 _7.2 Contextual Research: Programme-On-Site


Figure 7.2.11: Planning Envelope on site 7.2 Contextual Research: Programme-On-Site_ 211


Figure 7.2.12: Occupied Planning Envelope with facade weaving on site. 212 _7.2 Contextual Research: Programme-On-Site


Figure 7.2.13: On Site occupied Planning Envelope with facade weaving and enclosure 7.2 Contextual Research: Programme-On-Site_ 213


Figure 7.2.14: Interior visualisation of early Planning Envelope demonstrating the spatial qualities and social interactions 214 _7.2 Contextual Research: Programme-On-Site


Figure 7.2.15: Interior visualisation of early Planning Envelope demonstrating the spatial qualities and social interactions` 7.2 Contextual Research: Programme-On-Site_ 215


Figure 7.2.16: Occupied Planning Envelope on site 216 _7.2 Contextual Research: Programme-On-Site


Figure 7.2.17: Raw structure leading to the Planing Envelope 7.2 Contextual Research: Programme-On-Site_ 217


Figure 7.2.18: Photo-realistic visualisation of the occupied planning envelope .on site 218 _7.2 Contextual Research: Programme-On-Site


Figure 7.2.19: Photo-realistic visualisation of the occupied planning envelope .in urban context 7.2 Contextual Research: Programme-On-Site_ 219


7.3 Architectural Proposal

The living model implements seven subscription categories, each one of them catering to user-specific spatial requirements. Those spatial requirements are manifested architecturally through customized three-dimensional weaving in the form of hyperbolic paraboloids which range in terms of size, portability and complexity. Coupled with the timber structure, the hyperbolic paraboloids are used as a tool for subdivision and further spatial customization. Cloud Living challenges current concepts of home ownership by means of subscription living, where the subscriber owns nothing yet has access to everything. For this particular site we are locating 35 households. It is an iteration, a moment of this combinatorial living model. The distribution of subscription categories is based on a combinatorial logic. Which means subscription with more space give opportunity for exchange to happen. This increases the spatial flexibility.

220 _7.3 Architectural Proposal


Figure 7.3.1: Planning Envelope of the architectural proposal 7.3 Architectural Proposal_ 221


222 _7.3 Architectural Proposal


7.3 Architectural Proposal_ 223


224 _7.3 Architectural Proposal


7.3 Architectural Proposal_ 225


226 _7.3 Architectural Proposal


7.3 Architectural Proposal_ 227


232 _7.3 Architectural Proposal


7.3 Architectural Proposal_ 233


234 _7.3 Architectural Proposal


7.3 Architectural Proposal_ 235


Appendix 8.1 Conversations: Final Jury 8.2 Studio Life


8.1 Conversations: Final Jury Ariane Koek Ariane Koek is an initiator, founder and designer of Arts@CERN & Cultural Consultant, specialising in transdisciplinary work and creativity. She is an award-winning artistic director, cultural producer and strategist who initiated, designed, fundraised for and directed the CERN’s first official international arts programme Arts@CERN comprising 3 strands; member of CAF for European Commission’s directorate, CONNECT ICT on Arts,Science Research and Innovation; and External Expert on Digital Culture for European Commission. She is also an Elected Member of the Forum D’Avignon the French national cultural think tank, a Salzburg Global Fellow and Clore Fellow. Previously she was the CEO of the Arvon Foundation for Creative Writing and an award winning producer director for BBC TV and radio. Mario Carpo Mario Carpo is Reyner Banham Professor of Architectural History and Theory, the Bartlett, University College London. He is the author of Architecture in the Age of Printing: Orality, Writing, Typography, and Printed Images in the History of Architectural Theory and The Alphabet and the Algorithm (both published by the MIT Press) and other books. Kate Davies Kate Davies is an artist, architect and co-founder of nomadic design studio Unknown Fields, art practice LiquidFactory and field robotics group RAVEN. She undertakes site-specic and expedition-based work and operates between writing, drawing, lm and photography. Kate was unit master of Diploma 6 for eight years and taught MArch at the Bartlett, UCL. She is now director of the Unknown Fields Research Studio at the AA. Reinier de Graaf Reinier de Graaf is an architect at OMA since 1996. He is responsible for building and masterplanning projects in Europe, Russia, and the Middle East, including Holland Green in London (completed 2016), the new Timmerhuis in Rotterdam (completed 2015), G-Star Headquarters in Amsterdam (completed 2014), De Rotterdam (completed 2013), and the Norra Tornen residential towers in Stockholm. In 2002, he co-founded AMO, the think tank of OMA. He has worked extensively in Moscow, overseeing OMA’s proposal to design the masterplan for the Skolkovo Centre for Innovation, the ‘Russian Silicon Valley.’ He is the author of Four Walls and a Roof, The Complex Nature of a Simple Profession. 250 _8.1 Conversations: Final Jury


Yan Gao Yan Gao is an architect in the United Kingdom and a Professional Member of HKIBIM. He took his professoriate post at Department of Architecture at the University of Hong Kong in 2010. He is the Principal Architect and the co-founder IDEA Design & Research Unit. He has won numerous international design awards, including the First Prize of the Lung Tsun Stone Bridge Historical Corridor Design Competition, and one of the 40 Under 40 Award winners in 2014. His curatorial projects include the ‘Contemporary Chinese Architecture Exhibition’ (London) and the exhibition design for ‘Synergy & Symbiosis Exhibition’ for the China Pavilion at the Venice Biennale in 2014. Samantha Hardingham Samantha Hardingham (AA Dip 1993) is currently the Interim AA Director. She is an architectural writer, editor and curator. Her most recent and celebrated work is the award-winning, two-volume anthology Cedric Price Works 1952-2003: A Forward-minded Retrospective published by the AA-CCA in October 2016. Samantha has a wide-ranging knowledge of the AA having been a design studio tutor across all undergraduate years at the AA since 2008, as well as chair of the AA’s Undergraduate Management Committee since 2015 and member of the Senior Management Team. As Interim School Director she looks forward to leading the AA in this special year as the school celebrates a centenary of women at the AA, with the culmination of the AA XX 100 project. Tom Kovac Tom Kovac is the Director of the Advanced Architecture stream within the RMIT School of Architecture and Design. He has taught, lectured and exhibited throughout Europe, Japan and the United States, including at the Centre Pompidou, Paris; the Venice Biennale International Architecture Exhibition; the Launcher Symposium, NY; The NIA Rotterdam, Netherlands; Aedes, Berlin; and the FRAC Centre in Orleans, France. His work is in the permanent collection of the Centre Pompidou and the FRAC Centre in France, and The United States Library of Congress, Washington, USA. His firm, Tom Kovac Architecture, has collaborated with other architects on projects ranging from the Ikon Tower in San Francisco, to a Hyper Centre in Toulouse, France.

8.1 Conversations: Final Jury_ 251


Philippe Morel Philippe Morel is an architect and theorist and cofounder of EZCT Architecture & Design Research (2000). He is Associate Professor at the ENSA Paris-Malaquais where he directs the Digital Knowledge programme. He has previously taught at the Berlage Institute and at the AA (AADRL). His has a long lasting interest in the elaboration of a Theory of Computational Architecture and work as part of EZCT is part of the permanent collections at the FRAC Centre and Centre Pompidou. He has written extensively, including the book Empiricism & Objectivity: Architectural Investigations with Mathematica (2003-2004), subtitled A Coded Theory for Computational Architecture, exhibited at ScriptedByPurpose (Philadelphia, Sept. 2007), which is to be considered the first architectural theory book entirely written in code. Robert R Neumayr Robert R Neumayr studied architecture in Vienna and Paris and received a MSc in architecture from the Technical University Vienna before completing his MArch at AADRL. After working with Will Alsop, ocean.uk and Zaha Hadid Architects in London and Vienna, he co-founded his practice unsquare.org. He is partner and design director at hoppe architekten. He has taught lecturing at the Department for Experimental Architecture at the University of Innsbruck (AT) and at the University of Applied Arts in Vienna. He is currently a lecturer at the Institute of Design at the University of Innsbruck and is a research fellow and a PhD candidate at the University of Applied Arts in Vienna, coordinating a research group on Agent Based Semiology. Davide Quayola Davide Quayola is a visual artist based in London. He investigates dialogues and the unpredictable collisions, tensions and equilibriums between the real and artificial, the figurative and abstract, the old and new. His work explores photography, geometry, time-based digital sculptures and immersive audiovisual installations and performances. His work has been exhibited at the Venice Biennale; Victoria & Albert Museum, London; British Film Institute, London; Park Ave Armory, New York; Bozar, Brussels; Palais de Tokyo, Paris; CitĂŠ de la Musique, Paris; Palais des Beaux Arts, Lille; MNAC, Barcelona; National Art Center, Tokyo; UCCA, Beijing; Paco Das Artes, Sao Paulo; Triennale, Milan; Grand Theatre, Bordeaux; Ars Electronica, Linz; Elektra Festival, Montreal

252_8.1 Conversations


Ross Lovegrove Ross Lovegrove is a designer and visionary who’s work is considered to be at the very apex of stimulating a profound change in the physicality of our three dimensional world. Inspired by the logic and beauty of nature his design possess a trinity between technology, materials science and intelligent organic form, creating what many industrial leaders see as the new aesthetic expression for the 21st Century. There is always embedded a deeply human and resourceful approach in his designs, which project an optimism, and innovative vitality in everything he touches from cameras to cars to trains, aviation and architecture. Mark Cousins Mark Cousins is a cultural critic and architectural theorist. He studied Art History at Merton College, Oxford and was a research student at the Warburg Institute. Since 1993 he is the Director of General Studies and Head of the Graduate Program in Histories and Theories at the Architectural Association.] He is also Visiting Professor of Architecture at Columbia University and Southeast University, Nanjing. Cousins has given the Friday Lectures at the Architectural Association for over thirty years.

8.1 Conversations_253


Patrik Schumacher: Great work but we will come to that later. I just want you to say something more about the subscripting model, I am not sure if it is clear to everybody. So you have the five sites and potentially other sites and you don’t have an allocated place where you go. Is it like a kind of club member of Soho House New York and London and I can go and book these place or am I actually.. So I am distributed with my life across five sites. Is that how its supposed to work? Ariadna Lopez: Well the way we are intending it is that the subscription living is distribute across different sites and potentially even different cities. So the subscriber doesn’t have to belong to a specific place it has to belong to the place that it is convenient at that time. So it is intended to be a sort of distributed living. Mark Cousins: I really want to take up following on from Patrik. It seems to me you produced an immensely elaborate framework, a kind of hypothesis and in may ways I think it is extremely kind of impressive. I want to take up the issue of the subscription model. Can I just preface by saying I think you need to think about our relation to property in the sense of our relation to things. For most of us our relation to things and architecture are mediated by a number of different fantasies about what it means to have a relation to it. Now, unfortunately in the sense that relation has always been either shadowed or actually directly translated into a legal category of ownership. And it seems to me that what’s so interesting that you are really proposing a kind of step in which our relations to objects and that is in the way at we appropriate them, in which we need a relation, we need a certain consistency. We need a way of kind of owning everything without ownership been translate into legal terms. I mean, if I could elaborate that a little bit. That’s why it has been such a failure of the idea of public space. I mean the 19th century idea was once the state on your behalf took something into state ownership, it would complete transform your experience of it. You would be there and say I partly own this. Well that’s not how it felt like and that’s not how it was actually. The problem is that properties always has to be controlled and organized. The other side of that is that capitalism in a way was not even able to fully developed itself. Because, you know if you are in England people relation to there houses is frankly pre-capitalist. Because the problem with all these sorts of project is they could be used in a sense in a trivial way. The way people have not terribly significant relation to a hotel. Ok, we don’t know what the room are like. Ok, we subscribe. It quite suitable. Its not that expensive. But if the project is to have a real significance it seems to me you have to build and suggest a way in which it can be in the service of a reorganisation of the experience of appropriation of object in a kind of psychical sense which doesn’t follow the law. I think you might look at various properties which have a subscription bases. The 254_8.1 Conversations


very obvious one in London is the wonderful London library. Which is a subscription library, beautiful to belong to it, absolutely love it. It makes it incredible possible in a library to have a personal sense of appropriation of the library, of the shelves, of the book without ever getting into some legal question. I don’t feel in any sense limited in my experience of the library by someone reminding me that I don’t own the books. I think that is a really important part of it. Patrik Schumacher: Let me jump into that very stimulation conversation. I think we need to look at property as obviously an network of contracts or as social relation. I don’t think we can go beyond the legal systems some are always involved because this will be a series of rights and duties mostly rights I would acquire to various places to various privileges, preferences and of cause there is what is beautiful about this there is a complexity of kind of it is also at the same time a community a group a club and there is the property notion is not only the object to there own it always has constants covariance rights of way and that will be here. Also like if you go to coop the restriction about who else you could not sell the property to it its a collective decision who is coming in there is a cooping relation so there is a lot of things to define. And what is beautiful about this I think is that we live in a kind of world where new technology is challenging us and the legal system as it stands and contract law and parliaments they have no way. They are in the way. We have to get the freedom of contracting, of crafting. Its an entrepreneurial task and you are becoming an entrepreneur of how to craft an new kind of bundle of rights tight in with objects and relationship between people and objects, people to people and the system of right. I think that needs total freedom of contracting and I think we should try to craft that. In the end this will have some kind of legal form because we contract you sign and we have this hole discourse opening up with whole communities, cities, private cities, start-up cities. The space of I think it is very exciting. I just wanted to say that. Exciting! Philippe Morel: Yeah. Actually I also want to congratulate you for this amazing quantity and quality of the work and the models. So things have been said on the social and political level. I would like to insists in my comments the spatial and tectonic qualities of what you have achieved. I really believe that it’s extremely elegant. It’s a very light project. It’s really well sort. I mean this model is brilliant in a sense because it seems extremely simple. It’s not impressive at all but you instantly just want to live actually in this space even if the floor is completely flat ceiling is flat. So at some point you didn’t make use of highly complex and radical morphologies but still you managed to achieve something which is really significant. I very much like a lightness ultimately of what you have done. Now the question is that I really wonder if this kid of collective housing model is the only one which is well suited for your project. I would be really 8.1 Conversations_255


curious to go a bit more to individualistic models of housing. I mean I believe that it could very very easily become a small home. I also believe that by addressing this issue you would also be forced to address maybe some other issues like logistics, transportation the ways those things are really assembled on site or off site etc.. I know it’s part of the brief to have these buildings in the city which actually are completely relevant I mean this is a really beautiful building. I would love to see this built in London actually. But I really believe that there is also a lot more potential in your project towards alternative use and alternative typologies Robert Neumayr: I think my comment would go in a similar direction. I also totally agreed it’s a very nice project very well done and I think you’ve been fairly radical in almost all of the aspects of the project except maybe the site selection and how you use it and I think on the one hand that’s interesting because it’s this super pragmatic aspect to the project that makes it fairly feasible but I think on the other hand what you get is also fairly conventional sort of building in terms of its size and the use and I think what is very interesting for me as well to speculate about the limits of the kind of social system as it were. So what’s the smallest possible size? I mean, I think there must be one because otherwise you won’t get enough variety in order to start combinatorial logic right. And there probably is also a maximum in a way that may well exceed the size of the size you were looking at in a way and I think that’s especially interesting because if you look at the inhabitants of your project there is sort of social system in a way and we had this conversation shajay and me a few minutes ago. There’s also a certain dynamics that emerge within a social system as these guys start changing their places and move from one place to the other you know and there all kinds of really interesting social models like the segregation model of Schelling of how people start moving back and forth suddenly they find themselves in the same place with like minded people even if they don’t really wanted to do that somehow over several cycles of removal. I think there will be a really interesting aspect to look into in the next step how that thing is a dynamic social system could evolve within itself and what might be the size limits to them. Tom Kovac: Just like to say based on what I’m hearing here today and I think this is under yesterdays discussion as well. I think we’re living post disruptive times. Disruption is now I would call a very everyday type of discussion. We live in times where Bitcoin and cryptocurrency living in a time where everything from finance to technology to the way we lived the way we inhabit the way we consume is being disrupted. So these models exist. Architecture is one of the last bastions. Cities are transforming and architecture is now accommodating this future. So I think there’s two discussions here. One is that if you look at the primitive the way you develop this 256_8.1 Conversations


structure and the possibility I think you need to build the universe a much larger universe around your project. Then just think about structure and thinking about how we inhabit in conventional ways because I still believe that if you want to build this universe then you have to have a larger dialogue. You have to think about how your primitive how your forms can be designing a whole way the way we inhabit these future which means the habitation of our lives the way we consume. I mean subscription exists in airlines exists in hotels you know fly by point. Everything is shifting. So the way we change forms the way we change the way we occupy cities has to be transforming on much larger universe of thinking about you know do we design the kitchens the furniture everything inside you have to build the story around your project to make this a believable way of transferring not just knowledge but as Patrick was saying before is how you de-democracies the way we inhabit our lives. Francois Roche was on a jury recently when he you know he said you know we have to think about how we sexualize how we have the family. You have to be more erotic. So in many ways I remember that because I an not seeing the erotic. The possibility of the family dysfunctional you know kill the father, the mother. But I’m just remembering running the world so. So we have to take risks. So you know when you describe the way we live that’s a kind of a risk taking to push the boundaries because these disruption has enter our architecture more. So I don’t think I want to live in a tent structure. I think you’re being very safe. So to do this you have to enter and speculate further to think about how this life could actually possibly evolve. Ross Lovegrove: Yeah. Again lovely body work and I saw it last year and I was fascinated by this structure. Now I’ve seen the application. There’s a lot that’s coming out here which you know not going to be negative but all this is all kind of positive thinking but you know I sit here and the first thing I look at... I look at the existing architecture you’ve made and it made me think about existing architecture. In these images I’m juxtaposed with and I’m thinking about the idea of what means ownership because even if you own one of these apartments, do you really own that? You know if you’re in a block of apartments do you really own those walls? I don’t think you do. So I’m fascinated by what you’ve raised in terms of questioning what exists now in terms of ownership so you got that. The second thing is that I’m not sure if I can relate fully to the application of the structure because you got a really great story going on the one side and then on the other side you have a physical thing which is going on. Which is architectural study. So, I think about things like acoustics because there’s a lot of transparency in what you’ve got going on. And the second thing is which is very obvious but we can’t keep putting that furniture in this kind of architecture. I mean we can’t! Somebody is going to stop this!. But you know, the fact of the matter is that you’ve got such a beautiful approach to the 8.1 Conversations_257


construction method which again I saw last year I think it’s very beautiful and you reference Eames and the whole thing which is kind of a long time ago now and you brought it forward and it seems really kind of disappointing. I’m looking at these ordinary objects in an extraordinary space so sorry that sounds so obvious but that’s the thing. I think you need to give because you’ve got it all there to translate what you’ve got into those places. Also as you said it’s got a floor plan and it’s got a ceiling plane which we all need. Otherwise it can’t exist. But, where is your approach to the three dimensionality dealing with technology? You know this is a neural network, your structure is a neural network of transferring information through the whole structure and then, where are your holograms? Where are your holograms of things you love or people you love. You know where is your living museum of experiences that you can use these services to project on or be part of? You know you talk about technology on the one hand and then you lost it. I think to have a fully immersible warm up, and the world coming to you is an incredible thing. So it’s a lovely project it’s a very stimulating thing for me anyway. So thank you. Reinier De Graaf: I’m kind of wondering about the extent to which the idea can exist in the absence of the project and what I mean by that is that you know we own a house or we rent a house. Those are the two prevailing forms of living still in the world and now. Through the digital revolution essentially another relationship becomes possible by which what you own by which the delineation of a book even in a rental apartment you know this is mine. Beyond that it’s yours. That’s why for instance most housing projects for instance the plan libre never took off in housing because you can build housing with sheer walls because the primary structure is what it insulates best it’s the best delineation between what is mine and what is yours. So I’m kind of wondering. There’s two things I’m wondering I think to what extent could this it’s an urbanistic question to what extent good the subscription model put an end to the completely counterproductive real estate speculation that is actually plaguing cities in the world. The other thing is a kind of a. Rather more straightforward question because in a way you could say that if what is mine and what is yours in legal terms is less defined to what extent do you need walls and of course you do need walls but you need walls for different reasons than legal reasons. You need a wall because even you know in the most open non possession ideal world you need a certain type of exclusion for certain type of activities. Erotic for instance this is something which I guess most of us would still like to exercise in a condition of relative privacy. But be that as a mater what I think is interesting is looking at the physical result of your project you have essentially these kind of tensile cave like spaces which I think is an interesting combination that you have a cave like experience which you normally have and rocks and the most heavy conditions you do with 258_8.1 Conversations


the lightest material so that I think is interesting but then looking at the sections you have very thin, very horizontal floors. And anything and the floors exist to multiply the ground level but almost anything beyond that is driven by a kind of romantic scenery which is a direct response to our spatial needs and not our economic needs and I simply wonder once you shift the paradigm. Once let’s say let’s suppose that you could eliminate economic requirements from architecture altogether. That would be a real form of liberty and one on one our desires will be translated into space and that’s where the whole thing is extremely interesting and you could probably go yet much further in theorizing that. Patrik Schumacher: I also want to comment on the tectonics, materiality. The new kind of sublime offering and I think there’s sublimity and otherness and other building and yet it’s all rooted within something very technically evolved I think. I think the dream is not been fulfilled in some of these renderings I’ve tried to help to think through why is that the case. And it starts for me with the skeleton. The beauty of the individual object that’s the rigour of its geometry its proportionality and the order of the component. And I think in the skeleton here there is more order and regularity. And I think the asymmetry in the disturbance of this would have to be motivated and in the end also be systematic. What I feel somehow in these modules already there’s some kind of noisiness in there. I don’t know why these columns are leaning, why in getting the stuff on the floors that is not lining up with the grid lines. There seems to be some kind of strange. So there’s an aesthetic sensibility coming which isn’t in harmony; which should actually grow out of the system and not be imposed where you feel you want to put it looks too modular. So that’s why this thing doesn’t have an uplifting beauty. And then I think you can blow it up in arms. I think to take pragmatic conditions is also an element, lets say maybe the slab is too thin. I mean you haven’t done it here. So that will be just the criticism. Ross is also totally correct with the furniture, you should have used some of his stuff it is totally congenial. But I think that’s important because we talked about consumption and bringing it into the mainstream and that doesn’t mean making it ordinary , but making it absolutely compelling. I believe in aesthetic sensibilities of being guiding us towards something which is in the end trustworthy and beautiful and life enhancing. And that’s why the beauty of this. Which we see is not come through and I gave some hint why. What the mistakes were. Yan Gao: To follow up Patrik’s Notes. I agree that the project beauty rise in the macro scale we are looking at the material looking at the order of putting things together which also coherent with the force distribution to define the space. It’s very beautiful. I keep looking at this model in front of me and I find there are two great potential for the project. One of them is actually a hidden architectural space 8.1 Conversations_259


series in the system which is not actually being explored which is the portion. The space has somehow inside this surface volume but because of the way you are approaching the architectural scale you find those modular boxes which actually follow the conventional logical of a construction the way that being structured, the way it is being calculated the way defined by warn of that. But in your case you don’t have that distinction anymore. You actually have a very different radically different system which deserve a very different organisational logic even in the way that occupying the land. So we talk about the ownership of an individual. We also talk about the ownership of the building of the land as well. And therefore even the size choice could be different. Maybe navigation between two or three anchor points of the site where taking advantage of our system to grow it in the air because structure would support it. And that also brings the question the ownership and sharing between the building and the city and the way you look at the pink box you primarily think there is a distinction between the inside of the building the interior of the building versus the exterior of the building which is the city. But in your case you could challenge that distinction just by looking at the two secrets of space defined by the structure of surface and then you can play with the scale as well. I can see an extremely stimulating project and I can’t stop to think further in that direction. Tom Kovac: I think that we are looking at a project that has so many different layers of experience. I guess what I’m when you discussed the different layers of the project the subscription model and then you got the generative aspects of the architecture. The one that really interests me here is how students and architects are starting to think about the systems architecture. About how systems can evolve both from the tectonic from formal but also engage with the experiential and this experiential now if you think about companies like Cisco investing 100 million UK pounds into the marketplace that are not just looking at the ephemeral anymore but looking how we can generate new typologies new ways of understanding how Apple is moving and trying to get out of this space how Amazon is suddenly becoming a player in different totally different directions. So if you think about how cities are going to evolve this is for me a possible Amazon project because you’re looking at systems that engage with the fabric of the city engage with new funding models new possibilities. So when you think about subscription why am I subscribing to I am also subscribing to a system, a network that enables me to subscribe to the information a feedback loop which you talk with these agents. Which suddenly gives you the ability to transform as Ross was saying before you know to maybe to 3d print furniture into a basement or have things that are available to you in real time on demand. So you are both not only experimenting in lifestyle. You’re also experimenting the way you produce the way you engage with the family of new materiality, new fabrication 260_8.1 Conversations


techniques so what are you discussing here could possibly be part of this ecology of development. And that’s what’s really interesting is to think about how these systems can feed back into your project to disrupt the current economy of making but also producing new way of innovation. Patrik Schumacher: I mean I think that’s a fantastic open space to think of new forms of entrepreneurship in the built environment connecting up with global systems. I mean the Collective is doing this with this totally new product. The curated community and I think I just want to hint this Pierre (...) I have been thinking about this talking about the so called fourth ontological space carrying on the third one would be a professional demarcation of an identity with the second one was identity through our address or locale or through where we live. The first one is our name recognising our family lineage. So clan first is the oldest one we still carry a lot of other than an address or location than the kind of professional did it initially and now it’s the kind of networks we are connected in which kind of networks to participate in and we are part of in various multiple intersecting networks communities and that’s what you’re buying into here and you connecting it up with a second ontological space in an interesting way or you totally undermine that and be really now becoming networks creatures where we don’t need that address anymore that home. Or is it some kind of strange hybridizing. Lot of people have now London New York Beijing. And that’s the model. That is why I am thinking Soho House on the one hand and always looking at the Collective going from London to New York and elsewhere. I think it’s really compelling. I would be somebody who would like to buy into this kind of condition and get kind of rid of my home to some extent. And I think for me in terms of what locked me at home was in fact my library. But as there’s now rapidly transfers on to Kindle I don’t need a House. But I need the network and I need the places and I think that is the fourth ontological space you should look it up Pierre was talking about this 20 years ago. Ross Lovegrove: I think there can be other attractions too but I mean as Patrik is talking I am thinking about the individual always not in kind of a dark sense but I think everything is becoming about the individual the portability everything is in the standing man or the standing woman. You know you’ve got your communication devices. You are responsible for your own health and well-being but you know being part of this group one thing that we’re overlooking you know with the physicality of your project is it seems to be about filtration. That’s how I see it. You know filtration of information filtration of relationships but also you know atmospheric filtration I mean when again when I look at these images of London where we all live here but gosh it’s depressing as hell isn’t it. And you know it’s like how the hell do we lighten that up and make sure that we want 8.1 Conversations_261


to subscribe to something which as embedded health benefits in it too. You know you take what you got. You know it’s not really my job to do this but you know I would everything could be scaled. You know you could be developing Dyson like filtration units you can put it into the bones of the building. There is so much that could come out of your approach. That’s not just an architectural idea I think it’s very scalable and I would really encourage you to look at that. Patrik Schumacher: Thanks.

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8.1 Conversations_263


8.2 Studio Life

Figure 8.2.1: Tables of Cloud Living at the DRL Studio Figure 8.2.2: Finale Presentation of Phase I 266 _8.2 Studio Life


Figure 8.2.3: Visit at Harvard GSD Figure 8.2.4: Visit at UPenn and talk to Masoud Akbarzadeh 8.2 Studio Life_ 267


Figure 8.2.1: Autodesk BUILD space meeting with studio master Figure 8.2.2: First robotic weaving steps at BUILD space 268 _8.2 Studio Life


Figure 8.2.3: Robotic stress test Figure 8.2.4: Team Cloud Living 8.2 Studio Life_ 269


References 9.1 Bibliography 9.2 Image Credits


9.1 Bibliography “Cooperation for Service, Not Profit.” n.d. Amalgamated Housing Cooperative. http://www.amalgamated-bronx.coop/. Accessed 19 Apr 2017 Akbarzadeh Masoud, Tom Van Mele, Philippe Block, On the equilibrium of funicular polyhedral frames and convex polyhedral forcediagrams, Computer-Aided Design 63 (2015) 118–128. “About Us” . Airbnb. https://www.airbnb.co.uk/about/about-us. “Transpose”, n.d Airbus (2016) [online] Available at: https://www. airbus-sv.com/projects/3 Benita, Matofska. “What Is the Sharing Economy?” The People WhoShare, September 1, 2016. http://www.thepeoplewhoshare. com/blog/what-is-the-sharing-economy/. Bhooshan Shajay, Upgrading Computational Design ,in Parametricism 2.0:Rethinking Architecture’s Agenda for the 21st Century, John Wiley & Sons ,2016. Block P, Ochsendorf J. Thrust network analysis: a new methodology for three dimensional equilibrium. J Int Assoc Shell Spat Struct, 2007. Breslav, Simon, Rhys Goldstein, Azam Khan, and Kasper Hornbaek. 2017. “Exploratory Sequential Data Analysis for Multi-Agent Occupancy Simulation Results.” Autodesk Research, Toronto, Canada. Accessed April 6. https://d2f99xq7vri1nk.cloudfront.net/ legacy_app_files/pdf/Breslav__Data_Analysis_Occupancy_Apr21. pdf. DNA. Begum Aydinoglu, Federico Borello, Philipp Siedler .“DNA” Architectural Association Design Research Lab. Accessed 23 Apr 2017. “Steam Bent Chairs”, n.d. Eames Office (1946) [online] Available at: http://www.eamesoffice.com/the-work/pilot-seat/ Hall, Edward T. The Hidden Dimensions, 1966. H. Pottmann; A. Asperl; M. Hofer; A. Kilian. Architectural Geometry Bentley Institute Press, 2017. 272 _9.1 References: Bibliography


IICD/ITKE Research Pavilion 2016/7. (2017). University of Stuttgart. Institute for Computational Design (ICD). Institute of Building Structures and Structural Design (ITKE) Mungia Tapia, Emanuel and Rockinson, Randy. “Activity Recognition in the Home Setting Using Simple and Ubiquitous Sensors.” MIT Media Lab. Accessed April 6, 2017. http://courses.media.mit. edu/2004fall/mas622j/04.projects/home/. Neufert, Ernst. Neufert Architects’ Data. Wiley-Blackwell, 2012. “Membership Based Co-Living.” n.d. PodShare. http://podshare.co/. Accessed 19 Apr 2017 Rankine M. A manual of applied mechanics. London: R. Griffin, 1858. Rankine M. Principle of the equilibrium of polyhedral frames. Phil Mag, 1864. “International Network of Coliving Spaces.” n.d. ROAM. https://www roam.co/. Accessed 19 Apr 2017 Savage, Mike. Devine, Fiona. Cunningham, Niall. Taylor, Mark.Li, Yoajun. Hjellbrekke, Johs. Le Roux, Brigitte. Friedman, Sam. Miles, Andrew. “A new model of social class? Findings from the BBC’s Great British Class Survey experiment.” (2016) Schütte-Lihotzky, Margarete. Das Neue Frankfurt, 1926. “Our Story”. The Collective. https://www.thecollective.co.uk/our-stor? gclid=CKvU7ceIp9YCFUtNfgodwJkIaQ. Varignon P. Nouvelle mécanique ou statique. Paris: Claude Jombert, 1725. Zimmermann, Jean-Paul, Matt Evans, Jonathan Griggs, Nicola King, Les Harding, Penelope Roberts, and Chris Evans. “Household Electricity Survey A Study of Domestic Electrical Product Usage.” Intertek Testing & Certification Ltd, May 2012.

9.1 References: Bibliography_ 273


9.2 Image Credits 01_Own Nothing. Access Everything Figure 1.4.1: “Cooperation for Service, Not Profit.” n.d. Amalgamated Housing Cooperative. [online] Available at: http://www.amalgamated-bronx. coop/. Figure 1.4.2: “A modern collective: PLP architects launch designs for a new housing model in East London”, n.d. The Collective (2010) [online] Available at: https://www.wallpaper.com Figure 1.4.4: “About Us” . Airbnb. [online] Available at: https://www.airbnb.co.uk/ about/about-us. Figure 1.4.5: “Transpose”, n.d Airbus (2016) [online] Available at: https://www. airbus-sv.com/projects/3 Figure 1.4.6: “Steam Bent Chairs”, n.d. Eames Office (1946) [online] Available at: http://www.eamesoffice.com/the-work/pilot-seat/ Figure 1.4.7: ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion 2016/7. (2017). University of Stuttgart. Institute for Computational Design (ICD). Institute of Building Structures and Structural Design (ITKE) 02_Primitive Selection Figure 2.1.1: Schütte-Lihotzky, Margarete. Das Neue Frankfurt, 1927. Figure 2.1.2: Neufert, Ernst. Neufert Architects’ Data. Wiley-Blackwell, 1970. Figure 2.1.3: Hall, Edward T. The Hidden Dimensions, 1966. Figure 2.2.1.1: Zimmermann, Jean-Paul, Matt Evans, Jonathan Griggs, Nicola King, Les Harding, Penelope Roberts, and Chris Evans. “Household Electricity Survey A Study of Domestic Electrical Product Usage.” Intertek Testing & Certification Ltd, May 2012. 274 _9.2 References: Image Credits


Figure 2.2.1.7: “The Physical World. Software-defined” n.d. Estimote (2016). [online] Available at: https://estimote.com/ 03_Combinatorial Subscription Model Figure 3.1.1: Savage, Mike. Devine, Fiona. Cunningham, Niall. Taylor, Mark.Li, Yoajun. Hjellbrekke, Johs. Le Roux, Brigitte. Friedman, Sam. Miles, Andrew. “A new model of social class? Findings from the BBC’s Great British Class Survey experiment.” (2016) Figure 3.1.2: Tapia, Emanuel and Rockinson, Randy. “Activity Recognition in the Home Setting Using Simple and Ubiquitous Sensors.” MIT Media Lab. (2017) Figure 3.1.3: Breslav, Simon, Rhys Goldstein, Azam Khan, and Kasper Hornbaek. 2017. “Exploratory Sequential Data Analysis for MultiAgent Occupancy Simulation Results.” Autodesk Research, Toronto, Canada. Accessed April 6. [online] Available at: https:// d2f99xq7vri1nk.cloudfront.net/legacy_app_files/pdf/Breslav__Data_ Analysis_Occupancy_Apr21.pdf. 05_Planning Envelope Figure 5.1.1: H. Pottmann; A. Asperl; M. Hofer; A. Kilian. Architectural Geometry Bentley Institute Press, 2007. Figure 5.1.2: Varignon P. Nouvelle mécanique ou statique. Paris: Claude Jombert, 1725. Figure 5.1.3: Rankine M. A manual of applied mechanics. London: R. Griffin, 1864. Figure 5.1.4: Masoud Akbarzadeh, Tom Van Mele, Philippe Block, On the equilibrium of funicular polyhedral frames and convex polyhedral force diagrams, Computer-Aided Design 63 (2015) 118–128.

9.2 References: Image Credits_ 275


06_Digital Fabrication Figure 6.1.1: “Steam Bent Chairs”, n.d. Eames Office (1946) [online] Available at: http://www.eamesoffice.com/the-work/pilot-seat/ Figure 6.1.2: ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion 2016/7. (2017). University of Stuttgart. Institute for Computational Design (ICD). Institute of Building Structures and Structural Design (ITKE) Figure 6.1.3: DNA. Begum Aydinoglu, Federico Borello, Philipp Siedler .“DNA”. Architectural Association Design Research Lab. Accessed 23 Apr 2017.

276 _9.2 References: Image Credits


9.2 References: Image Credits_ 277


London, UK 2018

Cloud Living - Combinatorial Subscription Living  

Architectural Association DRL Nahmad Bhooshan Studio Tutor: Shajay Bhooshan, Alicia Nahmad Team: Leo Bieling, Basant Elshimy, Ariadna Lopez...

Cloud Living - Combinatorial Subscription Living  

Architectural Association DRL Nahmad Bhooshan Studio Tutor: Shajay Bhooshan, Alicia Nahmad Team: Leo Bieling, Basant Elshimy, Ariadna Lopez...

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