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INTERCONNECTING GOUDA a spatial configuration linking region, city, periphery & landscape together

Lennart van Heijningen 4346343


COLOPHON P5 REPORT Interconnecting Gouda, a spatial configuration linking region, city, periphery & landscape together LENNART VAN HEIJNINGEN Student 4346343 RESEARCH GROUP OF THE DESIGN OF THE URBAN FABRIC Department of Urbanism Faculty of Architecture Delft University of Technology MENTOR TEAM Els Bet (Chair of urban compositions) Arie Romein (Chair of spatial planning and strategy) November 2016


INTERCONNECTING GOUDA a spatial configuration linking region, city, pheripery & landscape together

Lennart van Heijningen - 4346343

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PREFACE This report is the final result of my graduation year within the research group of Design of the Urban Fabrics, which is part of the department of Urbanism at the faculty of Architecture in TU Delft. My graduation topic will focus on the conflict between the built spatial structure and the way people behave in urbanity. The city of Gouda will be used as investigational site for this case. Growing up in Gouda, the city felt to me to be quite far-removed from larger cities like Rotterdam and The Hague. But as years passed, the impact of the expansions of these cities became slowly visible in the direct environment of Gouda. Open polder lands made way for business parks and sound barriers and the edges of the larger cities came closer to the edges of Gouda. I found this phenomenon quite fascinating and wanted to know what kind of role Gouda could play in the possible spatial transition from ‘autonomous’ city to a segment of the urban patchwork of the Randstad. Could this have a positive effect on the city or only have negative outcomes? These kind of questions motivated me to ultimately pick this topic and location. Hereby I also would like to thank my mentors, Els Bet and Arie Romein, for all the effort they put into into my graduation project throughout the year. I am very grateful for their knowledge, support, and critical questions which brought my project to a higher level and helped me through harder times. Furthermore, I would like to thank my fellow students for their great feedback on my project and inspiring discussions about urbanism. And last but not least, I am very grateful to my friends and family for all the understanding and support during the last years. Lennart van Heijningen Delft, november 2016

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INDEX INTRODUCTION 1.1. Content & relevance of this project

8

1.2 The location

9

1.3 Used methodology

10

PROBLEM FIELD 2.1 How society is changing

14

2.2 The fragmented & incoherent Randstad

18

2.3 Society vs urbanity: case Gouda

26

2.4 The necessity of a better spatial integration between Gouda & the Randstad

34

RESEARCH 3.1 An investigation to good spatial configurations

38

3.2 The spatial integration of Gouda

44

3.3 Areas that need interconnectivity

75

3.4 Research conclusions

81

VISION 4.1 A new spatial connection in east-west direction

88

4.2 A strenghtening of the relationship between city & water

92

4.3 Embedding the peripheral area into the spatial network

94

4.4 Interweaving the spatial structures with each other

96

4.5 Total vision map

98

4.6 Elaboration: Node Goudse Poort

100

CONCLUSIONS & RECOMMENDATION 5.1 Conclusions

116

5.2 Recommendation

117

Literature

118

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CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION


CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION

CONTENT & RELEVANCE OF THIS PROJECT

1.1 CONTENT & RELEVANCE OF THIS PROJECT This graduation project will tend to try to find a resolution for the issues regarding the fragmented and introverted urban entities of the Randstad, the changing socio-economic context in the Netherlands and how this negatively affects the city of Gouda.

How to exactly come to this new spatial configuration will be researched in the third chapter. There will be investigated what a good spatial configuration exactly looks like, where in Gouda this system is currently lacking and which areas needs to be interconnected with this system.

Since the last two decades a new kind of urbanity is rising within the Randstad. Slowly this metropolitan region is turning into a patchwork metropolis, consisting out of many unrelated urban fragments. An urban sprawl leading to a divided landscape and many fragmented urban areas, only connected with each other via infrastructural systems which are purely functional. This has consequences for its liveability, but also the sustainability and economy of the region is under pressure. As the city of Gouda is quite an introverted entity at itself and many regional developments planned in its western periphery, it is a perfect case to investigate these issues.

In the fourth chapter the results of this research will lead to an urban vision for the city and its environment, including a new spatial configuration that will integrate Gouda with its surroundings.

To help resolve this problematique this graduation project will introduce a new spatial configuration for the city of Gouda. A new spatial system that creates more coherency within the region, connecting Gouda with its surrounding landscapes, neighbouring cities and thereby improving the liveability of the city. THESIS STRUCTURE The first chapter of this report will shortly introduce this topic, explaining the relevance and which methods were used during the graduation process to tackle this problem. The second chapter will dig deeper into the problematique, focussing on in what way society changed the last few decades and how this exactly negatively impacts the metropolitan region of the Randstad and how in particular the liveability of the city of Gouda is in danger. This will eventually lead to the problem statement and aim of this project: there is a necessity for a better spatial integration between Gouda and its surroundings.

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RELEVANCE There is much academic discussion going on in how to search for a balance between urbanity and open space and what the exact role of peripheral areas are. The outcome of this project can add up to the discussion in how to deal with these kind of urban areas and what the benefits could be for the metropolitan region as a whole and the cities themselves if you spatially modify them. Gouda is not the only city that is spatially introverted, many neighbourhoods/cities in the Randstad from the same time period look exactly the same and affect the metropolitan region in some negative ways. The results of this project can also give an idea in how to improve the living environment for the inhabitants of Gouda. The massive developments in the Zuidplaspolder could lead to many opportunities for the city, but when not handled correctly, also to threats. Gouda was for a long time a city in the middle of the Green Heart, but now, the open landscape is getting much more scarce and the neighbourhoods more outdated. People who can afford it will move to the newer neighbourhoods outside the city, which are fitting more to their needs. This could lead to segregation to (certain parts of) Gouda or other cities.


1.2 THE LOCATION THE RANDSTAD This graduation project will focus on the city of Gouda, a city which is situated in the metropolitan region of the Randstad. The Randstad is a ringshaped compilation of medium-sized cities situated in the west of the Netherlands. It is often described as a typical polycentric urban system, an urban region which grew from more than one urban node (Musterd & Van Zelm, 2000). The largest urban nodes within the Randstad are the four main cities of Amsterdam, Rotterdam, The Hague and Utrecht. In the middle of the ring-shaped metropolis one can find the Green Heart, a relatively open area which holds typically Dutch landscapes like the polders and peat lakes. Within the Randstad there are also some submetropolitan regions: in the South the Zuidvleugel, where the cities of Rotterdam, The Hague, Dordrecht and Leiden are part of and in the North the Noordvleugel, which holds cities like Amsterdam, Utrecht, Almere and Haarlem. GOUDA & ITS SURROUNDINGS In the middle of the Randstad and at the edge of the Groene Hart one can find the middle-sized city of Gouda. According to the statistics of CBS in 2015 the city holds 71.149 inhabitants and serves a regional

function for towns/villages nearby like Waddinxveen (25.000 inhabitants), Reeuwijk (10.000 inhabitants), Moordrecht (8.000 inhabitants) and Haastrecht (4.500 inhabitants). Almost one-third of the high school students for instance come from outside the city (Municipality of Gouda, 2012). Gouda is in some way shaped in a kite-like form, where every corner is pointing to one of the four villages just mentioned. The southern edge of the city in defined by the river Hollandse IJssel with at the other side the large polder landscape of Krimpenerwaard, in the north of Gouda one can find the national highway A12, in the east the peat-lake area Reeuwijkse Plassen and the western edge is characterized by the canal Gouwe with at the other side the Zuidplaspolder. In this Zuidplaspolder, also known as the ‘RZG driehoek’ (triangle in between Rotterdam, Zoetermeer and Gouda), are now many developments planned or already going on, as this is one of the last possible locations within the Zuidvleugel of the Randstad where large scale urban expansions still can take place. The aim for the year 2030 is to build 13.900 new dwellings, 60 ha greenhouses, 334 ha business area and 400 ha nature and green.

fig. 1.2.a: Drawing of the Randstad.

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CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION

USED METHODOLOGY

1.3 used METHODOLOGY This product is the result of a long process of researching and designing. The methodology for this process was defined in the thesis plan at the end of the P2-period and based around the research question: “Which spatial configurations will allow Gouda to be better integrated into its surroundings and therefore create a better liveability for its inhabitants and the metropolitan region as a whole?” At several moments during this process the results were tested in small design exercises for the city of Gouda. You could say it leaded to a research-driven design.

fig. 1.2b: The urban areas of the Randstad.

The evidence to answer the research question has been found by looking through literature (books, websites and policy documents), studying maps and doing fieldwork. These sources led to my own maps, graphs and texts will can all be found in this report. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK The theory used of this project is based on the critique of how the current urban developments (urban sprawl) takes place in the Randstad, coming from people like Buursink, Geuze, Heynen and Neutelings. The research in this project is also focussing around the lifestyle and mobility patterns of current day households, based on the literature of d’Acci, Fishman, Friedman & Miller, Ouwehand and Reijndorp & Pilet. The spatial principle that will be ultimately will be introduced in this report is based on theories of Gehl, Kunstler, Dramstad & Olson, Pötz & Bleuzé and Tummers & Tummers-Zuurmond.

fig. 1.2.c: The Green Heart is situated the middle of the Randstad.

Almost all of these theories come from experts out of the fields of (landscape) urbanism, social geography and spatial planning. Most ideas found for this graduation project are also strongly related to the visions of several regional governments such as the Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and Environment, Province of Zuid-Holland, Bestuurlijk Platform Zuidvleugel and the municipalities of Gouda and Zuidplas.

Not a progress like this:

A

B

C

D

C

D

But aprogress like this:

A fig. 1.2.d: The Randstad is a polycentric urban system and is grown from several urban nodes.

B


Graduation approach scheme:

STARTING POINT

DEFINING THE PROBLEM & ITS FRAMEWORK PROBLEM STATEMENT PROBLEM DEFENITION VISION (HYPOTHESIS)

AIM

RESEARCH QUESTIONS MAIN QUESTION:

Is it sti ll relate d to the proble main m? Or do the qu es need totions b e redefin ed?

SUB QUESTION 1:

“Which spatial configurations will allow Gouda to be better integrated into its surroundings and therefore create a better liveability for its inhabitants and the metropolitan region as a whole?”

What is a spatial configuration exactly and how can it help integrating the city?

SUB QUESTION 2: With which spatial systems is Gouda already integrated and what are qualities and shortcomings of these integrations?

REFLECT/ REDEFINE

SUB QUESTION 3: Which areas in and around Gouda need to be connected with this spatial configuration?

FINDINGS

FINDINGS

FINDINGS

DESIGN PROPOSAL(S) VERSION 1

VERSION 2

VERSION 3 ETC...

FINISH

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CHAPTER 2

PROBLEM FIELD


CHAPTER 2: PROBLEM FIELD

HOW SOCIETY IS CHANGING

2.1 HOW SOCIETY IS CHANGING This chapter will focus on the changed socio-economic context in the Randstad. It will explain how lifestyles of people in the Netherlands progressively individualizes and people are sharing less and less the same interests with each other. The traditional concept of the city, a place where almost everyone shared the same kind of facilities and where the daily life of one single household would take place, is getting less relevant with every year. But many recent projects are still developed as extension of the city nearby, expanding the city from the inside to the outside, instead of also seeing the need of the development at a regional or (inter) national level and connecting it to structures at larger scale (Tummers & Tummers-Zuurmond, 2000; Suurenbroek, 2007). THE LIFESTYLE IN THE PAST & HOW IT SHAPED URBANITY In the late ‘60s and ‘70s the lifestyle of most residents of the Randstad was quite traditional: having the ideal of owning an ordinary single-family house of 100m2 with private front- and back garden, situated in a calm and peaceful environment and having their daily amenities, like schools, shopping centres and churches all situated close to their homes. Most households existed out of four family members with the mom as housewife, the dad as money earner and their two or more kids. Mom and the kids were bonded to their neighbourhood, the dad worked at the other side of town or in another city.

“New developments were primarily focused around smaller cities that where at least ten to twenty kilometres away from the bigger cities” The physical appearance of the urban environment was also built according to the tastes and behaviour of this ‘average joe’: in the centre of the neighbourhood a cluster of daily amenities, at the boundaries the main access-roads with the less kid-friendly facilities. There was a clear hierarchic system of city, city districts, neighbourhoods and local communities. Working areas and infrastructure were strictly separated and hidden from the living quarters to conserve the quietness. During this time many self-reliant city-quarters aroused within the Netherlands, most of the time with their own sub-centre and morphologically separated from the rest of the city and its surroundings by heavy motorways, canals, industrial functions and green buffer zones (Reijndorp & Pilet, 1998). Also at larger scale the urbanization combined with traditional life preferences became visible. During the sixties the Randstad was planned to become a

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place where people could work and live close to the green open landscape. New developments were primarily focused around smaller cities that where at least ten to twenty kilometres away from the bigger cities (Van der Cammen & De Klerk, 2003). Gouda was for example such a city. These ‘satellite cities’ needed to become at the one hand self-supporting: residents were supposed to work, shop and spend their free time in these cities. At the other hand these satellite cities were, combined with other satellite or bigger cities nearby, part of a larger conurbation (VROM, 1966). HOW PEOPLE BEHAVE NOW But as time passed, the lifestyle of people also changed. There wasn’t one clear ‘common’ household anymore. At average people got more free time and money to spend. There were more moments for them to distinguish themselves from others next to work and house management and their tastes became more differentiated. It has for example grown more common to have varying relationships during your life and not directly ‘settle’ after getting a relationship. Less people also decide to take children: In 2010 for example only 28% of the households had kids, whereas in 1971 53% had one or more children (PBL, 2013; PBL, 2014). Also, the fact that a large part of the Dutch population is aging results into many small households, only existing out of one or two people. Ok, there is still a large group of people that want to live in green and kidfriendly environments, but their changed versatile and more intriguing lifestyle is desiring for a place that they can identify with (Hagendijk, 2015; PBL, 2014; PBL, 2015). Analogous suburban areas found in most satellite cities, are therefore getting less popular by current establishing households. Nowadays more and more families want to live in or close to bigger cities like Utrecht and Rotterdam. In highly urban areas with many characteristic buildings, qualitative public spaces and cultural places like museums, theatres and nightlife venues. The renewal projects from the past decades made these areas also attractive again for the middle and higher class and if they want to still live in more kid-friendly, low-priced place they could live in a VINEX-suburbs (large scale urban extensions built from 1995-2015), which are still very close by the bustling areas and good connected to the motorway network of the Randstad. Besides that people’s behaviour got more individuated, they also got more mobile in general. In the ‘60s and ‘70s not every household had their own car and if they had it was mostly used for travelling to and from work. Daily amenities had to be close to home. Now, the group of households that has two or even three cars in rapidly increasing. The car is not anymore only used for work, but also for travelling to friends and family, the supermarket, sporting and recreational areas and so on. Such facilities therefore don’t have to be located at central positions in


VEL

D LE RHOO

OU EIGHB

Neighbourhoods built in the ‘60s & ‘70s are built according to people’s behaviour in that time. Daily amenities clustered in the middle of the neighbourhood.

GREEN BUFFER

N

DAILY AMENITIES

HOUSEHOLD

Green buffer areas and motor ways marked the edge of a neighbourhood.

WORKING IN BIGGER CITY

VEL

CITY LE

INDUSTRY

In the hierarchy of the city the ‘city centre’ became the middle point.

CITY CENTRE

‘City edge functions’ like working areas and heavy infrastructure were strictly seperated from the living quarters and planned in the boundaries of most cities. Defining ‘the end of the city’.

SPORT FIELDS

L REGIONA

LEVEL LEISURE

Bigger ‘mother’ cities for working and less frequent used amenities.

Satellite cities for quietly living and the daily amenities.

How people behaved in cities around 1970.

WORK

WORK


CHAPTER 2: PROBLEM FIELD

HOW SOCIETY IS CHANGING

the city or neighbourhood anymore. As long as they are accessible, they could be situated anywhere of the urban system of the Randstad. From a highly urban area in the middle of the city to a peripheral business district along the highway (Derksen et al., 2007). All by all this means that a single-family home in an analogous suburban neighbourhood is getting less logical for most households: it is too large, expensive and regularly located in an area where they cannot easy meet new people with the same kind of interests. Today’s residential environments does not match the demand anymore (Musterd & van Zelm, 2001; Bestuurlijk Platform Zuidvleugel, 2008). There is not really a quantitative housing shortage, as the population in the Netherlands is stagnating, but the amount of households is still increasing. A growing amount of people is looking for smaller and more flexible ways of living. The hierarchy of the traditional city also makes less sense to current lifestyle. HOW CITIES SHOULD ACT You could say more and more inhabitants of the Randstad compose their own ‘city’ together. They assemble the ‘fragments’ of where they work, sleep, shop and recreate into their own ideal living environment. Neutelings mentioned this phenomenon in 1989 when studying the city of Den Haag. He described that the Randstad should not anymore read be read a collection of cities, but as a carpet of spatial-functional fragments. In this carpet metropolis, Den Haag is for example not a city anymore, but a collage of some specific spatial-functional fragments. Urban extensions in the Randstad should no longer be seen as open land that needs to be built, but as transforming the current spatialfunctions attributes of a fragment into a fragment with new spatial-functional attributes. Within this transformation-process is also needed to look why it is necessary for the carpet metropolis as a whole, if the aim is to create a more coherent urban region (Neutelings, 1989). In the US this phenomenon of the loss of the traditional city already took place much earlier. In 1965 Friedman and Miller already described that modern urbanization was not anymore focused at one single physical entity (the traditional city) but at a number of centres connected by flows of people, goods, money and information. They called the spatial concept of this large scale area holding many interrelated networks of economic and social activities ‘the urban field’. Fishman added that in this urban field, urbanization is also no longer organized around one or more centres, but that the house is the new centre, where every household determines for itself which structures within the urban field are useful and which are not (Musterd & van Zelm, 2001).

calm and peaceful environments with daily amenities on a walkable distance. Urbanization during this time adopted these preferences and newly developed city-quarters/neighbourhoods happened far away from the bigger cities and became selfreliant and morphologically separated from the rest of its environment, with the city centre as hierarchic middle point of the city. But in the last few decades the daily system of society is looking for better relations with the larger region they live in and less with the city they live in. People became more mobile and compose their own city together. It is getting more common to have functions like schools, sport fields, leisure clubs, food markets farther away from home and for every household the the type of functions it uses and its location is different. The hierarchy of how urbanity was planned during the ‘60s and ‘70s therefore make less sense nowadays, because the new urbanity is urbanity without a city (Reijndorp & Pilet, 1998). Is the metropolitan region of the Randstad acknowledging this problem? What is happening with these outdated urban areas and how are newly planned extensions developed?

HOUSEHOLDS IN 1970 Amenities clustered nearby home

53% 53% NL households

living preferences are more alike families

HOUSEHOLDS IN 2015 Amenities could be anywhere

28% 28%

In the ‘60s and ‘70s the daily behaviour of people in the Netherlands was for planners much easier to predict. There was need for single-family houses in

More diverse living preferences NL households

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families


1970

HOUSEHOLD

TRE, S CITY CENAM ENITIE DAILY

SPORT +

ON

RECREATI

HOUSEHOLD

HOUSEHOLD HOUSEHOLD

HOUSEHOLD

fig. 2.3.b: Fifty years ago. Urbanization organized around the city centre. People were more bonded to the city they lived in.

2015

WORK 2

SHOPPING MALL

RECREATION

HOUSEHOLD WORK 1

FURNITURE sport

fig. 2.3.c: Now. Urbanization organized around the household itself. People assemble their own ‘city’ together..


CHAPTER 2: PROBLEM FIELD

THE FRAGMENTED & INCOHERENT RANDSTAD

2.2 THE FRAGMENTED & INCOHERENT RANDSTAD The social behaviour of residents of the Randstad is changing. The new urbanity for them is an urbanity without a city, they have more differentiated needs and getting more mobile THE CONSEQUENCES OF A POLYCENTERIC & DECENTRALIZED SYSTEM The Randstad is often described as a typical polycentric urban system: it is an urban region which grew from more than one urban node. In contrast there is a monocentric urban system, which expands out of only one strong city or node, like the conurbations of London and Paris (Musterd & Van Zelm, 2000). During some times the growth in the polycentric Randstad essentially took place around the smaller nodes (the satellite cities during 1965-1985), other times, it was more focused around the larger cores (first half of the 20th century and after 1990). One way or the other, the disadvantage of a polycentric region like the Randstad is that its growth has a certain limit. While a few decades ago most individual cities in the Randstad were spatially autonomous, now their edges slowly adjoin each other. As cities grew more and more, the open space in-between them became non-existent or unclear. Large parts of the region became a cloudy form of urbanity, an urban sprawl of peripheral areas. Too far away from the inner city to be part of the city, but at the same time also not an added value for the metropolis as a whole. There have been a few national planning policies that strived to lead the Randstad to a more coherent metropolitan region, such as the ‘Tweede Nota’ (1966) and the ‘Structuurschets stedelijke gebieden’

(1983). During the last half of the 20th century these national urban planning decisions were still fairly followed, but since the beginning of the 21th century these planning tasks shifted to smaller parties like the municipalities, housing companies and private developers. The decentralized planning method that currently happens within the Randstad could speed up the phenomenon of uncontrolled growth, as many municipalities still plan their expansions like in the earlier days: extending their spatially autonomous city, building from the inside to the outside (Buursink, 2012; Suurenbroek, 2007). This approach of ‘bottom-up planning’ has undoubtedly its advantages in uncertain times like now, considering costs are quite low and the process is relatively short and easier to organise. But it also contributes to the gradual loss of open space in between the cities and the developments of small interrelated particles all over the metropolitan region. 1. LOSS OF OPEN SPACE So the Randstad is gradually becoming a cloudy form of urbanity. City edges are adjoining each other, furthermore dividing the open landscape. This becomes very clear when comparing the current shape of the Green Heart of the one from a few decades ago. One can see that this open landscape is much smaller and more fragmented. Relatively large open areas within the Randstad like MiddenDelfland and certain open landscapes, like the one between Delft, Zoetermeer, Gouda and Rotterdam, almost disappeared completely.

fig. 2.2.a: Current shape of the Randstad (2015). The Hague and R’dam are together forming the largest sprawl of urbanity. AMSTERDAM

UTRECHT THE HAGUE GOUDA

ROTTERDAM

urbanity open area water 50 KM

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Why is the gradual loss of open space within the region an unwanted thing for people living in the Randstad one would ask? A subjective answer would be simple: urban sprawl with occasionally a fragmented piece of open space is just less attractive to live in then a large open landscape with autonomous situated cities. Which is not weird because this was also for a long time one of the unique features of the Randstad.

“The decentralized planning method that currently happens within the Randstad could speed up the phenomenon of uncontrolled growth.” But a more objective answer to why a shrinking and more divided landscape is something unwished for is also because it has a negative impact at the micro-climate of the metropolitan region. It is expected that the temperature due climate-change will be higher in the Netherlands and this will be combined with longer periods of rain and drought. Together with the fact that the amount of paved surface is only expanding in metropolitan areas, could lead to many problems within the Randstad like polluted air, floods and urban heat island-effects. Phenomena’s that lessen the liveability. A more coherent system of green areas can reduce this heat-problem and absorb water after heavy rainfall. Vegetation, water surfaces and the shade of trees can cool urban areas down during hot days, but also draw in fresh air from outlying areas. This results into an improved air quality within the city, which has direct impact on public health. Nowadays the Netherlands is one of the most polluted areas in Europe regarding air quality (Pötz & Bleuzé, 2012). 2. IDENTICAL URBAN AREAS The polycentric nature of the Randstad and its decentralized planning structure also leads to the increase of homogenous areas. The same kind of furnishing malls, business parks, residential areas and office locations are emerging all over the place, because many municipalities are trying to attract the same kind of target groups, focus on the same kind of identities and aim on similar economies (Derksen, van Hoorn, Lörzing & Tennekes, 2007). Sometimes the reason for this is that they have no idea what is happening beyond their border, other times they are competing with each other, but it also happens that they just want to play it safe. Municipalities, but also private developers for example know that retro-styled residential areas at the edge of the city and outlet business parks with large parking spaces will give them profit on short term, because these kind of typologies are now very popular. But as a result these kind of areas are popping up everywhere in the Randstad.

at some point in time be outdated. But this happens even faster when these areas are all very similar in what they are and how they look. They don’t add anything unique to the metropolitan region and in the end you have a whole bunch of homogeneous areas that are get unpopular at the same time. An example: in the ‘60s and ‘70s many satellite cities within the Randstad had the task to deliver large amounts of green and self-reliant living environments for the region, as people preferred living a more traditional live: using the same kind of shopping facilities and churches and they also were not that mobile (as could be read in 2.1). But the socioeconomic context changed during the last fifty years, people’s lifestyles became more diverse and the exact locations of the amenities they use mattered less. This is by the way the same story for the working areas. While thirty years ago companies wanted to settle their offices in more general working locations and as long they were highly visible from the motor way, now they want to cluster with companies of similar sectors in more specialized locations, also areas nearby public transport nodes are getting more popular then highway locations (bron nog toevoegen). Now these living and working areas are segregating at a fast rate. They miss a certain uniqueness: if you would be dropped in one of these locations it is hard to tell if you are for example in Maarssen, Dordrecht or Capelle a/d IJssel. But it is not only about the looks, these areas with how they are situated in the urban fabric don’t fit anymore to the preferences of the people now. If people have a choice and can afford it they will move to a location which fit more to their current behaviour.

“The same kind of furnishing malls, business parks, residential areas and office locations are emerging all over the place.” A study done by the PBL in 2010 shows that the development of the recent VINEX-suburbs resulted into a higher segregation in the older neighbourhoods of the same region. This was proven most clearly in the urban extensions of Ypenburg (Den Haag) and Leidsche Rijn (Utrecht), where the new developments had the most effects on the demographic structure within the older urban areas. The newer VINEX-suburbs, with their better connection to the motor way network and more trendy identity (retrolook, but modern insides) , fitted much better to many

fig. 2.2.b: Many developments are built for shortterm profits and are very identical.

At longer term this will give the metropolitan region multiple problems. The socioeconomic context will definitely change in the future. Every few decade’s people and companies will change their preferences and their opinions to certain urban identities. Urban areas, from neighbourhoods to working locations and shopping areas, will

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CHAPTER 2: PROBLEM FIELD

THE FRAGMENTED & INCOHERENT RANDSTAD

REGIONAL LEVEL, 4o years ago EXPA

REGIONAL LEVEL, nowadays

Every single municipality expanding their urban area...

NSION

S EXPANSIONS

EXPANSIONS

EXPANSIONS

...resulted into city edges adjoining each other.

CITY LEVEL, 4o years ago

CITY LEVEL, NOWADAYS HEAVY ROAD

Each of these expansions form with their green buffer zones, business parks and heavy infrastructure new barrier-like areas in urbanity.

BUSINESS PARK

ARK

BUSINESS P

EXPANSION EXPANSION E BUFFER ZON HEAVY ROAD Several years later this progress takes place again. Leading to a fragmented and incoherent Randstad.

fig. 2.2.f: The negative effects of the polycentric and decentralized nature of the Randstad.

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fig. 2.2.g: The open landscape within the Randstad is shrinking and getting more fragmented. This has also several consequences for the inner urban areas.

POLLUTED AIR

URBAN HEATISLANDS

UNACCESSIBLE LANDSCAPE

LANDSCAPE IS GETTING SMALL ER

FRAGMENTATION

FLOODING

1970 zoetermeer GOUDA

DELFT

R'DAM

2015 zoetermeer GOUDA

DELFT R'DAM

fig. 2.2.h: Loss of open area inbetween Gouda, Delft, Zoetermeer and R’dam

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CHAPTER 2: PROBLEM FIELD

THE FRAGMENTED & INCOHERENT RANDSTAD

IONAL T A N R E T IN PETITION COM

fig. 2.2.i: Cities within the Randstad are still to much focused to each other, instead of joining forces to compete with regions at world level. OTH ER INT REGIONERNATIONAL S

D

RANDSTA

of the middle- and highclass Randstad lifestyles then the neighbourhoods which were a few decades older. This resulted into that the older neighbourhoods went down in the local hierarchy of neighbourhoods and became more unpopular. Amenities left the older neighbourhoods and the lower social classes had no other choice then to stay. These concentrations of unemployed and low educated people, let too many social problems in these neighbourhoods. The liveability ratings in the older areas decreased. But these VINEX-suburbs are again built to similar ideas and again at a very large scale. It is still hard to recognize the difference between a development in Pijnacker and one in Barendrecht. These areas fit to the behaviour of today’s Randstad inhabitant, but are these neighbourhoods flexible enough to adapt socio-economic changes in the future? 3. LACK OF OUTSTANDING PROJECTS There is a lack of projects that are interesting at supraregional and supranational scale. Cities within the Randstad are all spreading their economic centres, iconic living areas and landscape elements in small particles all over the region instead of cooperating with each other to form them into a strong interrelated urban system (PBL, 2015). Occasionally someone comes up with a plan housing an uncommon project that has potential to ad to a more coherent metropolitan region, like an interconnecting park or cultural sub-centre. But it has seen a lot of times that in the end the qualitative parts of such a plan have to be left out, for example due economic reasons, ending up as a general development. The first plans for the Zuidplaspolder in 2004 for example, one of the last ‘empty’ areas within the south of the Randstad (VROM, 2004), contained projects which were quite unique and had a potential added value at the scale of the Randstad. So was there a highly urban interconnecting city-quarter at an intersection of public transport, motorways, the city of Gouda and the canal. There also was planned a very lowly-densed residential area, employing the unique features of its landscape, focusing at an international target group whose numbers a now very little presented in the Randstad. But mainly because of the financial crisis in 2007, the appeal to develop new large scale living and working loca-

22

tions decreased and the plan for the Zuidplaspolder became an uncertainty. Around 2012 however, it was decided to develop the area again, but now within a more ‘bottom-up’ like approach. Every neighbouring municipality is now developing small particles of similar retro-style residential areas and grey glasshouse/logistic areas at this location. The more unique projects just described, which had a potential to give added value to the Randstad, were once again scrapped (Province of Zuid-Holland, 2013; Municipality of Zuidplas, 2012).

“Cities are spreading their economic centres, iconic living areas and landscape elements in small particles all over the Randstad instead of cooperating with each other to form them into a strong interrelated urban system.” As could be read in 2.1, Neutelings insisted that for a coherent urban region a planner needs to look why a certain development is necessary for the carpet metropolis of the Randstad as a whole. For too long the cities within the Randstad were competing with each other, spreading their economic centres and more qualitative areas, instead of forming strong interrelated urban systems and compete at international scale. Small focused projects do not create good conditions for attracting international businesses and highly talented knowledge workers: they are looking for metropolitan regions with a strong identity and larger scale qualitative environment (PBL, 2015).While other international regions are improving to distinguish themselves, the Randstad and in particular the Zuidvleugel the diversity of living, working and recreational areas is decreasing. This has consequences as the region of the Randstad is lowering at the international list of strong economical international regions (VROM, 2008; PBL, 2015). A more coherent urban structure, where the innovative industries, economical sectors, qualitative landscapes and sectors with talented people already present in the Randstad are joining forces, would give the Randstad more economical benefits. This brings new job opportunities


to the metropolitan region, consequently leading to a more attractive region to live in as a Randstad-inhabitant (PBL, 2015). 4. THE INTROVERTED CITY These fragmented and identical urban particles within the Randstad are also spatially not that well integrated into the urban patchwork of the metropolitan region. The accessibility to them between different cities is complicated. In earlier days when most individual cities in the Randstad were spatially still autonomous, the traditional way of expanding, from the inner historical core towards the outskirts of the city, seemed the most practical way to expand. But currently this is still happening a lot (see Zuidplaspolder example mentioned just earlier). Most urban projects within the Randstad were and still are developed as outer expansions of the city. New urban developments are ‘plugged’ into the internal system of the city, instead of also looking for possible external connections, like with its surrounding landscape and neighbouring cities. Which is weird because nowadays city edges are adjoin each other (Laeremans & Braaksma, 2014). On the other hand, it has to be stated that most of these fragmented areas are very well integrated to the infrastructural system of the Randstad: a good organized network of motor ways and rail ways. Within an hour you could be anywhere in the Rand-

Zuidplaspolder developments large scale parks bussiness parks greenports + main ports general urban area protected areas

stad with the car or public transport. But the weak part is that this network purely functional and the spatial and visual component is lacking (Heynen, 1990). This system is most of the time located along the backsides of urban areas or behind sound-barriers and green buffer areas. It is only made to go as fast as possible from point A to point B and give the user, aside from road signs, hardly a clue where he is. Of course this functional system is needed, but a spatial urban system, consisting out of a continuity of spatial structures (larger and smaller open areas, parks, squares, landscapes) is at least as important. This is the system that visually connects several urban areas within the urban sprawl of the Randstad with each other, this is the system that make a trip to the edge of the city also enjoyable and accessible by bike or foot. A sad thing is, as that the functional system expands with every new development a municipality plans, it most of the time cuts of a part of the spatial system. Every municipality wants to have some kind of ring road after every few decades, which typically comes with barrier-like areas like business parks, sport parks and soundbarriers. As a consequence is makes the spatial system within the urban fabric more fragmented, leading to that the surrounding areas of the city are difficult to reach (Laeremans & Braaksma, 2014;

fig. 2.2.j: The south wing of the Randstad is almost full. One of the last places for new developments is the Zuidplaspolder.


CHAPTER 2: PROBLEM FIELD

THE FRAGMENTED & INCOHERENT RANDSTAD

Province of Zuid-Holland, 2014; Pötz & Bleuzé, 2012; Bestuurlijk Platform Zuidvleugel, 2010; Tummers & Tummers-Zuurmond, 2000).

with each other is missing. It leads to a not very incoherent metropolitan region, which does not fit to the current behaviour of people living in it.

This conflicts with how the modern day man wishes to use the metropolitan region. The amenities they use are no longer gathered at one central point in the neighbourhood they live in: more and more they are situated in the edge of the city or a neighbouring town. Their movements along the functional system lead them along the unattractive backsides of urban areas. Using their navigation system of their car, because recognizable urban elements are harder to find in these areas. If they use the bike or walk, they use the same tedious routes. Because the more attractive routes for slow traffic are only leading to the hearts of the old days: the city centre and neighbourhood malls.

As explained in 2.1 the behaviour of people that are living in the Randstad changed. The last few decades the daily system of society is looking for better relations with the whole region they are living in. Their preferences became more differentiated, no lifestyle is the same. Every household composes his own city together and is getting less dependent on areas which were earlier planned as hierarchic middle point of the city or neighbourhood, like a historic city centre or local shopping centre. But this new behaviour conflicts with the way how the Randstad has developed (and still is developing)!

The lack of a coherent spatial system also makes the segregation issue bigger, as traveling from an ‘outdated’ area to a newer recreational or commercial area in the edge not very attractive. While in the older neighbourhoods the amount of people that use cars is smaller than the newer neighbourhoods, because people here have less money or are too old to drive. An introverted city without good spatial connectivity to the outer areas of the city isolates these people, influencing the liveability (Pötz & Bleuzé, 2012). PEOPLE’S BEHAVIOUR VS THE INCOHERENT RANDSTAD (CONCLUSION) The metropolitan region of the Randstad is a polycentric urban system that develops itself in a decentralized manner. This context has certain consequences for the region: a gradual loss of open space, very similar areas are popping up, it is harder to develop interesting supraregional projects and a clear spatial system integrating several urban elements

24


25


CHAPTER 2: PROBLEM FIELD

SOCIETY VS URBANITY: CASE GOUDA

2.3 SOCIETY VS URBANITY: CASE gouda WHY GOUDA IS SUCH AN INTERESTING CASE The inhabitants of the Randstad are changing in their behaviour: the concept of the traditional city is getting less relevant, as people’s daily system is looking farther than the neighbourhood they live in and the municipal borders. Yet in the meantime the Randstad still grows as a patchwork of incoherent urban areas. Almost identical developments are built in small particles all over the Randstad, landscape becomes fragmented and inaccessible, a clear spatial system leading to areas in the periphery is lacking. Areas which are only a few decades old segregate at a fast rate, as they are not flexible enough to adapt this new behaviour. As could be read in 2.2, this has negative consequences for the sustainability, the economy and last but not least, the liveability of the urban region. This graduation project will use the region of Gouda as a test case to further investigate these issues, as the points made in the earlier chapters are all clearly visible in this area. Points regarding the changed socio-economic context: half of the city of Gouda is built according to people’s behaviour in the ‘60s and ‘70s, leading to that large urban working and living areas are now outdated and something needs to be done. Points about the negative effects of the polycentric and decentralized nature of the Randstad: Gouda and the neighbouring towns like Waddinxveen and Reeuwijk are still expanding from inward to outward. These urban areas have an introverted lay-out, with the arrival of one of the most large scaled developments within the Randstad, the edges of these cities will adjoin the urban sprawl of Rotterdam. This

Goudse Poort

Bloemendaal

(with sub-centre)

Goverwelle

(with sub-centre)

fig. 2.3.a: Developments in Gouda 1965-1995.

pedestrian/ cycle routes

Historic centre

fig. 2.3.b: Spatial system leading to city centre.

26

will lead to more fragmented open spaces, more segregation issues and more barrier-like areas full of ring-roads, buffer zones and infrastructure leading along the backsides of business parks without any clear spatial system. And points regarding lack of a spatial system leading to functions in the periphery and the surrounding landscape is also very interesting too look at. As are difficult to reach by foot or bike and soon.

“Half of the city of Gouda is built according to people’s behaviour in the ‘60s and ‘70s, large urban working and living areas are now outdated.” URBAN CONCEPT OF GOUDA IN A NUTSHELL Gouda is a middle-sized city is located at the inner edge of the Randstad and holds around 71.000 inhabitants (CBS, 2015). Its current urban form mainly originated from urban plans and visions from the late ‘60s and ‘70s, when it was marked by the national government as a ‘satellite city’, a town where urbanization needed to take place instead of expanding the larger cities like Rotterdam and Den Haag (Municipality of Gouda, 1969). The people living in this time period were longing for an ordinary single-family house, situated in a calm and peaceful environment and the nearness of a cluster of daily amenities. Working districts needed to be isolated in monotonous areas in the periphery of the city and at a logistical favourable location (bron). In Gouda this resulted into the suburban neighbourhoods of ‘Bloemendaal’ and ‘Goverwelle’ and the business park ‘Goudse Poort’. Bloemendaal and Goverwelle were shaped according to the preferences of the just mentioned lifestyle. It are self-reliant city-quarters, each with their very own sub-centre with daily amenities which is greatly integrated in the spatial system of the neighbourhood. This spatial system for pedestrians and cyclists is also linked the historical centre of the city, although the neighbourhoods themselves are still somewhat morphologically separated from the rest of Gouda and its surroundings: a large zone of green buffer areas, heavy motorways and waterways surrounds the city-quarters. The working area of Goudse Poort holds a mixed assortment of business premises, office buildings and retail warehouses. While the more industrial premises are situated in the inner parts of the area, the office buildings are located along the edge, which make them goodly visible from the main motor ways, likewise the entryways of the city. The access routes however are situated at the backsides of all the plots. Goudse Poort is also badly integrated with the spatial system of the city, there are no special routes for pedestrian and cyclists leading through the area itself or its surroundings. From the living quarters of Gouda the Goudse Poort seems almost not to exist. HOW WELL IS THIS URBAN CONCEPT KEEPING UP? But the socio-economic context has changed during the last fifty years, as explained in chapter 2.1. People within the Randstad have gotten a less comparable lifestyle and their mobility patterns became less predictable. They do not use the city in

THE HAGUE


LEIDEN ALPHEN A/D RIJN UTRECHT WOERDEN ZOETERMEER

GOUDA W’VEEN

DELFT PROJECT LOCATION

SCHOONHOVEN ROTTERDAM

10 KM

fig. 2.3.c: Location of this graduation project. fig. 2.3.d: Birds-eye view of Gouda and the surrounding towns

27


CHAPTER 2: PROBLEM FIELD

SOCIETY VS URBANITY: CASE GOUDA

a traditional way anymore and assemble from several ‘fragments’ in the whole urban field of the Randstad their own personal ‘city’. More and more they use functions in the peripheral areas or the neighbouring cities. But most neighbourhoods of Gouda are planned to be reliant on their own and have an introverted character. The sub-centres of Bloemendaal and Goverwelle and the historical centre of Gouda are, in how they are spatially integrated, morphologically the hearts of the city. But recently many amenities are popping up in the periphery of the city and the neighbouring municipalities. If you do not have a car, these areas are difficult and not enjoyable to reach. Both at neighbourhood-level and city-level the urban area is surrounded by barrier-like functions, while we learned if we want a better liveable metropolitan region, that we need a more coherent urbanity.

“In 2015 the municipality of Gouda had the most office vacancy of the whole of the Netherlands.” Currently the sub-centres in Bloemendaal & Goverwelle are losing their functions, resulting in vacant buildings. This is the same story for the historical city centre, which more and more turns into a tourist attraction and place to dine and drink instead of place you go to for your daily amenities. The liveability ratings of both neighbourhoods are also starting to decline (bron). The appeal of the working area of Goudse Poort has also decreased due problems regarding the changed socio-economic context. This leaded to that in 2015 the municipality of Gouda had the most office vacancy of the whole of the Netherlands: 31% (DTZ Zadelhoff, 2015). Probably because companies now want to be located in more specialized locations and not anymore be mixed with retail and industrial-like functions, but also the competition of newer working areas within the Randstad will likely play a role (bron). GOUDA VS THE METROPOLITAN URBAN SPRAWL Within the spatial structure of the Randstad, Gouda was for a long time autonomous. The edge of the closest big city, Rotterdam, was during the late ‘60s

fig. 2.3.e: The ‘edge’ of the metropolitan urbanity is coming closer. Could this lead to a threat or to new possibilities? roughly 15 km away from Gouda. However, as the agglomeration of Rotterdam kept expanding, this situation changed and currently the edges of both cities are less than 5 km situated from each other. Within this small distance, one can find the Zuidplaspolder, where now many new developments are planned or even already started. At page 22 could be read that the Zuidplaspolder is one of the last ‘empty’ areas within the Randstad that can be built and that it will be developed in small urban particles as extension from the neighbouring municipalities. The municipality of Gouda for example planned new living quarter of ‘Westergouwe’, the municipality of Waddinxveen is now building the neighbourhood of ‘Triangel’ and several business parks and also the cities of Moordrecht, Zevenhuizen and Nieuwerkerk a/d IJssel are gradually expanding their urban area inwards the Zuidplaspolder. In 2030 it will lead to that the urban area of Gouda is attached to the urban sprawl of the Rotterdam/The Hague region. These new large scale developments could have a positive, but also a negative outcome for Gouda. Negative, considering new residential and working areas could attract high- and middle-class people and companies from the outdated parts of the city, leading to segregation (see the VINEX-example at page x). Positive, because it could lead to new opportunities to link older areas in Gouda with developments in the surroundings, making it a less introverted city, however, a good spatial interconnectivity between old and new areas is a must. This will be a hard unfortunately. Because the side of Gouda where the new developments will take place, the western side, is also the side of city with the most spatial obstacles. A bundle of green buffer zones, heavy infrastructure, waterways and hard to pass business areas closes the city of from its surroundings. Gouda is in its current form not ready to be integrated into the metropolitan region of the Randstad.

fig. 2.3.f: 31% of the offices are vacant in Gouda.

28


URBAN CONCEPT OF GOUDA, SUB-centres ENITIES DAILY AM + SCHOOLS CHURCH ON

RECREATI

Most of Gouda’s neighbourhoods are built according to people’s behaviour of the ‘60s & 70’s.

HOUSEHOLD HOUSEHOLD

HOUSEHOLD HOUSEHOLD

URBAN CONCEPT OF GOUDA, CITY EDGES INDUSTRY BUFFERGREEN

HIGHWAY OFFICES

CANAL

SPORT FIELDS

CEMETERY INDUSTRY

REGIONAL ROAD

‘City edge functions’ like working areas and heavy infrastructure were strictly seperated from the living quarters and planned in the boundaries of Gouda. Defining ‘the end of the city’.

CHANGING SURROUNDINGS, Developments in the west In the western environment of Gouda new developments are going to take place/already started to develop.

WORKING AREAS

WORKING AREAS

LIVING AREAS

LIVING AREAS

29


HOW GOUDA IS PLANNED,..

The amenities-cluster as centrality

CLUSTER

GOUDA

...BUT HOW PEOPLE ARE USING THE BUILT SPACE.

A SINGLE HOUSEHOLD AS CENTRALITY

recreation

BODEGRAVEN ZOETERMEER LEISURE

household

SPORT

MEETING

FARM MARKET

GOUDA

BLEISWIJK WORK

SPORT

SHOPPING

CAPELLE A/D IJSSEL CULTURE

ROTTERDAM

COMPARING SIZE OF RESIDENTIAL AREAS IN GOUDA & PLANNED ZUIDPLASPOLDER GOUDA

Residential areas

DEVELOPMENTS ZUIDPLASPOLDER Planned residential areas

uncertain

30


THREAT, SETTLING MID-CLASS PEOPLE WILL LEAVE THE CITY '7os neighbourhood

HIGH UR B AREAS AN NEIGHBNEWER OURHO ODS

PRE-WAR NEIGHBOURHOODS

'8os neighb

ourhood

NEW NEIGHBOURER HO

ODS

THREAT, COMPANIES LEAVING THE CITY

'8os BUSINESS PARK

GOUDSE POORT, CURRENT VACANCY 5750 m2 4800 m

2

3800 m2 5250 m2 3250 m2 5600 m2

1410 m2

1250 m2 5575 m2

3260 m2

3900 m2

765 m2

100% vacant more than 66% vacant more than 33% vacant

1118 m2 2575 m2

3025 m2

looking for a new user soon

31


DEVELOPMENTS IN THE ZUIDPLASPOLDER, ALREADY EXISTING & PLANNED PROJECTS fig. 2.2.d: Almost empty Zuidplaspolder (1990)

ZOETERMEER

W’VEEN

GOUDA

ZUIDPLASPOLDER

R’DAM

fig. 2.2.e: First signs of urbanization in the Zuidplaspolder (2015)

ZOETERMEER

W’VEEN

GOUDA

ZUIDPLASPOLDER

R’DAM

Project information:WORKING ‘T SUYT

1

2 GLASPAREL+ WHAT:

WHAT:

80 dwellings WHEN:

2015-2020 STATUS:

almost completed

32

greenhouse & logistic. area (130 ha) WHEN:

2015-2020 STATUS:

construction about to / just started

WORKING

3 KNIBBELWEG-O. & SWANLA DR.

4

ZEVENHUIZENZUID

5 MOERKAPELLE

6 DE BRINKHORST

WHAT:

greenhouse & logistic. area WHEN:

2015-2025 STATUS:

construction about to / just started

WHAT:

1.200 dwellings WHEN:

2015-2030 STATUS:

first building phase initiated

WHAT:

800 dwellings WHEN:

2015-2030 STATUS:

first building phase initiated

WHAT:

320 dwellings WHEN:

2015-2025 STATUS:

construction about to / just started

7 WESTERGOUWE WHAT:

3.500-4.000 dwellings WHEN:

2015-2030 STATUS:

first building phase initiated


fig. 2.2.f: Aready initiated projects & projects at short term planning phase (2015-2030)

ZOETERMEER

W’VEEN

5 1

8 2 GOUDA

3 4 7

9 6

10

R’DAM

fig. 2.2.g: Projects at long term planning phase & still unsure (after 2030)

ZOETERMEER

W’VEEN

GOUDA

12 11

R’DAM

WORKING

8

TRIANGEL

WHAT:

2.900 dwellings & offices WHEN:

2015-2030 STATUS:

first building phase initiated

9

RODE WATERPAREL & NIEUWERKERK-N.

WHAT:

3.100 dwellings WHEN:

2020-2030 STATUS:

planning phase / still has to start

10 NIEUWERKERKNOORD

UNCERTAIN

& 11 RINGVAARTDORP HET NIEUWE MIDDEN

WHAT:

business park & greenhouse area

WHAT:

WHEN:

WHEN:

2020-2030 STATUS:

planning phase / still has to start

+10.000 dwellings after 2030 STATUS:

uncertain

UNCERTAIN

12 GOUWEKNOOP WHAT:

+1.000 dwellings, centre functions & offices

RESIDENTIAL AREA WORKING AREA GREENHOUSES + HORTICULTURE WATER

WHEN:

after 2030

MAIN ROAD

STATUS:

uncertain

33


CHAPTER 2: PROBLEM FIELD

THE NECESSITY OF A BETTER SPATIAL INTEGRATION BETWEEN GOUDA & THE RANDSTAD

2.4 THE NEcessity of A better spatial integration between gouda & the randstad PROBLEM STATEMENT Since the preferences and mobility patterns of most households during the early post-war era was quite similar, the city (sub-) centres within the Dutch region of the Randstad were for quite a long time the midpoints of urbanity. This resulted into many introverted urban entities all over the Randstad: new urban areas were hierarchically placed around these inner centres and the edge of the city was planned with less attractive functions like heavy infrastructural lines, industrial zones and sound barriers. This spatial concept is clearly visible in the city of Gouda, a middle-sized city located in the centre of the Randstad. However, the preferences and mobility patterns of households living in the Randstad has changed. People now compose their own city together from amenities scattered over a whole larger region and are getting less dependent on the traditional (sub-) centres of the city. The main function of these centres is therefore progressively changing and more public and commercial functions are popping up in the periphery of the city. These socio-economic changes conflict with the fragmented and introverted lay-out of cities within the Randstad, yet many

municipalities still expand their cities in ‘traditional’ sense. This phenomenon is also noticeable in Gouda and its neighbouring municipalities and soon, with the development of the Zuidplaspolder, the edges of these introverted urban entities will adjoin each other. The Randstad turns into an incoherent patchwork of urban areas and this has negative impact on the region: the open landscape becomes less accessible, residential and working areas are getting obsolete at a faster rate and a growing number of amenities is only attractive to get to by car. Threatening the sustainability, economy and maybe most importantly, the liveability of the Randstad. This problematique regarding the inconsistent spatial configuration of cities towards their surroundings will play a huge role for the city of Gouda. If nothing will be done to help prevent these problems it will unquestionably create segregation issues which have negative effects on the liveability of the city, which is unwished for.

AIM OF THIS PROJECT My main objective is to create a better liveability for the inhabitants of Gouda and therefore indirectly improve the liveability for the metropolitan region of the Randstad as a whole. For a better liveability, introverted entities within the Randstad like the city of Gouda, need to be better suited for the rapidly changing society. The new urbanity is an urbanity without a city and the spatial interconnection between urban areas within the Randstad needs to

be improved. Areas within the periphery of the city and the open landscape need to be more attractive and better accessible to reach, not only by car, but also by cycling and/or walking. For Gouda it means there is a necessity for a better integration with its surroundings, one or more spatial configurations which will make the city better suitable for changes in the future.

This brings us to the main research question of this project:

“Which spatial configurations will allow Gouda to be better integrated into its surroundings and therefore create a better liveability for its inhabitants and the metropolitan region as a whole?”

With this question shall be dealt with in the following chapter.

34


CURRENT SITUATION

THREAT

AIM

35


CHAPTER 3

RESEARCH For an improved liveability of Gouda the city needs to be better integrated with its surroundings. There is an urgency for a new spatial configuration that makes Gouda less introverted and therefore better prepared for the future. However, before a proposal for a new configuration can be made, there first needs to be answered three sub-questions: What is a spatial configuration exactly and how can it help integrating the city? With which spatial systems is Gouda already integrated and what are qualities and shortcomings of these integrations? Which areas in and around Gouda need to be connected with this spatial configuration? The outcome of these three sub-questions will be presented in this chapter.


CHAPTER 3: RESEARCH

AN INVESTIGATION TO GOOD SPATIAL CONFIGURATIONS

3.1 An investigation to good spatial configurations In chapter two was explained that there tends to be primarily a problem with the inaccessibility of certain areas within the urban field, particularly for people without a car. It was also mentioned that there is a lack of continuing open structures and that there is a large number of urban areas that have a certain inadaptability to socio-economic changes. This is mainly due the lack of a good spatial configurations in large parts of the Randstad, but what is a ‘good’ spatial configuration then? A SUCCESSFUL SPATIAL SYSTEM The essence of a good spatial configuration can be found in clear composition of open spaces. These spaces are at least as important for the city as the physical attributes and function of the buildings. According to Jan Gehl, a Danish urban planner expert, the composition and quality of open spaces had slipped through many planners minds when planning urban areas since the ‘60s. Since the arrival of the car the life between buildings has been forgotten, which leaded to dysfunctional, less attractive and less sustainable city environments (Gehl & Svarre, 2013). The shortage of a good spatial configuration within the Randstad and Gouda is about the lack of a coherent system of accessible

unsucceSsful SPATIAL SYSTEM fragmented patches dead ends

succeSsful SPATIAL SYSTEM interlinked patches

variation in routes

38

“Death ends and fragmented spaces should be avoided as much as possible when planning a succesful spatial configuration.” VIEWING SPATIAL SYSTEMS IN A QUANTITATIVE WAY Open spaces could be interpreted as spatial routes through urbanity, but also as a destination on their own. Within the science of ‘landscape ecology’ these open spaces could be classified within three different categories (Dramstad, Olson & Forman, 1996). Firstly, there are the ‘patches’. These are homogenous open spaces which are clearly different then their surroundings. Most of the time these are the destination areas within the spatial system and could for instance be a large forest or a small park. Secondly, there are ‘corridors’. One can recognize corridors because they connect patches or other urban areas. They form the spatial routes through the city and could be a river or historical country road. Often they are strip-shaped and interconnect on another to form networks. Thirdly, there is the ‘matrix’. This forms the landcover that dominates the landscape, what in the Randstad is in most cases the polder landscape. A successful spatial configuration holds a coherent network of patches and corridors that are interlinked with each other. Patches that are fragmented and corridors with dead ends need to be avoided as much as possible when planning a city. It has also been proved that an assortment of corridors is better than only one route of open spaces. So when looking for a new spatial configuration for Gouda these aspects must be taken into account (Dramstad, Olson & Forman, 1996; Kunstler, 1996).

no variation in routes

no dead ends

and attractive open spaces. The resolution for this problem could probably be found in a modification of the space in between the buildings, and not in transforming the built space themselves.

But a good spatial system is not only about a coherent network of patches and corridors. It is also about in what way the space itself is filled in and in what way it is perceived by its users. It is about what the function, scale and arrangement of the open space is. A highway and a green passageway for example could both be categorized as ‘corridors’ and could both be identified as successful when they interconnected with other corridors and patches. Then they are good in a ‘quantitative’ way. However, the function, scale and arrangement of these corridors are in this case the opposites of each other and could therefore ‘qualitatively’ differ a lot.


WEST-Gouda, OPEN SPACES QUANTITATIVE

patch

corridor

matrix

WEST-Gouda, OPEN SPACES QUALITATIVE

agricultural lands sound barrier green park ditch structure not accessible area (private/road) marsh-like area canal

39


CHAPTER 3: RESEARCH

AN INVESTIGATION TO GOOD SPATIAL CONFIGURATIONS

VIEWING SPATIAL SYSTEMS IN A QUALITATIVE WAY Open spaces (the separate components of a spatial system) could be divided into two different categories when looking at their qualitative aspects. You have the spatial components that fall under the ‘functional spatial system’ and ones that can be categorized under the ‘public spatial system’. Spaces which fall within the functional spatial system are not really meant for staying purposes. They are primarily meant as fastest route from point A to point B. In their structure, these spaces need to ‘flow’ through the built space. Junctions and other distractions are avoided as much as possible. Their users (cyclists, cars, public transport) are therefore in most cases also separated from each other. The way-

finding trough these areas is based around following signs and marks on the road. Spatial components that fall under this system are for example high ways, access roads of the city, rail road structures and car-parks. Spaces which could be categorizes under the public spatial system have a more multifunctional purpose in their use. They are not only meant to move people through urbanity, but also meant for staying purposes and to do other activities. The structure of these spaces is more human scaled: there are more access point and interactions with the buildings around it in comparison to the functional system. In most cases users are not separated and use the same space. Way-finding is based on the visual

experiencING THE FUNCTIONAL SPATIAL SYSTEM

one-functional purpose

wayfinding based on signs/marks

not much interaction with environment

users seperated

experiencING THE PUBLIC SPATIAL SYSTEM wayfinding based on visual aspects users share same space

multifunctional purpose

40

interaction w environmenith t


aspects of the environment and landmarks in the distance. Examples of spatial components that fall under the public spatial system are squares, historical patterns and green-blue elements like parks.

“We do not miss the qualities of the functional spatial system, but the qualitites of the public spatial system.” Why is it so important to make this distinction between functional- and public spatial systems? Is it maybe that public spatial systems have more qualities then the functional ones? No, that is not really the case: a coherent functional spatial system is just as important for an urban region as a public system and a region could not work properly without it. But, as also mentioned by Jan Gehl and explained in chapter 2.2, this functional system is overrepresented in our cities, while the public spatial system is lacking and only getting more fragmented. And then the differences matter. Because we do not miss the qualities of the functional spatial system in the Randstad and Gouda. But we miss the qualities of a public spatial system. HOW THE QUALITIES OF PUBLIC SPATIAL SYSTEMS CAN HELP INTEGRATE OUR CITIES A coherent network of public spaces can help resolve the issues found in the Randstad and Gouda. Firstly it improves the accessibility of the area it is connected with for more users, secondly it helps to find our way-finding through the urban area, thirdly it makes the area more adaptable to socioeconomic changes and fourthly it increases the life and health-condition of the people in the area. In the next few paragraphs these benefits will be explained in more detail. ACCESSIBILITY A coherent system of public spaces can help increase the accessibility of areas within the urban field. Functional spatial systems do that to, but the main difference is that public spatial systems are not only designed with one certain user (like car users) in mind, but are also attractive to use for pedestrian and cyclists. Routes for slower traffic can also be found within functional systems, but the en-

MOVING IN A spatial system. intersections Functional spatial system (Burg. v. Reenensingel, Gouda).

5oo m

4oo m

Public spatial system (Achterwillenseweg, Gouda).

5o m 1oo m

9o m

2oo m

2oo m

5o m

vironments are monotonous and there is a lack of human scale, discouraging people to use the bike or walk and rather take the car. And while car usage has grown over the years, there are still large groups of people that are not able to drive a car, for instance because they are too old or do not have the money. If amenities are shifting more and more towards the periphery, how do these groups of people come here? American urban planner Lynch formulated that an accessible city allows people of all ages and backgrounds to gain all the activities, resources, services and information that they need (Montgomery, 1998). ORIENTATION Public spatial systems help find our way-finding through the urban area and let people better understand reading the complex urbanity (Tummers & Tummers-Zuurmond, 2000). There is more interaction between the built and open space in these kind of systems. Letting the environment feel less confusing and more recognizable. Functional systems usually miss these aspects of ‘way-finding’ and have more barrier-like obstacles, such as buffer areas and infrastructural constructions, when wanting to traverse them. ADAPTABILITY Public systems help improving the adaptability of an urban area it is intertwined with and giving it more chances to succeed in the future despite socio-economic changes. This is mainly because the exact activity of a component within the public system like a park, square or pre-war street is less defined/more adjustable then a component within the functional system like an access road, a parking area or post-war street. Take a look at open spaces within urban areas of the beginning of the 20th century and the historical centre. Here the meaning of space was less defined, leading to that the activities found in the open space shifted throughout the years from residential use, to parking space, to shopping space to place to recreate: these areas were very resistant to socio-economic changes. Post-war residential areas and office areas are much less resistant. Functional spatial systems have here the upper hand and it is hard to change a certain activity on this area, making them vulnerable for segregation (Montgomery, 1998; Gehl & Svarre, 2013).

“The exact activity in the public system is less defined then the functional system and therefore better resistant to socioeconomic changes” Public spatial systems also make urban areas more future-proof because they have certain attractiveness-factor. These spaces have better interaction with the underlying landscape and buildings around them, giving them a more recognizable identity then the functional systems. Several studies show that the nearness of qualitative

41


CHAPTER 3: RESEARCH

AN INVESTIGATION TO GOOD SPATIAL CONFIGURATIONS

parks and landscapes lead to a better appreciation of the environment by its inhabitants (Laeremans & Braaksma, 2014; VROM, 2008). LIFE & HEALTH Certain behaviours, like driving a car, could (indirectly) lead to negative influences to the city or the people themselves. For instance because these habits produce pollution, trigger segregation, stimulate crime, urban sprawl or activate stress. Therefore in urban planning it could sometimes be better to avoid these behaviours instead of encourage them. A well planned public spatial system triggers more people to cycle to do their groceries or to take a walk during their working-break, nowadays too many people do not exercise enough which have negative effects on their health (D’ Acci, 2013). An attractive public space also prevents people from isolating themselves and meet new people (Pötz & Bleuzé, 2012).

Green-blue public spaces like parks, rivers and landscapes can also act as the ‘lungs’ of the metropolitan region. As could be read at page x, the Netherlands is one of the most polluted areas in Europe regarding air quality. Next to this, longer periods of rain and drought become more common in this country. A continuity of green-blue public spaces can reduce this climate-problem. Vegetation absorbs water after heavy rainfall, unpaved spaces and the shade of trees cool urban areas down during hot days and a coherent green-blue network draws in fresh air from the surrounding landscape (Pötz & Bleuzé, 2012). Now, almost 40% of the Dutch inhabitants is living in a neighbourhood which is lacking qualitative green areas (Pötz & Bleuzé, 2012). In the Randstad this percentage is likely higher.

fig. 3.1.a.: People walking along an unattractive ‘functional’ spatial system: a regional motorway. Would it not be nicer if there was a more ‘public’ system?

42


fig. 3.1.b: Table with the conclusions of this chapter, answering the question ‘‘what is a spatial configuration exactly and how can it help integrating the city?’

INTEGRATING THE CITY WITH A GOOD SPATIAL SYSTEM Gouda has to get less introverted and better prepared for the rapidly changing region and society. Areas within the periphery of city and the open landscape are now not accessible enough to get too for people without a car. Certain urban areas lack the capacity to adapt to socio-economic changes and are getting obsolete. All by all this is threatening the liveability of the city. A good new spatial system could help prevent these issues. This spatial system needs to be good in a ‘quantitative’ way: meaning it holds a coherent network of patches, corridors and a matrix. All the spaces in this network should be interlinked with each other. Death ends and fragmented spaces should be avoided as

much as possible and there should be more than one route to take through it. This system also needs to be good in a qualitative way. There should not only be investigated into improving the quality of the functional spatial system, but also into improving the public spatial system. This public system is lacking in our cities and is indirectly linked to the problems found in Gouda. A coherent network of public spaces firstly improves the accessibility of the area it is connected with for more users, secondly it helps to find our way-finding through the urban area, thirdly it makes the area more adaptable to socio-economic changes and fourthly it increases the life and health-condition for the people in the area.

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CHAPTER 3: RESEARCH

THE SPATIAL INTEGRATION OF GOUDA

3.2 THE SPATIAL INTEGRATION OF GOUDA The urban concept of the city Gouda is becoming obsolete and the developments in the Zuidplaspolder can speed up this process. A more coherent spatial network and a better integration with Gouda’s surroundings could help resolve these issues and in chapter 3.1 we learned that especially the ‘public spatial system’ in the city needs be improved. A spatial system which is not only based around the car, but built around cyclists and pedestrians.

FIVE TYPES OF STRUCTURES IN GOUDA.

PUBLIC TRANSPORT LINES

MOTOR WAY STRUCTURE

WATER WAY + DIKE STRUCTURE

‘LINTWEG’ STRUCTURE

MORE PART OF THE

MORE PART OF THE

FUNCTIONAL SYSTEM This research will eventually lead to a proposal for new spatial configuration for Gouda, but first there needs to be investigated where and with which spatial systems Gouda is already integrated. A quick-scan of the city in chapter 2.3 led to the conclusion that the city is an introverted entity and based too much around car. But where exactly in the city are these shortcomings, these dead ending corridors and fragmented patches? Where is the city is a modification in the spatial system the most needed? This chapter is focused around these questions and tries answering them. The spatial system of Gouda is quite complex, the following research will therefore divide the open spaces which are present in city in five categories

GREEN STRUCTURE

PUBLIC SYSTEM

fig. 3.2.a: Structures that are going to be treated in the chapter. Some have mainly functional attributes while others heve essentially public qualities. when looking at them. These categories are the railway structure, motor way structure, waterway structure, ‘lintweg’ structure and green structure. The first structures just mentioned are in most cases part of the ‘functional spatial system’, the latter ones are in most situations part of the ‘public spatial system’. Next to that they also have certain attributes, weaknesses and strengths which distinguish them from each other. Here follows a short explanation of every structure.

FIVE TYPES OF STRUCTURES SYSTEm I. THE 'LINTWEG' STRUCTURE ATTRIBUTES - most of times with ditches on both sides - little bit higher than the land around it - buildings from lots of different ages along it - in more urbanized cases more buildings and less ditches

STRENGHTS - buildings along it have front to this side - superb relation with the underlaying landscape - connects the old town- and city centres - when crossing it’s not a barrier due its human scaled nature

WEAKNESSES - in most cases isn’t connected with functions in perifery - when mixed with cars, it loses characteristics fast Example: Voorwillenseweg, Gouda.

The Lintweg structure (literal translation: ‘lintweg’ means ‘tape road’) is a typical Dutch structure that was formed during the cultivation of the polder lands. Lintweg structures have the characteristics of a ‘public’ system: users share the same space, its form is directly linked with the environment/landscape, there are many human scaled elements and due its age it is quite varied in its appearance. Lintweg structures can be found in low-density areas as well as more highly urban areas.

44


SYSTEm II. THE WATERWAY STRUCTURE ATTRIBUTES - dikes on both sides with a mass of water in the middle - largely scaled structure - higher than the land around it

STRENGHTS - naturally a large spatial element within the busy urban area - connects different cities and villages directly at larger scale - water adds excitement to an area: watching boats, recreational activities on the water, etc. - not much hardened surface, so absorbs water

WEAKNESSES - hard to cross due the water in the middle of the structure - hard to cross because it is much higher than its surroundings Example: Gouwekanaal, Gouda.

This structure exist out of elements such as rivers and canals and the strip-shaped space along it, which is in most cases a dike. This structure has both ‘public’ and ‘functional’ characteristics. The dikes along the water share a lot of resemblances with the Lintweg structures, except due the water it is quite difficult to cross this structure. Human scaled elements are also less common (although it depends on the situation), because the main purpose of this structure is to transport ships over large distances. Because of its scale and sensitivity for floods it is also one of the structures that is the hardest to modify.

SYSTEm III. THE RAILWAY STRUCTURE ATTRIBUTES - is build around railway tracks (which could be only one track, but also more, like six) - largely scaled structure - recognizable from afar due trainwires and the tracks

STRENGHTS - transports people with trains at very fast speed - is without many detours directly connected to the inner parts of city - the stations are some of the most bustling nodes in the city

WEAKNES SES - comes with sound barriers/height differences/buffer green and therefore forms a barrier through the city - access to use the transport of this structure is only every few kilometres - railway tracks should always be seperated from other users

Example: Railway, Gouda.

Spatial elements of the railway structure are for example the railway tracks, a station, the dike where the tracks are situated on and a road along the railway. Due the inaccessibility of the tracks for other users and the buffer zones/height differences along it, it is a structure which is quite difficult to cross. Also the fact that this structure only ‘lands’ every few kilometers in the city (the stations) makes this one of the most purest examples of a functional spatial system.

45


CHAPTER 3: RESEARCH

THE SPATIAL INTEGRATION OF GOUDA

SYSTEm IV. MOTOR WAY STRUCTURE ATTRIBUTES - routes for pedestrians, cyclists and cars are divided and do not share the same space - in most cases the structure itself is seperated from the underlaying landscape and the environment

STRENGHTS - transports car-users at very fast speed - part of a coherent functional spatial structure

WEAKNESSES - due traffic lights, lack of human scale elements and backsides of urban areas not very attractive to use for cyclists & pedestrians - the large traffic interesections and buffer zones make this a very barrierlike structure - environment around the structure is hidden

Example: Burg. v. Reenensingel, Gouda.

The motor way structure is one of the most dominating structures in the Randstad and exists out of elements such as highways, parkways, city access roads and parking areas. The name of this structure implies that this structure is only meant for cars, but in most cases there is also a road for cyclists and pedestrians, although they do not share the same space as the cars and are separated from each other. The way-finding trough this structure is based around following signs and marks on the road as this structure is not always related to landscape and urban environment itself.

SYSTEm V. GREEN STRUCTURE ATTRIBUTES - holds trees, vegetation and water - could hold multiple routes for pedestrians, cyclists and in some cases cars - purpose of the space is not definied and could be decided by the residents

STRENGHTS - attractive for staying purposes and recreational activites - easy to cross, in most cases it has not to form a barrier - draw in fresh air, so they act as ‘lungs’ for the city - not that much hardened surface, so can absorb water after heavy rainfall - ecological purposes (animals & plants)

WEAKNESSES - when mixed with cars it loses its nice characteristics fast - does not transport people at a fast rate

Example: Steinenburg, Gouda.

This structure is a spatial pattern or route composed of parks, unbuilt lands and other green elements. It is also typical public spatial system. So is this structure not only meant to transport people, but could also be used for other (recreational) activities. Users share the same space with each other and way-finding is based around visual elements in the structure itself and in the near area. Due its human scaled nature it is also not hard to cross this structure.

46


LINTWEG STRUCTURE

THE 'LINTWEG' STRUCTURE IN GOUDA DEVELOPMENT OF THE FIRST ‘LINTWEGEN’ AFTER LANDS WERE CULTIVATED

1100 Winterdijk

Bloemendaalseweg

e uw Go

swamplands cultivated lands river

Ho lla nd se

IJs se l

Voorwillenseweg

lintweg

2 KM The first structure that is going to be explored is the ‘Lintweg’ structure because this was the first man-made spatial system in this location. In the middle ages people cultivated lands in this area for farming. They made the pattern of the ditches right-angled from the rivers ‘Gouwe’ and ‘Hollandse IJssel’ These lands were around 1 km deep and hereafter started to develop the first ‘Lintwegen’.

fig. 3.2.c: The Winterdijk. (see its location above) is a thin lintweg-structure. The parts that still exist do not have that many buildings along it.

fig. 3.2.b: The Bloemendaalseweg (see its location above) is a lintweg-structure which shape originated from the Gouwe. Most part of it is still existing today with many farm-buildings built along its sides.

47


CHAPTER 3: RESEARCH

THE SPATIAL INTEGRATION OF GOUDA

CULTIVATING LANDS FURTHER INLAND & DEVELOPMENT OF THE MEDIEVAL CITY OF GOUDA from Oud e Rijn

1500

m fro

Platteweg

e uw Go

e uw Go

Gouda

IJs se l

from H. IJ ssel

Ho lla nd se

cultivated lands river lintweg

2 KM

Goudseweg

More lands were cultivated, further away from the rivers and again paired with more lintwegen. This resulted in a complex but coherent network of lintwegen. The medieval city of Gouda also started to take its form during this time. The city was strategically positioned at where the Gouwe meets the Hollandse IJssel and also placed like a spider in a web of lintwegen. This lintweg network was used by people in Gouda to travel to other cities like Rotterdam and Oudewater. The street pattern and buildings plots within the medieval city of Gouda were the same as the ditch-structure of the cultivated lands below it, leading to a strong connection to the rivers and lintwegen. FIRST DISRUPTIONS: THE REALISATION OF THE ZUIDPLASPOLDER

1850

Waddinxveen-Noord

connecting new & old

Waddinxveen-Zuid

Zuidplaspolder

disrupting the old structure

Gouda

connecting new & old

2 KM The polders to the west of Gouda transformed during the 18th century to a huge lake area due peat extraction. In the 19th century people decided to drain here new polders again and this resulted into the Zuidplaspolder. The configuration of this polder was far more largely-scaled and rationalized than its predecessor. All ditches and the lintweg-structures are built in a 45° angle, making the pattern that was aimed at the Gouwe and Hollandse IJssel disappear. Some older lintweg structures were disrupted by the configuration of the Zuidplaspolder, leading to dead-ends and confusing routes to the west. The small village of Waddinxveen also started to develop around this time inbetween the Gouwe and the north-eastern corner of the Zuidplaspolder.

48


LINTWEG STRUCTURE CANALS THAT CUT THROUGH THE LINTWEG STRUCTURES

1935

W’veen

Reeuwijkse Plassen

Nieuwe Gouwe

Gouda

Cutting through lintweg-structures

Gouwekanaal

2 KM Again some modifications in the west. This time it are new canals that are cutting the lintweg-structures, leaving no structures of lintwegen behind to connect Gouda to the west. In the north also some new water structures: the peat-lakes of Reeuwijkse Plassen (end 18th century). Thet did not disrupt the lintwegen, but only transformed farm land to water. BUILDING PLOT PATTERNS IN THE NEW URBANITY

1900-2015 odd pattern

ijk terd Win

rn tte pa l a in ig or

rn te at p l na igi or pattern original

odd pattern

Goudse Poort

Plaswijck

Goverwelle

2 KM From the beginning of the 20th century till today the open farmlands around Gouda have been converted to urbanity. It can be noticed that most plots of the new neighbourhoods follow the ditch-pattern of the cultivated lands below it. This is for example the case in Goverwelle. The lintweg-structure is also still there which gives this neighbourhood a good interconnection with system of the lintwegen. This is not the same for Plaswijck: the building plots here do not follow the ditch-pattern below it, making it difficult for this neighbourhood to find a spatial connection with the nearby lintweg-structures. This is the same story for (the eastern part of) the working area of Goudse Poort. Here, the building plots are again different than the layer of land below it and here even the lintweg-structure of Winterdijk has been cut to be replaced with a new urban pattern.

49


CHAPTER 3: RESEARCH

THE SPATIAL INTEGRATION OF GOUDA

INFRASTRUCTURAL LINES THAT DIFFER FROM THE DITCH-PATTERN BELOW

1900-2015

Railway rn rn tte te pa at l p a l odd pattern n na igi igi or or

n

r te at p al in ig or

n

r te at p al in ig or

odd pattern

al in ig r o

rn tte pa

Gouweknoop

2 KM Not only did the shape of some neighbourhoods not follow the ditch-patterns. Also some main infrastructural lines, like the motorway- and railway-junction of Gouweknoop in the west, contrasted largely with the layer below it. This, together with disruptions mentioned on the pages earlier (canals, the Zuidplaspolder and the building plots of Goudse Poort) makes the lintweg-structure from Gouda towards the west very fragmented.

50


LINTWEG STRUCTURE, INTEGRATED AREAS

Kerkw eg

ZOOMING IN ON WINTERDIJK

eg sw ar dw

Winterdijk 1850: still in unharmed form.

Polder Blomendaal (<1300)

e ijk el rd o No W’veen Zuidplas (1990)

W’veen

Reeuwijk

eg ew als da en m oe Bl

Reeuw. Plassen (1850)

Bloemendaal (1970)

Ouwe Gouwe (1960)

eg lw de id M

illense Voorw

Oostpolder (<1300)

Korte Akkeren (1935)

Zu id el ijk e

dw ar sw eg

weg

Kort Haarlem (1935) eg w de n ie r. T oo M

Gouda

Go ud se we g Krimpenerwaard (<1300)

Zuidplaspolder (1850)

LINTWEG STRUCTURE, LARGE SCALE

k dij er int W

W int erd ijk

‘t Weegje (1850)

Alphen a/d Rijn

Winterdijk 1980: working areas and infrastructural lines shifted and distruped the lintweg-structure. Boskoop

To Leiden

Bergambacht

Waddinxveen

W’veen

Reeuwijk

Woerden Zoetermeer

Bentwoud y A12 Highwa

Zevenhuizen

Burg. van Re enensinge l Goudse Poort

Rott eme ren

Nesselande

Burg. Jame ssing el

Oudewater PROJECT LOCATION

Railway

e rgs Be s Bo

Gouda centre

Schoonhoven

AGE FLIP P MARY ! M U FOR S

Rotterdam Moordrecht Alexandrium

Nieuwerkerk a/d IJssel

Bergambacht

5 KM


CHAPTER 3: RESEARCH

LINTWEG STRUCTURE

THE SPATIAL INTEGRATION OF GOUDA

LINTWEG STRUCTURE, SUMMARY

oop to Bosk

Reeuwijk-brug: most part well integrated

to Boskoop/ Alphen

Reeuwijk-dorp

n to Leide

W’veen: junction in the lintweg system

rden + to Woewater Oude

Plaswijck: not integrated

Sport-park W’veen weg ndaalse Bloeme

Winte rdijk rkapelle to Moe rmeer + Zoete

Goverwelle centre

W’veen-Zuidplas W’veen Gouweplein

Goudse Poort:

Goverwelle:

not integrated

well integrated

Bloemendaal-west: Oostpolder: like an island

well integrated

High Schools Voorwillenseweg

rdijk Winte

Gouda centre

t ambach to Berg onhoven + Scho

to Z eve nhu izen

Moordrecht: not very well integrated

to R otte rda m

CONNECTING THE CENTRE OF GOUDa No good connections towards the west conclusion:

How is Gouda integrated with the Lintweg structure?

To landscap

e

PLASWIJCK Centre

GOUDSE POORT

ZUIDPLASPOLDER

“The Bloemendaalseweg & Achterwillenseweg are strong and connecting structures within this system.” “The city districts of Plaswijck & Goudse Poort are not connected.” g.”

“Structures leading from Gouda towards the west are missin “The Oostpolder is an isolated ‘island’ within this system.”

52


WATERWAY STRUCTURE

THE waterway STRUCTURE IN GOUDA THE GOUWE, HOLLANDSE IJSSEL & BREEVAART

1900

W’veen-Zuid

Breevaart

Reeuwijk-Brug

Go uw e

waterway route on dike

Ho lla nd se

IJs se l

Gouda

2 KM The city of Gouda originates from where the small winding river of the Gouwe flows into the Hollandse IJssel. This medieval part of the city has with its several canals a strong connection with waterway structure. The Breevaart (14th century) is a man-made waterway connecting Gouda with the town of Bodegraven. A few kilometres from Gouda people made a bridge to cross the Breevaart, later on here sprouted the village of Reeuwijk-Brug. The same happened at a bridge to cross the Gouwe: here emerged the village of Waddinxveen(-Zuid).

fig. 3.2.d: The Gouwekanaal (see its location above).

fig. 3.2.e: (see location above) Remains of an old dike along the Gouwe. The Gouwe itself (weedarea on the left) also holds no water anymore because it lost its role due the ‘Nieuwe Gouwe’.


CHAPTER 3: RESEARCH

THE SPATIAL INTEGRATION OF GOUDA

NEW CANALS TO WEST OF GOUDA

Breevaart

1910-1935

e uw Go

Nieuwe Gouwe

fig 3.2.e

Gouda fig 3.2.d

Gouwekanaal

Ho lla nd se

old route on dike

IJs se l

new waterway

erased route new route on dike

2 KM The Gouwe was always an important waterway for water traffic between Rotterdam and Amsterdam, but in the beginning of the 20th century it started to reach its capacity. To resolve this issue, people made two new canals to the west of Gouda: Nieuwe Gouwe (1910) and Gouwekanaal (1936). It resulted into that the old water structure in and around the medieval city of Gouda lost its function for transport traffic and it also leaded to the vanishing of some older routes atop of the dikes around the winding part of the Gouwe. MOTORWAYS ON TOP OF THE DIKE STRUCTURES

1960-2015

Reeuwijkbrug

07 N2

Breevaart

Wâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;veen

e uw Go

waterway route on dike

Ho lla nd se

IJ ss el

Gouda

motor way (erases old dike structure)

2 KM In the â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;60s the existing dike structures were, due its coherency and large scale reach, very attractive for urban planners to include into new motorway plans. Small routes atop of the dikes transformed to rational motor ways. Cars, bikes and pedestrians were separated from each other and some riverbanks got for the strolling people impossible to reach. This phenomenon is good visible at the eastern riverside of the Gouwe.

54

N228


WATERWAY STRUCTURE URBAN AREAS AND THEIR RELATION WITH THE WATERWAY STRUCTURE

1960-2015 green buffer

Breevaart

Plaswijck

e uw Go

Goudse Poort fig 3.2.f

N2 07

Goverwelle-east

waterway route on dike

Ho lla nd se

IJs se l

Gouda

2 KM The city districts in the north do not have a strong relation with the waterway structure. Plaswijck is spatially very introverted and surrounded by a green buffer zone. This is the same story for Goudse Poort: this area is not accessible from the waterside and the busy provincial road of the N207 is here a huge barrier. Goverwelle at the other hand is spatially quite good connected with the dikes of the Hollandse IJssel.

fig. 3.2.f: (see location above) Most riversides of the Gouwe in Gouda turned into one-functional motorways. While older dike structures were also places where alongside people could live, stay and work, these newer ones only have the purpose to transport through-traffic.

55


WATERWAY STRUCTURE, WATER TRAFFIC

Reeuwijk-Brug

B

Reeuwijkse Plassen

S

B B S

S

S

B

B

Gouda centre

S

S

heavy water traffic (cargo & recreational) light water traffic (recreational) ditches connected to water traffic system

S

S

lock

B

bridge

2 KM (-5,4)

WATERWAY STRUCTURE, WATER LEVEL

(-5,9)

(-5,8)

-2,0

POLDER REEUWIJK + SLUIPWIJK (-2,3 m)

S

(-2,6)

E GO U W) (- 0 ,7

POLDER BLOEMENDAAL (-2,3 m)

WILLENS (-2,0 m)

ZUIDPLASPOLDER (-6,5 m)

OOSTPOLDER (-2,6 m)

-0,7

-1,9

KORTE AKKEREN (-2,4 m)

POLDER KRIMPERNERWAARD (-2,2 m)

(-2,6)

HOLL

56

E IJ S S ANDS ) 5 1, (+

EL

2 KM


WATERWAY STRUCTURE, INTEGRATED AREAS

ZOOMING IN ON THE GOUWE

Bodegraafsestraatweg

Zuidkade

Gouwe 1815: The route on the Gouwe goes through the historical city of Gouda and here it flows into the Hollandse IJssel. Along the western riverside on can find the first settlements of Waddinxveen.

de ka ina elm ilh W

Gouda Kadebuurt 1935

Oostpolder <1300

Kort Haarlem 1935

olen Mallem

Korte Akkeren 1950 Go ud er ak se di jk

W’veenZuid

Church

ade Zuidk

Am st el

Krimpernerwaard <1300

Y STRUCTURE, LARGE SCALE WATERWA Leiden

To Amsterdam

Gouwe 2015: the old route on the Gouwe is now a dead end, the new route towards the Hollandse IJssel shifted more towards the west. Alphen a/d Rijn

Ou de Rijn

uda Historical Go

Woerden

Bodegraven

To Utrecht

W’veen

dge ay bri Railw

Mallemolen

Gouwe

Boskoop

Lifting bridge W’vee n

Montfoort Gouda

Church

l se IJsse Holland

Oudewater

Haastrecht

Moordrecht

R’dam

To North Sea

AGE FLIP P MARY ! M U FOR S

Capelle a/d IJssel

aas eM w u e Ni

Ouderkerk a/d IJssel Krimpen a/d IJssel

5 KM


CHAPTER 3: RESEARCH

WATERWAY STRUCTURE

THE SPATIAL INTEGRATION OF GOUDA

WATERWAY STRUCTURE, SUMMARY Recreation Reeuwijkse Hout: well integrated a/d Rijn to Alphen dam + Amster

Reeuwijk-Brug: well integrated

entry Reeuwijk point to se Plass en

Plaswijck: not integrated

W’veen-Zuidkade: well integrated Gouwe

Breevaa rt

Goudse Poort: not integrated

Oosterwei:

Wilhelminakade: well integrated

not integrated

Gouda centre Gouwe Nieuwe

East-Goverwelle: well integrated water to Oudeecht + Utr

sel Hollandse IJs

Oostpolder: well integrated Korte Akkeren

Gouw ekan aal

De Sluis

VILLAGES AROUND GOUDA ARE WELL CONNECTED

Moordrecht-East: well integrated

GOUDA, CITY OF WATER?

K

REEUWIJ

en

W've

to Rotterdam

PLASWIJCK Centre

MOORDRECHT

58

How is Gouda integrated with the WATERWAY structure?

conclusion:

Goverwelle

GOUDSE POORT

Gouda have a good in“Medieval Gouda and the villages around ays.” terconnection with the system of waterw ed with the waterway “The northern half of Gouda is not integrat ing towards the waterstructure: there is no spatial structure lead routes.” ways and/or the dikes are one-functional and Goudse Poort are “The city districts of Plaswijck, Oosterwei er.” focused with their ‘backs’ towards the wat


RAILWAY STRUCTURE

THE RAILWAY STRUCTURE IN GOUDA THE FIRST RAILWAYS

1870

To The Hag ue

bridge Gouwe

Station Gouda To Utrecht

new railway track

To Ro tte rda m

Gouda

2 KM

In 1857 the railway between Utrecht and Rotterdam opened, accompanied with a station in Gouda and a bridge over the Gouwe. Several years later, in 1870, a new route between The Hague and Gouda was also ready. Most of these railways introduced new spatial patterns in the region, as its structure differed from the landscape pattern below. SHIFTING OF THE BRIDGE + CONNECTION TO THE NORTH To Alphen a/d Rijn

1934

Station Wâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;veen

Nieuwe Gouwe moving of bridge

Gouda

new railway track railway track erased railway track

2 KM

Because in 1910 the canal of the Nieuwe Gouwe was developed, a new bridge was needed. This new three-track railway bridge was located a little bit more towards the north. The old bridge was removed. In 1934 a new railway between Gouda and Alphen a/d Rijn opened, which also made use of this new bridge.

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CHAPTER 3: RESEARCH

THE SPATIAL INTEGRATION OF GOUDA

ANOTHER REPLACEMENT OF THE BRIDGE

1989

moving of bridge

Gouda

new railway track railway track erased railway track

2 KM

In the eighties the bridge from 1910 reached its capacity, so in 1989 a new four-track railway bridge was developed. This large lifting bridge, which is in the nowadays still used by railway traffic between Utrecht and Rotterdam/The Hague, is located at the same spot as the first bridge from 1857. The bridge from 1910 was removed.

The lifting bridge from 1989 is more than 650 meters long.

60


DIKE-BODY OF THE LIGHT-RAIL STRUCTURE

TWO BRIDGES

1997-2030

LIGHT-RAIL DIKE

KE

L AI

DI

-R

Wâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;veen Triangel (planned 2017)

T GH

extra bridge

Gouweknoop (planned 2025-2030)

LI

Gouda

The dike-body of the current railway connection between Gouda and Alphen a/d Rijn is wider then is needed. That is because this structure was from 1910 till 1989 used by three-track railway lines, whereas currently it is only used by a one-track light-rail connection.

unbundling of tracks

new railway track railway track

A few years later, in 1997, a new one-track railway bridge opened, located in the north at the same spot as the removed bridge from 1910. This small bridge was planned for the railway-traffic between Gouda and Alphen a/d Rijn, this connection was now unbundled from the connections towards Rotterdam and The Hague. The route Gouda-Alphen a/d Rijn was also not anymore performed by common trains, but degraded to a lightrail connection, with tram-like vehicles. In 2017 the new station of Waddinxveen Triangel will open and at longer term the station Gouweknoop is planned.

2 KM

The swing bridge from 1997 which is now only used for light-rail traffic between Gouda and Alphen a/d Rijn.

AGE FLIP P MARY ! M U FOR S


CHAPTER 3: RESEARCH

RAILWAY STRUCTURE

THE SPATIAL INTEGRATION OF GOUDA

RAILWAY STRUCTURE, SUMMARY

a/d Rijn to Alphen en + Leid

station

W’veen-Noord

IL -RA HT LIG

station

Waddinxveen

cht tre to U

station

Gouda-Goverwelle station

cinema city ha ll

W’veen-Triangel (planned 2017)

Spoorzone Gouda

L AI -R HT G LI IL T-RA LIGH

station

Gouweknoop

station

Gouda lifting bridge over the Gouw e

(envisioned 2025-2030)

to Zoetermeer + The Hague

How is Gouda integrated with the RAILWAY structure?

conclusion:

to Rotterdam

62

connects Gouda with “At large scale the railway structure directly almost every big city in the Randstad.” with the city. It has no “At smaller scale it is not really integrated e at all.” connection with the underlaying landscap e around the Gouwe “Throughout the years the railway structurnot all space is necesthat to ing had many different forms, lead sary and could have other purposes.”


MOTOR WAY STRUCTURE

THE MOTOR WAY STRUCTURE IN GOUDA A HIGHWAY ENTRANCE/EXIT TO GOUDA

1932-1960 1900

connection to highway

A12

2 A1

Industry Sport

Gouda

0 A2

new highway acces-way Gouda

2 KM

The A12 was first highway of the Netherlands and was also connected to Gouda. The part linking Gouda with The Hague and Utrecht was built from 1932 till 1938. The A20 to Rotterdam opened some decades later, in 1960. The highway entrance/exit of Gouda was located at the eastern riverside of the Gouwe. The city edge was still a few kilometres away from this point, so the dike of the Gouwe was used as main access-way to Gouda. Along this road there started to pop up some new businesses and industry.

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CHAPTER 3: RESEARCH

THE SPATIAL INTEGRATION OF GOUDA

NEW MAIN ACCES-ROAD: BURGEMEESTER JAMESSINGEL

1960-1965

2 A1

Burg. Jamessingel

Hospital

High schools

railwa y

GOUDA

highway

0 A2

main road new acces-way

2 KM

The city of Gouda expanded further north and people started to use the car more often, therefore a new access-road was needed: the Burgemeester Jamessingel. This road, starting from the access-way atop the Gouwe was built parallel to the railway structure and leaded to a new cluster of amenities. AN OVERALL WEDGE-SHAPED MOTORWAY NETWORK

1965-1970 shifted highway entrance Burg. van Reenensingel 2 A1

Industry

GOUDA

new highway (planned) planned west-entry of Gouda

new main road (planned) new main road (built) highway main road

0 A2

2 KM

Car use increased more and more, so urban planners made new plans to expand the network of motorways. In Gouda this leaded to a plan for a wedge-shaped road system. With this plan the city would have gotten four main entries to the highway. However due money reasons and many protests most of these plans were cancelled, yet a few elements were still built. The shifted highway entrance-exit of the A12 for example and the Burgemeester van Reenensingel, one of the more important roads of northern Gouda.

64


MOTOR WAY STRUCTURE WHEN GOUDA’S URBANITY REACHES THE HIGHWAY

1975-1985

W’VEEN

2 A1

Gouwe aqueduct through Gouwe

Goudse Poort

main accessway Gouda

Burg. Jamessingel

GOUDA

new highway new main road highway

0 A2

main road

2 KM

erased route

In 1981 a new aqueduct was developed to replace the old highway-bridge over the Gouwe. The bridge had reached its maximum capacity for the increasing traffic over the A12. This development leaded to that the node of the A12/A20 had to shift a little bit to the north. Around the same time the urbanity of Gouda also reached the A12 and in this new edge the municipality planned the working location of Goudse Poort. When travelling on the highway this office area became the showpiece of the city. The main-access way to Gouda was also altered when comparing it to older plans: instead of a straight road it became a curved road. This also changed the intersection of the Burg. Jamessingel with the Gouwe. CAR-FRIENDLY NEIGHBOURHOODS

1970-1995

W’VEEN

W’veen Zuidplas sub-centre

Plaswijck sub-centre

A12

sub-centre Goverwelle

GOUDA

main access-road local access-road

0 A2

highway main road

2 KM

The residential areas of Plaswijck (1970-1980), Goverwelle (1985-1995) and Waddinxveen-Zuidplas (1985-1995) were planned to be very convenient for car-users. Other than earlier neighbourhoods, they had their own parkway-like access-roads, separating faster traffic from slower traffic. Each neighbourhood had their own sub-centre with large parking areas and these were also quite good integrated with the system of motorways.

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CHAPTER 3: RESEARCH

THE SPATIAL INTEGRATION OF GOUDA

A NEW MIDPOINT OF THE MOTORWAY SYSTEM

2000-2030

W’VEEN

Gouweplein Triangel 2 A1

Coenecoop fig 3.2.i

entry W’veen

GoStores

Gouwe Park

Distripark A12

supermarket church GOUDA

Gouwestroom entry M’drecht

Rode Waterparel 0 A2

part of the ring-like structure (built)

Westergouwe

part of the ring-like structure (planned) access way to developments

De Brinkhorst MOORDRECHT

2 KM

highway main road

Starting from the year 2000, the midpoint of the motorway system shifted outside of Gouda. Due its national accessibility the A12/A20 node was seen a very interesting place for new developments. First business- and logistical areas showed up like Coenecoop (1995-2005), Gouwestroom (2000-2005), Distripark A12 (2000-2010) and Gouwe Park (2005-2015), but now also residential areas such as Westergouwe (2015-2030), De Brinkhorst (2015-2025) and Triangel (2015-2030) and clusters of amenities are starting to develop. These areas are not directly connected to the old motorway system of Gouda, but mainly focused to a ring-like structure around the A12/A20 node. The highway entrances/exits of Waddinxveen and Moordrecht also altered a little bit to be integrated in this new structure. The newest urban areas are connected directly to the ring, or to one of the ‘tentacles’ of this structure. When comparing these new working- and residential developments to older developments like Goudse Poort and Plaswijck, one sees that they are primarily connected to the motorway system at regional/national level instead of the more local scale.

fig. 3.2.i: this picture shows the progression of the growing motorway system in the Gouda region. In the back one can see the old highwaybridge from the 30’s, which is currently used for traffic at local scale. In the middle of the picture there is the aqueduct from the ‘80s which is now the construction the highway uses to cross the Gouwe. In the front one can see a new bridge in development and is part of the plan to make the developments in the west of Gouwe more accessible (source: Joop van Houdt, 2015).

66


ALPHEN A/D RIJN, LEIDEN

ALPHEN A/D RIJN, LEIDEN ALPHEN A/D RIJN, LEIDEN

UTRECHT

DEVELOPED IN 2020

WADDINXVEEN

ZOETERMEER, DEN HAAG

GOUDA

ZEVENHUIZEN, Râ&#x20AC;&#x2122;DAM NESSELANDE OUDEWATER

MOORDRECHT ROTTERDAM

BERGAMBACHT, SCHOONHOVEN

fig. 3.2.g: regional vision for area around Gouda from 1967 (source: Municipality of Gouda, 1969).

fig. 3.2.h: vision for the city of Gouda, 1969 (source: Municipality of Gouda, 1969).

AGE FLIP P MARY ! M U FOR S


CHAPTER 3: RESEARCH

MOTOR WAY STRUCTURE

THE SPATIAL INTEGRATION OF GOUDA

MOTOR WAY STRUCTURE, SUMMARY to Utrecht

A12

W’veen

Plaswijck

Gouweplein

laan Vredenburgh (planned)

Bloemendaal

Burg. v. R eenensi ngel

Goudse Poort

Triangel

city hall

Coenecoop

supermarket

GoStores

singel Burg. James

Inner parts of Gouda: not that well integrated

Goverwelle

cinema park. garage centre

church

Oostpolder: not integrated

to The Hague

Distripark A12 Westergouwe mbacht To Berga

Moordrechtboo g

Zevenhuizen

A20

Moordrecht

to R’dam

How is Gouda integrated with the MOTOR WAY structure?

conclusion:

or way structure” “Gouda is very well integrated with the mot ped like a fork, eventually “The system of Gouda is somewhat sha leading to the highway of A12” “The system of Zuidplas is shaped like a

grid.”

“All these structures ‘skip’ the Oostpolder. The grid of Zuidplas and fork of Gouda 68

Making it like an island”


GREEN STRUCTURE

THE GREEN STRUCTURE IN GOUDA PLAN 1: <1967

A

A

EAST-WEST CARVING GREEN STRUCTURE In this urban plan the new neighbourhood was surrounded by two large green structures that connected the landscape of the ‘Reeuwijkse Plassen’ in the east with the landscape ‘‘t Weegje’ in the west. The most northern green structure included even a waterway which connected the river of the Gouwe with the lake area in the east. No large parts of this plan have been realized, but some ideas are still visible in the plans made afterwards. Like the relation with the lake area in the east and the ring-shaped green structure which surrounded the whole northern part of the city.

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CHAPTER 3: RESEARCH

THE SPATIAL INTEGRATION OF GOUDA

PLAN 3: 1971

ijk terd Win

GROENE WAL

GROENHOVEN KWARTIER MAMMOET OMLOOPPAD

A B

A

GREEN STRUCTURE FOCUSED TO THE EAST

B

REALIZED LIVING QUARTERS & PARKS

This plan still adapted the idea of the ring-shaped green structure, but was not anymore linked with the open lands to the west of the city. The green space in the north compated to the first plan also shrunk down. Instead this plan integrated several wedges orientated towards the inner part of the neighbourhood and a large park next to the main entrance to the highway. The overall green-blue system was with a water passage still strongly linked to the lakes in the west.

The living quarter of ‘Windrooskwartier’ with the public park ‘Atlantispark’ was built and according to this plan (but also partially to plan 1). The intention was that the Atlantispark was part of a larger green structure that would embrace the whole neighbourhood.

PLAN 2: 1969

WINDROOSKWARTIER

A

70

B ATLANTISPARK


GREEN STRUCTURE

A

INTROVERTED STRUCTURE WITH LARGE PARKS The overall green structure in this plan, unlike the past plans, didn’t seek a connection to the landscapes outside the city anymore and had a more introverted character. The idea of a green structure embracing this whole city district was mostly untouched, althrough the ring now looked more like a Cshaped form. The realized green passageway ‘Omlooppad’ and park ‘Groene Wal’ were intended to be part of this larger green-blue system, which later on also should be connected with the Atlantispark from plan 2.

B

OLDER LINES CUT IN TWO The historical road ‘Winterdijk’ was in the past plans always preserved or integrated as border or guiding line in the urban plan.(tunnels under roads and railways). However in this plan the structure is divided in two because of the placement of a new office area.

PLAN 4:1971>

NOORDERHOUT

A PLASWIJCK

MAMMOET

GOUDSE POORT

GROENHOVENPARK

WILHELMINAKADE

C

A

MORE INTRICATED GREEN STRUCTURE

B

REMOVAL OF THE PARK-CHAIN IN THE SOUTH

C

B

In the final plan for the most northern quarter of Gouda ‘Plaswijck’, the overall size of the parks in embracing green structure is even more reduced and is replaced with a more intricated park system focused on the inner part of the neighbourhood.

While in the older plans the city district ‘Mammoet’ was designed as a green area with a few built areas and therefore part of a larger embracing green structure, in the current situation the open spaces have all been built with new buildings. This resulted into an isolated Atlantispark (see plan 2).

THE BENDED ENTRANCE ROAD In the realized plan the entrance road to the highway has shifted more towards the west. This followed in that the ‘Groenhovenpark’ is now situated directly next to the living quarters, the size however is a little bit reduced because of the added curve in the entrance road. This extra curve also resulted into a completely vanished Winterdijk (see plan 3). At the other side of the river an isolated park ‘Wilhelminakade’ is being made.

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CHAPTER 3: RESEARCH

THE SPATIAL INTEGRATION OF GOUDA

Bentwoud

Boskoop

Reeuwijkse Plassen

Gouda Rottemeren

Current regional plans

Krimpenerwaard

Current plans for the region do not integrate the city of Gouda with a green-blue system, but are even in such manner shaped that there develop new kind of barrier-like elements.

72


Green structure in Plaswijck. is pointed towards the shopping mall.

School

Schools

Mall Schools

The green structure in Plaswijck is a coherent system of ditches and parks.

AGE FLIP P MARY ! M U FOR S


CHAPTER 3: RESEARCH

GREEN STRUCTURE

THE SPATIAL INTEGRATION OF GOUDA

GREEN STRUCTURE, SUMMARY

oud To Bentw

Plaswijck integrated at small scale

Park structure Plaswijck

sub-c entre

Groenhovenpark

Triangel (2015-2030): integrated at large scale

Park Atlantis

Vredenburgzone

fragmented green structure

(planned 2020>)

‘t Weegje

Polderpark Oostpolder

Boogpark (planned 2020)

Westergouwe (2015-2030): integrated at large scale

Recreatiegebied Westergouwe

rne pe rd Krimwaa o T

Groene Waterparel (planned 2020)

How is Gouda integrated with the GREEN structure?

conclusion:

To R ottew ig

74

of Gouda is a combina“The green structure in the northern partit fragmented at larger tion of halfway carried out plans. Making scale.” erent in itself but has “The park structure in Plaswijck is very coh unclear connections with the larger scale.” developed in the Zuid“Currently a large scale green structure istion with Gouda itself.” plaspolder, but this structure has no rela


3.3 AREAS THAT NEED INTERCONNECTivity The last chapter showed where the spatial shortcomings in and around Gouda are. The loose ends and fragmented patches. But is not only the space itself that matters in a spatial system, there also needs to be a reason people are going to use this network. Because where are they travelling to when using this system? Where are the daily amenities people use nowadays in the city? Where do they go to in their free time and are there any unique landscapes around? This chapter will show the outcome of where these qualitative areas in and around Gouda are, so that the new spatial configuration can anticipate to it.

THE TRADITIONAL NODES REEUWIJK

Wâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;VEEN Shopping centre Zuidplas

Shopping centre Bloemendaal PLASWIJCK

BLOEMENDAAL

Historic city centre Shopping centre Goverwelle

GOVERWELLE

ZUIDPLAS

2 KM

In this area there can be found one main centre and a few smaller sub-centres. The main one, which is the historical city centre of Gouda, holds around 375 functions. There are stores for fashion and electronics, department stores, restaurants, cafes, bars, etc. Parking is quite expensive, but by bike the city centre is easy to reach. Then there are also some smaller sub-centres, which are built from the time period of 1975 till 1990 and situated in the heart of their corresponding neighbourhoods. In the neighbourhood Bloemendaal/Plaswijck, one can find shopping centre Bloemendaal. This indoor shopping centre is home for 65 different functions. The neighbourhoods of Goverwelle and Waddinxveen Zuidplas also have their own shopping centres, although they are much smaller than the one in Bloemendaal (Goverwelle has 25 functions and Zuidplas even less). Parking your car is free is these sub-centres.

Most of Goudaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s neighbourhoods are hierarchically built around the historical city centre and the dwellings in Bloemendaal/Plaswijck, Goverwelle and Zuidplas around their corresponding centres. These traditional nodes were for many years the main concentration points for daily amenities of the city. But this changed throughout the years, as people became more mobile and more differentiated in their lifestyles. Their amenities did not necessarily need to be located close to home, but could be situated anywhere in the larger region (as explained in 2.1). There is now an increasing competition coming from functions which are located in the periphery of Gouda (close to the highway and land is cheap) and in larger cities like Rotterdam. As a result the vacancy in the historical centre is for example now more than 20% (ad.nl, 2016).

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CHAPTER 3: RESEARCH

AREAS THAT NEED INTERCONNECTIVITY

AMENITIES CLUSTER NEARBY THE STATION REEUWIJK Wâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;VEEN

GOUDA

hospital

high schools

schools social commercial city hall cinema

high schools

station Gouda

Nearby the station of Gouda there are located many public functions which attract many groups of people. So are there numerous high schools, drawing in teenagers from the city itself, but also the neighbouring towns. Furthermore there is a cinema, the city hall of Gouda and a regional hospital located here. The station of Gouda also attracts many people to this location from all over the city and holds some smaller commercial functions. 3.2 showed that this area is primarily connected to the functional spatial system of the city and is lacking a good relation to the public spatial structures. It is not that comfortable to go to this cluster coming from the western direction by bike. That is a missed opportunity and should be included in the new spatial configuration.

76

2 KM


THE WESTERN PERIPHERY REEUWIJK

W’VEEN station W’veen Gouweplein

high school

GOUDA

ZUIDPLAS

schools retail/social leisure

BLOEMENDAAL

sports

GoStores sport clubs 2 KM Sligro

furniture

restaurants

swimming pool

GOUDSE POORT

indoor funpark

bowling

restaurants

cycle shop

pet shop

high school supermarket motor cross

In earlier times the only functions you could find in the edge of the city besides industry/working were some large scale retail shops for furniture and hardware. But times are changing, in the last fifteen years many other kind of functions are popping up in the western periphery of Gouda. One can now for example find a large supermarket, a regional church and stores which sell household- or pet products here: functions which a few decades ago only could be found in the ‘traditional’ centres. The amount of restaurants, which are mostly fast food chains, is also growing in this area.

church KROMME GOUWE OOSTPOLDER

action football club

WESTERGOUWE (2015-2030)

Then there are also functions which are related to leisure and sport in the western city edge of Gouda. The one and only swimming pool of the city is situated here, there is bowling alley and a large indoor playground for children. There is also a large zone filled with many kinds of sport clubs. At the other side of the Gouwe, in Waddinxveen, a large cluster of amenities can be found, including a shopping centre with around 45 stores ‘Gouweplein’ and a high school. Most of these amenties in the periphery are only connected to the motor way network and quite hard to reach by other systems.

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CHAPTER 3: RESEARCH

AREAS THAT NEED INTERCONNECTIVITY

LANDSCAPES

WADDINXVEEN

Gouwe

Polder Bloemendaal

W’VEEN ZUIDPLAS

TRIANGEL BLOEMENDAAL

COENECOOP GOUDSE POORT

GOUWEPARK

‘t Weegje

Oostpolder

ZEVENHUIZEN

Zuidplaspolder HET NIEUWE MIDDEN

WESTERGOUWE

Groene Waterparel + Restveen MOORDRECHT

78

Ho llan ds e IJ sse l

RODE WATERPAREL

aal ekan Gouw

DISTRIPARK A12

Wilhelminakade


Breev aart

The city of Gouda is situated at the edge of the Groene Hart, meaning that there a lot of large landscapes nearby. However, due the introverted nature of Gouda this landscape is not always that accessible. The developments in the west also resulted to the loss and fragmentation of some of these landscapes.

Reeuwijkse Plassen PLASWIJCK

EAST OF GOUDA In the east of Gouda the Groene Hart still dominates. One can find here the Reeuwijkse Plassen. This is a peat-lake area made in the 19th century and almost as big as Gouda itself. Some zones of this area are protected for nature, but there is also room for recreation. There are many pedestrian routes, landing stages and a beach, so during the summer a lot of people go to this area to sail, swim or other leisure activities. Most of this lake area is private property however, there are only a few lakes where the water is directly accessible. SOUTH OF GOUDA The southern edge of Gouda is defined by the Hollandse IJssel, a river which flows from Nieuwegein (near Utrecht) towards Rotterdam. This river has a lot of qualities: you could hike along the water side or sail on the river itself and come across many authentic villages and attractive nature areas. The Krimpenerwaard is situated at the other side of this river, this is a typical Dutch polder landscape and part of the Groene Hart.

Goudse Hout

OOSTERWEI GOUDA

GOVERWELLE

IJs se l

KORTE AKKEREN

Ho lla nd se

Hollandse IJssel

WEST OF GOUDA The West of Gouda has changed a lot during the last few decades and is still exposed by many new large scale developments. This is the Zuidplaspolder, which is relatively new polder: in its looks it is much more rational than for example the Krimpenerwaard. In the future only a few part of this landscape are spared for being built. This spared landscapes, like Groene Waterparel and Restveen, are envisioned as big landscape parks and will include some wetlands. In between Gouda and the Zuidplaspolder one can find the Oostpolder and the Gouwe. This is a very diverse area holding landscapes like the peat-lake area of â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;t Weegje, the park of Wilhelminakade and the river of the Gouwe itself. NORTH OF GOUDA Polder Bloemendaal can be found to the north of the city. This polder landscapes is not as largely scaled as the Krimpenerwaard but still holding many qualities like big open farmlands, authentic roads and villages and some nature.

Krimpenerwaard

2 KM

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CHAPTER 3: RESEARCH

AREAS THAT NEED INTERCONNECTIVITY

FUTURE DEVELOPMENTS Zoutman-West

Triangel

Station W’veen-Triangel (2017)

Gouweknoop

Station Gouweknoop (2025-2030)

Westergouwe

Het NIeuwe Midden

working living De Brinkhorst 2 KM

As could be read in 2.3 there is going to be a lot of changes to the west of Gouda. In the Zuidplaspolder there are a lot of new residential- and working areas planned or even already initiated. These areas bring a lot of opportunities to the people of the current city of Gouda, like new job opportunities and functions. But also the other way around: people living in the new neighbourhoods of the Zuidplaspolder can use and strengthen the already present functions in Gouda. NEW RESIDENTIAL AREAS The latest policy documents of this area aim to have built 13.900 dwellings in the next fifteen years and this needs to be doubled in years thereafter. These plans include the neighbourhoods of Westergouwe (3.750 dwellings in 2030), Brinkhorst (320 dwellings in 2025), Triangel (2.900 dwellings in 2030). The area ‘Het Nieuwe Midden’ is reserved for developments after 2030. Here are envisioned more than 10.000 dwellings.

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CHAPTER 3: RESEARCH

RESEARCH CONCLUSIONS

3.4 research conclusions In chapter 3.1 was explained that a successful spatial system is a coherent network of spaces and needs to be properly interlinked with the surrounding urbanity. This should be the case for the more ‘functional’ systems, like the structures of motor ways and railways, but also for the ‘public’ systems, such as green structures and lintweg structures. The last few pages however showed that Gouda is lacking in some of these systems, in particular the public ones, which are fragmented, unclear and lead to dead ends. The next paragraphs will combine the findings from the research of the lintweg structure, waterway structure, railway structure, motor way structure and green structure, resulting to five conclusions/shortcomings of Gouda’s spatial integration.

only partly carried out, leading to many fragmented spaces and dead ends like the Atlantispark, Kamperfoeliepad and Groenhovenpark. Also the green structure in the neighbourhood of Plaswijck, which is quite coherent of itself, is at larger scale not connected to other public spatial systems is east-west direction.

INCOMPLETE east-west connections When looking at the public spatial structures which are situated in east-west direction the spatial incoherency becomes very clear. In the northern half of Gouda there was never a lintweg structure, so a

public system here is excessively dependent on a more modern day spatial component, like a green structure. In plans from the ‘60s it was the intention to make such a system, but in the end this plan is

Functional spatial systems like the structures of the A12, A20, Burgemeester van Reenensingel and the railway are much more consistent in east-west direction. These are also the only systems that actually cross the Gouwe, but as a cyclist or pedestrian it is unclear in how or not even possible to use these structures.

These matters lead to that the public spatial integration of the city towards the west is quite dreadful. Which is a shame because this is where the Zuidplaspolder is located at, an area where thousands of new dwellings and other urban functions are currently being developed. Another area at the western side of the Gouwe is the Oostpolder, a largerly scaled green ‘patch’. To not have a public spatial connection towards the direction of the Oostpolder and Zuidplaspolder is a missed opportunity and could lead to segregation of the city of Gouda.

GOUDA IS LACKING SPATIAL STRUCTURES IN EAST-WEST DIRECTION lintwegen Reeuwijkse Plassen

Plaswijck A12

singel Reenen Burg. v.

Goudse Poort

ovenGroenh park

ark Atlantisp

railway

Oostpolder

Zuidplaspolder

l aterpare Groene W (2020)

A20

public spatial systems (lintweg- & green structures) functional spatial systems (motor way- & railway structures)

OR S! AGE F FLIP P NCLUSION O C MORE

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CHAPTER 3: RESEARCH

RESEARCH CONCLUSIONS

NO GOOD RELATION WITH THE WATER Gouda often presents itself as city of water, but in reality this is only the case for a small part of the city. Only the historic city centre and some segments of Goverwelle and Korte Akkeren have visible and accessible connections with the water structure, but this does not apply for the northern half of Gouda. Such is the waterway structure of the Gouwe in the northern part of the city blocked of by motor ways and along the water no single pedestrian path or other public space could be found. The buildings

over here, in most cases offices, are also situated with their backside towards the river. This, next to the fact that to they are private property and quite largely scaled, make the Gouwe invisible for the urban area of Goudse Poort and further into the city. This is also the case for the urban area next to the Breevaart, a waterway structure to the east of Gouda. Also here a motor way is blocking a potential relation between Gouda and the water. But maybe even a bigger issue here is that the urban concept

of the nearest urban area over here, the neighbourhood of Plaswijck, is very introverted and is surrounded by a green belt without any clear routes to the surrounding area. This seems a little strange, as Plaswijck means â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Lake Neighbourhoodâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;, but there is no relation with the Breevaart or Reeuwijkse Plassen at all.

THERE IS LITTLE TO NO RELATION WITH THE WATER AT ALL

Reeuwijkse Plassen

Plaswijck orientation of urbanity

art va ee Br

Goudse Poort orientation of urbanity Gouwe

water motor way structure office buildings residential buildings

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CHAPTER 3: RESEARCH

RESEARCH CONCLUSIONS

THE PERIPHERY IS ONLY REACHABLE BY THE REGIONAL MOTOR WAY The urbanity in the western part of the city is clustered in several urban ‘islands’. These islands are only connected with the motor way structure, in most situations with one or two entry points. These entry points are on their part connected to main access roads, eventually leading to the highways. But next to the motor way structure, the western part of the city is with no other structure connected at all. But even the structures within this motor way network in this area is quite separated from each other.

The side of Gouda and the side of the Zuidplaspolder have their own systems which are primarily orientated to the highway. If for example one wants to travel with the car from Gouda to the Zuidplaspolder, he or she uses the highway and not the local roads in between these areas. This separation of the two motor way structures and the lack of other structures contribute to the separation of Gouda and the Zuidplaspolder. This is bad, because this discourages people to use the

bike to go to these areas and also make this part of the city less flexible for socio-economic changes. In chapter 2 was explained that the function of the periphery is changing and more and more public- and commercial functions are popping up in these kind of areas. The weakness however, as we see here, is that these kind of areas are only connected by largely scaled functional systems. More local, public spatial systems are missing.

THESE AREAS ARE ONLY CONNECTED BY LARGELY SCALED FUNCTIONAL SYSTEMS

Utrecht A12

Bloem enda alsew eg ds’ ‘islan

system of Gouda R’dam / The Hague

‘islands’

‘islands’

Winterdijk

M’drechtse Veenweg

system of Zuidplasp.

The Hague

Utrecht ds’ ‘islan

A20

R’dam

OR S! AGE F FLIP P NCLUSION O C MORE

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CHAPTER 3: RESEARCH

RESEARCH CONCLUSIONS

LACK OF SYNERGY BETWEEN SoME SYSTEMS In most cases the functional systems have in how they are shaped no relation to the underlying landscape at all. In Gouda this leads to many situations where there is no synergy between different spatial structures, while there certainly is a potential to do so because they cross each other.

little bit, leading to that these structures are almost hovering over the Oostpolder. The Oostpolder is packed with many public spatial structures (Broekweg, Stoofkade, Gouwe) but these have no relation with the functional systems going over it. Pedestrian and cycling routes following these functional structures are also missing or unclear.

This can be seen when looking at the structures of the A12 and the railway. The access points or â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;landing pointsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; of these structures are hundreds of meters separated from each other and also elevated a

lic spatial structures surrounding the neighbourhood (Bloemendaalseweg, Baarsjeskade, Breevaart). In some situations a motor way structure is blocking this collaboration, other times a green structure just leads to a dead end without a clear reason. These are some missed opportunities and should surely be tackled when coming up with a new spatial configuration.

This lack of synergy can also be found in the neighbourhood of Plaswijck. The green structures within Plaswijck itself have no good relation with other pub-

NO COLLABORATION BET WEEN SPATIAL STRUCTURES

A12

Baarsjeskade

Plaswijck

Breevaart

Bloemen daalseweg

A12

Gouwe

railway

Broekweg

de Stoofka

Oostpolder

public spatial systems functional spatial systems

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CHAPTER 3: RESEARCH

RESEARCH CONCLUSIONS

INTROVERTED vs EXTRoverted PUBLIC SYSTEMS Some parts of Gouda, like the neighbourhood of Goverwelle and the historical city center are very good embedded into interconnecting public systems. They have some very accessible lintweg-structures and waterway structures, making it very easy from these neighbourhoods to go to the surrounding urban areas and landscapes by bike. Goverwelle and the historical city centre have an extroverted nature.

This is not the case for the neighbourhood of Plaswijck. This neighbourhood has a coherent green structure, but this is leading towards the centre of Plaswijck, where an indoor shopping mall could be found. There are no clear routes going towards the surroundings of this neighbourhood. This is made harder by the fact that a belt-like green structure is surrounding Plaswijck, making the neighbourhood a very introverted component of Gouda.

green structure

INTROVERTED Plaswijck

lintweg structure

EXTROVERTE

D

Goverwelle lintweg structu re

EXTROVERTED City centre waterway structure

ucture waterway str

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Interconnecting Gouda PT 1 (Master Thesis - Urbanism, TU Delft)  

By student Lennart van Heijningen in 2016. See issuu.com/lennart-89/docs/pagina_s_van_4346343_-_p5_master_th_f6573774c9dcf9 voor PT 2 of the...

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