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,jo; 1 • khh;r; 2016


yP r h ,e; j pah jkpo; rpwg;gpjo; This issue in Tamil is a translated version of LEISA India magazine. This includes selected articles from LEISA India, originally published in English. Address : ame Foundation No. 204, 100 Feet Ring Road, 3rd Phase, Banashankari 2nd Block, 3rd Stage, Bangalore - 560 085, India Tel:

+91-080- 2669 9512, +91-080- 2669 9522

Fax:

+91-080- 2669 9410

E-mail: leisaindia@yahoo.co.in

Leisa India Chief Editor : K.V.S. Prasad Managing Editor : T.M. Radha

yPrh vd;gJ Fiwe;j ntspapL nghUs; kw;Wk; epiyj;j Ntshz;ik vd;gjd; RUf;fkhFk;. Rw;Wr;RoYf;F cfe;j topfspy; cw;gj;jpiaAk;> tUkhdj;ijAk; ngUf;f tpUk;Gk; coth;fSf;F njhopw;El;g kw;Wk; r%f hPjpapyhd tha;g;Gfis cs;slf;fpajhFk;. yPrh vd;gJ cs;@h; ts Mjhuq;fs; kw;Wk; ,aw;ifapd; Nghf;Ffis msTld; gad;gLj;jp Njitg;gLk; NghJ ghJfhg;ghd msT ntspaPL nghUl;fis jpwd;gl ifahs;tjhFk;. yPrh vd;gJ Mz; kw;Wk; ngz; coth;fis> me;j r%fj;ij Ragyk; kpf;fth;fshfTk;> rf;jp kpf;fth;fshfTk; khw;wp mjd;%yk; mth;fspd; vjph;fhyj;ij jq;fs; nrhe;j mwpT> jpwik>kjpg;gL P > fyhr;rhuk; kw;Wk; mikg;Gfis mikf;f cjTtjhFk;. yPrh vd;gJ khwptUk; #oy;fs; kw;Wk; NjitfSf;F Vw;g coth;fs; kw;Wk; ,ju gq;Fjhuh;fspd; jpwikfs;> gq;Nfw;G mZFKiwfs; %yk; gyg;gLj;JtjhFk;. yPrh vd;gJ ghuk;ghpa mwpitAk;> mwptpay; g+h;tkhd mwpitAk; ,izj;J mjd;%yk; nfhs;if cUthf;fj;jpy; jhf;fj;ij Vw;gLj;jp vjph;fhy tsh;r;rpf;F rhjfkhd #oiy cUthf;FtjhFk;. yPrh vd;gJ xU fUj;J> xU mZFKiw kw;Wk; tpNtfkhd nra;jp.

Translated by N. Lalitha Sakthivel Translation coordination Poornima Administration Rukmini G. G. Design and Layout M.S. Vasanth Christopher Printing L.S. Graphic Prints, Chennai Cover photo Mrs. Buvaneshwari of Boodhinatham village harvested Horse gram grown using residual moisture Photo: AMEF Different editions • Regional Editions Telugu, Hindi, Kannada, Marathi, Punjabi and Oriya • Farming Matters The Global edition in English • LEISA Revista de Agroecologia The Latin American edition in Spanish • LEISA India The Indian edition in English • AGRIDAPE The West African edition in French • Agriculturas, Experiencias em Agroecologia The Brazilian edition in Portuguese

The editors have taken every care to ensure that the contents of this magazine are as accurate as possible. The authors have ultimate responsibility, however, for the content of individual articles. The editors encourage readers to photocopy and circulate magazine articles.

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Supported by MISEREOR, Published by AME Foundation yPrh ,e;jpah • ,jo; 1 • khh;r; 2016

kpnrshpah; vd;gJ tsh;r;rp xj;Jiog;gpw;fhf> n[h;kdp ehl;by; cs;s fj; N jhypf; f ghjphpahh; f shy; 1958 Mk; Mz; b y; epWtg; g l; l Xh; epWtdkhFk;. kpnrshpah; fle;j 50 tUlq;fSf;Fk; Nkyhf Mg;gphpf;fh> Mrpah kw; W k; yj; j P d ; mnkhpf; f ehLfspy; Vo; i k xopg; g jw; f hd Nghuhl;lj;jpy; jd;id mh;gzpj;J gzpahw;wp tUfpwJ. kjk;> ehfhPfk;> ghypdk; vd;w ve;j NtWghby;yhky; kdpj Fyj;jpd; Njitf;F jdJ cjtpia mspj;J tUfpwJ. Vio kw;Wk; gpd;jq;fpa kf;fs;> jhq;fshf Jtf;Fk; ve;j xU Kaw;rpf;Fk; MjuT nfhLf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;W ek;GfpwJ. cs;@h; $l;lhspfSld;> Fwpg;ghf fpUj;Jt Nfhapy;fNshL njhlh;Gila epWtdq;fs;> muR rhuh epWtdq;fs;> r%f ,af;fq;fs;> Muha;r;rp epWtdq;fs; Nghd;wtw;NwhL ,ize;J gzpahw;Wtij tpUk;GfpwJ. gadhspfNshL ,ize;J> mjd; $l;lhspfs; cs;@h; ts Nkk;ghl;L Kiwfspy; cjtpAk;> jpl;lq;fis eilKiwg;gLj;jpAk; tUfpd;wdh;. ,t;topahfNt> kpnrshpah; jdJ $l; l hspfSld; ,ize; J njhlh; r ; r pahf khwptUk; rthy; f is vjph;nfhs;fpwJ. www.misereor.de; www.misereor.org V.vk; . , gTz; N l\d; Fiwe; j ntspapL nghUs; %yk; ,aw; i f ts Mjhuq; f s; Nkyhz; i kf; f hf ghuk; g hpa mwpitAk; > Gjpa fz; L gpbg; G njhopw; E l; g q; f isAk; xd; w pizj; J epiyj; j tho; t hjhug; gzpfis ngUf; F tjpy; <Lgl; L tUfpwJ. V.vk; . , gTz; N l\d; Ntshz; i kapy; khw;WfisAk;> mwpitAk; ngUf;FtjpYk;> gapw;rpfs; mspg;gjpYk;> tsh;r;rp gzpfspy; <Lgl;L tUk; epWtdq;fNshL njhlh;Gfis Vw;gLj;JtjpYk;> mDgtq;fis gfph;e;J nfhs;tjw;Fk;> jf;fhz gPlg+kp gFjpfspy; rpW FW coth;fs; kj;jpapy; gzpahw;wp tUfpwJ. V.vk;., epWtdk; Mh;tKs;s tptrhaf; FOf;fSld; gy fpuhkq;fspy; khw;W tptrha Kiwfis ngUf;fTk;> eilKiwg;gLj;jTk; gzp nra;J tUfpwJ. ,e;j gFjpfs; ,aw;if Ntshz; Kiwfis nfhz;Ltu Kaw;rpf;Fk; kw; W k; eilKiwg; g Lj; j p nfhz; L tUk; jd; d hh; t f; FOf; f s; kw; W k; $l;likg;GfSf;F fw;Wf;nfhs;Sk; ,lq;fshfTk; gad;gLj;jg;gLfpd;wd. www.amefound.org

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yPrh ,e;jpah • ,jo; 1 • khh;r; 2016

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rpWjhdpaq;fs; mbg;gilahf nfhz;l caph; gy;tifik rhFgb Kiwia jf;fitj;jy; eph;khd; epWtdk;>14 fpuhkq;fspy; cs;s 306 FLk; g q; f is cs; s lf; f pa r%fq; f NshL fpuhk mstpy; $l; l q; f s; eplj; j pdh; . ,e; j r%fq; f NshL czT kw; W k; rj; J f; f s; cj;jputhjkpd;ik kw;Wk; rhFgb njhopy; E l; g q; f spy; khw; w q; f s; Nghd; w gpur;ridfs; Fwpj;J tphpthf fye;Jiuahbdh;. rpWjhdpaq; f s; mbg; g ilapyhd rhFgb Kiwia GJg;gpg;gjd; Njitia r%fq;fs; czh;e;jdh;. fpuhk mstpyhd epWtdq;fs;> czT cw;gj;jp Kiwapd; fl;Lghl;L Kf; f paj; J tk; > tho; t hjhuq; f s; cah; t jw; F tpij tq; f pia cUthf; F tjw; F k; > nra; J fw;wy; kw;Wk; fy;tpr; Rw;Wyh %yk; r%fj;jpw;F mDgt mwpit gfph;e;Jnfhs;Sjy;> kw; W k; rpWjhdpaq; f s; mbg; g ilapyhd caph;gy;tifik rhFgb Kiw Mfpatw;iw topelj;Jk; r%f mZFKiwNa eph;khd; vd;w epWtdk; gpd;gw;wpa Kf;fpa topKiwahFk;. xt;nthU fpuhkj;jpYk;> fpuhk msT epWtdk; cUthf;fg;gl;lJ. ,e;j epWtdk; KO r%fj;jpd; tpij Njitia Ma;T nra;J mjid nfhs;Kjy; nra; a Ntz; L k; vd xg; G nfhs; s g; g l; l J. ,e;j fpuhk epWtdq;fSf;F rpWjhdpaq;fs; tpij tq;fp kw;Wk; mjd; Nkyhz;ik Fwpj;J mwpKfk; nra;ag;gl;lJ. tptrhapfs; Fwpg;ghf ngz; tptrhapfs; njhlh;e;J tpij ngUf;fk; nra; A k; may; kfue; j Nrh; f ; i f ,ufq; f s; ikakhf nfhz;Ls;sJ. r%f FOf;fs; rpWjhdpaq;fs; kw;Wk; gaW tif tpijfspd; Njitia Ma; T nra; j J. njhlf; f j; j py; > eph; k hd; epWtdk; 12 ,ufq; f spd; tpijfis r%fj; j pw; F xU Neu cjtpahf nra;jJ. tpijfs; fpuhk mstpyhd epWtdq;fSf;F tpij tq;fpia cUthf;Ftjw;F tpijia KjyPlhf khw;wk; nra;ag;gl;L> mjid ngUf;fk; nra;J r%fj;jpd; tpij Njitia G+h;j;jp nra;ag;gl;lJ. ,e;jj; jpl;lj;ij nray;gLj;Jtjw;F Kf;fpa gq;F tfpj;jJ ngz;fsplk; cs;s tpij Njh;T 6

yPrh ,e;jpah • ,jo; 1 • khh;r; 2016

kw;Wk; Nrkpg;G Fwpj;j mwpthFk;. tpij ,ufq;fs; kw;Wk; tPlL ; Njitia Njh;T nra;tjpy;> ngz;fs;> tPLfspy; Ma;T> nfhs;Kjy; kw;Wk; tpepNahfk; Mfpatw; i w Fwpj; J rpwg; g hf <LgLj; j p nfhz;L fye;Jiuahbdh;. fpuhk mstpy; cs;s epWtdf; $l;lq;fspy;> r%fk; ngz;fisNa mYtyf gzpahsuhf Fwpg;ghf jiyth; kw;Wk; nrayhsh;> Njh;e;njLf;fg;gl;ldh;. xNu gaph; gUtj;jpy;> nkhj;jk; 25 gaph; ,ufq;fs; GJg; g pf; f g; g l; l J. gaphplg; g Lk; ehl; f spd; vz;zpf;if mjpfhpj;J> r%fj;jpw;F mjpf kf#y; fpilj; j J. FLk; g q; f spd; czT cj;jputhjk; Kf;fpakhf tphptile;Js;sJ. gaph; mWtilf;F gpd;dh; fpuhk mstpy; gh;yhq; ahj; u h vd; w r%fj; j pUtpoh Fl; b a Fz; l ; r%fj;jpdh;fshy; nfhz;lhlg;gLfpwJ. fpuhk mstpy; elj;jg;gLk; jpUtpoh nfhz;lhl;lj;ij eph;khd; epWtdk; topelj;jpaJ. gy;NtW fpuhk kf; f spilNa xw; W ikia Vw; g Lj; j gh; y hq; ahj;uh-it fpuhk gQ;rhaj;J mstpy; Kjy; Kiwahf Vw; g hL nra; a g; g l; l J. gy; N tW cs;@h; tpijfs;> rhFgb njhopy;El;gq;fs; kw;Wk; mth;fspd; tho;f;if Kiwfs; %yk; Ntshz;-caph; gy;tifikia GJg;gpj;jij nfhz;lhLk; xU tha;g;ghf ,e;jj; jpUtpoh gad;gLfpwJ. ghJfhf;fg;gl;l cs;@h; tpijfs;> rhFgb Kiwfs; kw;Wk; tphpthf;fg;gl;l gaph; gy;tifik vt;thW czT kw;Wk; rj;Jf;fs; cj;jputhjj;ij cah;j;JfpwJ Nghd;witfs; r%fj;jpduhy; ghh;itf;F itf;fg;gl;lJ. cs;@h; r%fj;jpduhy; tsh;f;fg;gl;l rpWjhdpaq;fs;> gaW tiffs; > ney; > vz; n za; tpj; J f; f s; kw; W k; fha; f wpfspd; tpijfs; ghh; i tf; F itf;fg;gl;lJ. tpijfs;>mDgtq;fs; kw;Wk; rhFgb njhopy;El;gq;fspd; mwpT Mfpait ghpkhw;wk; nra;ag;gl;lJ. NkYk; khepyj;jpd; gpw gFjpfs; kw;Wk; mz;il khepykhd Me;jpu gpuNjrj; j pUe; J tptrhapfs; gq; F ngw; w dh; . Fkh fpuhk gQ;rhaj;J tptrhapfs;> rpWjhdpaq; f s; fyg; G caph; g y; t ifik rhFgbia GJg; g pj; J mjd; %yk; czT kw;Wk; rj;Jf;fs; cj;jputhjj;ij tYtila nra; t J vg; g b vd; g J Fwpj; J > jq; f spd; tskhd mDgtq;fis gfph;e;Jnfhz;ldh;. gs; s pfs; kw; W k; mq; f d; t hb ikaq; f spd; kj;jpa czTj;jpl;lj;jpd; czT gl;baypy; rpWjhdpa czTfis Nrh;f;Fk; Njitia czh;e;J> me;j vz;zk; nfhz;lth;fsplk; fye;Jiuahb <LgLj;Jk; tha;gi ; g ,e;j r%fk; gad;gLj;jpnfhz;lJ.


gad;fs; kw;Wk; Kd;Ndw;w ghij rpWjhdpaq;fs; mbg;gilahf nfhz;l rhFgb Kiwfs; GJgpj;jjd; tpisthf gaph; gy;tifik 13 ypUe;J 25 tiu mjpfhpj;Js;sJ. czT cj;jputhjk; 45 ehl;fs; Kjy; 60 ehl;fs; tiu tphptile;Js;sJ. xU rhFgb gUtj;jpNyNa> tpij gw;whFiw r%fk; vd;w epiyapypUe;J> tpij Njitia G+h; j ; j pahFk; epiyia mile;Js;sJ. gaph; gy;tifik mopNthL Nrh; e ; J mope; J Nghd ghuk; g hpa mwptpd; mbg;giliaAk; kPln ; lLj;jJ kpf Kf;fpakhFk;. ,aw;if rhd;wpjopd; fPo; gq;Nfw;Gld; $ba cj; j puthj Kiw> kjpg; G $l; L jy; > re; i j ,izg;G kw;Wk; ngz;fspd; $l;L Kaw;rpia tYtilar; nra;jy; Nghd;wit vjph;fhyj; jpl;lkhFk;. rpWjhdpaq;fs; mbg;gilapyhd rhFgb Kiw %yk; kdpjd; kw;Wk; Rw;Wr;#oy; MNuhf;fpaj;jpy; ngWk; gy;NtW gad;fis gug;Gk; Kaw;rpfs; nra;ag;gLfpwJ. tpsf;fkspf;Fk; nghUl;fis cUthf;fp mtw;iw tpepNahfk; nra;ag;gl;lJ. f;U\f; Rtuh[; vd;w ngahpy; nra;jpkly; xd;W rpWjhdpaq;fs; kw;Wk; gaph; gy;tifikia ikag;gLj;jp ntspaplg;gl;lJ. eph; k hd; epWtdk; gpugyg; g Lj; j pa ,e; j khjphpahdJ> fe;jk;khy; khtl;lj;jpy; cs;s twz;l gFjpfspy; r%fq;fspd; czT kw;Wk; rj;Jf;fs; Njitia re;jpf;fTk;> jw;NghJs;s

rhFgb Kiwfspd; gpur;ridfSf;Fk; jP h ; T toq; F fpwJ. Ntshz; i k Kiwapd; tisTj;jd;ik mjpfhpj;j #o;epiyapy;> ,e;j khjphp> mjpf kio kw;Wk; gUt khw;wq;fSf;F vjpuhf mjpf typik ngw;Ws;sJ. ,uz;lhk; Mz; b y; cs; s ,e; j ghpNrhjidfs; 27 fpuhkq; f spy; 445 tP L fSf; F gug; g g; g l; l J. mq;fd;thbfspy; cs;s kj;jpa czT jpl;lj;jpy; rpWjhdpaq;fis Nrh;j;J Kaw;rpfs; vLf; f g; g l; l J. muR mYtyh; f s; > fUj; J ntspapLgth;fs; kw;Wk; xyp>xsp Clfq;fs; %yk; ,e;j ntw;wpia miltjw;F ce;Jjyhf ,Ue;jJ.

ed;wp $Wjy; fe;jk;khy; gFjpapy; rpWjhdpaq;fs; mbg;gilapyhd rhFgb Kiwia GJg; g pg; g jw; f hf ,ize; J cjtpajw; F ,e;jpahtpd; Mf;\d; va;l; kw;Wk; rpWjhdpaq;fspd; gq;Fjhuh;fSf;F eph;khd; epWtdj;jpd; cz;ikahd ed;wpfs;.  Prasant Mohanty works with NIRMAN, S-3/751-Niladri Vihar, PO Sailashree Vihar, Bhubaneswar - 751021, Odisha. He can be contacted at prasantmohanty@gmail.com %yk;: yPrh ,e;jpah> khh;r; 2014> thy;a+k; 16> ,jo; 1

yPrh ,e;jpah • ,jo; 1 • khh;r; 2016

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caph; gy;tifik nfhz;l xUq;fpize;j gz;izfs; fpuhkg;Gw Vo;ikia Fiwf;Fk; Mjhak; gh;dgh jh];Fg;jh> &gf; NfhRthkp> nkh`kj; e]Pk; myp> Rjh;rd; gp];th]; kw;Wk; Rg;u[pj; Nf rh`h Rygkhf khw;wf;$ba Ntshz;-caph;r;#oy; mikg;Gfs; fPo;> tptrhapfs;> rpy jdpj;Jtk; tha;ej ; xUq;fpize;j gz;iz Kiwfis cUthf;fpdh;. cUthf;fpa ,e;jg; gz;izia khWk; Rw;Wg;Gw #o;epiy> kz;zpd; tsk; kw;Wk; gz;iz tUkhdk; Fiwe;J tUjy; Nghd;witfSf;F kpfg; gaDs;sjhf mike;jJ. gy;NtW njhz;L epWtdq;fs; ,e;j cah;j;jg;gl;l Kiwfis gug;gptUk; epiyapy;> ,itfis xd;WNrh;j;J nghpastpy; gpd;gw;Wtjw;fhf jpl;lk; xd;iw tbtikg;gJ gw;wp MNyhrid nra;tJ ,JNt rhpahd jUzk;. tsUk; ehLfspy;> czT> rj;Jf;fs; kw;Wk; tho;thjhu cj;jputhjj;ij r%f> nghUshjhu kw; W k; Rw; W f; # oypd; epiyj; ; j jd; i kia ghjpf;fhky;> Ntshz;ik %yk; cWjp nra;tJ kpfTk; rthyhd xd;whFk;. ,e;j rthy;> vd;WNk mjpf mOj;jj;jpy; ,Uf;Fk; epyk; kw;Wk; ,ju ,aw;if Mjhuq;fs;> cyfkakhf;Fjy; kw;Wk; efukakhf; F jy; Nghd; w tw; w py; mjpf gq; F cs;sJ. Nkw;F tq;fhsj;jpy; ,aw;ifahfNt 85 rjtpfpjk; rpWFW tptrhapfs; ,Ug;gJ tuNtw; f j; j f; f jhf ,y; i y. Vio kf; f s; thOk; kpjkhd kw;Wk; Fiwe;j xUq;fpize;j Rw;Wr;#oy;fshd> khdhthhp kw;Wk; flNyhu cth; cw;gj;jp Kiwfs; Nghd;w #o;epiyfs; midj;Jk; fbdkhapd. ,e;j #o;epiyapy; rpW epy tptrhak; rpwg; g hd Kf; f paj; J tk; ngw; W tUfpwJ. epiyj; j j; j d; i k kw; W k; xUq;fpize;j FLk;g tptrhak; %yk; vt;thW czT> rj;Jf;fs; kw;Wk; tho;thjhu cj;jputhjj;ij ehk; cWjp nra;tJ vd;gij rhh;e;Nj Ntshz;ik kw;Wk; fpuhkg;Gw Vo;ikia Fiwj;jy; Nghd;wtw;wpd; vjph;fhyk; cs;sJ. rPNjh\z epiy kw;Wk; re;ijfspd; khw; w q; f Sf; F cfe; j J. epiyj; j rhFgb Kiwfis ghpe;Jiug;gJ Vo;ikia Fiwf;Fk; topahf mikj;jJ xU ey;y jPht ; hFk;. Rygkhf ,Ue;jhYk; ,J ,d;Dk; rthyhd xd;whFk;.

xUq;fpize;j caph;-gy;tifik FLk;gg; gz;iz Nkw;F tq;fhsj;jpd; flNyhu khtl;lk; njw;F guq;fhdh. Xhpdg; gaph; rhFgb KiwNa mq;F nra; A k; tptrhakhFk; . Fwpg; g hf> twz; l 8

yPrh ,e;jpah • ,jo; 1 • khh;r; 2016

khjq;fspy; kz; cth;jj ; d;ik gpur;ridahFk;. Ntshz; i k rhFgb ,y; y hj khjq; f spy; tptrhapfs; mUfpy; cs; s efuq; f Sf; F ,lk; ngah; e ; J nry; f pd; w dh; . Ntshz; i k cw; g j; j pj; j d; i k Fiwe; j J. NkYk; Row; r p cw;gj;jpj;jd;ik nfhz;l Vo;ik nghwp %yk; tptrhapfs; ghjpf;fg;gLfpd;wdh;. FW epyq;fs; Gof;fj;jpy; cs;s rhFgbia tphptiltjw;F jilahf cs;sJ. NkYk; ,isQh;fs; tptrhaj; i j Ntiyahf Nkw; n fhs; t jw; F Mh;tkpoe;Js;sdh;. ,e; j g; gpur; r idfSf; F jP h ; T fhz> Nkw; F tq;fhsj;jpy;> flNyhu gFjpapy; thOk; gy E} w;Wf;fzf;fhd tptrhapfs; xUq;fpize;j caph;-gy;tifik FLk;g gz;izfs; nfhy;fj;jh njhz; L epWtdkhd tsh; r ; r p Muha; r ; r p njhlh;G kw;Wk; Nrit ikaj;jpd; cjtpNahL cUthf;fg;gl;lJ. NkYk; ,Njkhjphpahd gy Mapuf;fzf;fhd gz;izfis tptrhapfs; jq;fspd; tho;thjhuj;ij rpwpa epyNkahapDk; mth;fNs cw;gj;jp nra;a Jtq;fpdh;. Kg;gJ nlrpkYf;Fk; Fiwthf cs;s rpwpa epyj;jpYk; xUq; f pize; j gz; i z KiwAk; fhz KbfpwJ. uhkfpU\;zh klk; tpNtfhde;jh gy;fiyfofk;> xUq;fpize;j fpuhk tsh;r;rpapy; xU khjphp fpuhkj;ij cUthf;Fk; Nehf;fj;NjhL xUq; f pize; j gz; i z Kiw khjphpfis Ghpe; J nfhs; t jw; F xUq; f pize; j caph; gy; t ifik FLk; g gz; i zfspy; Mo; e ; j Ma;T nra;ag;gl;lJ. fy;tp Muha;rr ; p jpl;lj;jpd; xU mq;fkhf ,e;j Ma;T elj;jg;gl;lJ.


njw; F 24 guq; f hdh]; khtl; l j; j py; cs; s gjh;g;ujpkh tl;lj;jpy;> xUq;fpize;j gz;iz Kiwia gpd;gw;wpa xU Vf;fh; epyg; gz;iz (60 fjh) xd;iw ehq;fs; Ma;Tf;fhf Njh;T nra; N jhk; . xU Vf; f h; epyk; gpd; t UkhW gad; g Lj; j g; g l; l J. 30-40 fjh msTs; s epyk; gaph;fs; tsh;g;gjw;Fk; (50-66 % )> 10-12 fjh tPl;L Njhl;lj;jpw;Fk; (16-20%)> 1012 fjh eP h ; e piyfSf; F k; ( 13-16%)> 4-6 fjh fhy;eilfSf;Fk; (4-6 %) gad;gLj;jg;gl;;lJ. Njitahd ,lk; xJf;fp tug;Gfis mfyg;gLj;jp vLf;fg;gl;lJ. xt;nthU 0.27 n`f;lh; epyj;jpy; gapUf;F 0.02-0.03 n`f;lh; epyj;jpy; tug;Gfs; cUthf;fp mjpy; Mz;LNjhWk; fha;fwpfs; tsh;f;fg;gLfpwJ. gaph;fs; Rw;wpAs;s Fsk; kw;Wk; fhy;tha;fs; xd;NwhnlhLd;W ,ize;J jz;zPh; gha;tij topelj;jp mjpy; kPd; fs; tsh;f;fg;gLfpwJ. ,ijj; jtpu> rpy ,lq;fspy; %q;fpy; kw;Wk; fapw;why; gpd;dg;gl;l jsj;ij cUthf; f p rhFgb nra; a g; g l; l J. gz; i z msT kpff; Fiwthf ,Ug;gpDk;> mlh;j;jpia Nkk; g Lj; j Fiwe; j jz; z P h ; Njit> mjpf CLg;gaph;> go kuq;fspd; Ntshz;fhLfs;> Nky; gug;ig gad;gLj;JtJ> rpwpa fhy;eilfs;> tPl;by; Nfhop tsh;g;G Mfpatw;iw nfhz;L gaph; tsh;g;ig tphptila nra;jJ. ,e;jg; gz;izfspy; fpl;lj;jl;l 40 Rw;Wr;#oy;> nghUshjhu kw;Wk; r%f fhuzpfis ehq; f s; mse; N jhk; . gz; i zfspypUe; J ngwg;gl;l gad;fis ,uz;L Kf;fpa Vo;ik rhh;e;j mwpFwpfshd - cl;nfhs;Sk; czT kw;Wk; gz;izapd; tUkhdk; Mfpatw;iw nfhz;L ghpNrhjid nra;tjw;fhf Kjypy; Njh; T nra; a g; g l; l J. ,e; j FLk; g gz; i z khjphpahdJ Ie;J Ngh; nfhz;l FLk;gj;jpw;F tUlk; KOtJk; czT mspf;fpwjh? ,y;iyah? vd;gij ghpNrhjid nra;Njhk;. FLk;g cWg;gpdh;fSf;F Njitahd fNyhhpfis ,e;j khjphp nfhLf;fpwJ vd; g ij ,e; j Ma; T ntspg; g Lj; J fpwJ (2400 kw; W k; 2200 fp.fNyhhpfs; / egh; f s; / ehs; KiwNa> Mz; f s; kw; W k; ngz; f s; ) . nkhj; j rj; J Njitapy; 5 rjtpfpjj; J f; F Fiwthf Njitg; g Lk; rpwpastpyhd gaW tiffs; kw;Wk; ntq;fhaj;ij re;ijapypUe;J tpiyf;F thq;Ffpd;wdh; FLk;gj;jpdh;fs;. FLk;g gz;iz khjphpapd; %yk; kjpg;gplg;gl;l tzpf gad; f s; 60 tpOf; f hL mjpfkhf gzkhf Nrfhpf; f g; g l; l J Rkhh; &. 75>00080>000 MFk;. ,e;j kjpg;gPl;by; %ypif nrbfs;

xUq;fpize;j gz;izKiw khjphpia nray;gLj;Jk; xU rpW tptrhap

(MNuhf;fpaj;jpw;fhd nryT Nrkpg;G)> rj;Jf;fs; kw;Wk; ,aw;if cu kWRow;rp (cur; nryT Nrkpg;G)> tPl;L cgNahfj;jpw;F gad;gLk; nghUl;fs; Nghd; w itfs; fzf; f py; nfhs; s tpy; i y. muR Fwpg;gpl;Ls;s tWikf;Nfhl;bw;F NkNy FLk;gq;fis cah;j;j ,e;j gz;iz khjphp Njitahd msT tzpf tUkhdj;ij ngw;Wj; jUfpwJ. (&.41062/- FLk;gk;/tUlk;> fpuhk gFjpfspy; xU ehisf;F &.22.50/- ngwyhk; vd fzf;fplg;gLfpwJ)

khjphpia gutyhf;fk; nra;jy; xd;gJ fpuhk kf;fs; tho;e;J nfhz;bUf;Fk; gUy; j h fpuhkj; j py; > xUq; f pize; j fpuhk tsh;rr ; p %yk; xU khjphp fpuhkj;ij cUthf;Fk; Nehf;fj;NjhL gzpGhpe;JtUk; Mh;.Nf.vk;.tp.A vd;w epWtdk;> Ma;T Nkw;nfhz;lJ. 2011-2012 Mk; Mz;Lfspy; Nkw;nfhs;sg;gl;l Jtf;f Ma;Tfspy; Ntshz;ik Kjd;ik tho;thjhu Njh;thf ,Ue;jij fz;Lgbj;Njhk;. Mdhy;> cth; j ; j d; i k kw; W k; rpwpa epyq; f isNa n rhe ;jkhf itj;jpU f;Fk; tptrh a p f s; Mfpa gpur;ridfs; Ntshz;ikapy;

FLk;g gz;iz khjphpapd; %yk; kjpg;gplg;gl;l tzpf gad;fs; 60 tpOf;fhL mjpfkhf gzkhf Nrfhpf;fg;gl;lJ Rkhh; &. 75>000-80>000 MFk;. muR Fwpg;gpl;Ls;s tWikf; Nfhl;bw;F NkNy FLk;gq;fis cah;j;j ,e;j gz;iz khjphp Njitahd msT tzpf tUkhdj;ij ngw;Wj; jUfpwJ. yPrh ,e;jpah • ,jo; 1 • khh;r; 2016

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yPrh ,e;jpah • ,jo; 1 • khh;r; 2016

xt;nthU jpl;l fpuhkj;jpYk; Rkhh; 20 Mz; kw;Wk; ngz;fs; rpW FOkkhf tptrhapfs; xUq;fpizf;fpd;wdh;. thuk; ,UKiw elj; j g; g Lk; rpW FOk $l; l q; f s; %yk; tptrhapfis Njh;e;njLj;J gpd;dh; khjhe;jpu fpuhk FOk $l;lj;jpy; mq;fPfhpf;fg;gLfpwJ. xU FO tptrhapfSf;F Ntshz; tay;ntspg; gs; s p (t.nt.g) elj; j g; g l; l J. tpQ; Q hd Kiwapy; gaph;fs; rhFgb kw;Wk; mjd; G+r;rp Nkyhz; i k Fwpj; J tpQ; Q hdpfs; kw; W k; mDgtk; ngw; w th; f splkpUe; J tptrhapfs; gapw;rp ngWfpd;wdh;. t.nt.g cWg;gpdh;fis rpW kw;Wk; fpuhk FOk jPh;khdq;fs; %yk; Njh; e ; n jLf; f pd; w dh; . gj; J rjtpfpj gad;fis gzkhfNth my;yJ nghUshfNth (cjhuzkhf- tpij> $ypahf) fpuhk FOkj;jpw;F cWjpaspf;FkhW khjphp tptrhapaplk; Nfl; L nfhs; f pd; w dh; . gaph; tptuq; f is jhz;b> fpuhk Mjhu ikaj;jpy; n`f;NuhkPl;lh; kw;Wk; etPd kio khdp epWtg;gl;L rPNjh\d tptuq;fisAk; Nrfhpj;J fpuhk FOkj;jpdhy; fz;fhzpj;Jk; tUfpd;wdh;. NkYk;> t.Nt.g tptrha-gapw; r pahsh; my; y J jiyth; kw; w tptrhapfSf;F Fwpg;gpl;l fhy ,ilntspapy; gapw;rpfs; mspf;fpd;wdh;. xUq;fpize;j gz;iz khjphpia itj;jpUf;Fk; midj;J tptrhapfSk; tpijia gfph;e;Jnfhs;Sk; FOtpy; cWg;gpdh;fs; Mth;. tptrhapfs; Njh;e;njLf;Fk; Ez;Mjhuq;fis tpijia gfph;e;Jnfhs;Sk; FOtpd; %yk; Nkk; g Lj; j p tUfpd; w dh; . midj; J cWg;gpdh;fSk;> jq;fspd; NjitNfw;g tpijia rhFgbapd; Jtf;fj;jpy; vLj;Jnfhz;L> mjd;


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mjid tptrhapfs; Nrkpf;f Kbe;jJ. Kjyhk; Mz;by; tptrhapfs; ruhrhpahf &gha; 400-500 Nrkpf;f Kbe;jJ. tpijfis Rygkhf fpilf;Fk; mstpw; F cah; e ; J s; s epiyapy; > tpijf; FO cs; @ h; Ez; M jhuq; f is Nkk; g Lj; j cjTfpwJ. nts;shp> Riuf;fha;> fPiutiffs;> kpsfha; Nghd;w cs;@h; ,ufq;fspd; tpijfs; ghJfhj;Jg;gLfpwJ. ,J gz;iz tPLfspy; cs; s ngz; f s; tP l ; L j; N jhl; l g; gFjpapy; tsh;f;fg;gLfpwJ. gz;izapypUe;J Fwpg;gpl;l tUkhdk; mjpfhpg; g ij czh; e ; j dh; . cjhuzj; j pw; F > uQ;rd; kz;ly; vd;w tptrhap tPl;L cgNahfj;jpw;Fg; gad;gLj;jpa gpd;dh; 18 Nuhl; INyz;l; vd;w tif gwitfs; %yk; &.8000/-> kPdf ; spypUe;J &.8000/- > fha;fwpfspypUe;J &. 15000/- Mfpa tUkhdk; ngw;Ws;shh;. fle;j tUlk; ve;j tUkhdKk; ,th; ngwtpy;iy. ,e;jj; jpl;lj;jpdhy; tPl;bd; czTg; gy;tifikAk; mjpfhpj;Js;sJ. Kd;G> khT rj;jpd; gq;F 80% f;Fk; mjpfkhf cs;sJ. jw;NghJ> fha;fwpfs;> kPd; kw;Wk; Kl;ilfs; cz;gjd; %yk; Gujr;rj;J kw;Wk; itl;lkpd; rj;Jf;fs; cztpy; mjpfhpj;Js;sJ. NkYk; tptrhapfs; G+r; r pf; n fhy; y pfs; my; y hj> MNuhf;fpa czit cz;z KbfpwJ. kpf Kf;fpakhf tptrhapfspd; nghJj;jd;ik tphptpile; J s; s J. Kd; G > xd; g J fpuhk tptrhapfs; xd; W $b mkh; e ; J njhlh; e ; J fye;JiuahLtJ mhpjhf ,Ue;jJ.

vjph;fhy tha;g;Gfs; xUq; f pize; j gz; i z Kiw jdpj; J t Mjhu Nkk;ghl;L Af;jpahf ifahSk;NghJ nghUshjhu gad;fs; ngWtNjhL epiyj;j Ntshz; cw;gj;jp kw;Wk; Rw;Wr;#oy; juKk; Vw; g LfpwJ. ,e; j Kiwfs; %yk; gy; N tW gpur;ridfshd czT cj;jputhjk;> Ntiy tha; g ; G Vw; g Lj; J jy; kw; W k; Rw; W r; # oypd; epiyj;jj;jd;ikia re;jpf;Fk; Mw;wy; ,Uf;Fk; ,tw;iw gy;NtW njhz;L epWtdq;fs; kpf Ntfkhf gug;gpAk; tUfpwJ. ,e;j Kiwfis xUq;fpize;j jpl;lkhf nghpastpy; nray;gLj;j ,JNt rhpahd jUzk;. NkYk; > gy; N tW Jiwfs; Row; r p Kiwapy; nray;gLj;JtJ mtrpakhfpwJ. Nkw;F tq;fhs murpd; Re; j h; g d; tsh; r ; r p Jiwapd; > jdp mikg;ghf nray;gl;LtUk; Re;jh;gd; tsh;r;rp yPrh ,e;jpah • ,jo; 1 • khh;r; 2016

11


tptrha tay;ntsp gs;sp cWg;gpdh;fs; kz; GO cuj;jahj;jg;G Fwpj;J gapw;rp ngWfpd;wdh;

FO> ,e;j Re;jh;gd; gFjpapy; Mapuf;fzf;fhd epyq;fis tbtikg;gjw;Fk;> jz;zPh; gha;r;Rk; Fsq; f is J}h; thUtjw; F k; Kaw; r pfs; nra;JtUfpwJ. murpd; fpuhkpa Ntiytha;g;G jpl; l khd kfhj; k h fhe; j p Njrpa fpuhk Ntiytha; g G cWjp jpl; l j; j pd; fP o ; ,e; j khjphpahd gy Fsq;fs; cUthf;fp tUfpwJ. ,e; j epyq; f is xUq; f pize; j gz; i z Kiwapd; %yk; r%f-nghUshjhu #o;epiyia cah;j;JtJk; caph;r;#oy; rkepiyia kPz;Lk; ghJfhg;gjw;Fk; mjpfkhd Mw;wy; ,Uf;fpwJ. ,e;jg; gFjpapy; cs;s 50000 gz;izfSf;F Fiwe;jgl;rk; kjpg;gPL nra;jhy;> tUlj;jpw;F &.350 Nfhb kjpg;gpyhd Kjd;ik Ntshz; tpisnghUis ngWk; Mw; w y; cs; s J. ,jpy; &.125 Nfhb kjpg;gpyhd tpisnghUs; Neubahf re;ijf;F nry;Yk; tha;g;Gk; cs;sJ. gz; i zfspy; cUthfpAs; s Ntiytha; g ; G kw; W k; mjid rhh; e ; J s; s $ypahl; f s; nghUsjhuk; ,jpy; nrhy; y g; g ltpy; i y. rj;Jf;fs; rkepiy> jz;zPh; Nrkpg;G> fhh;gd; ntspahtij jLj;jy;> Mw;wy; Nrkpg;G kw;Wk; caph; gy; t ifikia tphpthf; F jy; Mfpa jiyg; G fspy; kjpg; g P L nra; N jhkhdhy; > caph; r ; # oy; mikg; g pd; Nritapd; gq; F mjpfkhf ,Uf;Fk;. ,it rpwe;j nray;ghl;L Kf;fpaj;Jtk; tha;e;j ghlq;fs;> NkYk; ,jid ikakhff; nfhz;L ve;j xU nfhs;if Kaw;rpAk; 12

yPrh ,e;jpah • ,jo; 1 • khh;r; 2016

vLf;fg;gltpy;iy vd;gJ mjph;r;rpf;Fhpa tp\ akhFk;. xUq;fpize;j caph;gy;tifik FLk;g gz; i z> ,aw; i f Mjhuj; i j Nkk; g hl; i l xUq;fpizg;gJ mtrpak;. NkYk; ,ij tWik xopg; G cf; j pNahL ,ize; J nray; g Lj; j Ntz;Lk;.

ed;wp $Wjy; ,e;jpa muR> mwptpay; kw;Wk; njhopy;El;g Jiw fPo; nray;gl;LtUk; v];.,.,.b gphpT> epjpAjtp mspj;jjw;fhf ed;wp $Wfpd;Nwhk;. NkYk; fs Ma;tpd;NghJ ,ju cjtpfis mspj;jjw;F nfhy;fl;lhtpy; b.Mh;.rp.v];.rp epWtdj;jpw;Fk; ed;wp $Wfpd;Nwhk;.  Purnabha Dasgupta, Rupak Goswami, Md. Nasim Ali, Sudarsan Biswas Ramakrishna Mission Vivekananda University, Ramakrishna Mission Ashrama, Narendrapur, Kolkata-700103 E-mail: goswamirupak@rediffmail.com Subhrajit K Saha Department of Biology, Georgia Southern University, Statesboro, GA 30458, USA %yk;: yPrh ,e;jpah> [_d; 2014> thy;a+k; 16> ,jo; 2


tWikapypUe;J ek;gpf;ifia Nehf;fp nry;Yjy; Nfhop tsh;g;G njhopypy; ntw;wpngw;w ngz;zpd; ntw;wpf;fij gpujhd;; njhlh;e;J tWikapy; thOk; Rf;hpj; gha;> gPuh fpuhkj;jpy; jdpikahf> ntWikahd> tpsk;Gepiyf;F js;sg;gl;l kw;Wk; mbikg;gLj;jg;gl;l ngz;fspy; xUtuhf cs;shh;. ,d;W Nfhop tsh;g;G njhopypy; <Lgl;L ek;gpf;if kpFe;j ngz;zhf jpfo;fpwhh;. mthpd; jplkhd Mw;wy; kw;Wk; rpwpasT ntspg;Gw cjtpAk; Rf;hpjpapd; tho;f;ifia khw;wpaJ. tphptile;j jpwd;fs; kw;Wk; ek;gpf;if> ,thpd; fpuhkj;jpy; thOk; ,tiuNghy; cs;s ngz;fSf;F cjhuzkhf jpfo;fpwhh;. ehd;F rNfhjuh;fs;> ngw;Nwhh;fs; kw;Wk; mtuJ 12 taJ kfDld;> kj;jpa gpuNjr khepyj;jpy; rj;jh;G+h; khtl;lj;jpy; cs;s gPuh fpuhkj;jpy; tho;e;J tUfpwhh;. gd;dpuz;L Mz;LfSf;F Kd;dh; ,tuJ fzth; ,tiu xJf;fpag;gpd;dh;> jdJ ngw;Nwhh; tPl;by; te;J jQ;rkile;jhh;. mtuJ ngw;Nwhh; Njhuhakhf itj;jpUf;Fk; 8 Vf;fh; epyj;jpy; NfhJik> gaWtif> vs;>

gr;ir gaW> cSe;J kw;Wk; Nrhah Mfpait rhFgb nra;J tUfpd;wdh;. rhFgb nra;ag;gl;l tpisnghUl;fspy; ngUkstpy; tho;f;iff;F gad;gLj;jpf;nfhz;L> kpff; Fiwthd gq;Nf re; i japy; tpw; f g; g LfpwJ. Rf; h pj; ghapd; rNfhjuh;fs;> Rw;Wg;Gw fpuhkq;fspy; Ntshz;ik kw; W k; fl; b l $ypahl; f shf gzp nra; J tUfpd;wdh;.

Rf;hpj; gha; jdJ tUkhdj;ij <l;LtjNjhL Nfhop tsh;g;G njhopy; %yKk; kjpf;fg;gLfpwhh; yPrh ,e;jpah • ,jo; 1 • khh;r; 2016

13


jdJ ngw; N whh; tP l ; b w; F te; j g; g pd; d h; > Rf;hpj; mtuJ FLk;gj;jpw;F ghukhf ,Uf;f tpUk; g tpy; i y. Mifahy; > mth; %q; f py; $ilfis jahhpj;J tpw;fj; njhlq;fpdhh;. mth; %q; f piy &.30-40 f; F thq; f p xU ehisf;F xU $il vd;w mstpy; jahhpj;J &.100 f;F tpw;fg;gLfpwJ. ‘$ilfis tpw;gjd; %yk; tUk; tUkhdk; vdJ nrytpid ghh;j;Jnfhs;sNt kpf fbdkhf cs;sJ> ,jpy; FLk;g tUkhdj;jpw;F vdJ gq;fhf vd;d nfhLf;f KbAk;” vd;W Rf;hpj; gha; $wpdhh;. 2005 Mk; Mz;L gpujhd; epWtdk; kj;jpa gpuNjr khtl;lk; tWik xopg;Gj; jpl;lj;jpd; fPo; (k.gp.kh.t.x.jp)> gy;NtW tho;thjhu tha;gG ; fs; Fwpj; J fye; J iuahl fpuhkj; j py; cs; s ngz;fis mZfpdh;. gy;NtW muR jpl;lq;fs; fPo; cs;s ed;nfhilfs; Fwpj;J ngz;fsplk; tpsf;fkspj;jdh;. gy ngz;fs; Nfhop tsh;gG ; njhopiy cUthf;Ftjw;F Mh;tk; fhl;baij njhlh;eJ ; gpujhd; epWtdk; fpuhkj;jpy; nghJ Mh;tf; FOit xUq;fpizg;gjw;F topelj;jpaJ. 2006 Mk; Mz;L> ,e;j nghJ Mh;tf; FO xd;wpy;> Rf;hpj; gha;> cWg;gpduhf Nrh;ej ; hh;. nghJ Mh;tf; FOf;fs; cUthf;fpa gpd;dh;> Rf;hpj; gha; kw;w fpuhkq;fspy; cs;s ehd;F ngz;fSld; Nrh;eJ ; N`hrq;fghj; khtl;lj;jpy; cs;s Nfryh vd;w ,lj;jpy;> Nfryh Nfhop tsh; g ; G r%fk; Vw; g hL nra; j pUe; j Nfhop tsh;g;G Fwpj;J ,uz;L ehs; gapw;rpapy; fye;J nfhz;lhh;. ,e;jg; gapw;rpapy; Nfhop (fwp Nfhop) tsh; g ; G j; n jhopypd; mbg; g ilj; jfty; f s; kw;Wk; Nfhop tsh;g;Gf; $lq;fis fl;LtJ cl;gl gy Nfhop Nkk;ghl;L njhopy;El;gq;fis ,th;fSf;F mwpKfg;gLj;jpaJ. gapw;rp Kbe;jTld;> gapw;rp ngw;w ngz;fis k.gp.kh.t.x.jpl; l j; j py; ,izj; J &.30000 epjpAjtpia 300 rJumbapy; Nfhop tsh;g;G $lj; i j fl; L tjw; F mspj; j J. ,jidj; njhlh;e;J 13 fpuhkj;jpYs;s 360 ngz;fis nfhz; L xUq; f pizj; J uh[; e fh; fpuhkP d ; k`ps Kh;fp cj;gjf; \hfhpjh khpajpj; vd;w ngahpy; $l;LwT cUthf;fg;gl;lJ> mjpy; Rf;hpj; gha; ,d;W FOk cWg;gpduhf cs;shh;. ,e;jf; $l;LwT cUthf;fpag; gpd;dh;> cWg;gpdh;fs; xt; n thUtUk; 300 xU ehs; FQ; R fis nfhz;L Nfhop tsh;gG ; njhopiy Muk;gpj;jdh;. xU ehs; FQ;Rfs;> Nfhop czT kUe;Jfs;> kw; W k; jLg; G +rpfs; Mfpatw; i w $l; L wT 14

yPrh ,e;jpah • ,jo; 1 • khh;r; 2016

thq;fp cWg;gpdh;fSf;F mspf;fpwJ. gpd;dh; gwitfis tsh;jj ; g;gpd; mjid $l;Lwtpw;F tpw; F k; N ghJ> NkNy Fwpg; g pl; l nrytpid Fiwj;J nfhs;sg;gLfpwJ. Nfhopfs; 25-28 ehl;fspy; 1.0-1.2 fpNyh vil te;j gpd;dh; $l;LwT ,tw;iw tpahghhpaplk; ey;y tpiyf;F tpw; f pwJ. njhiyNgrp jfty; f s; kw; W k; njhopy; E l; g Nritfis cWg; g pdh; f Sf; F toq; f $l; L wT xU fhy; e il kUj; J tiu epakpj;jJ. Kjy; Kiwahf Nfhopfis tsh;f;Fk;NghJ> Nfhop tsh;f;Fk; ngz;fSf;F cjtpGhpAk; tifapy; NfryhtpypUe;J gapw; r pahsiu Vw; g hL nra; J Neubahf 30 ehl; f Sk; ,Ue; J gapw; r paspj; j dh; . me; j gapw;rpahsh;> xt;nthU Nfhop $lq;fSf;Fk; nrd;W ghh;itapl;L> Nfhopfspd; nray;ghL kw;Wk; mjd; tsh;r;rp Fwpj;J Ma;T nra;J tUthh;. rpy Nfhop tsh;g;G njhopy;El;gq;fs; tphpthf fye;Jiuahl Ntz;Lk; vd;w mtrpak; cs;s epiyapy; midj;J Nfhop tsh;f;Fk; ngz; f is fpuhkj; j py; xU nghJ ,lj; j py; xUq;fpizj;J Neub fsg; gapw;rpia mspg;ghh;. tUkhdj; i j ghh; f ; F k; N ghJ kfpo; r ; r pahf cs; s J> NkYk; gzj; i j KjyP L nra; J njhopiy tphpthf;Fk; ek;gpf;ifAk; cs;sJ vd Rf; h pj; gha; $wpdhh; . Nfhop tsh; g ; g py; Kf;fpa gpur;ridfis fye;Jiuahl fpuhkj;jpy; xt; n thU thuKk; Nfhop cw; g j; j pahsh; f s; $l;lk; eilngWk; Neuj;jpy;> gPuh fpuhkj;jpypUe;J ehd;F fp.kP njhiytpy; cs;s gkpjh fpuhkj;jpy; ,Uf;Fk; $l;LwT mYtyfj;jpy; xt;nthU khjKk; 8Mk; Njjp $l;Lwtpd; Ml;rp FOkk; $LfpwJ. $l; L wtpd; Ml; r p FOkj; j py; ,Uf;Fk; 13 fpuhkq;fspd; Njh;e;njLf;fg;gl;l gpujpepjpfs; $l;Lwtpd; nray;ghLfs; kw;Wk; me;je;j fpuhkj;jpd; Nfhop cw;gj;jp $Ljyhf njhopiy NkYk; gutyhf; f k; nra; t jw; f hf vLf;fg;gLk; xUq;fpize;j Kaw;rp Mfpait Fwpj;J fye;Jiuahlg;gLfpwJ. gwitfs; 25 ehl; f spy; Njhuhakhf xU fpNyh vilia mile;j gpd;dh;> xt;nthU cw;gj;jpahsUk; Row;rp Kiwapy; 3-4 Ftpz;lhy; tpw;fpd;wdh;. khepy $l;likg;ghd vk;.gp.lgs;A. gp.rp.vy;. Nghghy;> topahf jw;NghJ $l;LwT

xUq;fpize;j Kiwapy; FQ;Rfis nfhs;Kjy; nra;tJk; fwpNfhopfis rpwe;j Kiwapy; tpw;gidAk; nra;ag;gLfpwJ.


FQ;Rfs;> jPtdk;> kUe;Jfs;>jLg;G+rp kw;Wk; ,ju ,LnghUl;fs; Mfpait nfhs;Kjy; nra;fpwJ. xt;nthU fpuhkj;J cw;gj;jpahsh;fSk; xU fz;fhzpg;ghsiu epakdk; nra;th;> mth; Nfhopg; gz;izfis ghh;itapl;L ey;y Nkk;ghl;L njhopy;El;gq;fis gpd;gw;Wfpd;wduh vd;gij cWjp nra;thh;. NkYk; ,th; xt;nthU thuKk; gwitfspd; vilia ghh; j ; J $l; L wTf; F mwpf;ifia mspg;ghh;. fz;fhzpg;ghsUf;F> Nfhop cw; g j; j pahsh; f s; tpw; F k; xt; n thU gwitf; F k; &.0.50 vd; w hP j papy; Cjpak; mspf;fg;gLfpwJ. xU Kiw gwitfis tpw;w gpd;dh;> 10-15 ehl;fSf;F me;jf; $lk; fhypahf itf;fg;gLk;. gpidy; kw;Wk; vYkpr;ir jz;zPh; nfhz;L ed;whf Rj;jk; nra;J Gjpa FQ;Rfs; tUtjw;Fk; Kd; ed;whf cyu itf;fNtz;Lk; vd;W Rf;hpj; gha; gfph;e;Jnfhz;lhh;.

xU Kiw gwitfis tpw;w gpd;dh; $l;LwT mYtyfj; J f; F nrd; W Mtzq; f isf; nfhz;L fzf;if rhpghh;j;j gpd;dh; gzj;ij ehd; ngw; W f; n fhs; N td; vd; W Rf; h pj; gha; $wpdhh; . kw; w Nfhop cw; g j; j pahsh; f Sk; njhlh; e ; J jpl; ; l mYtyfj; J f; F nrd; W jq;fsJ fzf;if rhpghh;j;J nfhz;L tUth;. FQ;Rfis nfhs;Kjy; nra;tJk;> fwpNfhopfis tpw; g id nra; t Jk; xUq; f pize; J rpwe; j Kiwapy; nra;ag;gLfpwJ. ,jdhy; cw;gj;jpapy; KO ftdk; nrYj;j cjtpaJ. Nfhopfs; tpw; g idf; F jahuhd gpd; d h; > $l;Lwtpw;F jfty; mspj;J gy;NtW tpahghhpfSld; Ngrp rpwe; j tpahghuj; i j Vw;ghL nra;th;. tpahghhpfs; fpuhkj;jpw;F te;J Nfhopfspd; vilia vq;fs; fz; vjpNu vLg;gh;. NkYk; fpuhk fz;fhzpg;ghsh; Kd;dpiyapy; elg; g jhy; xt; n thU Nfhop tpahghhpfspd; mwpf;iffis Mtzk; nra;tjw;F cjtpaJ. Rf;hpj; gha; rhkhd;fis Rj;jk; nra;J xU ehisf;F %d;W Kiw jPtdk; kw;Wk; jz;zi P u mspf;fpwhh;. Nfhil fhyj;jpy; Neub #hpaxspapd; ntg;gj;ij jLf;f $lq;fSf;F gioa Glitia jpiuahf NghLfpwhh;. NkYk; Fsph;fhyj;jpy;> FQ; R fSf; F ntg; g r; #oiy Nkk; g Lj; j $lj;jpw;Fs; neUg;ig %l;b itf;f Ntz;Lk;. neUg;gpypUe;J ntsptUk; Gif Nfhopfis

ghjpf;fhj tz;zk; ghh;jJ ; f; nfhs;sg;gLfpwJ. fpuhkj; j py; cs; s Nfhop cw; g j; j pahsh; f s; tpjpKiwfs; kw;Wk; Nfhl;ghLfis mikj;J> fpuhkq; f spYk; mjid Rw; w pAs; s Nfhop tsh; f ; F k; ngz; f s; gpd; g w; w p tUfpd; w dh; . Nfhop $lj;jpw;F Foe;ijfs;> eha;fs; kw;Wk; G+idfs; Mfpait Eiotjw;F jiltpjpg;gJ> NkYk; Nfhop $lj;jpw;F Eiotjw;F Kd;Dk;> gpd; D k; iffs; kw; W k; ghjq; f is Neha; vjph; g ; G kUe; J fs; %yk; Rj; j k; nra; t Jk; tpjpKiwfspy; cs;slf;fpaJ. NkYk; xUth; xU $lj;jpypUe;J kw;nwhU $lj;jpw;F nry;y mDkjpg;gjpy;iy vd;W Rf;hpj; njhptpj;jhh;. Kjy; Kiwahf ,wg;G tpfpjk; mjpfkhf cs;sJ (20-25 Nfhopfs;/Kiw) vd Rf;hpj; $wpdhh;. ey;y tsh;gG ; njhopy;El;gq;fis gpd;gw;Wtjhy; fhyk; nry;y nry;y ,wg;Gfs; Fiwe;J jw;NghJ xt;nthU KiwAk; 2-3 NfhopfNs ,wf;fpd;wd. Rf;hpj; ghapd; njhopy; tUkhdj;ij ghh;j;J Mr; r hpag; g l; L mtuJ rNfhjuhpd; kidtp Gjpjhf tq;fpf; flid ngw;W $Ljyhf Nfhop gz;izia fl;b> FLk;gj; njhopiy tphpthf;fk; nra; j hh; . ,e; j Ntiy kpfTk; trjpahf ,Uf;fpwJ. tPl;bw;F mUNf ,Ug;gjhy; vdJ kfd; f is ftdpj; J nfhz; N l Nfhopfis fz;fhzpj;J ey;y tUkhdj;ij ngWfpd;whh;. Kd;G 300 Nfhopfis tsh;j;J tpw;gid nra;J &.1200-1500 tiu <l; b dhh; > jw; N ghJ 500 Nfhopfis tsh;j;J khjj;jpw;F &. 2000-2200 <l;l KbfpwJ. vdJ FLk;gj;jpw;F ehd; ghukhf ,y;iy NkYk; vdJ Foe;ijapd; gbg;G nryit Vw;f KbfpwJ vd;W Rf;hpj; gha; ngUkpjj;NjhL $wpdhh;. gpd;dh; vd; fzth; vq;fis fhz tu Muk;gpj;jhh; NkYk; vd;idAk; vd; kfidAk; mth; tPl;bw;F nfhz;L nry;yTk; tpUg;gl;lhh;. ehd; ,e;j njhopiy njhluTk; tphpthf;Fk; tpUg;gj;ij njhptpj;jij mLj;J mth; jhNd ,q;F tUtjw;F jahuhf ,Ue;jhh; vd;gijAk; ngUkpjj;Jld; $wpdhh;.  PRADAN E-1/A, Kailash Colony Ground Floor and Basement, Kailash Colony New Delhi - 110 048 E-mail: headoffice@pradan.net %yk;: yPrh ,e;jpah> [_d; 2014> thy;a+k; 16> ,jo; 2

yPrh ,e;jpah • ,jo; 1 • khh;r; 2016

15


tskhd gy;tifik cs;s fhl;L czTfs; ghuj; kd;rhl;lh ehk; thOk; fpufk; gpur;ridf;Fhpa khWjiy re;jpf;Fk; epiyapy; cs;sJ. kW Row;rp nra;a ,ayhj Mjhuq;fis Kbtpy;yhky; gad;gLj;Jk; fhyj;jpypUe;J> thOk; caphpd nrhj;Jf;fis kWRow;rp nra;Ak; fhyj;jpw;F khWjy; kw;Wk; fyhr;rhuj;ij tphpthf;fk; nra;jy;. ,UgJ Mz; L fSf; F Kd; d hy; > Rkhh; 24 Ngiu nfhz;l ehq;fs; Mjhuq;fis Nrkpj;J> td;thb vd;W $wg;gLk; tlf;F nfhq;fd; Nkw; F njhlh; r ; r p kiyapy; cs; s rahj; h P ] ; kiyabthuj;jpy; rkkpy;yhj epyj;ij thq;Fjy; vq; f sJ Kjd; i k Nehf; f k; . caph; r ; # oy; kWGJg;gpj;jy; kw;Wk; cs;@h; Rarhh;Gj;jd;ik ngWtJ MFk; . rpy tUlq; f Sf; F gpwF> epyj;ij vOr;rpkpFe;j fhlhf GJg;gpf;fg;gl;lJ - cah;e;j> mlh;j;jpahd kw;Wk; tskpf;f caph; gy;tifik nfhz;L GJg;gpf;fg;gl;lJ. td;thb vd;w ,lj;jpy; cs;s jhtuq;fspd; nrhj;Jf;fs;> cs;@h; goq;Fbapd mwptpd; mbg;gilapy; khjphp Ma;T elj;jpajpy; ehq;fs; Mr;rhpaj;Jf;F cs;shNdhk;. tUlj;jpw;F rpy fhyq;fs; tiu czT kf#y; (,iy> gok;> G+> jz;L> fpoq;F/Nth;) mspf;Fk; gaphplg;glhj fhl; L czTfspd; 52 jhtu rpw; w pdq; f s; fz; L Mr; r hpag; g l; N lhk; . ,e; j g; gFjpapy; czT nghUl;fs; fpilg;gJ Kd; gl;lj;jpy;jhd;. mg;NghJ fle;j tUlk; Ntshz; tpisnghUl;fs; mjpfkhf cz; z g; g l; l J. NkYk; tptrha kf;fspd; GJ rhFgb gl;lj;jpy; mspj;j ciog;G tphptiltJ Njitahd xd;whFk;. td;thbapy; Kjd;ik gl;baypy; 120 fhl;L rpw;wdk; gy;NtW ghuk;ghpa gad;fis czu nra; j J. czT mspf; F k; rpw; w pdq; f is jtph;j;J> ehq;fs>; kUj;Jt Fzk; nfhz;l NkYk; 45 jhtu rpw;wpdq;fis fz;Lgpbj;Njhk;. NkYk; 20 tpwF rpw;wpdq;fs; Kjy; jukhd fl;ilfspy; ehd;F tpiyfis cs;slf;fpaJ. jP t dk; > vhpnghUs; > ehh; > cuk; > Xug; gaph; > iftpidg; nghUl;fs; Nghd;witfs; jtph;j;J jhtuq;fspypUe;J ,aw;if rhak;> Nrhg;Gfs;> rikay; vz;nza;fs;> ,aw;if vhpthAf; f s; > Nfhe; J fs; kw; W k; nurpd; f s; > ,aw; i f G+r; r pr; n fhy; y pfs; > ,iy jl; L fs; Nghd;witfSk; fpilf;fpd;wd. 16

yPrh ,e;jpah • ,jo; 1 • khh;r; 2016

goFbapd jpUtpohtpd;NghJ ghh;itf;F itf;fg;gl;Ls;s czT nghUs;fis Ma;T nra;Ak; xU gq;Nfw;ghsh;

gy rpw; w dq; f spy; gy ed; i kfs; ,Uf; F k; . kFth kuj;jpd; ,iyfs; jPtdk; mspf;fpwJ. mjd; G+f; f s; nty; y k; > fQ; r p nra; t jw; F gad; g LfpwJ. ,jd; fha; f s; > fha; f wpahf rikj;J cz;zyhk;. tpijfis nrf;F Mb vz;nza; vLf;fyhk;> ,J re;ijapy; fpilf;Fk; ngah; Nghd vz;nza;fistpl KOikahf ,Uf;fpwJ. vz;nza; vLj;j gpwF fpilf;Fk; Gz;zhf;F> gz;izg;gaph;fSf;F kjpg;Gkpf;f cukhf ,Uf;fpwJ. kFth kuq;fs; ,we;jhy;> ,jd; fl; i lfs; $il> tP l ; L g; n ghUl; f s; > tpisahl; L nghUl; f s; > ,irf; fUtpfs; >

rhFgb nra;ag;gl;l kw;Wk; nra;ag;glhj> ,aw;if kw;Wk; rikf;fg;gl;l 1500 czT ,ufq;fs; ghh;itf;F itf;fg;gl;lJ. Rkhh; 900 ,ufq;fs; rhFgb nra;ag;glhj fhl;L czTfs; MFk;.


Ntshz; fUtpfs; kw;Wk; tPL kw;Wk; fg;gy; fl;Ltjw;Fk; gad;gLfpwJ. ekJ nkhj;j tPl;L cgNahf tpisnghUl;fs; topahf nghUshjhu Ml; r papy; > ,aw; i f> rj; j hd czTfspd; mjpf gy; t ifikf; F Kf;fpaj;Jtk; Fiwthf cs;sJ. ekJ ,aw;if fhLfs; ,itfis ,ytrkhfTk; > kpfTk; caph; r ; # oy; rhh; e ; j Njitahd tifapYk; toq;FfpwJ> ,J Mw;wy;> jz;zhP ; my;yJ cuk; Nghd;w ve;j ntspapL nghUl;fSk; ,y;yhky; toq;FfpwJ. mjpf ,ufq;fs; nfhz;l gaDs;s tpisnghUl;fis mspg;gijAk; jhz;b> #hpa Mw;wiy mWtil nra;tJ> fdpk nghUis Nrfhpg;gJ> rPNjh\z khw;wj;ij fl;Lf;Fs; itg;gJ> kz; tiffs; kw;Wk; mjd; tsj;ij ghJfhj; J > GJg; g pg; g J caph; g y; t ifikia tphptiltJ> epyj;jb ePiu cah;j;JtJ Nghd;w kpf mj;jpahtrpa Kfikahf nray;gLfpwJ. G+kpapy; 80000 gaDs;s jhtu rpw;wpdq;fs; ,Ug; g jhf kjpg; g plg; g l; L s; s J vd ‘fuf Nkyhz;ikf;fhd ifah tiug;glk;” $WfpwJ. 150 f; F k; Fiwthf jhtu rpw; w dq; f s; > czTg;gapuhf tuyhw;W rpwg;Gkpf;f mstpy; mjpfkhf rhFgb nra;ag;gLfpwJ. tphptile;j njhopw;Nehf;fk; nfhz;l xNu gaph;rhFgbia gug;gp> ,jid er;R fye;j ,urhadq;fNshL njhiyJ}u efu re;ijfSf;fhf tsh;f;fg;gLfpwJ. ntWk; 20 jhtu rpw;wdq;fs; nkhj;j kdpj czTj;Njitapy; 90% G+h;j;jp nra;fpwJ.midj;J kdpj cztpy; ehd;fpy; %d; W gq; F k; ntWk; 8 gaph; f spypUe; J fpilf; f pwJ. mjhtJ ,aw; i f mspj; j tug; g purhjj; j py; gaDs; s rpw; w dq; f spy; ntWk; 0.01% gad;gLj;jg;gLfpwJ. mjdhy; midj;J kpd;Dk; kw;Wk; nghl;lyk; nra;ag;gl;l gy;NtW-ngahpy; mjpf-Efh;Nthh;kak; Mdjpy; ehk; cz;ikahf Kd;NdWfpNwhkh my;yJ tYtpof;fpd;Nwhkh? gpg; u thp 2014 Mk; Mz; L > xbrh khepyk; epak; f php kiyabthuj; j py; cs; s fl; l hf; vd;w ,lj;jpy; gp];]hkpy; goq;Fbapd czT jpUtpohtpy; gq;Nfw;f Ntz;Lk; vd;W Mh;tk; nfhz;bUe;Njd;. fpof;F kw;Wk; kj;jpa ,e;jpah gFjpapy; gy;NtW khepyq;fspy; ,Uf;Fk; 200 goq;Fbapd fpuhkq;fspypUe;J xd;W Nrh;e;J Rkhh; 600 Mjpthrpfspy; 80 % ngz; f s; ,Ue;jdh;. ,th;fspd; ghuk;ghpa czTfs; mjpf gy; t ifikia nfhz; l hLtjw; F jpUtpoh Vw;ghL nra;ag;gl;lJ. rhFgb nra;ag;gl;l kw;Wk; nra;ag;glhj> ,aw;if kw;Wk; rikf;fg;gl;l 1500

czT ,ufq;fs; ghh;itf;F itf;fg;gl;lJ. ,jpy; Rkhh; 900 ,ufq;fs; rhFgb nra;ag;glhj fhl;L czTfs; MFk;. ehD}W cldbahf cz; Z k; czT tiffspd; khjphpfSk; cs; s d. g`hp Nfhh; g h goq; F bapdj; i j Nrh;e;j xU Mjpthrp ‘g`hp Nfhh;ghit Nrh;e;j ehq; f s; ve; j nghpa Neha; f Sk; jhf; f hky; eP z ; l kw; W k; MNuhf; f pa tho; f ; i fia gy jiyKiwfshf kfpo;e;J tUfpd;wdh;. rpwpa Neha; my;yJ mnrsfhpaj;Jf;F fhl;L nrbfs;> Gjh;fs; kw;Wk; fha;fwpfs; ahTk; Fzkila gad;gLfpwJ. NkYk; ehq;fs; kUe;J filfs;> kUj;Jtkid my;yJ ve;j CrpAk; Nghl;L nfhz;ljpy;iy vd $Wfpwhh;. jpUtpohtpy; cs;s ,ju Mjpthrp goq;Fbdh;fs;> kio Fiwe;j fhyq;fspy; Vw;gLk; twl;rp my;yJ Ntshz; i k gaph; Nrjk; Nghd; w Nkhrkhd rkaq; f spYk; rhFgb nra; a g; g lhj fhl; L czTfs; rj; J f; f spd; Mjhukhf vt; t hW rhh;eJ ; s;sJ vd;gij njhlh;GgLj;jp ghh;jj ; dh;. gy tpjkhd ntspg;Gw fhuzpfshy; rhFgb nra; a g; g lhj czTfs; cz; g Jk; fpilg;gJk; Fiwe;J tUtij gy ,lq;fspy; r%fq; f s; njhptpf; f pd; w dh; . fhLfis mopj; j y; > ,lkhw; W jy; > efuikakhf; F jy; > nghpa mizfs; > njhopw; r hiyfs; > nghpa njhopw;rhiyfs;> gzg;gaph; kw;Wk; Xhpdg;;gaph; rhFgbia gug;Gjy;. mwptpay; kw;Wk; r%ffyhr;rhu tof;fq;fspy; Mapuk; Mz;LfSf;F Kd; cUthfpa rhFgb nra;ag;glhj czTfspd; nrk;ikahd gy;tifik ahTk; mope;JtUfpwJ. fhl; L gFjpfspd; nrk; i kahd ,aw; i f gz; G khw; w q; f s; > vz; z pf; i fia jhz; b gy jiyKiwfshf Mjpthrp r%fq; f s; epiyj;jpUf;fpd;wd. jw;NghJ G+kpapy; ‘Mapuk; jiyKiw” nkd;fiy kw;Wk; mwptpaiy fhLfNshL ,Uf; F k; cwTfs; Fwpj; J fw; W f; n fhLf; f vtNuDk; kf; f s; tpLg;gl;Ls;sdh; vd;why; mJ ,e;j goq;Fbapdh;fs; kl;LNk. my;yJ mth;fspy; jw;NghJ ahh; ,d;dKk; mwpT> jpwd;fs; kw;Wk; nrhe;j fyhr;rhu Ghpjiy ngw;wpUf;fpd;wdNuh> mth;fshy;jhd; epiyf;fnra;a KbAk;. 

Bharat Mansata Earthcare Books, 10 Middleton Street, Kolkata 700 071 E-mail: bharatmansata@yahoo.com

%yk;: yPrh ,e;jpah> brk;gh; 2014> thy;a+k; 16> ,jo; 4 yPrh ,e;jpah • ,jo; 1 • khh;r; 2016

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jilfis cilj;jy; Mdp gh;f;khd; tlNkw;F ,e;jpahtpy; cs;s ngz;fs; xd;W Nrh;eJ ; xUtUf;nfhUth; cjtp nra;Jnfhz;L> mth;fSk; mth;fsJ kfs;fSk; tWikapypUe;J ntsptu Kaw;rpj;J tUfpd;wdh;.mjpf jd;dk;gpf;ifAld; jw;NghJ ,e;j ngz;fs; $l;Lf;Fs; tho;e;Jnfhz;bUf;Fk; kw;w ngz;fis ntsp nfhz;Ltu jahuhf ,Uf;fpd;wdh;. tl Nkw;F ,e;jpa khepykhd uh[];jhdpy; cs;s My;thh; vd;w khtl;lj;jpy; Mk;fh vd;w Ch; cs;sJ. %d;W kpy;ypad; kf;fspd; tPlhf jpfOk; ,e;j khtl;lj;jpy; ngUk;ghYk; Vio fpuhkq;fshy; #o;e;Js;sJ. ngUk;ghyhNdhh; Vw; f dNt tWikahy; mtjpg; g Lfpd; w dh; . ,e;j epiyapy; ,Ug;gthpd; tho;f;if Fwpg;ghf ngz;fspd; epiy kpfTk; fbdkhFk;. My; t hhpy; gy gFjpfspy; > ngz; f Sf; F 13 tajpNyNa fy; a hzk; elj; J tJ kpf nghJthd tp\akhFk;. kfs;fSf;F nfhLf;Fk; kjpg;gigtpl kfd;fSf;Nf mjpf kjpg;G mspf;fg;gLfpwJ. NkYk; kfs;fSf;F fy;tpawpT fpilg;gjw;F kpf Fiwthd tha;gN ; g mspf; f g; g LfpwJ. fy; t pawpT ,y; y hkYk; Fiwe;j cjtp my;yJ md;Gld; FLk;gq;fs; kw; W k; r%fq; f s; kj; j papy; ,e; j ngz; f s; kpf Fiwthd Ra fTutj; J lDk; > jho; T epiyapy;jhd; ngz;fshf tsh;fpd;wdh;. Mdhy; jw; N ghJ> `P g h; ,d; l h; N e\dy; ngz;fspd; ek;gpf;if tsUk; tz;zk; cjtp Ghpe; J tUfpd; w dh; ; . fy; t pAld; > mth; f s; jd; i djhNd mwpe; J nfhz; L ntspapy; cyfj;ij ghh;j;J mjid re;jpf;fTk; fw;Wnfhz;ldh;.

xU njhlf;fk; cs; @ h; muR rhuh epWtdj; j py; ,uz; L gzpahsh;fs; epakpf;fg;gl;ldh;> NkYk; `Pgh; ,e;jpah gq;Fjhuh; ,g;jlh> MfpNahh; Mk;fhtpy; ngz;fis Kjypy; cw;rhfg;gLj;jp FOit mikf;f Kaw;rpj;jdh;. ,g;jlh vd;gJ xU cUJ thh;j;ij> mjd; mh; j ; j k; ‘njhlf; f k; ” vd; g jhFk; . `P g h; epWtdj;ij Nghy ,g;jlh epWtdKk; r%fq;fis tYTg;gLj;JtJ ,jd; Kjd;ik Fwpf;NfhshFk;. ,e;j Fwpf;NfhSf;F ngz;fNs Kf;fpa jpwTNfhyhf mth;fs; fUjpdh;. `Pgh; kw;Wk; ,g;jlh MfpNahh; Mk;fh fpuhkj;jpy; cs;sJ Nghy xU jpl;lj;ij nray;gLj;j gq;F 18

yPrh ,e;jpah • ,jo; 1 • khh;r; 2016

epWtdq; f shf cUthfpdh; . ,jw; F 10-15 ngz;fis nfhz;l FOthf cUthf;fp ,e;j ngz;fs; mtuth; FLk;gq;fspd; rk;kjj;Jld; njhlh;e;J gy gapw;rpfspy; fye;Jnfhs;tJ mtrpak;. ,ju jiyg;GfNshL> jw;Nghja kw;Wk; epiyj; j tsh; r ; r p> fhy; e il tsh; g ; G kw; W k; ghypd rkepiy Mfpatw; i w `P g hpd; 12 fhh; d h; ] ; N lhd; vdg; g Lk; Nfhl; g hLfis ngz; f s; fw; W nfhz; l dh; . Racjtpf; FO vdg; g Lk; ,e; j mikg; g py; Kjypy; Nrkpg; G kw; W k; fld; mbg; g ilf; FO nray; g l; l J> Vndd; w hy; ,e; j ngz; f s; tq; f pfSf; F mhpjhf nry;gth;fs; Mth;. ,e; j Nrkpg; G f; FOf; f s; > jq; f spd; nrhe; j gzj;ij ifahStjhy; ngz;fSf;F rf;jpia mspg;gNjhL FOf;fs; Ra rhh;G milfpwJ. ,J ngz;fspd; jd;dk;gpf;ifia mjpfhpf;fpwJ. Nrkpg;G kw;Wk; fld; FOf;fis ntw;wpfukhf Nkk;gLj;jpa gpd;dh;> jq;fspd; tho;thjhuj;ij NkYk; cah;j;j ngz; FOf;fs; fhy;eilfis ngw;wdh;.

NkUeprhtpd; Mr;rhpa%l;Lk; fij NkUeprh jd;Dila 29 tJ tajpy;> jd;Dila %d;W Foe;ijfs;> fzth;> fzthpd; ngw;Nwhh;fs;> rNfhjuh;> xU ePh; vUik kw;Wk; FLk;gj;jpd; NfhJik gaph; Mfpa midtiuAk; ghh;j;Jnfhs;Sk; nghWg;G ,tUilJ. kw;w tPlL ; gzpfSk; ,thpd; jiyapNyNa tpOe;jJ. tlNkw; F ,e; j pahtpy; fpuhkj; j pYs; s gy ngz;fis Nghy tPl;bNyNa jd;Dila kjpg;G Klq;fpapUg;gij ek;gpdhh;.

,uz;L Mz;Lfs; xd;whf gzp nra;j gpd;dh;> mth;fs; kj;jpapy; cs;s cwT tYtile;jJ NkYk; ngz;fspd; Ra-ek;gpf;if kw;Wk; Ra-khpahij tsh;ej ; J.


cjtpaJ. ,J ngUk; rf; j pia mspf; f pwJ vd;W NkUeprh $wpdhh;. NkYk; tho;f;iff;F Njitahd nrytpy; rpwpa gq; F ,th; f s; ghh;j;Jnfhs;s KbAk; vd;gJ Cf;Ftpf;Fk; tp\akhFk;. fNd\; ngz;fs; FOtpy; cWg;gpduhf ,Uf;Fk; NkUeprh [dthp 2010 Mk; Mz;L MLfs; ngw;whh;. MLfis itj;J tUkhdj;ij vt;thW mjpfg;gLj;JtJ vd;W Vw;fdNt MNyhrpj;J tUfpd; w dh; ngz; f s; . ngz; f s; tP l ; b y; ,Ug; g jhy; mth; f s; mjpf tUkhdj; J ld; FLk; g j; j pw; F cjtpnra; a Ntz; L k; vd; W $wpdhh; > mjdhy; j hd; ehq; f s; MLfs; itj;jpUg;gjpy; kfpo;r;rpahf cs;Nshk;.

NkUeprh jdJ tUkhdk; kl;Lkpy;yhky; ML tsh;g;gpd; %yk; jdJ jd;dk;gpf;ifiaAk; tphptila nra;Js;shh;

,thpd; rpwpa fpuhkj;jpy; ngz; FOtpy; ,izAk; tha;gG ; te;jNghJ> vjph;ff ; hy cgNahfj;Jf;fhf gzk; Nrkpj; J itj; j pUf; F k; ,th; kpfTk; Fog; g epiyapy; ,Ue; j hh; . ,jd; mh; j ; j k; vd;dntd;why; jd;Dila fzthplk; gzj;ij ngw;W mtUf;F njhpe;j rpy ngz;fsplNk xg;gilf;Fk; epiyapy; cs;shh;. vdf; F re; N jfk; ,Ue; j J vd; W NkUeprh $wpdhh; . NkYk; kpf Kf; f pakhf mtuJ fztUf;F ,Ue;j re;Njfk;. mtuJ fzth; ‘ehk; vJTk; Nrkpf;f Ntz;lhk;” vd;W $wpajhf mth; $wpdhh;. NkUeprh mtuJ fpuhkj;jpy; 13 cWg;gpdh;fs; nfhz; l Ra cjtp FOtpd; cWg; g pduhf Mdhh;. xU khjj;jpy; xt;nthU cWg;gpdUk; &.10 Nrkpj;jdh;. xU tUlj;jpw;F gpd;dh;> &. 50 Mf cah;j;jpdh;. cldbahf> FOf;fspy; cs;s ngz;fSf;F fld; toq;f Muk;gpj;J tpl;ldh;. FOf;fs; fld; toq; f Muk; g pj; j clNd NkUeprh &.10>000 fldhf Nfl; l hh; . Kd; G ,tuJ FLk;gk; fldspg;NghhplkpUe;J mjpf tl;bf;F fld; ngw;wdh;. Ra cjtp FOtpypUe;J ngw;w fld; mjpf tl;bf;F thq;fpa flid milf;f

,e;jpahtpy; `Pgh; mikg;Gf;F kpf ePz;l tuyhW cs;sJ.1955 Mk; Mz;L ,e;jpahtpd; Ntshz; mikr;rfj;Jf;F Kjy; Kiwahf 20 n[h;rp gRkhLfs; mDg;gg;gl;lJ. me;j rkaj;jpypUe;J> ehl;by; gy;NtW Jiwapy; `Pgh; epWtdk; gzpGhpe;jdh;. Mdhy; ,J 1992 tiu ePbj;jpUf;ftpy;iy Vndd;why; `Pgh; epWtdk; gjpT nra;ag;gl;l njhz;L epWtdkhf cUthf;fp gy;NtW jpl;lq;fspy; njhlh;e;J gzpGhpe;J te;jJ. ngUk;ghyhd jpl;lq;fs; ,e;jpahtpd; njw;F khtl;lq;fis ikakhf nfhz;Lk;> rpy jpl;lq;fs; uh[];jhd; kw;Wk; cj;jpu gpuNjrj;jpYk; nray;gLj;jp tUfpd;wdh;.jpl;lq;fs; `Pgh; khjphpypUe;J NtWgl;lij fz;l gpd;dh; `Pgh; epWtdk; 2003 Mk; Mz; L cjtp nra; j jpypUe; J tpyfpaJ. Mdhy; ,uz;L Mz;LfSf;F gpwF njw;F flNyhu gFjpfspy; mopit Vw; g Lj; j pa Mrpa Rdhkp te; j gpd; d h; > `P g h; epWtdk; cjtpj; jpl; l q; f s; %yk; mope;jg;gFjpia Gjpg;gpg;gjw;F cjtp nra;jJ. uh[]; j hdpYk; cs; @ h; g q; F jhuh; f isf; nfhz;L jpl;lq;fis Muk;gpj;jdh;. 2008 Mk; Mz; L `P g h; epWtdk; > gpujpepjp mYtyfkhf gjpT ngw;W kPz;Lk; gzpia njhlq;fpaJ. jw; N ghJ `P g h; ,e; j pah ehd; F ,e; j pa khepyj;jpy; gzpGhpe;J tUfpwJ: gpfhh;> xhprh> uh[];jhd; kw;Wk; jkpo;ehL. ML kw;Wk; Nfhop tsh;g;G> gor; nrbfs; kw;Wk; tPl;Lj; Njhl;lj;jpw;fhd tpijfs; Mfpait ,jd; Kf;fpa gzpfshFk;. yPrh ,e;jpah • ,jo; 1 • khh;r; 2016

19


ngz;fs; gapd;Wf;nfhs;tjw;Fk; xUth; kPJ xUth; mf;fiu nrYj;Jtjw;;Fk; Ra cjtp FO $l;lq;fs; rpwe;j ,lkhf mike;Js;sJ

vz;zpf;ifapy; tsh;r;rp ek;gpf;ifAld; tsh;r;rp

njhpAk;. NkYk; mtuJ ,uz;L kfs;fspd; vjph;fhyk; Fwpj;J MNyhrpj;J tUfpwhh;.

NkUeprh kw;Wk; 22 ,ju ngz;fs; cs;slf;fpa fNz\; ngz;fspd; FO> `Pgh; kw;Wk; ,g;jlh epWtdq;fs; gzp nra;a Muk;gpj;j fhyj;jpy; cUthf;fpa 16 ngz;fs; Racjtp FOf;fspy; xd; w hf ,Uf; f pwJ. ,e; j 16 Ra cjtpf; FOTk; mth;fSila mwpT kw;Wk; MLfis kw;w 22 Ra cjtpf; FOf;fSf;F ‘ghprpid ghpkhw;W” %yk; ghpkhw;wpnfhz;ldh;. `Pgh; kw; W k; ,g; j lh epWtdq; f s; jw; N ghJ 491 FLk; g q; f is mile; J s; s J kw; W k; 1350 MLfis toq;fpAs;sJ. NkUeprhtpd; FO fpl;lj;jl;l ,uz;L tUlq;fs; xd;whf ,Ue;jdh;. ngz;fs;> mth;fsJ fzth;fs; kw;Wk; FLk;gq;fs; kj;jpapy; cUthfpa cwT %yk; FOtpd; rf;jpia czh;e;jdh;. jpl;lk; tsUk;NghJ ngz;fspd; Ra-ek;gpf;if kw;Wk; Ra-khpahijAk; tsh; j ; J s; s dh; . NkUeprh> cjhuzkhf> jpl;lj;jpy; fw;Wf;nfhz;l ahTk; tPl;bw;F ntspNa nfhz;L nry;y mtUf;F

ehd; epiwa Nahrpf; f pNwd; kw; W k; epiwa jpl;lkpLfpNwd;. ehd; epiwa nra;a Ntz;Lk;. vd; gps;isfis ey;y gs;spapy; gbf;f itf;f tpUk; G fpNwd; . ehd; FOtpd; ed; i kf; f hf gzpnra;a Kaw;rp nra;fpNwd; vd;W NkUeprh $wpdhh;. ehq;fs; FOit tsh;f;f Ntz;Lk; kw;Wk; epiwa FOf;fis cUthf;fp> mjd; %yk; vq;fSf;F fpilj;j tha;g;ig Nghy gy ngz;fSf;F fpilf;f Ntz;Lk;.

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yPrh ,e;jpah • ,jo; 1 • khh;r; 2016

 Annie Bergman Global Communications Manager Heifer International 1 World Avenue, Little Rock, AR 72202 E-mail: annie.bergman@heifer.org %yk;: yPrh ,e;jpah> [_d; 2014> thy;a+k; 16> ,jo; 2

Tamil - March 2016  

LEISA India

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