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nygu iapk;r % nygu mRiknu esa vkRefuHkZjrk izkIr djuk

çßàæðá çãU‹Îè â¢S·¤ÚU‡æ, ×æ¿üU w®v}

vkj-,l- 'kkardqekj gwij ,oa ds FkfpukewfrZ 5 lkewfgd :i ls Kku ,d= djuk fuR;k lEcewfrZ ?kkVxs

9 nygu iapk;r % nygu mRiknu esa vkRefuHkZjrk izkIr djuk vkj-,l- 'kkardqekj gqij ,oa ds FkfpukewfrZ

15 [ksr ls O;oLFkk rd % gekjh ekiu iV~Vh dgk¡ gS\ va'kqeku nkl

,d LFkkbZ mRiknu] ewY; lao/kZu rFkk foi.ku iz.kkyh dks LFkkfir djus ds fy, nygu iapk;r ,d ,dhÑr ek/;e gSA nygu mRiknu esa vkRefuHkZjrk izkIr djus dh vksj fdlkuksa dks vxzlj djus gsrq rfeyukMq esa ,d fdlku mRiknd lewg us bl igy dk fØ;kUo;u fd;kA

[ksr ls O;oLFkk rd % gekjh ekiu iV~Vh dgk¡ gS\ va'kqeku nkl

,d ikfjokfjd fdlku dks ,d Ñf"k ikfjfLFkfrdh ds :i esa rS;kj [ksr ls mit] iks"k.k vkSj vk; ds vfrfjDr vkSj Hkh cgqr ls Qk;ns gksrs gSaA blfy,] ,d Ñf"k&ikfjfLFkfrdh iz.kkyh ds izHkkokas dks tkuus ds fy, gesa fofHkUu ekudksa dh vko”;drk gksrh gSA fofHkUu oLrqvksa ds cgqr ls ekudksa ds Åij Ñf"k&ikfjfLFkfrdh ds izHkkoksa dks ekius ls izkIr ifj.kkeksa ls mRlkfgr gksdj Hkkjr] usiky ,oa ckaxykns”k ds fdlku fofo/khÑr Ñf"k iz.kkfy;ksa dks viukus ds fy, mRlqd gks jgs gSaA

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ØãU ¥¢·¤... o"kZ 2018 esa yht+k bf.M;k fgUnh fo'ks"kkad dk igyk vad fofHkUu vuqHkoksa ,oa lQyrkvksa dks lesVs gq, lkeus vk;k gSA ,sls le; esa tcfd iwjk fo'o vkus okys dy dh fpUrk ls xzflr gS] [kkus vkSj ikuh ds vkxkeh ladVksa dk vuqHko vHkh ls fd;k tk jgk gSA xehZ viuk fjdkMZ gj ckj rksM+ jgh gS] ,sls le; esa vf/kd ikuh pkgus okyh /kku o xsgw¡ dh ijEijkxr [ksrh ds ctk; ns'kt [ksrh dks izkFkfedrk nsuk le&lkef;d vko';drk Hkh gS vkSj vkt dh izklafxdrk HkhA bUgha lanHkksZa dks /;ku esa j[krs gq, if=dk dk igyk ys[k Jh fuR;k lEcewfrZ ?kkVxs }kjk fyf[kr **lkewfgd :i ls Kku ,d= djuk** gS ftlds vUrxZr vkt dh ;qok ih<+h dks i'kq fpfdRlk ds ns'kt Kku ls ifjiw.kZ djus rFkk ikjEifjd fpfdRlk i)fr dks lk>k djus ds ek/;e ls lajf{kr djus dh ckr dgh xbZ gSA if=dk dk nwljk ys[k Jh vkj-,l- 'kkardqekj gwij ,oa ds- FkfpukewfrZZ }kjk fyf[kr ^^nygu iapk;r % nygu mRiknu eas vkRefuHkZjrk izkIr djuk** gSA bl ys[k ds ek/;e ls ys[kd}; us nygu dh [ksrh ds ykHkksa ds ckjs esa ppkZ djrs gq, nygu [ksrh ds {ks=Qy dks c<+kus dh vko';drk ij cy fn;k gSA vfUre o rhljs ys[k ds :i esa ^^[ksr ls O;oLFkk rd % gekjh ekiu iV~Vh dgk¡ gS** dks if=dk esa 'kkfey fd;k x;k gS tks osYFkaxjykbQ ds Jh va'kqeku nkl }kjk fyf[kr gSA bl ys[k esa Jh nkl }kjk [ksrh dh ikjEifjd iz.kkfy;ksa ,oa mudh mi;ksfxrk ds ckjs esa lfoLrkj ppkZ dh xbZ gSA lkFk gh fofHkUu {ks=ksa esa miyC/k izkÑfrd lalk/kuksa ds vk/kkj ij [ksrh fuos'kksa dh ykxr o ykHk dk Hkh rqyukRed fo'ys"k.k izLrqr fd;k x;k gS tks fuf'pr rkSj ij NksVs lhekUr o efgyk fdlkuksa ,oa muds lkFk dke djus okys LoSfPNd laxBuksa ds fy, izsj.kk lzksr ds :i esa dke djsaxsA vUr esa if=dk ds ys[kksa ,oa mudh mi;ksfxrk ij vkids lq>koksa dh izrh{kk esa ---lEiknd e.My

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âæ×êçãU·¤ M¤Â âð ™ææÙ °·¤˜æ ·¤ÚUÙæ çÙˆØæ âÕ×êçÌü ƒææÅU»ð

1990 ds n”kd ds “kq:vkrh o"kksZa esa] yxHkx 25 o"kksZa igys] Hkkjr dh tula[;k ds yxHkx 70 izfr”kr yksx [ksrh ,oa i”kqikyu djrs FksA iwjs mi egk}hi esa dbZ yk[k NksVh tksr/kkjdksa ds ikl cgqr cM+h la[;k esa i”kq FksA ml le; i”kq fpfdRlky;ksa dh la[;k cgqr lhfer Fkh vkSj cgqr ls yksxksa dh igq¡p i”kqvksa ls lEcfU/kr fpfdRldh; lqfo/kkvksa rd ugha FkhA fo”ks"kdj ,sls xzkeh.k {ks=ksa esa tgk¡ ij lM+dsa ugha Fkha vkSj ogka rd igqapus dk ,dek= jkLrk uko ls Fkk vFkok dbZ ?k.Vksa dk iSny dk jkLrk Fkk] ogk¡ ij yksxksa dh igq¡p i”kq fpfdRlkyk;ksa rd ugha Fkh] xkaoksa esa fo|qr dh lqfo/kk u gksus ds dkj.k i”kqvksa ds Vhdkdj.k gsrq vko”;d Vhdksa o nokvksa dks lqjf{kr j[kus ds fy, fQzt ugha Fks] xkaoksa esa dksbZ nok dh nqdku u gksus ds dkj.k lgh nok,a ysus gsrq i”kqikydksa dks dbZ&dbZ fdeh0 iSny pyuk iM+rk Fkk vkSj lkFk gh xkaoksa esa “kq) ikuh dh deh ds dkj.k midj.kksa dks “kq) djus dh izfØ;k Hkh cgqr dfBu FkhA bu ck/kkvksa ds ckotwn] ml le; tkuojksa dh ekSrksa dh ?kVuk,a cgqr gh de gksrh FkhaA blesa dksbZ lUnsg ugha fd ml le; i'kqvksa esa Iysx vkSj pspd dh chekfj;ksa dh geus i'kqvksa dks izHkkfor djus okyh 100 ls T;knk ifjfLFkfr;ksa esa dke vkus okys vkS"k/kh; ikS/kksa dh 500 ls vf/kd iztkfr;ksa dks nLrkosftr fd;kA

QksVks % ys[kd

fiNys 25 o"kksZa esa i'kqikyu vH;kl esa cgqr cnyko vk;k gSA vUFkjk us vka/kz izns'k esa i'kqikyu ij LFkkuh; tkudkfj;ksa dks lajf{kr djus gsrq cgqr ls igy fd;s gSaA blds vUrxZr vkfnokfl;ksa] pjokgksa rFkk leqnk; dh efgykvksa ds i'kqikyu vk/kkfjr Kku o vH;klksa dks bl vk'kk ds lkFk nLrkosftr fd;k x;k fd tyok;q dks vf/kd vuqdwy djus gsrq yksx ,d ckj fQj bu vH;klksa dks viuk ldsaxsA

,d xzkeh.k i'kq fpfdRld fuf'pr chekjh dh fpfdRlk ds izfr vk'oLr

otg ls cgqr ls i”kqvksa dh e`R;q gqbZ] ijUrq lexz rkSj ij] ns[kk tk;s rks cgqr ls xkaoksa ds i”kq thfor o LoLFk Fks vkSj ogka ds fdlkuksa ds thou o vkthfodk esa mudk mYys[kuh; ;ksxnku FkkA vkxs geus i”kqvksa ls lEcfU/kr chekfj;ksa ds lek/kkuksa ds ckjs esa tkuus ds fy, vk;qosZn] ;wukuh vkSj fl)k lHkh ds futh ,oa lkoZtfud Mksesu dks [kaxky Mkyk ysfdu vUrr% vkfnoklh vkSj pjokgk leqnk; dh efgykvksa }kjk fd;s tk jgs nSfud vH;klksa dks tkuus ds ckn gh lQyrk feyhA D;ksafd ;s efgyk,a vius i”kqvksa dh vR;f/kd ns[k&js[k ,oa Lusg djrh gSaA okrkuqdwfyr iqLrdky;ksa esa j[kh eksVh fdrkcksa dh vis{kk bu i”kqikyd leqnk;ksa }kjk fnu&izfrfnu esa fd;s tk jgs vH;klksa ds ek/;e ls i”kqvksa dh ns[k&js[k ls lEcfU/kr tkudkfj;ka vf/kd feyrh gSaA egRoiw.kZ i”kq/ku uLyksa rFkk vPNs tkuojksa dk p;u ,d egRoiw.kZ xfrfof/k FkhA vuqHkoh fdlku vkSj pjokgs gh fofHkUu uLyksa ds vPNs tkuojksa dh igpku dj ldrs FksA pkjk iztkfr;ksa] pkjkxkg {ks=ksa vkSj pjkbZ dh j.kuhfr ij vlhfer tkudkjh FkhA muds ikl i”kqvksa ds LokLF;] mipkj ,oa cpko lEcU/kh tkudkfj;ksa dh

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lEink FkhA pjokgksa dks ikS/k lap;u ,oa izlaLdj.k dh vPNh tkudkjh FkhA i”kq vkokl ls lEcfU/kr vH;klksa esa {ks= rFkk uLyksa ds vuqlkj i;kZIr fofHkUurk FkhA geus ;g ns[kk fd ckg~; ijthfo;ksa] pje ekSleh ifjfLFkfr;ksa] xeZ gok,a@yw] rwQku vkfn pqukSfr;ksa ls fuiVus gsrq fofHkUu leqnk;ksa }kjk vyx&vyx xfrfof/k;ka dh tkrh FkhaA Nrksa] nhokjksa ,oa Q”kZ dks cukus ds fy, lkefxz;ksa dk p;u djrs le; LFkkuh; ifjfLFkfr;ksa rFkk leL;kvksa dks vo”; /;ku esa j[kk tkrk FkkA i”kq/ku dk cktkj cgqr lh ikjEifjd iztkfr;ksa ls iVk iM+k FkkA leqnk; dh tkudkjh ,oa fo”ofo|ky;ksa esa i<+k;s tkus okys Kku ds chp dksbZ rkjrE; ugha FkkA vr% bu nksuksa ds chp lkeatL; fcBkrs gq, i”kq LokLF; ij ikjEifjd Kku uke ls ,d ifj;kstuk dk mn; gqvkA ;g ifj;kstuk dbZ o"kksZa rd pyh vkSj blds vUrxZr i”kq LokLF; ,oa ns[k&Hkky ij yksxksa ds ijEijkxr Kku ,oa muds }kjk fd;s tk jgs vH;klksa dks nLrkosftr fd;k x;k] mls ekU;rk fnykbZ x;h rFkk yksxksa ds chp izpkj&izlkj fd;k x;kA pwafd ;g dk;Z tSfod fofo/krk ij lEesyu ds rqjUr ckn FkkA vr% fofHkUu {ks=ksa esa tSfod fofo/krk dks nLrkosftr djus gsrq cgqr ls lewg bPNqd FksA

tehuh lPpkbZ bu dfe;ksa dks nwj djus gsrq rFkk iSjk izksQs”kuYl dks izf”kf{kr djus gsrq ,d ifj;kstuk vkjEHk djus dh bPNk ls uohu i”kq fpfdRlk Lukrdksa ds :i esa geus vUFkjk esa ,d lalk/ku dsUnz cukdj i”kq/ku] tSo fofo/krk ,oa yksxksa dh vkthfodk ds {ks=ksa esa lg;ksx dk vkea=.k fn;kA ge vkfnoklh lewgksa vkSj pjokgksa] Hkwfeghu leqnk;ksa vkSj cka/k cuus ls foLFkkfir gq, yksxksa rd viuh igqap cukuk pkgrs FksA lcls egRoiw.kZ rks ;g Fkk fd ge vius rRdky vftZr fd;s x;s uohu tkudkfj;ksa ,oa n{krkvksa dks bu leqnk;kas dh efgykvksa rd igqapkuk pkgrs FksA ny ds lnL;ksa dks tYn gh ;g ckr le> esa vk xbZ fd dkWystksa ,oa fo”ofo|ky;ksa dh d{kkvksa ,oa iz;ksx ”kkykvksa esa lhs[ks x;s Kku dk cgqr FkksM+k Hkkx gh iz{ks= Lrj ij ykxw gksrk gSA vkSj fMxzh ysus ds ckn u;k&u;k dke “kq: djus okys ds fy, ;g fLFkfr vlkekU; ugha gS vkjS “k: q &”k: q eas dk;Z ds “k: q vkrh fnukas eas dN q grkRslkg gksrk gSA okLrfodrk rks ;g Fkh fd geesa ls cgqr ls yksxksa us xzkeh.k {ks=ksa esa i”kqikyu ij igyh ckj dke “kq: fd;k Fkk vkSj gesa dfBukbZ dk vuqHko gks jgk FkkA

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,d vk/kqfud Kku iz.kkyh okyh i`"BHkwfe ls vkus ds dkj.k izkjEHk esa gesa bu ijEijkxr iz.kkfy;ksa esa va/kfo”okl vkSj fo”okl fn[krk Fkk] ftldh dksbZ oS/krk ugha FkhA ijUrq tc geus dsoy bls lko/kkuhiwoZd ns[kus vkSj iz.kkfy;ksa dks le>us dk iz;kl fd;k rc gesa bu iz.kkfy;ksa dh mi;qDrrk ,oa izklafxdrk le> esa vk;hA izkjEHk esa] 6 ftyksa ds 18 xzkeh.k ;qokvksa ds lkFk ;g dk;Z “kq: fd;k x;kA izR;sd ftys ls 3 & 3 xzkeh.k ;qokvksa vFkkZr~ dqy 18 xzkeh.k ;qokvksa dk p;u i”kq LokLF; dk;ZdrkZ ds :i esa fd;k x;k vkSj mUgsa fofHkUu fo"k;ksa ij nLrkosthdj.k djus gsrq izf”kf{kr fd;k x;kA vUFkjk }kjk izR;sd ekg mUgas nLrkosthdj.k rduhdksa ij izf”k{k.k fn;k x;kA blds lkFk gh muds }kjk iwNs x;s vH;klkas ij Hkh izf”k{k.k iznku fd;k x;kA muds fy, nLrkosthdj.k djuk ges”kk gh ljy ugha jgkA fQj Hkh] ny ds vU; lnL;ksa }kjk yxkrkj fd;s x;s Hkze.kksa] xkao ds ijEijkxr i”kq oS|ksa ds lkFk fu;fer cSBdksa rFkk lewg ppkZvkas ds ek/;e ls mUgsa nLrkosthdj.k djus esa dkQh lgk;rk feyhA gekjs ny us fujh{k.k rFkk nLrkosthdj.k dks lko/kkuhiwoZd foLrkj ls lh[kkA mUgksaus ldkjkRed iwokZxzgksa dks Hkh ugha lh[kkA vc muds ikl Kku dh vk/kqfud iz.kkyh vkSj vU; cgqr lh nwljh Lohdk;Z iz.kkfy;ka FkhaA

ijEijkxr Kku dk nLrkosthdj.k djuk ;s eglwl fd;k x;k fd ;s tkudkfj;ka ;k Kku flQZ vH;kl esa gh gSa] buds Åij dksbZ izpfyr xazFk ugha gSa] tks budks LFkkbZRo iznku dj ldsaA bl ckr dks /;ku esa j[krs gq, geus Kku dks lk>k djus rFkk vuqHkoksa o Kku ds vknku&iznku gsrq ns”kt i”kq fpfdRldksa dh cSBdsa vk;ksftr dhaA yksdfiz; izpfyr /kkj.kkvksa ds foijhr] bu ns”kt i”kq fpfdRldksa us bu cSBdksa esa izlUurkiwoZd lgHkkfxrk dh vkSj vius Kku dks lk>k fd;kA mudk ekuuk Fkk fd blls mUgsa nwljksa ls u;s fopkjksa rFkk n`f"Vdks.kksa dks lh[kus dk Hkh ekSdk feykA mu lHkh esa ,d ckr lkewfgd Fkh & mudk ekuuk Fkk fd muds Kku dks leqfpr ewY; vkSj lEeku ugha fey jgk gS] ftlls mUgsa ,d ckj Hkh [kq”kh feysA os bl ckr ls nq[kh Fks fd muds ejus ds ckn ;g Kku ges”kk ds fy, [kks tk;sxk vkSj ;gh dkj.k Fkk fd os nwljksa ls bl Kku dks lk>k djus ds fy, mRlqd FksA fpfdRld ;g Hkh pkgrs Fks fd muds Kku dk nq:i;ksx ugha gksuk pkfg, vkSj blhfy, os ml lewg esa bls lk>k djuk pkgrs Fks] ftUgsa bl Kku dh vko”;drk gks] vFkok ftuij os fo”okl dj ldsaA


i”kq/ku uLyksa dks lko/kkuhiwoZd nLrkosftr fd;k x;k vkSj egRoiw.kZ xq.kksa dks ntZ fd;k x;kA pkjk iztkfr;ksa] mudk mi;ksx ,oa pjkbZ j.kuhfr dks nLrkosftr fd;k x;kA geus i”kqvksa dks izHkkfor djus okyh 100 ls T;knk ifjfLFkfr;ksa esa dke vkus okys vkS"k/kh; ikS/kksa dh 500 ls vf/kd iztkfr;ksa dks nLrkosftr fd;kA leqnk;ksa ds chp esa vR;Ur lEekutud fLFkfr izkIr ns”kt i”kq fpfdRldksa dks dqN fuf”pr chekfj;ksa ds bykt ds ckjs esa vR;f/kd vk”oLr FksA fQj Hkh] mUgksaus gekjs lewg ds lkFk bZekunkjh ls bl ckr dkss Lohdkj fd;k fd dqN chekfj;ksa ds ckjs esa mUgsa Hkh vPNh tkudkjh ugha FkhA muds ikl Vhdkdj.k vkSj Vhdkdj.k dk;ZØeksa ls lEcfU/kr tkudkfj;ksa ,oa lwpukvksa dk vHkko FkkA ysfdu] os blds ckjs esa gekjs ny ls lh[kus gsrq cgqr [kq”k FksA

i”kq fpfdRldksa] ouLifr”kkfL=;ksa] vk;qosZn fpfdRldksa] ekuofoKkfu;ksa rFkk lekt”kkfL=;ksa dh ,d cgq vuq”kklfud rduhdh lfefr }kjk vuqeksfnr izfØ;k dk mi;ksx djrs gq, geus dqN ;Fkksfpr vH;klksa dk p;u fd;k vkSj mUgsa nLrkosftr fd;kA fo”ks"kdj v/;;u ds fy, fMtkbu fd;s x;s ,d izksVksdky dk mi;ksx djrs gq, bu vH;klksa dh oS/krk Hkh tkaph x;hA gkmflax vH;klksa ds QksVks fy;s tkus rFkk mudk fo”ys"k.k djus esa i;kZIr lko/kkuh cjrh x;hA geus i”kq cktkjksa dk Hkze.k fd;k vkSj ogka dh xfrfof/k;ksa dks Hkh nLrkosftr fd;kA geus yxHkx mu lHkh dks nLrkosftr fd;k] tks vU; dgha Hkh ugha fy[ks x;s FksA ;qok ih<+h vius cqtqZxksa }kjk fd;s tk jgs dk;ksZa dks ns[k&ns[k dj gh bu vH;klksa o xfrfof/k;ksa dks lh[k jgh Fkh vkSj bl izdkj ;s vH;kl o xfrfof/k;ka ,d ih<+h ls nwljh ih<+h rd gLrkUrfjr gksrh jgh FkhaA ;gka rd fd tc ge nLrkosthdj.k dj jgs Fks] ml le; Hkh rsth ls gks jgs “kgjhdj.k vkSj vkS|ksfxdhdj.k ds dkj.k Hkw&mi;ksx esa ifjorZu gksus ls cgqr lh ewY;oku iztkfr;ka lekIr gks jgh FkhaA geus tYn gh ;g eglwl fd;k fd i;kZoj.k] uhfr;ksa rFkk i”kqikyu esa ifjorZu ds lkFk gh ns”kt i”kq fpfdRldksa ,oa muds lkFk mudh ewY;oku Kku lEink Hkh lekIr gks tk;sxhA vr% ;g vfr vko”;d gS fd muds ikl ekStwn Kku dks ikjEifjd i'kqfpfdRld LFkkuh; Kku dk Hk.Mkj gSa QksVks % ys[kd

blfy,] lHkh pj.kksa esa geus vius lkFk Kku lk>k djus okys fpfdRldksa rFkk vU; nwljs yksxksa dks csgn lko/kkuh cjrrs gq, vk”oLr fd;k fd muds }kjk lk>k dh x;h tkudkfj;ksa dks flQZ O;fDrxr ykHk vFkok dqN yksxksa dks ykHk fnykus ds fy, ugha nLrkosftr fd;k tk jgk gS] oju~ bldk ykHk ,d cM+s lewg vFkok leqnk;ksa dks feysxkA xzkeh.k ;qokvksa dks bu fpfdRldksa ls lh[kus ds fy, izksRlkfgr fd;k x;k rkfd os cgqr lko/kkuhiwoZd muds }kjk viuk;h x;h i)fr;ksa dks ns[k o lh[k ldsaA

ÜèÊææ §ç‡ÇUØæ, çßàæðá çãU‹Îè â¢S·¤ÚU‡æ, ×æ¿ü w®v} 7


,d i”kq LokLF; dk;ZdÙkkZ ukFkw okyxqMs dh HkSal ,d fnu vk/kh jkr dks chekj iM+ x;hA og Qwy x;h Fkh] ,slk yx jgk Fkk fd og tqxkyh dj jgh gSA i”kq fpfdRld ds ikl tkus ds fy, cgqr nsj gks pqdk Fkk vkSj vxj mls blls vkjke ugha feyrk rks cgqr laHko Fkk fd og lqcg nw/k ugha nsrhA cgqr va/ksjk gksus ds ckn Hkh og vius ?kj ls ckgj x;k vkSj dqN tM+h& cwfV;ka [kksn dj yk;kA lkSHkkX; ls] ukFkw ml ny dk lnL; Fkk] tks fofHkUu chekfj;ksa ds fy, mi;qDr vkS"k/kh; ikS/kksa dks lq[kkdj mldk ikmMj cukrs FksA mlus bl chekjh ds fy, CySd guh >kM+h dh lw[kh ifÙk;ksa ls rS;kj ikmMj dk mi;ksx fd;kA mls ;g ns[kdj izlUurk gqbZ fd HkSal cgqr rsth ls Bhd gksus yxh Fkh vkj og lqcg nw/k fudky ldrk FkkA mlds firk ,d vuqHkoh fdlku Fks] os bl ifj.kke ls cgqr izlUu gq, D;kasfd igys cgqr lh HkSalas bl chekjh ls dbZ&dbZ ?k.Vksa rd ijs”kku jgrh FkhaA

laxzfgr o nLrkosftr dj ,d ,sls lkoZtfud Mksesu esa Mky fn;k tk;s] tgka ls ;g loZ lqyHk <ax ls izkIr gks ldsA ijEijkxr Kku esa vk/kqfud foKku dk lfEeJ.k djrs gq, Kku dh ,slh iz.kkyh fodflr dh tk;s tks lqjf{kr gks] vklku gks] lcdh igq¡p esa gks vkSj vklkuh ls mi;ksx dh tk ldsA vUFkjk esa i”kq fpfdRldksa] fdlkuksa] ns”kt i”kq fpfdRldksa] ouLifr”kkfL=;ksa] oSKkfudksa] lekt”kkfL=;ksa] dEI;wVj izksxzkelZ ,oa fodkl dk;ZdrkZvksa dks feykdj cus ,d ny us bl ij lkewfgd <ax ls dke djrs gq, i”kq LokLF;] i”kq Hkkstu] iks"k.k] i”kq vkokl] izcU/ku ,oa uLy tSls fofHkUu fo"k;ksa dh iztkfr;ksa ij Kku dk ,d dsUnz rS;kj djus dk dke fd;kA fQj Hkh] LdqvM isVs.V dkuwuksa o fu"d"kZdkjh o “kks"k.k ,tsfUl;ksa ls Hkjh iM+h bl nqfu;k esa izR;sd dks bl ckr ds fy, lko/kku jguk gksxk fd bl Kku dk mi;ksx flQZ dqN izeq[k lewgksa }kjk vius fy, gh ugha fd;k tk;sxkA bl rF; dks lkeus j[krs gq, geus bu nLrkostksa dks LFkkuh; Hkk"kkvksa esa izdkf”kr djus dk iz;kl fd;k rkfd xzkeh.k leqnk;ksa dh igq¡p bu rd vklkuh ls gks ldsA izf”k{k.k dk;ZØeksa dk vk;kstu fd;k x;k vkSj vHkh Hkh LFkkuh; laxBuksa }kjk bl rjg ds izf”k{k.k dk;ZØe vk;ksftr fd;s tk jgs gSa tgka ij yksx vius Kku o tkudkfj;ksa dks fu;fer :i ls lk>k djrs gSaA ge ,d fMftVy iksVZy cukus dh izfØ;k esa layXu gSa] tgka ij bl Kku dks viyksM fd;k tk ldsA 8

ÜèÊææ §ç‡ÇUØæ, çßàæðá çãU‹Îè â¢S·¤ÚU‡æ, ×æ¿ü w®v}

i”kqikyu vH;klksa esa fiNys 25 o"kksZa esa O;kid cnyko vk;k gSA i”kqikyu esa vkS|ksfxd iz.kkfy;ksa ds “kkfey gksus ls NksV fdlkuksa ,oa mudh x`gokfVdk ds lkeus [krjk mRiUu gks x;k gSA i”kq/ku mRiknu iz.kkfy;ka] bu iz.kkfy;ksa ls lEc) tSo fofo/krk] i”kq/ku mRiknksa ,oa mi mRiknksa] vkS"k/kh; ikS/kksa rFkk pkjk ikS/kksa dh iztkfr;ka /khjs&/khjs foyqIr gks jgh gSaA blds lkFk gh ns”kt i”kq fpfdRlk ,oa i”kq fpfdRld Hkh lekIr gksrs tk jgs gSaA pkjkxkg Hkwfe vkSj ?kkl ds eSnkuksa dh txg ,Dlizsl gkbos rFkk vkS|ksfxd bdkbZ;ka curh tk jgh gSaA ge vk”kk djrs gSa fd gekjs }kjk fdrkcksa] QksVksxzkQksa] izdk”kuksa ,oa izf”k{k.k dk;ZØeksa ds :i esa rS;kj fd;s x;s lkewfgd Kku yksxksa dks ,d ckj fQj ls iqjkus fnuksa dh ;kn fnyk;saxs vkSj “kk;n ,d fnu tc tyok;q vf/kd vuqdwy gks tk;sxk] ml fnu dqN iz.kkfy;ka] tks vHkh Hkh fØ;k”khy gSa] os “kk;n ,d ckj fQj lekt vkSj i;kZoj.k ds fy, mi;ksxh gksaxhA

lUnHkZ ƒææÅU»ð °Ù.°â., ÚUæ×Îæâ °â.¥æÚU. °ß¢ ¥‹Ø, ÒÒ° âæðàæÜ ¥Âýæð¿ ÅêU Î ßñçÜÇUðUàæÙ ¥æòȤ ÅðþçÇàæÙÜ ßðçÅUÚUÙÚUè ÚðUç×ÇUèÁ- Î ¥‹ÍÚUæ ÂýæðÁð€ÅUÓÓ, w®®w, ÅþUæç·¤Ü °çÙ×Ü ãðUËÍ °‡ÇU ÂýæðÇU€àæÙ xy (w®®w) ¥‹ÍÚUæ, ÒÒ§‹ÇUèçÁÙâ ÙæòÜðÁ °ŒÜè·ð¤àæ‹â ȤæòÚU Üæ§ßSÅUæ·¤ ·ð¤ØÚUÓÓ, w®®y, ÂýæðçâçÇ¢U» ¥æòȤ ° ÙðàæÙÜ ß·ü¤àææÂ, vy-v| çâ̐ÕÚU, w®®y

Co-creation of knowledge LEISA INDIA, Vol 18, No. 1, March 2016


,e-,l-,l- vkj-,Qnygu dh [ksrh dh 'kiFk ysrs fdlku

UÎÜãU٠¢¿æØÌ ÎÜãUÙ ©UˆÂæÎÙ ×ð´ ¥æˆ×çÙÖüÚÌæ Âýæ# ·¤ÚUÙæ ¥æÚU.°â. àææ¢Ì·é¤×æÚU ãêUÂÚU °ß¢ ·ð¤ Íç¿Ùæ×êçÌü ,d LFkkbZ mRiknu] ewY; lao/kZu rFkk foi.ku iz.kkyh dks LFkkfir djus ds fy, nygu iapk;r ,d ,dhÑr ek/;e gSA nygu mRiknu esa vkRefuHkZjrk izkIr djus dh vksj fdlkuksa dks vxzlj djus gsrq rfeyukMq esa ,d fdlku mRiknd lewg us bl igy dk fØ;kUo;u fd;kA

tSfod ukbVªkstu fLFkjhdj.k dh viuh fufgr {kerk rFkk ekSleh mrkj&p<+ko eas cus jgus dh l{kerk ds pyrs nygu ijrh Hkwfe dks moZj cukus rFkk fuEu Hkwfe dh e`nk moZjrk dks mUur cukus dk ,d lek/kku gSA iks"k.k ls Hkjiwj rFkk foijhr ifjfLFkfr;ksa esa mxus dh {kerk ds dkj.k lhekUr tehuksa ds NksVs o fu/kZu fdlkuksa ds fy, nygusa ,d vkn”kZ Qly gSaA

ns[kk tk jgk gS fd nyguksa ds {ks= vkSj mRiknu esa yxkrkj fxjkoV vkrh tk jgh gSA lhekUr Hkwfe;ksa ij o"kkZ vk/kkfjr fLFkfr (rainfed condition) esa mxk;s tkus ds dkj.k nygu mRiknu dks cgqr lh ck/kkvksa dk lkeuk djuk iM+rk gSA {ks= fLFkjhdj.k] de mRikndrk] fuos”kksa dh le; ls vuqiyC/krk] dhV&O;kf/k;ksa ds izfr laosnu”khyrk] vi;kZIr Hk.Mkj.k vkSj cktkj ls tqM+ko dk u gksuk] ewY; vfLFkjrk] Qly chek dk vHkko vkfn buesa ls dqN izeq[k ck/kk,a gSaA Hkkjr esa izfr O;fDr nygu dh miyC/krk cgqr gh de vFkkZr~ 33 xzke izfrO;fDr izfrfnu gS] tcfd fo”o LokLF; laxBu dh laLrqfr ds vuqlkj izfrfnu izfr O;fDr dks 80 xzke nygu dh miyC/krk gksuh pkfg,A nygu dh ?kjsyw ek¡x dks iwjk djus ds fy, ljdkj dks ckgj ls nkysa@nygu vk;kr djus gsrq etcwj gksuk iM+ jgk gSA

ÜèÊææ §ç‡ÇUØæ, çßàæðá çãU‹Îè â¢S·¤ÚU‡æ, ×æ¿ü w®v} 9


,e-,l-,l- vkj-,QcSBd djrh efgyk,a

mRikndrk dks c<+kus vkSj nyguksa dks vke vkneh ds fy, loZ lqyHk cukus gsrq ljdkj us jk"Vªh; [kk| lqj{kk fe”ku & nygu dk;ZØe ds ek/;e ls 14 jkT;ksa ds 171 ftyksa esa mUur rduhdkas ,oa iz{ks= izcU/ku vH;klksa dks izksRlkfgr djuk izkjEHk fd;kA gky gh esa] fdlkuksa dks izksRlkgu nsus ds Øe esa Hkkjr ljdkj us nyguksa ds izfr dqUry ij :0 200-00 dk cksul nsus dh ?kks"k.kk dh gSA Hkkjr eksjDdks [kk| nygu igy (vkbZ,e,Q,yvkbZ) ds ek/;e ls ,e ,l LokehukFku fjlpZ Qkm.Ms”ku (,e,l,lvkj,Q) us nygu mRiknu esa vkRefuHkZjrk ykus ds fy, Hkkjr ds nks jkT;ksa rfeyukMq o mM+hlk esa nygu iapk;r dks c<+kok fn;kA vks lh ih Qkm.Ms”ku] eksjDdks us Hkkjr vkSj eksjDdks esa fofHkUu lg;ksfx;ksa ds lkFk nf{k.k&nf{k.k lg;ksx & Hkkjr eksjDdks [kk| nygu igy ds ek/;e ls ,d dk;ZØe dks pyk;kA rfeyukMq esa bl dk;ZØe dks ,e,l LokehukFku fjlpZ Qkm.Ms”ku us lEiUu fd;kA

nygu iapk;r iqMqdksV~VkbZ ftys ds vUukoly fodkl[k.M esa vofLFkr ,fM;kiV~Vh iapk;r rfeyukMq ds lcls “kq"d {ks=ksa esa ls ,d gSA ;gka ij 95 izfr”kr fdlku NksVh tksr ds gSaA iapk;r esa vkaf”kd :i ls flapkbZ dk vk”oklu nsus gsrq 79 [kqys dqa,a gSaA ;gk¡ /kku] eksVs vukt] ÅnZ ,oa ewaxQyh eq[; :i ls mxkbZ tkrh gSA dsoy dqN fdlku yxHkx 30 ,dM+ [ksr esa nygu dh [ksrh djrs gSaA o"kkZ vk/kkfjr cgqr ls [ksr tks igys ijrh jg tkrs Fks] vc mu ij tSo vkS|ksfxd okVj”ksM xfrfof/k;ksa ds rgr~ [ksrh gksus yxh gSaA o'kZ 2012 esa bYywiiqj Ñf"k mRiknd dEiuh fyfeVsM dk izkjEHk fd;k x;k vkSj fdlkuksa ds fy, cktkj ls lEcfU/kr eqn~nksa ij lkewfgd :i ls dke djus ds fy,

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ÜèÊææ §ç‡ÇUØæ, çßàæðá çãU‹Îè â¢S·¤ÚU‡æ, ×æ¿ü w®v}

bls tuojh 2015 esa iathd`r fd;k x;kA ,fM;kiV~Vh iapk;r lfgr 5 iapk;rksa ds 1000 va”k/kkjdksa dks feykdj bYywiiqj Ñf"k mRiknd dEiuh fyfeVsM dh LFkkiuk dh x;hA ,fM;kiV~~Vh ds 180 fdlku laxfBr fdlku ds rkSj ij bYywiiqj Ñf"k mRiknd dEiuh fyfeVsM ls tqM+s gSaA bYywiiqj Ñf"k mRiknd dEiuh fyfeVsM LFkkbZ mRiknu] ewY; lao/kZu vkSj foi.ku dks c<+kok nsus ds ek/;e ls fdlkuksa dh vk; esa o`f) djus ds fy, eq[; rkSj ij pkj ewY; Ja`[kyk vk/kkfjr m|ksxksa & nyguksa] tSfod lfCt+;ksa] ,dhÑr nqX/k ,oa eqxhZ ikyu m|ksx ij dsfUnzr gSA o"kZ 2013 esa] iwjs iapk;r us cM+s iSekus ij nygu dh [ksrh djus gsrq ,d izLrko ikfjr fd;kA mUgksaus ;g fu”p; fd;k fd ,d _rq esa xkao dh dqy [ksfrgj {ks=Qy 474 ,dM+ ij nygu dh [ksrh gh dh tk;sA lnL;ksa us jch _rq esa izekf.kr nygu cht mRiknu dk izn”kZu lQyrkiwoZd fd;kA nygu mRiknu dks c<+kok nsus ds mn~ns”; ls nwjLFk laosnh midj.k dk mi;ksx djrs gq, iwjs iapk;r ds lHkh 10 xkaoksa dk fMftVkbM ekufp= rFkk j.kuhfrd ;kstuk fodflr dh x;hA nygu mRiknu ds fu;kstu o fuxjkuh dk dk;Z iapk;r rFkk bYywiiqj Ñf"k mRiknd dEiuh fyfeVsM nksuksa us feydj fd;kA iapk;r us xzkE; Kku dsUnz ds fy, cqfu;knh lqfo/kk,a miyC/k djkbZa rFkk Ñf"k ls lEcfU/kr midj.kksa dks fdjk;s ij fy;kA tcfd [ksrh dk;ksZa esa rduhdh lg;ksx iznku djus dk dk;Z jk"Vªh; nygu “kks/k laLFkku] oEcu] Ñf"k foHkkx rFkk ,e0,l0LokehukFku fjlpZ Qkm.Ms”ku us fd;kA bYywiiqj Ñf"k mRiknd dEiuh fyfeVsM dks fofHkUu Qlyksa dh ewY; J`a[kyk fo”ys"k.k ij vk/kkfjr ,d O;kikj ekMy ds rkSj ij izksRlkfgr fd;k x;kA lHkh xfrfof/k;ka bYywiiqj Ñf"k mRiknd dEiuh fyfeVsM ds ek/;e ls lEikfnr dh tkus yxhaA bYywiiqj Ñf"k mRiknd dEiuh fyfeVsM dh Hkwfedk dks fuEuor~ ns[k ldrs gSa %& 

xq.koÙkkiw.kZ chtksa] tSo moZjd] Ñf"kxr midj.kksa dks fdjk;s ij ykuk vkfn fuos”kksa dh vkiwfrZ djukA



mRiknksa dh [kjhn] Hk.Mkj.k ,oa foi.ku lEcfU/kr xfrfof/k;ka lEikfnr djukA



cSadksa ls tqM+ko LFkkfir dj yksxksa dh _.k rd igq¡p lqfuf”pr djukA



xzkE; Kku dsUnz dks l”kDr cukdj yksxksa dh igq¡p tkudkjh rd lqfuf”pr djukA




ewY; lao/kZu gsrq mRiknksa ds izlaLdj.k esa lg;ksx nsukA



fofHkUu fgr/kkjdksa ,oa ,e0,l0 LokehukFku fjlpZ Qkm.Ms”ku ds lkFk tqM+ko LFkkfir djukA

l?ku tkx:drk vfHk;kuksa] lgHkkxh nygu iztkfr p;u izfØ;kvksa ds ek/;e ls nygu dh [ksrh ij tkudkjh fuekZ.k] fdlku fo|ky;ksa ds lapkyu] fdlku iz{ks= fnolksa dk vk;kstu] Ñf"k mRiknd lewgksa ds ek/;e ls ppkZ gsrq eap miyC/k djkdj rFkk Lo;a dh mRiknd dEiuh dks LFkkfir djrs gq, foi.ku fodYi lqfuf”pr djuk] mRiknd dEiuh }kjk mRiknksa dk vPNk ewY; feyus dh laHkkouk dks c<+kus vkfn fofHkUu igyksa ds ek/;e ls fdlkuksa dks nygu dh [ksrh djus gsrq izksRlkfgr fd;k x;kA muesa ls dqN igyksa dks ;gka ij foLrkj ls crk;k x;k gS&

fdlku lgHkkxh nygu iztkfr p;u ijh{k.k LFkkuh; ifjfLFkfr;ksa ds vuqlkj csgrj izn”kZu djus okyh nygu iztkfr;ksa dh igpku djus ds fy, bl {ks= esa dqy 41 fdlku lgHkkxh nygu iztkfr p;u ijh{k.kksa dk vk;kstu fd;k x;kA bu iztkfr;ksa dks Ñf"k

fo”ofo|ky;ksa] “kks/k laLFkkuksa ,oa fdlkuksa lfgr fofHkUu lzksrksa ls izkIr fd;k x;kA izR;sd fdlku lgHkkxh nygu iztkfr ijh{k.k esa Qlyksa ds ikap fu.kkZ;d pj.kksa esa 20 izxfr”khy fdlkuksa dks “kkfey fd;k x;kA dkyh mnZ ds {ks= esa oEcu 4 ,oa 6 rFkk ,e0Mh0;w0 1 us csgrj ifj.kke fn;k] oEcu 3 ,oa dks 8 us gjh mnZ ds {ks= esa csgrj izn”kZu fd;k vkSj dks 6 rFkk ,yvkjth 41 us elwj ds {ks= esa vPNk izn”kZu fd;kA izR;sd ijh{k.k ds ckn fdlku iz{ks= fnolkas dk vk;kstu fd;k x;k rkfd Qly ds ikap fu.kkZ;d o`f) pj.kksa ds nkSjku 10 mYys[kuh; ekudksa ds vk/kkj ij fdlkuksa dks csgrj iztkfr dk p;u djus dk volj fey ldsA

tyok;q LekVZ d`f"k vH;klkas dks izksRlkfgr djuk pkoy dh [ksrh ds ckn vo”ks"k cps [ksrksa esa nygu dh [ksrh dks izksRlkfgr fd;k x;k vkSj bl izdkj igys dh vis{kk 40 izfr”kr vf/kd [ksrh ij nygu mRiknu fd;k tkus yxk gSA nygu dh de vof/k dh iztkfr;ksa dks eq[;@dSp Qly ds rkSj ij iznf”kZr fd;k x;kA blls ijEijkxr iztkfr;ksa dh vis{kk vfrfjDr vk; ds lkFk&lkFk mRikndrk esa 30 izfr”kr ls Hkh vf/kd o`f) gqbZ gSA

u;s&u;s mUur fof/k ls [ksrh djus okys fdlkuksa }kjk iztkfrxr cnyko dh nj esa 70 izfr”kr ÎÜãUÙ ·¤è ȤâÜ ÂÚUèçÿæÌ ÎÜãUÙ ÂÁ ý æçÌ ÕãðUÌÚU ÂÎýàæÙü ·¤ÚUÙð ßæÜè ÂýÁæçÌ rd o`f) gqbZ gSA bl gsrq fuos”k ,oa _.k dk lg;ksx bYywiiqj Ñf"k mRiknd ·¤æÜè ©UÎü æÚUèȤ Ñ ßèÕè°Ù y, ¹ÚUèȤ °ß¢ ÚUÕè Ñ ßèÕè°Ù y dEiuh fyfeVsM ls izkIr gqvkA fdlkuksa °ÇUèÅUè-z, °×ÇUèØê-v, dks uohu mUur iztkfr;ksa ,oa tyok;q ÚUÕè Ñ ßèÕè°Ù y, ifjorZ uksa ij vk/kkfjr vH;klksa ds ßèÕè°Ù {, ×ꢻ ¹ÚUèȤ Ñ ·¤æ-ð}, ßèÕè°Ù x, ¹ÚUèȤ Ñ ·¤æð} °ß¢ ßè¥æÚU¥æ§xü, lkFk&lkFk ,dhÑr Qly izcU/ku vH;klksa ds mij n{k fd;k x;kA ßè¥æÚU°×-v ÚUÕè Ñ ßèÕè°Ù x

ÌæçÜ·¤æ v Ñ ÂýÁæçÌ»Ì ¿ØÙ ÂÚUèÿæ‡æ w®vz-w®v{

×âêÚU

×ꢻȤÜè

ÚUÕè Ñ ßèÕè°Ù x,·¤æð-}, ßè¥æÚU°×-v, ÕèÁè°â~, °×°Ü{v} ¹ÚUèȤ Ñ x| °·¤ÇU¸ ×ð´ ÚUÕè Ñ ¥æ§üâèÂè°Ü }}®x~ ×»¢êȤÜè ·¤ð âæÍ ¥‹ÌÑ æÌðè ÚUÕè Ñ ßèÕè°Ù w, ¥æ§üâèÂè°Ü-vvwy, v{v, w®xxz, }}®x~ ¹ÚUèȤ Ñ ·¤æ-ð},ÂæÜ ð æ¿è-v, ¹ÚUèȤ Ñ ·¤æð| °ß¢ ßè¥æÚU¥æ§üw ßè¥æÚU¥æ§ü-w ÚUÕè Ñ ßè¥æÚU¥æ§üw ÚUÕè Ñ ßè¥æ§ü¥æ§üw, ·ð¤{, ·¤æyð, ÅUè°×ßè |, ÁèÁè-w

fgUnqLrku isVªksfy;e dkjiksjs”ku fyfeVsM] eqEcbZ] ,f”k;k buhf”k;sfVOl] ;w,l, }kjk lh,lvkj ds vUrxZr izkIr vuqnkuksa ls 30 ls Hkh vf/kd dqavksa dks iquthfoZr fd;k x;k rkfd fo”ks"kdj jch _rq esa xq.koÙkkiw.kZ cht mRiknu ds fy, nygu dh [ksrh esa flapkbZ gsrq ikuh dk U;k;ksfpr caVokjk fd;k tk ldsA blls 50 ,dM+ ls Hkh vf/kd ijrh iM+h tehuksa ij [ksrh dh tk jgh gSA

ÜèÊææ §ç‡ÇUØæ, çßàæðá çãU‹Îè â¢S·¤ÚU‡æ, ×æ¿ü w®v} 11


QksVks % ys[kd m/okZ/kj p;u ijh{k.k eas Hkkx ysrs fdlku

fdlku fo|ky;ksa esa fdlkuksa dks uohu tyok;q LekVZ Ñf"k rduhdksa tSls xq.koÙkkiw.kZ cht rd igq¡p cukuk] dhV ,oa chekjh lgu”khy iztkfr;ksa dh [ksrh djuk vkfn xfrfof/k;ksa ds Åij izf”kf{kr fd;k x;kA lkFk gh e`nk LokLF; dkMZ vk/kkfjr laLrqfr;ksa ds ek/;e ls iks"k.k izcU/ku] cht mipkj] Mh,ih dk Qksysj Lizs] nygu ok.Mj ¼iks"k.k ,oa o`f) fu;U=d ds lkFk ,d cwLVj½] iafDr ls ikS/k jksi.k] vUr% Qly] ty izcU/ku] izlaLdj.k vkfn ij Hkh fdlkuksa dks izf”kf{kr fd;k x;kA fdlku iz{ks= fnolksa ds ek/;e ls fdlkuksa] oSKkfudksa] ifj;kstuk dk;ZdÙkkZ ,oa ljdkjh foHkkx ds LVkQ lHkh us nygu mRiknu ds vuqHkoksa dks vkil esa lk>k dj mldk foLrkj fd;kA fofHkUu nyguksa ds mRiknu dh otg ls mit dk Lrj c<+k] tks jkT; ,oa jk"Vª ds vkSlr mitksa ls 50 izfr”kr ls Hkh vf/kd gks x;kA bYywiiqj Ñf"k mRiknd dEiuh fyfeVsM }kjk izcfU/kr ewY; J`a[kyk fo'ys"k.k ij vk/kkfjr ^^nygu tSo ikdZ** ls nygu dh [ksrh esa mYys[kuh; o`f) gqbZ gS vkSj miHkksDrk ls fdlkuksa dk vPNk nke Hkh feysxkA

12

ÜèÊææ §ç‡ÇUØæ, çßàæðá çãU‹Îè â¢S·¤ÚU‡æ, ×æ¿ü w®v}

cht iz.kkyh ,oa iz'kklu dks izksRlkgu xq.koÙkkiw.kZ cht vkiwfrZ ds fy, ,d iw.kZr;k fØ;k”khy ,oa LFkkbZ nygu cht vkiwfrZ iz.kkyh dk gksuk vR;Ur egRoiw.kZ gSA fdlku ds Lrj ij izekf.kr@lR;kfir cht dh ekax dks iwjk djus ds fy,] bYywiiqj Ñf"k mRiknd dEiuh fyfeVsM ds ek/;e ls ,d nygu cht ewY; J`a[kyk iz.kkyh LFkkfir dh x;hA cht izfrLFkkiu ds nj esa 40 izfr”kr ls Hkh vf/kd o`f) gqbZA bYywiiqj Ñf"k mRiknd dEiuh fyfeVsM }kjk yxHkx 10 Vu xq.koÙkkiw.kZ chtksa dk mRiknu ,oa Hk.Mkj.k fd;k x;kA bls iqu% ljdkjh ,tsfUl;ksa }kjk izekf.kr fd;k tk;sxkA bl izdkj] de ykxr] uohu cht iz.kkfy;ksa rFkk fdlku lgHkkxh iztkfr p;u ds ek/;e fdlkuksa dh ilanhnk iztkfr;ksa dk p;u fd;k x;k] ftlus iqjkuh iztkfr;ksa dk LFkku ys fy;k vkSj mit esa mRlkgtud ifj.kke izkIr gq,A f=Lrjh; iqjM~;w mUur Qly laxzg.k cSxksa esa chtksa dks ,df=r fd;k tk jgk gSA ;s cSx ewy :i ls iqjM~;w fo”ofo|ky; }kjk cuk;s x;s gSa vkSj igys budk izn”kZu fd;k tk pqdk gSA cht Hk.Mkj.k ds igys okys rjhdksa esa dhVksa dk vkØe.k gks tkrk FkkA tcfd vHkh bl rjhds esa dhVksa ls de uqdlku gks jgk gSA blds lkFk bl i)fr ls cht Hk.Mkj.k djus ls cht lajf{kr jgrs gSa vkSj T;knk O;ogkj esa yk;s tkrs gSA


ÌæçÜ·¤æ w Ñ ¿Ùæ ·¤æ ¥ÍüàææS˜æ w®vz-w®v{

nygu tSo ikdZ ewY; J`a[kyk fo”ys"k.k ij vk/kkfjr nygu tSo ikdZ ,d ikbyV ifj;kstuk gS] tks ,e,l LokehukFku fjlpZ Qkm.Ms”ku rFkk vU; fgrHkkfx;ksa ds rduhdh lg;ksx ls bYywiiqj Ñf"k mRiknd dEiuh fyfeVsM }kjk fØ;kfUor dh x;hA blds vUrxZr ,d nky fey yxk;k x;k vkSj izkjfEHkd izlaLÑj.k fd;k tkus yxkA ifj.kker% NksVs&e>ksys fdlkuksa dks vius mRikn dks izlaLÑr djkus esa vklkuh gqbZ] ftlls os ykHkkfUor gq,A izlaLÑr nygu ,dne lkQ Fkh] ftls vkd"kZd rjhds ls iSfdax dj czk.MsM Lo:i esa [kqys cktkj esa cspk x;kA fofHkUu nyguksa ds fy, LFkkfir o vfHkuo ewY; J`a[kyk dks nLrkosthdj.k fd;k tk jgk gSA blls fdlku nygu mRiknu dks mUur djus] foi.ku djus rFkk LFkkbZRo iznku djus esa l{ke gksxkA

ÂýÁæçÌ

»×èü ×ð´ ÁéÌæ§ü ƒæÚU ÂÚU ÕÙè ¹æÎ ·¤æ ©UÂØæð» (w ÅUæÜè ÖÚUè) Õéßæ§ü âð ÂãUÜð ÁéÌæ§ü (w ÕæÚU) ÕèÁ ×æ˜ææ (ç·¤»ýæ/ ãðU0) ÕèÁ ©U¿æÚU ÕèÁ Õéßæ§ü çÙÚUæ§ü-»éǸUæ§ü ·¤èÅUÙæàæ·¤æð´ ·¤æ çÀUǸU·¤æß ·¤ÅUæ§ü-×ǸUæ§ü ·é¤Ü ©UÂÁ (ç·¤»ýæ/ °·¤Ç¸U) ·é¤Ü ¥æ×ÎÙè (M¤0/ °·¤Ç¸U) ·é¤Ü Üæ»Ì (M¤0/ °·¤Ç¸U) àæf é ¥æ×ÎÙè Ñ (M¤0/ °·¤ÇU̧) àæf é ÜæÖ Ñ L¤0 wvy®®/°·¤ÇU̧

Kku izcU/ku vkbZlhVh midj.kksa dk mi;ksx dj fdlku fo|ky;ksa ,oa fdlku iz{ks= fnolksa ls izkIr tkudkfj;ksa dks xzkE; Kku dsUnzksa ij ,dhÑr djrs gq, Kku izcU/ku fd;k x;kA izcU/ku dk ;g dk;Z bYywiiqj Ñf"k mRiknd dEiuh fyfeVsM }kjk fd;k x;kA d`f'k midj.kksa dh U;wu nj ij le; ls miyC/krk gks tkus ds dkj.k NksVs tksr/kkjdksa dks vkfFkZd ykHk gqvkA xzkE; Kku dsUnz }kjk fdlkuksa dks {ks= fo”ks"k ls lEcfU/kr tyok;q LekVZ Ñf"k rduhdksa] Qly chek] e`nk LokLF; ns[kHkky] cktkj Hkko] ikS/kksa ,oa i”kq LokLF; ns[k&Hkky fpfdRlky;ksa] ekulwu dh izo`fÙk ,oa ljdkjh ;kstukvksa ls lEcfU/kr tkudkjh le; ls iznku dh x;hA nygu dh mRikndrk dks c<+kus ds mn~ns”; ls] 2000 ls vf/kd fdlkukas dks Qkus&bu&dk;Ø Z e] fjdkfMx aZ ,oa ,l,e,l ds ek/;e ls lans”kksa dks Hkh miyC/k djk;k x;kA

fu'd"kZ nygu ip a k;r vfHk;ku us ;g inzf”krZ fd;k gS fd nygu mRiknu esa vkRefuHkZjrk izkIr djus ds fy, Kku izcU/ku ds lkFk uohu n`f"Vdks.k esa o`f)] cgq&fgrHkkxh eap rFkk uhfr fu;kstd usVodZ izeq[k gSaA bYywiiqj Ñf"k mRiknd dEiuh fyfeVsM }kjk izcfU/kr ewY; J`a[kyk fo”ys"k.k ij vk/kkfjr nygu tSo ikdZ ls fdlkuksa }kjk nygu dh [ksrh esa mYys[kuh; o`f) gqbZ gSA blls dVkbZ ds ckn gksus okys uqdlku esa Hkh mYys[kuh; deh vk;h gSA ;s

ÙØè Ì·¤Ùè·¤æð´ ·ð¤ âæÍ ©U‹ÙÌ ÂýÁæçÌ ßèÕè°Ù y (M¤0 ×)´ð zz® x{®®

ÂæÚUÂçÚU·¤ ¥Øæâæ´ð ·¤ð âæÍ SÍæÙèØ ÂýÁæçÌ ÅUè ~ (M¤0 ×ð´) -

~®® ~®® ({ ç·¤»ýæ) z® z®® (×àæèÙ âð Õéßæ§ü) {®® v®®® w®®® xz® xvz®® v®v®® wvy®®

vv®® vw®® (} ç·¤»ýæ) w®® w®®® z®® w®®® vy® vw{®® |®®® z{®®

nf`"Vdk.sk vkifwr& Z ekx a dh deh ds chp iy q dk dke djx as s vkSj vukt nygu “kks/k ,oa fo”ks"kdj de ,oa e/; vk; oxZ okys mu n”skkas eas tgka diqk"sk.k dh leL;k cgrq vf/kd gS] ogka bldh mYys[kuh; egÙkk gSA mit ds vojks/k dks rkM s d + j] toS o vtoS ruko dkjdkas ds ifzr lgu”khy rFkk nyguksa ds vkuqokaf”kd vk/kkj dk foLrkj vUrjZk"Vªh; nygu o"kZ&2016 esa ppkZ dh pqukSfr;ka gSaA

vkHkkj ge bYywiiqj Ñf"k mRiknd dEiuh fyfeVsM dk muds }kjk fn;s x;s lg;ksx rFkk NksVh tksr ds fdlkuksa dks ykHk fnykus ds fy, ^^nygu iapk;r vfHk;ku** pykus o vkxs ys tkus gsrq izfrc)rk iznf”kZr djus ds fy, /kU;okn Kkfir djrs gSaA bl ifj;kstuk gsrq vkslhih Qkm.Ms”ku] eksjDdks] fgUnqLrku isVªksfy;e dkjiksjs”ku] eqEcbZ] ,f”k;k buhf”k;sfVOl] la;qDr jkt vesfj;k ,oa rfeyukMq ljdkj NksVs fdlkuksa gsrq Ñf"k O;kikj dUlksfVZ;e ls foÙkh; lg;ksx izkIr gqvk] blds fy, ge mudk vkHkkj O;Dr djrs gSaA lexz rkSj ij fn”kk&funsZ”ku nsus ds fy, ,e-,l- LokehukFku fjlpZ Qkm.Ms”ku ds dk;Zdkjh funs”kd dks Hkh /kU;oknA ¥æÚU °â àææ¢Ì·é¤×æÚU ãUêUÂÚU çÙÎðàæ·¤, §·¤æðÅðU€ÙæÜæòÁè °×°â Sßæ×èÙæÍÙ çÚUâ¿ü Ȥæ©U‡ÇUðUàæÙ ÌèâÚUæ ·ý¤æâ SÅUþèÅU, ÌæÚUæ×Ùè ¥æñlæðç»·¤ ÿæð˜æ, ¿ð‹Ù§ü- {®®vvx §ü-×ðÜ Ñhopper@mssrf.res.in Valuing under utilised crops LEISA INDIA, Vol 18, No.2, June 2016

ÜèÊææ §ç‡ÇUØæ, çßàæðá çãU‹Îè â¢S·¤ÚU‡æ, ×æ¿ü w®v} 15


ȤâÜ ¥ÂçàæCïUæð´ âð ·¤æðØÜæ ÕÙæÙæ fcgkj esa fLFkr oU; tho vH;kj.k ,d Vkbxj fjtoZ ikdZ gS] ftlds vkl&ikl cM+h la[;k esa vkcknh okys xk¡o gSaA bu xk¡oksa esa jgus okys ifjokj tykSuh ydM+h gsrq eq[; rkSj ij taxy ls izkIr ydfM+;ksa ij gh fuHkZj djrs gSaA blds lkFk gh ;gka ds fdlku xUuk vkSj /kku dh [ksrh djrs gSa vkSj mlds vif”k"Vksa dks Hkh tykSuh ydM+h ds rkSj ij mi;ksx djrs gSa] ftlls ,d rks e`nk LokLF; dks uqdlku igq¡prk gS vkSj nwljs ou Hkh lqjf{kr ugha jg tkrsA ,slh fLFkfr esa xksj[kiqj ,Uok;jUes.Vy ,D”ku xzqi us vius iz;klksa ls fdlkuksa ds lkFk tykSuh ydM+h ds fodYiksa ij fopkj fd;k vkSj blh dM+h esa Qly vif”k"Vksa ¼xUuk o /kku dk iqvky] vjgj dh lw[kh ifÙk;k¡ o M.By vkfn½ ls dks;yk cukdj mldk mi;ksx djus dk fopkj fodYi ds rkSj ij lkeus vk;k vkSj th0bZ0,0th0 ds foÙkh; lg;ksx ls bl ikdZ ds fudV fLFkr ik¡p xk¡oksa esa Qly vo”ks"k ls dks;yk cukus dh bdkbZ;ka LFkkfir dh x;haA LFkkuh; yksxksa us dks;yk cukus ds fy, yksgs dk ,d QekZ rS;kj fd;k tks nks Hkkxksa esa FkkA igys Hkkx esa dPpk eky Hkjdj ncko fn;k tkrk gS] ftlls nwljs Hkkx esa dks;yk rS;kj gksrk gSA dks;ys esa dkcZu dk izfr”kr cuk;s j[kus ds fy, Qly vif”k"Vksa dks yksgs ds Mªe esa j[kdj igys vkaf”kd rkSj ij tyk fn;k tkrk gSA vkaf”kd :i ls tykus ds ckn Ñf"kxr vif”k"Vksa esa dqN feV~Vh vkSj ikuh feykdj gkFk ls vPNh rjg lku fn;k tkrk gS] fQj bl lkexzh dks yksgs ds QekZ esa Mkydj dks;yk rS;kj djrs gSaA rS;kj dks;ys dks vPNh rjg ls lq[kkus ds ckn [kkuk cukus ds fy, bZa/ku ds :i esa bldk mi;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA orZeku esa Qly vif”k"V ls dks;yk rS;kj dj mldk mi;ksx djus ls izfr ifjokj izfrfnu tykSuh ydM+h dh [kir esa 3-25 fdxzk dh deh vk;h gSA âæÖæÚU Ñ Áè0§ü0°0Áè0, »æðÚU¹ÂéÚU

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ÜèÊææ §ç‡ÇUØæ, çßàæðá çãU‹Îè â¢S·¤ÚU‡æ, ×æ¿ü w®v}

Issues and Themes of LEISA INDIA Published in English 2000-2016 V.2, No. 1, 2000 - Desertification V.2, No. 2, 2000 - Farmer innovations V.2, No. 3, 2000 - Farming in the forest V.2, No. 4, 2000 - Monocultures towards sustainability V.3, No. 1, 2001 - Coping with disaster V.3, No. 2, 2001 - Go global stay local V.3, No. 3, 2001 - Lessons in scaling up V.3, No. 4, 2001 - Biotechnology V.4, No. 1, 2002 Managing Livestock V.4, No. 2, 2002 - Rural Communication V.4, No. 3, 2002 - Recreating living soil V.4, No. 4, 2002 - Women in agriculture V.5, No. 1, 2003 - Farmers Field School V.5, No. 2, 2003 - Ways of water harvesting V.5, No. 3, 2003 - Access to resources V.5, No. 4, 2003 - Reversing Degradation V.6, No. 1, 2004 - Valuing crop diversity V.6, No. 2, 2004 - New generation of farmers V.6, No. 3, 2004 - Post harvest Management V.6, No. 4, 2004 - Farming with nature V.7, No. 1, 2005 - On Farm Energy V.7, No. 2, 2005 - More than Money V.7, No. 3, 2005 - Contribution of Small Animals V.7, No. 4, 2005 - Towards Policy Change V.8, No. 1, 2006 - Documentation for Change V.8, No. 2, 2006 - Changing Farming Practices V.8, No. 3, 2006 - Knowledge Building Processes V.8, No. 4, 2006 - Nurturing Ecological Processes V.9, No. 1, 2007 - Farmers Coming together V.9, No. 2, 2007 - Securing Seed Supply V.9, No. 3, 2007 - Healthy Produce, People and Environment V.9, No. 4, 2007 - Ecological Pest Management V.10, No. 1, 2008 -Towards Fairer Trade V.10. No. 2, 2008 - Living soils V.10, No. 3, 2008 - Farming and Social Inclusion V.10, No. 4, 2008 - Dealing with Climate Change V.11, No. 1, 2009 - Farming Diversity V.11, No. 2, 2009 - Farmers as Entrepreneurs V.11, No. 3, 2009 - Women and Food Sovereignty V.11, No. 4, 2009 - Scaling up and sustaining the gains V.12, No.1, 2010 - Livestock for sustainable livelihoods V.12, No.2, 2010 - Finance for farming V.12, No.3, 2010 - Managing water for sustainable farming V.13, No.1, 2011 - Youth in farming V.13, No.2, 2011 - Trees and farming V.13, No.3, 2011 - Regional Food System V.13, No.4, 2011 - Securing Land Rights V.14, No.1, 2012 - Insects as Allies V.14, No.2, 2012 - Greening the Economy V.14, No.3, 2012- Farmer Organisations V. 14, No.4, 2012- Combating Desertification V. 15, No.1, 2013- SRI: A scaling up success V. 15, No.2, 2013- Farmers and market V. 15, No.3, 2013- Education for change V. 15, No.4, 2013- Strengthening family farming V. 16, No. 1, 2014- Cultivating farm biodiversity V. 16, No. 2, 2014- Family farmers breaking out of poverty V. 16, No. 3, 2014- Family farmers and sustainable landscapes V. 16, No. 4, 2014- Family farming and nutrition V. 17, No. 1, 2015- Soils for life V. 17, No. 2, 2015- Rural-urban linkages V. 17, No. 3, 2015- Water-lifeline for livelihoods V. 17, No. 4, 2015- Women forging change V. 18, No. 1, 2016- Co-creation to knowledge V. 18, No. 2, 2016- Valuing underutilised crops V. 18, No. 3, 2016- Agroecology-Measurable and sustainable V. 18, No. 4, 2016- Stakeholders in agroecology


QksVks % ys[kd jkaph ds fudV /kku dh ,d ,dhÑr [ksrh

U¹ðÌ âð ÃØßSÍæ Ì·¤ ãU×æÚUè ×æÂÙ ÂÅUï÷ÅUè ·¤ãUæ¡ ãñU? ¥¢àæé×æÙ Îæâ ,d ikfjokfjd fdlku dks ,d Ñf"k ikfjfLFkfrdh ds :i esa rS;kj [ksr ls mit] iks'k.k vkSj vk; ds vfrfjDr vkSj Hkh cgqr ls Qk;ns gksrs gSaA blfy,] ,d Ñf"k&ikfjfLFkfrdh iz.kkyh ds izHkkokas dks tkuus ds fy, gesa fofHkUu ekudksa dh vko”;drk gksrh gSA fofHkUu oLrqvksa ds cgqr ls ekudksa ds Åij Ñf"k&ikfjfLFkfrdh ds izHkkoksa dks ekius ls izkIr ifj.kkeksa ls mRlkfgr gksdj Hkkjr] usiky ,oa ckaxykns'k ds fdlku fofo/khÑr ÛÑf"k iz.kkfy;ksa dks viukus ds fy, mRlqd gks jgs gSaA

tgka rd eSa le>rk gwa] Ñf"k ikfjfLFkfrdh tfVy gS] ysfdu dfBu ugha gSA tc eSa ,d taxy ds Hkhrj ns[krk gw¡ rks eSa ikrk gw¡ fd ogka ij [kk| J`a[kykvksa dk ,d tfVy usVodZ gS] ftlesa dbZ lkjs [kk| ,d&nwljs ls feys gq, gSaA ysfdu ,d cgqr gh vk/kkjHkwr ekSfyd

fl)kUr & lg;ksx ds fl)kUr ij rS;kj lajpuk ds vk/kkj ij ;g lk/kkj.k Hkh gSA ftlesa u flQZ iztkfr;ksa ds chp lg;ksx gksrk gS] oju~ iztkfr;ksa ds vUnj Hkh lg;ksx gksrk gS rkfd mudh tula[;k esa ,d larqyu cuk jgs lkFk gh mudks feyus okyh rFkk ckgj fudyus okyh ÅtkZ esa Hkh larqyu cuk jgsA bl lg;ksx dks ykrs gq, feV~Vh ds vUnj rFkk feV~Vh ds Åij nksuksa Lrjksa dk mi;ksx djrs gq, ,d cgqLrjh; taxy fMtkbu fd;k x;k gSSA ;g brus vPNs rjhds ls fMtkbu fd;k x;k gS fd fdlh Hkh ckgjh ifjorZu ;k ifjorZu vfHkdj.k dk taxy dh mRikndrk ij dksbZ vlj ugha iM+rk vkSj bl izdkj gekjs }kjk vFkkZr~ ekuo fufeZr fdlh Hkh Ñf"kxr mRiknu iz.kkyh dh vis{kk ;g vf/kd vPNk gksrk gSA Ñf"k ikfjfLFkfrdh ,d izkÑfrd iz.kkyh ds cgqr djhc gksrh gS vkSj ;g izkd`frd iz.kkyh & lg;ksx] iqupZØhdj.k] cgqLrjh; izcU/ku] fofHkUu iztkfr;ksa@ ikS/kksa ds la;kstu tSls izÑfr ds fl)kUrksa ls ,dkdkj gksrh gSA

ÜèÊææ §ç‡ÇUØæ, çßàæðá çãU‹Îè â¢S·¤ÚU‡æ, ×æ¿ü w®v} 15


Hkkjr] usiky vkSj ckaXykns”k ds 9500 [ksrksa esa LFkkbZ ,dhÑr Ñf"kxr iz.kkyh ifj;kstuk ds ek/;e ls ck;ksQkeZ ifj;kstuk dks mUur cuk;k tk jgk gSA vkSj rhu Ñf"k&ikfjfLFkfrdh fl)kUrksa dks viukrs gq, LFkkbZ Ñf"k dks izksRlkfgr djus dk iz;kl fd;k tk jgk gS & v) lg;ksx ,oa mRrjkf/kdkj dks cuk;s j[kus ds fy, fefJr@vUr%@fjys [ksrh i)fr ds ek/;e ls Qly pØhdj.k esa leUo; ,oa la;kstu cukukA c) ,d mRiknu iz.kkyh ds vUnj cgq Lrjh; LFkku rS;kj djuk rkfd Qlyksa@iztkfr;ksa ds chp leUo; o iqupZØhdj.k lqfuf”pr gks ldsA l) [ksr ij mira=h; fofo/krk dks c<+kuk rkfd fdlh foijhr ifjfLFkfr esa mtkZ dk iqupZdzhdj.k ,oa leUo; gks ldsA

ekiu dh pqukSfr;ka mRiknu ds lEcU/kksa dks le>us dk vFkZ”kkL= cgqr gh lh/kk lk gSA ;fn ge ,d Qly vFkkZr~ /kku dh Qly ls feys ykHkksa ds :i esa dsoy izkIr mit ij fopkj djsa rks mRiknu ,oa mRikndrk dh x.kuk djuk cgqr gh ljy gSA tcfd nwljh rjQ Ñf"k ikfjfLFkfrdh esa /kku dh mit ds vfrfjDr gesa vkSj Hkh cgqr ls Qk;ns gksrs gSaA tSls pkjk@NIij@efYpax vkfn ds fy, iqvky feyrk gS] pkjk@bZa/ku ds :i eas /kku dh Hkwlh dk mi;ksx fd;k tkrk gS] /kku ds ikS/kksa dh tM+sa [ksr esa xyus ls e`nk esa g~;wel dh ek=k esa o`f) gksrh gS rFkk /kku ds [ksr esa tek ikuh esa tyh; ouLifr;ka] >haxk@dsadM+k@ NksVh eNfy;ka vkfn Hkh feyrh gSa] tks fdlku vius Hkkstu ds :i eas mi;ksx djrk gSA blfy, ;g vko”;d gS fd ,d Ñf"k ikfjfLFkfrdh iz.kkyh ds izHkkoksa dks tkuus ds fy, gesa fofHkUu ekud r; djus gksaxsA rks ge mRikndrk dh x.kuk dSls djrs gSa\ikfjfLFkfrdh Hkwfedk dSls gksxh fd /kku dh Qly ls tSo fofo/krk laj{k.k vFkok tyh; xq.koRrk esa o`f) gksxhA gekjk fo”ys"k.kkRed <kapk ,d cxhps dh Qly l?kurk dk vkdyu ugha dj ldrk] ftlls ge 40 ls Hkh vf/kd Qlysa ysrs gSa vkSj gesa iwjs o"kZ Hkj izfrfnu Hkkstu feyrk gSA e`nk LokLF; dks ekius ds fy, ukbVªkstu] iksVk”k vkSj QkLQksjl rFkk tSfod dkcZu ds vfrfjDr vkSj dksbZ lwpdkad gekjs ikl ugha gSaA ge ,d [ksrh iz.kkyh ds LokLF; ij lexzrk ds rkSj ij dksbZ fVIi.kh ugha dj ldrs D;ksafd “kk;n ;g ,d xf.krh; lehdj.k ds fy, Hkh cgqr tfVy gSA

16

ÜèÊææ §ç‡ÇUØæ, çßàæðá çãU‹Îè â¢S·¤ÚU‡æ, ×æ¿ü w®v}

enuiqj xk¡o] nso?kj ds dkyh flag ds lkFk vH;kl

ck;ksQkeZ ifj;kstuk us lkekftd] ikfjfLFkfrdh vkSj vkfFkZd ekudksa ds vkdyu ds lUnHkZ esa izHkkoksRikndrk dh i)fr dk vkdyu djus dk iz;kl fd;kA vo/kkj.kk dks LFkkfir djus gsrq rhu o"kZ dk le; Hkh cgqr de Fkk] ysfdu blls izzo`fr dk irk pykA ;g iz;kl lkeqnkf;d fuxjkuh vksSj vkadM+ks ds fo”ys"k.k ds ek/;e ls fd;k x;k FkkA

izkfIr;ksa dks ekiuk fdlh Hkh dk;Z dh izxfr dks tk¡pus rFkk tk¡p ds vk/kkj ij chp esa gh lq/kkj djus gsrq lkeqnkf;d fuxjkuh igys ls gh ,d LFkkfir rjhdk gSA blds vfrfjDr igys ls gh ,d y{; dks fu/kkZfjr dj ysus ls ;g lqfuf”pr djuk vklku gks tkrk gS fd ge lgh fn”kk esa tk jgs gSaA bl ckr dks /;ku esa j[krs gq,] pØh; vkjs[k ij vk/kkfjr ,d midj.k fodflr fd;k x;kA rkfd NksVs fdlkuksa dks Ñf"k ikfjfLFkfrdh ds fl)kUrksa dks viukus] vius y{; dks fu/kkZfjr djus rFkk mldh fuxjkuh djus esa lgk;rk gksA ;g pØ dbZ jsfVax o Ldksfjax dh dYiuk rFkk rqyuk djus esa lgk;rk djrk gSA bl pdzh; vkjs[k ds vUrxZr fuEufyf[kr 10 ekin.Mksa dk ,d lsV fodflr fd;k x;k& 1- lewg@lgdkjh xfrfof/k;ka % lewgksa] {ks=h; lewgksa] Ø fdlkuksa ,oa lkewfgd xfrfof/k;kas esa lfØ; lkoZtfud Hkwfe ij [ksrh vkfn la;qDr :i ls fd;s tkus okys dk;ksZa dk foLrkj fd;k x;kA ,d lewg ds :i esa dk;Z djus dh fLFkfr esa iwjs lewg ds fy, fgrdkjh ekun.Mksa dks lanfHkZr fd;k x;kA 2- e`nk o ty laj{k.k i)fr;ksa dks viukuk % e`nk ,oa " ty laj{k.k i)fr;ksa tSls [ksr dh esM+cUnh] o"kkZ ty lapj.k] efYpax] [kkn dk mi;ksx] v/kZ ifji=


cka/k] thjks fVyst [ksrh] Mk;e.M csM] nksgjh [kqnkbZ] fipj flapkbZ] xksy csM vkfn xfrfof/k;ksa dk lekos”k [ksr esa fd;k x;kA



x`g okfVdk rFkk [ksr esa vkS|kfud rRoksa dk lekos”k



?kj ij gh eqxhZikyu o muds [kkus dk izcU/ku pkjk lfgr NksVs tkuojksa dk izcU/ku

3- miiz.kkfy;ksa dh la[;k % [ksr ij viukbZ x;h mi iz.kkfy;ksa tSls ck;ksfMxsLVj] eqxhZikyu] i”kq/ku] o`{kksa] Qlyksa] tyh; thoksa vkfn dh la[;k esa o`f) dh x;hA



Qlyksa ,oa i”kqvksa esa dhV o O;kf/k izcU/ku rFkk mUgsa mUur cukuk



lewg fodkl ,oa ewY; Ja`[kyk ij {kerk fodkl

4- mi iz.kkfy;ksa ds lalk/kuksa dk vUrizZokg % fofHkUu mi iz.kkfy;ksa ds chp tqM+koksa dh la[;k dks c<+kukA ;g ,dhÑr Ñf"k ,oa Ñf"k mi izz.kkfy;kas dks n”kkZrk gSA

8- ckgjh [kk| fuos”k % lfCt+;ksa] izksVhu vkfn lfgr ,d larqfyr vkgkj ds fy, vko”;d lHkh oLrqvksa ds fy, cktkj ij fuHkZjrk de gqbZA

5- ck;ksfMxsLVlZ dh la[;k % blds vUrxZr tSo mRiknksa@vo”ks"kksa dh la[;k “kkfey gSA mnkgj.k ds rkSj ij & ck;ksxSl Iyk.V] oehZdEiksLV fiV] dEiksLV fiV] rjy [kkn dk mi;ksx] [ksr ds vif”k"Vksa ls rS;kj [kkn ,oa gjh [kkn vkfn dh la[;k esa o`f) dh x;hA

9- ckgjh Ñf"k fuos”k % cht lfgr vU; Ñf"k fuos”kksa dk cktkj ls [kjhnuk de gqvkA

6- Qly ,oa Qlyh rduhdksa dh fofo/krk % orZeku fofo/khÑr Qly rRoksa ds lUnHkZ esa [ksr dk Js.khdj.k djukA blds vUrxZr Qlyksa esa Qykas] nyguksa] iÙkhnkj lfCt+;ksa] vuktksa vkS"k/kh; ikS/kksa] dUnh; Qlyksa vkfn ds izdkj] iztkfr;ksa vkfn dks “kkfey fd;k tk ldrk gSA [ksrh dh rduhdksa esa fefJr [ksrh] vUr% [ksrh] Qly pØhdj.k] fjys [ksrh vkfn dks “kkfey fd;k x;kA 7- izkIr fd;s x;s izf”k{k.k % o"kZ Hkj pyus okys fdlku fo|ky;ksa ds ek/;e ls fdlkuksa us cgqr ls izf”k{k.k izkIr fd;sA foLr`r :i ls ftu fo"k;ksa ij n{krk fodflr dh x;h] os fuEu gSa & 

rukoksa dk fo”ys"k.k] vkthfodk pØ] lalk/kuksa] n{krkvksa rFkk vius Lo;a ds [ksr dk fu;kstu djus dh {kerk ij izf”k{k.k



e`nk iks"k.k izcU/ku ds fofo/k rjhds



ty izcU/ku rjhds Ñf"k ikfjfLFkfrdh ds vUrxZr tyok;q vuqdwfyr vH;klksa dks viukus ij fopkj fd;k tkrk gS rkfd tyok;q vk/kkfjr vkthfodk lzksrksa ij yksxksa dh fuHkZjrk de gks vkSj bl izdkj uktqdrk Hkh de gksxhA

10- mRiknksa dks cspus ls gqbZ vk; % etcwju mRiknu cspus dh vis{kk viuh ethZ ls nke p<+us ij mRiknksa dks cspus okys fdlkuksa dh la[;k esa o`f) gqbZA izR;sd ekin.M ds fy, 10 fp=kRed dkMZ fn;s x;s vkSj fdlkuksa ls dgk x;k fd os bu dkMksZa ij 0 ls 5 ds chp esa vad nsdj mlds vk/kkj ij vkjs[k rS;kj djsaA mUgsa ;g crk fn;k x;k Fkk fd 0 dk vFkZ lcls U;wure vkSj 5 dk vFkZ vf/kdre gSA ;g izfØ;k 6 ekg rd yxkrkj nqgjkbZ x;hA ;g ns[kk x;k fd vad nsus okys pj.k esa fdlkuksa ds chp vkil esa cgqr ppkZ ,oa cgl gksrh Fkh vkSj ;gh vH;kl dk lcls egRoiw.kZ pj.k gksrk FkkA vad nsus ds ihNs fn;s tkus okys dkj.kksa ls cgqr lh lQy dgkfu;ksa ,oa vlQyrkvksa dh ckr Hkh lkeus vk;h] ftlls Hkfo"; esa dk;Z dh j.kuhfr r; djus esa enn feyhA bl vH;kl dks lewg ,oa O;fDrxr nksukas Lrjksa ij fd;k x;kA fdlkuksa us fofHkUu Ñf"kxr xfrfof/k;ksa] ykxr ,oa izkfIr;ksa vkfn dks fu;fer :i ls nLrkosftr dj mldk fjdkMZ j[kk] ftldks ckn esa fo”ysf"kr Hkh fd;k x;kA bls “kq) vkenuh vkSj vU; ekud ekun.Mksa ij Hkh x.kuk dh tk ldrh gS] ijUrq geus ,d [ksr ds Ñf"k ikfjfLFkfrdh ds igyqvksa dk vkdyu djus ij gh dsfUnzr fd;kA bl rjg ds vH;kl >kj[k.M ds nso?kj o jkaph ftys] if”pe caxky ds chjHkwe] ckadqjk rFkk iq:fy;k ftys ,oa usiky esa fprou ds igkM+h {ks=ksa o ckaxykns”k ds igkM+h bykdksa ds [ksrksa esa fd;k x;k tgka ls izkIr ifj.kkeksa dks uhps n”kkZ;k x;k gS &

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[ksr dh fofo/krk dks ekiuk ,d Ñf"k ikfjfLFkfrdh [ksr esa fofo/khdj.k dks ,d egRoiw.kZ ?kVuk ds rkSj ij ekuk tkrk gSA mi iz.kkyh esa fofo/krk dk vFkZ gS & vk; ds lzksrksa esa fofo/krkA vFkkZr~ ,d lky esa ,d Qly ls gksus okyh vk; dh rqyuk esa vyx&vyx le; ij vyx&vyx Qlyksa ls o"kZ Hkj vk; gksrk jgsA mi iz.kkfy;ksa esa [ksr] cxhpk] eqxhZ ikyu] i”kq/ku] tyh; iz.kkyh] ck;ksfMxsLVj] ou@lkewfgd lEifÙk;ka] isM+] ewY; lao/kZu gsrq lkewfgd O;kikj vkfn FksA blls iznf”kZr gqvk fd mi iz.kkyh dh fofo/krk vkSlru 3-5 Fkh tks fd if”pe caxky ds dsl esa c<+dj 8 gks x;hA tgk¡ “kk;n ty us ,d egRoiw.kZ Hkwfedk fuHkkbZ vkSj >kj[k.M rFkk igkM+h {ks=ksa esa 5 mi iz.kkfy;ksa dks vk;@ck;ksxSl ds lzksr ds :i esa fLFkj fd;k x;kA jch ekSle esa ;g lp Hkh gSA xfeZ;ksa esa] tgk¡ lkekU; rkSj ij cgqr ls [ksr ijrh NwV tkrs Fks] ogk¡ o"kZ 2014 ls yxkrkj 2-54 lzksrksa ls ck;ksekWl feyuk iznf”kZr gks jgk gSA bldk vk”k; ;g gS fd >kj[k.M esa vk/kkjHkwr losZ{k.k ds nkSjku feyh izkfIr;ksa ds vuqlkj tgka flQZ ,d Qly fy;k tk jgk Fkk] ogka vc 45 izfr”kr yksxksa us o"kZ esa 3 Qlysa ysuk izkjEHk dj fn;k gSA tcfd igkM+h {ks=ksa rFkk if”pe caxky esa Øe”k% 89 izfr”kr o 60 izfr”kr fdlku o"kZ esa 3 Qlysa ysus yxs gSaA ;g Hkh ns[kk x;k fd lkekU;r% nks ls vf/kd mi iz.kkfy;ka bruk vf/kd ck;ksekWl mRikfnr djrh gSa fd mUgsa cktkj esa Hkh cspk tkus yxk gSA

vk; forj.k ,d ls vf/kd mi iz.kkyh gksus ls vk; i)fr dk forj.k Hkh izHkkfor gksrk gSA ns[kk x;k fd yksxksa dh vk; dk 65 ls 85 izfr”kr ekulwu ij fuHkZj djus okyh Qlyksa ,oa lfCt+;ksa ls gksus okyh vk; ls gksrk gSA ysfdu 3 o"kksZa ds vUnj] gLr{ksi fd;s tkus ds ckn ls i”kq/ku] eqxhZ ikyu] eNyh ikyu ,oa vU; xfrfof/k;ksa dh otg ls yksxksa dh

18

ÜèÊææ §ç‡ÇUØæ, çßàæðá çãU‹Îè â¢S·¤ÚU‡æ, ×æ¿ü w®v}

z® ÂýçÌàæÌ âð ¥çÏ·¤ v{.}{ vz.zx wz.®® |.}| v®.®® ®.®®

z® ÂýçÌàæÌ â𠷤פ xz.{y vw.~x yz.}x yy.~y v{.{| ®.®®

fuHkZjrk tyok;q vk/kkfjr lzksrksa ij ?kVh gSA mnkgj.k ds fy,] igkM+h {ks=ksa esa 2012 esa [kjhQ _rq esa vk; dk forj.k bl izdkj jgk & Qly ls 32-26 izfr”kr] lfCt+;ksa ls 13-12 izfr”kr] i”kq/ku ls 19-77 izfr”kr] eqxhZikyu ls 1-37 izfr”kr] tyh; [ksrh vFkkZr~ eNyh ikyu ls 14-71 izfr”kr] ewY; loaf/kZr mRiknksa ls 18-60 izfr”krA le; ds lkFk i”kq/ku o eqxhZikyu ds fodflr gksus dh laHkkouk vf/kd gSA if”pe caxky esa] vk; miktZu esa tyh; [ksrh dh lokZf/kd yxHkx 34 izfr”kr rd Hkkxhnkjh gksrh gSA mijksDr vkadM+s bl ckr dks etcwrh iznku djrs gSa fd Ñf"k ikfjfLFkfrdh dks ,d tyok;q vuqdwfyr vH;kl ds rkSj ij viuk;k tk ldrk gS vkSj blls yksxksa dh tyok;q vk/kkfjr vk;tud lzksrksa ij fuHkZjrk ?kVrh gS vkSj vUrr% yksxksa dh uktqdrk o tksf[ke de gksrk gSA vk¡dM+ksa dh deh ds dkj.k] ;|fi fd mi iz.kkfy;ksa dh la[;k c<+kus ls vk; esa o`f) ds chp lEcU/k ugha LFkkfir fd;k tk ldrkA ysfdu ns[kk x;k fd vk; ds forj.k dks iwjs o"kZ leku :i ls forfjr djus ij o"kZ Hkj ds vk; esa Hkh o`f) gqbZA blh rjg [ksr ij Qlyksa dh la[;k esa Hkh o`f) gqbZ vkSj yksx de ls de 2&3 vkSj vf/kdre 4&5 rd Qly ysus yxs gSaA x`gokfVdk esa Hkh vkSlru 6&7 rjg dh lfCt+;k@ikS/ks fn[kus yxs gSaA [ksr ds cM+s VqdM+ksa esa eq[;r% vukt tSls & pkoy@xsagwa@cktjk] nygu tSls & mnZ@elwj] frygu tSls & dkyk fry@ ljlksa@ vylh ,oa lfCt+;ka tSls & vkyw@ fefJr lfCt+;ka mxkbZ tkrh gSaA ftlls igkM+h {ks=ksa ds ckn if”pe caxky esa yksxksa dh [kk| fofo/krk ij lokZf/kd O;kid vlj iM+k gSA LFkkbZ ,oa ekSleh :i ls [ksrksa esa mxk;h tkus okyh fofo/k [kk| inkFkksZa ds dkj.k fdlkuksa dh u dsoy [kk| xq.koÙkk c<+h gS] oju~ fefJr fofo/krk dh ek=k esa Hkh o`f+) gqbZ gSA 650 gsDVs;j ijrh Hkwfe dks


ÜèÊææ §ç‡ÇUØæ, çßàæðá çãU‹Îè â¢S·¤ÚU‡æ, ×æ¿ü w®v}


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dh mit gqbZA Hkwfe ck;ksekWl mRikndrk esa 2012 dh vis{kk 2013 esa fxjkoV vk;h] tks ,d fnypLi izo`fÙk jghA bldk laHkkfor dkj.k ;g gks ldrk gS fd de ijrh Hkwfe esa Hkh cgqr vf/kd ek=k esa ck;ksekWl viz;qDr jg x;kA

dqN ck/kk,a

lh-,p-Vh-] ckaXykns'k esa ,d lkeqnkf;d fuxjkuh l=

iqupZØhÑr fd;k x;k rks yksxksa us bls ;k rks dgha ckgj ls [kjhnk ;k fQj mUgsa bl [kkn dh deh ls tw>uk iM+kA >kj[k.M esa] o"kZ 2012 esa vkUrfjd Ñf"k fuos”k mi;ksx djus okyksa dh la[;k 35 izfr”kr ls de Fkh] tks o"kZ 2013 esa 12 izfr”kr rd de gks x;h ¼rkfydk la0 1½A gkykafd /khjs&/khjs vkRefuHkZjrk dh vksj c<+rs gq, 5 izfr”kr fdlkuksa ds lkFk [ksr ls gh 90 izfr”kr fuos”kksa dk mRiknu fd;k x;kA vf/kd tqM+koksa rFkk mPp ck;ksekWl iqupZØhdj.k ds lkFk if”pe caxky esa csgrj ifj.kke fn[k jgs gSaA ;g Li"V iznf”kZr gks jgk gS fd fdlku vkRefuHkZjrk dh vksj c<+ jgs gSa] ijUrq vHkh Hkh lq/kkj dh fo”kky laHkkouk,a gSaA

[kk| vkRe fuHkZjrk eaas o`f) [kk| lqj{kk dh n`f"V ls ns[kk tk;s rks vf/kdka”k [ksfrgj ifjokj [kk| vlqj{kk Lrj ij FksA mu ifjokjksa dks i;kZIrrk ds Lrj rd ys tkuk rFkk vf/k”ks"k Lrj rd tkus gsrq c<+kok nsuk ,d pqukSrh FkhA o"kZ 2013 esa 48 izfr”kr fdlku vf/k”ks"k Lrj ij FksA

ck;ksekWl mRikndrk vke rkSj ij] ,d ,dy Qly ls gksus okyh mit dks mRikndrk ds rkSj ij ifjHkkf"kr djrs gSaA ,dhÑr [ksrh iz.kkyh esa [kk| lfgr lexz [ksr dh ck;ksekWl mRikndrk ij fopkj fd;k x;kA blesa Lo miHkksx dh x;h vFkok cktkj esa csph x;h [kk|] pkjk] bZa/ku vkSj ck;ksekWl o iqupZØhÑr ck;ksekWl dks “kkfey fd;k x;kA o"kZ 2013 esa jch _rq esa igkM+h {ks=ksa esa 12000 fdxzk izfr gsDVs;j vkSj >kj[k.M esa 9000 fdxzk izfr gsDVs;j ck;ksekWl dh mit gqbZ] tks ,d csgrj ifj.kke FkkA tcfd if”pe caxky esa [kjhQ _rq esa csgrj ifj.kke izkIr gq,] tgk¡ ij 8100 fdxzk0 izfr gsDVs;j ck;ksekWl ÜèÊææ §ç‡ÇUØæ, çßàæðá çãU‹Îè â¢S·¤ÚU‡æ, ×æ¿ü w®v}

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izekf.kr vk¡dM+ksa ds vHkko esa ,d ifjokj }kjk [ksr esa fd;s x;s fofHkUu mRiknd xfrfof/k;ksa esa fd;s tkus okys Je rFkk mlesa yxus okys le; dks mRikndrk ds lUnHkZ esa x.kuk djuk dfBu gSA ysfdu fofHkUu mnkgj.kksa dk fo”ys"k.k djus ls ;g izekf.kr gks pqdk gS fd Ñf"k&ikfjfLFkfrdh [ksrh Jelk/; gksrh gS vkSj [ksrh esa i”kq/ku izcU/ku dks “kkfey djus ls cgq/kk ifjokj dh efgyk lnL;ksa ij dk;Z cks> c<+rk gSA blfy, geus iwjs fu;kstu esa ts.Mj laosnu”khyrk dk [kkl /;ku j[kkA blesa ifjokj ds lnL;ksa }kjk nwljs ds [ksrksa ij [ksfrgj etnwjh djus ds ctk; vius [ksr ij fd;s x;s dke ds mRiknd Je ds fnuksa dks “kkfey fd;k x;kA lQy gq, vf/kdka”k fdlku Je dh l?kurk dks ldkjkRed crkrs gq, leku rdZ ns jgs gSaA

lksp esa cnyko fofHkUu izdkjksa ds ekun.Mksa ds vk/kkj ij Ñf"k& ikfjfLFkfrdh ds izHkkoksa dks ekius rFkk vk; ds vykok Hkh Ñf"k ikfjfLFkfrdh ls gksus okys cgqr ls Qk;nksa dks fdlku eglwl dj jgs gSa vkSj ,slk os vius [ksr dks m|ksx ds rkSj ij fofo/khdj.k djus ds dkj.k gh eglwl dj lds gSaA fofHkUu ekun.Mksa@lwpdkadksa dks nLrkosftr djus rFkk mudk fo”ys"k.k djus dh {kerk fodflr djrs gq, ;s fdlku vius lksp esa ldkjkRed cnyko ykus esa lQy gq, gSaA vkSj vc os /kku dh ,dy [ksrh ds ctk; fofo/khÑr [ksrh iz.kkyh viukus dh vksj izo`Ùk gks jgs gSaA vc os viuh Mk;jh izcfU/kr djus yxs gSa] vkSj Ñf"k&ikfjfLFkfrdh [ksrh iz.kkyh ds fl)kUrksa ij fujUrj [ksrh djrs gq, vius [ksr dh fuxjkuh dj jgs gSaA izn”kZuksa ds ek/;e ls fdlkuksa dks vk¡dM+k ,d=hdj.k] fo”ys"k.k vkSj le>us gsrq mRlkfgr fd;k tk jgk gS vkSj “kk;n ;gh [ksr ls [ksrh djus okyh iz.kkfy;ksa dh vksj tkus dk ,d egRoiw.kZ jkLrk Hkh gSA ¥¢àæé×æÙ Îæâ Âýæð»ýæ× ×ñÙðÁÚU ßðËÍ¢»ÚUÜæ§È¤ §ç‡ÇUØæ §ü-×ðÜ ÑAnshuman.Das@welthungerhilife.de Agroecology- Measurable and sustainable LEISA INDIA, Vol 18, No.3, Sept. 2016

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Hindi - March 2018  
Hindi - March 2018  
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