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Eastern Edition n

September 2012


Section One of Three

Volume e 21 Number r 9


Serving All Aspects of Commercial Horticulture

Greenhouse • Nursery • Garden Center • Fruit & Vegetable • Farm Markets • Landscapers • Christmas

Growing greenss for markett ~ e A2 Page

Today’ss Marketing g A5 Christmas Classifieds Organic/ e Ag Sustainable

B1 C12 C1

Inserts (in some areas) Benuall Fisherr Auctions m Market Greenstarr Farm Jan n Parisi e Promotions Produce

The Trial Gardens of 2012 ~ Page A3

September 2012 • COUNTRY FOLKS GROWER • Section A - Page 2

Growing greens for market by Sanne Kure-Jensen Growing lettuces and greens is easy and it yields a steady spring and fall cash crop for Farmers Markets, restaurants and commercial sales. Growers can extend their sales period using low or high tunnels. Using low tunnels inside unheated high tunnels, greens can be grown through northern winters. Like any farming venture, “line up your buyers before planting your seeds,” advised Jesse Rodrigues, general manager at Rhode Island Nurseries (RIN) in Middletown, RI. Create a system with seed rate, harvest size/height and temperature. Make sure all staff buy into your watering schedule and commit to weekend watering, which is critical on hot, summer days. Sowing and growing At RIN, lettuces and salad blends are planted in half-height trays in a greenhouse. Two hundred flats yield 50 pounds of salad greens using about eight hours of staff time per week to plant, water and harvest salad greens. Rodrigues recommended watching soil fertility, especially if using shallow trays. Their customers want vibrant salad greens so at RIN, they fertilize with alternate watering at half the standard rates — just enough to keep their salad greens at peak colors. The greenhouse thermostat is set for a minimum of 38 to 40 degrees and benches have some bottom heat. Using lights for two hours each night will increase the growth rates for lettuce

bringing the harvest time from six to eight weeks in winter down to three or four weeks. Rodrigues said they could grow up to 100 pounds of salad blends in one 120-by-27 feet house with a four to five week turn-around. For them, growing greens is simpler inside than in fields with heavy deer pressures. When the season warms and the greenhouse doors are open, screens prevent rodents or rabbits from entering the greenhouse. Michael Kilpatrick at Kilpatrick Family Farm (KFF) grows organic winter greens on the ground rather than on benches. Kilpatrick said salad and cooking greens that are gradually hardened off can take cooler temperatures and survive well into winter under row covers/low tunnels. He advised planting lettuces in the center of the row. Kale, spinach and other greens are more cold tolerant and can be planted in outer rows. In Middle Granville, NY, KFF staff only cover field-planted, cold-hardy kale when temperatures drop below 15 degrees. Harvest Many greens growers use cordless grass shears to harvest greens. Growers sometimes electrify their shears when staff tire of swapping and recharging batteries. RIN staff can harvest enough for their customer orders in one to two hours, and two batteries last long enough. One battery is always charging. After harvesting greens, you will need to prepare them for storage or

Gino Rodriguez harvests salad greens with cordless grass sheers at Rhode Island Nurseries in Middletown, RI. Photos by Sanne Kure-Jensen

Rhode Island Nurseries General Manager Jesse Rodrigues demonstrates seeding salad blends into half-height trays using a modified Four-Row Pinpoint Seeder. sale. Commercial growers with aerated by a Jacuzzi blower. annual sales over $500,000 must Afterward, their greens go into a follow Good Agricultural Practices food grade basket that fits into a (GAP). Customers may demand washing machine to be spun dry smaller growers also follow GAP and bagged. standards. If you plan to sell clean Many growers use the gentlest greens, you should wash and dry spin cycle in a dedicated washing greens thoroughly. Kilpatrick said machine to spin dry greens. Do some growers deliver unwashed not use the family washer where greens to customers; their buyers ‘dirty’ clothes are washed. like the longer shelf life and are Growers tie the greens inside a willing to wash the greens them- clean pillowcase or cloth sack selves. before spinning for a few minutes. Washing and drying Diana Kushner of Arcadian Fields To wash large batches of lettuces Farm, in Hope Valley, RI sewed or greens, gently separate the muslin bags that fit inside a 5-galstems or leaves and submerge lon pail for easy filling. them in clean sinks, tubs or large Storage buckets of water. Stir them slowly Damp or wet lettuces or greens to release any dirt. will have shorter shelf lives than T o remove aphids and other dry greens. insects, soak lettuces or greens Fresh lettuces or greens should before rinsing and drying. Add one be stored loosely packed, dry and to two teaspoons of salt to the sealed in a food grade plastic bag soaking water and allow the at 40 to 45 degrees (typical of a greens to soak up to five minutes. refrigerator vegetable drawer). Follow with a thorough rinse with For long-term winter storage at warm (not hot) water to remove the KFF, dry kale leaves are stored salt. Do not use hot water as it can loose in bins inside coolers until ‘cook’ or damage greens. packaged for sale. KFF washes greens in a tank

Page 3 - Section A • COUNTRY FOLKS GROWER • September 2012

The Trial Gardens of 2012 by Stephen Wagner As usual for the end of July, radical weather was expected at Penn State Research Center Trial Gardens at in Lancaster County, PA, and radical weather showed up. Last year, temperatures broke heat records and the year before that rainfall teemed. This year, it was a healthy blend of both, alternating sunshine (breaking no records) with sporadic rains of a gentle nature. The Landisville Trial has developed into a test site for container grown garden plants, one of the largest on the east coast. When the walking tour of the gardens commenced in sunshine, clouds soon rolled in and the tour had to be temporarily suspended until the storm passed, with walkers spending the next hour listening to an indoor lecture by Horticulture Educator Steve Bogash who discussed Mode of Action of Biological Inoculants, Resistance Management. The adaptability continued here because Bogash, who was to be the last speaker of the day, became the first. The great nearly unspoken thought this year involved funding for and by the university. There were references to not only general economic conditions but to the $60 million fine which has been exacted from the Penn State football program by the NCAA as punishment in the wake of the child sex abuse scandal that drew national attention. Where the Trial Gardens are concerned, three people spoke briefly and positively about private funds and endowments picking up some of the financial mantle for the foreseeable future. Still, clouds of uncertainty are normal under such circumstances. Penn State Professor Emeritus Jay Holcomb led this year’s walking tour, lecturing on the health of the plants and the impact of the weather upon them. He noted the pink flags beside specific plants. “These flags are beside the material that rated highest. First ratings were comparatively early and, consequently, there wasn’t a lot that was rated really high. All of the pink

flags were rated 4.5 or higher which is pretty close to excellent.” The walking tour began with Osteospermum. “Basically, what you can see is that the plant shape is good,” said Holcomb. “Uniformity is good, but flower power at this point is not that high. The thing that you can see is that some of these plants are opening up, they are getting large, getting a little bit floppy, so, in the future, these plants are going to be rated down for that. . .Osteospermum isn’t really thrilled with the heat that we’ve been having, which is partly what we’re dealing with at this moment.” Moving onto Ageratum, Holcomb said that during the week prior to the Trial Gardens official opening, it was “absolutely spectacular. If we rate it this week, it won’t be rated nearly as highly. They were perfect blue balls but the rain that we’ve had beat them up a little bit. They all really looked good.” Brachyscome is the only plant category in the B’s this year and the only plant in that category is the new Radiant Magenta. Holcomb describes it as a fairly compact plant that radiates, as it were, a lot of flowers. “Next time around,” he said, “it will probably be rated down a little bit because that third plant seems to be out of flower compared to the others.” Campanula, like several of its unrelated brethren, was not thrilled about devastating heat that plagued this area for a few weeks leading up to the trials. Its relatively bedraggled appearance betrayed that fact. At the time of this walking tour, Holcomb mentioned that these plants had not colored up like they were expected to, though they were standing well. “We’ve got good flowering on the Coreopsis,” Holcomb averred. “The problem evident on some of them is mildew, which has dropped the ratings a tad.”

Jay Holcomb, walking tour guide, educates audience about the various flowers at the Trial Gardens. Photos by Stephen Wagner

Begonias in bloom, sharing their charm and beauty with the garden’s visitors.

Wide trails in the Upper Garden leave plenty of room for visitors to walk together while perusing.

Despite Mother Nature’s difficult hand, there were flowers that prevailed and bloomed quite beautifully. “It’s pretty tough to find a really poor quality Angelonia,” Holcomb explained. “The Spreading Pink last week looked very nice as did the Spreading White, the Archangel Pink. They are basically covered with flowers at this point, fewer flowers on

some, and they will probably look like this for an extended period of time.” Holcomb pointed out other healthy, thriving blooms, such as the Garden’s Snapdragons and Flutterfly Yellow Argyranthemum. Wrapping up another trial garden season, it is safe to say that once again the plants here have weathered heat, wind and rain as best they can.

September 2012 • COUNTRY FOLKS GROWER • Section A - Page 4

West Virginia farm family direct markets year round New high tunnels supplying Mid-Atlantic farmers markets and SNAP families The vans will enable him to hire more FAA members from his neighborhood to staff Spring Valley’s market stands. The Cooks are especially proud of their ability to provide solid year-round jobs near their West Virginia farm as well as providing additional weekend and summer jobs to many FFA members to staff their market stands. The Cooks expanded their on-farm work force to nine full time employees and hired an additional 22 on-farm staff in the spring of 2012. For their farmers’ market operations, they said they hire more than 40 seasonal FFA students to meet the strong demand. Paying well above local fast food wages and with their FFA training, his young staff are especially up to date on consumers’ queries on varieties, using Integrated Pest Management (IPM) and sustainable growing practices. The Cooks hire their FFA summer and fall employees under the agriculture Attendees of the July Trial Gardens at the Penn State Research supervised experience program, Center in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania look over the new which operates a careful record keeping varieties. system for these FFA students.

by Gus Schumacher Eli and Misty Cook are expanding to meet the exploding Middle Atlantic demand for year round fruits and vegetables. They have added acreage, new John Deere tractors — Eli and Misty now have seven — and state-of-the-art high , at their Slanesville, WV, Spring Valley Farm & Orchard. Their market stand has often sold out their winter vegetables at the Fresh Farms Dupont Circle and Silver Spring popular farmers markets. During a late winter visit, Eli reported some 250 acres in intensive fruit and vegetable production. He said he will clear some more acres in 2013. Eli said that nearly 95 percent of his production is sold at Mid-Atlantic farmers markets in Maryland, Virginia and Washington, D.C. With demand so strong, Cook also just ordered three new “market-vans” to transport his produce.

Cover photo courtesy of Stephen J. Wagner

Country Folks

Demand for the Cook’s carrots and leeks was so great in early 2012, that he ran out in February, thus his major new investments in high tunnels to ensure he can supply these sought after winter vegetables in 2013. With the addition of three new high tunnels, the Cooks now have a total of nine where they grow and harvest winter greens year round. They have also expanded their orchards, adding new peach and Honey Crisp apple varieties, all protected with new anti-deer fencing. The Cooks are an FFA family innovating new technologies and hiring staff to meet the booming market for fresh, local year round produce grown nearby, marketed “for all” with nutrition incentives for SNAP and WIC clients, grown sustainably and with their workers helping and paid a much needed living wage. Retail agriculture now has a farm gate value estimated at $8 billion according to Farm Credit Council’s Gary Matteson. This sector of American agriculture is alive and well in this West Virginia Spring Valley Farm — contributing its share to a rapidly evolving regional and local food system. Gus Schumacher is a former USDA Undersecretary of Agriculture for Farm and Foreign Agriculture Services. He currently serves as Executive Vice President of Policy at Wholesome Wave.

The Monthly Newspaper for Greenhouses, Nurseries, Fruit & Vegetable Growers (518) 673-3237 • Fax # (518) 673-2381 (ISSN# 1065-1756) U.S.P.S. 008885 Country Folks Grower is published monthly by Lee Publications, P.O. Box 121, 6113 St. Hwy. 5, Palatine Bridge, NY 13428. Periodical postage paid at Palatine Bridge, NY 13428. Subscription Price: $20 per year. Canada $55 per year. POSTMASTER: Send address change to Country Folks Grower, P.O. Box 121, Subscription Dept., Palatine Bridge, NY 13428-0121. Publisher, President........................................Frederick W. Lee Vice-President Production ..........................Mark W. Lee, ext. Vice-President & General Manager ..........Bruce Button, ext. 104 Comptroller ................................................Robert Moyer, ext. Production Coordinator ............................Jessica Mackay, ext. Editor ......................................................Joan Kark-Wren, ext. Page Composition ....................................Allison Swartz, ext. Classified Ad Manager ..............................Peggy Patrei, ext. 111

Palatine Bridge, Main Office . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 518-673-3237 Accounting/Billing Office . . . . . . . . 518-673-2269. . . . . . . . . . . Subscriptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 518-673-2448 . . . . . Web Site: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Send all correspondence to: PO Box 121, Palatine Bridge, NY 13428 Fax (518) 673-2699 Editorial Email: Advertising Email: AD SALES REPRESENTATIVES Bruce Button, Ad Sales Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 800-218-5586, ext. 104 Dan Wren, Grower Sales Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 800-218-5586, ext. 117 Jan Andrews . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 800-218-5586, ext 110 Dave Dornburgh. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 800-218-5586, ext. 109 Steve Heiser . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 800-218-5586, ext. 119 Ian Hitchener . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 518-210-2066 Tina Krieger. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 800-218-5586, ext. 262 Kegley Baumgardner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 540-255-9112 Wanda Luck / North Carolina. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 336-416-6198 (cell) Mark Sheldon. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 814-587-2519 Sue Thomas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 949-599-6800 Lee Publications 6113 State Hwy. 5, PO Box 121, Palatine Bridge, NY 13428

The writer’s grandfather, Frederick Schumacher, carried his produce by horse drawn wagons from his Flushing, NY, farm to sell at the New York City Farmers Market in 1887.

We cannot GUARANTEE the return of photographs. Publisher not responsible for typographical errors. Size, style of type and locations of advertisements are left to the discretion of the publisher. The opinions expressed in this publication are not necessarily those of the publisher. We will not knowingly accept or publish advertising which is fraudulent or misleading in nature. The publisher reserves the sole right to edit, revise or reject any and all advertising with or without cause being assigned which in his judgement is unwholesome or contrary to the interest of this publication. We assume no financial responsibility for typographical errors in advertisement, but if at fault, will reprint that portion of the ad in which the error appears.

Six of the 13 Cook Farm marketing staff members busy waiting on customers at the Dupont Farmers Market in Washington, D.C.

By: Melissa Piper Nelson Farm News Service News and views on agricultural marketing techniques.

The point of it all Most of us have indulged in the last minute purchase of candy, gum, magazines, batteries, sodas, or any number of impulse items displayed near a store’s cash register. In fact, merchandisers count on shoppers buying point of sales (POS) or point of purchase (POP) items, and spend huge amounts of money on attractive and enticing

displays to point us in that direction as we shop. You may question how point of purchase sales relate to direct farm marketing ventures, but the same principles of impulse buying work equally as well at a farm market stand as in a chain store. Shoppers may arrive at a retail outlet, farmers’ market, farm gate business or a roadside stand with an idea of what they want to purchase. They

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you want to move near the final check out or cash register area. Check out is where shoppers make that final decision about additional purchases. You have probably been in the same situation — if you forget an item that is at the back of the grocery store, chances are you will not go back for it. If that item is close enough to check out, however, you’ll probably make a run for it. Placement then is the first of four major factors in successful point of purchase sales. Not all items will fit or even belong near check out, but how you display items encourages shoppers to think about additional purchases as they shop. The second factor depends on attractive displays that draw the customer’s attention. You’ve seen farmers’ market vendors build pyramids of bottled sauces, serve enticing fruit samples and group colorful items together. Eyecatching displays ask buyers to spend more time shopping in a particular area, and the more time a shopper is in your booth or store, the more opportunity you have to sell additional items. Let’s clarify at this point that not all farm marketers feel comfortable with what they feel is “pushing items” on people. You will need to decide for yourself what your individual comfort level is with working to increase sales, but remember that sales are income. And income pays the bills. Impulse buying from a farm stand is certainly not oriented to consumer overspending for large ticket or non-food items. Items or product you

Marketing A6

Page 5 - Section A • COUNTRY FOLKS GROWER • September 2012

Today’s Marketing Objectives

may have come for sweet corn or a pumpkin, but impulse buying sends them home with an additional jar of jam, some barbeque sauce and a pie for dessert. The psychology behind impulse buying is to display items that encourage shoppers to think about and ultimately purchase additional items before leaving the store. Some in-store research has shown that 30 percent of people wait until they are in the store to either select a brand, or determine how much and what they will buy. Large stores do this type of research by actually tracking the buyer’s eye movements as they look over merchandise and make a final decision. One agricultural marketer who produces honey products decided early on that having his product on the grocery store shelf with all the other competing products would not get him the sales he wanted. He decided to invent his own attractive point of purchase display and convinced chain store managers that it would increase his sales dramatically, as well as encourage shoppers to look at similar items nearby. It worked! Shoppers were attracted to the offshelf display and purchased far more product than they might have otherwise. I hasten to add that this particular marketer had a background in advertising and sales, and knew how to present his ideas of store managers, but that doesn’t mean you can’t use the same ideas to increase sales at your own individual venue. One of the main factors of point of purchase sales is to place items that

September 2012 • COUNTRY FOLKS GROWER • Section A - Page 6

OFA Board votes to form new association with ANLA COLUMBUS, OHIO — The Board of Directors of OFA, the Association of Horticulture Professionals, voted in July to begin the process of organizing a new association with the American Nursery and Landscape Association (ANLA). Following several months of working together in a joint venture, the working group comprising leaders from both organizations determined it was time to formally explore creating a new trade association. OFA and ANLA announced in January 2012 the formation of a joint venture to support business education and government relations activities. The vision statement adopted by OFA’s board of directors expressed

the desire to form a new organization if it brings more value to our members and the industry. Since June 2011, OFA’s executive committee has been meeting with ANLA’s leaders about the opportunity for and viability of a formal relationship between the two organizations. As early as the first meeting, the idea of forming a new organization has been discussed by the joint venture working group. “We are listening to our members. Results of a membership and organizational study performed at the end of last year indicated that members of both associations want the organizations to work closer to unify the industry,” said OFA President Mike Mc-

Cabe, owner of McCabe’s Greenhouse & Floral in Lawrenceburg, IN. “They want their industry association to be all encompassing — one that touches and links all pieces of the horticul-


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Marketing from A5 want to sell through point of purchase sales should be backed by advertising and promotion. This is the third factor of POP success. Advance advertising of items that will be prominently displayed plants the idea of buying before a customer comes into your store or booth. A simple flyer on the door of your business or an email message to farmers’ market customers a day ahead provide the stimulus for a shopper to search for the POP display. The fourth principle is always at the heart of a successful business — the product must inspire consumer confidence! While point of purchase sales are related to impulse buying, a poor product or something that is not worthy of your business will only serve to hurt future sales. If you wish to move a product, make sure it still represents the best of what you have to offer. There is a place for selling fruit seconds or items that require immediate sales, but be sure to identify them for what they are. Customers expect that even impulse items will be worthy of their purchase. In today’s purchasing world, a bad customer experience travels fast and hurts repeat business. Point of purchase sales represent a good opportunity for you to engage in conversation with your customers and discuss the benefits of the product promoted. You can then introduce other products or new products one-onone to shoppers and educate as well as sell. Direct marketing builds on

ture industry, which can be offered by a new organization. After significant exploration and evaluation the

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A few years back, growers were tearing their hair out over a new disease affecting a previously problem-free crop: coleus downy mildew. Now another downy mildew has risen up to challenge garden impatiens, the cornerstone of most bedding plant business-

es. Margery Daughtrey of Cornell University will be presenting a lecture on what we know about these diseases and what we can do to manage or avoid them. She will be speaking at the 2012 Northeast Conference and Expo, held at the DCU Center in Worcester, MA, on

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OFA from A6 elected leadership of OFA determined this is the best way to meet the

needs of our members and the industry.” The multi-faceted hor-

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ticulture industry is undergoing dramatic changes. Economic strains, generational differences and the changing interest in and need for gardening and landscape products are altering the way our products and services are valued by consumers. Governmental activity and inactivity, financial uncer-

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the industry. The timeline is to have a new organization established no sooner than July of 2013 and no later than January 2014. “This is not a merger. This is taking the best of what both associations do to create a new organization that will advance the industry and better serve our members,” said Michael V. Geary, CAE, OFA’s chief executive officer. “We have many details to work through, but OFA’s leaders are committed to ensuring that our members are involved in the decision-making process. It’s an exciting time for both organizations and the future of the horticulture industry. The combined

215 years of service and resources will create a powerful and meaningful association.” The new association will replace OFA and ANLA. In further developments of the joint venture, following ANLA Executive Vice President Bob Dolibois’ scheduled retirement at the end of the year, Geary will become the chief staff executive of both ANLA and OFA beginning on Jan. 1, 2013. The organizations will continue to be governed separately, but Geary will lead the dayto-day operations of both associations. To keep the industry up to date on the formation of the new organization, visit


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Page 7 - Section A • COUNTRY FOLKS GROWER • September 2012

Impatiens got you down(y)?

September 2012 • COUNTRY FOLKS GROWER • Section A - Page 8

OFA Short Course a study in innovation by William McNutt For the past 15 years, the OFA Short Course has been the largest held annually in the Columbus Ohio Convention Center. This year was no exception, as it moved up 50 spots to be the 150th largest on the national scene, continuing to occupy the number one spot as the largest horticultural event in the U.S. for garden center retailers, greenhouse and nursery growers, landscapers, florists and interior landscapers. More than 750 exhibit sites from 600 companies covered seven acres and 140 educational sessions were offered. Attendees came from 25 countries and most of the U.S., for a total attendance of over 9,000. Sneak peeks of new flower varieties for the coming season drew grower interest, along with new types of ground

covers. Much interest was created in types of vegetables that can be grown intermingled with standard decorative varieties of flowers, together with the addition of food courts to existing garden centers. OFA’s 84th trade show was truly a study in innovation for those attending. Of major interest was the announcement during the four day convention that American Nursery and Landscape Association and OFA — The Association of Horticulture Professionals, were joining together under the leadership of Michael V. Geary, current OFA chief executive officer, to create a new organization. Following the retirement at the end of this year of ANLA Executive Vice President Bob Dolobois, Geary will become chief executive of both OFA and ANLA. Both organizations will


continue to be governed separately, with Geary leading the day to day operations of each. This is the culmination of a study to meet member requests that both organizations work more closely together to unify the industry. OFA also announced at the Short Course that Dr. Charlie Hall had been appointed as its chief economist. Hall is a professor at Texas A&M University, holding the Ellison Endowed Chair in International floriculture. His expertise in production and marketing of Green Industry crops has gained nation-

al recognition, with major emphasis on strategic management, market outlook cost accounting, and financial analysis for industry firms. As one of the first steps toward organizational coordination, OFA and ANLA announced the joint development of a new joint event for Jan. 31-Feb. 2 in Nashville, TN, to be know as “Next Level.” The event is designed to help participants from both groups clarify a next level for themselves, expose them to new ideas and insights, and connect with like minded individuals, with a focus on educa-

tion that emphasizes working on, not just in, their individual businesses. While this may turn out to be one giant networking conference, it can only be of benefit to those attending from both organizations. Keynote speaker Sam

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ed by First Lady Michelle Obama. He assisted in the garden’s establishment, with regular work visitation and nutritional instruction given to children from many D.C. low income districts. The

first year’s harvest provided 2,000 pounds of produce, primarily distributed to area food banks. Now nearing the end of its third year of operation, yields have doubled, with about two-

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thirds of the fresh produce now used in the White House kitchen. The remainder goes to charitable agencies. This program has helped add bi-partisan legislation for school lunch improvement to the Farm Bill, including promotion of school grounds gardens and expanding funding for specialty crops. Many universities, especially those with agricultural colleges, set aside land for student gardens. Kass said a national conversation is opening up about the need to eat more fresh fruits and vegetables. This spring, several OFA member companies, including breeders and garden centers, launched new or expanded offerings in the edible plant category to meet increasing demand for vegetables. Research done by Plant Peddler and Banner Greehouses, presented at a well attended educational session, pointed out that filling seasonal production gaps with vegetables and other alternative crops reduces overhead costs, but expanding crop sales does not help if it doesn’t increase profits. Primary emphasis should be given to utilizing spare capacity to produce fruits and vegetables marketed directly to food coops, institutional and restaurant facilities, produce auctions and the like. Partnering with other growers and/or contracting with outlets, CSA providers, produce auctions, and grocery stores can also

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Mike McCabe, Lawrenceburg, IN, was elected to a second term as OFA president. help assure steady sales. The list of alternative crops that can be grown inside or outside by those considering such a move are many, including green beans, Swiss chard, lettuce, cucumbers, herbs, peppers, squash, tomatoes, berries. OFA members at this session were told to be sure they understood the possible risks and to remember it’s always “flowers first.” Their research has shown that tomatoes were the least profitable, while lettuce came in first.

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Short Course from A8

September 2012 • COUNTRY FOLKS GROWER • Section A - Page 10

Short Course from A9 Another well attended session focused on garden centers looking for extra income, utilizing current facilities. Adding food facilities to existing locations has become a primary source of extra income, but one with many pitfalls, particularly in meeting health regulations. It’s a natural for garden centers that already attract younger customers looking for sources of local, sustainable or organically grown food. Younger consumers are looking and willing to pay for, foods of this type, according to Jeff Warschauer of Nexus Corp., who led a panel of garden center operators who have already made the transition. Trends now range from cafes that offer simple ready-to-serve foods such as salads, premade sandwiches, pastry and other ready-toeat foods, which keep costs down. Others pre-

fer to offer food prepared on site in a full kitchen, which requires a large investment. Charlie Cole of Cole Gardens, Concord, NH, has set up a Saturday direct market at his garden center that can accommodate 30 vendors at a charge of $30 each. This not only brings increased income, but increased traffic through Cole Gardens. Cheryl Street of Briggs Garden and Home has set up a café type restaurant in a rebuilt garden center. She has one vendor do some type of demonstration each week, along with regular cooking demos that include foods sold at the market. Most of her promotion is done online, along with local radio. Foods served are easy to prepare, featuring high margin items such as soups, salads and cookies. She buys chicken already frozen, and baked goods that

can be held over. Brigg’s centers offer free wi-fi, which Street feels attracts customers to the garden center. Continuing the emphasis on food production, Bob Jones, Chefs Garden, OFA board member from Ohio, and Lloyd Traven, Peace Tree Farm in Pennsylvania, addressed the “naturally grown” question since both are exponents of sustainable farming. Traven says that organic and sustainable practices are at odds, that the biggest problem with organic is fertility, not pesticide management. He stated emphatically that organic rules are ridiculous — rules for organic certification are now set by the USDA and state by state interpretation is not allowed. Jones said there is no question that farmers using genetically

engineered crop seeds have an easier time with weeds than those having to remove weeds by hoeing, but many of his client chefs want chemical free produce. With 20 percent growth in the past five years, organically grown crops cost more, but customers seem willing to pay, most feeling that better nutrition comes from more “natural” cultivation methods. Chefs Garden caters to chefs, many of whom come to the farm’s commercial kitchen to experiment with various produce and then contract to have it grown for them. This started when the Jones’s Farms transitioned from selling at farm markets, where chefs were buying much of their produce and asking for specific items for their restaurants. Now Chefs Garden ships to

49 states and 15 countries. It took awhile but they have learned how to ship produce long distances and have it arrive in mint condition. Bob Jones says he receives little pressure to go organic, but chefs do request assurance about the growing practices used. He says most of their product is 24 hours from field to plate, still

growing when ordered, then harvested and shipped. The company provides more than 600 varieties of heirloom and specialty vegetables to its customers, with a total work force of 120 under the management of Bob Jones and his brother Lee, together with their father Bob Jones Sr.

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These days, greenhouse growers are faced with increased competition and the rising cost of labor, energy and crop inputs. To maximize return on their investment, growers are gradually diversifying their crops to include hydroponic vegetables. Smart growers have realized that sustainably produced fruits and vegetables are a better investment and a more efficient use of time and resources. Changing trends have increased opportunities for greenhouse growers to significantly increase sales and profits using their existing facilities operating year round. Today’s hydroponic growing methods have proven to make growing easier and more reliable than field growing. Labor costs and crop input costs are lower, and quality is much higher. Converting greenhouses from housing traditional plants to edible production is now very easy and low in cost. The future is bright for growers that choose to grow hydroponically in existing greenhouses. The traditional greenhouse grower is comfortable producing bedding plants, flowering potted plants, potted foliage

plants and cut flowers. The regimen most familiar to seasoned greenhouse devotees is expensive and often financially unforgiving. These growers, used to a certain outmoded routine, are now faced with increased competition and the rising cost of labor, energy and crop inputs. To maximize return on their investment, growers are gradually diversifying their crops to include hydroponic vegetables — learning quickly that locally produced lettuce, tomatoes, cucumbers and peppers are in high demand. Sustainably and locally grown food is a very hot topic. Smart growers have realized that fruits and vegetables, grown year round in greenhouses, are a better investment and a more efficient use of time and resources. Big budget consumers, like school districts and restaurant chains, are making the switch to locally grown foods. States are increasing the percentage of fresh produce that makes up school lunches, helping students and faculty lead healthier lifestyles. Individual consumers are more interested in where their food comes from, and this

Converting greenhouses from housing traditional plants to edible production is now very easy and low in cost.

interest will continue to grow and drive demand further upwards. With transportation costs skyrocketing and food safety concerns at an all time high, hauling food by truck, ship and air has become prohibitive. With all these compounding matters, it should be obvious that local is the way to go, but produce managers and buyers have somehow not been able to meet the increased demand for locally grown foods. These changing trends have increased opportunities for greenhouse

growers to significantly increase sales and profits using their existing facilities operating year round. But the hesitance with which growers are adding vegetables and fruit to their offerings is baffling. A pre-existing greenhouse can easily accommodate hydroponic growing with few adjustments. Why aren’t more growers making this clearly advantageous switch? Today’s hydroponic growing meth-

Hydroponics A13

Page 11 - Section A • COUNTRY FOLKS GROWER • September 2012

Hydroponics: Revolutionizing greenhouse growing

September 2012 • COUNTRY FOLKS GROWER • Section A - Page 12

PLNA, MAC events partner on PANTS trade show HARRISBURG, PA — The Pennsylvania Landscape & Nursery Association (PLNA) announced recently that it has entered into a partnership with MAC Events, LLC of Spring Lake, New Jersey to produce its trade show, the Penn Atlantic Nursery Trade Show (PANTS). “We are pleased to partner with MAC Events on PANTS,” said Jim MacKenzie, president of Octoraro Native Plant Nursery, Kirkwood, PA and the chairman of the PLNA board of directors. “MAC Events brings to PANTS extensive experience in producing green industry shows for both the trade and the public. We believe our exhibitors and attendees will benefit by this partnership.” PANTS long has been the East Coast’s premier summer trade show for the green industry. This past week, PANTS celebrated its 40th year. “MAC Events is excited to have the opportunity to produce a show like PANTS,” said Kevin McLaughlin, partner of MAC Events. “With our experience in producing green industry shows, PANTS is the type of show that fits perfectly with our company’s growth strategy.” MAC Events also produces NJ Plants - Professional Landscape & Nursery Trade Show each January in Edison, NJ in partnership with the New Jersey Nursery and Landscape Association. The company also produces several public garden shows as well as trade and public shows in other industries and geographical areas. MAC Events will handle show production and logistics, marketing, advertising, and booth and sponsorship sales for PANTS. PLNA will assist with educational programming, show promotion and contacts with Pennsylvania’s green industry. About MAC Events: MAC Events, LLC has

been producing highquality business-to-consumer trade shows in a variety of industries and markets since 1969 throughout the United States. MAC Events produces landscaping &

nursery trade shows, home & garden shows and flower & garden shows concentrating their efforts in the Northeast. MAC Events is expanding into the business of producing trade

events and providing professional event management for organizations, associations and businesses in other U.S. Markets. For more information, go to

About PLNA: The Pennsylvania Landscape & Nursery Association is the leading trade association representing Pennsylvania’s $6.8 billion green industry. Its 750 member landscape contractors, retail garden

centers, wholesale nurseries and greenhouses produce outdoor living environments that improve economic value, air quality, water quality and human health. Learn more at

ods have proven to make growing easier and more reliable than field growing. Labor costs and crop input costs are lower, and quality is much higher. Hydroponic and greenhouse yields are commonly ten times that of the field yield for a one-crop-per-year harvest. In some cases, hydroponic and greenhouse yields have achieved one hundred times the field yield of Bibb lettuce. One grower in California grows

3.2 million heads per acre per year! Hydroponic soilless growing offers savvy greenhouse growers the opportunity to increase the sales per square foot of their facilities by five or more times. To learn more about hydroponic growing, Dr. Lynette Morgan’s book Hydroponic Lettuce Production and Dr. Howard M. Resh’s Hydroponic Food Production (the 7th edition came out in August) are good places to start.

Converting greenhouses from housing traditional plants to edible production is now very easy and low in cost. Growers can convert their low to medium technology greenhouses to hydroponics without having to invest a substantial amount of money into a new greenhouse. Most growers, with some research and persistence, can tackle the project on their own. A growing number of colleges and vocational schools have agricultural departments and curriculums catering to students with futures as passionate, qualified growers. Banks and other leading institutions that champion the locally produced food movement will stand and support this new generation of growers. Many growers, new and old, have received low-interest financing for their projects by said institutions that understand the economics behind these endeavors. From the introduction of corporate CSA programs to businesses providing locally grown food in lunchrooms, meetings and conferences, it is clear that growers are quickly gaining larger allies outside the agricultural industry. The future is bright for growers who choose to grow hydroponically in existing greenhouses. Low-cost investment and nearly unlimited market opportunities have spurred perceptive growers to make the smart move to growing more edibles as a percentage of their total growing area. Will you make the same choice? Growers Supply is the leading manufacturer of greenhouses, high tun-

These hydroponically-grown tomato plants stretch high towards the domed ceiling of the greenhouse.

nels, and hydroponic systems, offering design-build solutions for the horticulture industry. Growers Supply is an expert in the field and can provide planning, design, startup and operation training. With a catalog of over 30,000 products, complete growing systems can be custom designed to fit the needs of any business. For more information on Growers Supply and its line of engineered greenhouses and hydroponic systems, call 1800-476-9715 or visit Japanesee Maples-- Baree root

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Page 13 - Section A • COUNTRY FOLKS GROWER • September 2012

Hydroponics from A11

Governor Cuomo’s signing of Farm Brewery Bill will provide growing markets for NY farmers

New York Farm Bureau is raising a beer mug to Governor Andrew Cuomo’s signing of the important farm brewery bill that NYFB strongly advocated for with his Administration and lawmakers in the legislature. It will be a big boost for the growing craft beer industry in the state and the farmers who grow the quality crops like hops and barley used to make the popular beverages. The legislation does a number of things. First of all, farm breweries can now have on-site beer tastings and sell their products at off-site retail outlets allowing them to reach new customers. The farm breweries, wineries and distilleries can also sell each other’s products to strengthen the industry. The flourishing agri-tourism that will follow will have a positive spill-over effect on surrounding communities as farm breweries join regional trails much like what happened with the burgeoning wine industry in the 1970’s. Also, any brewery that produces 60 million or fewer gallons of beer in New York will now be eligible for a refundable tax credit applied against New York State personal income and business taxes. The bill also exempts small breweries from paying a state liquor authority fee. In the 1800’s, New York was the national leader in growing hops. Now, it can regain that title through diversifying to fill a growing need. Already, hop production has risen 400 percent in the past two years to about 60 acres statewide. That trend will only continue to climb as a provision in

the legislation calls for 90 percent of the hops and 90 percent of the ingredients in the local beer to be New York grown by the year 2024. “This legislation is im-

portant for our members, as it makes simple financial sense,” said Dean Norton, President of New York Farm Bureau. “Farm breweries are a growing segment of

agriculture in New York and new markets are needed to sell their products and continue their progress. Since farm breweries can use crops from New York farms to

craft their products, the agricultural industry overall receives an economic benefit as well.” “We appreciate the support of Governor Cuomo on this legisla-

tion, and we look forward to working with him on other initiatives to expand business opportunities in New York for hard working farmers,” Norton added.

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If your business provides products or services for the grape growers and wine makers, please contact us for information on marketing opportunities to this important segment of agriculture. You can reach us at P.O. Box 121, Palatine Bridge, NY 13428 or call 800-218-55866 • Fax 518-673-23811 • Email:


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Jacto, Inc adds new VP of Sales Greg Imus has joined Jacto Inc. Tualatin, OR as Vice President of Sales and Marketing for the company’s new Small Farm Solutions business unit. Jacto, Inc. is a subsidiary of Máquinas Agrícolas Jacto S/A of Pompéia, SP, Brazil. Jacto is Brazil’s market leader in spraying equipment for a variety of agricultural applications and does business globally. Jacto Small Farms Solutions (JSFS) will focus on the needs of small farmers around the world to aid them in efficient and economical production of crops. Imus’s primary role will be to develop and enhance sales and distribution in North America, Central

America and South Asia Pacific. Formerly VP of sales, marketing and technical services for Shindaiwa Inc., in Tualatin, OR, Imus’s most recent position was Area Manager for Europe, Oceania and Africa with Maruyama Manufacturing Company of Tokyo, Japan. “The prospect for working with Jacto on the new JSFS unit is very exciting,” affirms Imus. “There is certainly a good market opportunity. And, with Jacto’s engineering expertise and history of developing strong relationships with customers, we have the right combination to make a positive impact within our industry.

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Page 15 - Section A • COUNTRY FOLKS GROWER • September 2012

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September 2012 • COUNTRY FOLKS GROWER • Section A - Page 16

In an emergency, call 911! by Anna Meyerhoff, Farm Safety Educator, The New York Center for Agricultural Medicine & Health If there was an emergency on your farm, would you know what to do? It is important to act quickly and phone for help. In an emergency, call 911. Stay on the line until you are told to hang up. The dispatcher will ask you a lot of questions. Give them as much information as possible so that the Emergency Medical Services (EMS) responders can be prepared to handle the emergency when they arrive. When calling 911, the dispatcher will ask you: • Your name and the phone number you are calling from • How many victims are there? How seriously injured are they? • Information about the emergency • Any care given to the victim(s) • Special considerations that might make it hard for EMS to get to the victim • Your address and the location of the victims When giving directions, be specific. Give road names, visual landmarks and exact mileage. If possible, someone should

w w w . c f g r o w e r . c o m

wait at the roadway to direct them to the scene of the emergency. Remember: the sooner the EMS responders can get there, the sooner they can start helping the victim. It is important to be prepared and know how to call for help in an

emergency. Talk with your family and coworkers about what to do. Make sure everyone knows the location of phones, as well as emergency exits, fire extinguishers and first aid kits. Practice a farm emergency response

plan, and post important phone numbers and written directions to the farm near every phone. NYCAMH offers free bilingual on-farm safety training, as well as farm emergency response training that may help you fulfill food safety au-

dit requirements. Farm emergency topics include first response to farm emergencies, CPR and first aid certification, and fire safety and extinguisher use. For more information, or to set up a training session, please contact me at 800-343-

7527, ext 291 or email me at NYCAMH, a program of Bassett Healthcare Network, is enhancing agricultural and rural health by preventing and treating occupational injury.

Do you sell wholesale? Do you sell to commercial horticulture? Do you want free advertising?

The 2012 Country Folks Grower Buyers Guide will reach businesses active in these industries: Greenhouse Garden Center

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2012 Buyers Guide

The October 2012 issue of Country Folks Grower will feature a buyer’s guide section. This form must be completed and returned by 8/31/12. Questions? Call Dan Wren at 800-218-5586, ext 117. Fill out form and fax back to 518-673-2381. FREE BASIC LISTING Includes: Company Name City, State, Zip Phone Number (2) Categories Maximum

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 Manufacturer  Distributor  Grower  Other Run your ad for added emphasis on your equipment and service! Display ads can run in black & white, spot color or 4-color process. Call your Sales Rep or Dan Wren at 800-218-5586 ext 117, or e-mail Ad deadline is 9/23/12.  Agtourism-Agritainment  Alternative Energy  Apparel/Promotional Items  Associations  Auctions  Barns and buildings  Berries  Carts and wagons  Christmas items, other  Christmas trees  Education  Employment/Human Resources  Equipment-fruit & vegetable

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Hydroponics Hydroseeding Insurance Irrigation Landscape products Leasing Mulch plastic Mulch-landscape Native plants Nursery young plants Nursery stock-finished Nursery supplies Orchard supplies Organics Packaging

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fixtures run 70 percent cooler than HID lamps, reducing greenhouse cooling requirements. The LumiGrow Pro series is available in two models. Pro 325, with a typical energy consumption of 325 watts, is designed for commercial greenhouses and controlled environment agriculture, and will provide growers with 70 percent energy savings compared to a 1,000-watt HID light. For growers and scientists who require a higher PAR output, the Pro 650 typically uses 650 watts and reduces energy costs by 40 percent versus a 1,000-watt HID light. The LumiGrow Pro 650 doubles the red and blue photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) output of 1,000watt HID fixtures and the LumiGrow Pro 325 achieves parity with 1,000-watt HID lights. For more information or to order, call Growers Supply at 1-800-476-9715.

Page 17 - Section A • COUNTRY FOLKS GROWER • September 2012

Growers Supply introduces LumiGrow® Pro Series horticultural lights The most powerful LED horticultural lights

September 2012 • COUNTRY FOLKS GROWER • Section A - Page 18

Women often seen as faces of agriculture by Cyndie Sirekis Many women who work in a wide range of careers — everything from law and communications to education and sports — find it beneficial to join organizations that focus on professional development and that can help them advance in their chosen field. Women in agriculture are no different. Many are turning to Farm Bureau Women’s Leadership Programs for professional development opportunities. “A goal of the Farm Bureau Women’s Leadership Committee is to empower women to use their enthusiasm, dedication and talent to change perceptions about agriculture, family farms and ranches and the roles of women,” explained Terry Gilbert, chair of the committee and a farmer from Kentucky.

The WLC coordinates educational programs such as Food Check-Out Week in addition to offering leadership development programs open to all Farm Bureau women. Women’s Communications Boot Camp, which has been held annually each summer since 2007, is one opportunity Farm Bureau provides for women in agriculture from across the country to improve their skills. All of those selected to participate share the same goal, to become better communicators. Public speaking, media training, effective use of social media and tips for seeking elected office are among the topics covered. An enthusiastic group of 15 women of varied ages involved in all types of farming from around the nation recently participated in two and a half days of intensive training.

“Again this year, a group of strangers come together, bonded through sharing intense training exercises and left a few days later with new contacts — friends — that will last a lifetime,” Gilbert said. “It’s encouraging to hear how Boot Camp graduates plan to use their new skills in their communities.” Clearly, opportunities abound for women involved in agriculture today. Many of those opportunities center around helping people understand where food comes from and how it is grown or produced on family farms and ranches. It seems likely that we’ll be hearing more from women about food and farming down the road. A recently concluded national study of 70 land-grant universities found that undergraduate women enrolled in agriculture programs

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outnumber undergraduate men by more than 2,900 students. The Food and Agricultural Education Information System studied trends related to gender among undergraduate students enrolled in 14 agriculture academic areas at land-grant institutions between 2004 and 2011. The increase in undergraduate women studying agriculture is a rela-

FOCUS ON AGRICULTURE American Farm Bureau Federation tively new trend. As recently as 2004, men outnumbered women by more than 1,400 students. By 2008, the number of undergraduate women and undergraduate men enrolled in agriculture academic areas was about equal. This growth in undergraduate women studying agriculture tracks closely with an overall increase in women farm-

ers tracked by the Agriculture Department. The department’s most recent Census of Agriculture revealed that the number of women farm operators increased by 19 percent (to 1,008,943) between 2002 and 2007. Cyndie Sirekis is director of news services at the American Farm Bureau Federation.

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Using a universal pathway to whack at weeds by Dennis O’Brien A U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) scientist in Oxford, MS, is working toward developing new herbicides by focusing on a molecular pathway that not only controls weeds, but could have helped shape

our nation’s history. Franck Dayan, a plant physiologist with the USDA’s Agricultural Research Service (ARS) Natural Products Utilization Research Unit in Oxford, is an expert on a class of weed killers known as “PPO herbi-

cides,” which choke off the weed’s ability to make chlorophyll. Many weeds are developing resistance to glyphosate, the world’s most widely used herbicide, and alternatives are needed.

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ARS plant physiologist Franck Dayan and Mississippi State University graduate student Daniela Ribeiro are working on new herbicides that disrupt an enzyme pathway needed for weeds to make chlorophyll. Photo by Stephen Ausmus




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September 2012 • COUNTRY FOLKS GROWER • Section A - Page 20

Christie Administration announces assistance with organic certification costs TRENTON, NJ — In July the New Jersey Department of Agriculture announced a partnership with the federal government to reduce organic certification costs as part of the Christie Administration’s ongoing efforts to promote New Jerseygrown and marketed organic food products. The New Jersey De-

partment of Agriculture is participating in the USDA Organic Certification Cost Share Program. Each qualified producer and handler of organic products is eligible for a reimbursement of up to 75 percent of its costs of certification not to exceed $750. Certification costs include fees and charges levied by

Pathway from A19 ARS is USDA’s principal intramural scientific research agency, and the research supports the USDA priority of promoting international food security. Much of Dayan’s work focuses on ring-shaped pigment molecules known as porphyrins (pronounced POR-ferins) that “bind” or react with different metals and perform vital functions in both plants and animals. A key step in porphyrin synthesis is performed by an enzyme (protoporphyrinogen oxidase or PPO), and disrupting the PPO enzyme can cause problems in plants and animals. In humans, disruption is associated with a congenital disease known as porphyria, with symptoms that may include sensitivity to light, seizures, and other neuropsychiatric problems. In plants, PPO herbicides work by disrupting the enzyme’s production of porphyrins and inhibiting photosynthesis. PPO herbicides have been around for decades and are specifically designed so they will only disrupt PPO enzyme activity in plants and not in humans. Dayan recently published a report on the role PPO enzymes play in triggering resistance to PPO herbicides in waterhemp (Amaranthus tuberculatus), a common weed. He and his colleagues compared the molecular structure of PPO enzymes in resistant and susceptible water hemp. The results confirmed that deletion of a single amino acid, known as glycine 210, caused structural changes in the enzyme binding site that allows waterhemp to develop herbicide resistance. The work, published in the

journal Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, built on previous research showing waterhemp’s resistance capabilities. Understanding the resistance mechanisms should lead to better herbicides. In another report, Dayan described the diverse roles played by porphyrins and PPO enzymes as essential components of life on earth. The article in American Scientist notes that life couldn’t exist without them, and recounts how scholars have argued that a case of porphyria in King George III may have contributed to our nation’s struggle for independence. Read more about the research in the August 2012 issue of Agricultural Research magazine.

the certifying agent for certification activities. To qualify for reimbursement under this program, an organic handler or producer must have been inspected and certified or inspected and receiving continuation of certification during the period of

Oct. 1, 2011 and Sept. 30, 2012. Certification must be through a USDA-accredited certifying agent. In the event that demand exceeds the amount of funds allocated to New Jersey, applications will be processed on a first come, first

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served basis. In the case of multiple certifications, excluding renewal of certification, only one payment shall be made to the operation. Applications must be received by the New Jersey Department of Agriculture no later than Nov. 19, 2012. Applica-

tions and more information about the program are available online at e/grants/organiccostshare.html. Please contact Melissa Spakosky with any questions at 609-984-2225 or

MORRISONVILLE, NY – Grape grower and winemaker Richard Lamoy has received his third Northeast Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education (NESARE) grant in support of innovative coldhardy grape research at his Hid-In-Pines Vineyard, Morrisonville, NY. Lamoy is an entrepre-

neur who has converted his volunteerism with the Northern New York Agricultural Development Program-funded grape research trials at the Cornell University Willsboro Research Farm into his own successful vineyard and winery business. He established his vineyard in 2006. He received his first NE-

SARE grant to conduct grapevine training trials research at his 3-acre vineyard in 2009. “I am using techniques learned through the Northern New York Agricultural Development Program trials at Willsboro and sharing some I have developed to help strengthen Northern New York’s

grape and wine industry,” Lamoy says. “We are pleased to see that the Northern New York Agricultural Development Program seed money that started the cold-hardy grape trials at Willsboro has paid off in the entrepreneurial development of new research and practical onfarm results,” says

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NNYADP Co-Chair Joseph Giroux. “Richard Lamoy and the other farmers who pay attention to the research being conducted here and extrapolate what they need to enhance their own businesses are helping to grow this region’s agricultural industry. Richard’s work promises to benefit the entire Northern New York region,” Giroux adds. The results of Lamoy’s first trials showed the potential for sizable (4067 percent) improvement in grape yield and quality in a year 200 growing degree days (GDD) short of the NNY region’s usual 2400 GDD. “The early trial data indicated that matching the type of training system to the habit and vigor of specific varieties can indeed influence grape yield, quality and a higher return of farm in-

come,” Lamoy says. Lamoy is evaluating four types of training systems with two red and two white grape varieties with one each of a lower vigor and one each of a higher vigor vine growth habit. Lamoy’s technical advisors include Willsboro Farm Manager Michael Davis, and a cadre of Cornell University viticulture and enology specialists, including Cornell Cooperative Extension’s Northeast NY Commercial Fruit Program Specialist Kevin Iungerman. The results of Lamoy’s early research, along with data from the Willsboro Farm trials are online in the Horticulture section of the NNYADP website at The trials at the Willsboro Farm have also received support from the New York Farm Viability Institute.

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Page 21 - Section A • COUNTRY FOLKS GROWER • September 2012

Northern New York cold-hardy grape entrepreneur receives 3rd Sustainable Agriculture Grant

September 2012 • COUNTRY FOLKS GROWER • Section A - Page 22

Page 23 - Section A • COUNTRY FOLKS GROWER • September 2012


NEW YORK (cont)

NEW YORK (cont)



MOOERS, NY 12958









Route 371 • 585-534-5935

2507 Route 11 • 518-236-7110

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1101 US Rt. 2 West • 207-645-4934 or 800-287-4934

Rt. 283, Rheems Exit 717-367-1319 • 800-222-3373




COLUMBIA TRACTOR, INC. 841 Rt. 9H • 518-828-1781

TROY, NY 12180

LAMB & WEBSTER, INC. 4120 Rt. 98 • 585-535-7671 • 800-724-0139





638 Route 13 • 607-753-9656

5621 ST HWY 12 • 607-336-6816


RANDALL IMPLEMENTS 2991 ST HWY 5S • 518-853-4500

SALEM, NY 12865

SALEM FARM SUPPLY 5109 State Rt. 22 • 518-854-7424 or 800-999-3276




5040 Rt. 81 West • 518-966-4346


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1375 Rte. 20 • 518-284-2346 • 800-887-1872



745 Harry L Drive • 607-729-6161

LAMB & WEBSTER, INC. Rt. 219 & 39 • 716-592-4923

1175 Hoosick St. • 518-279-9709 • 800-888-3403 WATERLOO, NY 13165

EMPIRE TRACTOR 1437 Route 318 • 315-539-7000




AYER, MA 01432



Rt. 652, 348 Bethel School Rd. • 570-729-7117

4 Littleton Rd., Rt. 2A/110 • 978-772-6619







29 Goshen Rd. (Rte. 9) • 413-268-3620

22-26 Henry Ave. • 610-367-2169

22537 Murrock Circle • 315-788-1115

WHITE’S FARM SUPPLY, INC. CANASTOTA, NY • 315-697-2214 WATERVILLE • 315-841-4181 LOWVILLE • 315-376-0300


MESSICK’S FARM EQUIPMENT, INC. 7481 Lincoln Hwy. East/Rt. 30 717-367-1319 • 800-222-3373


ROCKBRIDGE FARMERS COOPERATIVE 645 Waddell Ave. • 540-463-7381 • 800-868-7336 STUARTS DRAFT, VA 24477




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September 2012 • COUNTRY FOLKS GROWER • Section A - Page 24

Section B

C H R I S TMA S S E CTI O N Keep Christmas Trees fresh and green all season long The smell of a freshly cut Christmas tree infuses a home with holiday spirit, and the beauty of a real tree still can't be matched by artificial trees. A new product called Christmas Vacation will keep a cut tree fresh and green throughout the holiday season with just one watering. Christmas Vacation is an all-natural plant anti-transpirant that will keep a Christmas tree fresh for up to three to four weeks. Just mix one 8-oz. bottle of Christmas Vacation with one gallon of water and pour the solution into the tree stand reservoir inside the Christmas tree stand. Cut the end of the tree and place the tree in the stand. Let the tree soak up the solution overnight, and there's no need to water again for up to four weeks. Christmas Vacation is biodegradable and contains no toxic chemicals. Christmas Vacation can also be used to keep poinsettias and other potted

plants from drying out. Just mix two capfuls of Christmas Vacation with a cup of water (or three ounces per gallon of water). Apply the solution as a watering to the entire pot until the soil is saturated. Poinsettias will then survive without water for up to two weeks. Christmas Vacation is the perfect point-of-sale product near Christmas trees and holiday plants. Let your customers know about Christmas Vacation Christmas Vacation keeps Christmas trees fresh and green all season long with just one application. Simply mix one 8-oz. bottle of Christmas Vacation with one gallon of water and pour the solution into the tree stand reservoir. All-natural Christmas Vacation is safe and non-toxic for people and pets. Christmas Vacation also works great on potted plants including poinsettias. Just mix with water and saturate the soil. Plants will then survive without water for up to two weeks.

Christmas Vacation will eliminate the need for watering fresh-cut Christmas trees for the brief holiday season or up to three weeks. Add the entire bottle of Christmas Vacation to one gallon of water. Mix thoroughly. Pour entire solution into the reservoir inside the Christmas tree stand. The tree will suck in the solution through the freshcut base. The tree should keep its needles and green color for up to three weeks. These directions are for freshcut Christmas trees with the assumption that the tree will be discarded after the holiday season. Christmas Vacation is safe, biodegradable and contains no polymers or other toxic chemicals. Christmas Vacation is classified as GRAS (Generally Regarded As Safe) and is safe for pets and children. For more information, contact Natural Industries at

Page 1 - Section B • COUNTRY FOLKS GROWER • September 2012

Country Folks

September 2012 • COUNTRY FOLKS GROWER • Section B - Page 2

Christmas tree pests by Katie Navarra Pests that attack Christmas tree crops are more aggressive in some years in comparison with others. In large part, the insect’s life cycle is controlled by the weather. “Spider mites like hot

years,” explained Brian Eshenaur, with the New York State Integrated Pest Management group. “I would expect to see more but where I have been this year, I have not seen them,” he said. “However, I have seen

more White Pine Weevil than usual this year.” The increase in White Pine Weevil this year may be attributable to the mild 2011-2012 winter, Eshenaur surmised. Typically, the White Pine Weevil affects less than 10 percent of an entire planting. “It does not affect the entire planting, so even if the grower does nothing it only affects a portion of the planting, but that could make the difference in profitability,” he said.

The White Pine Weevil attacks White Pine, Colorado Blue, Norway, White and Serbian Spruces, Red and Austrian Pines, and it can attack Douglas Fir trees. The damage caused by the White Pine Weevil is noticeable. Adult White Pine Weevils lay eggs at the bud of a tree’s terminal leader. As the eggs hatch, the larvae burrow below the bark and feed on the vascular tissue. “The new shoot is able to grow for a while and

then it will wilt and turn brown,” he explained. The symptoms are not typically noticed until mid-May, but they are dramatic. The leader will turn brown and become crooked often resembling a “Shepherd’s crook.” Pruning the infested leader is one method of controlling the pest. Adult weevils typically exit the tree in June. When an affected leader is pruned out prior to June potential damage can be avoided and the

population can be controlled. Bagging or burning the pruned pieces further aids in population control. Natural, beneficial insects can also help, but do not provide full control. “The beneficial insects live under the bark too and feed on the weevil larvae,” Eshenaur said. The population of beneficial insects cycles up and down as the weevil population swells

Pests B4

Powers Tree Farm has always made wreaths for tree customers and their own retail lots. But in the past few years, Powers Tree Farm has really grown in the wreath business. Now we have cold storage warehouses where we store and ship large quantities of wreaths. Wreaths are made in a variety of sizes from 6” rings to 60” rings. Offering both plain or mixed using Fraser, White Pine or Boxwood greenery. Also wreaths with cones and candle wreaths.

White Pine Weevils infesting the leader on this Spruce tree went undetected until visible signs, including browning of the leader and a crooked, drooping shape, were noticeable. Photo by Brian Eshenaur

Specializing in Fraser Fir (Abies fraseri) trees known for great needle retention and great scent. The Fraser is one of the most popular trees on the market. Trees being harvested range from table tops to 14’ + trees. All are individual sized and graded so you get what you pay for.

Powers Tree Farm also offers Roping (garland) in a variety of sizes and mixes. We make Fraser Fir, White Pine and Boxwood roping mixed or straight. Roping comes in 20’ and 75’ lengths. Roping is made fresh then stored in cold storage to preserve freshness. Roping and wreaths when delivered will be as fresh as when we make it.

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Keep the Spirit Alive Christmas Tree growers have been donating trees to military families for years. In 2005, FedEx heard about the efforts and wanted to know how they could become involved — and Trees for Troops, a program of the Christmas SPIRIT Foundation (CSF), was born. The Trees for Troops program has helped to bring the Christmas spirit to U.S. military families across the nation, delivering more than 100,000 Real Christmas Trees since 2005. In 2011, Trees for Troops, with the help of partner FedEx, delivered more than 19,000 Christmas Trees to 65 military bases across the U.S. and overseas. The Trees that are donated to the program come from more than 800 tree farms in more than 29 states across the country. This program is a win-win for all. Many Christmas tree growers are from military backgrounds or have children or relatives in the armed forces. They believe a real Christmas tree is an integral part of a family’s holiday traditions. The military families that receive the trees often have loved ones over-

seas or may have just returned themselves and may not have the time, money or resources to purchase and decorate a tree. They are truly appreciative of a gift that reminds them of home and their family. FedEx, who has donated more than 290,000 miles to this program plus tons of man hours, loves being associated with something so meaningful. In April 2012, Trees for Troops was named one of 20 finalists out of 300 submissions in the Joining Forces Community Challenge. The Challenge, launched by First Lady Michelle Obama and Dr. Jill Biden in 2011, is designed to recognize organizations and individuals with a demonstrated, genuine and deep desire to be of service to military families. Two representatives from the Christmas SPIRIT Foundation, Nigel Manley, chair of the Foundation and Amy Mills, assistant director for CSF, participated in a reception at the Pentagon, attended a “meet and greet” with Mrs. Obama and Dr. Biden at the White House and

Spirit B4

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Page 3 - Section B • COUNTRY FOLKS GROWER • September 2012


September 2012 • COUNTRY FOLKS GROWER • Section B - Page 4

Pests from B2


and subsides. “(Beneficial insects) are not enough to rely on, but it is nice to know there is an ally out there helping,” he added. Chemical applications are another option for control, but to be effective, they must be applied early. “The White Pine Weevil is the earli-

est pest that growers look for. It emerges in March or April, depending on the heat,” he explained, “this year it was very early.” The pesticides used to control the White Pine Weevil only need to be applied directly to the affected portion of the tree. “It doesn’t require a lot of

pesticide, but a grower does need the equipment to spray directly onto the leader,” Eshenaur said. White Pine Weevils tend to come from hedges and surrounding plants. “These tend to be on the edge, near hedgerows,” he added. If weevils are found, this is the area to concentrate

Spirit from B3

on spraying for next year. At this late date in the growing season, the most important method is to examine the trees and identify any “hot spots.” Infected leaders should be pruned out. The grower may elect a new leader and tie it up so that the tree continues to grow in a shape that is desirable to customers. “If nothing is done, the tree will self-

select a new leader,” Eshenaur said. The New York State Integrated Pest Management, sponsored by Cornell University Extension, provides detailed information for Christmas Tree growers. An Inte-

grated Pest Management Field Guide for Christmas Trees: Douglas Fir, True Firs and Spruce is available on the website /publications/field_guide _xmas_trees/field_guide_ xmas_trees.asp

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The National Christmas Tree Association (NCTA) recently awarded the Outstanding Service Award to Dennis Tompkins during the association’s Annual Convention & Trade Show. Tompkins, who hails from Bonney Lake, WA, was presented with the award at the Closing Banquet held Aug. 10 in Sacramento, CA. First created in 2002, the Outstanding Service Award is given to an individual who has made an outstanding contribution to the Real Christmas Tree industry over the course of many years, and is one of the highest honors that NCTA bestows upon individuals. “Dennis has touched many lives in the Christmas Tree industry,” said Bob

Schaefer, a grower from Oregon who presented the award to Tompkins. “Working with many Christmas tree growers over the years, he has been an instructor at various tree root disease workshops as well as a valued member of the Pacific Northwest Christmas Tree Association for more than 35 years. I’m confident in saying that many growers are better at their business because of working with Dennis.” In addition to his many years in the Christmas Tree business, Tompkins is a Certified Arborist, urban forester and Washington State University Master Gardener. He has been certified by the International Society of Aboriculture (ISA) and received the

2007 "Arborist of the Year" award from the Pacific Northwest Chapter of the ISA. He served as editor of the Christmas Tree Lookout magazine, published by the Pacific Northwest Christmas Tree Association from

1985 through 1990, when he then took over the job as editor of the NCTA’s American Christmas Tree Journal through 2008. He is a nationally known speaker and spokesman for the Christmas Tree industry.

Shaping Fraser Fir Christmas Trees by Jeffrey H. Owen, NCSU Area Forestry Extension Specialist, Christmas Trees The beautiful shape and texture of a Fraser fir Christmas tree depends on careful pruning and shearing. The way a grower sets the leader, trims the sides, and corrects problems in a tree will determine its quality. Other cultural practices that go into producing a Fraser fir strive to add or improve foliage. Shearing removes it. Done properly, shearing accentuates the character of a well-grown tree. Done poorly, shearing strips away much of the potential the tree might have had. Christmas Tree Attributes Influenced by Shearing The need to sort through tree-totree differences during shearing can overwhelm an inexperienced worker. Decisions become easier if a few attributes of Christmas trees and principles related to tree growth are kept in mind. Really, the objective of each pruning and shearing practice is to optimize the following Christmas tree attributes: A Conical Shape: The structure of a Christmas tree consists of whorls of branches radiating out from a straight

central stem to form a cone shape. As you move from top to bottom, each major whorl of braches is one year older and one flush of growth longer. The stem or trunk should be straight with no forks or double tops. The taper (cone shape) of the tree should be consistent from side to side and not change in angle from top to bottom. Viewed from above, a Christmas tree appear circular. Pruning and shearing should move a Christmas tree to a more uniform cone shape. Natural Branching: Major branches should naturally radiate out from the main stem, not veer off from another branch. Strong vertical branches (horns) or strong diagonal branches (crossovers) create problems such as multiple tops and disorderly branches that need to be pruned out. If close to the top of the tree, they can sap strength from the natural leader of the tree. Horns and crossover branches will shade any “natural” branches behind them that radiate out from the main stem. This suppresses the desirable growth in favor of problem growth. Horns and crossovers can twist or

Shaping B6

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Page 5 - Section B • COUNTRY FOLKS GROWER • September 2012

Dennis Tompkins receives Outstanding Service Award

September 2012 • COUNTRY FOLKS GROWER • Section B - Page 6

Shaping from B5


break during harvest and handling and degrade tree quality. The only reason to leave horns and crossovers in the tree is to fill a major hole or gap within a year or two of harvest. Plant Growth Regulation: Buds in Christmas trees release hormones or plant growth regulators (PGR’s) that control how the tree grows. Terminal buds release PGR’s into the sap that suppress any buds lower on the tree or closer to the main stem on branches. These PGR’s balance the dominance of the leader with suppression of branches on the tree to produce a natural cone shape. The dominance of branches on the tree changes in response to the loss of buds either from natural injuries such as hail or spring freezes or to manmade injuries like shearing. Removal of dominant terminal buds re-

lease remaining buds for added growth. Top Dominance: The highest bud on a Fraser fir tree and the buds at the tips of branches are dominant over those below or behind them as just described in the discussion of PGR’s. The shoots that develop from those terminal buds will be more robust. The dominant buds on the leader of the tree are oriented to grow vertically. Almost all buds below those terminal buds are oriented to grow horizontally as branches. If the natural terminal bud cluster or crown (usually a terminal bud with 3 to 5 lateral buds) is removed, the highest buds on the remaining terminal will become dominant with vertical orientation. These buds are most likely to produce a true top next season. Turned-Up Branches: When trees lose terminal dominance early

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in the growing season, lateral branches can change orientation to grow vertically in the same season. This can affect one or two branches or the majority of shoots on last year’s leader. It can also involve terminal shoots on branches lower down on the tree. With a need for only one leader, most turned-up branches have to be pruned back or removed. Usually tipping strong lateral branches

is enough to reduce their dominance and thus their vertical growth response. Delaying topping until later in August is another way to reduce the incidence of turned up branches next year. Competition: When a tree produces several vertical shoots, dominance will be divided among them with no shoot growing as strongly as it would alone. Competition occurs among buds at the

same level on the terminal, among multiple tops in a tree, and even between the terminal of a tree and lateral branches. You can increase bud dominance by maintaining a slight height advantage over competing buds (at least two finger widths). Leader dominance can be maintained by removing all competing vertical shoots. Dominance of the top over strong lateral branches can be increased by se-

lecting longer leader lengths and/or by tipping or removing the lateral branches. Traditionally, growers have maintained a 2-to-1 ratio in the lengths of tops to the first whorl of lateral branches. Density: Added branch density is a primary benefit of moderate pruning and shearing. When dominant terminal branches are removed, side and interior branch-

Shaping B11

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Buffalo Valley Produce completes building expansion

September 2012 • COUNTRY FOLKS GROWER • Section B - Page 8

2012 National Christmas Tree Association Convention and Trade Show held Aug 8-10 in Sacramento, CA The California Christmas Tree Association was busy giving helpful information to attendees. Photos by Joan Kark-Wren

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Page 9 - Section B • COUNTRY FOLKS GROWER • September 2012

National Wreath Contest ~ Decorated Catagory

September 2012 • COUNTRY FOLKS GROWER • Section B - Page 10

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es are released from hormonal suppression, exposed to more light, and allowed to grow larger. These branches help to fill the spaces and gaps between existing branches. Density is a function of budset as controlled by genetics, optimum nutrition, and years in the field. When growers shear “tight”, they sacrifice height to increase density and also add a year or two to their rotation length. Stages of Bud Development: True fir buds go through three stages

of development in the year before they become branches: • The bud initiation phase occurs before bud-break when undifferentiated growing points develop at the base of needles on the tiny shoot inside the mature bud. This occurs in early spring when buds start to swell. • The bud scale formation phase occurs in May, June, and early July when bud scales develop around the growing point. This is when buds become visi-

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ble to the eye. • The shoot development phase occurs from mid-summer to early fall when the growing point develops into a miniature shoot inside the bud scales. Each phase occurs in its proper season. No buds catch up from one phase to the next. When buds appear after shearing in mid summer, visible bud scales are being added to an existing bud initial. While buds may grow larger during winter and early spring, no additional needles are added to the shoot inside the bud after early fall. For a bud to fully develop it must have achieved sufficient growth in each phase. How to Shear When shearing a Christmas tree, attention should first be given to selecting and cutting the leader. This is done best with hand clippers. Next, the first whorl of lateral branches is pruned to set the taper of the tree. Usually the cone, defined by the height of the leader and the width of these lateral branches, provides the taper for the entire tree. The sides of the tree can then be sheared with a knife following the line of taper already established in the top. Corrective pruning may occur at the same time or later by an expert crew.

Working the Leaders: There are several factors involved in setting the top of a Fraser fir Christmas tree. Choosing best leader from several competing vertical branches will provide the straightest leader and most uniform branching next year. The natural or cut length of the leader will determine the taper and density of the tree and influence the number of years until harvest. Terminal bud selection will determine the straightness and vigor of next year’s leader. And remember, all these developments are driven by changes in the balance of plant growth regulators (PGR’s) as determined by bud and shoot position on the tree. Selecting a True Leader: When a shoot emerges from the natural terminal bud of a Fraser fir, it is usually straight with needles and buds growing in all directions around its circumference. When a lateral bud turns up to make a leader, it often has a crook at the base and may not fully straighten. In cross-section, it is shaped like a branch with more needles and buds on the top and sides than on the bottom. Generally, the backside of a turned-up branch -- facing away from the center of the tree -- will have fewer

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buds especially toward the base. Turned-up branches can produce leaders that behave like branches for two or more years. Such trees often have to be culled due to a very open side and a crooked stem. When a tree has been topped previously, there may be 2 to 5 vertical shoots to choose your leader from. Distinguish between the “true leaders” and the “branches.” Select the leader that is most circular in crosssection, has the best budset, and has buds furthest down on the backside. Once these criteria are met, pick the true leader that is most vertical and most vigorous. On a tree with normal growth, straightness and vigor are not as important as budset and branch type. Leader straightness and vigor will develop in response to removal of competition – budset and branch type will not. Also, look for the best leader regardless of its position in the top – sometimes a sacrifice of several inches in height is worth the selection of a true leader. Leader Length: Growers have selected leader lengths on their Fraser fir Christmas trees from as little as 8 to as much as 24 inches. If there were an average rule of thumb for leader height, it would fall in the range of 12 inches. Some growers shear all size classes to about 1 foot. Others try to maximize their height growth while maintaining a target density. If trees have good budset, their leaders can be left longer. Perhaps more importantly, longer leaders will have stronger dominance and have fewer





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problems with horns, turned up branches, or the loss of vigor to a side branch. These problems are more likely to occur when leaders are cut to less than 12 inches long. The length of leader you can leave is largely dependent on its budset. Trees with heavy budset will fill in even when leaders are long. Trees with poor budset will take longer to fill in the gaps. Trees with poor budset may need to stay in the field an additional year or two. Cutting their leaders back to 10 -12 inches will hold them back and allow more branching to develop in the additional time. Cutting the Leader: Avoid cutting the natural bud as far into the rotation as possible. It is the most dominant bud on the tree and is most likely to produce a straight leader. Many growers wait until the tree is close to breastheight or about four and a half feet tall before cutting the terminal bud. However, by the fourth year in the field, leaders can grow as much as 36 inches and need to be cut back to the target length (as determined by market goals and budset). Usually, once a tree becomes vigorous enough to be topped, it will be necessary every year thereafter. However, when older trees have short leaders, do not automatically cut the terminal bud off. As with younger trees, the natural terminal bud will maintain hormonal dominance of the leader over lateral branches and horns. Some growers begin cutting the leader on two-year -old trees based upon a 12 inch rule-of-thumb. Not only are trees kept short, but additional corrective pruning is often necessary. Once the natural terminal bud is removed from the tree, other buds are released from its inhibiting PGR’s. This allows formation of multiple leaders and horns. If the natural bud can be kept on the tree for an additional year or two, the need for corrective pruning can be delayed as well.

Shaping B12

Page 11 - Section B • COUNTRY FOLKS GROWER • September 2012

Shaping from B6

September 2012 • COUNTRY FOLKS GROWER • Section B - Page 12

Shaping from B11 Terminal Bud Selection: A number of different theories have been applied to selecting the right bud to make next year’s leader. Research has supported some and disproved others. Bud size can be important after August, but may not be significant in the summer. Bud type may not be important. Some theories apply only to trees with certain leader problems and relate to the position of a bud rather than the type of bud. The truth is – no single rule can apply all the time. The following points blend research with practicality: 1. To get a strong leader, select a single bud with a slight height advantage (1 or 2 fingers) over any neighboring buds. 2. Leave 1/4 to 1/2 inch of stem above the selected bud using an

angled cut. Do not cut lower through the center of the shoot than the top of the selected bud. The cut should be highest directly above the selected bud and angle down toward the opposite side of the leader. As the wound heals and dries, the bud will be pulled to a more vertical orientation. 3. In the summer, isolating the selected bud with a height advantage (see # 1 above) is more important than either the bud size or type of bud. 4. In the fall, select large or prolapsed buds over any small bud that may be present at the right height. Late in the season, small buds cannot hormonally dominate larger buds nearby on the terminal. Large buds will produce a stronger leader next season. 5. Where leaders are crooked, pick a bud that

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faces the centerline of the tree. Next year, any crook to the leader will counterbalance this year’s off-center growth. Leader to Lateral Branch Ratio: The imaginary line between the tips of the cut leader and cut lateral branches sets the taper of the tree. The line begun there should continue smoothly down the side angle of the tree to form the taper of the tree. The choice in leader-to-lateral-branch ratio can have several consequences for next year’s growth. To insure that the terminal of the tree remains dominant next year, a careful balance must be maintained between the length of the cut leader and the top whorl of later-

al branches. Traditionally, growers have used the “half-length rule” in which the laterals are maintained at one half the length of the terminal. An 18-inch leader would be matched with 9-inch laterals branches. A 12inch leader would be matched with 6-inch lateral branches. Growers have adjusted the rule to their own tree style and field conditions (laterals are half length plus an inch, or laterals are half length minus an inch). When lateral branches are left too long in relation to a cut leader, the vigor can shift from the terminal to the branches in the following year. Long lateral branches contain more buds that produce more plant

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growth regulators. Collectively the branches out-compete the terminal shoot. Long laterals can also lead to a misshapened tree with long branches outside the taper of the tree. Growers often refer to heavy branching just below the terminal as “big shoulders.” If laterals are left too long repeatedly, the tree can become a “smokestack” with nearly vertical sides. Short lateral branches can also create dominance problems for a cut leader. Short branches have few buds. Those buds at the base of lateral branches that remain after a tight shearing often are positioned to grow vertically. Cut

short, an increased number of horns can be expected. Where only one or two buds were left the previous year, both shoots often become horns that have to be removed, leaving the tree with a net loss in branching. The best solution is to leave the lateral branches longer (and possibly the leader as well). With lateral branches of at least 5 or 6 inches, growth is divided among 4 to 8 buds yielding more natural branching. With plant growth regulators divided among many buds, the vertical shoot that could become a horn merely develops into a 3-

Shaping B13

inch shoot with small buds that adds density to the tree without competing for dominance. Cutting Lateral Branches: To cut the lateral branches at the right length in relation to the leader, growers often bend the laterals up to the leader and prune them at one-half the length of the desired leader length (or modified rule). Some growers give their crew sticks that have color-coded marks for each combination of leader-to-lateral-

branch length. Once the eye is calibrated, these aids become an occasional tool. It is better to be over-prepared with a seldom-used tool than to find a field of trees already sheared to 4-inch lateral branches that promise a crop of horns the following year. If you are leaving long leaders with natural buds intact, do not automatically cut your lateral branches. Under a long leader, lateral branch length will often remain inside or close to the ta-

per of the tree. If cut, that whorl of branches will not keep pace with the rest of the tree next year, and leave an indentation in shape. The tradition of always tipping lateral branches applies to any trees with cut leaders and therefore impaired dominance. Unless injured, uncut leaders will maintain vigorous dominance over the rest of the tree. In this case, terminal buds on the lateral branches pose no threat and actually provide an opportunity for more branching. Working the Sides: Shearing the sides of your Fraser fir Christmas tree began with pruning the leader and lateral branches. As stated above, the line between the leader and the ends of the lateral branches should set the taper for the rest of the tree. Generally, any growth outside the taper is cut and any within it is left. The tree should approximate a cone when finished. The slope

of the cut line should be consistent from top to bottom as well as around the tree. The USDA grade standards accept taper between 40 and 100 percent. With such a range of acceptable taper, it can be adjusted to the interests of the buyer. Fraser fir growers traditionally grew very wide, dense trees, but more buyers demand a narrow taper tree than in the past. Narrow trees fit into customers’ crowded living rooms, more fit on a tractor trailer, and generally weigh less than a wide tree. But if you have a market for wide trees, plant them with plenty of room in the field and shear accordingly. Ideal side-shearing should remove terminal buds on the strongest lateral branches and little more. There should still be plenty of lateral buds left on cut branches. There should also be plenty of interior branches that are not cut at all. If growth is cut too short,

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the remaining bud or two at the base of cut branches will become a source of horns and cross-over branches that eventually need to be removed. Yet, the worst symptom of tight shearing are “cats eyes” where shoots on the end of a branch are cut so short that no buds are left to hide the cut for next year or two. Using A Knife To Shear: Some growers shear the sides of their Christmas trees with 16 inch long knives. Other growers may use twohandled hedge shears or power weed eaters with a special cutting blade and head. A knife cuts clean, but those using knives often over-shear. When using the knife, it is important to swing with the whole arm to get a straight cut from top laterals to bottom branches. The knife arm must be moving away from the side of the body to maintain the line of the taper as the worker leans into the cut. If a worker shears toward himself, the taper of the bottom of the tree will usually become vertical and break from the taper at the top of the tree. Good knife work involves many narrow cuts that leave the tree round in circumference with no noticeable flat cut faces. Excessive shearing on the sides creates "flat"


Shaping B14

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areas with few residual buds on the remaining branch stubs. Nor should there be any “wild hairs” left between knife cuts or at the bottom of the tree. It is tempting to use a knife to do the topwork as well as shearing the sides. It may be faster to just use the knife, but any precision is lost. Clippers provide the best control to carefully select buds. With clippers in hand, more attention can also be given to corrective pruning. Alternative Pruning Techniques There are a number of practices that have been developed to manage the growth of Christmas trees but are not used extensively. They have been included here as both a reminder and as an option. Bud rolling: European Nordmann fir Christmas tree growers have rolled buds after bud break in the spring as a way to prune dominant lateral branches that would grow outside of the desired taper of the tree. The swelling bud or small shoot is twisted from the tree by hand in May or early June. This has been used to remove lateral buds from the crown as well as terminal buds on lateral branches. A surprisingly

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Page 13 - Section B • COUNTRY FOLKS GROWER • September 2012

Shaping from B12

September 2012 • COUNTRY FOLKS GROWER • Section B - Page 14

Shearing terminology Shearing: The term includes cutting the leader, selecting a new terminal bud, setting the taper of the tree, trimming side branches, and removing problematic growth. Taper: The angle of the side of a Christmas tree. Usually given as a percentage (width / height X 100 = %) Leader: The vertical branch at the top of the tree selected to be the central stem. Also referred to as a terminal. Lateral branches: The side branches of a tree, specifically the first whorl of branches

below the terminal. Horn: A leader or vertical branch growing vigorously from a branch rather than the main stem; often able to compete hormonally with the leader of the tree. Crossovers: Strong diagonal branches that grow perpendicularly to normal branch growth. Whorls: A ring of buds on a terminal or the layer of branches that result when the buds grow. Whorls often occur at the end of the terminal from the natural crown of buds.

Prolapsed buds: Buds on the current season’s leader that undergo a second flush to form a short branch of one to three inches. Whiskery buds: Buds on the current season’s leader that develop a cluster of needles around their base. Sessile buds: Buds on the current season’s leader that remain flush against the main stem and have no surrounding needles. Cat’s eyes: The cluster of branch stubs that remain at a branch junction

fork pruning to groom individual trees for competitions. Top-stop nipper: A European Christmas tree grower, Lars Giel, developed a set of girdling clippers to stunt the terminals of Nordmann fir. Four thin blades gently crush alternating halves of the circumference of the bark on last year’s terminal. This stunts growth without sacrificing any buds. While it does work on Fraser fir,

the heights of resulting leaders have been quite variable. Chemical growth suppression: Growers have experimented with different plant growth regulators over the years with the goal of inhibiting excessive terminal growth. Europeans have successfully used multiple applications of NAA on Nordmann fir. As with the Top-stop nipper, the height response of Fraser fir in studies has been

Shaping from B13 few buds need to be rolled to maintain a conical shape. Fork pruning: Growers selectively remove the entire terminal shoot from a branch. On Fraser fir, there is usually a weak secondary terminal shoot underneath the one removed to provide a natural if less vigorous appearance. This can be done to single branches, a strong whorl of branches, or the entire tree. Growers have used

too variable for wide scale use thus far. This article is an excerpt from Shaping Fraser Fir Christmas Trees, to view the article in its entirety visit Source: North Carolina State University Cooperative Extension

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Acct. # Signature ___________________ Date _____________ Please fill out the optional questionnaire below. All information is confidential. A. Do you grow vegetables? Acres:  1-3  3-10  Over 10  Beets  Onions  Tomatoes  Broccoli  Cabbage  Celery  Cauliflower  Pumpkins  Beans  Potatoes  Sweet Corn  Cucumbers B. Do you grow fruit? Acres:  1-3  3-10  Over 10  Grapes  Cherries  Strawberries  Peaches  Apples  Pears  Cranberries  Blueberries  Melons  Brambles C. Do you operate a greenhouse? Sq. Ft.  Up to 5,000  5-10,000  over 10,000  Bedding Plants  Vegetables  Foliage Plants  Cut Flowers  Potted Flower Plants  Other D. Do you operate a nursery? Acres  1-3  3-10  Over 10  Wholesale  Retail  Christmas Trees  Shade Trees  Fruit Trees  Mums  Shrubs  Perennials  Herbs, Drieds, Cuts E. Other Crops F. Is there any aspect of horticulture that you would like to see more of in Country Folks Grower?

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September 2012 • COUNTRY FOLKS GROWER • Section B - Page 16

Section C

ORGANICS/SUSTAINABLE AG Sustainability drives progress at Shenandoah Growers by Karl H. Kazaks HARRISONBURG, VA — In the past four years, Shenandoah Growers has doubled the size of its business. Prior to 2008, Shenandoah Growers was a major provider of fresh cut organic herbs to supermarkets in the eastern United States. That market, said President and CEO Timothy Heydon, “is quite competitive. We were looking for ways to distinguish the company in the marketplace.” There was an unfilled void in the mar-

ket, they realized - living organic herbs. “No one was doing it on a scale to reach significant numbers of supermarket distribution centers,” Heydon says. So Shenandoah Greenhouse built a greenhouse, and in the summer of 2008 started selling living organic herbs alongside fresh-cut organic herbs as retail items for the supermarket produce sections. “We provide to the consumer a complete product line of fresh herbs all

Shenandoah C4

Page 1 - Section C • COUNTRY FOLKS GROWER • September 2012

Country Folks

September 2012 • COUNTRY FOLKS GROWER • Section C - Page 2

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BioSafe Systems introduces TerraClean® 5.0. The new enhanced labeling provides a new active ingredient statement as well as use labeling instructions. TerraClean 5.0 controls a wide variety of soil borne diseases, such as botrytis, pythium, phytophthora, rhizoctonia and verticillium, which can be used for both horticultural and agricultural applications. TerraClean 5.0 is highly effective as a drip line treatment and may be used at any stage of plant growth. It stimulates stronger root growth and efficient nutrient uptake. New labeling allows for preplant soil treatments for consecutive cropping applications, and soil treatments prior to seeding and planting at the curative rate. TerraClean 5.0 is available in 5, 30, 55, and 275 gallon sizes. For more information about TerraClean 5.0, contact BioSafe Systems at 888-273-3088.

Fruit producers find inspiration at Organic Growers School by Tina L. LaVallee Long considered one of the largest and most insightful gatherings of its kind, the Organic Growers School drew nearly 2000 participants from 18 states and Canada earlier this year. Many were repeat attendees who mark their calendars each year to mingle with other growers and broaden their knowledge. Innovation infused with inspira-

tion through a series of 75 region-appropriate workshops designed with all levels of growers in mind. The success of the Organic Growers School reflects the increasing importance of Western North Carolina in regional organic fruit production. The demise of tobacco as the principal state

School C7

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BioSafe Systems announces new and improved TerraClean 5.0 Bactericide/Fungicide

September 2012 • COUNTRY FOLKS GROWER • Section C - Page 4

Shenandoah from C1 the way from 1/4 oz recipe size fresh-cut up to the more standard 3/4 oz size, as well as two and four ounce sizes. Combine that with the living organic, and the retailer has a full fresh herb program to offer the consumer.” Today, Shenandoah Growers has some 200,000 feet of greenhouse space devoted to production of organic live herbs, serves some 3,500 grocery stores, and ships about 180,000 live plants per week. All of that they accomplished with a commitment to sustainability. “We’re absolutely determined to be as sustainable as we possibly can,” Heydon said. Shenandoah Growers’ live herb production

utilizes its own proprietary growing system, developed after consultation with the world’s best growers and designed by the company’s grow team, led by Vice President of Agriculture Bob Hoffman. “The growing system we use is based upon the principles of sustainability,” Heydon said. “For example, we collect all of the rainwater on our roof surface and use it to irrigate the greenhouse. It’s a closed loop system so once we collect that rainwater and use it to irrigate, it recycles in the system. We only have to refill what the plants uptake and what we lose to evaporation. So it’s an extremely efficient use of water.” What’s more, all of the

nitrogen in the system is recycled as well. There is no runoff from the greenhouse. Because production is under glass, the amount of land needed is also reduced. They can grow under five acres of glass what would take 50 to 100 acres outdoors, Heydon estimated. What’s more, the greenhouse can produce year-round. “If you were to do this outdoors you would need farms set up in different regions to match the growing seasons,” Heydon said. “That enables us as part of the principles of sustainability to reduce food miles.” Year-round production not only helps promote Shenandoah Growers’ goal of sustainability,

Shenandoah Growers’ Director of Marketing Sarah Yoder in the company’s five-acre greenhouse. The company ships about 180,000 live organic herb plants per week.

but also permits them to serve the market consistently. “Consumers,” Heydon said, “can have a

fresh kitchen garden of herbs year-round. After building the initial greenhouse in 2008, Shenandoah Growers expanded, in early 2011 doubling the size of its greenhouse to its current level. Future growth of the live plant line - whether it be an expansion of the

company’s home Harrisonburg complex, or development in a different part of the country - will be timed to match the needs of the market. And there is a market for live herb plants. With a live plant, consumers

Shenandoah C5


Shenandoah Growers employee Renand Torres with a cart full of mature live basil plants, ready to be shipped to market. Sanitation is a key part of Shenandoah Growers’ success. All growing troughs and nursery trays are steamsanitized.

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Shenandoah from C4 “A major mission of ours is to keep everything as local as we can,” Heydon said, “using suitable byproducts in our growing inputs whenever possible.” So Shenandoah Growers makes fertilizer from locally produced green plant waste. Next year, if all goes as planned, the company will use a biomass furnace - feed largely from tree trimmings collected from power line maintenance - for heating. (Currently the greenhouse is heated with propane). When it comes to pest and disease control, Shenandoah Growers has an IPM program which uses biologicals such as nematodes and beneficial insects such as ladybugs and Hypoaspis

miles. There is also mechanical control for the greenhouse growing lines. A trolley with a large number of rubber flaps dangling from it slowly passes over each growing line. As the flaps pass over the plants, disturbing them, insects are jostled and rise up into yellow tape placed above each flap. Currently Shenandoah Growers supplies supermarkets from Florida to Pennsylvania and west to Louisiana and Wisconsin. “We’re starting to get into New England,” said Director of Marketing Sarah Yoder. The company supplies about 25 different supermarket chains. The company has a packing facility near the Miami airport, and a farm in

Live Oak, FL. All of the live plant production is done at headquarters in Virginia. In addition its own field production, Shenandoah Growers has partner growers. “When we’re off-season,” Heydon said, “we go to different regions.” They do have a local grower’s program, partnering with about eight farm families in Rockingham County. “It’s a nice ancillary income for a family farm,” Heydon said. “In a small way, we like to think we’re helping small farms survive.” Shenandoah Growers produces mint and rosemary by rooting live cuttings from mother plants. All of its other production - and it produces about two

Shenandoah C7

Page 5 - Section C • COUNTRY FOLKS GROWER • September 2012

get a product that, Heydon said, “is as fresh as its gets. It’s alive. You can put it on your kitchen countertop, snip it when you need it, make a recipe, then a few days later make another one. People like to have a live plant.” Half of the live herb production at Shenandoah Growers is basil. But the company also sells living thyme, mint, rosemary, chives (seasonally), cilantro, dill, Italian parsley, oregano, and sage (seasonally, near the holidays). In addition to taking a sustainable approach to managing the growing system in the greenhouse, Shenandoah Growers also strives to be sustainable in sourcing inputs. For example, the company mixes its own organic soil onsite.

September 2012 • COUNTRY FOLKS GROWER • Section C - Page 6

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Wine & Grape Grower offers features, news and information on growing grapes, and making and selling wines. Learn tips on how to start or improve your business.

PO Box 121, 6113 State Hwy., Palatine Bridge, NY 13428 800-218-5586 • FAX 518-673-2381

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crop opened the doors to a variety of others, as well as opportunities for smaller “niche” farmers. Tobacco-related programs spurred research into North Carolina’s once thriving fruit industry, which had been close to dormant for the past 50 years. New energy has stimulated the traditional fruits such as apples, encouraged the grape industry, and enabled hundreds of new farmers to move forward with small fruits, which can be handled with fewer acres than traditional farms. In addition, North Carolina State University has invested in the development of new varietals that are adaptive to specific regions of the state. The most productive, disease resistant varieties are made available for sale, enabling farmers from the cool, moist mountains to the dryer coastal plain to plant a crop optimal for the environment. Strong support through each county’s Cooperative Extension offices helps insure success. Many fruit growers credit the Organic Growers School itself with their progress. A large number attending were proud to say they began their journey in the home garden classes, grew to selling in farmers markets, and finally emerged as professional growers. The School also sponsors a farm apprentice program known as the Collaborative Regional Alliance for Farmer Training (CRAFT) that has broadened the skills of many future growers. The region itself has also proved beneficial. The Asheville area tourist attractions sup-

Page 7 - Section C • COUNTRY FOLKS GROWER • September 2012

School from C3

Henry Johnson answers irrigation questions at the Organic Growers School. Photo by Tina L. LaVallee port a large number of restaurants, many of which feature organic or vegan menus, which in turn creates opportunities for the grower. This year’s Growers School had fruit production workshops centered on irrigation, organic small fruit production, pest and disease issues, and growing heirloom apples. Participants were free to choose their schedule to allow sampling in other theme tracks, such as commercial farming or permaculture. Many classes were filled to capacity, with the overflow standing or sitting in the halls. Henry Johnson of Johnson and Company Irrigation was on hand to explain the world of irrigation equipment. His

focus was on commercial drip systems and he entertained a steady stream of questions from the floor. “The single most important factor of irrigation is knowing how much water your plants

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need at every stage of growth,” he emphasized. He also stressed the importance of finding the root zone of the plants and determining the point when

School C8

Shenandoah from C5 dozen types of fresh-cut herbs (not including blends) - is started from seed. From seeding to delivery typically takes 26 to 28 days, or 31 or 32 days in the winter. Currently, about half of Shenandoah Growers’ business is fresh-cut herbs and half live plants. “That was our vision,” Heydon said, “to get to a nice balance. Each line appeals to a different kind of consumer - some like live herbs, others like the convenience of fresh-cut herbs. We were able to find a way to grow and stay focused on herbs.” For the past two years, the company has also operated a consumeroriented educational website,, designed to promote awareness of herbs and educate fami

They’ve integrated the page with facebook and twitter, and regularly post new recipes. All of the efforts at Shenandoah Growers are taken with sustainability in mind. “I think it just makes sense,” Heydon said. “It’s right for the environment, and for it to be true sustainability it has to make economic sense. Put another way, for the sustainability to be sustainable it has to provide an economic benefit. “Being sustainable in as many aspects of what we’re doing, that’s what we’re after. That’s what’s right for our production, that’s what right for the supermarket, that’s what’s right for the consumer.” For more information about Shenandoah Growers, see www. shenandoahgrowers com

September 2012 • COUNTRY FOLKS GROWER • Section C - Page 8

Lee Publications Subscriptions/ Classified Ad Sweepstakes Grand Prize winner

Make Plans Now to Attend the


January 22-23-24

James Barr (second from right) of 4-Barr Stock Farm, Arkport, NY was the lucky winner of the Lee Publications Subscriptions/Classified Ad Sweepstakes Grand Prize — a John Deere Gator 825. With him are (L-R) Ian Hitchener, sales representative for Lee Publications, John Griffith, sales representative for Z & M Ag and Turf and Bruce Button, general manager of Lee Publications. The JD Gator was supplied by Lee Publications in cooperation with Z & M Ag and Turf, with seven locations serving SW New York and NW Pennsylvania. Be sure to enter Lee Publications newest Subscriptions/Classified Ad Sweepstakes and have the chance to win a Club Car XRT 1550. Three ways to enter: 1. Buy a subscription. Your paid subscription to Country Folks will automatically get you entered to win a Club Car XRT 1550. 2. Place a classified reader ad. To place an ad call Peggy at 800-8362888, fax 518-673-2381, e-mail or mail it to CF Grower Classifieds, PO Box 121, Palatine Bridge, NY 13428. 3. No purchase necessary. Send a post card with your name, farm or company name; complete mailing address, phone number, e-mail address and date of birth (must be at least 18 years of age on Dec. 30, 2012 to win). Limit one post card entry per address.

School from C7 water reaches this area without leaching beyond to establish correct timing. These factors were important regardless of the type of irrigation equipment used or the scale of operation. Sue Colucci from the North Carolina Cooperative Extension hosted a popular workshop on the organic production of strawberries, blueberries, caneberries, and other small fruits. While handling a very broad subject, she stated that North Carolina was a very favorable environment for the production of nearly all small fruits, with the exception of gooseberries and currants, which are susceptible to white pine blister rust. “In general, small fruits are good choices for the North Carolina organic grower because the fruits set well, reach bearing age quickly, and tend to be very healthy. Many of your potential problems can be eliminated by selecting varieties specifically suited to your area and planting site,” she stated. Colucci strongly recommended that potential growers contact their local Extension Agent before making planting decisions and become familiar

with the Southern Regional Small Fruit Consortium and other websites and information portals related to production. Ginger Kowal of North Carolina State University led the discussion on small fruit pests and control, with special emphasis on the Spotted Winged Drosophila, a new invader to North Carolina. Ron and Suzanne Joyner of Big

Horse Creek Farm concluded the day with a class on the production of heirloom apples and the varieties most adapted to the Southern Appalachians. Planning is already underway for next year’s Organic Growers School and many classes fill fast. For more information, please, visit

Your Source For Apple Supplies


For trade show and exhibiting information, please contact Dan Wren Lee Trade Shows, P.O. Box 121, Palatine Bridge, NY 13428 800-218-5586 e-mail


Alliums for Beginners Beginning Farmers Berry Blueberry Potato Cole Crop Cover/Crops/Soil Health Direct Market

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Pesticide Safety Processing Root Crop Roundtable Small Scale Onions Tomato/Pepper Tree Fruit Vine Crop School

WEDNESDAY KEYNOTE SPEAKER Jim Prevor’s Perishable Pundit, the industry’s most important forum for the discussion and analysis of issues relevant to the trade is widely recognized as a leader in understanding and assessing the state of the perishable food industries. Mr. Prevor is the fourth generation of his family to be active in the food business in the United States. Prior to launching his own company, he served as a director of his family’s company, which was an importer, exporter and wholesaler of foodstuffs. Mr. Prevor combines the real world experience of one who has worked in the trade with the analytical perspective of an editor and analyst.

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THURSDAY–DIRECT MARKETING SPEAKER Don Frantz- A three-time winner of the Guinness Record for the World’s Largest Maze, Don developed a new, outdoor, family game called the “Amazing Maize Maze®.” His American Maze Company has built hundreds of projects, entertained millions of players, instigated a world-wide maze fad and has given him the label of “Father of the Corn Maze.”

The 2013 Empire State Producers Expo is sponsored by: • New York State Vegetable Growers Association • Empire State Potato Growers • New York State Berry Growers Association N Y kF ’ Di t M k ti C itt

• The New York State Horticultural Society • Cornell University • Cornell Cooperative Extension NYS Fl I d ti

Miniature or Fairy Gardens offer a great mix of plants and hard goods to inspire creativity for gardeners of all ages. Photos by Dan Wren

Seth Eaton and Gary Eaton are very proud of Eaton Farms’ program to support The Salvation Army.

Andy Powers shows the Christmas hanging basket, one of the many products from Powers Tree Farm. (Note the shipping crate/display rack in the background.)

Allen White and Hannah Dustin of Lucerne Farms had a busy show talking about their heat treated mulch product.

Doug Howe has quality trees, wreaths, and grave blankets for the holiday season. He also carries bagged bark and peat moss for the spring.

Tom Downs and Joe Downs talk with Victor and Joseph Scalici about Christmas products.

Page 9 - Section C • COUNTRY FOLKS GROWER • September 2012

The 12th annual PANTS trade show was held July 31-Aug. 2 in Oaks, PA.

September 2012 • COUNTRY FOLKS GROWER • Section C - Page 10

New England Grows 2013 program highlights BOSTON — New England Grows, the Northeast’s premier trade exposition and green industry educational conference, is scheduled for Wednesday, Feb. 6 to Friday, Feb. 8, 2013 at the Boston Convention & Exhibition Center. Mark your calendars and register before mid-January to save. “Front-line thinking. Intelligent solutions.” is this year’s theme. With more than 30 innovative educational seminars planned and exhibit booth sales already exceeding expectations, New England Grows 2013 is expected to be better than ever. The speaker lineup includes wellknown experts and other trendsetting presenters including Bruce Allison, Kirk Armstrong, Kip Creel, Richard Hawke, Dan Heims, Michael Raupp, and Cass Turnbull. They will address a variety of timely commercial horticultural topics like permaculture, the impact of global climate change on plants and pests, water management, small space garden design, mature tree care, and biological controls as well as important business-growth ideas such as digital marketing and lead conversion, selling in the “new economy”, and data mining. Garden Center Success — an exciting day-long seminar aimed directly at today’s independent garden center — is back by popular demand on Wednesday, Feb. 6. “New England Grows is produced by the industry, for the industry,” said New England Grows’ president Mary SPRING 2011

SMALL FARM QUARTERLY Good Living and Good Farming – Connecting People, Land, and Communities

Hallene of Sylvan Nursery in Westport, MA. “It is the place where the commercial horticulture industry gathers to learn what’s new, to share information, and to make connections. I urge everyone to be a part of it in 2013.” At New England Grows, green industry professionals can obtain most of their professional Continuing Education (CEU) credits under one roof with recertification opportunities for Pesticide Licenses, NOFA, APLD, LA CES, ISA, CTSP, and most state association credentials. Enjoy special savings for early registration — $49 for all three days — when you sign up by Jan. 15. The early registration price drops to just $45 per person when four or more people from the same company register together. Affordable admission fees, combined with exclusive deals on the tradeshow floor, make New England Grows the best place to do business. Keep in touch all year long when you join New England Grows’ growing community on Facebook and Twitter. For the latest program and registration information visit New England Grows is an educational partnership between the New England Nursery Association, Massachusetts Arborists Association, Massachusetts Association of Landscape Professionals, Massachusetts Nursery & Landscape Association, and its network includes more than 40 allied green industry organizations.

With more than 30 innovative educational seminars planned and exhibit booth sales already exceeding expectations, New England Grows 2013 is expected to be better than ever.

Search for all types of auctions at any time. New w updatess alll the e time!!

TARGET SMALL FARMERS THROUGH SMALL FARM QUARTERLY When looking to inform and inspire farm families and their supporters, the Cornell Small Farms Program needed the best read agricultural publication in the Northeast. The agricultural community recommended Country Folks. Cornell uses Country Folks for the same reason others do - we are the weekly voice of Northeastern agriculture.

Feature Articles Calf Rearing: An Advanced Course . . . . . . . . . . . . .Page 12 Experimenting with Caterpillars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Page 13 Pricing Your Farm Products Honestly . . . . . . . . . . .Page 17 The Tale of Tunis Sheep . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Page 19 Supplement to Country Folks

To place an ad in the next issue of Small Farm Quarterly contact your Country Folks sales representative or email This supplement has been very well received and Cornell has had much positive feedback. Advertisers can expect the supplement to have a long shelf life. This supplement reaches all Country Folks subscribers in the East, West, New England and 2700 local Cornell Cooperative Extension offices in NY State.

• Organic Producers • Organic Fruit & Vegetable Growers • Gardeners • Sustainable Farmers • Farm Stand Owners • Specialty Food Producers • Organic Pest Control


Issue Issue Fall Dates and Winter Deadlines Spring

Issue Date October 1, 2012 January 14, 2013 April 1, 2013

Deadline September 7, 2012 December 14, 2012 March 1, 2013

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Produce and Flower Auction every Tuesday & Thursday at 9:00 AM, Shrubbery Sale at 10:30 AM on Thursdays

Shrubbery Picking Back Up with the Fall Season. Fall Produce, Squashes, Pumpkins, Gourds & Mums as they come in season. Come to

Shippensburg Auction Center for all your produce, flower or shrubbery needs. Our 27th year of friendly, reliable courteous service.

717-532-5511 Auction 717-532-3642 David Leinbach 717-532-7288 Norman Zimmerman

ROY TEITSWORTH, INC., AUCTIONEERS Geneseo, NY 585-243-1563 WILLIAM KENT, INC. Stafford, NY 585-343-5449 or 585-548-7738

HARRIS WILCOX, INC. Bergen, NY 585-494-1881 HUNYADY AUCTION CO. Hatfield, PA 800-233-6898

Plain, NY. Public Auction. Shrubs, nursery stock, guns, antiques, tools, fruit. Con-

PIRRUNG AUCTIONEERS Wayland, NY 585-728-2528

FRALEY AUCTION CO. Auctioneers & Sales Managers Licensed & Bonded 1515 Kepner Hill Rd., Muncy, PA 570-546-6907 570-546-9344


Saturday, September 1 • 9:00 AM: Glimmerglass Pools, 55 Willett St., Fort

MILLER’S AUCTION Argyle, NY 518-638-8580

signments wanted. Benuel Fisher Auctions, 518-5682257 Thursday, September 6 • 1:00 PM: 10400 Gillette Rd., Alexander, NY. WNY Gas & Steam Engine Assoc. 2nd. Annual Consignment. 1st day of show Sept. 6-9. Dann Auctioneers, Delos Dann, 585-396-1676 Friday, September 7 • 11:00 AM: Lakeview Holsteins, 2456 Rt. 14, Penn Yan, NY. Selling complete dairies and registered & grade cattle. Hilltop Auction Company, Jay Martin 315521-3123, Elmer Zeiset 315729-8030 Saturday, September 8

• North Country Storage Barns. 2nd Annual Shed and Shrubbery Auction. Benuel Fisher Auctions, 518-5682257 • 9:00 AM: Town of Lansing Highway Dept., Rts. 34 & 34B, Lansing, NY. Municipal Surplus & Contractor Equipment Auction. Roy Teitsworth, Inc., Professional Auctioneers, 585-243-1563 • 10:00 AM: North Rd., (Wyben Section) Westfield, MA. Tractors & Cattle Trailer; Horse related items & Antiques Furniture, Toy Trucks, Tonkas, early games & comics. Jacquier Auctioneers, 413-569-6421 Saturday, September 15

WOLGEMUTH AUCTION Leola, PA WRIGHT’S AUCTION SERVICE 48 Community Dr. Derby, VT 14541 802-334-6115 • 8:00 AM: Teitsworth Auction Yard, 6502 Barber Hill Rd., Geneseo, NY. Special Fall Consignment Auction. Farm & Construction Equipment. Heavy & Light Trucks. Consignments welcome. Roy Teitsworth, Inc., Professional Auctioneers, 585-243-1563 Saturday, September 22 • Scranton, PA. Complete Liquidation: Aggregate, Construction, Support Equipment, Truck Tractors, Dump Trucks & Trailers. A. Lyon & Son 315-633-2944 • 9:00 AM: Routes 39 & 219, Springville, NY. Lamb & Webster Used Equipment Auction. Farm Tractors & Machin-

Lakes Produce Auction Finger 3691 Rte. 14A • Penn Yan, New York


WED. & FRI. - 9 AM


(315) 531-8446


ery. Roy Teitsworth, Inc., Professional Auctioneers, 585243-1563 • 10:00 AM: Fuller St, Ludlow, MA. JD Skidsteer; Tractors; Tools; Horse Drawn Mowers & Equipment, Bumper Livestock Trailer. Jacquier Auctioneers, 413569-6421 Saturday, September 29 • 10:00 AM: 43 Meadowbrook Rd, Granby, CT. Complete Commercial Woodworking Shop & Antiques. Jacquier Auctioneers, 413569-6421 Friday, October 5 • 11:00 AM: Lakeview Holsteins, 2456 Rt. 14, Penn Yan, NY. Selling complete dairies and registered & grade cattle. Hilltop Auction Company, Jay Martin 315521-3123, Elmer Zeiset 315729-8030 Saturday, October 13 • 9:00 AM: Hamburg Fairgrounds, Hamburg, NY . Municipal & Contractor Equipment Auction. Roy Teitsworth, Inc., Professional Auctioneers, 585-243-1563 Thursday, October 25 • Pigeon Acres Farm, Manheim PA. Selling complete dairy of 175 mature cattle. Hilltop Auction Company, Jay Martin 315-521-3123, Elmer Zeiset 315-729-8030

Page 11 - Section C • COUNTRY FOLKS GROWER • September 2012


September 2012 • COUNTRY FOLKS GROWER • Section C - Page 12

Country Folks Grower Classifieds

( 800 ) 836-2888 PO Box 121, 6113 State Hwy. 5 ( ) Fax: 518 673-2381 Palatine Bridge, NY 13428 E-mail: Announcements




Thursday, September 13th For as little as $9.25 - place a classified ad in

Country Folks Grower

Call Peg at


or 518-673-0111

or email Announcements # # # # #

ADVERTISERS Get the best response from your advertisements by including the condition, age, price and best calling hours. Also we always recommend insertion for at least 2 times for maximum benefits. Call Peg at 1-800-836-2888

Number / Classification 35 Announcements 50 Applicators 80 Auctions 110 Bedding Plants 120 Bees-Beekeeping 130 Bird Control 155 Building Materials/ Supplies 165 Business Opportunities 210 Christmas Trees 235 Computers 330 Custom Services 415 Employment Wanted 440 Farm Machinery For Sale 445 F a r m M a c h i n e r y Wanted 470 Financial Services 500 For Sale 505 Forklifts 510 Fresh Produce, Nursery 515 Fruit Processing Eq. 530 Garden Supplies 535 Generators 570 G r e e n h o u s e Plugs/Cuttings 575 Greenhouse Supplies 580 Groundcover 605 Heating 610 Help Wanted 680 Irrigation 700 Lawn & Garden 805 Miscellaneous 820 Nurseries 840 Nursery Supplies 855 Orchard Supplies 910 Plants 950 Real Estate For Sale 955 Real Estate Wanted 1035 Seeds & Nursery 1040 Services Offered 1130 Tractors 1135 Tra c t o r s, Pa r t s & Repair 1140 Trailers 1155 Tree Moving Services 1165 Trees 1170 Truck Parts & Equipment 1180 Trucks 1190 Vegetable 1205 Wanted

Announcements CHECK YOUR AD - ADVERTISERS should check their ads. Lee Publications, Inc. shall not be liable for typographical, or errors in publication except to the extent of the cost of the first months insertion of the ad, and shall also not be liable for damages due to failure to publish an ad. Adjustment for errors is limited to the cost of that portion of the ad wherein the error occurred. Report any errors to Peg Patrei at 518-6733237 ext. 111 or 800-8362888. NEED BUSINESS CARDS? Full color glossy, heavy stock. 250 ($45.00); 500 ($60.00); 1,000 ($75.00). Call your sales representative or Lee Publications 518-673-0101 Beth YARD SIGNS: 16x24 full color with stakes, double sided. Stakes included. Only $15.00 each. Call your sales representative or Beth at Lee Publications 518-673-0101 or Please allow 7 to 10 business days when ordering.

Christmas Trees GREAT QUALITY Canaan and Douglas fir. A close source from Balt/DC/VA. Near Cumberland, MD. 814-8423775,, or for pricing. NW OREGON CHRISTMAS TREES! 15,000-20,000 available. 4’-11’. Noble Fir. Great prices. #1’s. 503-829-9402 SCOTCH PINE & DOUGLAS FIR Ready for fall cutting. Also, landscaping Pine, Spruce, fir, Arbor vitae & h e m l o ck . C e n t ra l PA . (814)345-5055

Wholesale Christmas Trees Fraser Canaan Concolor Blue Spruce



Farm Market Items Affordable USA MADE Items. Full line of heavy duty items, poles - hooks - trellis items, arbors - fences - indoor items. Free 400 plus Items Catalog. Custom Display Racks. Also accepting custom orders. Serving customers since 1999. A&L Iron Works, LLC, 624 Buchland Rd., Narvon, PA 17555. 717-768-0705, Fax 717-768-0245

COCONUT FIBER BLOCKS, shrink wrapped, 5 liter, as low as 35¢. Triumph Plant Company 845-634-5060


1 gal . . .9c

H A L L OW E E N D E C O R A TIONS: Scarecrows, Ghosts, Witches and lots more on poles, hanging, standing and tabletop. Direct importer, wholesale only. Call 800-4259777 for catalog or see on line WORTH IMPORTS INC.


4 gal . .25c 5 gal . .50c



LIVE GAME FISH Oldest Fish Hatchery Estab. 1900

Live Fish for Ponds & Restaurants

2 gal . .15c 3 gal . .19c

7 gal . .60c Please Call Frank Geiger 203-255-1024

ZETTS FISH FARM & HATCHERIES Large Selection of Game Fish Pond Equipment & Supplies, Aquatic Plants

Geiger’s Garden Center 40 Bel ont St. Fairfield, CT 06430


Truck, Air, U.P.S. Parcel Post Deliver y



Farm Equipment

Fresh Produce, Nursery

Fruit Processing Equipment

Pumpkins, Gourds, Winter Squash, etc.

FOR SALE: Heavy Duty Apple Hand Parer/Slicer Combination. 15 to 20 apples per minute with 2 operators. $995. 518-284-2256

FOR SALE: MINI STRAW BALERS, makes ornamental bales 3”x4”x7” or 4”x5½x10” bales. Sell well at auctions, markets, stands. Low inputs, great returns. Send for information. Countryside Machine Shop, 2682 460TH Road, Gentry, MO 64453


Falconwood Farms

Voluntown, CT

Greenhouse Supplies


Pie, Jack-O-Lantern, White & Munchkin Pumpkins Acorn, Butternut, Spaghetti, Buttercup, Ambercup, Sweet Potato, Sweet Dumpling Squash


In our 3rd decade of performing confidential key employee searches for the nursery, greenhouse, and horticulture industries and allied trades worldwide. Retained basis only. Candidate contact welcome, confidential, and always free.

ANY SIZE LOTS AVAILABLE From Bushels to Tractor Trailer Loads

Hoeffner Farms Hornell,NY

607-769-3404 607-324-0749 eves Fruits & Berries

Help Wanted

Fruits & Berries

FLORASEARCH, INC. 1740 Lake Markham Road Sanford, FL 32771 407-320-81777 (phone)) • 407-320-80833 (fax) Email: Web Site:

Antiques CAT PULL TYPE GRADER, SN#18485, complete, good shape. 506-325-2701

RED DRAGON 12 row propane flamer for organic weeding, used one year, excellent condition, $15,000. Call Doug 585-721-4728(NY)

Business Opportunities

Business Opportunities

Do You Grow Grapes? Do You Make Wine? CHECK OUT

WHOLESALE NURSERY, INC. 9555 North Gast Road, P.O. Box 116 - Bridgman, Michigan 49106 Phone: 269-465-5522 Fax: 269-465-4822


Red Raspberries Purple Raspberries Yellow Raspberries Black Raspberries

Black Currants Red Currants Red Rhubarb Asparagus ALL STOCK GRADED TO AAN STANDARDS

® Or Call For a Sample Copy


Specializing in Edible Landscaping. Blueberries, Blackberries, Raspberries, Grapes, and Fruit Trees. TN: 931-467-3600 • Fax 931-467-3062 email

Lumber & Wood Products LOCUST 4x4’s, fence posts, split rails, lumber. Natural, chemical free non poisonous alternative to pressure treated that has strength and lasts a lifetime. 518-883-8284

Native Plants NATIVE GRASSES, sedges, rushes, wildflowers, and herbaceous plants for use in wetland mitigation, restoration, and landscape design. Contract growing available. Signature Horticultural Services, Freeland, MD. Call 410329-6466 or fax 410-3292156.

Nursery Equipment BOULDIN & LAWSON 1 yard batch mixer, peat fluffer w/mist, 15’ conveyor, like new. 506325-2701

( 800 ) 836-2888 PO Box 121, 6113 State Hwy. 5 ( ) Fax: 518 673-2381 Palatine Bridge, NY 13428 E-mail: Sprayers


Parts, Sales & Service for Durand-Wayland & Myers

NOW TAKING ORDERS for garlic seed. Sweden Center Garlic Farm, 585-747-0405

Arendtsville Garage 135A Main St. • Arendtsville, PA 17303



Skymeadow Garlic Farms

“Certified Organic” Garlic Seed Music German White German Red Ukranian Red Spanish Roja

THOUSANDS OF TREES available for digging. High quality Canaan fir and CBS. Easy & level access. Near Cumberland, MD. 814-8423775 or

Bulk Discounts




HALABURA TREE FARMS 35 Dreher Rd. Orwigsburg, PA (Schuylkill Co.) 570-943-2137 office 570-943-7692 fax Douglas Fir Concolor Fir Hemlock Shade & Flowering Trees Available

White Pine Norway Spruce Arborvitae

Cut & B&B available • Reasonable Prices • Delivery Available


Protects & Prevents damage from: • Mowers & Trimmers • Sun Scald • Rodent Damage • Deer Antler Rubs • “Girdling” from Rabbits • Shipping

Blue Spruce Serbian Spruce Frazier Fir

• Corrugated • UV Stabilized • Available in sizes: 2” x 24” 2” x 30” 2” x 36” 2” x 48” 3” & 4” also available

Calendar of Events E-mail announcements of your regional event(s) to: We must receive your information, plus a contact phone number, prior to the deadline that’s noted under the Announcements heading on the 1st page of these Grower Classifieds. *** SEP 10-12 OFA Perennial Production & Retail Conference Amway Grang Hotel, Grand Rapids, Michigan. This unique event offers an intimate educational and networking experience focused on perennials. Through seminars, a tour, hands-on workshops for producers and retailers, and a trade show, learn everything you need to know about perennial production and retailing. All registrations include breakfast, lunch, trade show admission, reception, and networking events. On Internet at http://perennial gistration/perennial/ registration.aspx

5 EASY WAYS TO PLACE A COUNTRY FOLKS GROWER CLASSIFIED AD 1. PHONE IT IN - Just give Peggy a call at 1-800-836-2888

IN - For you MasterCard, Visa, 2. FAX IT American Express or Discover customers... Fill out the form attached completely and fax to Peggy at (518) 673-2381


MAIL IT IN - Fill out the attached form, calculate the cost, enclose your check or credit card information and mail to:

Country Folks Grower Classifieds PO Box 121 Palatine Bridge, NY 13428


Ga Alpha rlic Farm 19 Years “We grow great Garlic” Planting & Table Stock

German White 2.5” avg. German Red 2”+ Spanish Roja 2”+ Elephant Garlic Large Bulbs - Good Keeper Quantity Discount Available

Stan and Adeline Erkson 259 Salt Springville Road Fort Plain, NY 13339-4316



SEP 13 NENA’s Centennial Celebration Tower Hill Botanic Garden, Boylston, MA. Call 508-6533112. On Internet at www.newenglandnursery SEP 20 Luzerne County Sustainable Landscapes Bus Tour Kirby Park, Old River Road, Wilkes-Barre, PA. Visit six sites that showcase natural stormwater management, green buildings, sustainable agriculture and more. 7:30 am - 4:30 pm. Contact Jessica Sprajcar, 717-798-2409 or e-mail On Internet at conservationscience/ sustainablelands/ conferences/index.htm

SEP 20-22 Ozark Red, White & Blooms: America in Bloom Symposium & Award Programs Feyetteville, AR. Call 614487-1117 or e-mail On Internet at SEP 22-23 Connecticut Florist Association’s Exhibit Connecticut Women’s Expo, CT Convention Center, Hartford, CT. Call 800-352-6946. SEP 27-29 The landscape Show Orange County Convention Center, 9800 International Dr., Orlando, FL. The show draws over 7500 attendees, over 400 exhibitors and offers many activities. On Internet at OCT 10-13 IPPS Eastern Region 62st Annual Meeting Brandywine Valley, PA. Contact Margot Bridgen, 631765-9638 or e-mail On I n t e r n e t a t OCT 24 Montgomery County Sustainable Landscapes Bus Tour Montgomery County Conservation District Office, 143 Level Rd., Collegeville, PA. Visit a variety of sites that incorporate green stormwater practices, native plant-

4. 5.

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ON-LINE - Go to Name: (Print)______________________________________________________________________ and follow the Place a Classified Ad Address:_________________________________________________________________________ City:__________________________________________________St.:__________Zip:___________ button to place your ad 24/7!

FOR BEST RESULTS, RUN YOUR AD FOR TWO ISSUES! Cost for each Issue per Zone: $9.25 for the first 14 words, 30¢ each additional word. (Phone #’s count as one word) # of issues to run______ Total Cost $________ Zone(s) to run in: J East J Midwest J West

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ings and more. Contact Jessica Sprajcar, 717-798-2409 or e-mail On Internet at conservationscience/ sustainablelands/ conferences/index.htm OCT 25-27 Planet Green Industry Conference Kentucky Expo Center & the Louisville Downtown Marriott, Louisville, KY. On Internet at www.Green NOV 2-6 2012 Irrigation Show & Education Conference Orange County Convention Center, Orlando, FL. Call em a i l NOV 5 2012 Advanced Growers’ Fall Seminar: Profitable Year Round Farming & Marketing Stonehill College, The Martin Institute, 320 Washington St., Easton, MA. 8:30 am 5:30 pm. Contact Sarah Cogswell, e-mail NOV 7 Southeast Strawberry Expo Hilton Charlotte University Place, Charlotte, NC. Farm tour, workshops, educational sessions and trade show. Contact NC Strawberry Association, 919-542-4037 or e-mail info@nc On Internet at NOV 7-8 Northeast Greenhouse Conference and Expo DCU Center, Worcester MA. Call 802-865-5202 or e-mail JAN 3-4 Tennessee Green Industry Expo Nashville Convention Center, Nashville, TN. Contact Tennessee Nursery & Landscape Association, 931-473-3951 or e-mail On Internet at JAN 9-11 MANTS Baltimore Convention Center, Baltimore, MD. Call 800431-0066 or e-mail On Internet at JAN 10 VNA Horticulture Research Foundation Research Gala / Auction Order tickets with MANTS r e g i s t r a t i o n For info email Call 800-476-0055. FEB 1-6 28th Annual NAFDMA Convention - Pacific Northwest 2013 Doubletree by Hilton Hotel, Portland, OR. FEB 6-8 New England Grows! Boston Cenvention & Exhibition Center, Boston, MA. Call 508-653-3009.

Page 13 - Section C • COUNTRY FOLKS GROWER • September 2012

Country Folks Grower Classifieds

September 2012 • COUNTRY FOLKS GROWER • Section C - Page 14

Country Folks Grower Classifieds

( 800 ) 836-2888 PO Box 121, 6113 State Hwy. 5 ( ) Fax: 518 673-2381 Palatine Bridge, NY 13428 E-mail: Nursery Equipment

Nursery Stock

Real Estate For Sale

HIGH CALIPER Grow Bag, 18”, in-ground, up to 3” caliper trees, 300 bags w/forms, $700.00. 518-696-2829

LARGE VARIETY of Evergreens, Flowering Trees, Shrubs & Natives in larger sizes. Pre-dug trees available. 700 acres of quality field grown material. 40 years experience. Roger Coffey & Sons Wholesale Nursery P h : 8 2 8 - 7 5 9 - 7 1 5 7 Fa x : 828-758-9285 email:


Nursery Liners COMPLETE LIST of deciduous and evergreen seedlings and transplants at or call 231-723-4846 Hramor Nursery LLC, 2267 Merkey Rd., Manistee, MI 49660

Nursery Stock 1 GALLON: Blue Spruce, Norway Spruce, White Pine, Canadian Hemlock, Burning Bush, Forsythia, 16” to 24”, $3.00 each. 570-673-8178, ask for Charles, Canton,PA

LEYLAND CYPRESS: 3 gallon 36-42”, $10.00. Quantity discounts. Also larger sizes. OT T E R B E I N N U R S E RY, Newburg, PA 717-423-0119, 717-423-0146(Fax)

2-1/2 ACRES of nursery stock, Orange County, NY. 40 varieties of trees, schrubs, evergreens, ground cover. Flats & tools. Will sell all very reasonable. Too old to do the work! 845-692-4476, fax 845692-2927

Japanese Maples-Bare Root Grafted three year old container grown-nice size Twenty varieties availableCall for brochure FREE shipping $11.50 per tree See our display Ad Kelleygreen Nursery Paul Ferretti-Sales Rep 843-832-1500 office 843-814-1757cell 843-695-0794 fax


FOR SALE Cauliflower - Broccoli Celery - Collards - Cabbage Kale & Brussels Sprouts

PLUG PLANTS E & R Greenhouse

51 Esbenshade Rd., Ronks, PA


Property has 2 ranges of greenhouses totaling 300,000 S.F. Lower range consists of 12 36’x358’ ridge & furrow aluminum frame with double acrylic covering. This range has recent Priva Environmental computer system. Heating system consists of 2 oil fired low pressure steam boilers in separate building. This range also has refrigerator in separate building with loading docks. All greenhouse equipment included. Plus 100+/- acres!!

1,950,000 ealty USA .com




Tony Sabatino Licensed Assoc. Broker 518-857-6999 Refrigeration

Nursery Stock

Real Estate For Sale

UPSTATE NEW YORK 28” RACK & CLOTH CIDER press complete w/hyd. drive, good condition. Enos Swarey, 6117 Kettle Rd., Tyrone,PA 16686


Nursery Stock

Nursery Stock Available - Fruit, Shade, Ornamental Trees - Flowering Shrubs, Small Fruits, Roses, Vines - Rhubarb, Asparagus, Horseradish And More! VISIT US AT WWW.KELLYWSN.COM Bareroot - Containerized - Packaged Small Minimum Orders/Free Color Picture Tags Order Now for Spring 2013 Mention This Ad for Early Order Discount

Box 66 Phelps NY 14532 • 877-268-2151 • Fax 315-548-8004


Services Offered

V I S S E E D C O M PA N Y: Specializing in flower seeds from around the world. Seeds, plugs, cuttings. Offering the best annual, perennial, vegetable & herb seeds. Celebrating 25 years! Contact us for a current catalog. PO Box 661953, Arcadia, CA 91066. (P) 626-4451233, (F) 626-445-3779,,

CANVAS PRINTS: All sizes. Mounted or Unmounted. Just bring in or send us your photo at Lee Publications. Call 518673-0101



Orchard Equipment


1 Hour from NYC & Philadelphia 100,000 sq. ft. of gutter connected greenhouses on 19+ acres, 40x80 metal building, 72x48 packing house, 28x60 store, 5 acres of irrigated outdoor production, 60kw automatic transfer generator.

Real Estate For Sale

#1½ 6-7’ Douglas Fir, $15.00; #2 Douglas Fir, $13.00. 814404-4662



NEW/USED WALK-IN-COOLER ~ FREEZER BOXES ~ REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS ~ EQUIPMENT Large Inventory ~ All Sizes • Buy • Sell ~ Nationwide • Wholesale Prices

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Full line Pole Building material. ~ Lumber - Trusses - Plywood. • Email:

Hazzard’s Plants and SeedsOver 8000 seed varieties and thousands of plants availablewholesale and retail. Easy order on-line All pictured. or call 989-872-5057

WEDDING INVITATIONS printed and designed by Lee Publications: 100 (4.5x6) Invitations including envelopes with 100 RSVP postcards. Only $150.00 +tax. We can also do smaller and larger amounts. Call for pricing and designs 518-673-0101, or Also Save the Dates • Shower Invitations • Baby Announcements and more.



Seeds & Nursery

by Scott Guiser, Horticulture Educator In late January I was fortunate enough to hear Dr. Galen Dively of the University of Maryland give an overview of organic insecticides at the Mid-Atlantic Fruit and Vegetable Grower’s Conference. Did you miss it? I’ll try to provide a recap. I have a copy of the Conference Proceedings (write-ups of the presentations) as a reference which will help me recall key points. If you missed the Mid-Atlantic Conference, mark your calendar for Jan 29-31, 2013… it’s a fantastic educational (and social!) event. Galen prefaced his remarks about specific products with these observations: . In organic systems, insecticides are used as a tool of last resort… after all non-chemical approaches have been employed. They are not intended as the basis for insect management in these systems. This often puts the products at a disadvantage because they frequently work best on immature stages of pest’s life cycle. Many pest control products are listed at OMRI (Organic Materials Research Institute) and are approved under the USDA National Organic Program but double check with you certifying agency before proceeding. Organic insecticides have several problems or limitations compared to conventional insecticides, including:

• Short residual activity • Most have limited contact activity, requiring ingestion to be effective • Less effective on mature insects, requiring precise timing to hit immature insects • None have systemic activity • Short shelf life • Lacking in reliable efficacy (do they work?) data • Expensive Interesting…an article in the February 2012 issue of Vegetable Growers New echoed Galen’s points about the limitations of these products. Still, growers found them useful. So, despite these limitations, organic growers have several good tools for insect management. Here is an overview: Azadirachtin products, such as Neemix and Aza-Direct are extracts of oils found in the Neem tree. These products are insect growth regulators and prevent insect molting (slow) and also serve as feeding deterrents and repellents. Fair to good control of beetles (Cuke, Colorado potato, Mexican bean, and flea) is reported. Note however, that with cuke beetles, even minimal feeding can transmit the bacterial wilt organism to cucumber and cantaloupe. Pyrethrum is the naturally derived insecticide found in daisy flowers and commonly marketed as Pyganic. Quick knockdown but very short residual ac-

REGISTER FREE!!! Find Auctions Near You!! Auctioneers Register FREE!! List all your upcoming auctions with us!! Brought to you by: Country Folks, Country Folks Grower, Wine & Grape Grower, Hard Hat News, Mane Stream Waste Handling Equipment News, North American Quarry News, Small Farm Quarterly and by Lee Publications Inc. Palatine Bridge, NY 13428 (800) 218-5586

tivity are key traits. Fair to good control of aphids, whiteflies, thrips as well as knockdown of cuke, Colorado potato and flea beetles were noted. A new product called Azera is a combination of a pyrethrum (like Pyganic) and azadirachtin (like Azadirect/Neemix). Control of Japanese beetle, aphids, imported cabbage worm, leafhoppers and cucumber beetles was improved over use of azadirachtin alone in recent studies. It even provided good squash bug control if timed to target nymphs, just after egg hatch. The limitations of one ingredient are partially covered by the other. Bt products are well known for their ability to control lepidopteron (caterpillar) larvae such as imported cabbage moths in cole crops. Good spray coverage and repeat applications are important. Some Bt strains control non-lepidopterons. Not all Bts are alike and some are not labeled for organic production. Spinosad, sold as Entrust to the organic market, provides very good control of caterpillars and thrips. Fair to good control of flea beetles and Mexican bean beetle was noted. Some growers note control of Colorado potato beetle. Soaps and oils – provide good knockdown of soft bodied insects such as aphids and mites. Repeat applications and excellent plant coverage are important. Oils provide more residual activity than soaps but still this effect is short lived. Both soaps and oils have

potential for phytotoxcity. Plant Extracts such as d-limonene (citrus) and rosemary extras disrupt insect neuroreceptors and act as antifeedants. Fair to good control of aphids and spider mites reported. Mineral dusts kaolin clay sold as Surround, repel and/or irritate insects and disrupt feeding and egg laying. Maryland research showed that Surround applied alone or in combination with sulfur, Azera or Trilogy provided 55-86 % stink bug control. Residue from Surround may not be acceptable for some fresh market crops. In conclusion, Galen provided the following suggestions for improving the efficacy of organic insecticides: • Use 50 -100 gallons of spray solution to ensure good plant coverage. • Arrange nozzles (such as drop nozzles) to improve plant coverage. • Monitor pH of spray water and buffer as needed. • Calibrate sprayers. • Apply controls when pests are in the early stages of development. • Consider adjutants to increase coverage and efficacy. More than 130 participants were attracted to Galen’s excellent presentation. As he noted, efficacy data on organic insecticides is sparse. His work and presentation were very much appreciated. Source: Penn State Extension The Vegetable & Small Friut Gazette, Volume 16, Issue 3, March 2012

Page 15 - Section C • COUNTRY FOLKS GROWER • September 2012

Organic insecticides… what works and doesn’t

September 2012 • COUNTRY FOLKS GROWER • Section C - Page 16


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This Sweepstakes 3 Mail in Entry Form





















If you have used equipment for sale, ask about our group of weekly farm newspapers that cover

Use our forms on our web site, from Maine to North Carolina. forms will calculate your charges for you. All you have to do is fill out the form Signature_______________________Date________ and submit!

Payment Method     FORR BESTT RESULTS,, RUNN YOUR Acct#________________________Exp. Date______ ADD FORR TWOO ISSUES! Name:______________________________________ Cost per edition: $8.00 for the first 14 (Print)______________________________________ words, 30¢ each additional word. Address:____________________________________ (Phone #’s count as one word) City:_____________________St.:______Zip:_______ # of issues to run______ Total Cost $___________


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City State Phone(

Zip )


E-Mail Birth Date

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Entries must be dated before December 30th, 2012. Employees & relatives of employees of Lee Publications Inc., Club Car, Satch Sales, Mid-State Supply and Clinton Tractor are not eligible. Must be 18 years of age. Mail to Country Folks Grower, PO Box 121, Palatine Bridge NY 13428

Country Folks Grower 9.12