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Eastern Edition n

Section One of Two

GROWER

April 2012 Volume e 21 Number r 4

$2.50

Serving All Aspects of Commercial Horticulture

Greenhouse • Nursery • Garden Center • Fruit & Vegetable • Farm Markets • Landscapers • Christmas

Organic c farmerss discuss r weed strategiess for managementt ~ Page e B9

Today’ss Marketing g B5 Classifieds

B19

Irrigation

A20

Sustainable/Organic B9

Inserts (in some areas) Greenstarr Farm m Market n Tooll • Wessels Northern

Kuhn Orchards ~ Sustainable practices for a sustainable future ~ Page A2

April 2012 • COUNTRY FOLKS GROWER • Section A - Page 2

Kuhn Orchards ~ sustainable practices for a sustainable future by Sally Colby A simple definition of sustainability is “the capacity to endure.” But sustainability also includes economic, societal and environmental aspects, as well as viability in the marketplace. “It has to be economically viable,” said fifth generation fruit grower Sidney Kuhn. “If the family can’t make a living and we can’t pay our employees good wages, it isn’t a sustainable business. Sustainability also means keeping the land as good or better than we first started farming. If the land isn’t healthy, it can’t support agriculture.” Kuhn Orchards began in the mid-1800s in Orrtanna, PA. Over the years, the family grew fruit for export, packers and the fresh market. Sidney’s father, Dave, took over the business in the 1970s, and in the 1990s, when growing for packers became less profitable, the family’s focus shifted to meet the growing demand for fresh fruits and vegetables. Although Sidney was raised on the farm and had an interest in the business, she went to North Carolina State University and received a degree in landscape architecture. She returned to her family’s Adams County, PA, farm and expressed interest in joining the operation, but her father insisted that she work off the farm for five years. “I worked for the Adams County Land Conservancy as the land conservation coordinator,” she said. “But I was never completely disconnected from the farm. I was still involved with the Young Growers, and I went to market on weekends.” Sidney says that although she didn’t study a field that’s exactly related what she’s doing today, her college education taught her how to look at a problem and solve it. Kuhn Orchards currently has four land parcels in production, with 60 acres of peaches and nectarines, 25 acres of apples, and numerous half-acre plots devoted to diverse fruits and vegetables including currants, gooseberries, figs, bitter melons, haskap (honeyberries; a relative of honeysuckle grown in Asia), cheese peppers, sunchokes, Jerusalem artichokes, table grapes. The Kuhns also grow 20 heirloom tomato varieties to meet market demand. “They aren’t as easy as growing hybrids,” said Sidney, “but the payoff for us is having something different from what’s available at the grocery store.”

Sidney Kuhn, fifth-generation grower, attends farmers’ markets several times a week to keep in touch with customers. Sidney says customers who come to farmers’ markets love to cook, so Kuhn Orchards keeps an eye on what people want. Sidney noted that her mother, Mary Margaret, is the go-to person for trends. “She’s constantly looking at magazines and cooking shows to find out what the next big thing,” said Sidney. Kuhn Orchards currently offers produce at 10 farmers’ markets in the Washington, D.C. area; all but one of which are grower-only markets. “We try to make sure that everyone here goes to market each week,” said Sidney, adding that she attends at least two markets each week. “It keeps us connected to what our customers want — I need to know what I should be growing. With fruit, it’s five years out, so if it’s something people at market want, we need to put that in the five-year plan. It’s also important to be able to answer questions about our farming practices. We realized when we started doing markets, we needed to diversify to have something to sell from May through November. Anything we can grow to extend the season is important for us. We’re trying to get more

variety at the beginning and end of the market season.” To keep customers supplied with produce through winter, Kuhn Orchards created a winter CSA. “All of the farmers’ markets end at the end of November,” said Sidney. “We wanted to find a way to connect with our customers over the winter.” The 75 winter CSA customers pick up shares every other week in Washington, D.C. and in Fairfax County, VA. Winter selections include dried apples, jams and jellies, canned peaches, apple butter, applesauce and cider — all made with fruit from Kuhn Orchards. The Kuhns believe it’s important to keep customers coming back for both familiar and new items, and to know what they’re looking for at market. To learn more about customers’ desires, Kuhn Orchards farmers’ market manager Katy Clowney designed a survey. “Katy came up with a coupon that we gave to anyone who completed the survey,” said Sidney, adding that Katy also manages the farm’s website and social media. “We got about 360 responses from the survey.” Sidney loves to hear

her customers talk about what they’ve created with market selections, and has noticed that people are more interested in trying new things if they have an idea of what to do with them. “Our customers are looking for freshness,” she said. “They want to know if they can use it in a recipe, and they like to know the farmer who grew it.” This year, Kuhn Orchards will offer a sourcebook for market customers to answer questions. The booklet includes recipes along with other useful information such as a produce schedule, storage, preparation and canning tips. Farmers’ market customers often ask whether Kuhn Orchards’ produce is grown organically. “There’s so much information about farming practices, organic versus conventional,” said Sidney. “I can see why consumers are confused. I explain that we use mating disruption, and that a lot of the chemicals we use are the same as the ones used in organic production. I also explain that we tissue-test before we apply fertilizers, and monitor with traps in the orchard.” In 2006, Kuhn Orchards enrolled in the USDA’s Conservation Security Program (CSP). Some of the sustainable practices initiated through CSP include planting windbreaks to help improve air quality, annual energy audits and new lighting to improve efficiency, and recycling used motor oil from farm equipment. The Kuhns also plant wild-

flower borders to encourage native pollinators, maintain forested riparian buffers along all creeks to capture nutrient runoff, and rely on annual soil tests to ensure that only the necessary amounts of fertilizer is used. All crops on the farm are irrigated through trickle irrigation. Kuhn Orchards maintains five full-time employees, up to 20 employees at peak harvest, and 15 market staff. “We’ve been lucky,” said Sidney in regard to those who attend the markets. “We have people we know — other growers, children of growers, family friends, people who work at the ag center, college students. A lot of them have knowledge about agriculture.” Sidney’s work is as diverse as the operation — on any given day she might be pruning, selecting produce for market, determining which new cultivars to try or training employees. Today, Sidney and her parents, Dave and Mary Margaret Kuhn, are in the final stages of transitioning the business to Sidney; a move that reflects the sustainability of the operation. “There’s room for everybody,” Sidney said of the family’s choice to grow for fresh markets. “If a market is too small, it won’t attract customers. I think having multiple market vendors selling the same thing is good — people have a choice, and there’s more variety.” Visit Kuhn Orchards on Facebook, Twitter and via their website at www.kuhnorchards.com

Dave Kuhn prunes peento (donut) peaches, a popular farmers’ market item. Photos courtesy of Kuhn Orchards

by Sanne Kure-Jensen Low maintenance and the benefits of native plants were recurring themes in the presentations at the 17th annual Ecological Landscape Association Conference held March 7 at the Mass Mutual Center in Springfield, MA. Seeing Green: Design Strategies for Urban Landscapes “Landscape designers can help prevent sprawl by creating livable cities, encouraging people into cities to live, work and play by giving them opportunities to enjoy green space in their neighborhoods,” said Tobias Wolf of Wolf Landscape Architects. People want to get away from gray [spaces] and into the green.” Where sites and budgets allow, he recommended designing with closely planted material; be sure to establish a strong maintenance plan so the garden will stay lush and healthy. Ideal conditions, like those at the Mandarin Oriental project in Boston, allowed a “terrarium” plan, where the planting can be dense and enveloping. Wolf described another projects in Illinois which called for the “pavement crack” approach where site conditions are left as is and plants are selected for their ability to survive and improve those conditions. Any project lies somewhere on that continuum; the important thing is to know where and select plants accordingly. When designing for city gardens, courtyards and parks, mimic early successional ecosystems. These plant communities will have the greatest chances of success in urban conditions. These plants are the most adaptable, and most are readily available in regional nurseries. Wolf urges work to reduce the ecosystem fragmentation in urban areas, one park at a time. He urges planting lush spaces with high biodiversity by making sure there are a wide variety of trees, shrubs and perennials, not just an isolated row of uniform trees planted 20 feet apart. To entice visitors into public garden spaces, include a variety of flow-

ers. Don’t feel compelled to limit your palette to long-blooming flowers; be open to briefly blooming flowers, spring ephemerals and natives which can give the landscape a fresh look with each visit. Low mow grasses and native plants should reduce future maintenance costs and fuel use. When planting over parking garages or on roof tops, Wolf described a project where he installed at least 1 foot of soil for turf, 2 feet or soil for shrubs and 3 feet of soil for trees. The growing media blend will need to vary based on the load capacity of the structures. As with land-based parks, designing with rolling ‘hills’ helps create mystery in a design and helps draws people in. To help build height when there isn’t weight capacity, use layers of solid foam building insulation. Be sure to leave space between the panels to drain excess moisture. Plants should be selected to thrive with available soil, light, moisture and wind conditions. Red Maple, Sassafras, Bald Cypress, Winterberry Holly and Mountain Laurel are among Wolf’s favorite woody plants. Lawns are a luxury. Wolf minimizes lawns because of their high input needs and maintenance costs. Turf or lawns are often requirements of public spaces; Wolf makes them as small as possible and frames them with sharp lines to show how special they are. In non-turf areas, he recommends blending plantings gently by feathering transitions between masses of various plants. He also recommends including stone walls for added seating; be sure think beyond standard park benches. Wolf shared tips he has learned and design successes. • Paths in urban gardens should have long sight lines for increased safety, but that doesn’t mean that they need to be boring or uneventful. • Moveable chairs should be heavy enough that they don’t blow over but light enough that people can move them

Kevin Staso of North Creek Nurseries describing native plants from various ecosystems, each suited to specific site conditions.

Tobias Wolf, of Wolf Landscape Architects, recommended designing with closely planted materials. Photos by Sanne Kure-Jensen to be comfortable. • When planning to use large diverse plantings or ornamental grasses, frame them with curbs or paved paths and viewer are less likely to complain about the “weedy” mess. • When working with clients describe the environmental benefits of rain gardens and bio-swales before showing photos with native or traditional wetland plants and be sure to use images that can give clients a clear understanding of the potential appearance of their landscape. Some customers may be turned off by the ‘weedy’ or ‘messy’ look of native wetlands. Consider signage to educate future visitors. Native Plant Communities Suited to Urban Sites Many city dwellers escape cities on weekends because they grew up with woods and in suburban and rural settings and they miss that connection with nature. Kevin Staso of North Creek Nurseries described harsh city environments offering blinding sun, sharp reflections, wind tunnels, drought, extreme temperature fluctuations, air pollution and contaminated soils. Given these site conditions, it is no wonder that most city landscapes struggle to find an appropriate balance. Communities with vegetated bus stop shelters, lush parks and rain gardens can improve the quality of city life and encourage people to stay and enjoy their neighborhood parks. Plants and the color green, by nature calms people, helps reduce tension and lowers blood pressure. Staso described a variety of wonderful urban parks including The Hudson River Park in Manhattan, the High Line and the many efforts of the City of Portland, OR, which has substantially invested in its 10,000 rain garden initiative for decentralizing storm water miti-

gation. In St. Louis, the Laumeier Sculpture Park successfully encouraged people to stay and enjoy their city park for lunch breaks, an afternoon stroll or a weekend family picnic. The success of the park has transformed the downtown area for St Louis. “Amended soils are overrated,” said Staso. His take on the “Right Plant, Right Place” motto is “Identify the plants that will thrive in the existing conditions for the most successful projects.” Parks work when designers pay attention to plant needs, site conditions and match plant communities to site conditions. Issues can include soils compaction, heavy metal contamination, trash, pet waste and even threats from nature herself: rabbits, turtles, geese and deer browsing. Be sure to note stormwater inundation cycles, drought or watering opportunities and schedules and road salt risks. Prairie grasses, warm season grasses and short grass meadows can be planted in the poorest compacted soils or brown fields and thrive with minimal maintenance after establishment. Native plants offer minimal maintenance after establishment. Staso recommended establishing a new urban garden using a layered approach of plants rather than isolated specimens or stands. Denser plantings create stronger and more beneficial relationships among plantings, reduce fragmentation and often allow animals and insects a corridor within the park or garden. Another benefit to native plants is the diversity of colorful native pollinators that will visit the garden or park. For new urban plantings, start with full sun lovers. As the tree canopy matures, add more shade tolerant plants. Urban plantings like any other planting need to evolve.

Page 3 - Section A • COUNTRY FOLKS GROWER • April 2012

Designing with diverse, native ecosystems

April 2012 • COUNTRY FOLKS GROWER • Section A - Page 4

Communicating about ag with the non-ag public by Sally Colby Farmers are becoming more and more aware of the importance of bridging the gap between those who grow, process and handle food and those who consume it. To address these concerns and encourage an open dialogue between farmers and consumers, the United States Farmers and Ranchers Alliance (USFRA) was formed. Rodger Wasson, president of his own agricultural consulting firm, represented USFRA and moderated a session on connecting with consumers at the Professional Crop Producers’ Conference

held recently in Lancaster, PA. “I’ve never been as concerned about what we’re facing in agriculture as I am now,” said Wasson, referring to consumers who are raising tough but legitimate questions. “We have to play this game differently, and that’s what U.S. Farmers and Ranchers is about. The point is to have all producers — organic, conventional, whatever — work together and move from a war on words to a conversation led by farmers and ranchers.” Wasson says that part of the problem is that most people don’t know or haven’t met a farmer

other than perhaps at a farmers’ market. “They don’t have a grandma or grandpa back on the farm,” he said, “so they’re drawn to stories about farming through what they read.” Wasson says that today, the image of a farmer is often that of someone who is industrialized, heartless, and out to make money. He also noted that a lot of consumer mistrust comes from disconnects in communication. “When we say our products are ‘safe’, what they (consumers) hear is that we aren’t really sure what the long-term effects are,” he said. But we don’t go after them

Cover photo courtesy of Kuhn Orchards Row covers and sprinklers are ready to use if a late frost threatens the strawberry crop.

Country Folks The Monthly Newspaper for Greenhouses, Nurseries, Fruit & Vegetable Growers (518) 673-3237 • Fax # (518) 673-2381 (ISSN # 1065-1756) U.S.P.S. 008885 Country Folks Grower is published monthly by Lee Publications, P.O. Box 121, 6113 St. Hwy. 5, Palatine Bridge, NY 13428. Periodical postage paid at Palatine Bridge, NY 13428. Subscription Price: $22. per year. Canada $55 per year. POSTMASTER: Send address change to Country Folks Grower, P.O. Box 121, Subscription Dept., Palatine Bridge, NY 13428-0121. Publisher, President..................................Frederick W. Lee V.P., General Manager ....................Bruce Button, 518-673-0104 ....................bbutton@leepub.com V.P., Production ................................Mark W. Lee, 518-673-0132 .........................mlee@leepub.com Comptroller .....................................Robert Moyer, 518-673-0148 ....................bmoyer@leepub.com Production Coordinator ................Jessica Mackay, 518-673-0137 ..................jmackay@leepub.com Editor ...........................................Joan Kark-Wren, 518-673-0141 ...............jkarkwren@leepub.com Page Composition .........................Allison Swartz, 518-673-0139 ....................aswartz@leepub.com Classified Ad Manager ...................Peggy Patrei, 518-673-0111 ...................classified@leepub.com Shop Foreman ..........................................Harry DeLong

Palatine Bridge, Front desk ................................ ....................................518-673-0160 Accounting/Billing Office ...............518-673-0149 .....................amoyer@leepub.com Subscriptions ..................................888-596-5329 ..........subscriptions@leepub.com Web Site:................................................................ .............................www.leepub.com Send all correspondence to: PO Box 121, Palatine Bridge, NY 13428 Fax (518) 673-2699 Editorial email: jkarkwren@leepub.com Advertising email: jmackay@leepub.com

AD SALES REPRESENTATIVES Bruce Button, Ad Sales Mgr . . . . . . . bbutton@leepub.com . . . . . . . . . . .800-218-5586, ext. 104 Dan Wren, Grower Sales Mgr . . . . . . . .dwren@leepub.com . . . . . . . . . . . 800-218-5586, ext. 117 Jan Andrews . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . jandrews@leepub.com . . . . . . . . . . . 800-218-5586, ext. 110 Dave Dornburgh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ddornburgh@leepub.com. . . . . . . . . . 800-218-5586, ext. 109 Laura Clary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lclary@leepub.com . . . . . . . . . . . . .800-218-5586, ext. 118 Steve Heiser . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sheiser@leepub.com . . . . . . . . . . . 800-218-5586, ext. 107 Tina Krieger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tkrieger@leepub.com . . . . . . . . . . . 800-218-5586, ext. 108 Ian Hitchener . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ihitchener@leepub.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 802-222-5726 Kegley Baumgardner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kegleyb@va.net . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 540-255-9112 Wanda Luck / North Carolina . . . . . . . . . .luck@triad.rr.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 336-416-6198 (cell) Mark Sheldon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . marksh500@yahoo.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 814-587-2519 Sue Thomas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .suethomas@nycap.rr.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 949-305-7447

Lee Publications 6113 State Hwy. 5, PO Box 121, Palatine Bridge, NY 13428 We cannot GUARANTEE the return of photographs. Publisher not responsible for typographical errors. Size, style of type and locations of advertisements are left to the discretion of the publisher. The opinions expressed in this publication are not necessarily those of the publisher. We will not knowingly accept or publish advertising which is fraudulent or misleading in nature. The publisher reserves the sole right to edit, revise or reject any and all advertising with or without cause being assigned which in his judgement is unwholesome or contrary to the interest of this publication. We assume no financial responsibility for typographical errors in advertisement, but if at fault, will reprint that portion of the ad in which the error appears.

(for thinking that). We need to say ‘I hear your concern’ and engage them without becoming defensive. What people doubt is when you claim to be farming perfectly — nobody does it perfectly.” Through extensive research to determine perceptions about farming, USFRA found that many consumers think that farmers are tampering with nature. “People also think that although we say we’re a family farm, we’re being strung along by a processor who controls what we do, and that we take shortcuts when and if we can,” said Wasson. “If you’re more and more like a big business as they (the consumer) envision, it’s a big business they can’t trust. Big businesses try to make money, and if farmers can round the corners, they (consumers) suspect that you will. When we say that we’re trying to feed the world, consumers think ‘yeah, right’ — you’re trying to sell more to the world. They make that conversion.” Consumers also often believe that farmers are only looking for subsidies, lax regulations, and that farmers don’t know for sure what the long-term effects of pesticides, antibiotics and hormones. Wasson says research showed that while many people have favorable opinions about individual farmers and ranchers, those perceptions vary by state. And while consumers were generally positive about farmers, they aren’t as positive about farming itself, and there’s a general mistrust of modern agriculture. Wasson mentioned that the Iowa Corn Growers are considering taking down seed corn signs at the edges of fields because the non-ag public believes that those signs indicate who owns the farm. Although farmers know what the signs are for, consumers don’t, and that’s a misperception that should be addressed. When talking with consumers, Wasson says that instead of saying ‘we are producing more’, use terms such as ‘smarter use of resources’. “Our old arguments are falling

Rodger Wasson explains some of the talking points that farmers and ranchers can use to communicate effectively with producers. Photo by Sally Colby

flat,” he said. “We can’t communicate as if everything is perfect — we have to acknowledge that there’s always room for improvement. When you focus on improvements, you have to adjust what you say to who you’re visiting with and address the real concern.” Farmers should be aware that when they do make a connection with a consumer, anything that’s said can end up in someone’s blog or on a Facebook page. Wasson suggests farmers use the EASE approach when talking with people about ag: engage, acknowledge the concern, share, and earn trust. When asked a tough question, a good response might be, ‘I can see how that might worry you.’ “We’re creating confusion at all levels,” said Wasson. “Be authentic, give specific examples and talk about your own situation so people believe you as a farmer.” Wasson suggests that farmers talk about their own operation rather

than the industry a whole, and noted that consumers can tell if they’re being fed sound bites by farmers who have been media-trained. The infighting within agriculture must be stopped if farmers are to have an effective and positive message to consumers. Wasson suggests that farmers acknowledge various production methods for what they’re doing without denigrating others’ methods. “We can’t get defensive,” he said. “People turn off and stop listening. Many consumers have seen the ‘Learn About Your Food’ video series produced by USFRA and aired on Discovery Communications’ networks. These short clips feature farmers sitting down with consumers, discussing the agricultural community’s commitment to providing safe, healthy food choices. Farmers can learn more about USFRA and download videos from the ‘share’ section of the USFRA website at www.usfraonline.org/

By: Melissa Piper Nelson Farm News Service News and views on agricultural marketing techniques.

Three T’s of direct marketing success Marketing farm products direct to consumers opens up a new and profitable channel for many producers. Researchers point to a number of guerrilla (ag-

gressive) strategies for successful marketing and selling, and at the risk of adding to the mix, there is a simple, but effective, three-pronged approach. Trends,

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Transportation and Tactics comprise Three-T marketing. Marketing plans are built about consumer preferences. Pre-washed and bagged salad mixes and pre-seasoned, ready-to-cook meats represent just two of many food marketing strategies which are direct responses to consumer preferences. In today’s marketplace, producers identify, understand and respond to consumer trends quickly and adjust strategies accordingly. Where this was once the job of wholesalers, retailers and

pared and packaged in new and interesting ways. Direct marketing opens new pathways for sales strategies on an individual farm basis. What is unique and special to a given farm, region, set of customers or e-commerce provides the opportunity to either catch onto a trend or start a new one. How does a farmer move product to a customer, and likewise how does a customer get to a farmer’s market, retail outlet, farm stand or the farm itself? Transportation plays a key role in marketing from both the producer and consumer sides. Product moves from the field to its selling point through transportation networks that are physical in nature (tractor, wagon, harvesting equipment, truck and trailer) and supply chain in nature (where a product is ultimately placed and sold). Both chains represent expenditures of time, resources and labor. Transportation often gets linked into the en-

tire variable cost of production and is not segmented out as a marketing consideration. The local food trend, however, started the talk about transportation chains — how food is produced and moved through the system. Consumers realize, and are showing with their food dollars, how important they view transportation when it comes to grocery shopping. Tactics are more affiliated with military terminology than as a direct farm marketing tool, but in reality, tactics are defined as specific strategies to gain a goal or objective. Direct marketing represents a sales strategy or tactic that the marketer sees as the best way to exchange product for profit. Within direct marketing tactics, producers choose many different ways to sell goods — farmer’s markets, onfarm sales, roadside stands, through community supported agriculture programs and cooperative marketing groups.

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Page 5 - Section A • COUNTRY FOLKS GROWER • April 2012

Today’s Marketing Objectives

promoters in the food sales and distribution chain, direct marketers now produce the food, fiber and services, as well as package, deliver and promote. Buying trends, often identified as “fads” may seem too temporal to pursue, and rightfully, some buying habits sweep in quickly and then vaporize overnight. A trend that solves a consumer problem, however, is likely to catch on and become the popular norm. Whether it involves packaging, preparation, or convenience, consumers show where the next marketing opportunity is pending. Trends are not exclusively consumer-driver. Producers, wholesalers, chain stores, market researchers and others develop and promote ideas consumers appreciate. The meat and dairy industries perfected the idea of food being pre-

April 2012 • COUNTRY FOLKS GROWER • Section A - Page 6

The warm winter of 2012 and what to expect from Winter Moth in Massachusetts Winter Moth (WM) (Operophtera brumata) is an introduced pest that has been well established in eastern Massachusetts and Rhode Island for about 10 years. It favors oaks, maples, birches, apple, crabapple, blueberry and other deciduous hosts here. It also is one of the first caterpillar pests to hatch from over-wintering eggs in the early spring; usually just prior to bud-

break as host plant buds are swelling. If many caterpillars are able to wriggle into the swollen buds and feed then significant damage may occur to both leaf and flower buds. During some years, infestation was so high in Massachusetts, that many blueberry growers in Southeastern MA suffered severe losses due to winter moth caterpillars destroying the flower buds. For

fruit growers (apple and blueberry, in particular), early detection and management is essential. Well-timed dormant oil sprays that contain added insecticide, such as a Spinosad product, can be useful on apple and blueberry if applied within a day or so of egg-hatch. The oil is effective against the eggs while the insecticide acts to knock down any newly hatched caterpillars.

More than one one-well-timed application may be necessary. During the past 10-plus years in eastern Massachusetts and Rhode Island, winter moth caterpillars have caused anywhere from slight to near-complete defoliation of shade and forest trees depending on the year. Winter moth is a relatively new and invasive species for

Winter A7

Marketing from A5 The success of determining tactics depends on pre-planning and market research. A producer plans for selling to a target audience and selects the methods which place the product in front of the consumer in the most appealing manner. It sounds simple enough, but doing the homework that best links the producer to the correct target audience requires knowing not only who will buy a product, but where they will come to buy it, how they want it packaged and

what they will pay. Market research which develops a sound strategy to manage trends, transportation and tactics does not have to be either complex or costly, but often it does involve time to understand what consumers want to buy and why. Marketing plans are best when they remain fluid and flexible enough to incorporate changes as necessary. Weather, and other risk factors, may present the need to redirect and redefine how direct mar-

keting works for any individual operation. Being flexible in how you develop and sell your product allows for unplanned situations. If you take some time to review your market-

ing plan with an eye toward the Three T’s of Marketing, you will gain an appreciation of how trends, transportation and tactics play into your overall sales strategy and how you may

need to reposition your efforts for profit. The above information is presented for educa-

tional purposes and should not be substituted for professional business or legal counseling.

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the eggs on the shadier (northern exposure) side of the same tree here in Massachusetts. This past winter has been atypically warmer than the norm for Massachusetts but most nights have been below freezing (32° F) leading researchers to believe that the number of ‘winter frost days’ has been approximately the same as in previous years in Massachusetts. However, Massachusetts did not experience many deeply cold days this past winter and the overall effect that this may have on winter moth eggs is not yet known. The majority of daytime temperatures during February were in the 40s with a few in the 50s (degrees Fahrenheit). The big question now is ‘What has this done to the timing of winter moth egg-hatch for the upcoming growing season?’ As of March 9, in Plymouth County, there

Winter A8

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during much of this past winter, it is believed that we had the normal amount of cold nights this year. Then in the late winter / early spring, the eggs require a relatively small number of warm days for them to hatch. In Massachusetts, winter moth eggs have generally begun hatching approximately in mid-April during many of the past 10 years, which has been around April 15 for most of those years. However, two years ago, Massachusetts experienced exceptionally warm weather starting in mid-March and WM egg hatch began on the last day of March on Cape Cod and then on April 1 in Plymouth County. For such earlyseason egg hatch, only a few atypically warm days are necessary for earlierthan-normal egg hatch to occur. It has also been observed in Massachusetts that winter moth eggs on the sunnier sides of trees (generally the south side) may hatch as much as one week before

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Page 7 - Section A • COUNTRY FOLKS GROWER • April 2012

Winter from A6

April 2012 • COUNTRY FOLKS GROWER • Section A - Page 8

Winter from A7 is no sign of the color change typical of winter moth eggs just before they hatch; they currently appear as they have in past years in Massachusetts at this time in March. Winter moth eggs begin as a greenish color and then turn pinkishred sometime in December. As the embryo develops in late winter or very early spring, the egg becomes a powdery-blue and just prior to hatching, it turns a very deep blue-black. Given that winter moth is so new to Massachusetts, it is difficult to say for sure what the outcome will be but listed below the authors provide some speculation as to what the outcome may be and the factors that drive it: • Intensive monitoring last November and December by Joe Elkinton’s lab indicates that much of eastern Massachusetts and most of Rhode Island currently have large populations of winter moth eggs waiting to hatch. • Winter moth caterpillar needs to have its host plant bud-break phenology in close synchrony with egg-hatch. If the buds are still too tight for the tiny caterpillars to wriggle in, the caterpillar will ‘balloon’ (spin down on a long silken strand of silk to be carried by the wind) in order to find a suitable host. If not successful, they may

eventually starve to death. One possibility is that the eggs will hatch extremely early this year and the host plants will lag far enough behind with their bud swelling to be non-useful to the caterpillars leading to their starvation. Deciduous plants that are cur-

rently dormant will experience a slight effect from the warm winter but are not nearly as affected by these temperatures as are the insects and, therefore, may not be ‘ready’ for the winter moth should it appear much earlier than the norm. Success for winter

moth is strongly tied to being in close synchrony with the host plant bud swelling and opening. • Dr. Elkinton’s lab has studied the natural controls that occur in Massachusetts for winter moth and, as expected, found just a scant few that utilize winter moth

as a food source. However, the warm winter will most likely cause the insect predators, such as lightening bugs, ground beetles, and others to become active sooner; what their impact on the overwintering eggs of winter moth will be this year is yet unknown. Also, mi-

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nonprofit and government agencies aimed at enhancing the competitiveness of specialty crops in the marketplace. The Specialty Crop Block Grant Program is managed by the NCDA&CS and funded by the U.S. Department of Agriculture under the 2008 farm bill. “Last year, the department awarded more than $1.1 million to fund 22 projects that supported specialty crops across North Carolina,” said Agriculture Commissioner Steve Troxler. “This program goes a long way to help small farmers stay competitive and grow more profitable crops.” NCDA&CS will accept grant applications starting at $10,000 from nonprofit organizations, commodity associations, state and local government agencies, colleges and universities. Grants are not available for projects

that directly benefit or provide a profit to a single organization, institution or individual. The application deadline is 5 p.m. on April 20. Projects involving the following specialty crops are eligible: fruits, vegetables, tree nuts, culinary herbs and spices, medicinal plants, as well as nursery, floriculture and horticulture crops. Funding is also available for projects aimed at developing local and regional food systems and improving food access. For grant guidelines and an application, go to www.NCSpecialtyCropGrant.org. Questions may be directed to NCDA&CS marketing specialist Jeff Camden at 919-707-3111, SpecialtyCropGrant@ncagr.gov, or Specialty Crop Block Grant Program, 1020 Mail Service Center, Raleigh, NC 27699-1020.

Winter from A8 in March 2012, here in Massachusetts, we cannot say for sure what the outcome will be this spring for winter moth damage to plants. However, it may be possible that winter moth eggs could hatch perhaps as early as the third week in March this year and that the host trees will still have very tight buds that will prevent the tiny caterpillars from entering, feeding and causing damage thus forcing the tiny caterpillars to starve. This speculation, if correct, may prove to be true only in some locations and not all,

given the effects of localized climate that both winter moth eggs and host plants have been subjected to over the past winter months. For detailed information concerning the biology and management of Winter Moth, visit the following: • http://extension.umass.edu/landscape/fact-sheets/winter-moth-identification-management • http://extension.umass.edu/landscape/fact-sheets/winter -mothoverview

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Page 9 - Section A • COUNTRY FOLKS GROWER • April 2012

Specialty crop grants available from NCDA&CS

April 2012 • COUNTRY FOLKS GROWER • Section A - Page 10

A request for seeds George and Julie Holmes farm in Trumansburg, NY. They are missionary leaders through Fellowship of Christian Farmers, Int. to the Eastern European Country of Albania. This was their 19th winter ministering in Albania. Albania was isolated from the world for 50 years under the harsh dictator Enver Hoxha. This little country, the size of Maryland, is still recovering from those harsh years. They struggle with high unemployment, high food, high fuel costs, poor economic conditions, unstable government and corruption from the top down.

George and Julie work in eight villages around the capital city of Tirana. Subsistence farming is common with 1 or 2 cows, some chickens, a few sheep and less than an acre of land. They also do Bible studies, door to door evangelism and children’s meetings in those eight villages. The village Christian ministry work continues with the Albanian Christian SOWERS Team when they return home at the end of March to farm. The couple also hand carries over 15,000 seed packets with them to give to the villagers. Over 2400 family pack-

ets went to 23 villages. Those seeds are broken down into family seed packets of nine vegetable and one flower seed — enough seeds to grow a nice family garden. The villagers start the seeds in hot frames early March and then transfer the plants into a good size garden area. The ladies do canning to preserve extra things for the winter. The seeds are welcomed by all. They know most of the seeds are hybrids and that they can’t save the seeds. The seeds produce a

larger and more plentiful crop. The seeds in Albania are not of a good quality, old and sold at a high price. Times in Albania are very difficult for the rural family. They appreciate all the seeds given to them. If you would like to donate seed-either in bulk or packets, please contact the Holmeses at 607-387-6538. Outdated seed is welcome as well. Any help would be appreciated.

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by Kelly Gates When open, the odor it emits is indistinguishable from warm, rotting meat. Its flower can reach more than 9 ft. in height, the largest flower head in the world. Its single leaf can reach 16 feet in length. After nearly a decade of waiting, scientists at Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, got to see their specimen bloom in captivity. The plant in question is Amorphophallus ti-

tanum or titan arum. More commonly, it is known as Carrion Flower or “corpse plant.” The plant only grows naturally in the rain forests in Sumatra. “The reason the plant has this pungent odor is that it has Carrion Syndrome, a pollination syndrome that it has developed to attract a unique group of pollinators,” said Melissa A. Luckow, associate professor of Plant Biology at Cornell.

“When in bloom, the plant actually heats up and emits chemicals that translate to the scent of rotting meat. This attracts carrion-eating beetles and flies in the family Sarcophagidae, which are often referred to as 'flesh flies.'” These flesh-eating insects commonly rest inside of the flower at night to keep warm. While there, they continually walk around, coating themselves with pollen.

When they leave the following morning to find another titan arum, the pollen is carried with them, enabling pollination to take place. Much of Cornell's understanding of how to cultivate this unusual plant came from the University of Wisconsin. Luckow saw a corpse plant in bloom there in 2002. “I was at the University of Wisconsin for Botanical Congress in 2002 and I asked the

Bloom A12

The titan arum, also known as the “corpse plant” bloomed at a greenhouse at Cornell University on March 18. Photo from obsidianwings.blogs.com

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Page 11 - Section A • COUNTRY FOLKS GROWER • April 2012

Rare bloom opens at Cornell

April 2012 • COUNTRY FOLKS GROWER • Section A - Page 12

Bloom from A11 greenhouse manager for seeds,” explained Luckow. “When we got them, our greenhouse grower, Carol Bader, sowed two of them and she has nursed them along for the better part of 10 years. The grower at the University of Wisconsin was very helpful with advice, but Carol is the one who put in all the work over the years.” Horticulturists and scientists at Cornell performed an array of tests when the plant bloomed. One of the primary studies will explore the chemical makeup of the rotten smell it propels into the environment. The goal is to determine if there is a presence of chemical signalers that prompt the male titan arum to begin the pollination process. During the past 10 years, Cornell's greenhouse, science and horticulture staff has closely monitor every aspect of the plant's makeup and development. According to Luckow, the Carrion Flower is rare in many ways. “The Carrion Flower presents an inflorescence with a spadix-a stalk made up of small and anatomically reduced male and female flowers. Around the in-

florescence is a spathe that looks like a giant flower petal,” she said. “When it heats up, the spadix enhances the emission of the strong odor of decaying meat, luring pollinators from all over the rain forest. Attention was first drawn to the Carrion Flower back in 1878 when Italian botanist and explorer Dr. Odoardo Beccari discovered it while traveling in Suma-

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tra. At the time, few believed Beccari's tall tales of a giant flower that smells like death. Today, the plant is celebrated within the growing community as select botanical gardens and universities like Cornell successfully produce flowering specimens indoors. If the plant at Cornell blooms, it will be one of

approximately 140 such cultivated blooms recorded in history. “After this one blooms for two days, which we believe it will, the flower will die back and the plant will go dormant,” noted Luckow. “In the wild, the plant will continue flowering regularly. In captivity however, it may be a decade or sev-

eral decades before it blooms again, if at all.” So far, signs point to a pending bloom. On March 13, the unopened inflorescence measured 57 inches long. In the following days it grew around two inches daily. Cornell opened its greenhouse doors to an assortment of guests during the exciting time.

The Carrion Flower sits in Green Greenhouse 114 at the university's Ithaca campus as part of the Liberty Hyde Bailey Conservatory collection. There was also streaming video of the plant available for anyone to view online at www.ustream.tv/channel/titan-arum

Page 13 - Section A • COUNTRY FOLKS GROWER • April 2012

Are we going to have an early budbreak? by Hans Walter-Peterson, Finger Lakes Grape Program It’s the question that is on a lot of people’s minds right now, given the weather that we’ve had for the past several days, and which is supposed to just continue for at least the next week or so. Given those conditions, it seems likely that the answer to our question would be yes. It would be nice if there was some nice, clean and easy to use formula to help us figure out when budbreak would happen, but unfortunately we don’t. Some research has been done to try to figure out just what influences budbreak, but based on the work that I’ve looked at there isn’t a solid answer that we can use yet. Several different projects have looked at the influence of soil temperature on budbreak in grapes. Earlier studies done by scientists in California saw a difference of several days in bud-

break of Cabernet Sauvignon canes that were grown in soils at 11-12° C (about 53° F) and soils that were at 25° C (77° F). Studies on other perennial crops like apples and trifoliate oranges have seen similar responses. However, a more recent study on Shiraz done in Australia did not see any impact of soil temperature on the timing of budbreak. So where does that leave us? It would seem to make sense that soil temperature should influence earlyseason physiology of the vine. But we also know (at least anecdotally) some warm days in late March or early April (2010, anyone?) can get the buds kicked into gear as well. So air temperature has to be the real driving factor, doesn’t it? If we look at the phenology data collected at the Fredonia and Portland stations out in the Lake Erie region, we

Budbreak A14

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April 2012 • COUNTRY FOLKS GROWER • Section A - Page 14

Budbreak from A13 actually don’t see much of a relationship between the date of budbreak and the number of base-50 growing degree days (GDD) accumulated since Jan. 1 (Figure 1). Now, that doesn’t mean that there’s almost no relationship between warm air temperatures and budbreak, but rather that a) GDDs calculated from January may not be a very good measure of what is needed to influence

budbreak, and b) that air temperature is not the only driving force to determine when budbreak will happen. As I mentioned earlier, we really don’t have any way of predicting when budbreak will happen based on climatic data. But as with many things with growing grapes, your gut can often be the most reliable guide. And while it may not be able to give us a precise

date, I think most of us are anticipating an early budbreak this year. Can you do anything about it? Well, perhaps. My colleague Imed Dami has done a lot of work looking at the use of oils to delay budbreak. He has examined several different types of oil, including soybean-based oils and mineral oils like Stylet Oil, on a number of different varieties, to see just what kind of delay these products might give growers in certain years or in certain locations where early budbreak and spring frost damage might be a concern. I won’t go into a lot of the grisly de-

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Are we going to have an early budbreak?

tails here (I’ve provided a few links at the end of this write-up, if you want more information), but here are the basic messages from his work:

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by Judy Van Put The Middletown office of the Cornell Cooperative Extension in Orange County was the location for the 2012 Hudson Valley Nursery, Greenhouse and Vegetable Production Workshop for commercial growers. The morning session began with Margery Daughtry, Plant Pathologist, who gave a discussion of Hot Diseases of Perennials and other Nursery/Greenhouse Plants. She distributed an informative leaflet on “Box Blight,” the new aggressive exotic disease that is ravaging boxwoods on Long Island and

in other areas of the United States and discussed many other potential problems facing professional growers. Dan Gilrein, Extension Entomologist at Cornell’s Long Island Horticultural Research and Extension Center, gave a presentation on insect pests of perennials and other nursery/greenhouse plants. He began his talk with the good news that the 9-spotted Ladybeetle, which was designated as the official New York State insect but has lately been suffering a great decline, was found in Amagansett, Long Island, NY. Word of sightings in other areas of the northeast

is providing scientists the hope that the species will make a comeback. Attendees learned about exotic and new pests on the radar — including the Red Headed Flea Beetle; Mites, Aphids, Leafhoppers, Caterpillers and the Western Flower Thrip. These tiny insects are now thriving in greenhouses as a consequence of overuse of Conserve, and greenhouse growers are seeing resistance to the chemical in thrips. Growers were given instruction on control of these and many other pests, suggestions which included discarding infested plants, segregating new from old

plants, placing new plants upwind from the old, having a plant-free period, and using bio-controls. The class was given up-to-date information from Cornell University on many of the pesticides and other products that are on the market to counteract these problems, such as insecticides, miticides, bark sprays and soil treatments; replacement formulas, restricted use products and products that were renamed — as well as updates and guidelines for administering these products.

3) Typical practice in Ohio, where a number of growers use this practice every year, is to apply a mixture of 8 percent soybean oil, 1 percent of an emulsifier (i.e. spreader/sticker), and 91 percent water. Imed recommends using 100 gallons of water directed at the wood (so change all of those percentage signs to gallons and there’s your tank mix). I know this seems like a lot of water to use when there’s so little surface area to catch it, but the canes need to get soaked in order to for this to work. 4) Concord appears to be the most sensitive variety to this treatment, but it does delay budbreak on other varieties as well, perhaps just not as long

as Concord or as consistently. 5) The closer the material is applied to budbreak, the less of an effect that the treatment seems to have. Imed found that mid-winter applications were more effective than early spring applications. What does that mean for this year? It would have been closer to ideal to apply these sprays a few weeks ago, but then again, who would have thought that we were going to have this kind of weather 3-4 weeks ago? 6) Imed has found, as have growers in Ohio who have used this, that the delay in budbreak does not impact fruit composition or maturity (i.e., delayed harvest) at the end of the season, unless the delay is extensive (more than 2 weeks). So is it worth trying? I’ll give you the standard, yet truthful, Extension answer: It depends. The fact that we’re in

a warm stretch of weather, closer to budbreak than we normally would be this time of year, probably means that the treatment won’t be as effective as it would be if it was applied earlier in the winter. The other factor, obviously, is cost. The material that Imed used in his trial is a soybean oil called Amigo, which is currently running about $24 per gallon. At 8 gallons per acre, plus a gallon of a spreader/sticker, you’re looking at just over $200 per acre just in materials (ouch!). Now, protecting a Concord crop from freeze damage might be worth that if you were pretty confident that it would get you past any last freezes that might occur. But I’m sure most growers will take a hard look at that number and want some better information about the practice before spending that kind of money.

School A18

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Page 15 - Section A • COUNTRY FOLKS GROWER • April 2012

2012 Hudson Valley Nursery & Greenhouse Growers School

April 2012 • COUNTRY FOLKS GROWER • Section A - Page 16

Golf cars get new title: Universal Workhorse KJS Products, introduces Golftrucks: late model conversions of golf cars to efficient utility trucks featuring four, six and eight foot flatbed decks. Moving plants, produce, pallets, etc. is now easier! Low deck heights make hand loading and unloading simpler, and a 1,000 lb. load capacity makes these utility vehicles a preferred choice for many hauling jobs. “We built our first Golftruck 15 years ago when we needed something for our own use,” says KJS owner Jerry Kamysiak, “we didn’t have money to spend for equipment, but we did have an old electric golf car on the yard and we looked underneath it and out came the torches and welder. We continued to improve them for the next decade until they did everything we wanted. And when we found they held up to high school kids, we knew we had a good product. A couple of years ago, a friend asked me to build

one for him and we took it up from there.” We start by cutting a golf car apart, replacing the back end with a true truck chassis and a heavier suspension. We make all necessary modifications and extend linkages. The frame is powder coated and the deck is lined with treated plywood. The result is a ‘low priced’ utility truck with up to twice the deck space of most other utility trucks. It’s the only eight foot deck available with a roof for protection from sun and rain that they know of. They offer up to three times the capacity of a regular golf car with those little boxes on the back. Golftrucks are serious work vehicles with comfortable, bench seats and ample leg room. They’re especially appreciated by baby boomers and anyone having trouble with wheel wells or other point of entry hindrances; another benefit of starting with what was originally a luxury vehicle.

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Golftrucks come standard with backup alarm, front headache rack, rear window and stake pockets. Electric trucks also include state of charge meter (gas gauge for batteries) and charger. Plug it into any 110v outlet at day’s end and it turns itself off automatically when fully recharged. With good batteries, an electric Golftruck will easily move goods all day. It takes five custom jigs to build the chassis with all the compound angle cuts, but the extra work is worth it. Customers comment on how quickly they’ve become dependent on them, and in how little time they feel they’ve paid for themselves. We get very positive customer feedback! We can relate because we cut our work load with these odd looking, handy vehicles years ago and rely on them daily. We prefer electrics for our own use because of

the power you get as soon as you push the accelerator pulling a heavy load, and for the quiet ride. Talking to co-workers, taking telephone calls and conversing with passengers and customers is easier with the electric. We’ve been talking about purchasing the new, longer duration batteries since they came out a few years ago if we find the standard ones won’t last our workday length, but as of yet have had no need to do so. Electric trucks also eliminate chasing gas cans and extra maintenance, and there’s no exhaust fumes in case we’re inside buildings. Electrics cost us less to buy and less to convert. Besides the motor and batteries, all there really is to them is a solenoid and a controller. Which one is best for your business really comes down to personal preference. We build

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tools, your lunch, whatever. It can also be filled with ice to keep employee beverages cool. Additionally, we designed a line of deck bodies that can quickly and temporarily convert the flatbed into a specific use vehicle. Plant picking racks for nurseries, Mobile produce stand, adjustable flower racks for greenhouses, service body or Upick transports for moving

Golf cars A17

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both. Gas models are a better choice for anyone carrying goods longer distances, or for transporting people all day. And we recommend them if you can’t or would rather not return the truck to the same location each day’s end to recharge (batteries can give you extra years if they’re topped off after each day). Gas trucks also feature a huge under-seat tool box about a foot deep, 16” wide, and 22” long. It’ll hold a lot of

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by Jonathan Bardzik WASHINGTON, DC — Building on the joint venture announced in January, the American Nursery and Landscape Association (ANLA) and OFA — The Association of Horticulture Professionals are introducing a new event to be held in Winter 2013. With a target audience of business leaders and decision makers — owners, CEOs, top managers, and emerging professionals — the new event will focus on the business skills and innovations needed for

sustainable success in this rapidly evolving economy. According to ANLA board member Dan Mulhall, co-owner of Mullhall’s, a retail, landscape, and growing operation in Nebraska, “This new venture will fill a need not met by any other program out there. We will deliver new thinking and innovation from within and outside our industry while creating a community of the best and brightest professionals.” OFA president Mike McCabe, coowner of McCabe’s Greenhouse & Flo-

ral in Indiana, states, “These two organizations have a long history of leading the industry with new speakers and innovative ways to learn, beyond just the traditional classroom setting. You bring together the best that both groups offer, and we’ll create an incredible event.” OFA CEO Michael Geary, CAE, responding to questions about this event said, “I can tell you it will not be on a beach somewhere — or in Louisville, KY — but we do want an

accessible location. We’re tackling the important details first, like deciding what this new effort is going to look like and identifying leaders from both OFA and ANLA to help shape it. For now we want members to know that they can anticipate a significant learning and networking experience.” Geary finished, “We’ll get back to you on the name.” Further details about the event will be released this summer.

You can haul your Golftruck to the jobsite behind your vehicle with our low profile trailers. We also offer dump

beds, service bodies, pull trailers, cab enclosures and much more. We have people spreading salt and plowing snow with them as they’ll push eight inches of fresh snowfall with rear grips and weight. Golf cars are efficient, durable and dependable as they have been manufactured for over 50 years and golf course owners depend on them to produce their only income. We convert three year old cars from the midwest that typically have less than two years run time on them. Their new identity is workhorse. Parts and service are never a problem with nationwide availability because all drive components remain standard equipment. Prices start at $3995 for a 4’ 600# capacity, $5995 for a six foot truck and $6550 for the eight foot electric model. Six and eight foot sizes have 1,000 lb. capacities. Gas trucks cost more. The six foot is larger than most competitors build and turns

on a dime. And you’ll be pleasantly surprised with the turning radius of the eight foot. Golftrucks can easily be this year’s capital investment with the greatest return for any small business. And with options like the mobile produce stand, it can open new doors for small businesses. Even though four inches of mud or six inches of snow are no problem for Golftrucks, they’re a very efficient hauling vehicle, not an all-terrain, sport vehicle. If you need a dependable utility vehicle that can move goods faster, has a comfortable ride, can transform into several additional models, and don’t have five figures to spend, then a Golftruck is a good way to go. Lead times are typically 30 days to build one to a customer’s preference. For more information contact Jerry Kamysiak at 989-354-8450 or visit www.Golftrucks.com.

Golf cars from A16 people and berries back to the parking area. And after the season ends, switch it back to flatbed truck in minutes.

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Page 17 - Section A • COUNTRY FOLKS GROWER • April 2012

OFA and ANLA announce new event for 2013

April 2012 • COUNTRY FOLKS GROWER • Section A - Page 18

School from A15 In addition to chemical formulas, Organic products are now identified for use as insect and mite control, which is creating a niche market. Organic compatible products have been noted (OMRI, NOP) as of the past year in Cornell’s guidelines. The third presenter of the morning session was Neil Mattson, Assistant Professor for Cornell University’s Department of Horticulture, who conducted a discussion on plant fertility, with a focus on nutrient deficiencies. The indepth presentation provided a description of specific nutritional problems plants can experience and how to detect which essential nutrients are causing the problem.

The morning session concluded with a presentation by Elizabeth (Betsy) Lamb, Cornell University’s Ornamentals IPM Coordinator, who talked about Biocontrol. It was surprising to learn that the majority of professional growers have never tried beneficial insects or nematodes for insect management in greenhouses. We learned that 44 percent of the class do use Biocontrol and like it; and 24 percent of the class are using them on higher levels and are starting to use them for multiple insect control. From her online survey, most were used for thrips, fungus and gnats; less for whitefly and mites. Use of Biocontrol for aphids was ‘in the

middle.’ She found that the biggest limitation to the use of Biocontrol insects is “how to tell if it’s working.” The class was interested to learn that both beneficial Biocontrol and conventional pesticides can be used together. However, careful planning needs to be done in advance — to coordinate the timing of the products, knowing when to start, how often to reapply, monitoring and scouting, pest identification and interactions with chemical pesticides. The afternoon session focused on vegetable production in controlled environment agriculture, or CEA, and soil-less vegetable production. Dr. Melissa Brechner, Director of CEA Center for Tech Transfer, sponsored by

NYSERDA, gave an overview of what goes on at the CEA Center and resources they provide. She gave an indepth presentation on light — stating that light is the only source of energy available to a plant, and that light quantity and quality can influence plants. Plants respond linearly to light; human eyes do not. The class learned how light is measured and the different units of measurement; and that humans see light differently from how plants see light and how professional growers can utilize this knowledge to achieve the best growth of their crops by understanding exactly how plants utilize light.

School A19

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The CEA research conducted at Cornell University revealed that vegetative growth is proportional to the daily light integral (DLI) or ‘light sum” — the number of photons received in one day per square meter of growing area. Therefore, as nature cannot provide consistent light or DLI values, supplemental

light must be used on darker days; while movable shades are necessary to prevent the problems occurring when there is too much DLI, such as leaf burn on lettuce crops. Betsy Lamb returned to discuss Integrated Pest Management (IPM) in Controlled Environment Vegetable Produc-

tion. Pest management under controlled environments such as hydroponic float systems, greenhouses and high tunnels requires knowledge of what tools are available and how to use them. She also discussed potential problems of pest management in CEA, such as using pesticides in a greenhouse on transplants used for garden vegetables; how to counter raising crops in higher temperature environments which also shortens the time required for insects to mature and multiply; and management tips for temperature and humidity control, including venting, options for air movement, timing production and growing cooler crops. She discussed the importance of maintaining a healthy root zone by not overfertilizing or overwatering; maintaining an appropriate pH, and suggested that CEA growers consider using beneficial bacteria and fungi, such as Bacillus subtilis and Trichoderma. In addition, the importance of sanitation was stressed, as was weed control to try to stem the production of whiteflies, aphids, leafminers and the like. Interaction with the group revealed that some used Greenshield rather than bleach for sanitizing greenhouses and growing areas. Although more expensive to buy, Greenshield is a lot more cost effective, as it is mixed in a solution of water that is 100 to 1; while the formula for bleach is just 10 parts water to 1 part bleach. In addition, bleach solution breaks down in just two hours, while Greenshield is longer lasting and therefore more effective. A cloudy day will keep Greenshield on contact longer, and you can use a foamer to increase

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Elizabeth (Betsy) Lamb, Cornell University’s Ornamentals IPM Coordinator, gave an update on Biocontrol and Integrated Pest Management Resources, as well as a class on Managing Pests (through IPM) in Controlled Environment Vegetable Production. Photo by Judy Van Put contact time even longer. Neil Mattson returned and discussed Managing Water and Fertilizer in Soilless Vegetable Production. The class learned how water quality and fertilizer management are key to establishing healthy, vigorous plants in hydroponic production; what you need to test for and how often to test; as well as common fertilizer recipes for hydoponic production. He discussed alkalinity and how it af-

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A22

Page 19 - Section A • COUNTRY FOLKS GROWER • April 2012

School from A18

April 2012 • COUNTRY FOLKS GROWER • Section A - Page 20

2012 Irrigation Show and Education Conference slated The Irrigation Show is the only national trade show for irrigation industry professionals. The show is a program of the Irrigation Association, a non-profit organization dedicated to promoting efficient irrigation technologies, products and services. The Irrigation Show will be held Nov. 4 and 5, while the Education Conference will run from Nov. 2-6. Both events are taking place at the Orange County Convention Center, Orlando, FL. Manufacturers, dealers, distributors, wholesalers, contractors, designers, installation and maintenance professionals, consultants, growers, endusers and more gather together every year to: • Find smart solutions for agriculture, golf and turf/landscape applications. • See the latest products, technology

and services. • Meet with current business partners and potential suppliers. • Increase productivity and profitability with targeted education and technical training. • Monitor critical water management issues and irrigation best practices. Irrigation Show Highlights • 200,000-plus square feet with 300 exhibitors of irrigation equipment, systems, services and accessories. • 5,000-plus attendees from North America and around the world. • New Product Contest for agriculture, golf, specialty and turf/landscape solutions introduced to the market in the last year. • IA’s prestigious awards program for individuals and organizations that have made significant contributions to

the irrigation industry. • Over 70 presentations at the Education Conference. • More than 25 education classes that teach skills and knowledge for immediate application.

• Certification exams for irrigation contractors, designers, auditors, specialists and water conservation managers, offered throughout the show. • For more information, e-mail info@irrigationshow.org.

Irrigation energy efficiency checklist and tips by Tom Scherer, Extension Engineering, Associate Professor, North Dakota State University and Carl Pederson, Energy Educator, North Dakota State University Agricultural irrigation is an energy intensive operation. Pressurized irrigation systems, especially center pivot

sprinkler installations, use a high flow rate pump and require a large electric motor or engine. The major causes of increased energy use are associated with pipeline leaks, engine and pump efficiency and well maintenance. Poor

Checklist A21

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uniformity of water application can also affect energy use by increasing pumping time. On center pivot systems, the major causes of poor water application uniformity are sprinkler nozzles that are worn or sized wrong, missing sprinkler heads, and leaking boots. Using a consistent method of irrigation scheduling during the growing season can optimize water application. Questions to ask • Do you have a good procedure to determine when to irrigate and how much water to apply? Do you use evapotranspiration- (ET) based irrigation scheduling? Do you

know how to estimate soil moisture by feel and appearance? • Do the sprinkler nozzles on your center pivot provide a uniform application pattern along the full length? Have the sprinkler heads and nozzles been on the pivot more than seven years? Have you checked nozzle sizes on the center pivot to make sure they match the nozzle sizes listed in the sprinkler package printout from your dealer? • Do you annually check for pipeline leaks, missing nozzles, and nozzles that are not rotating properly? • If you have an engine powering the pump, do

you change the oil and filter according to manufacturer recommendations? Do the pump and motor or engine receive regular annual maintenance? • Do you record the static and pumping water levels in the well every year? • If you have iron in the irrigation water, do you chlorinate the well each year? • If you have an electric motor, can you subscribe to controlled electric rates (off-peak) from your electric supplier? Facts and actions: irrigation • Use of a consistent method of irrigation scheduling can often reduce energy use by 7 to 30 percent. Using an ETbased irrigation schedul-

ing system can ensure you are not under or overwatering the crop. • The average life expectancy of a sprinkler head is about seven to 10 years. The diameter of the sprinkler head nozzle is very important for uniform water application; and the nozzle diameter can grow with use, especially if there is sand or grit in the water. Poor application uniformity increases water pumping time and therefore energy use. Replace broken sprinkler heads as soon as possible. Do a “can test” to check the uniformity of the application pattern. Repair all leaks on the center pivot as soon as you notice them. • Buried pipelines

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rarely leak, unless they were not pumped out before winter. However, above ground pipelines frequently have worn gaskets and up to 30 percent of the water can be lost before it gets to the discharge point. Replace leaking gaskets and plug any holes in the pipeline. • The drawdown in a well increases if the screen becomes plugged. Increased drawdown greatly increases pumping costs. Screens become plugged due to mineral incrustation or from iron bacteria. Mineral incrustation occurs over time. By measuring the static and pumping water levels each year, the increase in drawdown can be measured and corrective action taken. Iron in the water usually means iron bacteria are present in the well. Annual chlorination will control the iron bacteria. • Maintain pumps regularly, including proper greasing and filling oil reservoirs every year. Ad-

just packing glands and adjusting impellers on deep well turbines regularly for efficient pump operation. Replace diesel engines with electric motors — that can have significant cost savings, depending on the price difference. • Most electric suppliers offer controlled (off-peak) electric rates for irrigation pumping systems. Using off-peak power rates can reduce pumping costs significantly when compared to regular power rates. However, off-peak rates should not be used with high-value crops like potatoes and onions. Talk with your electric supplier to determine if off-peak power rates would work for your operation. Typically, off-peak use will require a well capacity of 1,400 gpm on a 130-acre center pivot or the capacity to irrigate in 100 hours per week. It works best for deep-rooted crops like corn or soybeans. Source: www.extension.org

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Page 21 - Section A • COUNTRY FOLKS GROWER • April 2012

Checklist from A20

April 2012 • COUNTRY FOLKS GROWER • Section A - Page 22

New national labor posting rule may affect some farms by Sanne Kure-Jensen Labor unions have influenced legislators to implement a new law impacting businesses across America from small businesses with just two employees to huge corporations. Employees must be notified of their rights to organize and join a union. Farm owners and managers with non-family employees who are NOT exclusively engaged in “agriculture” and who sell across state lines are subject to the National Labor Relations Act. These farms MUST comply with the new posting rule by April 30 or face stiff penalties. Most, but not all, small farms (as well as railroads, airlines and the U.S. Post Office) will be exempt. The definition of “agriculture” is found in the Fair Labor Standards Act. “Agriculture” includes farming and all of its primary and secondary functions — cultivating and tilling the soil, producing, cultivating, growing and harvesting agricultural or horticultural commodities, dairying, the raising of livestock, bees, fur-bearing animals or poultry, and the “secondary” functions involved in agriculture such as the packing of produce farmed by that particular employer. The new labor poster MUST be posted at all non-exempt farms and businesses alerting employees to their rights to unionize. Employee Notice: The poster includes a summary of these employee rights: 1. Organize a union to negotiate with employer for wages, hours and other terms and condition of employment 2. Form, join and assist a union 3. Bargain collectively through representatives of their choosing for a contract with their employer 4. Discuss their terms and conditions of employment or union organizing with co-workers or a union (discuss pay) 5. Take action with one or more coworker to improve work conditions raising work-related complaints directly with employer or with government agency and seek help from union 6. Alert employees where to go for help (government agency) or to file charges against employer 7. Strike and picket (depending upon the purpose or means) 8. Choose not to do any of these activities The poster does not list any of the

consequences, positive or negative, that employees may encounter by exercising these rights. The poster does not mention that employers have no legal obligation to agree with terms of a Collective Bargaining Agreement (CBA). Employers are only required to make a “genuine effort” to reach agreements. Employers May NOT: 1. Prohibit solicitation or distribution or union-related materials, except during working hours 2. Question employees about their union activities 3. Take adverse action against employees because of union-related activity 4. Threaten to close 5. Promise benefits 6. Prohibit display of union logo or insignia 7. Spy or videotape (or pretend to) on employees who may be engaging in protected union organizing activity Posting Requirements: The poster must be printed 11” by 17” and posted in a conspicuous place where other employee notices are posted. If 20 percent or more of your labor force is non-English speaking, there must be a poster in that language as well. You can download the necessary posters at www.dol.gov/oasam/programs/osdbu/sbrefa/poster/matrix.htm. Enforcement and Penalties: Failure to post the notice may result in a finding that the employer is unfriendly to unions. If you don’t display the poster, the National Labor Relations Board (NLRB) may allow a disgruntled employee to bring charges that go back more than six months. Business owners can face fines that go up daily as well as other penalties. If there is any chance that your farm is not exclusively an “agricultural employer,” then you should hang the poster by April 30 and check periodically to be sure the poster is still up. Union Membership: As of 2011, 14.8 million or 11.8 percent of American workers were unionized; 17.4 percent of RI workers were unionized, the sixth highest percent in America. These numbers are down from 1983 when 20.1 percent of RI and 17.7 percent of nationwide workers belonged to unions. New York has the highest rate of 24.1 percent union workers; North Carolina has the lowest rate at 2.9 percent unionized. Among the top six

The University of Massachusetts Green School is a highly regarded, comprehensive 12-day certificate short course for Green Industry professionals taught by UMass, Amherst faculty and extension specialists. The 2012 Green School will meet from 9 a.m. to 3:30 p.m., twice a week between Oct. 31 and Dec. 12 at the Holiday Inn, Marlborough, MA. The course emphasizes environmental stewardship, a systematic approach to sustainable best management practices (BMPs) and integrated pest management (IPM). Participants develop an understanding of how proper practices impact natural resources such as soil and water, focusing on the management of the landscape as a whole. Tracks A, B, and C are appropriate for managers and staff at garden centers, nurseries, private or municipal grounds, schools, sports fields, landscape and lawn care businesses, tree wardens arborists, and professional gardeners. Track D is intended for students who want to grow vegetable crops commercially or work in the vegetable industry. Students may choose from four specialty tracks: Landscape Management (A), Turf Management (B), Arboriculture (C), or, new this year, Sustainable Vegetable Production (D). There has been an explosion of small farms and growers in Massachusetts in recent years. Topics include specific

practices used for the major vegetable crops grown in New England, water and soil fertility management, season extenders, and crop rotation. The course offers 12 pesticide contact hours for Massachusetts categories 29, 31, 36, 37; six contact hours for Massachusetts Licensed Applicator Training. Attendance at Green School will satisfy part of the Experience Requirement necessary to sit for the certification exam in Categories 29, 31, 36, 37. Pesticide credits will be accepted for all New England states. Credits available for MCH, MCLP, MCA, ISA, SAF and CFE. Stockbridge School of Agriculture academic credit has been requested. Green School is also helpful for people preparing to take the following professional certification exams: Massachusetts Certified Arborist (MCA), Massachusetts Certified Horticulturist (MCH) and Massachusetts Certified Landscape Professional (MCLP). The cost for the program is $675. Registration is currently under way. For more information, go to www.umassgreeninfo.org.

of an Open system is that it can utilize poorer quality water. In a Closed system, the excess water is captured and reused. Disinfection is required to control the spread of pathogens. However, salt and nutrient imbalances can build up over time. The advantages are that the grower using a closed system saves water and fertilizer; but the system requires better quality water. The class learned that their substrate choice effects how quickly the pH can change. For example, the pH can change by 1 unit in just one day using

true hydroponics; in one week in bag culture or large pots; and in one month in field soil if intensive liming/fertilizing is utilized. Neil also provided some common fertilizer recipes for use in hydroponic production. Dr. Melissa Brechner returned to conclude the day with her presentation on Plant Environment, Practical Concepts And Tools You Can Use. She discussed supplemental lighting for commercial production of lettuce, and provided guidelines for estimating heating and lighting costs. The “LASSI” system was discussed -

Light And Shade System Implementation - which controls the total amount of light and therefore controls the growth of plants, and provides consistently predictable growth 365 days a year. Dr. Brechner told the class that by utilizing this system, they can get half the heat they need from their lights during the night in winter; and by using supplemental lights plus movable shades, the average light sum is very consistent. Most of those attending the class were professional greenhouse growers, and the majority indicated that they would

states, their common or major industries are tourism, aircraft manufacturing and auto manufacturing. 1. New York 2. Alaska 3. Hawaii 4. Washington 5. Michigan 6. Rhode Island Public sector or government workers are five times more likely to be in a union with 37 percent versus 6.9 percent in private sector jobs. Educators and library staff are the most likely to be in union jobs. In 2010, 67 percent of public sector jobs in Rhode Island were unionized, second only to New York. This includes local government workers like teachers, police officers and fire fighters.

Private sector positions with the most union workers include transportation, utility and construction workers. Sales positions have the fewest unionized employees; workers in these positions generally like individual incentives, such as commissions and bonuses, available through individualized dealings with employers. Lori Caron Silveira, Esquire of Adler, Pollock & Sheehan presented on this topic in February, 2012 at the Newport County Chamber of Commerce. If you have further questions, please see www.nlrb.gov/poster or contact Ms. Silveira at lsilveira@apslaw.com, call 401-274-7200 or write c/o Adler, Pollock & Sheehan, One Citizens Plaza, 8th Floor, Providence, RI 02903.

Registration has begun for UMass Extention’s 2012 Green School

School from A19 fects plants; as well as how to correct high alkalinity (change or blend the water source, use an acidic fertilizer, and ensure iron is available in the root zone) and stressed the importance of matching fertilizers with alkalinity. Also discussed was how the necessary water quality depends on the crop grown, how closely the fertilizer used matches the crop needs and whether the water is captured and reused and how long it is reused for. In an Open system, any excess water leaches to floor or ground, and if more water is applied, this can control the buildup of salts. One of the advantages

Page 23 - Section A • COUNTRY FOLKS GROWER • April 2012

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April 2012 • COUNTRY FOLKS GROWER • Section A - Page 24

The 2012 Becker Forum

GROWER

Section B

“Farming in a Non-Farmer World, Building Trust, Engaging Communities, and Finding Common Ground” by Mary C. Gruszka For the past five years the Becker Forum, which precedes the Empire State Fruit and Vegetable Expo in Syracuse, NY, has tackled agricultural labor and immigration reform issues. But for 2012, the Becker Forum took on a new theme, “Farming in a Non-Farmer World, Building Trust, Engaging Communities, and Finding Common Ground.”

“Farmers are often too removed from their customers and their neighbors who didn’t grow up on a farm,” said Marc A. Smith, Assistant Director, NYS Agricultural Experiment Station, and Extension Associate, Dyson School of Applied Economics and Management, Cornell, as well as the chair of the 2012 Becker Forum organizing committee.

Forum B3 Neil Conklin, Farm Foundation, Oak Brook, IL, presented “A Dialogue on Agriculture in the 21st Century” at the 2012 Becker Forum in Syracuse, NY. Photo by Jeanette Marvin

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Page 1 - Section B • COUNTRY FOLKS GROWER • April 2012

Country Folks

April 2012 • COUNTRY FOLKS GROWER • Section B - Page 2

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“We wanted to examine why that happens, find producers who have bridged that gap, and take a provocative look at things.” Julie Suarez, Director of Public Policy, New York Farm Bureau in Albany, set the stage. “Only onetenth of one-percent of the New York State population farms today, and we need to develop a more effective strategy to educate everyone, not just politicians and the

people who come to the farm stand.” Lobbying is important, Suarez said, because without it, “farmers couldn’t farm in New York State. But the time spent doing so may be slightly skewed. It’s not enough for the agricultural community to rely on politicians.” Suarez noted that most farmers are engaged in the business of farming, not the business of communications. “Are we

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tainable gets a warmer reaction than something that’s not.” But do consumers grasp the science, economics or any other feature of sustainability? “They are under no obligation to understand,” Kaagan said. “We on the other hand [referring to the agricultural community] are obligated to understand what they don’t want to understand.” Consumers are being

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reached by messages about sustainable agriculture, by other voices than agriculture. “Bashing the critic or questioner will not work,” Kaagan said. “Bridge building works. A more constructive response is one that acknowledges agriculture’s challenges and emphasizes that the sector is seeking solutions with an attitude of continuous improvement.” Bridge building is already happening. Richard Ball of Schoharie Valley Farms in Schoharie, NY said he’s constantly assessing his retail and wholesale business. “We go over our crop record, and ask ourselves who are our customers, are we meeting their needs, why do they buy from us, what are these points of contact,” Ball said. Reaching farther afield, Ball was instrumental in helping a group from the South Bronx who, although located across from the Hunts Point Market, had no easy access to fresh fruits and

vegetables. That area of the South Bronx also had one of the highest rates of juvenile diabetes in New York City. To help bring fresh food to their community, the group bought a farm in Schoharie County. “They soon realized that they didn’t know a thing about farming, and contacted me and asked me to grow food for their customers,” Ball said. In 2011, “on the third week of June, we shipped eight pallets weighing four tons to the South Bronx,” and continued delivering produce throughout the growing season. There were benefits on both sides. “The South Bronx has 31,000 people per square mile and Schoharie has 30,000 people per square county,” Ball said. “We are engaging with a whole new group of people. When we have legislation critical to agriculture we’ve got 31,000 friends in the Bronx.” And those friends came through after Hurricane

Forum B4

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Forum from B1

April 2012 • COUNTRY FOLKS GROWER • Section B - Page 4

Forum from B3 Irene with donations of clothes and ready hands to help. Grains used to be a big part of agriculture in the Hudson Valley region, and Don Lewis of Wild Hive Farm, Store and Café Bakery in Clinton Corners, NY is bringing it back. “The last six years has seen a tremendous surge in grains,” Lewis said. “We’re milling organic grain, from six contributing farmers.” The mill currently produces and sells a line of flours including white flour, wheat flour, corn flour, oat flour, rye flour, spelt flour, and polenta. Lewis has developed a grain-based CDA, a community-driven agriculture program where members can commit to have specific cereal crops, including heirloom varieties grown by Wild Hive’s farmer network, and have year-round access to grains. New York City can be a great opportunity for farmers. “We’re just a few hours away from the biggest appetite in the country,” Ball said. Sarah Brannen, VP for Research and Policy at Hudson Valley Pattern for Progress, gave the statistics-nine million people spending $30 billion on food at home and away. Yet there are many areas in all five boroughs, like the South Bronx, that lack fresh food at retail outlets, and much of the food consumed is packaged. Connecting farmers to the city, or creating urban-rural linkages is one of the goals of the FoodWorks initiative to improve the NYC food system. Other goals include new farmer development, expanding CSAs and farmers’ markets, bringing regional products in

new venues like bodegas, increasing EBT at markets, and possibly the future development of a wholesale farmers’ market. The group also plans on working with institutional purchasing to increase the use of regional food produce and products at such locations as schools, hospitals and prisons. FoodWorks also endeavors to increase urban food production and regional products processed in and for New York City. Brannen encouraged farmers to participate in the dialogue with FoodWorks and other New York City groups to not only find common language and interests but to work collaboratively to find solutions to NYC’s food problems. Providing different perspectives from outside of New York State were Andy Vance, Feedstuffs Food Link, Columbus, OH; Hugh Whaley, U.S. Farmers & Ranchers Alliance, Chesterfield, MO, and Neil Conklin, President, Farm Foundation, Oak Brook, IL. “This gave a chance for the folks from the Midwest to see what New York State farmers are doing, and for us to see what they are dealing with,” Smith said. “The Northeast is very different from the Midwest. Agriculture is more diverse in New York State.” With more direct marketing in New York, growers have more opportunity to engage customers. Vance urged farmers to be more transparent in their operations, or as he put it, install more glass. “Update your attitude. Talk to your non-farm friends. Lose the combative nature,” Vance said. He cited as an example, the Cargill meat packing plant in Fort Collins, CO that opened their doors to the cameras

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for a segment on the meat packing industry on the “Oprah Winfrey Show.” “The person they interviewed was the general manager of the plant, and a woman,” Vance said. “She was a PR superstar. She made herself appealing. She showed where they grind the hamburger that her kids eat tonight.”

Whaley from the U.S. Farmers & Ranchers Alliance suggested farmers make a three to four minute documentary on their farm operations, and use Twitter and social media. The Alliance partnered with the Discovery Network to produce three vignettes

Forum B5

by Anna Meyerhoff, Farm Safety Educator, New York Center for Agricultural Medicine & Health Sometimes, the nature of agricultural work may require stressful positions and activities for workers. Work that involves frequent bending at the wrist, grasping objects, lifting or raising of the arm and shoulder, twisting or squeezing motions can lead to repetitive motion injuries (RMIs). RMIs can also result from awkward positions or movements, muscle fatigue, vibrations, and poor work postures. Workers performing tasks that require repeated use of hands, wrists and forearms for long periods of time are especially prone to this type of injury. Here are a few examples of some tasks that could cause RMIs: pruning, weeding, potting plants, picking fruit, packing boxes, using sharp or vibrating tools, and assembly line work. Repetitive motion injuries can be mild or severe. The most common areas affected are fingers, hands, elbows, wrists, shoulders, back, arms and neck. Pain may develop slowly and generally get worse over time. These injuries can eventually cause permanent damage to the muscles, nerves, tendons and

ligaments of the body. In some cases, RMIs such as Carpal Tunnel Syndrome, which affects the wrists, may even require surgery. It is important to recognize the warning signs early enough to do something about them. Workers should be aware of symptoms and report pain or other signs of repetitive motion injuries to their supervisor. Symptoms of repetitive motion injuries include: pain or soreness, muscle fatigue, tingling, numbness, stiffness, swelling or redness, loss of flexibility, loss of strength. There are a few ways to reduce the risk of repetitive motion injuries among workers. Since RMIs are caused by performing an action or motion over and over again without interruption, one of the best ways to prevent such injuries is by limiting the time workers spend performing the same task. Having workers take short breaks allows the affected body part time to rest and recover. Switching between different tasks throughout the day can also help reduce strain from stressful postures and repetitive motions. Another way to reduce the risk of injuries is through proper stretching. Workers should be encouraged to take mi-

cro-breaks and stretch before, during and after the workday to help prevent RMIs. While stopping the motions that cause pain isn’t always possible, making even small changes to the way work is performed can make a big difference in reducing injuries and increasing productivity. Ergonomics is the science of designing the workplace to fit the worker. Ergonomics takes into consideration things like the weight of objects handled, worker postures and movements, grip and repetition of tasks. The goal is to reduce excessive exertion, awkward postures and physical strain by modifying the work environment and tools. By making these changes, workers will be more productive, lose less work time to injuries, and experience less pain and fatigue. By using good ergonomic work practices and following these guidelines, you can help reduce the risk of repetitive motion injuries among your workers. Tips for reducing repetitive motion injuries: • Adjust the work environment where necessary, where possible keep the work around waist level trying to avoid excessive bending down or reaching up;

Reducing B6

Forum from B4 with folks sitting around a table discussing issues with farmers and ranchers. They also held five three-hour instant response research sessions to gather quantitative research from farmers, ranchers, consumers, influencers, and opinion elites. The Alliance learned there is a credibility gap in what a farmer says and

what the consumer hears. Language matters, Whaley said, in how people will respond to what is being said. Other findings showed that on an individual basis, farmers are highly thought of. People want technology, but don’t want to see it in their food. And there is a level of distrust. According to Whaley, people are concerned

about unintended negative long-term health impacts. To address this, Whaley said it’s important to acknowledge “your audience has concerns even if they aren’t legitimate to you. This can start the engagement to conversation.” It’s important to say you are continually improving, Whaley added, especially if it’s framed in the future. Integrate popular culture and entertainment in getting the message out since that’s where many of today’s influencers get their information and gain attention, according to Whaley. Conklin, from the Farm Foundation, said his organization has four priority

areas for food and agriculture-determining the goals and objectives of North American agriculture, the role of science and technology in agriculture, adaptability and resilience of food and agricultural systems, and human capital needs in food and agriculture. Echoing the other presenters’ sentiments, Conklin emphasized that polarized debates are non-productive. “Dialogues, on the other hand, encourage stakeholders across a broad spectrum of perspectives to engage in productive, deliberate discussions about the challenges ahead, and the alternative policies and approaches to dealing with them.”

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Reducing repetitive motion injuries

April 2012 • COUNTRY FOLKS GROWER • Section B - Page 6

Shirtsleeves and bootstraps make for ‘rich’ farmers by Glen Cope My parents taught me from a young age that you need not look any farther than the end of your own shirt sleeve for a helping hand. It’s a creed that I, and most of the farmers in this great country, live by. In an era of corporate greed and government bailouts, I’m mighty proud of that old shirtsleeve, as I know other farmers and ranchers are. We are also fond of our trusty bootstraps, by which we sometimes have to pull ourselves up. We’ve all heard that old expression that “Farmers are the salt of the Earth.” As a fourth generation farmer, I truly believe it. We care deeply for our land, animals and ability to provide food for our country. But, as people become further removed from agriculture, that old expression is not being met with the same public acceptance it once was. Public misconceptions, mostly fueled by anti-agriculture activists, are giving farmers a bad rap. For example, because farmers have been inno-

FOCUS ON AGRICULTURE American Farm Bureau

vative in research and technology to better care for the environment and provide healthier food with fewer inputs, we are being punished for being too tech-savvy. Because we incorporate with other family members for tax purposes, we are called “big, corporate ag,” even though 98 percent of U.S. farms remain family-owned. And because we care for our animals in a scientifically-proven and veterinaryapproved manner, we are told by activist groups that we don’t know how to care for our animals. Recently, I was in a taxi cab in New Orleans on the way to the airport heading home to Missouri. In a lighthearted conversation with the cab driver, I mentioned I was a farmer. His first response was, “Oh, you must be rich.” Far from it, I told him, explaining the many input and operating costs we have and how farmers really live. This conversation was still on my mind when I landed back at my local airport and got into my muddy farm truck, which painfully stuck out in a

sea of shiny cars and SUVs. As I headed home, the houses and subdivisions grew fewer and fewer and the rows of streetlights were replaced with fencerows and cow pastures. I returned home to the farm where not only I was raised, but my father, grandfather and great-grandfather also grew up. And I could not help but think of the blessings that farmers experience every day — the fresh air and green grass, and the ability to raise one of the safest and most abundant food supplies in the world. Most importantly, I am able to raise my children as I was raised, in a rural setting, while teaching them the values of a hard day’s work. It’s a shame that all Americans can’t experience living and working on a farm for just one day. They’d get some fresh air in their lungs and some dirt under their fingernails; they’d get to use some really cool farm equipment and technology, knowing these tools are contributing to a safer and cleaner environment; they’d get to work with

neutral position — electronic or pneumatic pruners may be a good alternative; and Select chainsaws or other power tools that have vibration dampening handles or systems. For more information on repetitive motion injuries, ergonomics and other agricultural safety topics, or to schedule an on-farm safety training session, please

contact me at 800-343-7527, ext 291, or e-mail me at ameyerhoff@nycamh.com. NYCAMH on-farm safety programs, funded by a grant from the New York State Department of Labor Hazard Abatement Board, are offered at no cost and are available in English and Spanish. Topics include packing house and personal hygiene, food safety and biosecurity, mechanical hazards, WPS pesti-

Federation and care for some of God’s best living creatures; and, best of all, they’d get to work alongside their families. Farmers are rich the cabbie says? Maybe we are rich after all. Glen Cope, a fourth generation beef producer in Southwest Missouri, is chair of the American Farm Bureau Federation’s Young Farmers and Ranchers Committee.

Reducing from B5 • Limit or rotate repetitive tasks; • Have workers take short breaks and properly stretch; • Maintain good posture while working; • Hand tools should be the appropriate size for workers; • When possible, choose ergonomically designed hand tools — like small, medium or large pruners, left or right handed pruners, comfort grips, bent or angled handles that keep the wrist in a

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TRENTON, NJ — The New Jersey Department of Agriculture is now accepting applications for 2013 United States Department of Agriculture Specialty Crop Block Grants. A total of $375,000 is available to organizations

representing New Jersey’s specialty crop industry for use during 2013. Individual producers are not eligible to apply. Specialty crops include fruits, vegetables, tree nuts, horticulture, nursery crops and floriculture. Most of New Jersey

agriculture falls into the specialty crop category. To be eligible for a grant, projects must “enhance the competitiveness” of specialty crops and might include, but are not limited to: research, promotion, marketing, nutrition, trade

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dents. As businesses and individuals with no prior exposure to agricultural production learn more about farms and agricultural activity, they gain a better under standing of why farmers do the things they do. This increased understanding can help to establish and improve relationships between farmers and other community residents and businesses. Farmers may also start an agritourism enterprise to meet new people, to socialize and to share the rural experience with outsiders. Farmers considering agritourism should become thoroughly educated about the risks and costs involved. Financial risks may range from loss of investments made in the business to costs associated with legal issues such as violation of laws and regulations or liability for injuries occurring at the enterprise. Other risks that can negatively impact an agritourism enterprise include business interruptions, production problems, marketing difficulties and human resource issues. Potential benefits for rural communities Agritourism also has the potential to benefit

rural communities. From an economic development perspective, agritourism may help to increase the local tax base by drawing more visitors to the area. In addition to spending money at agritourism venues, these visitors may also shop at other local businesses, generating additional revenue to individual businesses and additional sales tax revenue for the provision of local services. Data from the 2005 Farm Market Annual Survey showed that farms engaged in agritourism tend to have higher numbers of employees, which may mean more job opportunities for local residents. This article is part of the Agritourism Series, Agricultural Diversification Through Agritourism, by Stacey McCullough Instructor Community and Economic Development, Sheila Brandt County Extension Agent Staff Chair, Shaun Rhoades County Extension Agent Staff Chair. For more information or to view the article in its entirety, visit www.uaex. edu/Other_Areas/publications/PDF/SC ED301.pdf. Source: University of Arkansas

Agricultural diversification through agritourism What Is Agritourism? Agritourism is a growing industry as farmers seek ways to diversify and create additional farmrelated income to sustain the family farm. In general terms, agritourism can be defined as any activity, enterprise or business designed to increase farm and community income by attracting the public to visit agricultural operations and out lets. Agritourism creates an opportunity for educational or recreational experiences to help sustain and build awareness of the rural quality of life. Agritourism activities are limited only by the imagination. Some com-

mon examples include: Special events, including farm festivals and fairs, bonfires, outdoor plays or concerts, dances, rodeos, livestock shows, farm activity demonstrations and classes, farm implement or antique shows and farm tours. Direct sale of products through onfarm retail markets, roadside stands, pick-your -own operations, farmers markets community supported agriculture (CSA) and adopt an animal or tree programs. Seasonal entertainment, such as corn mazes, hay rides, haunted barns and other Halloween activities. Children’s activities, such as petting zoos,

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birthday parties, playgrounds, school or youth group tours and farm school programs. Alternative uses of farmland, including onfarm fishing, hunting, horseback riding, trap and skeet shooting, canoeing, bird and wildlife viewing, camping, biking, ATV and offroad motorcycling and paintball. Hospitality services, such as cabin or room rentals; restaurant or catered meals; facilities for weddings, corporate retreats, family reunions or church groups; camping; working vacations; and picnic areas. Agritourism is defined differently by different people and organizations. Some related terms that are used interchangeably with agritourism or that are complementary to agritourism include nature tourism, alternative farming, wildlife enterprises, ecotourism, agritainment, heritage tourism, agrieducation and valueadded agriculture. Why do farmers engage in agritourism? Farmers develop and offer agritourism activities for many reasons. For many, particularly owners of small and

mediumsized farms, the primary reason is to increase farm income. Revenue can be generated from agritourism activities or the sale of products grown on the farm. For farmers who sell directly to consumers, agritourism offers an opportunity to identify new customers and build a relationship with those customers. By marketing farm products directly to the customers, they are able to lose the middleman and reduce costs. Although agritourism offers the potential for financial gain for farmers, actual results may vary widely from farm to farm. In some instances, an agritourism enterprise begins as a secondary business generating minimal revenue and evolves into the primary source of farm family income. In many instances, additional revenue generated is relatively small. Some farmers may engage in agritourism to raise awareness of and appreciation for the agricultural com munity. This can be particularly important in areas where urban sprawl has created more direct inter action between agricultural and nonagricultural resi-

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Organic farmers discuss strategies for weed management by Jennifer Wagester On Feb. 14, the second of three New York Certified Organic meetings was held in Jordan Hall at the NYS Agricul-

tural Experiment Station in Geneva, NY. The discussion topic was organic weed management. About 34 participants attended the

Dr. Chuck Mohler provided an overview of the latest research findings. Photos by Jennifer Wagester

meeting, while an additional 18 logged on via the internet. Fay Benson, Cornell Cooperative Extension Cortland County Small Farms Educator and NY Organic Dairy Initiative contact, welcomed the group. Fay serves as a member of the NYS Department of Agriculture and Markets Crop Insurance Education Team. As insurance is an important risk management tool for farmers, Fay led with an overview of crop insur-

ance, highlighting important dates and changes for 2012. Last year was the first year organic crops were added to the federal crop insurance program. The five percent surcharge initially put into place for organic coverage has been dropped for 2012. Organic corn, soybeans, processing tomatoes, and cotton may be covered.

Management B10

Page 9 - Section B â&#x20AC;˘ COUNTRY FOLKS GROWER â&#x20AC;˘ April 2012

S U S TAI NAB L E /O RGAN I C

April 2012 • COUNTRY FOLKS GROWER • Section B - Page 10

Management from B9 Chuck Mohler then spoke to the group. Dr. Mohler is a Senior Research Associate for the Cornell University Crop and Soil Sciences Department. He has been conducting weed science research at Cornell since 1983. His latest research project, accomplished with the help of graduate student Neith Little, provides important insight into organic weed management. While studying the impact organic nutrient amendments have on weeds, it was observed that crops reach a maximum yield at moderate rates of compost while weed growth continues to increase even at very high rates. Thus, weeds can utilize the additional nutrients compost provides to reach gigantic proportions. This was also seen as a residual effect, when in year four, no compost was added and weeds continued to achieve large sizes while corn growth did not increase. In another study, compost (Kreyer’s poultry litter) and manufactured organic fertilizers were compared. The compost test plots showed an increase in weed growth while those fertilized with a mixture of blood meal, bone char, and potassium sulfate did not. It is not known specifically what is causing the difference in weed growth between compost and manufactured fertilizers. Research suggests that it is not linked to soil health, such as an increase in organic matter, and that phosphorus levels may be a contributing factor. Dr. Mohler’s research findings mean farms using composted manure as their main fertilizer source will likely experience intense weed pressure. Large weeds compete with crops for water and light. They also produce a significant amount of seeds, which increases the amount of weed seed in the soil bed. Penn Yan, NY, farmer Peter Martens provided an overview of the different equipment options and strategies farmers can use to combat weeds. Peter farms about 1,400 acres in conjunction with his father Klaas. Their strategy is to

help crops stay ahead of the weeds and eventually crowd them out. Prior to planting, the soil bed is prepared. A moldboard plow or disk is used and followed by a disk, drag, or field cultivator. To give crops a great start, the planter is carefully calibrated to ensure optimum planting depth, seed singulation, and fertilizer placement. Tine weeding takes place before crops emerge from the soil and weeds reach their second leaf. When weather conditions are wet, tines are set to bury the weeds. If it is dry, weeds are brought to the surface to expose their roots. A variety of tines are available. The 45 degree tine is the most general. It can be used to bury weeds or expose roots. An 85 degree tine is used for taproot crops. For row crops, the first cultivation is done when crops achieve as much growth as possible before weeds are one inch tall. A second cultivation is then done if weeds reach two inches in height or before the crop becomes too tall. In some cases, the crop will grow well and a second cultivation is not necessary. After Peter’s presentation, the participants shared a potluck luncheon before discussing specific weed management issues at their

farms. During the discussion, using clean seed and sound crop rotations to reduce weed pressure was stressed. Klaas Martens was on hand to provide examples of crop rotations that have worked well on his farm. For the past 10 years, New York Certified Organic has been hosting farmer discussion group meetings on topics relevant to growing and marketing organic field crops in New York State.

Fay Benson (left) monitored the Webinar while Peter Martens (right) presented.

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Ridicules farmers' right to grow food without fear, contamination and economic harm On Feb. 24, Judge Naomi Buchwald handed down her ruling on a motion to dismiss in the case of Organic Seed Growers and Trade Assn et al v. Monsanto after hearing oral argument on Jan. 31 in Federal District Court in Manhattan. Her ruling to dis-

miss the case brought against Monsanto on behalf of organic farmers, seed growers and agricultural organizations representing farmers and citizens was met with great disappointment by the plaintiffs. Plaintiff lead attorney Daniel Ravicher said,

“While I have great respect for Judge Buchwald, her decision to deny farmers the right to seek legal protection from one of the world’s foremost patent bullies is gravely disappointing. Her belief that farmers are acting unreasonable when they stop growing

certain crops to avoid being sued by Monsanto for patent infringement should their crops become contaminated maligns the intelligence and integrity of those farmers. Her failure to address the purpose of the Declaratory Judgment Act and her characterization of bind-

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ing Supreme Court precedent that supports the farmers’ standing as ‘wholly inapposite’ constitute legal error. In sum, her opinion is flawed on both the facts and the law. Thankfully, the plaintiffs have the right to appeal to the Court of Appeals, which will review the matter without deference to her findings.” Monsanto’s history of aggressive investigations and lawsuits brought against farmers in America have been a source of concern for organic and non-GMO farmers since Monsanto’s first lawsuit brought against a farmer in the mid-90’s. Since then, 144 farmers have had lawsuits brought against them by Monsanto for alleged violations of their patented seed technology. Monsanto has brought charges against more than 700 additional farmers who have settled out-of-court rather than face Monsanto’s belligerent litigious actions. Many of these farmers claim to not have had the intention to grow or save seeds that contain Monsanto’s patented

genes. Seed drift and pollen drift from genetically engineered crops often contaminate neighboring fields. If Monsanto’s seed technology is found on a farmer’s land without contract they can be found liable for patent infringement. “Family farmers need the protection of the court,” said Maine organic seed farmer Jim Gerritsen, president of lead plaintiff OSGATA. “We reject as naïve and undefendable the judge’s assertion that Monsanto’s vague public relations ‘commitment’ should be ‘a source of comfort’ to plaintiffs. The truth is we are under threat and we do not believe Monsanto. The truth is that American farmers and the American people do not believe Monsanto. Family farmers deserve our day in court and this flawed ruling will not deter us from continuing to seek justice.” The plaintiffs brought this suit against Monsanto to seek judicial protection from such lawsuits and challenge the validity of Monsanto’s patents on seeds.

Judge B12

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Page 11 - Section B • COUNTRY FOLKS GROWER • April 2012

Judge sides with Monsanto

April 2012 • COUNTRY FOLKS GROWER • Section B - Page 12

National Organic Program rule amends list of allowed, prohibited materials The National Organic Program published a final rule in the Federal Register to amend the use of materials in organic crop production and processing. These changes, reflected in the National List of Allowed and Prohibited Substances, will be effective on March 15. Incorporating feedback from public comments, the rule will allow the use of four new substances in the production or processing of USDA organic products: • Microcrystalline cheesewax, used to hold moisture in logs growing organic mushrooms. • Acidified sodium chlorite, used to sanitize food and food contact surfaces. • Non-organic dried orange pulp (in multi-ingredient organic products), if organic orange pulp is not commercially available. • Non-organic Pacific kombu seaweed (in multi-ingredient organic products), if organic Pacific kombu seaweed is not commercially available. The rule will also prohibit the use of bleached nonorganic lecithin, a component of vegetable oils. Lecithin is often used as a natural mixing agent (emulsifier) or lubricant in commercial food production. The rule will clarify an allowance for de-oiled non-organic lecithin in organic food processing if the organic form is not commercially available. The final rule, which includes the full regulatory text detailing the allowance and prohibition of these

substances, is available at www.regulations.gov (search for keyword NOP-10-0079; NOP-09-02FR). The changes to the National List published in the final rule were recommended by the National Organic Standards Board (NOSB). This citizen advisory board is responsible by law to advise the National Organic Program on what substances should be allowed and prohibited in the production and handling of USDA organic products. NOSB members must consider specific criteria when voting to allow or prohibit a substance, including demonstrated need for the substance and its impact on human health and the environment. In specific cases, including three substances addressed in this rule, the NOSB also determines if a substance is available in organic form on a scale large enough to support organic agriculture. The National List is a subpart of the USDA’s organic standards that identifies synthetic substances that may and nonsynthetic (natural) substances that may not be used in organic production. The Organic Foods Production Act of 1990 and National Organic Program regulations specifically prohibit the use of any synthetic substance in organic production and handling unless the synthetic substance is on the National List. The National Organic Program of the U.S. Department of Agriculture facilitates trade and ensures in-

Judge from B11 “As a citizen and property owner, I find the Order by the Federal Court to be obsequious to Monsanto,” said plaintiff organic farmer Bryce Stephens of Kansas. “The careless, inattentive, thoughtless and negligent advertisement Monsanto has published on their website to not exercise its patent rights for inadvertent trace contamination belies the fact that their policy is in reality a presumptuous admission of contamination by their vaunted product on my property, plants, seeds and animals.”

“Seeds are the memory of life,” said Isaura Anduluz of plaintiff Cuatro Puertas and the Arid Crop Seed Cache in New Mexico. “If planted and saved annually, cross pollination ensures the seeds continue to adapt. In the Southwest, selection over many, many generations has resulted in native drought tolerant corn. Now that a patented drought tolerant corn has been released how do we protect our seeds from contamination and our right to farm?” To see a copy of Judge Buchwald’s ruling visit

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tegrity of organic agricultural products by consistently implementing the organic standards and enforcing compliance with the regulations. For further information about the final rule, contact Melissa Bailey, Ph.D., NOP Standards Director, at 202-720-3252.

by Margaret Tuttle McGrath, Department of Plant Pathology, Cornell University Infested seed can be the source of the pathogen for important bacterial diseases occurring in the northeastern United States. These diseases include black rot affecting crucifer crops, bacterial spot affecting tomato and pepper, and bacterial speck and bacterial canker affecting tomato.

They can cause substantial damage if not controlled. The first strategy to use for controlling any disease is to eliminate or reduce the amount of the pathogen available to initiate disease. Therefore, the use of disease-free seed and transplants are some of the most important management practices for bacterial diseases. Some seed companies have

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the resources to produce seed in areas where these diseases do not occur and to test seed for the pathogens. First look at the seed package to determine if your seed has been tested for these pathogens and/or has been treated. Check with the seed company if the package does not contain this information. Hot water, hydrochloric acid, calcium hypochlorite, sodium hypochlorite, and peroxyacetic acid are treatments that seed companies use for bacterial pathogens. Infested crop debris, infested planting supplies (especially wooden stakes for trellising tomatoes) and infected weeds are additional sources of bacterial pathogens and must also be managed in an effective control program. Seed can be treated by growers with hot water to kill the pathogen. Hot-water treatment affects bacteria inside the seed; however, high temperatures can adversely affect germination if proper precautions are not taken and bacteria deep inside seed may survive treatment. It is best to have seed custom treated, which some seed companies will do. Realize before you start that when you treat the seed, the seed company’s liability and guarantees are null and void. Do not treat old seed. Make sure seed has not already been hot-water treated, as a second treatment can kill the seed. Treatment should be done within a few weeks of planting. Precise control of conditions is essential for successfully hot-water

treating seed yourself. Realize that there is a small margin between the temperature and length of exposure needed to kill pathogens and the treatment conditions that will kill seeds, and that the highest temperature seed can tolerate varies among crops. Use the following temperatures and times: Tomato seed treat at 50°C (122°F) for 25 minutes or 51.5°C (125°F) for 20 minutes. Pepper, cabbage and Brussels sprout seed treat at 50°C for 25 minutes. Cauliflower and broccoli seed treat at 50°C for 20 minutes. Carrot seed treat at 50°C for 20 minutes. Celery seed treat at 50°C for 30 minutes. Lettuce seed treat at 47.8°C (118°F) for 30 minutes. Some feel lettuce is too sensitive to treat. Hot-water treatment can be damaging or impractical for seed of other crops including pea, bean, cucumber, sweet corn and beet. Water temperature needs to be carefully controlled during treatment. The best way to control temperature while treating seed is to use a stirring hot plate and a precision laboratory thermometer. A large glass container will be needed because metal can crack the hot plate surface. The larger the container used, the easier it is to maintain water temperature and the less the impact on temperature of adding

Pathogens B15

Page 13 - Section B • COUNTRY FOLKS GROWER • April 2012

Managing bacterial pathogens in vegetable seed with hot-water treatment

April 2012 • COUNTRY FOLKS GROWER • Section B - Page 14

by Katie Navarra Irrigation systems allow growers to more precisely control the amount of and timing of water delivered to crops. There are exceptions of course, including years where there is too much rain, but in moderate years or even years of drought, growers can use irrigation systems to deliver water to establish healthy, productive crops. Center pivot, lateral move and sprinkler systems are types of irrigation systems that growers traditionally use to water crops. The systems are designed based on the size of the crop, the available water supply and the amount of water needed to keep the ground moist. Each of these systems is above ground and shoots water out of a nozzle or opening so that it rains down over the plants below, mimicking a natural rain. Because the water rains down out of

the system, the water can evaporate or on a windy day, the water droplets can disperse into a fine mist that never reaches the ground. These systems apply between 1.5-8 gallons of water per minute per acre. Over an hour, that can total 90-480 gallons of water. With water conservation an important consideration, a system that balances providing water to maintain healthy crops and a reduced amount of water usage is key. A low-volume irrigation system, also known as drip irrigation, is one alternative. Similar to center pivot, lateral move and sprinkler systems, drip irrigation uses a system of pipes, called tubes in drip irrigation, and emitters to deliver water to a plant/crop. However, rather than creating a large spray pattern above the ground, drip irrigation can be installed below the soil’s surface, di-

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rectly on top of the soil’s surface, or installed around crops grown on a trellis so that the emitter deliver water exactly where it is needed. A drip irrigation system has several components. Tubing, which can range in diameter from 5mm to 20 mm, is used to carry the water from the main source to the crop. Subsurface installations are more permanent installations, but above ground or those on trellises can be moved and shifted as necessary. The drip tubing can be purchased in one of two ways. It can be purchased “blank” or with pre-installed emitters. “Blank” tubing is solid and allows the grower to insert emitters as deemed necessary based on the individual arrangement at the farm. On the other hand, tubing with pre-installed emitters arrives from the manufacturer with emitters inserted at a set spacing. Most commonly, pre-installed emitters are 18”, 24”, 30”, 36”, 42”, 48” or 60” apart. Custom spacing can often be ordered as well. Spacing selection is determined based on soil type and the amount of water needed. Compared with other types of irrigation systems, low volume irrigation systems apply far less water. Drip irrigation delivers water at a rate of 1 to 4 gallons per hour, a significant reduc-

Subsurface irrigation of vineyard. Photo by Ed Hellman, Texas AgriLife Extension

tion in the total amount of water used. To learn more about the benefits of low volume, drip irrigation consult with a local distributor. Looking for additional ways to implement water saving techniques? Depending on the location and size of the crop being watered, a rainwater harvesting system could be set up to capture rainwater, store it and use it when the irrigation system runs. “The roof on a 200’ by 100’ barn is equivalent to almost a _ acre,” Joe Martinolich, Principle and Director of Equine Facilities Designs at CMW, Inc., said, “if you catch and use that water (for purposes other than drinking) that is a sizeable amount of water.” (Before installing any type of rain water capturing system be sure to check your state and/or town’s regulations).

Pathogens from B13 room-temperature seed. Hot-water treatment can be done successfully using a large pot on a stove top and a precision laboratory thermometer. With either equipment, expect to spend some time adjusting settings to achieve the desired temperature, especially with the stove top. A very low hot plate or stove setting will probably provide the desired temperature. With any set-up, wait to begin treatment until the water in the container is maintained at the desired temperature. Have containers of hot and cold water nearby in case the water does not stay at the desired temperature. Place seed in a tea infusion ball or in a piece of cotton cloth. Add a metal weight to keep the seed container submerged, but make sure it is not on the pot bottom. Agitate the water continuously. A wooden spoon works well

when using a stove top. Check the temperature constantly. Keep the thermometer off the hot bottom of the container; this can be accomplished by taping it to the inside of the wooden spoon used for stirring. Upon removing, cool the seed under tap water. Spread the seed out on paper towels to air dry at 70-75°F. It is advisable to conduct a preliminary germination test with a small quantity of treated and untreated seed from each variety and lot number before treating all the seed. Seed lots heavily infested with bacteria or produced from stressed plants may not stand up to hot water treatment and germination may be adversely affected. Old seeds can also be sensitive to treatment. Hot-water treatment has been shown to mimic aging. Source: Penn State Extension

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Page 15 - Section B • COUNTRY FOLKS GROWER • April 2012

Benefits of using drip irrigation

April 2012 • COUNTRY FOLKS GROWER • Section B - Page 16

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Monday, April 2 • 10:00 AM: Eden, NY. Don Mammoser Farm Machinery Auction. Selling a complete line of farm machinery including John Deere and IH tractors, trucks, tillage, harvest, barn and more! Watch our website for more information. William Kent, Inc., 585-343-5449 www.williamkentinc.com

Thursday, April 5 • 11:00 AM: 2324 Ridge Rd., Penn Yan, NY. Marvin & Mildred Koek Excellent Farm Equipment Retirement Auction. IH 1420 4WD combine, ‘95 Ford 16’ grain truck, tillage, planting & harvest equip. Dann Auctioneers, Delos Dann, 585-396-1676 www.cnyauctions.com/dannauctioneers.htm • 11:00 AM: Lakeview Holsteins, 2456 Rt. 14, Penn Yan, NY. Selling complete dairies, registered and grade cattle. Hilltop Auction Company, Jay Martin 315-5213123, Elmer Zeiset 315-7298030

Friday, April 6 • 10:00 AM: Alfred, NY. Alfred State College Spring Fling. All Breed Sale featuring choice cattle of all ages! Watch our website for more information. William Kent, Inc., 585-3435449 www.williamkentinc.com

Saturday, April 7 • 10:30 AM: Independence Township (Allegany Co.) New York. Complete Line of Good Farm Machinery and Livestock Handling and Support Equipment for Lyon View Farm. . Pirrung Auctioneers, Inc., 585728-2520 www.pirrunginc.com • 11:00 AM: Champlain, NY. Bet-

ty & Nelson LeDuc Farm Machinery Auction. Full line of machinery: Case MX120 w/ldr., Case IH 8920, Case 5130, NH TB110 w/ldr., Ford 6610. Northern New York Dairy Sales, Harry Neverett, 518-481-6666, Joey St. Mary 518-569-0503 www.nnyds.com

Tuesday, April 10 • Westport, NY. Pat Bennett Equipment Dispersal. Full line of equipment including 2 2010 John Deere Tractors. Sale Managers, Northeast Kingdom Sales, 802-525-4774, neks@together.net, Auctioneer Reg Lussier 802-626-8892

Friday, April 13

Brook Farms Machinery & Equipment Auction to settle the estate of Eugene Blumer. Full line of farm machinery including John Deere & Case tractors, John Deere forage harvester plus harvest, tillage and barn equip. William Kent, Inc., 585343-5449 www.williamkentinc.com • 9:00 AM: Melvin Miller, 240 Phillip Rd., Fort Plain, NY. Farm

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Saturday, April 21 • Hosking Sales (former Welch Livestock), 6096 NYS Rt. 8, New Berlin, NY (30 miles S. of Utica & 6 miles N. of New Berlin). Annual Spring Machinery Sale & Plant, Tree & Shrub Auction. Accepting consignments groups or single items. Consignments already coming

Snyder County Produce Auction

• B&R Dairy, West Chazy, NY. 2 Day Sale April 13-14. 13th: 300 top quality AI sired free stall heifers. Northern New York Dairy Sales, Harry Neverett, 518-481-6666, Joey St. Mary 518-569-0503 www.nnyds.com • 10:30 AM: Catskill Tractor, Inc., 384 Center St., Franklin, NY. Farm Equipment Consignment and Inventory Reduction. Franklin Used Equipment Sales, Inc. Auction Service, 607-8292600

OPENING FOR THE SEASON Friday, March 23, 2012 at 10:30 AM

Saturday, April 14

SPECIAL EASTER SALE

• B&R Dairy, West Chazy, NY. Farm machinery & tiling equipment. Northern New York Dairy Sales, Harry Neverett, 518481-6666, Joey St. Mary 518569-0503 www.nnyds.com • Burton Livestock, Vernon, NY. Machinery Consignment Sale. Tim Miller, Manager, Empire Livestock Marketing, 315-8293105

Located at 6130 South Susquehanna Trail Port Trevorton, PA 9 Miles South of Selinsgrove on Routes 11 & 15 or 40 miles North of Harrisburg

First Monday will be April 16 Open Mondays & Fridays Friday, March 30 at 10:30 AM There will be Produce, Bedding Plants, Perennials, Shrubs, Hanging Baskets & More!

Special Nursery Auctions Every Friday in April Any Questions Contact

Friday, April 20

570-374-0284 or 570-374-3793

• Pennellville, NY. 2012 Twin

Roger A. Lauver, Auctioneer - #AU-002634-L

MILLER’S AUCTION Argyle, NY 518-638-8580 PIRRUNG AUCTIONEERS Wayland, NY 585-728-2528 ROY TEITSWORTH, INC., AUCTIONEERS Geneseo, NY 585-243-1563 www.teitsworth.com WILLIAM KENT, INC. Stafford, NY 585-343-5449 or 585-548-7738 WOLGEMUTH AUCTION Leola, PA www.wolgemuthauction.com wolgemuthauc@juno.com WRIGHT’S AUCTION SERVICE 48 Community Dr. Derby, VT 14541 802-334-6115 www.wrightsauctions.com in call today to get into advertising it will make a difference. Expecting a field full of quality farm equipment. Tom & Brenda Hosking 607-699-3637, 607-

847-8800, cell 607-972-1770 or 1771 www.hoskingsales.com

Calendar B17

Shippensburg Auction Center 1120 Ritner Hwy, Shippensburg, PA

Produce and Flower Auction every Tuesday & Thursday at 9:00 AM, Shrubbery Sale at 10:30 AM on Thursdays We’ll have a Good Selection of Flowers for Mothers Day which is right around the corner! Come to

Shippensburg Auction Center for all your produce, flower or shrubbery needs.

Our 27th year of friendly, reliable courteous service. 717-532-5511 Auction 717-532-3642 David Leinbach 717-532-7288 Norman Zimmerman

BioSafe Systems introduces AXXE Broad Spectrum Herbicide. AXXE is formulated as an herbicidal soap utilizing ammonium nonanoate. This active ingredient is NOP compliant and OMRI listed for use in organic production. AXXE is formulated as a liquid concentrate that is mixed with water and is powerful, effective and economical for control of annual and perennial broadleaf weeds, as well as mosses, liverworts and lichens.

Made of natural fatty acids, AXXE works by removing, or “burning,” the waxy cuticle of green vegetation, and will not move through soil to injure nearby plants. AXXE works within hours of application, produces no residue, and is available in commercial and retail formulations. AXXE is available in 5, 30, 55, and 275 gallon sizes. For more information about AXXE, contact BioSafe Systems at 888-273-3088.

About BioSafe Systems, LLC BioSafe Systems, LLC is the manufacturer of sustainable and environmentally responsible disease control solutions, many of which meet the requirements of the National Organic Program. BioSafe Systems develops products for the Agriculture, Animal Health, Post Harvest / Food Safety, Commercial Horticulture, Golf, Home & Garden, and Aquatics industries, BioSafe Systems will continue growing with the release

of new products and solutions to meet the disease-control needs of homeowners and professionals alike.

Calendar from B16 • 8:25 AM: Newton, PA. Inventory Reduction. Farm tractors & equipment. Leaman Auctions, J. Edward Leaman, 610-6628149, 717-464-1128 www.leamanauctions.com, auc-

tionzip.com 3721 • 9:00 AM: Gerry Rodeo Grounds, RT. 60 Gerry, NY. Chautauqua County Area, Municipal & Contractor Equipment Auction. Roy Teitsworth, Inc.

Auctioneers, 585-243-1563 www.teitsworth.com • 10:00 AM: Argyle Livestock Station, 8 McEachron Hill Rd., Argyle, NY. Machinery Consignment Sale. Franklin Used Equip-

Lakes Produce Auction r e g n i F 3691 Rte. 14A • Penn Yan, New York

HAY AUCTION TUESDAY & FRIDAYS 11:15 AM OPENING DAY FOR FLOWERS FRIDAY APRIL 20TH

(315) 531-8446

LauverLongacre Auctions

AT GUS’ GARDEN CENTER

Saturday, April 28, 2012 At 8:30am

Tuesday, April 24 • 11:00 AM: Paul & Darcy Graves Farm, Comstock Rd., Adams, NY. Complete Machinery Dispersal. Watch future ads and our website for complete listing. Jack Bero, Mgr. & Auctioneer, Empire Livestock Marketing, 315-322-3500, sale barn 315-287-0220

Wednesday, April 25 • The Pines Farm. Barton, VT. Annual Equipment Auction. Sale Managers, Northeast Kingdom Sales, 802-525-4774, neks@together.net, Auctioneer Reg Lussier 802-626-8892

ORDER BUYING SERVICE AVAILABLE

PUBLIC AUCTION

ment Sales Inc., Frank Walker Auctioneer 607-829-5172 • 10:30 AM: Dalton (Livingston Co.) New York. Dr. Lonnie and Donna Meeusen Retirement Auction. Clydesdale Horses, Show Wagon, Tack, new JD Tractors, haying line & general purpose line! . Pirrung Auctioneers, Inc., 585728-2520 www.pirrunginc.com

The Sound That Sells

Located at 1105 St. Mary Street, Lewisburg, Union County, PA. Turn off Route Route 15 onto St. Mary Street at Kost Tire & Muffler & travel 2/10 a mile to auction on left.

BUILDINGS, TRACTOR, EQUIPMENT & NURSERY STOCK 14’x46’ Building, Used For Office, Consisting of 3 Rooms & Is Wired For Electricity; 8’x16’ Storage Building; JD 5055 E 4x4 w/Roll Bar & 553 Loader, Has Less Than 800 Hrs. Sharp; Set of Forks; 11HP Craftsman Lawn Tractor; 2002 Ford 250 Ext. Cab 8’ Box w/160,000 Miles, White & Has Extra Seat; 26’ Hallmark Enclosed Trailer w/Side Door; (2) Truck Caps, 1 for Toyota Tundra; 10’x12’ Greenhouse Frame; Wood Mode Cabinets; Picknic Tables; Lawn Furniture; (7) Cart Wagons; (4) Sets of 8’ Wooden Fence Sections; Wooden Flower Planters; Assortment Pots; Cases Peat Pots; Ceramic & Clay Pots; Cement Urns; Potting Bench; Overhead Sprinklers; Irrigation Items; Metal Sign Holders; Shade Clothe; Live Traps; Set of Trailer Steps; Ball Cart; Wheelbarrows; 1000 Sq. Ft. Deck; Ramps; Solid Steel Arbor; Concreted Easels; Sq. & Round Fire Pits; Canopies; Circle Kit Pavers; Wall Blocks; Decorative Stones; Pallets of Stones; Edging; Metal & Plastic Barrels; Sheets of Insulation; Organic Fertilizers; New AC; Step Ladders; Garden Hoses; Leaf Blower; Chainsaw; Chop Saw; Assortment Hand & Garden Tools; Backpack Sprayers; Mulch; Compost; Assortment Arborvitaes; Azaleas; Box Woods; Cedar Alaska Weeping; Cedar Blue Alaska Weeping; Cedar Japanese; Cedar Gold; Cotton Easter Scarlet Leader; Assortment Cypress; Canadian Hemlock; Eastern Hemlock; Eastern Weeping Hemlock; Lg. Assortment Hollies; Lg. Assortment Junipers; Spiral Junipers; Sky Rocket; Mtn. Laurel; Pieris; Japanese Umbrella Pines; Japanese Pine Table Top; Pine Mugo; Pine Pom Poms; Weeping Pine Serpentine White; White Weeping Pine; Lg. Assortment Rhododendrons, All Colors; Assortment Blue Spruce; Fat Albert Blue Spruce; Grafted Blue Spruce; Norway Weeping Spruce; Viburnum Leather Leaf; Golden & Purple Beech; Assortment Birch; Butterfly Bushes; Weeping Cherry Trees; Japanese Yoshino Tree; Choke Berry, Black & Red; Crab Apple Trees; Assortment Dog Woods; Enkianthus Red Vein; Assortment Forsythia Bushes; Assortment Hydrangeas; Kerria Japanese; Assortment Lilac Bushes; Magnolias; Nice Assortment Red Maples, Japanese Maples, Blood Goods, Try Colors, Ever Red & Green Lace Leaf; Mountain Ash; European Mtn. Ash; Red Oak; Pagoda Tree Japanese; Flowering Pears; Purple Plum Thunder Cloud; Pussy Willow Trees, Some Weeping; Golden Rain Tree; Eastern & Dawn Red Buds; Scotch Broom Moon Light; Seven Sunflower; Assortment Spireas; Assortment Viburnum; Tri Color Variegated Leaf Willow; Honey Crisp Apple Trees; Apricot Trees; Assortment Blackberry & Blueberry Bushes; Sweet & Sour Cherry Trees; Seedless Grape Vines; Assortment Plum Trees; Bamboo Clumping; Ornamental Grasses; Lg. Assortment Perennials; Iris; Mint Plants; Phlox & Many Other Plants & Items.

TERMS: Cash or PA Check LUNCH STAND OWNER: Gus’ Garden Center AUCTIONEERS: Roger A. Lauver • Dean E. Longacre #AU-002634-L 1217 Littletown Road Selinsgrove, PA 17870 570-374-3793

OWNER AND AUCTIONEERS NOT RESPONSBILE FOR ACCIDENTS

Friday, April 27 • 10:00 AM: Finger Lakes Livestock, 3 mi. E. of Canandaigua, NY on Rt. 5 & 20. Feeder Sale. Machinery Consignment Sale. Finger Lakes Livestock, 585394-1515 www.fingerlakeslivestockex.co m

Saturday, April 28 • Rising Sun, MD. 40 plus tractors. Watch for future ads. Leaman Auctions, J. Edward Leaman, 610-662-8149, 717-4641128 www.leamanauctions.com, auctionzip.com 3721 • Heifer Haven, North Bangor, NY. Machinery Consignment Sale. Northern New York Dairy Sales, Harry Neverett, 518481-6666, Joey St. Mary 518569-0503 www.nnyds.com • 8:00 AM: Teitsworth Auction Yard, Barber Hill Rd., Geneseo, NY. 42nd Annual New York’s Favorite Consignment Auction . Roy Teitsworth, Inc. Auction-

eers, 585-243-1563 www.teitsworth.com • 8:00 AM: Benedict Farms, Turin, NY. Complete Machinery Dispersal on the Farm. Tim Miller, Manager, Empire Livestock Marketing, 315-829-3105 • 8:30 AM: Gray’s Field, Rt. 5, Fairlee, VT. Townline Equipment Annual Spring Used Equipment Sale. C. W. Gray & Sons, Inc., 802-785-2161 • 9:00 AM: 796 No. Cream Hill Rd., Bridport, VT. Jim Ferguson Farm Machinery & Small Equipment Sale. All machinery like new. Wide selection of tractors, tools, hay & farm equip. Well maintained. Addison Co. Commission Sales E.G. Wisnowski & Sons, 800-339-COWS or 802388-2661 • 10:30 AM: Benedict Farms, Turin, NY. Complete Machinery Dispersal on the Farm. Dale Chambers, Manager, Empire Livestock Marketing, 315-8293105

Page 17 - Section B • COUNTRY FOLKS GROWER • April 2012

AXXE Broad Spectrum Herbicide introduced by BioSafe Systems

April 2012 • COUNTRY FOLKS GROWER • Section B - Page 18

Are You Involved In More Than One Industry? We Are Here to Help You. FREE E SUBSCRIPTIONS S BY Y REQUEST * Regional/National Solid Waste Recycling (monthly)

Regional Heavy Construction (monthly)

- Send me Ì YES Hard Hat News!

Handling Ì YES - Send me Waste Equipment News!

Hard Hat News focuses on heavy equipment construction including excavating, construction/demolition, paving, bridge building, and utility construction in the northeastern third of the United States. TITLE 1 Ì President/CEO 2 Ì Manager/Supervisor 3 Ì Other NUMBER YOUR PRIMARY BUSINESS #1, SECONDARY #2, ETC. 1 Asphalt Paving _____________________ 7 Construction Demolition _________________ 2 Concrete Paving ___________________ 8 Landscaping __________________________ 3 Oil & Stone Paving__________________ 9 Land Clearing _________________________ 4 Bridge Construction ________________ 10 Logging _____________________________ 5 Excavating ________________________ 11 Other _______________________________ 6 Utility/Underground _________________

National Aggregate

Ì

(bi-monthly)

Recycling professionals involved in the wood waste, C&D, scrap metal, asphalt & concrete, and compost recycling industries will find Waste Handling Equipment News a valuable source of new products, product innovation and site adaption. J Owner/President/VP J J J J

TITLE J Operations Manager TYPE OF BUSINESS (Check all that apply)

J Other

J Asphalt/Concrete Recycling J Scrap Metals Recycling J Ferrous J Non-Ferrous

Construction Demolition Recycling Construction Demolition Landfill Woodwaste Recycling/Land Clearing Composting

Regional Horticulture

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monthly

Folks Ì YES - Send me ) CountryGROWER!

YES - Send me North American Quarry News!

Country Folks Grower is the regional newspaper for all segments of commercial horticulture. Each issue is filled with important information for the Greenhouse, Nursery, Garden center, Landscaper, Fruit, Vegetable Grower and Marketers.

North American Quarry News covers quarries, sand and gravel pits, HMA and ready mix concrete operations in the United States. NAQN provides a combination of strong editorial and advertising for industry professionals.

*This publication costs $24 for one year. *This publication costs $40 for two years.

Your company produces these products or services: 1 2 3 4 5

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(Check All That Apply) Crushed stone and sand & gravel 6 Ì Industrial minerals Crushed stone 7 Ì Machinery/equipment manufacturer Sand and gravel 8 Ì Equipment dealer/distributor Recycled materials, concrete/asphalt 9 Ì Drilling Lime 10 Ì Blasting

(

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weekly

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Business Type: K Greenhouse K Tree Fruit K Nursery

)

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K K K K

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Northeast Equine Market

Small Fruit Christmas Garden Center Supplier

(monthly)

Mane Stream is a monthly horse publication reaching Maine to Northern Pennsylvania, and New Jersey. Not only does Mane Stream go to horse owners who request it, but it goes to all of our Affiliated Horse Association Members.....29 Associations Strong and Growing! In addition, issues of Mane Stream are shipped to tack shops, feed stores, stables, auction barns, and where horse people frequent.

Our premier weekly agricultural newspaper has four editions covering agriculture from Maine through North Carolina. Every issue is loaded with national, regional and local agricultural news, equipment, service advertising and auctions.

*This publication costs $47 for one year.

(Check All That Apply)

*This publication costs $78 for two years. (Check All That Apply)

K Poultry K Corn

National Vineyard

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Wine & Grape Grower offers features, news and information on growing grapes, and making and selling wines. Learn tips on how to start or improve your business.

How Many Horses Do You Have?_____

LEE PUBLICATIONS, INC. PO Box 121, 6113 State Hwy., Palatine Bridge, NY 13428 800-218-5586 • FAX 518-673-2381

SUBSCRIPTIONS 888-596-5329 email: subscriptions@leepub.com Name _______________________________________________ Farm/Business Name ___________________________________ Address______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ City ________________________ State _____ Zip __________

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(Check All That Apply)

K Wines K Supplier

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( 800 ) 836-2888 PO Box 121, 6113 State Hwy. 5 ( ) Fax: 518 673-2381 Palatine Bridge, NY 13428 E-mail: classified@leepub.com Announcements

Announcements

MAY ISSUE

ADVERTISING DEADLINE th

Thursday, April 12

For as little as $9.25 - place a classified ad in

Country Folks Grower

Call Peg at

1-800-836-2888

or 518-673-0111

Business Opportunities SUCCESSFUL GREENHOUSE BUSINESS for sale in beautiful upstate N.Y. Great location, possible owner finance, go to Otsdawagreenhouse.com for more info and photos, or email cvengen@stny.rr.com

Farm Machinery For Sale

or email classified@leepub.com Announcements # # # # #

ADVERTISERS Get the best response from your advertisements by including the condition, age, price and best calling hours. Also we always recommend insertion for at least 2 times for maximum benefits. Call Peg at 1-800-836-2888

Number / Classification 35 Announcements 50 Applicators 80 Auctions 110 Bedding Plants 120 Bees-Beekeeping 130 Bird Control 155 Building Materials/ Supplies 165 Business Opportunities 210 Christmas Trees 235 Computers 330 Custom Services 415 Employment Wanted 440 Farm Machinery For Sale 445 F a r m M a c h i n e r y Wanted 470 Financial Services 500 For Sale 505 Forklifts 510 Fresh Produce, Nursery 515 Fruit Processing Eq. 530 Garden Supplies 535 Generators 570 G r e e n h o u s e Plugs/Cuttings 575 Greenhouse Supplies 580 Groundcover 605 Heating 610 Help Wanted 680 Irrigation 700 Lawn & Garden 805 Miscellaneous 820 Nurseries 840 Nursery Supplies 855 Orchard Supplies 910 Plants 950 Real Estate For Sale 955 Real Estate Wanted 1035 Seeds & Nursery 1040 Services Offered 1130 Tractors 1135 Tra c t o r s, Pa r t s & Repair 1140 Trailers 1155 Tree Moving Services 1165 Trees 1170 Truck Parts & Equipment 1180 Trucks 1190 Vegetable 1205 Wanted

Announcements CHECK YOUR AD - ADVERTISERS should check their ads. Lee Publications, Inc. shall not be liable for typographical, or errors in publication except to the extent of the cost of the first months insertion of the ad, and shall also not be liable for damages due to failure to publish an ad. Adjustment for errors is limited to the cost of that portion of the ad wherein the error occurred. Report any errors to Peg Patrei at 518-6733237 ext. 111 or 800-8362888. NEED BUSINESS CARDS? Full color glossy, heavy stock. 250 ($45.00); 500 ($60.00); 1,000 ($75.00). Call your sales representative or Lee Publications 518-673-0101 Beth bsnyder@leepub.com YARD SIGNS: 16x24 full color with stakes, double sided. Stakes included. Only $15.00 each. Call your sales representative or Beth at Lee Publications 518-673-0101. Please allow 7 to 10 business days when ordering.

RED DRAGON 12 row propane flamer for organic weeding, used one year, excellent condition, $15,000. Call Doug 585-721-4728(NY) V E G E TA B L E C R O P MACHINERY CATALOG from tillage to harvest. The most complete mail order machinery catalog for vegetable growers. New/Used. Shipped Direct. Market Farm Implement, Inc., 257 Fawn Hollow Road, Friedens, PA 15541. 814-4431931 www.marketfarm.com

Farm Machinery Wanted WANTED: Implements for Allis Chalmers Model G tractor. 613-432-5764

LIVE GAME FISH Oldest Fish Hatchery Estab. 1900

Fish ZETTS FISH FARM & HATCHERIES Large Selection of Game Fish Pond Equipment & Supplies, Aquatic Plants

Truck, Air, U.P.S. Parcel Post Delivery SEND FOR COMPLETE CATALOG P.O. BOX 239, DRIFTING, PA 16834 PHONE: 814-345-5357 www.zettsfish.com

Koi For Rent or Lease

LARGE Commercial Greenhouses for rent with commercial building located in Howell,NJ. Contact LWeisse@ downtoearthlandscaping.com

Fruits & Berries

Greenhouse Equipment GREENHOUSE GLASS: Second hand, 2 sizes: 16”x24”, 18”x20”. Large Quantity Available. Make offer. SouthernNY845-469-8218

Fruits & Berries

WHOLESALE NURSERY, INC. 9555 North Gast Road, P.O. Box 116 - Bridgman, Michigan 49106 Phone: 269-465-5522 Fax: 269-465-4822

WHOLESALE GROWERS OF QUALITY SMALL FRUIT PLANTS BLUEBERRIES ARE OUR SPECIALTY

Grapevines Blueberries Jostaberries Gooseberries

Red Raspberries Purple Raspberries Yellow Raspberries Black Raspberries

Black Currants Red Currants White Currants Asparagus

www.kriegersnursery.com ALL STOCK GRADED TO AAN STANDARDS

Farm Market Items Affordable USA MADE Items. Full line of heavy duty items, poles - hooks - trellis items, arbors - fences - indoor items. Free 400 plus Items Catalog. Custom Display Racks. Also accepting custom orders. Serving customers since 1999. A&L Iron Works, LLC, 624 Buchland Rd., Narvon, PA 17555. 717-768-0705, Fax 717-768-0245

1-800-836-2888 To place a Classified Ad

Greenhouse Supplies

®

Specializing in Edible Landscaping. Blueberries, Blackberries, Raspberries, Grapes, and Fruit Trees. TN: 931-467-3600 • Fax 931-467-3062 email sales@freedomtreefarms.com www.freedomtreefarms.com

USED NURSERY POTS FOR SALE 1 gal . . .9c 2 gal . .15c 3 gal . .19c 4 gal . .25c 5 gal . .50c 7 gal . .60c

Antiques

Please Call Frank Geiger 203-255-1024

CAT pull type grader, SN 18485, complete, good shape. 506-325-2701 www.foxbrand.ca

Business Opportunities

Fish

Geiger’s Garden Center Business Opportunities

Do You Grow Grapes? Do You Make Wine? CHECK OUT www.wineandgrapegrower.com Or Call For a Sample Copy

800-218-5586

40 Bel ont St. Fairfield, CT 06430

Page 19 - Section B • COUNTRY FOLKS GROWER • April 2012

Country Folks Grower Classifieds

April 2012 • COUNTRY FOLKS GROWER • Section B - Page 20

Country Folks Grower Classifieds

( 800 ) 836-2888 PO Box 121, 6113 State Hwy. 5 ( ) Fax: 518 673-2381 Palatine Bridge, NY 13428 E-mail: classified@leepub.com Greenhouse Supplies

Greenhouse Supplies

www.thermalarm.com

d?

ol Too C

Too H o

t?

You need to know! Thermalarm P.O. Box 459 Heating

WANT TO PLACE A CLASSIFIED AD? CALL: 1-800836-2888

603-522-5301 East Wakefield, NH 03830

Help Wanted Kurt Weiss Greenhouse is a leading wholesale greenhouse operation with multiple production facilities in the Northeast. We are looking for a motivated and experienced Grower Manager with a strong working knowledge of greenhouse plant production. This individual will be responsible for all aspects of production from propagation through crop finish including water, nutrient, PGR and pest management as well as environmental controls and record keeping. The applicant must be a self motivated team player who is detail oriented. Salary commensurate with experience. E-Mail resume and letter of interest to: joseph@kurtweiss.com

FLORASEARCH, INC.

Irrigation 900’ of 4” Irrigation Pipe with 20-12” risers. Dunbar Greenhouse & Nursery, Ghent,NY 518-392-2385

Lawn & Garden

1740 Lake Markham Road Sanford, FL 32771 407-320-8177 7 (phone)) • 407-320-8083 3 (fax) Email: search@florasearch.com Web Site: www.florasearch.com

MANTIS Deluxe Tiller. NEW! FastStart engine. Ships FREE. One-Year Money-Back Guarantee when you buy DIRECT. Call for the DVD and FREE Good Soil book! 877439-6803

Help Wanted

Help Wanted

FLORASEARCH, INC.

LOCUST 4x4’s, fence posts, split rails, lumber. Natural, chemical free non poisonous alternative to pressure treated that has strength and lasts a lifetime. 518-883-8284 TOMATO STAKES, hardwood, with or without points, available 1”x1” to 1½”x1½” sq. and 36” to 72” long, one pallet or tractor trailer load picked up or delivered. Erle D. Anderson LUMBER PRODUCTS INC., www.woodstakesupplier.com Located in Virginia. 804-7480500

Sales Position Available Due to our sales rep retiring, Country Folks has an opening in Central NY. Applicants must have a basic knowledge of agriculture, reliable transportation, good driving record and be willing to learn. Sales calls to agribusinesses requires an average of 3 days on the road a week with no overnight travel required. If you are interested, contact Bruce Button at Country Folks, PO Box 121, Palatine Bridge NY 13428 or e-mail your resume to bbutton@leepub.com or fax to 518-673-2381

Nursery Stock

Nursery Stock

LEIDEN’S NURSERY

347 Leiden Lane Ph: Toll Free 888-383-4745

Patton, PA Fax: 814-674-6177

TOP QUALITY B&B

Colo. Blue Spruce, Norway Spruce, Serbian Spruce, White Pine, Austrian Pine, Concolor Fir, Douglas Fir

5’ to 13’ sizes

Call for appointment to visit our plantations.

L

K

13.5 acre established, successful u-pick blueberry and raspberry farm in East Dorset, Vermont. Includes dwelling and guest cottage. $479,000.00. Preview at http://youtu.be/Ru2iLf2KTjk 603-801-3325

A is a Thousand

NATIVE GRASSES, sedges, rushes, wildflowers, and herbaceous plants for use in wetland mitigation, restoration, and landscape design. Contract growing available. Signature Horticultural Services, Freeland, MD. Call 410329-6466 or fax 410-3292156.

Nursery Equipment

Nursery Stock

Parts

16 WELLMASTER used shipping racks, 44”x46” w/5 steel mesh shelves, excellent condition, $300/each OBO; Also, 50,000 (1 Gal.) containers, .05/each OBO. 607-279-8172 Ithaca,NY

LARGE VARIETY of Evergreens, Flowering Trees, Shrubs & Natives in larger sizes. Pre-dug trees available. 700 acres of quality field grown material. 40 years experience. Roger Coffey & Sons Wholesale Nursery P h : 8 2 8 - 3 9 4 - 2 2 5 9 Fa x : 828-758-2240 email: sales@rogercoffeyandsons.com www.rogercoffeyandsons.com

THOUSANDS OF AG PARTS available online at www.PaulBparts.com.Sprayer parts include Teejet Nozzles/Tips, Nozzle Bodies, Pumps, GPS Guidance, Foam Markers, and much more. Weasler PTO Driveline Parts available for North American, Italian, and German series. Or call 717-738-7355 ex.275.

FOR SALE: We’ve retired. Equipment and Nursery supplies for sale. For a complete listing visit our website www.carinonurseries.com or contact CARINO NURSERIES P.O. Box 538 Indiana, PA 15701. 800-223-7075. info@carinonurseries.com.

Real Estate For Sale

Reasonable Prices

Native Plants

BOULDIN & LAWSON 1 yard batch mixer, peat fluffer w/mist, 15’ conveyor, like new. 5 0 6 - 3 2 5 - 2 7 0 1 www.foxbrand.ca

Help Wanted

In our 3rd decade of performing confidential key employee searches for the nursery, greenhouse, and horticulture industries and allied trades worldwide. Retained basis only. Candidate contact welcome, confidential, and always free.

Lumber & Wood Products

LEYLAND CYPRESS: 3 gallon 36-42”, $10.00. Quantity discounts. Also larger sizes. OT T E R B E I N N U R S E RY, Newburg, PA 717-423-0119, 717-423-0146(Fax)

It’s easy & economical to add a picture to your ad!

For Information Call

800-836-2888

Plants

Plants

Real Estate For Sale

Real Estate For Sale

LARGE B&B EVERGREENS Below Wholesale Prices

7’-18’ Spruce, Pine, Arborvitae, Fir

Call for size, price & delivery

Nursery Liners

We accept Visa, Mastercard & Discover

Stoudt Nursery • 570-366-2686 Friedensburg, PA

COMPLETE LIST of deciduous and evergreen seedlings and transplants at www.hramornursery.com or call 231-723-4846 Hramor Nursery LLC, 2267 Merkey Rd., Manistee, MI 49660

20 bu.apple bins for sale, approx. 200 $30.00/bin f.f. $25.00/bin ju. 315-536-0480

Nursery Stock

Nursery Stock

Orchard Supplies

SPECIAL DIG YOUR OWN Norway Spruce

7-14’ $1500 each (minimum purchase - 50) Other Evergreens Available Call For Pricing and Availability

SHOWERS TREE FARM 465 Clearview Rd., Aspers, PA 17304

717-677-6816 • www.showerstreefarm.com

TREE FARM PRIME REAL ESTATE 40 Acres Suburb Buffalo, N.Y. Established 25+ years. Owner retiring. Nursery business could accompany. Treehaven Evergreen Nursery Phone

716-652-4206

( 800 ) 836-2888 PO Box 121, 6113 State Hwy. 5 ( ) Fax: 518 673-2381 Palatine Bridge, NY 13428 E-mail: classified@leepub.com Refrigeration

Refrigeration

Sprayers

Sprayers

3.

AMERICAN WHOLESALE CO.

ROOFING & SIDING e Metall Roofing g & Siding.. BUY DIRECT – Wee manufacture

ABM M & ABX X Panell - Standingg Seam m - PBR R Panel LOW PRICES - FAST DELIVERY – FREE LITERATURE

A.B. MARTIN ROOFING SUPPLY, LLC Ephrata, PA 1-800-373-3703 N e w v i l l e , PA 1-800-782-2712

Full line Pole Building material. ~ Lumber - Trusses - Plywood.

www.abmartin.net • Email: sales@abmartin.net

Seeds

Vegetable Supplies

4. classified@leepub.com - Go to www.cfgrower.com 5.ON-LINE and follow the Place a Classified E-MAIL IT IN - E-mail your ad to

Phone: (216) 426-8882 • www.awrco.com Roofing

the form attached completely and fax to Peggy at (518) 673-2381 MAIL IT IN - Fill out the attached form, calculate the cost, enclose your check or credit card information and mail to:

Country Folks Grower Classifieds PO Box 121, Palatine Bridge, NY 13428

NEW/USED WALK-IN-COOLER ~ FREEZER BOXES ~ REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS ~ EQUIPMENT Large Inventory ~ All Sizes • Buy • Sell ~ Nationwide • Wholesale Prices

Roofing

5 EASY WAYS TO PLACE A COUNTRY FOLKS GROWER CLASSIFIED AD IT IN - Just give Peggy a call at 1. PHONE1-800-836-2888 FAX IT IN - For you MasterCard,Visa, 2. American Express or Discover customers... Fill out

Trees

Trees

HALABURA TREE FARMS 35 Dreher Rd. Orwigsburg, PA (Schuylkill Co.) 570-943-2137 office 570-943-7692 fax Douglas Fir Concolor Fir Hemlock Shade & Flowering Trees Available

White Pine Norway Spruce Arborvitae

Blue Spruce Serbian Spruce Frazier Fir

Cut & B&B available • Reasonable Prices • Delivery Available

Trucks

Trucks

Ad button to place your ad 24/7!

FOR BEST RESULTS, RUN YOUR AD FOR TWO ISSUES!

Cost for each Issue per Zone: $9.25 for the first 14 words, 30¢ each additional word. (Phone #’s count as one word) # of issues to run______ Total Cost $________ Zone(s) to run in:  East  Midwest  West

$9.25 $9.55

$9.85

$10.15

$10.45

$10.75

$11.05

$11.35

$11.65

$11.95

$12.25

$12.55

$12.85

$13.15

$13.45

$13.75

$14.05

$14.35

$14.65

$14.95

$15.25

Name: (Print)_____________________________________________________________ Address:________________________________________________________________ City:________________________________________St.:_________Zip:_____________ Phone:_________________________________Fax:______________________________ Cell:___________________________E-mail:____________________________________  I have enclosed a Check/Money Order  Please charge my credit card:  American Express  Discover  Visa  MasterCard Acct#:_________________________________________________Exp. Date:_________ (MM/YY) Signature:_______________________________________________Date:____________ Required w/Credit Card Payment Only

V I S S E E D C O M PA N Y: Specializing in flower seeds from around the world. Seeds, plugs, cuttings. Offering the best annual, perennial, vegetable & herb seeds. Celebrating 25 years! Contact us for a current catalog. PO Box 661953, Arcadia, CA 91066. (P) 626-4451233, (F) 626-445-3779, hvis@visseed.com, www.visseed.com

FOR SALE: NEST/STACK ROPAK HARVESTING LUGS. Herb Barber & Sons, 800-3885384 or 716-326-4692, email: sue@herb-barber-sons.com w w w. h e r b - b a r b e r - s o n s . com/ropak.htm

2003 F/L FL70 SA Reefer Truck 3126 Cat, 6spd, 26,000 GVW, 20’x102” Reefer, Air Brakes, Spring Susp. $16,900

Sprayers

Parts, Sales & Service for Durand-Wayland & Myers Arendtsville Garage 135A Main St. • Arendtsville, PA 17303

717-677-7416

Sprayers

1999 Stoughton 48’x102’ Reefer Trailer, Spread Axle, Air Ride Susp, New Brakes, Good Tires, 18,623 Engine Hours. $8,900

888-497-0310 Wanted WANTED TO BUY: Dried Indian Corn. Call Jerry at 989356-3389

Sprayers

Fruit and Vegetable Sprayers • Mosquito (West Nile), fly & tick control! • Fruit & vegetable applications: sweet corn, pumpkins, tomatoes, strawberries, blueberries, melons & small orchards

High Performance PTO & Engine Driven Mist Sprayers, Blowers, Foggers, Parts & Accessories Spray Under Trees...Roadside Ditches... Forestry Weed & Pest Control...

3 Pt Terminator

Martin’s Farm Trucks, LLC

Trucks for All Your Needs - Specializing in Agri-Business Vehicles

ATV Narrow Row Crop Self-Contained Sprayer

A1 Mist Sprayers Resources 877-924-2474 Email resources@mistsprayers.com • More Info Also At: www.mistsprayers.com

Water Plants

Water Plants

WATER HYACINTHS 50 Plants:

$48.95, delivered

ALL CREDIT CARDS ACCEPTED

Flower Barn 800 Millcreek Road, Johnstown, PA 15905

Phone: 800-234-5858, Fax 814-536-7887

Calendar of Events E-mail announcements of your regional event(s) to: jkarkwren@leepub.com We must receive your information, plus a contact phone number, prior to the deadline that’s noted under the Announcements heading on the 1st page of these Grower Classifieds. * * *

If you have used equipment for sale, ask about our group of weekly farm newspapers that cover from Maine to North Carolina.

APR 5, 12, 19 & 26 Equine Short Course Extension Office in Honesdale. 7-9:30 pm. Cost is $45/person for all four sessions. Class size is limited so please register early. For course content information or to receive course registration materials, contact the Penn State Extension office in Wayne County at WayneExt@psu.edu or at 570-2535970 ext. 4110. JUL 14-17 OFA: 2012 ShortCourse Greater Columbus Convention Center, Columbus, OH. Call 614-487-1117 or e-mail ofa@ofa.org. On Internet at http://ofa.org/shortcourse info.aspx AUG 8-10 NCLA Summer Green Road Show Hickory Metro Convention Center, Hickory, NC. Call 919-816-9119. On Internet at www.ncnla.com AUG 8-11 National Christmas Tree Association Convention & Trade Show Sacramento Convention Center, Sacramento, CA. More than 350 Christmas Tree growers, wholesalers, retailers, Choose & Cut farmers and related industry members from around the world. On Internet at www. christmastree.org/conven tion2012.cfm AUG 17-20 NAFDMA 2012 Advanced Learning Retreat Tanners Orchard, Speer, IL. On Internet at www.nafdma.com

AUG 22-25 Virginia CTGA Summer Meeting Waynesboro Best Western Hotel, Waynesboro, VA. Contact Jeff Miller, 540-3827310 or e-mail secretary@ virginiachristmastrees.org. On Internet at www.virgini achristmastrees.org AUG 23-25 VA Christmas Tree Growers Assoc. Annual Conference & Trade Show Waynesboro Best Western Inn. Call 540-382-2716. On Internet at www.Virgini aChristmasTrees.org AUG 26-28 38th Annual FARWEST Show Oregon Convention Center, Portland, OR. On Internet at www.farwestshow.com OCT 10-13 IPPS Eastern Region 62st Annual Meeting Brandywine Valley, PA. Contact Margot Bridgen, 631765-9638 or e-mail ippser @gmail.com. On Internet at www.ipps.org/EasternNA NOV 2-6 2012 Irrigation Show & Education Conference Orange County Convention Center, Orlando, FL. Call email info@irrigationshow .org. NOV 7-8 Northeast Greenhouse Conference and Expo DCU Center, Worcester MA. Call 802-865-5202 or e-mail info@negreenhouse.org. JAN 9-11 MANTS Baltimore Convention Center, Baltimore, MD. Call 800431-0066 or e-mail info@ mants.com. On Internet at www.mants.com

Page 21 - Section B • COUNTRY FOLKS GROWER • April 2012

Country Folks Grower Classifieds

April 2012 • COUNTRY FOLKS GROWER • Section B - Page 22

Hello I’m P eggy Your Country Folks Grower Classified Ad Representative I’m here to make it easy for you to place your ad.

Call Me FREE On Our 800 Phone Line From Anywhere in the Continental United States

1-800-836-2888 Or Fax (518) 673-2381 Attn. Peggy E-mail: classified@leepub.com

Deadline is Thursday at 5 PM We Accept MasterCard, Visa, Discover and American Express

Payment May Also Be Made by Check or Money Order

RATES

(Per Zone) FIRST 14 WORDS

One Month . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $9.25 Each Additional Word . . . . . . . 30¢ per mo.

Lee Publications, Country Folks Classified, PO Box 121, Palatine Bridge, NY 13428

GROWER

HELP YOUR ORGANIZATION?

Country Folks Grower is the only publication reaching the fruit, vegetable, greenhouse and nursery growers and sellers every month with just one publication!

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of web. t Foodan even greater numberthe ing on the 2002 the Gourme In 2001 and and 29 the customers. Most of Gourmet On June 28 ip came togeth their last year will membersh its first the Maine SFP’s will stage Food vendors from and we exand completed ifying MG& again Gour met ucerand’sexhibit erstrate History of 2 Annual in- be back have many new Prod gic plan ident to includ- Festival. Last year 25 Food ty to- pect en to be Trade Show the three major goals ial at happ came posicts inec you a If ote members a susta to bers produ trip And Sp And to prom g the ing, Creating tent on ones. a s- trepid pro- mem

94 Bull Rd., Otisville, NY 10963 845-386-5681 FAX: 845-386-8752 sales@wesselsfarms.com www.wesselsfarms.com

nd

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Part of his terms of marketing ties, such will activi Gritty Details of role in legisl and processors t in the tools that assis to oping “Nitty the be ar and job will web devel exposure al Selling” semin process of nt. generate greater Food Festiv cts. He will in- ongoing developme try and to nt for their produ to update Gour met taking place is food indus profitability of conte ermore, he will be be helping which is 29 in ct whose goal - Furth n of a also crease the Strategic Plan June 28 and ment proje strengthen small, farm-based value ing on the desig MG&SPF’s of Maine help a marketing Freeport. to cers and work The Heart added n. and design food produ Inc. and the Maine’s value organizatio pro- added project is RC&D Area, plan for the met and Spe- farm producers. The are processors. The a Federal Gour e Main Producers main goals t, being funded by ject’s two et Imcialty Food exten State Mark are working to survey the size, state’s and (MG&SFP) rtProgram (FSMaine Depa a and needs of the essed provement with the June 4 ulture in - added/proc MIP) grant. na, a gradment of Agric ing op- value mic devel Stefano Tijeri Spring Meet nic Web Listings Dejoint econo nt from the Orga uate stude ntation Adof Harvey Marof Public Feature Prese y - Managing Partner about how to ent partm n at the UniElizabeth Harve discuss the latest buzzengines. Techministratio h p will e, has come source keting Grou site noticed by the searc e an on line versity of Main the Heart e cases to dissome onlin maine becom ation relevant to to help your web view get www. board will on we SFP inform itting This year its of the MG& food indus nology perm undergoing of Maine and project. 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Private Label Available

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Calendar

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We Ship Anywhere in the USA

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Products Priced For Your Profitability

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and you with lush ready to serve sizes and assortment of ful trees in an s, grown Fir and Fraser m lsa Ba es. typ the most untain air, are in our cool mo of trees available to es ieti var r ula ds. pop to meet your nee you in quantities your order with our ce pla you en Wh rmation get accurate info m the growers, you directly fro rs we ans est and hon custom cut as order will be will farmer. Your e as possible and dat ry ive del close to the k of condition. working with pea the in n locatio experienced in arrive at your sale growers are er you are a garden center, Vermont whole eth p e retailers. Wh zation, let us hel all Christmas tre lot or a fund raising organi trees. Orders as ner farm stand, cor high profit Vermont Christm ile. sm , and a you with quality l be handled with efficiency wil large and small bility Asso

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d Availa For Prices an The Contact as Tree lesale Christm Vermont Who Association at s er ow Gr s.org tchristmastree www.vermon “PROFIT” You CAN Get There From by the VT Here Co-Sponsored ure Dept. of Agricult

For a Successful Holiday Season, Give Virginia a Ring. www.greenstarcoop.net

Click on catalog & enter guest@greenstarcoop.net in the email address, password 123456. This will allow you to access over 1,400 products!

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Virginia has everything you need for sparkling sales and satisfied customers. Diverse selection of Christmas Trees, poinsettias, plants, Virginia’s Finest® food and beverage gifts. Excellent quality. Speedy shipping.

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Wisconsin Christmas Trees www.christmastrees-wi.org e-mail: info@christmastrees-wi.org

Give us a ring at 804/786-3951. Visit www.vdacs.state.va.us for the Virginia Shippers Directory, the Virginia Christmas Tree Guide, and the Virginia Food and Beverage Directory. Virginia Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services Also visit these Web sites: www.virginiagrown.com — Virginia Grown produce and nursery products • www.vctga.com — Virginia Christmas Tree Growers Association www.vnla.org — Virginia Nursery and Landscape Association • www.vafinest.com — Virginia’s Finest products

(608) 742-8663 Fax (608) 742-8667 Wisc. Christmas Tree Producers Assn. Dept. C, W9833 Hogan Rd, Portage, WI 53901

For More Information Contact Your Local Representative or Country Folks Grower, PO Box 121, Palatine Bridge, NY 13428 • 800-218-5586 Advertising and Print Jobs: Dan Wren 517-673-0117 • Email dwren@leepub.com Editorial: Joan KarkWren 518-673-0141 • Email jkarkwren@leepub.com

Page 23 - Section B • COUNTRY FOLKS GROWER • April 2012

HOW CAN

? ?

Country Folks

April 2012 • COUNTRY FOLKS GROWER • Section B - Page 24


CF Grower 4.12