Page 1

Eastern Edition n

Section One of Two

February 2012


Volume e 21 Number r 2


Serving All Aspects of Commercial Horticulture

Greenhouse • Nursery • Garden Center • Fruit & Vegetable • Farm Markets • Landscapers • Christmas Breaking ground with h new biological control methods Page e B1

Today’ss Marketing g A5 Classifieds Fruitt & Vegetable Pestt Control

B16 B1 A12

New vegetable crops for immigrant populations ~ Page A2

February 2012 • COUNTRY FOLKS GROWER • Section A - Page 2

New vegetable crops for immigrant populations by Sanne Kure-Jensen What do immigrants miss most from their homelands? After family, they miss traditional foods. At a 70-acre test farm in Amherst, MA, researchers work to offer regional farmers a new crop and market opportunity and shoppers fresh produce staples they crave. In midNovember, Dr. Frank Mangan, Extension associate professor and researcher at the University of Massachusetts, shared his experience with Rhode Island and Massachusetts growers and agricultural advisors. Latin Americans are the largest immigrant population in this region. Hispanics and Asian-Americans purchase nearly 25 percent of all fresh fruits and vegetables in U.S. grocery stores, according to Mangan. Massachusetts has the largest concentration of Brazilians, 250,000, in the U.S. as well as 120,000 Salvadorans. Taking cues from local immigrants, Mangan and his team gave trials to new vegetables and greens hoping to bring the most viable varieties into routine production in New England. UMass researchers and Latin American graduate students grew several acres of each test crop. Recent trial plots contained, Jiló eggplants (Solanum gilo) and Taioba leaves (Xanthosoma sagittifolium), staples in Brazilian cuisine. Other fields had Ají ducle sweet peppers (Capsicum chinense) and Calabaza squash (Cucurbita moschata), both Puerto Rican and Dominican favorites. Special permits were required before establishing trials of Water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica), a favorite of Asian cooks. This plant is invasive in the south and has

University of Massachusetts graduate student Mildred Alvarado, at left, promoting chipilín at a market in New York. Photo by Frank Mangan been a federally declared a noxious weed; it was not invasive in Massachusetts in these approved trials. Chipilín greens (Legume family), a Salvadoran favorite, have met with production challenges. Highly susceptible to potato leaf hopper, Chipilín has limited treatment options since the greens are sold and eaten rather than the roots. Damaged leaves are not salable so pest control is critical to achieving market success. Use of row covers in combination with insecticide treatments after each harvest are being investigated as pest controls. Even with the extra labor of moving the row covers for biweekly harvest followed by a pesticide treatment, salable yields bring in close to $40,000 per acre with investments of about $10,000 per acre. Mangan said, “Farmers need two things: how to grow it and how to sell it; without both, they won’t even try it.” Using pre-established contacts with wholesale buyers,

University of Massachusetts graduate student Celina Fernandes with maxixe at the UMass Research Farm in Deerfield, MA. Photo by Zoraia Barros

the research farm’s crops are sold to target markets that desire these crops. A successful relationship has been established with DeMoula’s/Market Basket stores, which has over 70 stores in Massachusetts and New Hampshire. The farm team sold their Taioba leaves with the help of advertising on a Brazilian cable station timed with their first deliveries. These deliveries were met with lines of shoppers and record fast sellout (35 cases in 15 minutes). Some immigrants said they had not seen this produce since leaving their homelands and cried tears of joy. This test market approach verifies potential market size before regional farmers risk investment in new crops. Mangan has worked with several Brazilian graduate students on the field trials and crop studies. Students make variable cost analyses for comparison to other crops. For example, $40,000 gross rev-

enue could be made per acre growing Taioba leaves with costs of nearly $15,000 per acre. In 2011, 50 Massachusetts farmers grew ethnic crops for immigrant shoppers. Ethnic crops development at UMass Amherst has pumped over $5 million into the local economy. Lessons learned in the field trials are included in the “New England Vegetable Management Guide” available in print and on-line at This guide was created, and is regularly updated, by the Extension Vegetable Programs of all six New England state universities. This guide for commercial vegetable growers offers cultural practice recommendations, including soil fertility, organic production, irrigation, weed, insect and disease management. Organic and IPM (integrated pest management) efficacy tables, biological controls, pesticide safety, transplant production and seed or root stock sources are also included. Pesticide and Fungicide Use When working with ethnic plants or varieties, farmers should learn the genus and species to help determine which pesticides and fungicides are labeled for that vegetable group. For example, Calabaza is a Cucurbita and can be treated using the same products as winter squash or pumpkin. Due to the relatively long days-to-harvest, the guide recommends using Calabaza transplants in New England. Encouraging ethnic vegetable and greens production seems especially fitting in Rhode Island where the recently formed Rhode Island Food Policy Council declared

its goal as “Community food security will exist in Rhode Island when safe, nutritious and culturally appropriate food is accessible and affordable in every community and an increasing proportion of Rhode Islanders’ food is raised, caught and processed locally.” For more on this Rhode Island Food Policy Council visit For more information, contact Mangan via e-mail at, at the Department of Plant, Soil & Insect Sciences, French Hall 201, UMass, Amherst, MA 01003-0910 or by calling 413545-1178. For details on growing ethnic crops in the Northeast, see For more information on Mangan’s research, go to the UMass Vegetable Team website at Printed copies of the “New England Vegetable Management Guide” and the “Northeast Vegetable and Strawberry Pest Identification Guide” may be ordered from state Extension publication offices or by calling the University of Massachusetts Extension Bookstore at 413545-2717. Mangan’s presentation was co-sponsored by the University of Rhode Island and USDA’s Risk Management Agency. Additional speakers included Charlie Koines who spoke on vegetable crop risk management programs as well as Paul Brule and Ingrid Fratantuono of the USDA Farm Service Agency who spoke on crop loss protection with NAP and SURE insurance programs. Shelly, Doreen and Mike Pezza of Pezza Farm in Johnson, RI, hosted the presentation and provided lunch.

Abóbora japonesa at a terminal market in Brazil. Photo by Frank Mangan

by Kelly Gates When Frank C. Hetz discovered that he was allergic to the lead-based paint he used as a professional painter in the early 1900s, he was forced to take his life and career in a completely different direction. According to his great grandson, Hagan Hetz, after visiting a choose-and-cut Christmas tree farm with one of his children, Frank chose to establish an evergreen growing operation in 1911. This same business still supports more than 11 Hetz family members today. “He acquired a loan of $5,000, a large amount at that time, and started planting trees for a Christmas tree business,” said Hagan. “The company remained a retail operation for many years. But after World War II, there was a big housing boom that led him to begin growing evergreens for sale into the wholesale market.” Over the years, the Hetz family transferred ownership and operation of Fairview Evergreen Nurseries from one generation to another. The current shareholder group includes Frank’s grandchildren, great grandchildren and other extended relatives, representing four generations in total.

Together, the Hetz’ steadily acquired acreage, increasing their total land to around 3,500 acres of plant production. They also farm 1,000 acres of property, planting corn, oats and wheat as part of the nursery’s crop rotation program. Situated within Western Erie County, near the shores of Lake Erie, the growing grounds are rich with sandy, loamy soil. “There are many varieties that grow well in this type of soil,” noted Hagan. “Yews are one of our specialties-we grow around one dozen varieties of those. We also grow holly, boxwood, juniper, arborvitae, viburnums, burning bush, hibiscus, hydrangea and a wide range of shade trees, including ginkgo, which is our most popular shade tree.” The nursery is large enough to not only offer a number of different varieties, but also various sizes of plants and trees. Yews range from 15 inches to six feet tall. Arborvitae are shipped to customers when they are three feet to eight feet in height. And shade trees vary from 1.5 inches to four inches in caliper. The Hetz family boasts an in-depth propagation program with many plants started from

Founder, Frank C. Hetz, circa 1940s. Frank started Fairview Evergreen Nursery (as it was originally called) in 1911. Photos courtesy of Fairview Evergreen Nurseries

Page 3 - Section A • COUNTRY FOLKS GROWER • February 2012

Fairview Evergreen Nurseries

Our family of shareholder-employees. Front (L-R): Mike Wassink, Hans Hetz, Tammy Bendure Harrington, Christine Hetz Phillips, Steve Hetz (retired), Richard Hetz, Fred Bendure, Kurt Hetz. Back (L-R): Hagan Hetz, Tom Bendure, Chris Hetz, Tim Hetz.

seeds collected on site. “Ginkgo is one of the varieties that we start from seeds harvested in our own fields,” Hagan told Country Folks Grower. “With evergreens, we take cuttings from plants here and stick them in greenhouses before putting them out in liner row spacing beds, with three to five plants together. Then, after a few years, they go into more formal field rows.” The established evergreens are root pruned while they are transferred to the field rows. At times, the nursery even sells some of its bare root liners to wholesale growers, he added.

As peak season rolls around each year, Fairview Evergreen Nurseries prepares to fill orders for its customers in an ever-expanding territory radiating outward from the eastern seaboard. “We ship as far west as Kansas City and eastern Nebraska and down as far south as Tennessee,” explained Hagan. “We also have a growing customer base in Ontario and Quebec, both of which have been really taking off in the past six years. Our customers include landscapers, re-wholesalers and garden centers.” In the future, Fairview Evergreen Nurseries plans to

Fairview Evergreen employees use a "wiggle hoe" to cultivate between plants in a block of young Canadian Hemlock.

introduce a retail division into the mix. The existing 12 propagation houses will not be enough to accommodate the major shift, however. So a whole new series of indoor growing structures will soon be added to the infrastructure at a different site. “We will be building 50 new poly greenhouses on a new property within the next few years,” said Hagan. “This is part of a big effort on our part to sell to more retail oriented customers like garden centers.” Retailers like this tend to want plants with a lot of color, he said. Consequently, the new greenhouses will be used to grow hydrangea, hibiscus and a vast array of ornamentals, along with standard landscape and garden varieties. The nursery’s headquarters will then be relocated to the site to create efficiencies. Hagan’s cousin Tammy, who currently manages the propagation houses, will continue to supervise the crews inside the 50 new greenhouses. “It is interesting to look back on the past century and see how the family business has gone from growing for the end consumer to the wholesale market and now, we are increasing our retail push,” said Hagan. “Our aim is not to shift our entire product mix. Rather, we want to offer a wider selection of color plants to compliment the evergreens which are our specialty.”

February 2012 • COUNTRY FOLKS GROWER • Section A - Page 4

Keeping winter storage crops fresher longer by Sanne Kure-Jensen Do your carrots wilt, your potatoes sprout and your squash pucker and shrink? If so it could be from improper storage. Ruth Hazzard, University of Massachusetts Extension agent, shared her experience with root crop storage and Lee Stivers, Pennsylvania State University Cooperative Extension, spoke about Vegetables’ Post Harvest Needs at the New England Vegetable & Fruit Conference in December. Long term storage is successful when the natural aging process of vegetables and fruit can be slowed. Growers need to manage four natural processes: respiration, transpiration, ethylene production and potential cold injury. Immediately after harvest, root crops such as carrots or beets should be cooled and then stored at their optimum temperature and rela-

tive humidity (RH). Other crops such as potato, onion and winter squash benefit from a curing period before being cooled to their ideal storage temperature. Different crops prefer specific types of storage: cold, cool or warm combined with moist or dry conditions. “Quality cannot be improved after harvest,” noted Stivers, “it can only be maintained. For best storage, start with the highest quality crop from the varieties best suited to your site; control pests all season, manage water and nutrients and harvest at the optimal time.” Successful storage begins with good harvest practices. “Treat all your crops like eggs,” Hazzard and Stivers agreed. One bad apple really does spoil the whole barrel. Cull cut, bruised and damaged vegetables and fruits before storage. Bruising and

Cover photo by Maria Moreira A team of UMass graduate students pose for a photo in field of Maxixe Cucumis anguria.

Country Folks The Monthly Newspaper for Greenhouses, Nurseries, Fruit & Vegetable Growers (518) 673-3237 • Fax # (518) 673-2381 (ISSN # 1065-1756) U.S.P.S. 008885 Country Folks Grower is published monthly by Lee Publications, P.O. Box 121, 6113 St. Hwy. 5, Palatine Bridge, NY 13428. Periodical postage paid at Palatine Bridge, NY 13428. Subscription Price: $22. per year. Canada $55 per year. POSTMASTER: Send address change to Country Folks Grower, P.O. Box 121, Subscription Dept., Palatine Bridge, NY 13428-0121. Publisher, President..................................Frederick W. Lee V.P., General Manager ....................Bruce Button, 518-673-0104 V.P., Production ................................Mark W. Lee, 518-673-0132 Comptroller .....................................Robert Moyer, 518-673-0148 Production Coordinator ................Jessica Mackay, 518-673-0137 Editor ...........................................Joan Kark-Wren, 518-673-0141 Page Composition .........................Allison Swartz, 518-673-0139 Classified Ad Manager ...................Peggy Patrei, 518-673-0111 Shop Foreman ..........................................Harry DeLong

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AD SALES REPRESENTATIVES Bruce Button, Ad Sales Mgr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .800-218-5586, ext. 104 Dan Wren, Grower Sales Mgr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 800-218-5586, ext. 117 Jan Andrews . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 800-218-5586, ext. 110 Dave Dornburgh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 800-218-5586, ext. 109 Laura Clary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .800-218-5586, ext. 118 Steve Heiser . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 800-218-5586, ext. 107 Tina Krieger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 800-218-5586, ext. 108 Ian Hitchener . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 802-222-5726 Kegley Baumgardner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 540-255-9112 Wanda Luck / North Carolina . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 336-416-6198 (cell) Mark Sheldon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 814-587-2519 Sue Thomas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 949-305-7447

Lee Publications 6113 State Hwy. 5, PO Box 121, Palatine Bridge, NY 13428 We cannot GUARANTEE the return of photographs. Publisher not responsible for typographical errors. Size, style of type and locations of advertisements are left to the discretion of the publisher. The opinions expressed in this publication are not necessarily those of the publisher. We will not knowingly accept or publish advertising which is fraudulent or misleading in nature. The publisher reserves the sole right to edit, revise or reject any and all advertising with or without cause being assigned which in his judgement is unwholesome or contrary to the interest of this publication. We assume no financial responsibility for typographical errors in advertisement, but if at fault, will reprint that portion of the ad in which the error appears.

cuts cause excess respiration, ethylene production and offer disease a way to get inside skins and rinds. Mechanically damaged fruits and vegetables also lose water more rapidly. Proper curing of skins and rinds can help heal wounds, retain moisture, reduce shrinkage and extend storage life. Prompt post-harvest cooling is critical for most vegetables to lower respiration rates, slow water loss, inhibit potential mold and bacteria growth and reduce ethylene production (ripening agent). Cooling methods include room-cooling, forced-air cooling, hydro-cooling and icing. While some crops benefit from cold storage, others suffer cold injury and decline quickly in cool conditions. All crops need consistent temperatures. Rising and falling temperatures can encourage condensation and quickly rot a crop. Oxygen and air circulation are critical to allow respiration to keep the crops alive. Be aware of the ethylene produced by fruits like apples, pears, peaches, plums, cantaloupes, tomatoes and several tropical fruits like bananas. Many growers prefer to brush off but not wash root crops before placing them in storage. Hazzard said some carrot farmers found staining on carrots unless they washed them before long-term storage. Chlorine or other sanitizing agents in wash water and hydro-cooling water help protect against rot and other storage problems as well as consumers. If you do wash root crops before storage, be sure they are dry when you pack them up. Potatoes Maturity is reached when vines are dry and tuber skins are set. Ideal harvest temperatures should be 45 to 60 degrees. Cure before long term storage by holding at 50 to 60 degrees and 95 percent RH for 10 to 14 days. Long term storage temperatures should be 38 to 40 degrees. Properly harvested and stored potatoes typically last three to six months or as long as six to nine months. Beware mixing crops in closed storage spaces as exposure to ethylene encourages potatoes to sprout. Temperatures below 45 degrees cause cold injury, darkening potatoes and turning starches to sugars. Potatoes can cure in storage bins and need good air circulation. Concrete floors are okay for potato storage areas. Potatoes do generate some heat on their own so can be stored in insulated areas without much supplemental heat in cold climates. Winter Squashes and Sweet Potatoes These crops benefit from warm, dry storage at or near 55 degrees. Squash are mature 45 to 50 days from bud set and can be harvested any time thereafter. Winter Squash maturity is indicated by rind hardness, color and corking of stems. Crops should be harvested before frost or cold nights

below 50 degrees and cured for at least a week before storage to allow any bruises or cuts to heal. Curing at 80 to 85 degrees and 80 to 85 percent RH for 10 days helps harden rinds, but is not recommended for acorn or green rind squashes. Remove the hard stems on Butternut and other Moschata type squashes to avoid damage to other squash in the same storage bins. Optimum storage temperature is 55 to 59 degrees or 50 to 55 degrees for green rind types. RH should be 50 to 70 percent. Squash are very sensitive to chilling injury when held below 50 degrees. Root cellars and temperatures below 50 degrees can cause cold damage. Most squash can be stored two to three months, longer for Hubbard and butternut squash and shorter for acorn and delicata squashes. Onions and Garlic Maturity is indicated when 10 to 20 percent of the tops lay down in the field. Undercutting 1 to 2 inches can accelerate dormancy. Field curing is ideal when temperatures are over 75 degrees. Tops should be removed after at least two weeks of field or bench curing before dry cold storage of alliums. Forced air curing can be as fast as 12 hours at 86 to 105 degrees. Onions are ready for storage when their neck scales are completely dry and should be stored at, not below, 32 degrees with 65-70 percent RH for best scale color. Onions can be stored up to six to nine months; but typically only three to six months. Ethylene exposure encourages sprouting. Carrots, Beets, Turnips, Parsnips, Rutabagas and Cabbages Harvest these crops cold and keep them cold. Their freezing temperature is 29 to 30 degrees so a mild frost will not be a problem. These crops need cold, moist storage. Carrots like 95 to 99 percent humidity and 32 degrees. Avoid liquid water which can speed rot. The later the harvest can be delayed, the greater the stability in storage. Hazzard notes that Bolero carrots are widely grown for storage in New England; Chantenay and Berlikum have good potential as storage carrots as well. More mature carrots will store longer than less mature ones. Carrots can typically be stored three to five months under good conditions. Be sure to store these crops separately from ethylene producing crops like apples; exposure to ethylene can cause bitter flavors. Some farmers wrap individual cabbages before storage allowing them to store onions in the same rooms. Others wrap bins or pallets with moist burlap. Fans inside coolers keep some air moving through holes in the bottom of the bins. Household misters can help maintain high humidity levels. Additional post-harvest information is available in the USDA Agriculture Handbook Number 66 at

By: Melissa Piper Nelson Farm News Service News and views on agricultural marketing techniques. Conversations and all that talk - why should I listen? We live in a world where everyone is talking at the same time. People comment through social media, send e-mails to the editors of publications, give instant feedback on review pages, send short blips of information to friends and family and phone the ever widening circles of the people surrounding them. Talk, talk, talk. When we reach an in-

formation overload it is easy to just filter out what we cannot process or don’t feel we have the time at present to process. That is one reason why management companies are now offering services to go through your e-mail, messages and other media and let you know who is trying to contact you and what they have to say. What does all this have to do with marketing? You might not have to manage your information

through a management service, yet, but as a business owner or manager, the information flowing your way is important to process. Business communications that affect marketing are generally split between two different groups — your internal and external audiences. Most farm-based businesses should also include the family audience since decisions reflect back on family member involvement as well.

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mostly customers, but also sub-contractors, wholesalers, retailers and others who are interested in your business and buy what you produce. The talk that comes back from these groups helps you develop better marketing plans and bolster business operations for optimum profit. What could they possibly say that would influence your business operations? When it was revealed that some restaurants were placing microphones near tables to overhear conversations, it wasn’t to hear about your day at work or to get shopping tips. Management wanted to learn what people thought about the food and service. Customer comments count when you are striving for customers in a competitive environment! Likewise, you have probably seen the exit polls taken after movie-goers see a show. The purpose is to gather information about what viewers loved or hated about the movie and the theatre experience itself. Information (talk) is money. If you aren’t listening to what your internal and external audiences are saying to you, you may be missing the opportunity to fine tune your operation to meet customer expectations. No one person can be responsible for gathering all this information and processing all that talk, so develop a team to help you decide what messages are worth chasing and prioritize all other information. Internal audience teams can bring to the table the important issues facing your everyday operation while external information is gathered through customer surveys, meeting with suppliers and distributors

and discovering what is circling out there in cyberspace. Many companies have hired interns to help with monitoring social media and other media outlets for customer feedback, but you may have employees or friends who can assist as well. You cannot always tame all the talk around you or your business, but you can plan for how you will develop workable ways to channel and use information that will improve how you conduct business and improve profitability. If you use an advertising or promotion person or agency, ask for additional information on tapping into customer feedback. Simple customer in-store or retail outlet surveys will also identify where people post or read information about your business as well as solicit immediate suggestions and comments. Internet reference groups are also available on a fee basis to monitor and direct back to you information about your business or service. Farmers and producers who put most of their efforts into production, harvesting and selling feel pressured by keeping up with all the talk of the times. It becomes like the age-old question of producing then marketing, or marketing before producing — and we have all learned the later is usually the better plan. Listening to the talk as it happens offers the opportunity to change or improve your marketing plan before customers move on to another product or another business. The above information is provided for educational purposes only and should not be substituted for professional legal or business counseling.

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Page 5 - Section A • COUNTRY FOLKS GROWER • February 2012

Today’s Marketing Objectives

Internal audiences are made up of partners, investors, shareholders and employees — anyone who has a vested interest or are financially tied into the business or derive a salary from the company. Talk from this group often comes in the form of employee suggestions, internal meetings where information is shared at different levels and annual meetings to name just a few. Business owners and managers depend on this feedback to help improve sales, retain quality control, plan promotions and advertising and discuss labor issues. External audiences are those groups outside the everyday working environment of a business —

February 2012 • COUNTRY FOLKS GROWER • Section A - Page 6

Box blight threatens boxwoods by Sally Colby Boxwood is one of five woody evergreens native to England, where it is popular as a landscape plant. It’s also a popular landscape species in North America, where homeowners appreciate its deer-proof qualities. However, a new disease now threatens the boxwood population. Dr. Kelly Ivors, assistant professor and extension specialist, Mountain Horticultural Crops Research and Extension Center in North Carolina, says that one of the reasons this emerging disease is an important topic in North Carolina is because the state is one of the top producers of boxwoods. “Not only do we produce it for ornamental purposes,” said Ivors during a recent webinar, “there are a number of counties near the Virginia border that produce tips that are used in Christmas decorations and wreaths.” Boxwood is popular for several reasons, one of which is that it’s deer resistant. “Boxwood propagates easily, grows well in production and transplants readily to the landscape,” said Ivors. “It’s an alternative to Fraser fir production, so we can still use a lot of the same land. It’s a crop that Christmas tree producers like to produce.” Boxwood makes a good wall, hedge or specimen planting. Box blight was first discovered in England during the mid 1990s. “It caused a severe blighting disease on buxus species, mainly English boxwood,” said Ivors. “There weren’t any new records of it until 1997, and then there was a sudden outbreak of disease. This was most likely correlated to weather events.” Now the disease is considered widespread throughout Europe. Box blight is also known as boxwood blight, cylindrocladium box blight, blight disease of boxwood, or boxwood leaf drop.

The origin of the pathogen is unknown. “Europe isn’t sure where it came from,” said Ivors. “What is believed to have happened is that after introduction into the U.K., New Zealand found it and it was first reported there in 1998. So we know that the pathogen has moved around to several continents, and it’s now in the U.S.” Ivors says that there’s a lot of confusion with the terminology with regard to genus and species of the pathogen. That’s because two different groups were working on the pathogen at the same time. A researcher in the UK referred to it as cylindrocladium buxicola. Other cylindrocladium species are seen in the horticultural industry, but this species is new, with unique DNA sequencing and morphology. The New Zealand group started to investigate and decided on a different name cylindrocladium psuedonaviculatum. However, for clarity, Ivors prefers to reference the pathogen as c. buxicola. Although the fungus doesn’t kill the plant, it results in blight on the foliage, and affects the appearance and aesthetics of the plant. “What happens is that the leaves turn brown, then a golden straw-color,” said Ivors. “The leaves will often fall off the plant, but the plant will remain alive for quite some time.” Plant death is more likely to occur after infection from other opportunistic pathogens such as volutella. While container-grown plants don’t usually die from the infection, young seedlings are dramatically affected. “The reason for this is that we propagate seedlings in propagation beds under high humidity,” said Ivors. “this is very conducive for the pathogen, and allows almost complete colonization of the plant.” Box blight doesn’t attack the root system. “What happens is that the spores overwinter in soil, then when the weather is conducive, the spores move up and infect the lower foliage,”

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said Ivors. “You see a plant that has lost its lower foliage and looks a little top-heavy. You can also see cankers on the edges of the stem which causes necrosis and death of tissue.” A major boxwood die-off occurred in a setting of densely packed containers produced on a hillside, where a lot of runoff flowed downhill to field-grown plants. Ivors noted that the initial diagnosis in North Carolina followed several weeks of heavy rainfall and warm weather. “The pathogen was most likely introduced on a trojan horse; a tol-

erant variety,” said Ivors. “That created a large scale epidemic, then the boxwood foliage and spores washed down in rainwater to the propagation beds.” Some growers don’t believe they are at risk because they produce boxwoods in-house, but if there are other species that are sensitive to the pathogen, all it takes is one plant to infect the others. “If they’re planted close enough, and splash occurs between English and American species,” said

Blight A7

Ivors. “That can start a full-blown infection. I think the growers who are most at risk are collectors.” Ivors noted that the disease has been found in residential landscape plants and in commercial garden centers. “Sharon (Dr. Sharon Douglas, Connecticut Department of Plant Pathology and Ecology) confirmed with us that every landscape location that has been positive for box blight has had at least one new plant installed in 2011.” Disease symptoms include circular leaf spots with zonate patterns, with visible zones where the pathogen has colonized leaf tissue. As the infection progresses, the leaves become brown or straw-colored. Stem cankers are

common, and the pathogen can be isolated from these cankers. Ivors says that so far, fludioxonil (Medallion®) seems to be the most effective product. To protect the industry, growers who had massive infection destroyed heavily infected plants in a voluntary burn. “If we’re going to have to deal with this disease, we might start looking at cultural tactics to promote regrowth, and come up with a good fungicide strategy.” However, Ivors says that some of the fungicides that work may not work well in the landscape. “While these might work for some of our growers, my concern is that we might transplant a lot of these plants out in the landscape, and unless you’re a

very wealthy English gardener and can afford multiple applications of fungicide on an annual basis, it isn’t a good idea to plant boxwoods with cylindrocladium buxicula in the landscape.” Box blight will be difficult to deal with because while the plant appears to be dead, the root system is still viable. Under favorable conditions, the leaves will regrow and the plant will continue to survive. Because plants are grown in the field for several years, chances are there will be another weather event that’s conducive to box blight. Ivors says that that a statistical model will help growers determine the best time to spray. But because it’s a new disease, no one knows how field-

grown plants will respond to the disease and treatment. English boxwood, because of its tight foliage and is the most susceptible, followed by Korean boxwood. Because this plant is grown mostly in a monoculture, it will be easy for the disease to gain a foothold. Ivors says that holding pads were contaminated with the pathogen from holding incoming plants. “One of riskiest practices is to use the same holding pad for incoming and outgoing plants,” she said. “If you bring in new plants, have individual holding pads, separated, so wind-driven rain cannot spread disease. You might not know you have a problem, but you’ll find out later.”

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Page 7 - Section A • COUNTRY FOLKS GROWER • February 2012

Blight from A6

“Keeping the Momentum Going” is the theme for the 2012 Farmers Market Managers Training Conference. This conference will build on the training that has been ongoing with the conference. The conference will be held at the Saratoga Marriot Courtyard Hotel, March 8-10. The Saratoga Farmers Market is the host. This year, the conference focuses on sharing. Each session sponsors a market manager or panel of managers discussing their approach to market issues. Issues to be addressed include innovative means to recruit farmers, working with boards of directors, ways to engage the community, directing the energy of a community to build market relationships, tips and tools for reaching a consumer base. The Friends of the Rochester Public Market will present the value of Friends organizations and how to organize a Friends group. Some changes have been made to the conference. Instead of spending every session listening to presenters, conference attendee will be split into

teams. Each team will be presented with a challenge, an issue that is prevalent in farmers markets. The teams will meet frequently over the two days to find resolutions to the issue they are assigned. This is an excellent opportunity to network with market managers and exchange ideas as team members work to build a solution to the challenge. At the end of the conference, each team will present its work to the full audience, giving each conference participant an opportunity to learn from the experiences. Food safety will also be covered. This is a topic that has been in the news a great deal over the last year and promises to create headlines for a long time to come. The Farmers Market Federation of New York, along with Cornell Cooperative Extension of Jefferson County and a committee of professionals has developed a set of guidelines that keeps retail venues, such as farmers markets, safe for consumers. Diane Eggert will present the guidelines for farmers markets.

On Saturday, the final day of conference, an indepth session on working with local media will be held. A panel of media — television, radio, print and an advertising agency — will explain how best to work with local media to achieve the desired results. In addition, attendees are invited to bring in their advertisements or press releases. Panelists will provide valuable critiques to help you be more effective for 2012. A new feature of the conference will be a pre-conference Meet and Greet in the Hospitality Suite at 7 p.m., Wednesday, March 7. Each at-

tendee is invited to bring a special food from their market or one made with foods from their market. Drinks will be provided. This conference is an opportunity to boost skills as a market manager; network with others across the state; share ideas, suggestions and questions; and make new friendships. Download the agenda and registration form at www.nyfarmersmarket. com/workshops.htm. For more information, contact the Federation office at 315-637-4690 or email


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Farmers Market Manager Training Conference set for March 8-10

Farmers are better off if members of Congress can agree on a new farm bill this year, according to American Farm Bureau Federation farm policy specialist Mary Kay Thatcher, who spoke at the 2012 Farm Bill issue conference at AFBF’s 93rd Annual Meeting. With Congress unable to agree on much these days and with a shrinking budget to work with, passing a new farm bill could be an uphill climb and get pushed to next year. “There is no upside to that,” Thatch-

er said. “There will be even more budget cuts if that happens. There’s every reason to push it through this year if we can.” Thatcher outlined the political situation surrounding the farm bill, including growing support in Congress for limiting eligibility by capping farmers’ income and increasing use of food stamps and other nutrition programs as the U.S. economy remains sluggish. “The economy will be a tremendous issue going forward,” said Thatcher,

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“and one of the reasons it will be difficult to finish a farm bill in 2012.” Nutrition programs already account for about $700 billion — 76 percent — of the farm bill’s total $911 billion in spending over 10 years. In addition, the growing cost of crop insurance premium subsidies, which grew from $4.7 billion in 2010 to $7 billion in 2011, could make them more of a target for cuts. Thatcher also provided an analysis of how other farm groups’ “shallowloss” proposals could leave a lot of farmers in dire straits in years of catastrophic farm revenue losses. Most of those proposals would provide support more often but only cover 5 percent to 10 percent of a farmer’s losses. AFBF economist John Anderson provided an explanation of Farm Bureau’s Systemic Risk Reduction Program farm bill proposal, which is designed to protect farmers from catastrophic revenue losses. Proposed SRRP coverage

levels would be in the 70 percent to 80 percent range. It would be administered by the Agriculture Department’s Risk Management Agency and operate as a core program with farmers buying crop insurance as “wrap-around” revenue risk protection. One of the most attractive features of the SRRP proposal, according to Anderson, is the impact it would have on lowering farmers’ crop insurance premiums. “As a program that’s integrated with crop insurance, crop insurance premiums could be re-rated to account for the fact that much of the risk is covered elsewhere,” he explained. “That would lower premiums and make buyup coverage more affordable.” Farm Bureau delegates will set AFBF policy on the farm bill and other issues when they meet Dec. 10. The policies they approve will form AFBF’s agenda for the year.

Page 9 - Section A • COUNTRY FOLKS GROWER • February 2012

Best to enact new farm bill this year

February 2012 • COUNTRY FOLKS GROWER • Section A - Page 10

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is intended to make these processes more convenient for Vermont businesses, saving time and money for both business and state government. This enhancement will allow large Vermont businesses with multiple in-state retail locations to streamline the license renewal process for all

of those locations. Additionally, smaller local businesses will benefit from the efficiencies that this new system will offer. Historically, the Vermont Agency of Agriculture has licensed more than 3,700 retail locations annually in the retail and weights and measures categories, and this number is expected to increase over time. “This new online licensing service is a great first step toward enhancing the agency’s use of

technology to support Vermont businesses, many of which already subscribe to e-commerce best practices,” said Chuck Ross, secretary of the Agency of Agriculture, Food and Markets. The convenience of the web service is straightforward: with a few quick clicks, retail business managers will be able to enter appropriate data about their license need, select appropriate license types online and pay securely by credit card, then get confirma-

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People are talking about food, and farmers and ranchers need to take the lead in the conversation, Melissa Kinch and Keith Yazmir, members of the U.S. Farmers & Ranchers Alliance’s communications team, told attendees at the

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“You can’t build trust if you can’t have a conversation,” according to Kinch, senior vice president of Ketchum Communications. Kinch and Yazmir outlined four steps that will help farmers and ranchers move out of combat

mode and have a constructive conversation about what they do and why they do it. The four steps are engage, acknowledge, share and earn trust, or E.A.S.E. Growers should start by engaging the people around them. Ask a fel-

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take on the persona of a professor whose task it is to educate. “A farmer’s and rancher’s job is to answer those legitimate questions with truthful, transparent answers,” Kinch explained. One of the best ways growers can do that is by sharing what they do on their farms and ranches. Addressing consumers’ real concerns will go a long way in earning their trust. In talking about what they do, farmers and ranchers need to recognize that there is always room for improvement, stressed Yazmir, a partner at Maslansky Luntz & Partners. Discussing the future creates a space of shared interest, he said. More than being willing to have a conversation, growers need to be ready and able to use words consumers can embrace. The typical agriculture vocabulary is full of landmines, Yazmir and Kinch cautioned. “We need to move away from the language of our industry and toward the language of the benefits of what we’re doing,” Yazmir said. For example, rather than using the term “GMOs,” talk about seeds that grow stronger, and are more resilient, and better tasting crops. USFRA is a newly created alliance of prominent farmer- and rancher-led organizations, including AFBF, and agricultural partners.

Page 11 - Section A • COUNTRY FOLKS GROWER • February 2012

Farmers must learn to talk consumers’ language

February 2012 • COUNTRY FOLKS GROWER • Section A - Page 12

Teaming up against the brown marmorated stink bug by Mary Woodsen, IPM Program A new pest has been pigging out on many of North America’s most important crops, posing an unprecedented threat to U.S. farmers. The brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB) burst onto the scene in 2010, causing catastrophic damage in most mid-Atlantic states. Some growers of sweet corn, peppers, tomatoes, apples, and peaches reported total losses that year. The USDA has now awarded $5.7 million to 10 institutions across the country for research and education to help growers cope. The value of susceptible crops in the 33 states where BMSB has been established or sighted exceeds $21 billion,

says Tracy Leskey, USDA entomologist. Last year, the pest cost apple growers alone $37 million. The team of 51 researchers’ goal is to uncover the mysteries of BMSB and use that knowledge to find management tactics that work — traps and lures, bio-pesticides, and natural enemies that kill BMSB. The Northeastern IPM Center will coordinate outreach to growers. BMSB arrived from Asia circa 1996, in Allentown, PA, and quickly becoming a nuisance pest by overwintering in homes and commercial buildings. By 2004 it was showing up on farms and in forests. BMSB has a huge host range, hitting field crops,

ornamentals and trees, feeding on about 300 species altogether. “It’s the worst I’ve seen yet,” said University of Maryland entomologist Galen Dively, whose career spans 45 years. Growers will need sprays for the near term, so Dively and a group of researchers are testing conventional and biological pesticides on tomato, pepper and eggplant. “You can kill 90 percent of them, but the next day you might have just as many,” Dively said last June 2011. The population might have been higher except for July’s record heat and drought. Young BMSB are vulnerable to drying — and dying — right after they’ve shed their

PEST CONTROL skins during molting. Growers have sprayed aggressively to keep BMSB in check. But broadspectrum sprays such as pyrethroids also kill beneficial insects that feed on pests, hampering nature’s own checks and balances. Beneficials help IPM growers protect crops through science-based tactics that keep environmental and economic costs as low as possible. Henry Chiles of 1,500acre Crown Orchard in Virginia saw severe damage in 2010. “We tried everything possible, including many sprays of pyrethroid insecticides, with no results,” he reported in a letter to USDA in 2010.

New York is among northeastern frontier states where BMSB is on the move, and 2011 marked the first ag sighting. “Organic peppers were badly injured on a Hudson Valley farm,” said Peter Jentsch, a Cornell researcher on the BMSB team. No organically approved pesticides keep BMSB at bay. Traps and lures, beneficials, and biorationals could be several years from deployment. The spark for a broad-based BMSB management project came in early 2010 when Tracy Leskey, USDA entomologist, put out the call to col-

leagues and assembled a working group funded by the Northeastern IPM Center. This spurred a coordinated solution, and within a few months plans for national research and outreach were underway. The BMSB working group wants to stay one step ahead, and it met with the BMSB team in late November to share the lessons from this season. Scientists at Cornell and nine other universities or experiment stations are sharing in the USDA Specialty Crop Research Initiative grant onthe biology, ecology, and management of BMSB.

Pesticide-resistant weeds closing in on Pennsylvania UNIVERSITY PARK, PA — The challenge of weeds that have become resistant to glyphosate — the active ingredient in Round-Up herbicide — has become an evolving national threat, with new challenges emerging and spreading annually. At least three glyphosate-resistant species on the horizon for Pennsylvania require new strategies to combat them, according to a specialist in Penn State’s College of Agricultural Sciences. Penn State Extension weed scientist Dwight Lingenfelter said several resistant species currently are approaching Pennsylvania. These weeds were controlled routinely over the years with glyphosate-based herbicide programs, but now the effectiveness of those programs is dwindling. “There’s a species called Palmer pigweed or Palmer amaranth, which is a huge problem — especially in cotton-growing regions,” he said. “In the past, farmers were spending only maybe $20 to $30 an acre to control pigweed; now they’re up over $90 to $100 an acre, because of its resistance to a number of herbicide modes of action. “Currently, we don’t have any major outbreaks of it in Pennsylvania, but we’re hearing re-

ports from Delaware and Maryland that they’re starting to find Palmer pigweed, and it’s more than likely to creep into our cropping systems, especially in the southern tier of the state.” Lingenfelter said a second resistant species slowly invading the state, water-hemp, already is creating big problems in the Midwest and South and is resistant to numerous herbicides as well. “We had a person bring in a sample of waterhemp this summer, so we know there are some populations in our state currently,” he said. “We’re also seeing glyphosate-resistant species of horseweed or marestail spreading throughout the state — it’s very common in the mid-Atlantic region and Midwestern states.” While it might sound like it’s losing its effectiveness, glyphosate is still vital in “burn-down” weed-control programs, which work by killing any vegetation on a treated field. “It’s still a very effective herbicide for a number of species in our area,” he said. “It controls a number of weeds in the burn-down period and still is a foundation or backbone for many weed-control programs.

We recommend using other herbicides in combination with it to control weeds that aren’t being controlled by glyphosate alone. “We work with farmers to explain various programs that use different techniques and management options in a situation like that,” he said. “Generally, we recommend that if you’re using glyphosate in the burndown, you also should use something such as 2-4-D or a product like Valor XLT Sharpen prior to planting soybeans. We also encourage tankmixing herbicides or using pre-packaged products so multiple modes of action are in the weedcontrol program.” The mode of action is the way an herbicide affects the weed to kill it, Lingenfelter explained. “There are about 10 different major modes of

action available, and you can combine those to get control of the particular species you’re going after. We highly recommend having at least two modes of action that act on that particular weed species.” Newer herbicide products introduced in the last five years can help control resistant species in burn-down programs. But Lingenfelter pointed out that, while “new” products are being introduced on the market, the industry hasn’t produced a formulation that employs a new mode of action in more than 15 years. “The reality is that many companies are repackaging products and giving them different trade names so it looks like we have a lot of new herbicides when in reality we do not. And if they were to discover a new

mode of action in some lab today, we wouldn’t reap the benefits of it for at least 10 years, because it takes that long to get through all of the testing phases and field trials before it would hit the market.” Lingenfelter said the diversity and rotation of crops grown in Pennsylvania gives it an advantage over states in the Midwest and South when it comes to fighting resistant weeds. Corn, cotton and soybeans are the primary field crops in the Midwest and South, and more than 90 percent of the acres are

sprayed with glyphosate, so weeds are pushed to develop resistance. “Here in Pennsylvania, we typically rotate between corn, soybeans, alfalfa, small grains and sometimes various vegetable crops, depending on the area of the state,” he said. “Because of this, we use a variety of weedcontrol methods. Not only does this allow for different herbicides and a rotation of herbicide modes of action, but it allows for other weedmanagement techniques — such as mowing forage crops or the addition

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pretty well, but we’ll have to start thinking about different techniques to handle it.” Lingenfelter said Pennsylvania growers can learn a lesson from watching the experience of their neighbors in states to the south and west. “The majority of the resistance problem in these other regions is they were relying on a single mode of action — that being glyphosate.”

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February 2012 • COUNTRY FOLKS GROWER • Section A - Page 14

OFA and ANLA forming joint venture to serve members OFA — The Association of Horticulture Professionals (OFA) and the American Nursery & Landscape Association (ANLA) are responding to industry challenges head-on together. The two national organizations are expanding on previous collaborations and forming a joint venture that involves sharing resources, including appropriate staff, to expand the capacity of the organizations to better support their members and advocate the horticultural industry’s interests before government and the general public. The joint venture was announced Jan. 5 by OFA President Michael McCabe in an open letter to OFA members and supporters. McCabe is also the owner of McCabe’ s Greenhouse & Floral in Lawrenceburg, IN. “The multi-faceted horticulture industry is undergoing dramatic changes. Economic strains, generational differences and the changing interest in and need for gardening and landscape products are altering the way our products and services are valued by consumers,” McCabe wrote. “Governmental activity and inactivity, financial uncertainty and environmental changes are altering the way plants are being produced, bought and sold.” The letter continues: “Our volunteer leaders have been considering how to best address these issues. In light of future opportunities and threats in this quickly changing environment, one solution is for trade associations to work together to build the capacity and governance structures to properly serve their members and the industry. We Are Listening to You Recent research conducted by OFA indicates that both OFA and ANLA members want their industry association to be all encompassing — one that touches and links all pieces of the horticulture industry together in a comprehensive manner to assist in the growth of the industry. The research also indi-

cates that members feel very strongly that the associations should be attracting the next generation of the horticulture profession; actively pursuing market development and promotion; pursuing advocacy and legislative issues; becoming more involved in regulatory issues; more involvement in business management and technical/product education; and conducting trade shows. It is very clear that the joint venture is the right thing to do. An Expanded Partnership The joint venture between our organizations will: • Further increase participation in advocacy efforts; • Further expand and offer more robust educational programs; • Widen the outreach to consumers; • Nurture commerce opportunities in order to connect more industry buyers and sellers; • Enhance support for research and higher education; and • Unite our thousands of member companies to create a stronger voice and vision for the industry. This is not a merger, but in several years, if both organizations see

the joint venture as a value to our members and further collaboration will better serve you and the industry, the intention is to form a new, single premier horticulture organization serving North America. Working together, we will represent the whole of the ornamental plant industry, including greenhouse growers, nurseries, breeders, distributors, retailers, interior, and exterior landscape professionals, florists, students, educators, researchers, manufacturers and all those who work in the plant supply chain. The combined 215 years of leadership, service, knowledge and history will result in a more robust experience for our members and ensure the vitality of the horticulture industry.” “I hope you find this to be an exciting opportunity for your business and your association. We value your input and will keep you informed on the progress of the joint venture. Thank you for your continued support of OFA. More information can be found by reading our FAQs document,” the letter concludes.

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Page 15 - Section A • COUNTRY FOLKS GROWER • February 2012

February 2012 • COUNTRY FOLKS GROWER • Section A - Page 16

“SAFETY SAVVY” Affiliated with Bassett Healthcare One Atwell Road Cooperstown, N Y 13326 607-547-6023 800-343-7527

Cost effective PTO shields available from NYCAMH by James Carrabba, The New York Center for Agricultural Medicine & Health - NYCAMH Did you know PTO shields can be purchased for as low as $59? Entanglement in a PTO (PowerTake-Off) shaft can result in extreme injuries and death. Victims have had limbs torn off, or their entire bodies wrapped around unprotected PTO shafts. When the PTO

shield is missing or damaged, people can be caught when trying to make repairs while the PTO is operating, or when stepping or leaning over a rotating PTO shaft. Making sure that all PTO shafts are properly shielded and that the shields are functioning properly is an important step in preventing these types of injuries. Unfortunately, during normal

machinery use, PTO shields can become damaged and non-functional. Finding the proper size shield can be expensive and it can be time consuming. The retrofit PTO shields sold through NYCAMH can be a solution to expensive and hard to fit shields. As you perform maintenance on your machinery this winter, take a close look at the PTO shafts that you have. Are all PTO shields fully in place and in working order? If that is not the case, take advantage of the new lowcost retro fit PTO shields that are offered through NYCAMH’s personal protective equipment program. Our universal retrofit PTO shields are very cost effective at $59


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Page 17 - Section A • COUNTRY FOLKS GROWER • February 2012

PTO from A16 for the smaller shield, and $77 for the larger shield. The shields have a latch system which allows the shield to slide out of the way for easier access to the grease fitting in the universal joint and can facilitate attaching the PTO shaft to the tractor’s stub shaft. Many farmers have remarked to us that feature makes it very easy to grease the fitting at that location. The shields are manufactured by the Bare-Co. Company. Bare-Co’s website features a video showing how the shield works on their website at: files/movieindex.htm. The smaller shield fits drivelines with a bearing groove diameter of 2 1/8” or smaller. If the measurement is greater than that, the large size shield will be needed. Each shield comes with a bear-

ing assortment kit which makes selecting the correct size bearing very easy. You just select the proper size bearing that fits the PTO shaft. No extra trips for the right size! If you are interested in the PTO shield retrofit program, please contact Todd Fiske at 800-343-752 ext 232, or by emailing todd.fiske@bassett. org. NYCAMH also continues to offer on-farm safety surveys and on-farm safety trainings at no cost to farms in New York. For more information about our on-farm safety services, contact Jim Carrabba at extension 239 or jcarrabba@ A program of Bassett Healthcare Network, NYCAMH is enhancing agricultural and rural health by preventing and treating occupational injury and illness.

February 2012 • COUNTRY FOLKS GROWER • Section A - Page 18

Mid-Atlantic Nursey Trade Show ~ Baltimore, MD, Jan. 11-13

Debbie Coffey, Roger Coffey & Sons, talks with students Albina Joy and Richard Blissett about donating their trees. The Coffeys donated all the trees in their booth to Montgomery College. Photos by Joan Kark-Wren

Customers looking to purchase rooted cuttings, plugs or finished material kept the reps at the Kube Pak booth busy throughout the show.

Mary Jane and Clair Garman of Wood Trellis Designs in Manheim, PA, talk with an attendee about their line of trellises.

Alla Squyres of Tree Equipment Design, Inc. stands near a 44” Red Boss tree spade. Tree Equipment Design offers a complete line of landscape and nursery equipment for the industry.

Michael DeRubbo of BioSafe Systems, LLC, was on hand to help attendees with their disease control. BioSafe Systems offers green solutions to help producers maintain a healthy growing area.

Jeffrey Busscher and Doug Olson were busy during the show discussing the availability of plant material. Alpha Nurseries offers a wide selection of evergreens, deciduous trees, small fruit plants, vegetable roots, perennials and shrubs.

Attendees Susanne and John Specca talk with Joan Koelmel of Koba Corporation about Koba’s Plant Support Rings. Koba offers a large line of quality plastic products for the horticultural industry.

Dale Bryan (left) of Freedom Tree Farms talks with a customer regarding the availability of flowering trees. Freedom Tree Farms provides quality fruit trees, flowering trees and berry plants.

Lars Jensen and Scott Blackmore show the Ellepot in a 40mm Blackmore tray. Ellepots are a unique product, suitable for propagation of cuttings and seeds for flowers, vegetables and nursery products.

The June 2012 Seeley Conference, a think tank event that promotes the discussion of critical issues important to the future of commercial floriculture, has been postponed for a year to allow time for a strategic overhaul. The 26th annual Seeley conference was last held at Cornell University in Ithaca, NY, in June 2011. Following the conference,

the board of directors met to assess that event and discuss the future of the conference. It was noted that the floriculture industry has faced significant changes from when the conference first began and the board felt that restructuring the conference, including the possibility of a change of venue and format, is necessary to best meet current and future industry needs. To help the board identify current and future industry needs and, more specifically, the strengths and challenges of the Seeley conference itself, the board will be initiating an online survey in the near future. The board is seeking the input and opinions of floriculture industry members to ensure the

Seeley conference continues to address timely topics in a manner relevant to the industry. Regarding the future of the Seeley Conference, board Chairman William B. Miller of Cornell University notes that “the board is actively meeting to discuss restructuring the conference, and we are planning to hold the next Seeley Conference during the last week of June, 2013.”

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Page 19 - Section A • COUNTRY FOLKS GROWER • February 2012

Seeley Conference will not be held in 2012

February 2012 • COUNTRY FOLKS GROWER • Section A - Page 20

New risk management tool available to help producers achieve GAP certification WASHINGTON, D.C. — Agriculture Deputy Secretary Kathleen Merrigan, along with leaders from food and agriculture organizations, recently introduced a free online tool to help U.S. producers of all sizes achieve Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) harmonized standards and certification, helping to further expand economic opportunities for American agriculture. USDA’s GAP audit verification program focuses on best agricultural practices to verify that farms are producing, and packers are handling and storing, fruits and vegetables in the safest manner possible to minimize food safety hazards. The free online tool — developed by with funding from USDA’s Risk Management Agency (RMA) — helps farmers design a customized manual to meet GAP harmonized standards and certification requirements, including USDA GAP standards and mitigate business risks by answering just a few questions. “USDA believes that a strong farm safety net — including effective, market-based risk solutions for producers of all variety and size — is crucial to sustain the vitality of American agriculture,” said Merrigan. “Effectively managing risk is important to all producers, and having an acceptable food safety program is in the best interest of

consumers, buyers, and the farmers themselves. USDA is proud to have worked with private, public and nonprofit partners to introduce this free tool to farmers seeking to gain certification as a Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) producer.” The online tool, part of’s On-Farm Food Safety Project, is the first of its kind and was developed by a broad coalition of farm and produce industry partners. It is available at USDA’s GAP audit verification program, administered by USDA’s Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS), focuses on best agricultural practices to verify that farms are producing fruits and vegetables in the safest manner possible to minimize risks of microbial food safety hazards. USDA’s voluntary audit based program verifies adherence to the recommendations made in the Food and Drug Administration’s Guide to Minimize Microbial Food Safety Hazards for Fresh Fruits and Vegetables. To generate a food safety plan using the tool, the user must answer a series of questions on topics including worker health and hygiene, agricultural water, previous land use, soil amendments and manure, animals and pest control, packinghouse activities, product transportation, agricultural chemicals, and field harvesting. In addition

to helping farmers create a food safety plan, the tool offers farmers a full-set of record keeping templates to document their food safety efforts as well as useful food safety resources. Once users have completed their farm’s food safety plan and compiled necessary documentation, they have the capacity to apply for GAP food safety certification, a process asked for by many larger buyers. Large buyers including Compass Group, SYSCO, and Chipotle Mexican Grill supported the project financially and with technical assistance.

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Groups that participated in the development and review of the tool include: Chipotle Mexican Grill, Community Alliance with Family Farmers, Compass Group, Earthbound Farm, Farm Aid, FDA, NSF Agriculture, Produce Marketing Association, SYSCO, The Organic Center, Western Growers, Wallace Center at Winrock International, Wild Farm Alliance, University of California at Davis, United Fresh Produce Association, and USDA’s National Institute of Food and Agriculture.

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For the 2011 Delaware Farmers’ Market Season, 16 Delaware farmers’ markets grossed more than $1.8 million in sales — an increase of more than a $400,000 over 2010. As in past years, the season began in April and ended in October. This year is the sixth straight year of increased sales to consumers at Delaware Farmers’ Markets. “Farmers’ markets bring us local, fresh fruit and vegetables, support our farmers and contribute to our local economy,” said Gov. Jack Markell. “Thanks to all the consumers who made this a banner year for our local farmers’ markets. My wife, Carla, and my family have enjoyed many Delaware farm products this year and we look forward to enjoying next season’s harvest.” “Congratulations to all of our farmers’ markets, our farmers, and other vendors for an outstanding season,” said Ed Kee, Delaware Secretary of Agriculture. “The success of these markets is a reflection of the quality of

Delaware’s agricultural products and the hard work of Delaware farmers that are second to none. Our farmers’ markets provide consumers with a direct connection to those who produce the food that they put on their table. The concept of “knowing where your food comes from” continues to grow in popularity and drives people to farmers markets and grocery chains that carry local agricultural products.” Sales of vegetables and fruits accounted for 57 percent of the $1.8 million in sales, while value-added products, eggs, meats, honey, breads/pastries, and miscellaneous items made up the remaining 43 percent. The resort area markets continued to lead in sales. Newcomer markets, Milton Farmers’ Market, Sea Colony Farmers’ Market and Cool Spring Farmers’ Market all launched successful first seasons. The 2011 farmers’ markets in Delaware were: New Castle County • Cool Spring Farmers Market (a

Bright Spot Venture), Wilmington; • Carousel Park Farmers Market, Wilmington; • Co-Op Farmers Market, Newark; • Little Italy Farmers Market, Wilmington; and • Wilmington Farmers Market. Kent County • Delaware State University Farmers Market, Dover; and • Harrington Farmers Market, Harrington. Sussex County • Bethany Beach Farmers Market, Bethany Beach; • Fenwick Island Farmers Market, Fenwick Island; • Georgetown Farmers Market, Georgetown; • Good Earth Farmers Market, Clarksville; • Historic Lewes Farmers Market,

Lewes; • Milford Farmers Market, Milford; • Milton Farmers Market, Milton; • Rehoboth Beach Farmers Market; • The Farmers Market at Sea Colony; and • Western Sussex Farmers Market. Community interest in farmers’ markets continues to grow. An expanded list of 2012 farmers’ markets will be placed on the DDA website and will be available via the Delaware Fresh App ( in early spring. Farmers and others interested in becoming a vendor at any of the state’s farmers’ markets in 2012 may contact David Smith at 302-698-4522, or by email at, or log on to and click on farmers’ markets for a current list of markets and market masters for direct market contact.

Tool from A20 The Obama Administration, with Agriculture Secretary Tom Vilsack’s leadership, has worked tirelessly to strengthen rural America, implement the Farm Bill, maintain a strong farm safety net, and create opportunities for America’s farmers and ranchers. U.S. agriculture is currently experiencing one of its best years in decades thanks to the productivity, resiliency, and resourcefulness of our producers. Today, net farm income is at record levels while debt has been cut in half since the 1980s. Overall, American agriculture sup-

ports one in 12 jobs in the United States and provides American consumers with 86 percent of the food we consume, while maintaining affordability and choice. The Obama Administration has aggressively worked to expand export opportunities and reduce barriers to trade, helping to push agricultural exports to record levels in 2011 and beyond. Strong agricultural exports are a positive contribution to the U.S. trade balance, support more than 1 million American jobs and boost economic growth.

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Come To Us For All Of Your Young Plant Needs! We Offer Healthy High Quality Plugs and Rooted Liners For All Of Your Spring Planting Needs. Our Selections Include: • Bacopa • Calibrachoa • Fuchsia • Geraniums • Dahlias • Thunbergia

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Page 21 - Section A • COUNTRY FOLKS GROWER • February 2012

Another banner year for Delaware farmers’ markets

February 2012 • COUNTRY FOLKS GROWER • Section A - Page 22

Floriculture report spared from budget cuts ALEXANDRIA, VA — The floriculture industry can still rely on the droves of data in a yearly U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) report that businesses use to make key decisions, thanks to the Society of American Florists’ (SAF) efforts. USDA announced Dec. 9 that it would reinstate the Annual Floriculture Report, along with several others that had been slated for elimination because of budget cuts. The agency’s decision came after Congress directed the National Agriculture Statistics Service in mid-November to reconsider ending the surveys, as part of USDA’s budget. Upon learning that the report would be cut, SAF went to work immediately, informing members of the House Appropriations Committee how the survey’s sales and production data benefit the industry. “SAF’s successful effort to reverse NASS’s decision is a huge victory for the industry,” said David Mitchell, chairman of the SAF Government

Relations Committee. Mitchell, of Mitchell’s Flowers in Orland Park, IL, said the triumph illustrates the power of building relationships on Capitol Hill. “SAF is on the Hill everyday fighting for SAF members and lobbying on behalf of the entire floral industry,” he said. “Reinstating this report shows the value of what SAF does for all of us.” Dr. Marvin Miller, market research manager for Ball Horticultural Co. in West Chicago, IL, was elated over the preservation of the floriculture report, a survey of more than 10,000 commercial operations in 15 states. “I think this result is testament to the continued relationships SAF has with its members, USDA and Congress,” said Miller, who serves on SAF’s Government Relations Committee and an Industry Statistics Task Force that has met with NASS for more than 25 years. “When we needed help to get this survey reinstated, SAF knew who would care and who to call.”

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by Tracy Taylor Grondine They say that charity starts at home. And for

nearly 15,000 people in the Washington, D.C. area and beyond, that

sentiment was wholeheartedly felt in early December as they laid wreaths on graves in Arlington Cemetery. In the true meaning of Christmas, people from all walks of life joined together to honor nearly 100,000 of America’s fallen heroes. The effort, known as Wreaths Across America, was started by Farm Bureau member Morrill Worcester in 1992. Worcester, who owns a wreath company in Harrington, ME, had extra wreaths at the close of that holiday season and wanted to put them to good use. His idea was to honor America’s soldiers buried at Arlington Cemetery. And, as good

deeds are contagious, once word got around about Worcester’s goal, others from the community joined in to make it a reality. A local trucking company stepped in to transport the wreaths, volunteers gathered to decorate them with red ribbons and even more people joined forces to place them on older graves that were becoming less and less visited. That was nearly 20 years ago. Today, through the nonprofit 501c3 Worcester formed in 2007 to expand the program, national and state cemeteries also receive Worcester wreaths — nearly 600 locations in the U.S. and beyond.

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Further, during the annual pilgrimage from Harrington to Arlington, the Wreaths Across America organization makes pit stops at schools, veterans’ organizations and cemeteries to teach, honor and remember. Seeing the police-escorted caravan of tractor trailers transporting the wreaths down the highway is a sight to behold. In 2011, Americans from far and wide came by the busloads, in carpools, by Metro and on foot to Arlington Cemetery. There were so many volunteers wanting to help out that wreaths became scarce. And that’s a good thing. What was even more special was the amount of time people spent at individual gravesites reading the headstones and talking with their children about the sacrifices of

those soldiers. Because of the generous donation of wreaths and volunteer manpower, many gravesites are decorated, from those in the older section of the cemetery to those that are but a few months old. And Wreaths Across America is hoping to more than double its number of wreaths in 2012 to ensure more fallen soldiers are remembered during the holiday season. It’s people like Morrill Worcester, who gave something that was so much more than just surplus wreaths, who represent the true spirit of Christmas — that of giving, remembering and honoring. It just happens that sometimes the holiday spirit is made even more special when it’s wrapped in balsam and tied with a red ribbon.

Page 23 - Section A • COUNTRY FOLKS GROWER • February 2012

True spirit of Christmas embodied in balsam and ribbon

February 2012 • COUNTRY FOLKS GROWER • Section A - Page 24

Home,, Family,, Friendss & You Wake up to Eggs: the gold standard for a healthy breakfast What’s low in calories, easy to fix, very economical and satisfying enough to keep you full for hours? That’s a no brainer — it’s the incredible egg. At only 70 calories for one large egg (let’s not even begin the packed with top quality protein, loads of vitamins and minerals talk), it’s a super way to start your day. The easy to fix part (a lot of folks don’t believe that) haven’t realized that cooking eggs in a microwave is a total cinch and even children can spray a cup, crack in an egg, swoosh it around a bit, toss in a handful a cheese and nuke it for 60 seconds. It slides out onto whole wheat toast and the cup goes into the dishwasher — done! No time to eat? Just wrap it up in foil and head out the door. And cost wise, we’re talking about a dime an egg. What kind of breakfast cereal costs a dime a serving? None I want to eat. In fact, a simple omelet, taking little more than two minutes to fix will make a really cost effective breakfast, plus you get to recycle whatever leftovers you have in the fridge for the filling. When you think of satiety, that’s where eggs really shine. The combination of nutrients in that egg, combined with uber-protein is what you want when you can’t stop for a mid-morning snack. In fact, research shows that folks that enjoy eggs for breakfast, compared to a high carb entrée, end up consuming 300 to 500 fewer calories throughout the rest of the day since they just aren’t that hungry. These are all good reasons eggs have been crowned the gold standard for breakfast, but the nutrition itself (sorry, we just have to mention it) is reason

enough to get your day started with an egg. Eggs contain 14 percent less cholesterol than previously thought, Vitamin D, choline (for memory health), every vitamin in some amount except Vitamin C, lutein (for eye health), loads of minerals, and the list goes on — in fact, if you could eat the shell, you’d even have some calcium! And after a night’s fast, filling up with top quality protein gets everything moving and working the way it’s supposed to. So in this new year, when you Wake up to Eggs and send yourself and the kids off with the perfect breakfast food — one that’s low in calories, easy to fix, economical, satisfying and infinitely nutritious — you know you are starting the day off to a good beat.

Quick and easy breakfast ideas ~ for one or two Easy Egg Breakfast Quesadillas 1/2 cup shredded Mexican cheese blend (2 oz.) 2 whole wheat OR flour tortillas (7”) 4 slices Canadian-style bacon (2.5 oz.) 4 eggs, beaten Salsa Sprinkle 1/4 cup cheese on one side of each tortilla. Top each with 2 bacon slices. Coat large nonstick skillet with cooking spray; heat over medium heat until hot. Pour in eggs. As eggs begin to set, gently pull the eggs across the pan with an inverted turner, forming large soft curds. Continue cooking, moving eggs around until thickened and no visible liquid egg remains. Do not stir constantly. Spoon eggs on top of bacon, dividing evenly. Fold tortillas over filling to cover, pressing gently.

Photo from Clean skillet. Coat with cooking spray; heat over medium-low heat until hot. Toast quesadillas just until cheese is melted, about 1 - 2 minutes per side. Cut into wedges; serve with salsa. Makes 2 servings Per serving: 449 calories; 24g total fat; 2g fiber; 30g protein; 415 mg cholesterol; 24g carbohydrate

Microwave Denver Scramble Slider 2 Tbsp. chopped red or green bell peppers 1 tbsp. chopped onion 1 egg 1 thin slice deli ham, chopped (1 oz.) 1 Tbsp. water 1 slider-size bun or whole wheat English muffin, split, toasted Ketchup (opt.) Place veggies in 8-oz. ramekin or custard cup. Microwave on high, 30 seconds; stir. Add egg, ham and water, beat until egg is blended. Microwave on high 30 seconds; stir. Microwave until egg is almost set, 30 to 45 seconds longer. Season with salt and pepper, if desired. Serve in bun with ketchup, if desired. Makes 1 serving Per serving: 204 calories; 7g total fat; 197 mg cholesterol; 22g carbohydrate; 2g fiber; 14g protein

Microwave 1-Minute Ham & Egg Breakfast Bowl 1 thin slice deli ham (1 oz.) 1 egg, beaten Shredded Cheddar cheese Line the bottom of 8-oz. ramekin or custard cup with ham slice. Fold ham in half, if necessary. Pour egg over ham. Microwave on HIGH 30 seconds; stir. Microwave until egg is almost set, 15 to 30 seconds longer. Top with cheese. Serve immediately. Makes 1 serving Per serving: 133 calories; 8g total fat; 204 mg cholesterol; 2g carbohydrate; 0g fiber; 12g protein Source: Virginia Egg Council

This week’s Sudoku Solution

Proud to be the Official Publication of: • Northeast Dairy Herd Improvement Association • New York Ayrshire Club • New York Forage & Grasslands Council • New York Beef Cattlemen • New York Brown Swiss Association • New York Corn & Soybean Growers • New York Meat Goat Association • New York Milk Producers • New York Pork Producers • Empire Sheep Producers • FARMEDIC • Maine Beef Cattlemen • New England Milk Producers Association • New England Sheep & Wool Growers Association • Vermont Dairy Herd Improvement Association

Country Folks Your weekly connection to agriculture. 518-673-3237

Published by Lee Publications, Inc. PO Box 121, Palatine Bridge, NY 13428

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Country Folks

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AUCTION CALENDAR Send Your Auction Listings to: Country Folks GROWER, P.O. Box 121, Palatine Bridge, NY 13428-0121 • Phone 518-673-3237 • Fax 518-673-2381

BROUGHT TO YOU BY THESE PARTICIPATING AUCTIONEERS ADDISON COUNTY COMMISSION SALES Rte. 125 • E. Middlebury, VT 05740 Sale every Monday & Tuesday Specializing in Complete Farm Dispersals “A Leading Auction Service” In VT. 800-339-2697 or 800-339-COWS 802-388-2661 • 802-388-22639 ALEX LYON & SON Bridgeport, NY 315-633-2944


WILLIAM KENT, INC. Stafford, NY 585-343-5449 or 585-548-7738

HUNYADY AUCTION CO. Hatfield, PA 800-233-6898


• 9:30 AM: Penn Yan, NY. Farm Machinery & farm smalls plus a few household goods for Ivan & Verna Zimmerman. L.W. Horst Auctioneer, 315-536-0954 Saturday, February 18 • 9:30 AM: Newark Valley, NY. Large auction of farm & construction equipment. Goodrich Auction Service, Inc., 607-6423293 • 10:30 AM: Owens Farm, Smithfield, VA. Another Absolute Auction by Ownby. Farm Equipment Dispersal. No Buyer’s Premi-

Lakes Produce Auction Finger 3691 Rte. 14A • Penn Yan, New York




HARRIS WILCOX, INC. Bergen, NY 585-494-1881

MARK FERRY AUCTIONS Latrobe, PA 724-423-5580

C.W. GRAY & SONS, INC. Complete Auction Service Rte. 5, East Thetford, VT 802-785-2161

(315) 531-8446

PIRRUNG AUCTIONEERS Wayland, NY 585-728-2528

FRALEY AUCTION CO. Auctioneers & Sales Managers Licensed & Bonded 1515 Kepner Hill Rd., Muncy, PA 570-546-6907 570-546-9344

AUCTIONEER PHIL JACQUIER INC. Southwick, MA 413-569-6421

Friday, February 3 • 3:30 PM: Erie Co. Fairgrounds, Hamburg, NY. WNY Farm Show Virtual Auction! Farm machinery, tractors, ATV’s . Roy Teitsworth, Inc. Auctioneers, 585243-1563 Monday, February 6 • Kissimmee, FL. Yoder & Frey Auctioneers, Inc., 419-865-3990 Saturday, February 11

MILLER’S AUCTION Argyle, NY 518-638-8580

DANN AUCTIONEERS DELOS DANN 3339 Spangle St.,Canandaigua, NY 14424 585-785-2161

WRIGHT’S AUCTION SERVICE 48 Community Dr. Derby, VT 14541 802-334-6115

um!. Ownby Auction & Realty Co., Inc., 804-730-0500 Saturday, March 3 • 9:00 AM: Teitsworth Auction Yard, Barber Hill Rd., Geneseo, NY. Consignment Auction of Farm & Construction Equipment, Heavy & Light Trucks. Roy Teitsworth, Inc. Auctioneers, 585-243-1563 Saturday, March 17

• 1138 Rte. 318, Waterloo, NY. Third Annual Spring Equipment Auction. Large public auction selling for farmers, dealers, bank repo & construction equipment. Hilltop Auction Company, Jay Martin 315-5213123, Elmer Zeiset 315-729-8030 • 10:30 AM: Nathan Mason, Callaway, VA (near Rocky Mount). Another Absolute Auction by Ownby. Farm Equipment Dis-

Calendar A29

Landscaping & Snow Equipment Auction 500 River Rd, Shelton, CT

Saturday, Feb., 25, 2012 • 10:00AM Preview: 8:30 am Day of sale Machinery • Trailers Mowers & Accessories Landscaping & Power Equipment Lawn & Garden • Misc. Equipment & Tools Snow Equipment Office Furniture & Equipment TERMS: CASH OR APPROVED CHECKS BY R.T. & SON AUCTIONS. CHECKS IN THE AMOUNT OF $5,000 OR MORE MUST BE WITH A BANK LETTER OF GUARANTEE OF FUNDS MADE OUT TO R.T. & SON AUCTIONS. NO OUT OF STATE CHECKS. CT SALES TAX WILL BE CHARGED UNLESS A SALES AND USE TAX FORM IS PROVIDED THE DAY OF THE AUCTION. 10% BUYER’S PREMIUM WILL BE APPLIED TO ALL SALES. ALL SALES ARE FINAL-EVERYTHING SOLD AS IS. ANNOUNCEMENTS THE DAY OF AUCTION SUPERCEDE ALL OTHERS .R.T. & SON AUCTIONS RESERVES THE RIGHT TO HOLD TITLE TO ANY VEHICLES-TRAILERS-EQUIPMENT OR MERCHANDISE FOR 15 DAYS OR UNTIL FUNDS ARE CLEARED. Directions from Waterbury: Rt. 8 South to Exit 14. Left at the bottom of the exit. Auction entrance approx. 2 miles on the left. Auction Signs will be posted. For more info. call 860-480-5606 or 860-567-7777. Go to #13745 or visit for more info & pictures.

SNOW DATE SAT., MARCH 3 10:00 am

persal. No Buyer’s Premium!. Ownby Auction & Realty Co., Inc., 804-730-0500 Wednesday, March 21 • 9:00 AM: 3186 Freshour Rd., Canandaigua, NY. Coryn Farm Supplies, Inc. Public Auction of Farm Equip. & Tools. Roy Teitsworth, Inc. Auctioneers, 585243-1563 Friday, March 23 • 10:00 AM: Batavia, NY. Jeff & Kathy Thompson Farm Machinery Auction. Selling a full line of farm machinery including

Case IH Maxxum 115, Case IH MX110, Case IH 7220, Case IH CX70 plus hay, tillage, barn equipment and much more!. William Kent, Inc., 585-343-5449 Saturday, March 24 • 9:00 AM: Clymer, NY. Z&M Ag and Turf Farm Equipment Auction. Roy Teitsworth, Inc. Auctioneers, 585-243-1563 Saturday, March 31 • 9:00 AM: Routes 39 & 219, Springville, NY. Lamb & Webster Used Equipment

Auction. Farm Tractors & Machinery, Lawn & Garden Equipment. Roy Teitsworth, Inc. Auctioneers, 585-243-1563 Saturday, April 7 • Champlain, NY. Betty & Nelson LeDuc Farm Machinery Auction. Full line of machinery: Case MX120 w/ldr., Case IH 8920, Case 5130, NH TB110 w/ldr., Ford 6610. Northern New York Dairy Sales, Harry Neverett, 518-481-6666 Saturday, April 21

• Heifer Haven, North Bangor, NY. Machinery Consignment Sale. Northern New York Dairy Sales, Harry Neverett, 518481-6666 Saturday, April 21 • 9:00 AM: Gerry Rodeo Grounds, RT. 60 Gerry, NY. Chautauqua County Area, Municipal & Contractor Equipment Auction. Roy Teitsworth, Inc. Auctioneers, 585243-1563

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Page 29 - Section A • COUNTRY FOLKS GROWER • February 2012

Calendar from A28

February 2012 • COUNTRY FOLKS GROWER • Section A - Page 30

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February 2012 • COUNTRY FOLKS GROWER • Section A - Page 32


NEW YORK (cont)

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Section B

Breaking ground with new biological control methods by Kelly Gates While some choose chemicals to control pest populations, an increasing number of growers are turning to natural or

biological controls to combat things like hive beetles, root weevils, peachtree borers, lesser peachtree borers, Japanese beetles and fungus

gnats, to name a few of the havoc-wreaking bugs out there. The USDA’s Agricultural Research Service (ARS) has been at the forefront of biological controls research and development. Recently, the group’s own research entomologists partnered with scientists at universities in Georgia, Florida and Virginia and discovered a highly effective method of introducing nematodes into fields, orchards, gardens, green-

houses and other growing environments. “Nematodes have been used commercially against pests for many years. In some cases, they have done consistently well, but in other instances the results have been variable,” David Shapiro-Ilan, ARS research entomologist, told Country Folks Grower. “There are several factors that affect the efficacy against target pests, including susceptibility

to UV radiation.” Because most growers use nematodes that are suspended in aqueous solutions-sprays that are applied to the soil, trees and plants-the nematodes are often exposed to UV radiation from the sun. This is why many opt to spray in the evening or early morning. However, despite all ef-

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forts to prevent UV exposure, some nematodes do not survive or simply fail to function at peak capacity when left exposed to the elements. To avoid these potential problems, Shapiro-Ilan has worked closely with entomologists Juan Morales-Ramos and Maria Guadalupe Rojas from the Biological Control of Pests Research Unit, Stoneville, MS, to find a protective coating for nematode spray applications. “Through our research, we realized that a polymer we were using to store nematodes is the main polymer in fire gel. Fire gel is normally used to protect homes from fires,” said MoralesRamos. “This polymer readily absorbs water and oxygen, making it a great vehicle for enhancing the survival of nematodes.” When sprayed onto tree trunks and branches that have just been sprayed

Methods B2

Page 1 - Section B • COUNTRY FOLKS GROWER • February 2012

Country Folks

February 2012 • COUNTRY FOLKS GROWER • Section B - Page 2

Methods from B1 with aqueous nematode solutions, fire gel protects the nematodes from UV radiation and other external elements. As the research entomologists studied fire gel application for exposed surfaces, they also combined efforts to develop new methods of delivering nematodes to infested soils. “One of the methodologies for nematode production is to infect an insect

host, such as a wax worm or mealworm, with nematodes. The nematodes then reproduce inside of the insect host prior to application,” explained Shapiro-Ilan. “Through our research, we found that leaving the nematodes in the insect cadavers results in a higher success rate of survival and functionality compared with spraying.”

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Entomologist David Shapiro-Ilan (left) sprays a gel formulation onto a peach tree limb while technician Wanda Evans prepares the nematode application. The gel is being used to protect beneficial nematodes from damage due to extreme drying and UV radiation. With the protective formulation, the nematodes go to work killing harmful insect pests, such as the lesser peachtree borer. Photo by Peggy Greb

There are several reasons why the cadavers work well. For one, hard bodied insect cadavers act as a protective casing for the nematodes during storage and shipping. Second, it is easy to estimate how many nematodes are contained within each cadaver and therefore, how many cadavers are needed for each application. Workers can easily place one or several nematodecontaining insect cadavers into the soil at the base of each tree or plant. “In large scale farming, it would be too laborious to use cadavers. Ensuring that the nematodes spread out enough to cover the entire acreage completely would also be a concern,” advised Shapiro-Ilan. “In that case, spraying might be more advantageous. But cadavers work very well

for smaller fields and orchards or for container growing outdoors or in greenhouses.” Some growers use this unique pest management technique or other approaches with nematodes as a preventive measure against hive beetles, he added. When placed around the base of bee hives — the hive beetle’s preferred breeding ground — the hive beetle larvae fall to the ground and are killed by the nematodes in the surrounding soil. They never have a chance to mature, let alone to infest hives. As cadaver research advanced in recent years, so did the development of more suitable storage and delivery packaging. According to ShapiroIlan, this refining process was necessary since soft bodied insects like wax


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Page 3 - Section B • COUNTRY FOLKS GROWER • February 2012

Methods from B2

Entomologist Juan Morales-Ramos, at left, and insect production worker Matthew McDaniel use a scaleddown prototype of a separator they designed to sort mealworms by size." Photo by Stephen Ausmus

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February 2012 • COUNTRY FOLKS GROWER • Section B - Page 4

Finger Lakes Grape Growers Conference and New York Wine Industry Workshop This winter, the Finger Lakes Grape Growers’ Conference will be held in conjunction with the New York Wine Industry Workshop, March 1-3, 2012, at the Holiday Inn in Waterloo, NY. The FLGP and the Enology Extension Program will be developing this year’s

program with an eye both towards information that will be relevant to each of their specific cleintele, but also for topics that are important to both growers and winemakers, as well as the industry as a whole. The conference will include one day

focused on enology topics, one day on viticulture, and the middle day will have a little bit of everything for attendees to choose from. The New York Wine & Grape Foundation’s annual Unity Banquet will be held during that same timeframe as well.

There will still be a trade show during the conference, which will be held Friday, March 2. More information is available at

Methods from B3 worms have a tendency to stick together or rupture when packed together in a container. “We have developed several mechanisms that enhance the ability to store, ship and use these cadavers including covering soft bodied insect cadavers with a clay coating,” he noted. “Using hard bodies insects like mealworms also works well since they naturally don’t rupture or stick together. And, there is now a special tape covering being used that keeps the cadavers from touching each other to further prevent damage.” The tape system was invented by Perry, GAbased Southeastern Insectaries Inc. owner Louis Tedders. Tedders began packaging the insects in masking tape. He even designed a prototype machine to automate the process, which has since been finetuned by Morales-Ramos and Rojas. The mechanical device sorts mealworms by size,

enabling the largest worms to be placed into shallow dishes where they are infected by nematodes. Once the nematodes have infected and killed the mealworms, the device removes them oneat-a-time from the dishes and places the nematodeencased cadavers between two facing strips of masking tape at the rate of one insect every two seconds. “The tape is then rolled and stored until it is shipped to the growers,” said Morales-Ramos. “Once placed into the ground, the nematodes can move out of the tape and into the soil where they eliminate pests.” When another application is needed, growers can simply remove the old cadaver-wrapped masking tape strips and replace them with new strips. According to MoralesRamos, the mechanization of this process had made commercial production of nematode cadavers cost effective. This mechanized, tapepackaged biological con-


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trol is currently only available through Southeastern Insectaries. Shapiro-Ilan confirmed the commercial benefits of automating the process. He also summarized the inherent benefits of using this unique form of biological controls. “There are two main

reasons that the approach is attractive. The higher levels of infectivity and dispersal we’ve observed in nematodes emerging from cadavers can translate into better pest control,” he said. “And, for producers growing nematodes in their hosts, the cadaver approach can be

less expensive because it avoids the steps of harvesting and concentrating the nematodes.” For more information about cadaver-filled nematodes and the use of fire gel as a nematode pro-

tectant, contact David Shapiro-Ilan at the Southeastern Fruit & Tree Nut Research Laboratory, Byron, GA, by e-mailing david.shapiro@ars.usda.g ov, or call 478-956-6444.

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by Dr. Courtney Weber, Cornell University The most critical aspect of establishing a healthy berry planting is obtaining high quality planting stock that has a vigorous root system and is free from disease and insect pests. The plants should be obtained from a reputable nursery that participates in a certification program to ensure plants are free from diseases such as viruses and root diseases. Mother plants or stock plants derived from tissue culture for starting propagation fields provide the best source of disease and pest free plants. Plants should be ordered well in advance of planting to ensure an adequate supply the desired varieties and plant sizes. Blueberry nursery plants come in a variety of types (bare root, container grown, tissue culture) and sizes (rooted cuttings, tissue culture plugs, and 2-3 year old plants). Larger plants will mature and produce a crop sooner than smaller plants. Container grown plants may have some advantage to bare root plants, especially if planting is delayed in the spring because they withstand temperature and moisture fluctuations better. However, shipping of containerized plants is more expensive and they may require root pruning if they are root bound when they arrive.

Several characteristics should be considered when selecting varieties including harvest season, yield, fruit quality, hardiness, growth habit, vigor, and disease resistance. The plants go dormant in late fall and over winter in the field. Storing capacity varies greatly among varieties but is considerably higher for blueberries than most other berries. The market has also shifted towards larger fruit for various reasons including greater consumer appeal and increased harvest efficiency, but there is a good market for small “wild type” blueberries from low bush types. Most of the processing market is machine-harvested fruit and some fresh market fruit is sorted from machine harvested lots as well. Variety Descriptions Early Season Bluetta is very hardy but has small dark berries that are difficult to machine harvest and somewhat unattractive in the fresh pack. The large scar on the berry is also a problem. This variety has a weak growth habit and must be pruned carefully to maintain vigor and yield. Winter hardy to -35°C. Duke is considered the best early season cultivar available. It has late bloom that avoids many frosts and still produces an early crop. The fruit size and

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quality is very good but the flavor can be bland if picked late. It can be machine harvested. Frost tolerance and winter hardiness is good. Winter hardy to -25°C. Hannah’s Choice produces medium large fruit with high sugar content. The fruit is firmer with better flavor than Duke. Yields are moderate. Spartan fruit is firm and very large with very good flavor. A late bloom date avoids many frosts, but it still produces a large, early crop. It does best on ideal sites but performs poorly in soils that have to be highly amended for blueberries. It harvests well mechanically and has some resistance to mummy berry. It requires cross pollination for best yields. Winter hardy to -25°C. Mid-Season Berkley berries are light blue, firm and very large with very good storage capacity. Fruit flavor is fair. Winter hardiness is moderate. The bush is moderately tall and spreading and suitable for machine harvesting. Care should be taken in pruning to maintain bush shape. Winter hardy to -25°C. Bluecrop is the most widely planted mid-season cultivar in the world. It produces high yields of medium sized, firm fruit with good flavor. It is hardy in all but the coldest sites and can be machine harvested. The canes tend to be weepy so care should be taken to main-

tain the shape. It has very good disease resistance. Winter hardy to -25°C. Bluejay has an upright open growth habit that grows rapidly. It produces moderate crops of medium sized, high quality fruit that can be machine harvested and ships well. It is resistant to some viral diseases and moderately resistant to mummy berry. Winter hardy to -25°C. Blueray is also a widely planted mid-season cultivar. Fruit size is very good with good flavor and high yield potential. Extra pruning is needed with this spreading bush, as canes tend to weep due to heavy bearing. It has very good winter hardiness. Winter hardy to -25°C. Cara’s Choice produces medium sized fruit with 30 percent more sugar than Duke and Bluecrop. The fruit can hold on the plant for an extended period before harvest. The bush is low to moderate in vigor. Yields are moderate compared to Bluecrop. Chippewa is a very winter hardy halfhigh variety that is productive with large firm fruit. Winter hardy to -35°C. Draper produces a concentrated harvest between Duke and Bluecrop that can be machine harvested, even for fresh market. The flavor is very good with good hardiness. Northland is very winter hardy. It is

Blueberry B6






FAX: 585-586-6083 EMAIL:

Page 5 - Section B • COUNTRY FOLKS GROWER • February 2012

Blueberry Variety Review

February 2012 • COUNTRY FOLKS GROWER • Section B - Page 6

Blueberry from B5 an extremely productive half?high type with medium sized, dark, soft fruit. It can reach 1.25 m tall and produces many canes, which require heavy annual pruning. Winter hardy to -35°C. Patriot is winter hardy but frost sensitive due to early bloom. The fruit is large and firm with a small blossom scar. Full ripeness is needed for good flavor and sweetness. The bush is small to medium and grows slowly but is still productive. It must be pruned hard for large fruit and be fully ripe for best flavor. Suspected susceptibility to tomato ringspot virus has limited its use in recent years, but it is more tolerant to heavier soils than most varieties. Winter hardy to -25°C. Sierra is productive and has large firm berries that can be machine harvested. It has a medium sized bush and is less hardy than other cultivars. Winter hardy to -25°C. Toro is a productive cultivar with large fruit

that ripen uniformly. The clusters tend to be tight which makes picking harder. The canes tend to be too upright and thick. Competes with Bluecrop, which may be somewhat better in quality. Winter hardy to -25°C. Rubel is a wild selection that can be grown for the natural foods market. The fruit is small, firm and dark like low bush varieties. The flavor is fair and yields are moderate. It has very good winter hardiness. Winter hardy to -35°C. Late Season Aurora is the latest variety available, producing 5 days after Elliot. The fruit is very firm and stores well. It colors early and can be tart if picked too soon. The fruit size is large with very good yield. Bluegold produces medium sized berries with small, dry blossom scars. It has good flavor and firmness. It is a low growing bush with many branches and very good hardiness. Winter hardy to -25°C. Brigitta produces

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large, firm, flavorful fruit that stores well. It is vigorous but can be less hardy because it grows late into the fall. Excess nitrogen will make this worse. It is susceptible to Phomopsis. Winter hardy to -25°C. Chandler produces very large berries with good flavor. It has a long ripening season over 6 weeks, which is better for hand harvesting. The bush is vigorous with a slightly spreading habit that can reach 1.5

to 2 meters high. Winter hardy to -25°C. Elliott is a very late season berry with very good shelf life, 30-45 days in a modified atmosphere. The fruit is large and firm but can be tart because it turns blue before ripe. It is a good producer. The bush has an upright habit and forms a dense center that should be pruned to promote air movement. Winter hardy to -25°C. Jersey is an old (1928) cultivar that is adapted to

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a wide soil range. It has high yields of machine harvested fruit but the berries are small and soft. The bush has an upright habit and forms a dense center that should be pruned to promote air movement. Winter hardy to -35°C. Liberty produces fruit

approximately 5 days before Elliot with better flavor. The plants are vigorous and upright with good hardiness. The fruit has very good storage capacity. Source: New York Berry News, Dec. 2011, Vol. 10 Number 10

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by Sanne Kure-Jensen As part of the New England Vegetable & Fruit Conference and Trade Show, held Dec. 13-15, speakers described their experience with winter-hardy greens and outdoor storage of root crops. Michael Kilpatrick of Kilpatrick Family Farm in Middle Granville, NY, shared photographs from his farm and rec-

ommended his most valuable farm tool, a notebook. “Write everything down and use the data for planning and improvement,” Kilpatrick said. His notebooks are filled with data on temperature, rainfall, sun and clouds, planting dates, harvest dates, yield and crop rotations. Planting techniques To raise yields, Kil-

patrick inter-plants short season crops with long season crops, like greens with tomatoes. By the time the tomatoes are 3-feet tall, the lettuces are ready for harvest. Winter interplanting is accomplished by planting pac choi and Swiss chards together, due to the winter temperatures; they grow at different rates and complement each other. Fall

plantings include onions and shallots overplanted with greens. The micro greens and baby lettuces shade out most weed seeds; when the early crops are harvested, the onions can grow on. Planting Schedule and Varieties Kilpatrick detailed his planting schedule and many successful varieties. By June 1 the

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Michael Kilpatrick of Kilpatrick Family Farm in Middle Granville, NY spoke at the New England Vegetable & Fruit Conference and Trade Show in December, 2011. He shared his experience growing a wide variety of winter vegetables and how to store harvested crops for later sale. Photo by Sanne Kure-Jensen

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Page 7 - Section B • COUNTRY FOLKS GROWER • February 2012

Crops and techniques for winter harvest

February 2012 • COUNTRY FOLKS GROWER • Section B - Page 8

Crop from B7 Churchill and Dimitri Brussels Sprouts were planted for fall and winter harvest. Favorite leeks include Megaton, Lexton and Bandit. By July 10 Bolero, Yellow Sun, Purple Haze and Rainbow carrots were planted. Two Swiss Chards were planted: Bright Lights by Aug. 1 in fields or mini houses, Aug. 10 and Oct. 13 and 28 in high tunnels or greenhouses; Fordhook Giant was planted by Sept. 10 in high tunnels. At the Farmer to Farmer “Successful Winter Growing” Growers Forum, the following spinach varieties were recommended by the audience: Space (best according to majority), Beauty (very green), Corvair (pretty), Hunter (dark green), St. Helens (light green, resists fusarium), Lombarden (sweet and delicious in fall), Menorca (delicious, short stems). Raccoon and Crocodile spinach were recommended for cooking and Tyee was reported as the least productive variety. Kossack, Winner and Kilibro Kohlrabies were planted at Kilpatrick Family Farm by Aug. 1. By Sept. 1, Red Meat, Nero Tondo, Alpine and Miyashige radishes were seeded. Kilpatrick’s favorite shallots are Ambition or Picador. In February these onions were seeded for April transplanting: Prince or Pontiac, Redwing and Gold Coin. Bridger and Forum were seeded for overwintering. Ruby Perfection and Deadon cabbages were planted by June 1.

Kilpatrick also spoke about the trials that seed companies were conducting with winter growing. Last year High Mowing Seeds trialed 13 varieties of spinach overwinter. The highest yields were achieved with Giant Wonder, Space and Pigeon with regrowth harvests starting in January and continuing until May. Farm favorite lettuces included Sulu, Concept, Magenta, Winter Density and Johnny’s 5 Star mix. Blends included Lettony, Antaga, Defender, Galactic, Yankee mix and DMR mix. For head lettuce, Kilpatrick recommended Breen and Spretnak. Kilpatrick described his favorite braising or Asian greens: Pac Choi was seeded Aug. 20 and 25. Transplants were field planted Sept. 16 and indoor transplanted Sept. 30. Broccoli Raab, Vitamin Green, Tokyo Bekana (customer favorite), Yukina Savoy were seeded Sept. 9 and transplanted to high tunnels in mid October. Leaves, rather than heads, were individually harvested, washed, dried and bagged for sale. Kale was seeded July 5 and field transplanted Aug. 5. Indoor kale was seeded July 20 and Aug. 4 for transplanting Aug. 17 and Sept. 1. Customers loved to buy and eat colorful Chidori Kale (ornamentals in red or white) since Kilpatrick nicknamed it “Peacock” Kale. Braising greens benefit from leaving a little rosette at first har-

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vest to boost photosynthesis and speed regrowth. Tips for Handling Greens Spinach is washed in a tank aerated by a fish tank bubbler. Micro greens need only 30 days to harvest size. At Kilpatrick Family Farm staff use cordless grass sheers to harvest micro greens. When they tired of swapping and recharging batteries, they wired the clipper. Gradually hardened off lettuces and greens can take cooler temperatures and survive well into winter under row covers. Plant lettuces in the center of the row; kale, spinach and other greens are more cold tolerant and can be planted on the outer rows. Kale is very cold hardy; Kilpatrick only covers it when temperatures drop to 15 F. Leaves are stored loose in bins in the coolers until packaged for sale. Popular Specialty Crop Ginger is harvested in fall for imme-

diate CSA delivery and some is frozen and stored for a “treat” in mid-winter. Other conference speakers placed ginger in a basket by their cash registers and impulse sales soared. The Kilpatrick Family Farm website has a resource page with helpful references and slides from all of Michael Kilpatrick’s conference talks at html. You can read summaries of most of the speakers’ presentations from the 2011 New England Vegetable & Fruit Conference at www.newenglandvfc. org/2011_conference/proceedings/ne vfc-2011-proceedings.pdf. A summary of Michael Kilpatrick’s talk on Diversified Winter Crops starts on page 106. To learn more about Kilpatrick Family Farm, visit You can contact Michael Kilpatrick via email at or call 518300-4060.

Though emphasizing that quitting is the best remedy to combat health problems for smokers, Cornell researchers have found a way to make cigarettes less toxic. Researchers from the lab of Jack H.

Freed, the Frank and Robert Laughlin Professor of Physical Chemistry, have demonstrated that lycopene and grape seed extract literally stuffed into a conventional cigarette filter drastically lowers the amount of cancer-causing

agents passing through. Their research is published in the Jan. 2 issue of the Journal of Visualized Experiments (JoVE). “The implications of this technique can help reduce the hazardous effects of tobacco smoke,” said Boris Dzikovski, research associate and paper co-author. The Cornell scientists altered filters of normal cigarettes by placing a mixture of grape seed and lycopene treated with activated carbon in the middle. Their experiments focused on gas-phase free radicals, as opposed to other hazardous ingredients such as the solid particles, or tar, contained in cigarettes. A laboratory machine “smoked” the altered cigarettes, along with conventional ones. The smoke was passed through a spin-trapping solution, and electron spin resonance spectroscopy (ESR) was used to record the spectra of trapped radicals in the smoke samples. ESR showed that the grape seed and lycopene removed, or scavenged, up to 90 percent of the free radicals that would otherwise have passed through the filter. The researchers point out that these scavenging agents could be obtained in large quantities, for example, from byproducts of the tomato or

wine industries. Scientists have tried to make safer cigarettes in the past. Hemoglobin, which transports oxygen in red blood cells, and activated carbon have been shown to reduce free radicals in smoke by up to 90 percent, but because of the cost, the combination has not been introduced to the market. The health hazards associated with free radicals in cigarettes are exacerbated by the fact that cigarette smoke is inhaled in high concentrations, Dzikovski added. Inhaling any smoke, such as second-hand smoke, vehicular pollution or industrial waste, has some potentially damaging effects. “The amount and composition of radicals from different sources can be dramatically different, and the spintrapping ESR technique is in a unique position to analyze and quantify them,” he said. The research is the 1,500th article published in the JoVE, the only peer -reviewed, PubMed indexed video-journal. Watch the full video article at The work was supported by the National Institutes of Health.

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Page 9 - Section B • COUNTRY FOLKS GROWER • February 2012

Tomato, wine byproducts in filters could make cigarettes less toxic

February 2012 • COUNTRY FOLKS GROWER • Section B - Page 10

Strep-resistant fire blight found in New York orchards ITHACA, NY — Cornell plant pathologists have issued a warning to New York apple and pear growers after discovering a strain of fire blight that is resistant to such traditional treatments as the antibiotic streptomycin. For 50 years, the disease has been kept at bay using the antibiotic, but streptomycin-resistant strains of the disease were recently found in four locations in Wayne and Ontario counties. “This is a serious situation that we need to manage effectively. The rapid identification of this outbreak positions us to implement a coordinated plan leading up to next year’s growing season,” said Herb Aldwinckle, professor of plant pathology and plant-microbe biology at Cornell’s New York State Agricultural Experiment Station (NYSAES) in Geneva. In coordination with colleagues at NYSAES and Cornell Cooperative Extension, Aldwinckle is developing

guidelines growers can follow to reduce the threat. Upcoming sessions at the Fruit and Vegetable Expo and CCE Fruit Schools in several counties will also provide growers with opportunities to learn more about the outbreak and possible solutions. Fire blight is caused by the bacterium Erwinia amylovora, earning its name from the scorched appearance of infected leaves and branches. Its symptoms include blackening of flowers and young leaves, resulting in crop loss and even death of trees. Strep-resistant fire blight was first identified in California in 1971, and since then it has been found in Washington, Oregon, Missouri and southwest Michigan. Diseased nursery trees from Michigan were the source of a limited outbreak in New York in 2002. At that time, Aldwinckle and

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routine surveillance, and we hadn’t found it again,” Aldwinckle said. This current infection was first spotted in Wolcott, NY, where a persistent suspected fire blight infection evaded a streptomycin spray regime. Samples were immediately brought to Ald-

winckle’s lab. Sampling was necessarily limited in late fall, so the full extent of the outbreak will be unclear until additional samples are studied, but the latest results indicate there are several outbreaks of strep-resistant fire blight in Wayne

and Ontario counties. Aldwinckle said the fact that one of the sites is a nursery does complicate the management plan. Fortunately, that nursery has a strict rogueing program — in which infected plants are removed from the soil and de-

stroyed — that should minimize the chance of spread, he added. However, Aldwinckle noted that some infections might not be immediately visible, so there’s a possibility that a small number of trees with the strain were inadvertently shipped to growers.

He advises all growers to examine their trees carefully for any symptoms of fire blight that may develop after planting. These recommendations apply to all trees purchased, with particular attention for those from New York and Michigan nurseries, where strep-resistant fire blight is known to occur. He is also exploring other ways to eradicate the blight. “The antibiotic kasugamycin is as effective as streptomycin, and in some ways it is a more appropriate antibiotic because it is not used in human or veterinary medicine,” said Aldwinckle. “Kerik Cox, an assistant professor of plant pathology at Cornell, is leading an application for a Section 18 emergency registration from the EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) for growers to use Kasumin (commercial kasugamycin) next spring.”

colleagues, in close collaboration with growers, ensured that all infected trees were destroyed and surrounding farms were checked. That eradication appears to have been effective. “For the past 10 years, extension staff have sent in samples for

Page 11 - Section B • COUNTRY FOLKS GROWER • February 2012

Blight from B10

February 2012 • COUNTRY FOLKS GROWER • Section B - Page 12


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Exciting new research shows that U.S. tomato growers may not have to choose between plant varieties that produce high-value fruit and those that are resistant to troublesome soilborne pathogens. Researchers and farmers alike are demonstrating that grafting shoots of one plant to the root system of another is a cost-effective, environmentally sound way for growers to both manage diseases and cash in on improved yields. For example, one Pennsylvania farmer growing grafted tomatoes in high tunnels boosted his yields 20 percent — or $9,024 per high-tunnel acre

— compared to his standard practices. Separately, North Carolina State University researchers determined that grafting with organic and heirloom tomatoes can increase profit by 38 cents per plant. SARE has released a new fact sheet, Tomato Grafting for Disease Resistance and Increased Productivity, that helps farmers and agricultural educators learn how to graft tomatoes to fight disease and improve the health and vigor of tomato crops. It is available for free download from SARE'sLearning Center. Growers interested in experiment-







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ing with this novel approach of improving resistance to soil-borne pathogens will find: • Helpful tips for grafting plants, including variety selection based on resistance to particular diseases, stepby-step grafting techniques and caring for grafted plants; • Instructions for building a healing chamber for newly grafted plants, and for transplanting them to the field; and • An analysis of the economic viability of grafting under different conditions. Still a relatively uncommon practice in the United States, researchers around the world have demonstrated that grafting can protect plants against a variety of soil-borne fungal, bacterial, viral and nematode diseases, such as Verticillium and Fusarium wilt (FW), corky root rot, root-knot nematodes, bacterial wilt, southern blight and other diseases. Grafting is on the rise in the United States, since it has been shown to successfully manage bacterial wilt in tomatoes, even in severely infested soils. In western North Carolina, for example, a resistant rootstock was used to reduce bacterial wilt in tomatoes: At season's end, nearly 90 percent of the control plants died while 100 percent of the grafted plants not only survived, their yield was more

than two fold that of the surviving nongrafted plants. Tomato grafting shows particular promise for high-tunnel, heirloom and organic growers. With little opportunity for extended crop rotation intervals in a high tunnel, disease pressure can be very high. Heirloom varieties are not bred for resistance, and, in organic systems, other disease management practices are limited. Due to the phase-out of methyl bromide in the United States, grafting could become a widespread pest management strategy for a large segment of growers.


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Page 13 - Section B • COUNTRY FOLKS GROWER • February 2012

Grafting tomatoes brings better yields naturally

February 2012 • COUNTRY FOLKS GROWER • Section B - Page 14

PONCA, NE — A1 Mist Sprayers Resources Inc., a worldwide provider of Mist Sprayers to the Agricultural Marketplace, has announced the addition of the Self Contained ATV-All Terrain Trailer Mounted- Mist/Air Blast Sprayer Product Line for use in narrow spraying applications in orchards, vineyards, container stock, green houses, Christmas trees and other row crop applications. “We recognized that many producers have very tight growing operations where they are just not able to use large tractors or vehicles to spray foliar fertilizer, fungicide, insecticides or organic products,” said A1 Mist Sprayers President Steve Nelson. “That’s why we developed the Model ATV-ATT-H-40 ATV-All Terrain Trailer Mounted Mist

Sprayer. It is compact for maneuverability and versatility and can be used in all working conditions along with an ATV, small tractor, lawn tractor or utility vehicle. We are very confident that it will live up to the expectations of our future customers.” The Model ATV-ATT-H-40 ATV-All Terrain Trailer Mounted Mist Sprayer features: • A heavy duty iron coat paint main frame skid package with pre-punched frame- fork lift compatible (patent pending), and lift handles; • A 9 1/2 HP electric start Honda engine with four quart gas tank (battery not included); • Control box with 10-foot cable for electric start/on/off, variable engine speed, fan rollover and liquid

flow control; • Huck riveted fan with safety rings and electric 210 degree fan roll-over; • Four-nozzle round Cannon Volute® - spray out to 100 feet; • Nine-nozzle vertical vineyard - Orchard Volute - spray out to 45 feet; • 40 gallon poly tank (60 gallon optional) with tank drain; • Four roller pump, hydro-jet agitation, liquid pressure gauge for better accuracy, complete plumbing accessories and pistol grip hand gun kit with 25-foot hose; • Includes an all terrain trailer With 4,000 lb. axles, 10 Inch rims and 205/85-10 flotation tires (Highway Ready); and • 10 year main frame warranty and three year warranty on all moving

parts (mist sprayer only). “Mist sprayers are more eco-friendly than other spraying methods because they produce a more uniform droplet pattern and the operator can control the spray direction and distance, while using less active product and water and get outstanding coverage and results,” Nelson added. A1 Mist Sprayers Resources Inc. produces a full line of engine driven and tractor mounted PTO driven mist sprayers. A1 Mist Sprayers Resources Inc. Mist Sprayers Resources Inc. has 35 years experience in mist sprayer manufacturing and sales. For more information, go to the A1 Mist Sprayers Resources Inc. website, or call toll free, 877-924-2474.

Food safety training slated for fruit and vegetable producers ANNAPOLIS, MD — The Maryland Department of Agriculture (MDA) and the University of Maryland will conduct a food safety training workshop for fruit and vegetable producers from 9 a.m. to 4 p.m. on Wednesday, Feb. 22, at the Calvert County Fairgrounds in Prince Frederick. The training is cosponsored by the Calvert County Sustainable Agriculture Workgroup and the Southern Maryland Agricultural Development Commission (SMADC).

This one-day workshop is important for small- and large- scale producers who want to understand how to meet current and future U.S. Food and Drug Administration food safety requirements and Good Agricultural Practice (GAP) certification. The training will provide assistance in writing and implementing a GAP program for both wholesale and direct marketers. Topics to be covered include: highlights of the federal Food Safety Mod-

ernization Act, review of recent outbreaks, basics of GAP, addressing water quality issues, compost/manure use, wildlife and livestock issues, worker hygiene, and MDA/University of Maryland programs to assist producers in implementing GAP. The training fee is $20, which includes lunch and materials. Registration deadline is Feb. 17. For information and a registration form, see: ing_Flyer_022212.pdf MDA offers two GAP certification programs for fruit and vegetable producers. Nationally recognized certification is provided through a cooperative agreement with USDA, Agricultural Marketing Service and meets the requirements of many wholesale buyers. MDA GAP certification is available for direct marketers.

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Page 15 - Section B • COUNTRY FOLKS GROWER • February 2012

A1 Mist Sprayers introduces new model for narrow crop applications

February 2012 • COUNTRY FOLKS GROWER • Section B - Page 16

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WANTED: FMC Carrot & Beet harvester. Call Dan at 315212-7502

Farm Market Items


Affordable USA MADE Items. Full line of heavy duty items, poles - hooks - trellis items, arbors - fences - indoor items. Free 400 plus Items Catalog. Custom Display Racks. Also accepting custom orders. Serving customers since 1999. A&L Iron Works, LLC, 624 Buchland Rd., Narvon, PA 17555. 717-768-0705, Fax 717-768-0245

To place a Classified Ad



LIVE GAME FISH Oldest Fish Hatchery Estab. 1900

ZETTS FISH FARM & HATCHERIES Large Selection of Game Fish Pond Equipment & Supplies, Aquatic Plants

Truck, Air, U.P.S. Parcel Post Delivery SEND FOR COMPLETE CATALOG P.O. BOX 239, DRIFTING, PA 16834 PHONE: 814-345-5357

Fruits & Berries

Fruits & Berries

Garden Supplies GROW HALF-DOLLAR SIZE muscadine & blackberries, 200 varieties, fruits, nuts, and berries. Free color catalog. Ison’s Nursery, P.O. Box 190, Brooks, GA 30205, 1-800733-0324.

Greenhouse Equipment ®

Specializing in Edible Landscaping. Blueberries, Blackberries, Raspberries, Grapes, and Fruit Trees. TN: 931-467-3600 • Fax 931-467-3062

GREENHOUSE: 84,000SqFt. IBG Arch II structure for sale, gutter connected, disassembled & ready for shipping, 303-915-8589 (Colorado). For photo’s

Blueberry Plants are VIRUS TESTED, and State of Michigan Certified. All Plants are grown using TISSUE CULTURE TECHNIQUES by Hartmanns.

Farm Equipment

Blueberry, Raspberry, Blackberry and other Small Fruits.

FRESH MARKET sweet corn picker w/Byron head, good condition, $2,500. 315-8966144

CONTACT DANNY, TERI OR BOB FOR A FREE CATALOG AND PERSONAL ADVICE. P.O. Box 100 Lacota, Michigan 49063 ph. 269-253-4281 fax. 269-253-4457 email: web:

USED NURSERY POTS FOR SALE 1 gal . . .9c 2 gal . .15c 3 gal . .19c 4 gal . .25c 5 gal . .50c 7 gal . .60c Please Call Frank Geiger 203-255-1024

40 Bel ont St. Fairfield, CT 06430


We can provide the grower with personal cultural advice in the first stage of preparation and beyond. Order Now your Future investment.

Greenhouse Supplies

Geiger’s Garden Center


FOR SALE: Mail order business of “Alpine window box ivy geraniums of Europe”. Hundreds of (UPS) customers in 48 states for 20 years. 860-342-2374, 888GERANIUM(437-2648)

Fruits & Berries

9555 North Gast Road, P.O. Box 116 - Bridgman, Michigan 49106 Phone: 269-465-5522 Fax: 269-465-4822

Farm Machinery Wanted

Business Opportunities 30’x148’ HOOP Greenhouse, will help to dismantle, $4,000. Wheeler Farm, Portland, CT. 860-342-2374, 888-GERANIUM(437-2648)

Fruits & Berries

Farm Machinery For Sale

Greenhouse Supplies SECOND HAND Greenhouse glass, 2 sizes: 16”x24”, 18”x20”. Large Quantity Available, Make offer 845-4698218

( 800 ) 836-2888 PO Box 121, 6113 State Hwy. 5 ( ) Fax: 518 673-2381 Palatine Bridge, NY 13428 E-mail: Greenhouse Supplies

Greenhouse Supplies

BENCH TOP FLAT FILLER Affordable Automation at 2,000 Lightweight at 70 lbs. Compact - 22” W, 42” L, 30” H $

For Additional Product Information Contact:

Russ Nolin at


NOLIN WELDING & FABRICATIONS 344 Old Mountain Road, Moultonboro, NH 03254

Help Wanted

Lumber & Wood Products


LOCUST 4x4’s, fence posts, split rails, lumber. Natural, chemical free non poisonous alternative to pressure treated that has strength and lasts a lifetime. 518-883-8284

In our 3 decade of performing confidential key employee searches for the nursery, greenhouse, and horticulture industries and allied trades worldwide. Retained basis only. Candidate contact welcome, confidential, and always free. rd

FLORASEARCH, INC. 1740 Lake Markham Road Sanford, FL 32771 407-320-8177 7 (phone)) • 407-320-8083 3 (fax) Email: Web Site:

Kurt Weiss Greenhouse is a leading wholesale greenhouse operation with multiple production facilities in the Northeast. We are looking for a motivated and experienced Grower Manager with a strong working knowledge of greenhouse plant production. This individual will be responsible for all aspects of production from propagation through crop finish including water, nutrient, PGR and pest management as well as environmental controls and record keeping. The applicant must be a self motivated team player who is detail oriented. Salary commensurate with experience. E-Mail resume and letter of interest to:


Native Plants NATIVE GRASSES, sedges, rushes, wildflowers, and herbaceous plants for use in wetland mitigation, restoration, and landscape design. Contract growing available. Signature Horticultural Services, Freeland, MD. Call 410329-6466 or fax 410-3292156.

Nursery Liners

Nursery Stock

A R B O RV I TA E RO OT E D CUTTINGS: One year old. Techny, Emerald, Green Giant, Pyramid, Nigra,Little Giant. 6-9” .44ea., 5-6” .32ea. Free Shipping. Quantity discounts. RENS NURSERY, N11561 County MM, Waupun, WI 53963. 920-324-9595

PINE, SPRUCE, FIR seedlings and transplants for Christmas trees, reforestation, wildlife habitat, windbreaks, property beautification. WHOLESALE prices. FREE catalog and planting guide. Flickingers’ Nursery PO Box 245, Sagamore, PA 16250 800-368-7381

COMPLETE LIST of deciduous and evergreen seedlings and transplants at or call 231-723-4846 Hramor Nursery LLC, 2267 Merkey Rd., Manistee, MI 49660

Nursery Stock

Real Estate For Sale

Real Estate For Sale

TREE FARM PRIME REAL ESTATE 40 Acres Suburb Buffalo, N.Y. Established 25+ years. Owner retiring. Nursery business could accompany. Treehaven Evergreen Nursery Phone




Nursery Stock

Order Now - Spring is Coming! - Fruit, Shade, Ornamental Trees - Flowering Shrubs, Small Fruits, Roses, Vines - Rhubarb, Asparagus, Horseradish And More! VISIT US AT WWW.KELLYWSN.COM Bareroot - Containerized - Packaged Small Minimum Orders/Free Color Picture Tags

Box 66 Phelps NY 14532 • 877-268-2151 • Fax 315-548-8004 USE CODE # SB0212 FOR 10% DISCOUNT OFF YOUR INITIAL ORDER.

“Featuring Sub Zero Roses - Start now for Mother’s Day”


NEW/USED WALK-IN-COOLER ~ FREEZER BOXES ~ REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS ~ EQUIPMENT Large Inventory ~ All Sizes • Buy • Sell ~ Nationwide • Wholesale Prices

Phone: (216) 426-8882 • Roofing


ROOFING & SIDING e Metall Roofing g & Siding.. BUY DIRECT – Wee manufacture


A.B. MARTIN ROOFING SUPPLY, LLC Ephrata, PA 1-800-373-3703 N e w v i l l e , PA 1-800-782-2712

Full line Pole Building material. ~ Lumber - Trusses - Plywood.

Nursery Equipment 16 WELLMASTER used shipping racks, 44”x46” w/5 steel mesh shelves, excellent condition, $300/each OBO; Also, 50,000 (1 Gal.) containers, .05/each OBO. 607-279-8172 Ithaca,NY


Visit Us Online • 24/7/365 or  Like Us On Facebook • Email:


Nursery Stock

Rainbow Valley Seeds

CANAAN FIR PLUGS + 1 & 2’s (Great Prices!!) Contact me for more information. Craig Alterio, Pal-System Nursery, PO Box 454, Howard, PA 16841. 814-625-2618

LARGE VARIETY of Evergreens, Flowering Trees, Shrubs & Natives in larger sizes. Pre-dug trees available. 700 acres of quality field grown material. 40 years experience. Roger Coffey & Sons Wholesale Nursery P h : 8 2 8 - 3 9 4 - 2 2 5 9 Fa x : 828-758-2240 email: LEYLAND CYPRESS: 3 gallon 36-42”, $10.00. Quantity discounts. Also larger sizes. OT T E R B E I N N U R S E RY, Newburg, PA 717-423-0119, 717-423-0146(Fax)

Seeds Hybrid Ornamental Corn Seed

Douglas & Charlene Woodruff Quality Seed for Quality Customers


Real Estate For Sale

Real Estate Wanted

CHRISTMAS TREE FARM and split level house. Unique entrepreneurial opportunity, earn a second income, fourth bedroom off family room and office, large closets and pristine floors, open kitchen atmosphere, 2½ baths. Bloomfield,CT 860-989-2783

WANTED: Farm Market or small farm in Eastern Penn., Delaware, New Jersey, New York or New England. Contact Barry at 215-493-8730

V I S S E E D C O M PA N Y: Specializing in flower seeds from around the world. Seeds, plugs, cuttings. Offering the best annual, perennial, vegetable & herb seeds. Celebrating 25 years! Contact us for a current catalog. PO Box 661953, Arcadia, CA 91066. (P) 626-4451233, (F) 626-445-3779,,


Parts, Sales & Service for Durand-Wayland & Myers Arendtsville Garage 135A Main St. • Arendtsville, PA 17303


Page 17 - Section B • COUNTRY FOLKS GROWER • February 2012

Country Folks Grower Classifieds

February 2012 • COUNTRY FOLKS GROWER • Section B - Page 18

Country Folks Grower Classifieds

( 800 ) 836-2888 PO Box 121, 6113 State Hwy. 5 ( ) Fax: 518 673-2381 Palatine Bridge, NY 13428 E-mail: Sprayers



2. FAXForIT INyou MasterCard, Visa, American

Express or Discover customers... Fill out the form attached completely and fax to Peggy at (518) 673-2381

Fruit and Vegetable Sprayers


• Mosquito (West Nile), fly & tick control! • Fruit & vegetable applications: sweet corn, pumpkins, tomatoes, strawberries, blueberries, melons & small orchards

High Performance PTO & Engine Driven Mist Sprayers, Blowers, Foggers, Parts & Accessories Spray Under Trees...Roadside Ditches... Forestry Weed & Pest Control...

3 Pt Terminator

ATV Narrow Row Crop Self-Contained Sprayer

A1 Mist Sprayers Resources 877-924-2474 Email • More Info Also At:



HALABURA TREE FARMS 35 Dreher Rd. Orwigsburg, PA (Schuylkill Co.) 570-943-2137 office 570-943-7692 fax Douglas Fir Concolor Fir Hemlock Shade & Flowering Trees Available

White Pine Norway Spruce Arborvitae

Blue Spruce Serbian Spruce Frazier Fir

Cut & B&B available • Reasonable Prices • Delivery Available

Water Plants

Water Plants


$48.95, delivered


Flower Barn 800 Millcreek Road, Johnstown, PA 15905

Phone: 800-234-5858, Fax 814-536-7887





THOUSAND WORDS It’s easy and economical to add a picture to your ad!

For Information Call


MAIL IT IN Fill out the attached form, calculate the cost, enclose your check or credit card information and mail to: Country Folks Grower Classifieds PO Box 121, Palatine Bridge, NY 13428

4. E-MAIL IT INE-mail your ad to 5.





















If you have used equipment for sale, ask about our group of weekly farm newspapers that cover from Maine to North Carolina. ON-LINE - Go to Name: (Print)______________________________________________________ and follow the Place a Classified Address:_________________________________________________________ Ad button to place your ad 24/7! City:_____________________________________St.:_______Zip:___________

FOR BEST RESULTS, RUN Phone:_____________________________Fax:__________________________ YOUR AD FOR TWO ISSUES! Cell:_________________________E-mail:______________________________ Cost for each Issue per Zone: $9.25 for the first 14 words, 30¢ each additional word. (Phone #’s count as one word) # of issues to run______ Total Cost $________ Zone(s) to run in:  East  Midwest  West

 I have enclosed a Check/Money Order  Please charge my credit card:  American Express  Discover  Visa  MasterCard Acct#:__________________________________________Exp. Date:_________ (MM/YY) Signature:________________________________________Date:____________

Calendar of Events E-mail announcements of your regional event(s) to: We must receive your information, plus a contact phone number, prior to the deadline that’s noted under the Announcements heading on the 1st page of these Grower Classifieds. *** JAN 31-FEB 2 Mid-Atlantic Fruit & Vegetable Convention Hershey Lodge, Hershey, PA. Contact Bill Troxell, 717694-3596 or On Internet at www. FEB 1-3 New England Grows! Boston Convention & Exhibition Center, Boston, MA. Call 508-653-3009 or e-mail On Internet at www. FEB 3 New England Nursery Assoc. Annual Meeting & Breakfast Boston Convention & Exhibition Center, Rm. 253, Boston, MA. 7:30-8:30 am. Register by Jan. 23 online at www.NewEnglandNurs- Call 508653-3112, e-mail kristen @NewEnglandNurseryAsso FEB 7 Bedding Plants - Spring 2012! Tolland County Extension Office, 24 Hyde Ave., Vernon, CT. 10 am - 2:30 pm. Get the latest information on pest control, disease management and other hot topics from University experts and network with professionals and other growers. Handouts; lunch and beverages will be included in your registration fee of $20. Please make checks payable to the University of Connecticut and send to Litchfield County Extension Center, 843 University Dr., Torrington, CT 06790. Contact Leanne Pundt, 860-6266240 or e-mail leanne.

Required w/Credit Card Payment Only

FEB 10-12 30th Annual NOFA-VT Winter Conference University of Vermont in Burlington, VT. The conference will feature over 70 workshops. Learn more, browse workshops and register at or call 802-434-4122. FEB 10-16 2012 NAFDMA Williamsburg Convention Williamsburg Marriott, Williamsburg, VA. This School on Wheels is a popular feature of the NAFDMA convention. The tour will begin on Feb. 10 in Williamsburg, VA and will then spend the next three days traveling to farm direct marketing and agri-tourism locations throughout Virginia. Call 416-207-1561. On Internet at www.nafd FEB 14 Bedding Plants - Spring 2012! Litchfield County Extension Cente, 843 University Dr., Torrington, CT. 10 am - 2:30 pm. Get the latest information on pest control, disease management and other hot topics from University experts and network with professionals and other growers. Handouts; lunch and beverages will be included in your registration fee of $20. Please make checks payable to the University of

Connecticut and send to Litchfield County Extension Center, 843 University Dr., Torrington, CT 06790. Contact Leanne Pundt, 860-6266240 or e-mail leanne. FEB 14-16 45th Annual World Ag Expo International Agri-Center, 4450 South Laspina St., Tulare, CA. The Expo is the largest annual agricultural show of its kind with 1,600 exhibitors displaying cutting edge agricultural technology and equipment on 2.6 million square feet of show grounds. On Internet at FEB 18-20 2nd Annual Beginning Farmer Conference Amway Grand Plaza Hotel & DeVos Place Convention Center, Grand Rapids, MI. Beginning farmers and ranchers interested in all types of agriculture are encouraged to attend. The conference provides an opportunity for attendees to network with other farmers from around the country and learn from experts about how to start and maintain a thriving farm or ranch business. For more information, including online registration and hotel information, visit http://2012bfrconference.ev or e-mail questions to


John Deere Gator 825: 4x4

Enter Now To Win A John Deere Gator!

3 Ways To Win!!!

Any of the forms below can also be brought to the Empire Fruit & Vegetable Expo in the Oncenter, Syracuse, NY January 24-26, 2012.


Buy a subscription to Country Folks


Name ______________________________________________ Business/Farm Name ____________________________________ Address _____________________________________________ City ___________________State _______________Zip Code ___________ PHONE (  NEW

) _____________  RENEW


Payment Method  Check (#




 Exp. Date __________

Acct. # Signature ___________________ Date _____________ Please fill out the optional questionnaire below. All information is confidential. A. Do you grow vegetables? Acres:  1-3  3-10  Over 10  Beets  Onions  Tomatoes  Broccoli  Cabbage  Celery  Cauliflower  Pumpkins  Beans  Potatoes  Sweet Corn  Cucumbers B. Do you grow fruit? Acres:  1-3  3-10  Over 10  Grapes  Cherries  Strawberries  Peaches  Apples  Pears  Cranberries  Blueberries  Melons  Brambles C. Do you operate a greenhouse? Sq. Ft.  Up to 5,000  5-10,000  over 10,000  Bedding Plants  Vegetables  Foliage Plants  Cut Flowers  Potted Flower Plants  Other D. Do you operate a nursery? Acres  1-3  3-10  Over 10  Wholesale  Retail  Christmas Trees  Shade Trees  Fruit Trees  Mums  Shrubs  Perennials  Herbs, Drieds, Cuts E. Other Crops F. Is there any aspect of horticulture that you would like to see more of in Country Folks Grower?

PAYMENT RECEIVED BY: _____________________DATE ____________


it in - Just give Peggy 1.Phone a call at 1-800-836-2888 - For you MasterCard,Visa, 2.Fax it inAmerican Express or

Discover customers... Fill out the form attached completely and fax to Peggy at (518) 673-2381 Mail it in. Fill out the attached form, calculate the cost, enclose your check or credit card information and mail to: Country Folks Grower Classifieds PO Box 121, Palatine Bridge, NY 13428



E-mail your ad to 4. 5.Use our forms on our web site, forms will calculate your charges for you. All you have to do is fill out the form and submit!

Cost per edition: $8.00 for the first 14 words, 30¢ each additional word. (Phone #’s count as one word) # of issues to run______ Total Cost $___________





$9.20 $10.10















If you have used equipment for sale, ask about our group of weekly farm newspapers that cover from Maine to North Carolina.

Signature_______________________Date________ Payment Method     Acct#________________________Exp. Date______ Name:______________________________________ (Print)______________________________________ Address:____________________________________ City:_____________________St.:______Zip:_______

This Sweepstakes 3 Mail in Entry Form

Name Co./Farm Name

_ _ _


_ _ _

City State Phone( ) E-Mail Birth Date



_ _ _ / _

Entries must be dated before June 1st, 2012. Employees & relatives of employees of Lee Publications Inc., John Deere, Zahn & Matson are not eligible. Must be 18 years of age.

Mail to Country Folks Grower, PO Box 121, Palatine Bridge NY 13428

Page 19 - Section B • COUNTRY FOLKS GROWER • February 2012

Country Folks

February 2012 â&#x20AC;˘ COUNTRY FOLKS GROWER â&#x20AC;˘ Section B - Page 20

There are

3 Options for Insuring Vegetable and Fruit Crops Crop Insurance (rates on file in selected counties)

Written Agreement (may be used to make additional policies available in non-select counties)

NAP - Non-insured Assistance Program Crop insurance and written agreements are available through insurance agents. NAP coverage is sold by USDA FSA and costs $250 for the administrative fee per crop per county, with a cap of $750 per county for multi-crop coverage.

Did you know? New for 2012 Crop Insurance for Fresh Market Green Beans grown under contract in 9 counties & all other NYS counties by written agreement (a crop insurance-like arrangement approved by the USDA RMA regional director under specific conditions, including at least 3 years of records for the crop or similar crop).

Grower East 2.12  
Grower East 2.12  

Grower East February 2012