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3 OCTOBER 2011 Section One of Two Volume 29 Number 28


Your Weekly Connection to Agriculture

Farm News • Equipment for Sale • Auctions • Classifieds

'Adventurous' Ohio Jersey cow named All-American Supreme Champion Page A5 Featured Columnist: Lee Mielke

Mielke Market Weekly 21 Crop Comments 6 Focus on Ag 15 Alternative Fuels Auctions CCA Classifieds Farmer to Farmer Manure Trucks

8 24 10 35 14 18 12


Rutland 4-H’ers recognized at state fair ~ Page 2 “But seek first his kingdom and his righteousness, and all these things will be given to you as well.” Matthew 6:33

Page 2 - Section A • COUNTRY FOLKS New England • October 3, 2011

Rutland 4-H’ers recognized for accomplishments at state fair A 12-year-old Horsepower 4-H Club member, David Gringeri, of West Haven, VT, was awarded the McKirryher Family Watch Award at the Vermont State Fair. The McKirryher family presents a watch to the Rutland County boy or girl who earns the most points on his or her exhibits in the 4-H Department at the fair. Points are awarded on exhibits, demonstrations, showmanship and leadership. All competitors considered were at least 12 years of age by Jan. 1 of this year. Competitors for the award must participate in at least four departments and deliver a demonstration or illustrated talk. Gringeri qualified to exhibit his Quarter Horse mare, Tardy Sailor, at the Vermont State Fair and Horse Show and participated in other Horse Department activities with equine 4-H members. The awards he received at the 4-H Awards Program on Sept. 11, were the Equine Award (Horsepower), Ruth Kirchner Memorial Award (junior), Williams Farmstead Award, P.J. Bushey Landscape Award, Heleba Award, Organic Baking Award (Over the Hill Farm), Desert Pizza (first place), Fun Foods (first place), Collete Family Award, Rutland County Maple Producers Award, Anna Fenton Maple Award, Special Homemaking Award, the Charles and Evelyn Monroe Public Speaking Trophy (junior), and the Conservation, Nature and Creative Crafts Exhibitor Award. Gringeri is a seventh grader at Fair Haven Grade School in Fair Haven, VT. David takes western pleasure and reining lessons from his instructor of six years, Deborah Danforth, at Horse Amour Stables in Castelton, VT. David has his sights set on competing at the Eastern States Exposition with other delegates from the Vermont 4-H program once he turns 14 and competing in reining at AQHYA. His other interests are computer technology, public speaking, roping, riflery and hunting, and working and managing the family hay farm with his father, Frank Gringeri.

Benson Busy Buddies Club member Raven Collete, 12, was awarded the Rutland County Agricultural Society Inc. Officers and Trustees Award. This award alternates each year between a boy and girl exhibitor who has not previously won the McKirryher Family Watch Award. All competitors considered must participate in at least four departments and deliver a demonstration or illustrated talk. Raven was also awarded the Photography Boyce Family Award, took third in cake decorating, third in Decorated Cookies, third in Fun Foods, won the Bald Peak 4-H Homemaker Award, Knitting and Crocheting Award, and was second in the Ann Story Chapter of the Daughters of the American Revolution Most Patriotic Award. Other members recognized at the 4-H Award Program were: Club Educational Exhibit (4-H is going Greener) — First Horsepower, Second Benson Busy Buddies, Third Rupert Mettawee Valley; The Rev. Olaf Johnson Memorial Award, Stephanie Wissel; Ruth Kirchner Memorial Award, Rachael Ray. Horticulture Vegetables: Otter Valley Supply and Garden Award, Britany Chapin; Heaviest Pumpkin/Squash Cross, Amber Forest Sumner. Flowers: Rutland Garden Club awards, Wind, Fire, Earth and Water, Alex Ready; Best in Show, Alex Ready; Hawley’s Florist Gladiolus Award, Alex Ready. Dairy Will L. Davis, William Chmielewski, Pauline Bovey: First, Chelsea Young; Reserve, Sarah Flanders. Herdsman Awards: Elliott Douglas Award (Novice): Molly Turco, H.F. Allen (Jr.): Seth Browe, Gil Giddings(Sr.): Amanda Eugair, Rob Hathaway Memorial Award: Seth Browe Dan Hornbeck Memorial Award: Knowledge (Novice): Shane Baker, (Junior): Peter Carrara, (Senior): Amanda Eugair, Breed Awards: Holstein: Savanah Lewis, Shorthorn:

Betsy Coburn and David Gringeri gave a demonstration entitled “Sugardine: Thrush’s Worst Enemy and Your Horse’s Best Friend.” William Chmielewski, Ayshire-Peter Carrara, Guernsey: Jack Thrasher, Jersey: Molly Turco, Brown Swiss: Chelsea Young, Rita Tracey Memorial Award: Katie Tracey, Elm-Vu Farm (junior) : Chelsea Young, (Senior): Amand Eugair, Poster Contest First: “Recycle on the Farm”(Chad Young, Zack Ames & Olivia Jones) Second-“Cow Power” (Peter Carrara, Sarah Flanders, Molly Turco & Chad Young), Premier Owned: Chelsea Young, Premier Leased: Peter Carrara, Club Herdsman: Nature's Way Horse Most Improved Beginner, First Session: Emily Hathaway, Second Session: Kate McGranahan; Most Improved Overall, First session: Chaylen

Lemieux, Second Session: Olivia Starer, Sportsmanship Award: First session: Caitlin Hughs, Second Session: Stephanie Wissel. Rabbit Best in Show: Damian Peer; Best Opposite: Evelyn Bushey; Best Fur: Hunter Greene; Best Doe and Litter: Josie Royce; Beginner Showmanship: Evelyn Bushey. Sheep Jennifer Corey Memorial Award: (Junior) Avery Willis, (Senior) Jenny Davenport; Pen Display: First, Jenny Davenport, Second Avery Willis. Rutland Area Lamb and Wool Producers: First, Avery Willis; Second, Jenny Davenport.

Riders participate in the Open Horse show at the Vermont State Fair. Photos courtesy of Horsepower 4-H Club

David Gringeri won the McKirryher Family Watch Award, a Vermont State Fair 4-H tradition since 1933. He is shown here with his Quarter Horse mare, Tardy Sailor, which he exhibited at the Vermont State Fair and Horse Show.

The 4-H awards were presented at the Sugar House Stage Area.

Maine Farm Days hosted again by Misty Meadows Farm

NRCS staff members Amanda Burton and Ken Blazej stand with Oakhurst Dairy’s “Oakie.”

Lines of farm equipment support the exhibit area at Maine Farm Days.

Volunteers are needed to help New Hampshire’s 4-H program grow As New Hampshire 4-H youth get ready to celebrate National 4-H Week Oct. 2-8, volunteers are being sought to help guide and mentor New Hampshire’s future citizens and leaders. People volunteer with 4-H for many reasons. One benefit is to help make a difference in the lives of New Hampshire’s youth. Volunteers personally develop new leadership skills, meet new friends, and have great adventures. As one volunteer stated “I always learn more about a topic as I am preparing to teach it to the kids. 4-H gives me the chance to share some of my passions with children. I enjoy the connection with the University of New Hampshire and the up-to-date information they provide.” Working with UNH Cooperative Extension 4-H Youth Development Educators in every county, adult volunteers receive training in issues facing youth, how to teach, how to organize a group or event and

a variety of life skill and subject matter topics. In some cases they can receive professional development credits for their 4H training experience. 4-H volunteers often provide the local connection between the county and state 4-H program, while being that caring adult in a child’s life, outside the family structure. They coordinate local community clubs, after school programs and short special interest groups, as well as help plan and conduct local, regional, state and national 4-H events. In partnership with volunteers, youth develop their own leadership skills as demonstrated through working or volunteering in their community to address a community need. New Hampshire 4-H needs many volunteers willing to share creative ideas, time, talent and subject matter skills to support youth at the community, county and state level. If you don’t have time to be an ongoing volunteer, think about

opening your business for a group tour, helping to interview youth for special events, or being a volunteer judge for events and fairs. 4-H is the nation’s largest youth organization with more the 6 million members nationally. In New Hampshire, the 4H Youth Development program of UNH Cooperative Extension has more than 20,000 youth involved in the various aspects of 4-H and 2,200 adult volunteers. For more information about becoming a 4-H volunteer in New Hampshire, contact your local 4-H Youth Development educator: Belknap County, 603-527-5475; Hillsborough County, 603-641-6060; Carroll County, 603-447-3834; Merrimack County, 603-7962151; Cheshire County, 603352-4550; Rockingham County, 603-679-5616; Coös County, 603-788-4961; Sullivan County, 603-8639200; Grafton County, 603787-6944.

Granite State FFA receives grant CONCORD, NH — The New Hampshire Farm & Rural Education Foundation (NHF&REF) has awarded a $2,500 grant to the Granite State FFA (formerly known as Future Farmers of America). The funds will be used to bridge an unexpected gap in the Granite State FFA’s annual budget. There are 16 high schools in New Hampshire that have a dedicated agricultural science curriculum. Most of these schools have FFA Chapters closely associated with their educational programs, since FFA offers hands-on, extracurricular science learning opportunities as well as civic and leadership education. Nationwide, FFA membership is at an all-time high of 540,379 members, with chapters in 18 of the 20 largest cities in the U.S. FFA membership in both urban and rural areas reflects increasing interest in life sci-

ences and biotechnology education offered through FFA. The Granite State FFA mission is to promote a positive difference in the lives of students by developing their potential for premier leadership, personal growth and career success through agricultural science education. Reduction in the longestablished support of FFA educational programs in local and state budgets has necessitated alternative funding. NHF&REF President Wayne Mann says, “Helping the Granite State FFA is an excellent example of what the Farm & Rural Education Foundation is meant to do — invest in the future of New Hampshire’s agriculture and rural youth and communities.” Tax deductible donations to support the mission of NHF&REF can be sent to NH Farm & Rural Education Foundation, 295 Sheep Davis Road, Concord, NH 03301.

October 3, 2011 • COUNTRY FOLKS New England • Section A - Page 3

by Chad Arms The rainy weather held off until the early afternoon of the last day for activities at 2011 Maine Farm Days held at Misty Meadows Farm in Clinton Aug. 24-25. The two day exhibition on a former Maine Dairy Farm of the Year was hosted for the third time by John and Belinda Stoughton, showcasing the latest in technology and conservation practices on a modern 550 cow farm. The exhibition featured farm tours, agribusiness exhibits, a Children's Learning Center, and much more. One could visit the many educational and agribusiness exhibitors offering timely tips on their equipment, products, production practices, or available expertise. Children could pet animals and be entertained at the Children's Learning Center including getting prizes for the milking contest at noon time. The popular Conservation Wagon Tour gave a relaxing time to witness the double 12 herringbone milking parlor and barn facilities as well as the conservation ditches and crops. One could also pick up pesticide recertification credits by attending the many choices for one hour presentations. Then there were food concessions and a host of other activities taking place. Farm Days is a great place for picking up new ideas and practices, visit friends and neighbors, and show off agriculture to the public. Results of the winners of the Forage Contest for hay and silage samples were announced. There were 116 total entrants with cash prizes from Alltech Silage Inoculant for first and second prize winners as follows: Chopped Haylage — first, Aghaloma Dairy and second Jeff Stevens; Corn Silage — first Hilton Farm and 2nd Aghaloma Dairy; Baleage — first Carole Robins and second Conant Acres; and Dry Hay — first Jim Davis and second Waterman Farm. The revolving overall Grand Champion Trophy went to Aghaloma Farm. Third place winners received ribbons. This was the 42nd year for Maine Farm Days. The chief sponsor is Farm Days Inc. John Stoughton, Clinton, is president and his wife Belinda serves as treasurer. Spencer Greatorex, Winslow, is vice president and Ben Blackwell, Madison, is secretary. Publicity was primarily handled through Dale Finseth of the Kennebec County Soil and Water Conservation District. Were it not for the many volunteers, host family, and cooperating dealers and agencies, this leading exhibition on a working dairy farm would not be possible. Next year's event will likely be hosted again at Misty Meadows Farm.

Page 4 - Section A • COUNTRY FOLKS New England • October 3, 2011

Ag secretary announces payments to expand production of biofuels Agriculture Secretary Tom Vilsack has announced that USDA will make payments to more than 160 energy producers in 41 states to support and ensure the production and expansion of advanced biofuels. “Renewable energy production will create tens of thousands of direct, American jobs; thousands more indirect jobs, and clean electricity to power millions of homes. The payments I am announcing today represent the continuing commitment of the Obama administration to work with producers to provide the biofuel necessary to reduce our nation’s dependence on foreign energy sources,” Vilsack said. “The payments support America’s growing advanced biofuel industry.” The payments are authorized under the Bioenergy Program for Advanced Biofuels (Section 9005 of the 2008 Farm Bill) and are made to eligible producers to support and ensure an expanding production of advanced biofuels. Payments are based on the amount of biofuels a recipient produces from renewable biomass, other than corn kernel starch. Eligible examples include biofuels derived from cellulose, crop residue, animal, food and yard waste material, biogas (landfill and sewage waste treatment gas), vegetable oil and animal fat. To see a list of the recipients announced today click here. For example, Ever Cat Fuels has been selected to receive a $98,507

Secretary of Agriculture Tom Vilsack contract payment to help offset the costs of producing almost 881,000 gallons of biodiesel at its plant in Isanti, MN. Ever Cat uses the Mcgyan process to produce biodiesel, which efficiently and economically converts feedstock plant oils and animal fats to biodiesel. Ever Cat produces three million gallons of biodiesel annually and is the first commercial plant designed to use the Mcgyan technology. The plant began operations two years ago, creating 20 full-time jobs. In Corinth, ME, Corinth Wood Pellets was selected to receive a $31,406 contract payment continue to produce and sell premium-grade wood pellets for the residential, industrial and commercial markets. The wood pellets are produced from sawdust and woodchip feedstock. A

Cover photo Courtesy of Horsepower 4-H Club Horsepower 4-H Club in the stable area at the Vermont State Fair with the Club Booth Exhibit Award.

Country Folks New England Farm Weekly U.S.P.S. 708-470 Country Folks New England Farm Weekly (ISSN 1536-0784) is published every week on Monday by Lee Publications, PO Box 121, 6113 St. Hwy. 5, Palatine Bridge, NY 13428. Periodical postage paid at Palatine Bridge Post Office, Palatine Bridge, NY 13428 and at an additional mailing office. Subscription Price: $45 per year, $75 for 2 years. POSTMASTER: Send address change to Country Folks New England Farm Weekly, P.O. Box 121, 6113 St. Hwy. 5, Palatine Bridge, NY 13428. 518-673-2448. Country Folks is the official publication of the Northeast DHIA. Publisher, President .....................Frederick W. Lee, 518-673-0134 V.P., General Manager.....................Bruce Button, 518-673-0104...................... V.P., Production................................Mark W. Lee, 518-673-0132........................... Managing Editor...........................Joan Kark-Wren, 518-673-0141................. Assistant Editor.............................Richard Petrillo, 518-673-0145...................... Page Composition..........................Alison Swartz, 518-673-0139...................... Comptroller.....................................Robert Moyer, 518-673-0148....................... Production Coordinator................Jessica Mackay, 518-673-0137.................... Classified Ad Manager....................Peggy Patrei, 518-673-0111..................... Shop Foreman ...................................................... ..........................................................Harry Delong Palatine Bridge, Front desk ....................518-673-0160...................... Web site: Accounting/Billing Office ........................518-673-0149 ............................... Subscriptions ..........................................888-596-5329 .................... Send all correspondence to: PO Box 121, Palatine Bridge, NY 13428 • Fax (518) 673-2699 Editorial email: Advertising email: AD SALES REPRESENTATIVES Bruce Button, Corporate Sales Mgr .......Palatine Bridge, NY .........................................518-673-0104 Scott Duffy ..................................................Reading, VT ...............................................802-484-7240 Sue Thomas ................................................Albany, NY ................................................518-456-0603 Ian Hitchener ..............................................Bradford, VT ...............................................802-222-5726 Jan Andrews..........................................Palatine Bridge, NY..........................................518-673-0110 Laura Clary............................................Palatine Bridge, NY..........................................518-673-0118 Dave Dornburgh ....................................Palatine Bridge, NY..........................................518-673-0109 Steve Heiser ..........................................Palatine Bridge, NY..........................................518-673-0107 Tina Krieger ..........................................Palatine Bridge, NY..........................................518-673-0108 We cannot GUARANTEE the return of photographs. Publisher not responsible for typographical errors. Size, style of type and locations of advertisements are left to the discretion of the publisher. The opinions expressed in this publication are not necessarily those of the publisher. We will not knowingly accept or publish advertising which is fraudulent or misleading in nature. The publisher reserves the sole right to edit, revise or reject any and all advertising with or without cause being assigned which in his judgement is unwholesome or contrary to the interest of this publication. We assume no financial responsibility for typographical errors in advertisement, but if at fault, will reprint that portion of the ad in which the error appears.

total of 18,224 metric tons of wood pellets were produced to generate 298,873,600,000 BTUs. This energy generation supports the Obama administration’s ongoing efforts to reduce our reliance on fossil fuels by turning solid feedstock into alternative fuel that is used to heat residential, industrial and commercial buildings. USDA funding for this enterprise is expected to support 11 industry jobs. On Sept. 8, President Obama presented the American Jobs Act in an address to Congress. The purpose of the American Jobs Act is simple: put more people back to work and put more money in the pockets of working Americans. The American Jobs Act is specific. It will put people back to work right now, and it will not add to

the deficit. Through a combination of direct spending, such as infrastructure investments, and tax relief, such as an extension of the payroll tax cuts, it will lead to new American jobs. Since taking office, President Obama’s Administration has taken significant steps to improve the lives of rural Americans and has provided broad support for rural communities. The Obama Administration has set goals of modernizing infrastructure by providing broadband access to 10 million Americans, expanding educational opportunities for students in rural areas, and providing affordable health care. In the long term, these unparalleled rural investments will help ensure that America’s rural communities are repopulating, self-sustaining and thriving economically.

Ohio Jersey cow named All-American Supreme Champion

Frederick 2783 Adventure was Grand Champion of the All American Open Jersey Show exhibited by Walton, Thornburg, Lackey, Rader and Iager of Pleasant Plain, Ohio.

No fanfare of any sort, actually. The lights have been back on for the judging, and when the winner is announced, photographers, reporters, other breeders and officials cluster around the winner for mass congratulations. Frederick 2783 Adventure, a sixyear -old Jersey owned by Craig Walton, Emily Thornburg, Gene Iager, Shelby and Harold Rader, Jr., and

Amy, Scott, Skip and Steve Lackey of Pleasant Plain, Ohio, was named Supreme Champion. Cargill Animal Feed and Nutrition, Inc. sponsored the $3,000 cash award garnered by the winner. Adventure was chosen from among the top seven breed champions by the judges who placed 1,183 head of cattle in the open shows. The judges were Eric Topp, Botkins,

Ohio; Lee Barber, DeWitt, Iowa; Daniel Sivesind, Waukon, Iowa; Ronald Heffner, Middletown, MD; Larry Schirm, Laurelville, Ohio, who judged 'Adventure' in the Open show; Ted DeMent, Kenney, IL; and Matthew Lawrence, Mercer, PA. The six other All-American Grand Champions were: Ayrshire: Sunny Acres Harmon's Kennedy, Doug Evans and Family, Georgetown, NY. Brown Swiss: Dublin Hill Treats, Ken Main and Peter Vail, Copake, NY. Guernsey: Millborne Tiller Blair-ET, P. Morey Miller, Granby, Conn. Holstein: Windy-Knoll-View PledgeET, James and Nina Burdette, Mercersburg, PA, Franklin Co. Milking Shorthorn:Tex-Star Othello Peri, Keith and Donnette Fisher, New Enterprise, PA, Bedford Co. Red & White: Sweet Peas Felicityred-ET, Lloyd and Denise Pease, Susquehanna, PA, Susquehanna Co. The 48th All-American Dairy Show, the world's largest dairy show, ran Sept. 17-22 at the Pennsylvania Farm Show Complex and Expo Center in Harrisburg. This year's show featured 23 shows in six days, the nation's only all-dairy antiques show, more than 2,400 animals and 925 exhibitors from 26 states and Canada. For more information, visit or call 717-787-2905.

Governor, ag officials celebrate local foods, farms at Big E WEST SPRINGFIELD, MA — The Patrick-Murray Administration celebrated “Massachusetts Day” Sept. 22 at the Eastern States Exposition (The Big E). With the fall harvest under way, Gov. Deval Patrick, Energy and Environmental Affairs Secretary Richard K. Sullivan Jr. and Massachusetts Department of Agricultural Resources (DAR) Commissioner Scott J. Soares joined the festivities to kick off Massachusetts Day at The Big E agricultural fair. The day’s events highlighted an array of the Commonwealth’s commerce, tourism and agricultural interests and a number of awards recognizing commitment to a sustainable agricultural future. Celebrating a theme of “Local Foods, Local Farms, Healthy Choices,” Sullivan and Soares joined Massachusetts Department of Public Health (DPH) Commissioner John Auerbach and Patrick on the tour and a healthy cooking demonstration using local ingredients hosted by celebrity chef Ann Sortun, owner of Oleana in Cambridge. The demonstration, which featured local ingredients in two dishes that were sampled by tasters, was emceed by DPH’s Medical Director Dr. Lauren Smith. “Today we applaud the year -round efforts of local

Gov. Deval Patrick, center, and Department of Agriculture Resources Commissioner Scott Soares join Chef Ana Sortun for a cooking demonstration using health, local ingredients during “Massachusetts Day” at the Big E, Sept. 22. Photo by Matthew Bennett/Governor's Office farmers, shell fishermen and others who work to enhance the Commonwealth’s agriculture. Under the leadership of Governor Patrick, we continue to support the work to bring the very best produce, meats and baked goods to our tables,” said Sullivan. Massachusetts Day events revolve around the Massachusetts Building on the Avenue of States — an attraction that features replicas of the original capital buildings of each New England state. Managed yearround by the Massachusetts Department of Agricultural Resources (DAR), the

Massachusetts Building was the first state replica to be built and was dedicated in 1919 by then Gov. Calvin Coolidge and marked the official launching of the Avenue of States. This year many vendors at the Massachusetts Building will donate up to 5 percent of the day’s proceeds to the Farm Disaster Relief Fund established in the wake of Tropical Storm Irene. The building recently was involved in an energy audit conducted by the Western Massachusetts Electric Company and MassSave. This year, the main floor lighting has been retrofitted with state

of the art T5 lighting LED exterior lights have also been added. In collaboration with the Massachusetts Clean Energy Center and ‘Big Belly’ Solar Trash Compactors, six solar powered trash compactors have been dispersed throughout the Massachusetts building grounds for use by fairgoers during the fair. “The Local Food, Local Farms, and Healthy Choices theme complements the P a t r i c k - M u r r a y Administration’s goal to promote greater access to healthy, locally grown food.” said Soares. “With thousands of visitors a day to the Big E, this is a great opportunity to let folks know that Massachusetts offers a diverse and growing array of fresh, local, and healthy foods across our Commonwealth.” Later in the afternoon, presentations were made to recognize winners of the Massachusetts Agriculture Calendar Amateur Contest, student winners of the Massachusetts “Fuel Up to Play 60’” poster contest and the reading of the State Proclamation declaring the Week of Sept. 26 “Childhood Obesity Awareness Week.” “We encourage all residents to use fresh and local ingredients to make healthy foods that also taste great,” said Smith. “Our Mass in Motion Program is an additional resource for everyone to learn

how to eat right and move more.” Other recognition awards included in the presentation were the Massachusetts Agriculture in the Classroom “Massachusetts Teacher of the Year.” This year’s recipient is Teresa Strong of the Harvard-Kent Elementary School of Charlestown. An award was also given out to the 2011 Massachusetts Building Wall of Fame, Annie Diemand of Diemand’s Poultry Farm of Wendall. Special attractions at the Massachusetts Building include a replica of the Mayflower II centered in the main floor of the exhibits. Smith Academy of Hatfield is displaying a mural depicting agricultural scenery. The mural honors Hatfield’s agricultural heritage and promotes the availability of local farm products. Students of the Smith Academy designed and painted the 32-foot wide, eight-foot tall mural during the school year. The Massachusetts Department of Fire Safety was on hand on Massachusetts Day to promote fire safety and display a fire truck for children to learn about fire equipment. The Massachusetts Christmas Tree Growers Association celebrated the Holiday Season early with a 9foot lighted Balsam Fir Christmas Tree along with a small arrangement of fir and spruce trees of various sizes.

October 3, 2011 • COUNTRY FOLKS New England • Section A - Page 5

by Stephen Wagner Skies were gray as they had been for the past two weeks but the threat of flood waters inundating the large arena at the Pennsylvania Farm Show Complex had mercifully subsided. Waters were ebbing in the nearby Susquehanna River, the source of the overflow, and the 2011 All American Dairy Show was wrapping up another successful year, packing up and going home. All that was left to do was the judging of the Supreme Champion. “It is the end of the show,” said Rita Kennedy, AADS President. “We're here now to pick the best cow of the best breeds. To be selected as Supreme Champion helps the breeder sell embryos and advertise their cattle for sale.” Always present at this event is a sense of showmanship. The large arena, which boasts the best and brightest lights in the Complex, is darkened as the nominees for the title are paraded through one at a time under a spotlight. The voice of veteran public address announcer Jean Kummer echoes throughout the arena's nooks and crannies describing the nominee, how much milk they give and other pertinent information for judges to consider. When the judges have made their decisions, those papers are passed to those who tally the results. The process is incredibly simple and fast. No trumpets sound.

Crop Comments by Paris Reidhead Field Crops Consultant

Page 6 - Section A • COUNTRY FOLKS New England • October 3, 2011


Bolder in Boulder My contact in Texas emailed me an article published two states away from him. The article was titled, “Expert: GMOs to blame for problems in plants, animals.” It was written by Jefferson Dodge, and appeared the Boulder Weekly, a Colorado publication, on Aug. 11. I’ll try to hit the article’s high spots. According to Dodge, the Boulder County powers-that-be convened the day before to deliberate on the county’s policy for genetically modified organisms (GMOs) on open space. A well-known expert testifying at that meeting, Michael McNeill, said scientists are seeing new, alarming patterns in plants and animals due to increased use of glyphosate-based herbicides. Michael McNeill is an agronomist who owns Ag Advisory Ltd. in Algona, Iowa. He received his Ph.D. in quantitative genetics and plant pathology from Iowa State University in 1969 and has been a crop consultant since 1983. McNeill was the keynote speaker in-

vited by county officials to testify at the Aug. 10 meeting of the Cropland Policy Advisory Group (CPAG). CPAG, which has been meeting since February of this year, is the sounding board for the county’s parks and open space staff as they develop a new cropland policy pertaining to what may be grown on county land. In earlier meetings, the group has only touched briefly on the sensitive GMO issue; but the Aug. 10 meeting was devoted entirely to the subject. McNeill told Boulder Weekly that he and his colleagues see serious, negative effects produced by the use of glyphosate herbicides. This weed-killer is manufactured by a multi-national corporation, which has also developed seeds resulting in plants immune to glyphosate applications. Prolific use of such an herbicide, combined with growing crops genetically modified to tolerate that herbicide, has spawned a tidal wave of resistance in the environmental and organic farm communities. McNeill says that in the

SHARE THE HARVEST fundraiser for NOFA-VT slated RICHMOND, VT – The Northeast Organic Farming Association of Vermont (NOFA-VT) is collaborating with approximately 75 restaurants, food markets, and food cooperatives throughout Vermont for the 17th annual SHARE THE HARVEST fundraiser. On Thursday, Oct. 6, participating restaurants and food outlets will donate a percentage of their food sales to NOFAVT’s Farm Share Program. The Farm Share Program is dedicated to working with Vermont individuals who cannot afford to purchase fresh produce on a regular basis. All funds raised on Oct. 6 will benefit these individuals by supplying them with up to 22 weeks of fresh farm produce from local Community Supported Agriculture (CSA) farms.

The Farm Share program has been helping limited-income Vermonters purchase food from local certified farms since 1994. Within the past 16 years, thousands of individuals and families have benefited from a season’s worth of locally grown vegetables and fruits as well as farm education initiatives. For a listing of participating restaurants and food outlets, visit the NOFDA-VT Web site, . For more information about the Farm Share program, call NOFA-VT at 802-434-4122. The Northeast Organic Farming Association is an organization of farmers, gardeners and consumers working to promote an economically viable and ecologically sound Vermont food system.

Midwest and other areas of the country, such as Louisiana and Mississippi, weeds like water hemp, giant ragweed, lamb’s quarter and velvetleaf weed have become glyphosate-resistant through natural selection, due to a particular genetic mutation that survived the poison to reproduce successfully and wildly. The problem is that farmers’ natural reaction has been to simply apply more glyphosate to their crops. This reaction is problematic, McNeill says. “Used judiciously, it can be a useful product, but as with anything, if you abuse it, it can have negative effects.” McNeill’s sentiments closely parallel those of Don Huber, agronomy professor emeritus at Purdue University. (An article discussing Huber’s studies on glyphosate-tolerant crops appeared in a Fall 2007 issue of Country Folks.) McNeill, like Huber, explains that glyphosate is a chelating agent, which means it clamps onto molecules that are valuable to plants, like iron, calcium, manganese, and zinc. According to McNeill, when you spray glyphosate on a plant, it’s like giving the plant its own acquired immune deficiency syndrome. The farmers’ increased use of glyphosate is actually harming their crops, according to McNeill, because it is immobilizing required micronutrients in the soil, a develop-

ment documented in several scientific papers by the nation’s leading experts in the field. For example, he says, harmful fungi and parasites like Fusarium, Phytopthora and Pythium are on the rise as a result of the poison, while beneficial fungi and other organisms that help plants modify minerals to a usable state are on the decline. Overuse of glyphosate means that oxidizing agents are on the rise, creating oxides that plants can’t use, leading to lower yields and higher susceptibility to disease. McNeill acknowledges that the pesticide industry could simply develop a new chemical that kills the newly resistant weeds, but the weeds will just find a way around it again. “It’s mother nature’s plant breeding program,” he said. “It (glyphosate) is very widespread, and it’s a serious problem.” McNeill says the situation is causing “sudden death syndrome” in soybeans, which means they are dying at increased rates when they go into their reproductive phase. He adds that corn is showing a higher incidence of Goss’s wilt, which has been a problem in Colorado since the early 1970s, and studies show that glyphosate causes a rise in both diseases. And the problems are not limited to plants… they are extending to the animals that eat them, according to McNeill. He says he and his col-

leagues are seeing a higher incidence of infertility and early-term abortion in cattle and hogs that are fed GMO crops. He adds that poultry fed the suspect crops have been exhibiting reduced fertility rates. McNeill, who works with universities, the federal government, and private companies, says his advice to his farmer clients is to rotate chemicals — or don’t use them at all. While it is more labor-intensive, organic farmers usually cut their weeds as an alternative to herbicides. He says he consults for about 160,000 acres of conventional farmland and 5,000 to 6,000 acres of organically farmed land. “My clients are my farmers, and I want what’s best for them,” he says. “And my clients are the consumers who consume the farmers’ products, and I want what’s best for them.” McNeill compares the glyphosate situation to the way science eventually caught up to another poison: Just as DDT was initially hailed as a miracle pesticide and later banned, researchers are beginning to discover serious problems with glyphosate. “Some issues are starting to arise with technologies that probably needed more research before we started using them,” he said. “It’s a moving target.” Whether the increasing frequency of glyphosate-tolerant weeds is a result of natural selection or man-

made selection is a moot point: the problem would not be occurring, independent of human influence. Whatever kind of selection is actually the cause of herbicide-tolerant weeds, the whole problem bears painful similarity to two crop disease disasters I’ve studied… one within my memory. The one I recall is the southern corn leaf slight, which struck the U.S. during the early 1970s. That blight was caused by heavy reliance on a very limited number of corn varieties which, though high-yielding, were closely related to each other and lacked the gene which would have conveyed resistance to “race T” of the fungus Helminthosporium maydis. That genetic shortfall cost the U.S. almost one quarter of its 1971 corn crop. The other crop disaster which I’ve only studied, because it occurred over a century and a half ago, was the Irish potato blight famine. Approximately 90 percent of the potatoes planted in Ireland in the 1850s were one variety. That variety lacked resistance to the fungus Phytopthera infestans, the pathogen causing the blight, and thus costing Ireland almost a third of its people. I believe that McNeill (and Huber) see painful parallel between runaway overuse of glyphosate and these two blight epidemics just mentioned. As the saying goes, “those who fail to learn from history…”

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Smaller corn and soybean crops will mean higher feed prices will be necessary. It would be wise to look into/revisit the LGM once more as LGM provides protection to dairy producers not only against unexpected declines in milk prices but also against unexpected increases in feed costs. Gross margin is the market value of the insured milk minus feed costs. Since its launch in 2008, the LGM-Dairy has gone through some changes that resulted in a better fit for dairy producers. Timing of the premium paid, higher deductibles, and govern-

mental subsidies had the largest influence on LGM use. The subsidy is the percentage of the premium paid by the government based on the dollar amount deductible selected by the producer. Policyholders choosing a zero deductible received the lowest premium subsidy at 18 percent; whereas, policyholders choosing a 50-cent deductible received a 28 percent subsidy and those who choose more than $1.10 deductible received 50 percent subsidy. Unfortunately, the sub-


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sidy funding for fiscal year 2011 was exhausted in March due to the popularity of LGM-Dairy. If the same level of funding is available for fiscal year 2012 which begins on Oct. 1, it would be wise for producers to contact agents ahead of the enrollment period. Interested producers need to schedule an appointment so that they are assured a time slot to finalize their enrollment decision before the sales closing date and time. With level funding, many experts anticipate funding for LGM-Dairy subsidies to be exhausted during

the October sales period that will end on Friday, Oct. 28. For more information, those interested may attend one of the following LGM-Dairy meetings: • Wednesday, Oct. 5, from 11 a.m. to 1 p.m., UNH CE office in Lancaster, NH; • Wednesday, Oct. 5, from 7-9 p.m., UNH CE office in North Haverhill, NH; and • Thursday, Oct. 6, from 11 a.m. to 1 p.m., UNH CE office in Boscawen, NH. The featured speaker is Gene Gantz of the Risk Management Agency in

Pennsylvania. Gene is a Risk Management Specialist who is going to give you the full details necessary to understand the dairy insurance program and an overview of data analysis to make the right enrollment decision. To register for one of these free workshops, contact Michal Lunak 603787-6944 or Jay Phinizey 603-224-7941. Bring your own lunch for the day meetings or a snack in the evening; we will take care of the coffee and milk. Preregistration by Monday, Oct. 3 will be much appreciated.

October 3, 2011 • COUNTRY FOLKS New England • Section A - Page 7

Recently, the USDA’s Crop Production report confirmed expectations of smaller U.S. corn and soybean crops. For the 2011-12 marketing year, which starts this month, the average farm price for a bushel of corn is projected in a range of $6.50 to $7.50, well above the $5.20 average of the past year. For soybean, the projected price range is $12.65 to $14.65, again, well above the $11.35 average of the past year. These price increases will not be easy on dairymen’s pockets and a good risk management

Another record month for U.S. ethanol exports, feed exports rebound While oil and environmental interests seek to block the growth of the ethanol market in the United States, other nations around the world are increasing their use of American-made ethanol. According to data released Sept. 8 by the federal government, U.S. ethanol exports in July set a new monthly record. Exports of denatured and undenatured (non-beverage) ethanol totaled 127.4 million gallons in July, edging out the April 2011 total of 120.1 million gallons to

set a new record. July exports were nearly double the amount exported in June. Ethanol exports through July of this year total 588.5 million gallons. That is more ethanol than was exported in 2009 and 2010 combined. The U.S. is on pace to export up to 900 million gallons of ethanol in 2011. “Demand for a cleaner, more reliable alternative to oil is growing across the globe and America’s ethanol producers are filling that need,” said

Page 8 - Section A • COUNTRY FOLKS New England • October 3, 2011

Handling flood stricken forages Due to the recent floods from Tropical Storm Irene, New Hampshire dairy producers could be in for some further problems with their cows in the upcoming months. Because mud is coating many of the forages, clostridial contamination of the crop can occur, according to UNH Cooperative Extension Dairy Specialist and Associate Professor Pete Erickson. This, along with the potential of mold development, can become problematic for many producers. Erickson has provided some tips to help dairy producers: • Vaccinate your cattle against clostridia, this bacteria strikes fast and kills cows.

• Pack your silages very well; use an inoculant to help lower pH. • Try putting plain white salt (50 pounds/400 square feet of top surface); this will help reduce spoilage • Make sure you cover the silo. • Feed a mycotoxin binder. • Don't feed any nonfermented (green silages) to your cattle. For more information, contact Dr. Erickson at 603-862-1909, or by email at

Renewable Fuels Association Vice President Geoff Cooper. “Unfortunately, domestic ethanol producers are forced to look at export markets as special interests and some policymakers are working overtime to prevent America from using more of its own renewable fuels. American ethanol producers are the most efficient, cost effective suppliers of ethanol in the world. If this nation doesn’t want to harness its own renewable resources, it is evident that other nations will.”

Unprecedented U.S. ethanol exports continue to be driven by the fact that corn ethanol is currently the lowest-cost motor fuel source in the world. High sugar prices and lower-than-expected sugarcane ethanol output in South America have allowed the United States to overtake Brazil as the world’s leading ethanol exporter. In fact, Brazil and Canada are neck and neck as the leading importers of U.S. ethanol so far in 2011. Exports of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), the animal

Alternative Fuels feed co-product resulting from grain ethanol production, totaled 644,525 metric tons in July, up nearly 8 percent from June. Mexico continued as the top DDGS export, receiving 156,400 metric tons in July. China (106,606 mt), Canada (63,707 mt), the United Kingdom (47,513 mt), and Vietnam (40,265 mt) rounded out the top five. Notably, exports to China have increased in three consecutive months after sliding significantly from late 2010 through April

2011. Year-to-date DDGS exports total 4.43 million metric tons, meaning the U.S. is on pace to export roughly 7.6 million metric tons in 2011. “Whether its fuel or feed, America’s ethanol producers are reducing the need for oil imports, helping feed the nation’s livestock population, and improve our balance of trade,” said Cooper. “Domestic ethanol production is the kind of innovative industry of which America needs more.”

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Page 10 - Section A • COUNTRY FOLKS New England • October 3, 2011

Meet your CCA ~ Peg Cook Peg Cook owns and operates Cook’s Consulting located in Lowville, NY. She has been a CCA since 2001 and has 35 years of experience working with crop growers. Currently Cook’s Consulting offers Comprehensive Nutrient Management Plan (CNMP) services for any farm in Lewis County. Peg’s pride in her job is evident in her dedication to her farm clients. She works very hard to help them accomplish the goals of their business and also feels that they are integral to her success, stating “They know their fields best and by working together, they have also taught me a great deal.” When asked about being a CCA, Peg said, “I think in this day and age more than ever, the CCA Program is essential in keeping up your skills as a Crop Advisor and Agronomist. The CCA Program has become such a wealth of information of different research and tools that are necessary in working with farm producers. The program also provides a great atmosphere for networking with other professionals in the field.” Peg was born and raised in Bradford, PA and knew from age 4 that she wanted to be involved in agriculture for the rest of her life. Pursuing her dream she attended Alfred State College, Alfred, NY graduating with an A.A.S. degree in Agricultural Science, Agronomy. At Alfred St. she was the first girl EVER on the Soils Judging Team. Both years she was on the team they went to National competitions in Kentucky and Tennessee. The teams ranked 3rd one year and 5th the next year. Peg comments, “those were such learning ex-

periences.” After college, a job with Kraft Foods brought her to Lowville where she worked until getting married and starting a family. Her attention then turned back to crops, first working as a 4-H Key Resource Leader where she established a Vegetable Judging Team (which made it to the state fair) and then starting her own business. The Garden Shed opened in 1983, selling lawn and garden products locally. As part of this business Peg opened a soil testing laboratory and began part-time consulting work with farmers. The soil testing business continued to grow, serving growers from across the U.S., working with a number of organic growers. Peg said, “I loved this work because I was able to help them become more observant of their soils as well as their crops.” Over time the crop consulting component of the business continued to grow and Peg became very involved in IPM Field Crop Scouting. In 1993 Peg closed The Garden Shed and established Cook’s Consulting, focusing on the soil testing business and a full service IPM Field Scouting program. Due to health issues and the changing needs of farmers Cook’s Consulting transitioned out of the soil testing business and shifted the focus to Nutrient Management Planning, becoming a NYS Certified AEM (Agriculture Environmental Management) Planner for CAFO and non-CAFO farms. Peg adds “several farms have been with me for 25 or more years.” Cook’s Consulting also works closely with the Lewis County Soil and Water Conservation

Ask your CCA by Janet B. Fallon, CCA, Dairy One Forage and Soils Lab Sales & Technical Support Where can I find resources for dealing with flood damaged crops and livestock feed? In the wake of two devastating tropical storms (Irene and Lee) many farmers across Vermont, New York and Pennsylvania, are faced with salvaging submerged and flood damaged crops while others have spotty damage resulting from ponding in low areas of their fields. And then there are the ag bags, bunk silos, and round bales that were submerged. If you haven’t already done so, it is important to check with the USDA FSA office in your area for assistance and guidelines for dealing with fruits, vegetables, feeds, forages and grains (in the field or in bulk storage) damaged by flood waters. Unfortunately, there are no guarantees or magic bullets. In fact, some feed will not be fit to feed livestock and a lot more will be marginal. At this point, many are, quite simply, faced with damage control so they don’t add insult to injury. The FDA has issued guidelines for

the use and handling of any “adulterated” flood damaged human food or livestock feed in Vermont so be sure to check with your extension educators to make sure that you are in compliance. This is recommended in other states as well. Below is a list of links to resources available to farmers victimized by the flooding in New York, Pennsylvania and Vermont. Please take advantage of all the resources available to you including your cooperative extension educators and Certified Crop Advisers. Most have been dealing with the clean-up for several weeks now and have a good feel for many of the resources available. They may be able to lighten the load just a bit in this difficult time. Flood recovery information and resources • EPA Natural Events and Disasters: • FDA Emergencies: Food/FoodDefense/Emergencies/Floo dsHurricanesPowerOutages/ucm2723 22.htm • Miscellaneous; www.dairyone. com/Forage/FactSheet/flooded_forage.htm

District in providing technical assistance for the Agriculture Management Program (AEM) and as a certified Technical Service Provider (TSP) with USDA-NRCS. Peg feels that collaborating with her clients, Cornell Cooperative Extension and Cornell Faculty with on-farm research projects is very important. “This data becomes valuable to a Nutrient Management Planner in order to follow state guidelines and regulations for making recommendations, but also helps the Planner to show the farmer better tools for becoming more productive and efficient with their cropping program,” Peg comments. She also feels that it is important to be a contributing member of the community and is involved is a number of organizations locally, recently being recognized with the 2010 Water Stewardship award by the Lewis County Water Quality Coordinating Commit-

Peg Cook

tee for her work with Agricultural Nutrient Management.

2011 North East Region Certified Crop Adviser Board Members Judy Wright, Co Chair Farmland Protection Consultant Auburn, NY Quirine Ketterings, Co Chair Cornell University Ithaca, NY Jeanette Marvin Administrative Assistant JFM Solutions Macedon NY Ryan Akin Hemdale Farms Canandaigua, NY Carl Bannon DuPont Crop Protection carl.d.bannon@usa. Amherst, MA

Brian Boerman Farmland Environmental Ithaca, NY Rich Bonanno U Mass Extension rbonanno@umext. Methuen, MA Mike Contessa Champlain Valley Agronomics Inc. Peru, NY Heather Darby U of Vermont Ext Vermont Matt Eckhardt Capital Area Ag Consulting Stephentown, NY Janet Fallon Dairy One

Vermont Extension Resources • Managing Flood Damaged Crops and Forage from Tropical Storm Irene, Written by UVM Extension Specialists Sid Bosworth, Jeff Carter, Heather Darby, Dan Hudson, and Dennis Kauppila with contributions by Al Gotlieb (UVM retired): extension/?Page=emergency.html •Vermont Flood Crops Fact Sheet: ene_2011_UVMExtension.pdf Cornell Extension Resources • Cornell Animal Science Fact Sheets with guidelines for flooded forages: ropconditions/cropconditions.html • Handling Flood Damaged Crops CCE- Delaware County Paul Cerasoleti 607-865-6531 looded%20Crops%20for%20Silage%2 02011.pdf

Tully, NY Dale Gates NRCS Marcy, NY Jessica Heim SWCD- Madison County Hamilton, NY Doug LaFave Hewitt Brothers Locke, NY Joe Lawrence CCE- Lewis County Lowville, NY Jeff Ten Eyck NYS Dept. of Agriculture & Markets jeff.teneyck@agmkt. Groton, NY

• Food Safety Advice to Commercial Growers Regarding Flooded Crops Kevin Ganoe Regional Field Crop Specialist 315-866-7920 or Central New York Dairy and Field Crops Team Chenango, Herkimer, Otsego and Schoharie Counties ida/Agriculture/Ag/crops/handling%20flood%20damaged%20crops %2082%20011.pdf PSU Crops and Soils Flood Information ood_damaged_crops.cfm • Miscellaneous; Salvaging Crops and Feed After Flooding

CERTIFIED CROP ADVISER Chairperson’s Corner York, the Northeast and other areas of the country coming together by either raising money to help supplement the government’s disaster relief programs or donating feed or other needed supplies for those farms most affected by the flooding. It will be some time before the true costs of Irene and Lee are determined. Initial reports appeared to be very devastating for the industry but these are starting to be revised and it is hoped that those most affected will have the resources and strength to pull through. It has been good to learn that many of the tree fruits ( apples, pears, etc) were not quite ripe and as a result may not have suffered the damage they might have a few weeks later into the season. I also find it amazing that the trees were able to withstand the flood waters when some barns and other buildings were either washed away or moved from their foundations. As farms start to recover from the effects of Irene and Lee, be sure to contact your Certified Crop Adviser to help you assess the situation. They are there to help you as a partner in your decision making process. For those spared the effects of Irene and Lee, your Certified Crop Adviser can be a partner in your decision making process for 2012 crop season. Together we can rebuild and keep New York agriculture a strong part of the local economy and help revitalize our state’s economy.

Crop performance matters when evaluating GHGs Measuring the emission of greenhouse gases from croplands should take into account the crops themselves. That’s the conclusion of a study in the September-October issue of the Journal of Environmental Quality, which examined the impact of farm practices such as tillage on the greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide (N2O). Expressing emissions per unit of crop yield rather than on a more conventional areal basis produced very different results, says the study’s leader, Rod Venterea, research soil scientist with the USDA-ARS. In particular, his team found that total N2O emissions were not significantly affected by tillage practices when expressed on an area basis. When they were calculated per unit yield of grain, however, emissions were significantly greater under no-tillage than conventional tillage. A byproduct of many agricultural systems, N2O is a potent greenhouse gas (GHG) with a heat-trapping potential more than 300 times that of carbon dioxide. The findings have important implications for how the greenhouse gases generated by agriculture are reported, evaluated, and potentially mitigated. N2O emissions were slighter higher under no-till on an areal basis in the study, Venterea explains, but not high enough to differ statistically from those under

conventional tillage. “But when we added in the fact that no-tillage also reduced yields, the effect of tillage did become significant,” he says. “The point is that you need to look at both N2O emissions and yield together.” While previous studies have shown that practices like fertilizer and tillage management can affect N2O emissions, relatively few have reported the effects of these practices on crop performance at the same time. In addition, GHG emissions are commonly expressed with respect to area of field: for example, kg N2O emitted per hectare. Recent research has suggested that expressing GHG emissions per unit of yield may be more meaningful, although few studies have actually done that. To see how yield-scaled calculations might change the picture on emissions, USDA-ARS researchers in collaboration with University of Minnesota colleagues measured the effects of tillage and nitrogen (N) fertilizer management on N2O emissions, grain yields, and crop N uptake over three consecutive growing seasons in Minnesota. The experiment was conducted in research plots used for corn and soybean production, which were maintained under either no-till or conventional tillage for 18 years. When the scientists calculated N2O emissions per unit yield of grain or

CCA Calendar of Events Fall and Winter 2011 Oct. 25 and 26: Keystone Crops Conference, Holiday Inn Grantville, PA. CEU’s available. For more information, contact Amy M. Bradford at PennAg Industries Association, Phone: 717-651-5920, Cell: 717-5749098, CEU’s available. Nov. 4: 9 a.m. to 3:30 p.m., Cover Crops Tour and Workshop, Big Flats PMC, Corning, NY. RSVP by Oct. 28 at 607-562-8404 or $10 to cover lunch. Go to our.html for more information. CEU’s available. Nov. 5: Fall Hops Conference and Annual Northeast Hop Alliance Meeting, 8 a.m.-5 p.m., Brown’s Brewing Co. 417 River Street, Troy, NY. The Northeast Hop Alliance (NeHA) will meet to discuss ongoing research and hop production, plan events for the coming year, and get together to celebrate hops in our region. For more information please contact Heather Darby at or Rosalie Madden at or call 802-524-6501. Nov. 21: Annual Field Crop Dealer Meeting, 9 a.m.-3 p.m., Jordan Hall at the NYAES in Geneva, NY, with broadcast locations at CCE offices in Albany, Cayuga, Cattaraugus, Clinton, Genesee, Jefferson and Oneida Counties. Attend the location that is most convenient for you! Cost of attendance is $10 payable on the day of

grain N, they found that emissions under no-tillage were 52 and 66% higher, respectively, than with conventional tillage. In other words, for this cropping system and climate, Venterea says, notill practices would generate substantially more N2O than would conventional tillage for the same amount of grain. The effect was due to lower yields under no-till, combined with slightly greater area-scaled N2O emissions. Reduced yields under continuous notill management in parts of the upper Midwest and other regions have been

the meeting at the site of your choice. Lunch will be available at all sites for an additional cost. The 2012 Cornell Guide for Integrated Field Crop Management will also be available for purchase the day of the meeting at all sites. DEC pesticide applicator and CCA CEU credits will be offered as part of the $10 registration fee. Pre-registration for this meeting is required. For more information or to pre-register, please contact Mary McKellar at 607-255-2177 or Nov. 29-Dec. 1: NRCCA Crop Conference, Doubletree Hotel, Syracuse, NY. Contact Jeanette Marvin 315986-9320 for complete registration information. CEU’s available. Dec. 1: Cornell Seed Conference, 10 a.m.-3 p.m. at Jordan Hall at the NYAES in Geneva, NY. The $20 registration fee includes lunch. No preregistration is required. Contact Mary McKellar 607-255-2177 or for more information. CEU’s available. SAVE the DATE! Jan. 20 and 21, 2012: 16th Annual VT Grazing & Livestock Conference, featuring keynote speaker Dr. Temple Grandin Save the date; Jan. 25 and 26, 2012: CCA Winter Crops Conference in Portsmouth NH. Contact John Jemison Jr Extension Professor, University of Maine, 495 College Avenue, Orono, ME 04473 Phone 207581-3241, e-mail jemison@maine. edu CEU’s available

attributed to lower soil temperatures in spring, which may inhibit plant development. In other geographic regions, though, no-till can actually increase yields. “So, for these other regions, expressing GHG emissions on a yield-basis could reveal benefits to no-till management that otherwise might not be quantified,” Venterea says. The study was funded by the USDA National Institute for Food and Agriculture (NIFA) and the Foundation for Agronomic Research.

October 3, 2011 • COUNTRY FOLKS New England • Section A - Page 11

by Judy Wright, CCA, CPAg The recent tropical weather from Irene and Lee are by now a distant memory for some who were least affected but for others, recovery is still underway and will take a very long time. Those most affected are still on everyone’s mind and we hope that the various forms of disaster assistance will provide some relief. Soils are the foundation of our cropping plans. Weather is always the variable and one that farmers are quite adept at dealing with. But when backto-back tropical weather systems pass through an area and wash away soils (and crops they were growing in) that have been the foundation of the farm for decades or even longer, the results can be devastating. In addition as the flood waters recede, most likely what has replaced the fertile soils can be contaminated mud with little structure to grow future crops. As farms with livestock look to replenish feed that was either washed away or contaminated in the field or got wet and is now molded or rotten, thus inedible for livestock, new challenges may be on the horizon. While grain producers have been pleased by the increase in grain prices, those looking to purchase on the open market will see the increase in prices due to the increase in cost of fertilizer and fuel. Through all of this it is wonderful to see the agriculture community in New

Page 12 - Section A • COUNTRY FOLKS New England • October 3, 2011

Secretary LaHood and transportation leaders join President Obama’s call for job-creating infrastructure investments WASHINGTON, D.C. — U.S. Transportation Secretary Ray LaHood joined with Washington, D.C. officials and construction industry leaders at the construction site for D.C.’s 11th Street Bridge Project and called on Congress to pass the American Jobs Act and make significant investments in job-creating infrastructure projects. He was joined at the event by Washington D.C. Mayor Vincent C. Gray, DDOT Director Terry Bellamy, and Associated General Contractors CEO Steven Sandherr. Secretary LaHood said, “We’ve got unemployed construction workers, standing by, ready to roll

up their sleeves right now. This is the moment for Congress to set aside the politics and partisanship, to pass the American Jobs Act, and to put America back to work.” In his address to the nation, President Obama called on Congress to pass the American Jobs Act, which will invest in job-creating transportation projects and establish a National Infrastructure Bank, a concept with strong bipartisan support. There is also wide agreement among business leaders, labor unions, economists and elected officials that making significant investments in America’s roads, rails, and airports will not only put hun-

dreds of thousands of people to work quickly, it is crucial to the nation’s future economic growth and prosperity. Steven Sandherr, CEO of the Associated General Contractors, said, “There are few more effective ways to create good jobs, deliver great roads, build a strong economy and protect taxpayers than to invest in infrastructure. That is why the Associated General Contractors of America stands with the President and everyone else that is willing to make the investments needed to revive our industry and rebuild our economy.” Associated General Contractors is one of the nation’s largest trade associations for the


construction industry. Secretary LaHood also called on Congress to immediately pass an extension of the surface transportation bill, which is set to expire on Sept. 30. If Congress allows the current surface transportation extension to expire, more than 4,000 federal employees will immediately go without pay. If Congress delays actions for just 10 days beyond that, nearly $1 billion in highway funding that could be spent on construction projects across the nation would be lost. And if Congress waits even longer, almost 1 million workers could be in danger of losing their jobs over the next year.

Lebanon Regional FFA wins cattle evaluation contest at the Big E LEBANON, CT — The Lebanon Regional FFA Dairy Cattle Evaluation team competed at the Big E on Sept. 17 and took home first place. The team qualified to compete at the Big E by winning first place in the CT FFA Dairy Cattle Evaluation Career Development Event in May. The Connecticut team

was comprised of Scarlett Abell, Rachel Mackewicz, Grace Schultz all of Lebanon, and Emily VonEdwins of Hampton. There are several components of the contest including dairy judging, herd record evaluation, general knowledge, reasons, evaluating pedigrees and sire summaries and a team event.

The team from the Lebanon Regional FFA Chapter beat out the teams from 18 states in the eastern region to win top honors by almost 200 points over their competition. The team did outstanding individually as well with Emily VonEdwins earning first place, Scarlett Abell second

place, Rachel Mackewicz third place, and Grace Schultz fifth place. Next up for the team is the National FFA Convention to compete in the national contest.

Secretary LaHood spoke at the construction site of the 11th Street Bridge Project in Washington, D.C., which could be shut down if Congress fails to pass a surface transportation extension by Sept. 30. There are roughly 380 workers on the 11th Street Bridge project, which will reduce congestion by replacing two existing bridges with

three new bridges and improving interchanges for local and freeway traffic. By 2030, these bridges will serve almost 180,000 vehicles every day — helping the region become more economically competitive. Scheduled for completion in 2013, the $300-million project is being completed with $189 million in federal-aid.


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NMPF Board advocates changes to Peterson-Simpson dairy policy reform package New version would give farmers choice of opting for government safety net Producer Margin Protection Program (DPMPP) would continue to be voluntary, but if a producer opts to participate in the DPMPP, his/her participation in the Dairy Market Stabilization Program (DMSP) would then be mandatory. If a producer chooses not to participate in the insurance program, then participation in the DMSP would not be required. As with NMPF’s original reform package, the Milk Income Loss Contract program would be eliminated, as would the Dairy Product Price Support Program. The NMPF Board believes that the new approach will result in beneficial changes to the legislative version of Foundation for the Future, which is expected to soon be formally introduced in the House of Representatives by Representatives Collin Peterson (D-MN) and Mike Simpson (R-ID). “Based on the feedback we received this summer from our cooperative membership, and during our grassroots tour, when 1,300 farmers came to 12 cities to talk with us about Foundation for the Future, we decided that a

slightly different approach to reforming dairy policy was the best way to go,” said Randy Mooney, NMPF Chairman, and a dairy farmer from Rogersville, MO. “Clearly, a number of farmers are uncomfortable about having a mandatory government program to manage milk production. So we are endorsing a new approach which gives farmers a clear choice.” “This new approach of making the Market Stabilization program optional will appeal to those who philosophically do not want government telling them what to produce. At the same time, those who want the benefits of a government safety net must accept some governmentled market stabilization as the price of that protection,” Mooney said. The other changes endorsed today by NMPF include: • Increasing the Basic Plan’s coverage to 80 percent of a producer’s production history on margins between $0 and $ 4 per cwt. In the legislative draft of FFTF released earlier this summer, the Basic coverage was limited to 75 percent of a

farm’s production history. • Giving farmers the option of acquiring coverage for their production growth under the Supplemental Plan. Under such an option, the production history would be revised annually as the producer’s production grows. The percentage of the producer’s production history to be covered, and the premium rate per cwt., would remain fixed over the life of the Farm Bill. • Accepting an administrative fee to be charged to all producers signing up for margin protection coverage under the DPMPP, with modest fees on a sliding scale. This will help keep the cost of the program to a minimum. • Eliminating the distribution of 50 percent of producer -generated funds to the U.S. Treasury under the Dairy Market Stabilization program, ensuring that all of the monies generated by producer withholdings would be available to purchase dairy products for donation to non-commercial food assistance programs as originally proposed. Lastly, the revised FFTF package endorsed by

NMPF alters how reforms to the Federal Milk Marketing Order system would be pursued. Under NMPF’s original approach, the legislation would have specifically prescribed how competitive prices and a streamlining of the classified pricing system were to be implemented by the USDA, without a hearing process. The new version directs the USDA to eliminate the cumbersome end product price formulas and make allowances for Class III, and use a competitive pay price instead to determine the Class III price. It also specifies that after USDA makes its decision, a majority vote by producers will put the changes into effect. If the changes are not approved, the current Federal Order provisions remain in place. “The underlying objectives we have been pursuing for the past two years — offering a better dairy program featuring protection, stability, and growth — remain intact in what our Board has endorsed today,” according to NMPF President and CEO Jerry Kozak. “But by making some adjust-

ments, we strongly believe that many of the concerns raised in the past year to our first approach now have been addressed and eliminated.” Kozak went on to point out that NMPF’s Foundation for the Future proposal, along with the initial legislative discussion draft released this summer by Representative Peterson and cosponsored by Representative Simpson, allowed the dairy industry and Congress “to kick the tires and really scrutinize the best way to reform dairy policy. We’ve listened, we’ve analyzed and considered options, and now we’re endorsing a course correction that will still take us to the same place, only with greater unanimity and support from dairy farmers, and hopefully from others across the industry and on Capitol Hill.” Mooney added that “it’s time everyone in the dairy industry recognizes that the Peterson-Simpson bill offers the best — and perhaps only — opportunity to create an effective safety net that allows us to take advantage of the challenges and opportunities of a global marketplace.”


ROUTE 652, HONESDALE, PA 18431 • 570-729-7117 PHONE • 570-729-8455 FAX • WWW.MARSHALL-MACHINERY.COM

2006 Kubota KX161 Excavator $49,000

2005 Bobcat 435 Excavator, C/A/H, SJC Controls, 745 Hrs., $35,000

2007 Kubota L3130HST 4WD w/Loader, R-4 Tires, Good Condition, 347 Hrs.

2006 Kubota M6040DT 4WD, R4 Tires, 982 Hrs.

TRACTORS Agco RT100 4WD tractor C/A/H 38” radials, 4 remotes, clean JD 2240 4WD tractor w/loader JD 5410 4WD tractor w/loader, snyc shuttle, w/2nd bucket & pallet forks ‘05 Kubota M105 2WD, C/A/H, 2 remotes, good condition, 850 hrs. ‘08 Kubota M108SDS 4WD, low profile, 540/1000 rpm, 32 speed, very clean, 634 hrs. ‘08 Kubota M108XDTC 4WD, C/A/H w/loader, PS, 3 remotes ‘06 Kubota M125XDTC 4WD, C/A/H, ldr., PS, 2 remotes, sharp tractor ‘06 Kubota M5040 2WD, low hrs., clean tractor, 363 hrs. ‘09 Kubota M5040 4WD tractor w/loader, ag tires, like new 151 hrs. ‘09 Kubota M5640 4WD tractor w/canopy ‘06 Kubota M6040 4WD, C/A/H, R4 tires, 1 remote, hyd. shuttle, 290 hrs. ‘09 Kubota M6040 4WD, C/A/H, unused 4 hrs. ‘09 Kubota M7040 4WD, C/A/H w/loader, 2 remotes, ag tires, good cond., 391 hrs. ‘07 Kubota M8540 4WD w/canopy and new tires, 1166 hrs. ‘08 Kubota M9540 4WD, C/A/H w/loader, good cond., 401 hrs. ‘08 Kubota M9540 4WD, C/A/H, hyd. shuttle, 12 spd., creeper kit ‘07 Kubota MX500 4WD, R4 tires, 1 remote, 108 hrs. ‘09 Kubota MX4700DT 4WD tractor w/loader, ag tires, like new, 59 hrs. ‘07 Kubota MX5000 2WD tractor w/ag tires, low hrs. ‘09 Kubota MX5100 4WD w/ldr., 8x8 trans, R-4 tires, SS QT, 229 hrs. Zetor 5211 2WD tractor w/diesel, good condition COMPACT TRACTORS & LAWN TRACTORS ‘08 Bobcat CT235 4WD, TLB, hydro, R-4 tires, 249 hrs. Ford 1510 4WD w/loader, realy clean ‘00 Kubota B2710 4WD, TLB, R-4 tires, hydro, very clean, 310 hrs. ‘10 Kubota B2920 4WD tractor hydro, R-4 tires, 24 hrs. ‘09 Kubota B2920 4WD TLB hydro, R-4 tires, thumb, like new, 78 hrs. ‘02 Kubota B7500HSD 4WD w/60” mower, 485 hrs. ‘06 Kubota B7510 4WD, TLB, 6 spd., R-4 tires ‘09 Kubota B7800 4WD tractor w/72” mid mower, 116 hrs. ‘07 Kubota BX2350 4WD tractor w/loader, R4 tires, good cond., 254 hrs. ‘11 Kubota F2680 lawn tractor w/60” cut, same as new ‘08 Kubota GR2010 20hp, AWD 48” cut w/ catcher, clean 151 hrs. ‘07 Kubota L2800 4WD TLB, good cond., ag tires, thumb, 249 hrs. Kubota L2850 tractor w/ ldr., 4WD, good cond., 1 owner ‘94 Kubota L2950 4WD tractor w/ ldr., SS QT, new rear tires, good cond. ‘07 Kubota L3130 4WD tractor w/ ldr., hydro SS QT, good cond., 1467 hrs. ‘07 Kubota L3130 4WD tractor w/ ldr., hydro R4 tires, good cond., 347 hrs. ‘08 Kubota L3240 4WD tractor, R-4 tires, good cond., 590 hrs. ‘07 Kubota L3240 2WD tractor w/ ldr., good cond., 332 hrs. ‘08 Kubota L3400 4WD tractor w/ ldr., ag tires, 104 hrs. ‘07 Kubota L3400 4WD TLB, hydro, ag tires, as new, 29 hrs. ‘06 Kubota L3400 4WD tractor w/ canopy, ag tires ‘00 Kubota L3410 GST 4WD tractor w/loader, hyd shuttle, GST trans., 1 owner, 650 hrs. ‘06 Kubota L3430 4WD tractor w/loader hydro, R-4 tires, clean, 527 hrs. ‘08 Kubota L3540 4WD tractor w/ ldr., hydro SS QT, clean machine, 264 hrs. ‘09 Kubota L3940 4WD tractor w/loader, 8x8 trans., R-4 tires, SSQT, clean, 352 hrs. ‘09 Kubota L3940 4WD, w/ loader, R-4 tires, GST trans, 408 hrs.

‘08 Kubota L3940 4WD tractor w/ ldr., 445 hrs. ‘07 Kubota L3940 4WD tractor, hydro, canopy, R4 tires, clean, 149 hrs. ‘07 Kubota L4240 HST 4WD w/loader, hydro, R4 tires, SS Qt sharp, 168 hrs. ‘06 Kubota L4400DT 4WD w/loader, ag tires, 254 hrs. ‘04 Kubota L4630 4WD tractor C/A/H creeper good cond., choice of tires ‘10 Kubota T2080 20 HP, hydro, 42” cut lawn tractor ‘08 Kubota T2380 48” cut, good condition ‘08 Kubota ZD321 zero turn, 21 HP diesel, 54” cut, very good cond., 71 hrs. ‘01 Kubota ZD326 60” rear discharge, like new, 28 hrs. ‘08 Kubota ZD326 26 HP dsl 60” pro deck ‘07 Kubota ZD331P-60 zero turn, 31 HP diesel, 60” cut, very good cond., 195 hrs. ‘08 Kubota ZG222-48, 22 HP, hyd lift, canopy, 167 hrs. ‘08 Kubota ZG222 48” cut, just like new, 36 hrs. ‘10 Kubota ZG227 54” cut, like new, 27 hrs. ‘09 Kubota ZG227 27 HP, 54” cut, good condition, 181 hrs. ‘06 NH TC40A 4WD w/loader, shuttle shift, ag tires, like new, 96 hrs. SKID STEERS ‘07 Bobcat MT55 skid steer, good cond. w/ bkt., 634 hrs. ‘07 Bobcat S220 OROPS, flotation tires, power tack, like new, 480 hrs. ‘03 Bobcat S300 skid steer, gold pkg., C/A/H, P tach, hi flow, good cond., 288 hrs. ‘03 Bobcat S300 C/A/H, hi flow ptach, very good cond., 288 hrs. ‘08 Bobcat T190 skid steer, new tracks, good cond., 808 hrs. ‘03 Bobcat T200 good cond., good tracks, w/bucket, 2073 hrs. ‘08 Bobcat T300 C/A/H, SJC controls, 80” bucket, good cond. ‘10 Kubota SVL75HW wide tracks, hyd, coupler, low hrs. 108 hrs. NH LS190 Cab hi flow 2 speed, weight kit, good tires ‘05 Mustang 2099 skid steer C/A/H like new, 109 hrs. PLOWS W/ SPRING RESET 7 shank high clearance chisel plow Asst. 1, 2, 3, or 4 x 3 pt. plows Ford 101 3x plow Ford 309 2x plow SIDE RAKES & TEDDERS New First Choice 2 star tedder New First Choice 4 star tedder, hyd. fold New First Choice 4 star tedder, spring assist First Choice 6 star hyd fold First Choice 10 wheel converge rake H&S wheel rake, 9 wheel NH 55, 256, 258, 259 side rakes - priced from $500 NH 256, 258 side rakes, some w/ dolly wheels INDUSTRIAL ‘02 Bobcat 328 excavator, ROPS, rubber tracks, runs & operates, good cond., 1634 hrs. ‘04 Bobcat 331G ROPS, rubber tracks, 18” bucket, 645 hrs. ‘05 Bobcat 334G excavator, ROPS, rubber tracks, QT bucket, 2182 hrs. ‘07 Bobcat 337 excavator, 24” bkt., hyd. thumb, good cond., 499 hrs. ‘05 Bobcat 435 excavator, C/A/H, SJC controls, 729 hrs. ‘07 Bobcat V638 versahandler, 4WD, C/A/H, 38’ frame leveler, aux hyd. ‘06 Bomag BW211D 84” smooth drum roller, very good cond. ‘00 Bomag BW213 84” drum drive vibratory roller

Case CX130 excavator, C/A/H pattern selector, aux hyd, sharp Case 550E dozer, 6 way blade, rubber tracks, runs & works well Cat D3GXL dozer, C/A/H, 6 way blade, hy state, sharp Cat CS-433E roller shell kit, blade, 1 owner ‘09 Dynapac CA134D roller, 54” smooth drum, w/shell kit, very clean Gehl 153 excavator, adj. tracks, low hours ‘07 Hamm 3205 54” vibratory roller, clean Hamm BW172D 66” smooth drum w/vibratory Ingersoll Rand SD77DX vibratory roller, 66’ drum, very nice Ingersoll Rand 706H fork lift, 4WD, 15’ see thru mast 6,000 lb Cummins dsl. ‘07 JLG 450A lift ‘08 Kubota B26 4WD tractor w/ ldr., 4WD, hydro w/ ldr., R4 tires, 207 hrs. ‘07 Kubota K008 excavator, 10” bucket, good cond., aux hyd. ‘07 Kubota KX080 C/A/H, hyd. thumb, rubber tracks, straight blade, clean, 1 owner, 799 hrs. ‘08 Kubota KX080 excavator, 120 hrs., like new, angle blade, lots of warranty ‘‘09 Kubota KX121 excavator, ROPS, rubber tracks, angle blade, 133 hrs. ‘08 Kubota KX121 excavator, rubber tracks, hyd. thumb, angle blade, 237 hrs. ‘08 Kubota KX121-3 excavator, ROPS, angle blade, hyd. thumb, rubber tracks, 343 hrs. ‘07 Kubota KX161 excavator, C/A/H, hyd thumb, angle blade, good cond., 571 hrs. ‘07 Kubota KX161 excavator, C/A/H, angle blade, thumb, 1 owner 337 hrs., clean ‘01 Kubota L35 4WD TLB, GST trans., 18” bucket, 1 owner, 179 hrs. ‘10 Kubota L39 4WD tractor w/ldr., top and tilt, as new, 80 hrs. ‘05 Kubota L39 4WD TLB, front aux hyd, 1 owner, sharp, 542 hrs. ‘09 Kubota L45 4WD, TL, hydro w/ HD box scraper & aux. hyd., like new, 73 hrs. ‘08 Kubota M59 4WD TLB, front hydraulics, good cond., 466 hrs. ‘09 Kubota M59 4WD TLB, front hyd., 24” bucket, sharp ‘06 Kubota U25 excavator, ROPS, rubber tracks, hyd thumb, 745 hrs. ‘09 Kubota U35 excavator, ROPS, angle blade, hyd thumb, 249 hrs. ‘05 Kubota KX71 ROPS, rubber tracks, hyd thumb, good cond., good tracks ‘06 Kubota KX121 excavator, C/A/H, angle blade, hyd thumb, good cond., 2463 hrs. ‘07 Kubota KX121 excavator, C/A/H, straight blade, good cond., 1852 hrs. ‘10 Kubota KX121 excavator, C/A/H, angle blade, hyd thumb, rubber tracks, 127 hrs. ‘06 Kubota KX161 excavator, C/A/H, rubber tracks, 24” bucket, 1270 hrs. ‘07 Kubota U45 excavator, ROPS, rubber tracks, hyd. thumb, sharp, 198 hrs. ‘04 Morbark 2050 25 HP, gas, 5” capacity, clean machine ‘08 Morbark Twister 12, 12” Cat diesel, auto feed, same as new Rayco C87D crawler dozer. C/A/H, pilot controls, winch and forestry pkg., very clean ‘00 Takeuchi TB135 w/cab & heat, rubber tracks, 2 buckets Yanmar CBL40 4WD, TLB, hydro, SSQT, front hyd thumb, good cond. BALERS Haybuster 256DS bale chopper, good cond., dairyman special M&W round baler with monitor, good condition NH 570 square baler, good cond., w/#72 thrower NH 575 square baler, good cond. w/thrower Tanco 580S new, 30” wrap, cable controls, standup

CULTIPACKERS & SEEDERS 8-10-12 cultipackers Bobcat 72 seeder, 3pt. or SS mount, 6’ cultipacker seeder, good cond. Land Pride APS1572 seeder 72” spike roller front, cast roller rear, like new MANURE SPREADERS Bodco LAGU-42” manure pump lagoon type Kuhn SD4000 3 pt seeder, nice NH 1038 stack liner wagon, good cond. Pequea MS80P manure spreader, PTO drive, same as new HAYBINES/DISCBINES McKee 16’ 3pt. danish tines w/ rolling baskets, good cond. DISCS IHC leveling disk, 14’ MISCELLANEOUS Monosem 4 row corn planter Asst used 3 pt. finish mowers & rotary mowers Befco 20’ batwing finish mower Bobcat 48 fence installer, SS mount, unused stakes & fence included Brillion 3pt. 5 shank reset ripper Bush Wacker 8410P rotary mower, 7’, pull type w/ hyd. cylinder Demco 500 gallon sprayer, tandem axle Ferri TD42RSFM boom mower, unused Ford 309 3pt 2 row corn planter, very good cond. Ford 3000 sprayer, dsl., custom spray rig tractor Genset D337F 6 cyl. generator Hardi 170 gallon 3pt sprayer, 30’ boom, very clean JD 450 grain drill, 19” dbl. disc, 7” spacing, grass & small grain, fertilizer box JD 1240 4 row corn planter ‘08 Kubota RTV1100 4WD utility vehicle, C/A/H, camo, 78 hrs. ‘08 Kubota RTV900 4WD, hyd. dump. canopy & windshield, same as new Kubota RTV900 utility vehicle ‘07 Kubota RTV1100 ‘08 Kubota RTV1100 4WD utility vehcile, C/A/H, commercial plow, 63 hrs. Kuhn GMD33N unused 4 foot cut LandPride RCR2510 rotary mower, 10’, 3 pt., good cond. LuckNow 87 snow blower, 7’ 3 pt., 2 stage, good cond. NH 144 hay inverter NH 185 single manure spreader NH 354 grinder, good cond. Orsi River L549 3pt boom mower, 4’ 3pt, good cond. ‘04 Polaris 600 ATV with plow and winch, 183 miles Schulte RS320 rock picker, hid drive Skinner 1 row 3pt tree planter, very good cond. Stanley MB950 hammer Sweepster RHFAM6 rotary broom 3 pt., 6’ Yamaha Grizzly 700 EFI 4WD, 2500 lb. winch and 5’ plow

We are your source for a wide range of used parts with free nationwide parts locator. Parts are dismantled, cleaned and ready for shipment.

October 3, 2011 • COUNTRY FOLKS New England • Section A - Page 13

The National Milk Producers Federation’s Board of Directors voted Sept. 21 in favor of a revised approach to reforming federal dairy policy, with the key change of allowing farmers an individual choice between receiving the financial protection of a government safety net, or opting out of such protection. As originally proposed back in 2010, NMPF’s Foundation for the Future (FFTF) program contained a government-subsidized safety net, the Dairy Producer Margin Protection Program, to protect against periods of low milk prices, high feed costs, or a combination of the two. This program offered a Basic level of subsidized insurance coverage, plus the option of Supplemental fixed-cost coverage partially paid by farmers. The FFTF program also contained the Dairy Market Stabilization Program, which was a mandatory means to reduce market volatility by discouraging new milk production during periods of compressed margins. Under the revised approach backed on Sept. 21 by NMPF, the Dairy

FARMER TO FARMER MARKETPLACE FORD 801 powermaster, new tires, $4,250; New 2012 Calico stock trailer, 16 ft., $4,350, used 2 horse trailer, $2,150. 336-260-7606.(NC) KOOLS grinder blower for silage, HMC; Badger silo distributor; pair 18.4x26 tires; NH 316 baler w/ thrower and two wagons. 315-784-5554.(NY) 430 WEAVERLINE feed cart, good condition, $1,500; Ford sickle bar mower, extra parts, $400 OBO. No Sunday Calls. 607243-5749.(NY) SIX LARGE Holstein heifers, bred three months to a Jersey bull. 413-7431990.(MA) REG. WHITE and colored Romney breeding rams for sale. Also, select ewes from champion flock. Call after 10 am. 315-8223478.(NY) FOR SALE: 4x12 oil fired evaporator, could be modified for wood. Richard Loomis, Morrisville,NY 315-350-8584

WANTED: Chicken processing equipment: plucker, cones, scalder in working shape. 914-533-6529.(NY)

JD Running gear, $500; 10 ft. Howard rotovator, $1,500; 5 yr Black Percheron mare, 17.3 h, $1,500; 315-963-7103.(NY) WANTED: Oliver tractor for restoration, prefer row crop with narrow front, gas tractor, super or fleetline series. 607-5328512.(NY) GEHL 120 grinder mixer, JD 300 corn picker, NI 2 row corn sheller, NI 2 row corn picker; WANTED: JD 300 pickers. 315219-9090.(NY) WANTED: IH #37 disc for parts, gauge, wheel assembly for four bottom plow, JD rock flex disc, 12’, reasonable. 315-2713746.(NY) TD15C dozer, JD 2950 4x4, cab/ldr. ford 600 snowblade, 743 bobcat tracks, dozer blade, White #588 plow, G.D. potato digger, 585-457-7061.(NY) NH 892 chopper w/ 824 corn head, vgc, $7000; NI 1 row corn picker, $950; 16.9x30 tractor tire. 716-941-5123.(NY) WANTED: 12/4x38 tractor tires in good shape; Also, PTO hydraulic pump and looking for livestock hauling jobs in St. Lawrence Co. 315-250-3248.(NY)

DION forage wagon, tandem roof, 3 beater, John Deere grain drill, 15’ silage grain elevator. 607-538-9612.(NY)

Pair bkt Agrimax RT855 radial tires, 520/85R38 on 18” double bevel rack and pinion rims, 95%, $2,000 for pair. 860-2748132.(CT)

9N ford, all apart, many new parts, save it from crusher, $450; 518-466-1920.(NY)

20 ft. Patz silo unloader. 518-6732431.(NY)

INTERNATIONAL “140” (yellow), parts tractor, good block, front end, rims, Hydraulic system. No hitch. Asking $800 or close offer. (After 6) 607-566-2349.(NY)

2005 QUALITY gooseneck 10 ton trailer, 30’, dual wheel, $5,000; 2440 John Deere tractor, new motor, tires, $7,000. 315-8661131.(NY)

WANTED: Nigerian Dwarf or Pigmy goats wanted. Call for more information. Full grown or kids. 585-526-1077.(NY)

M.F. flex head, 13’ #1859; U-Z reel aluminum boats; Herschel Tiger jaws, been shedded, VG condition, $2,000 or b.o. 413253-5471.(MA)

275 GAL. fuel tank vg cond., painted, $250; Mont. Co. 334 Mill Lane, Fort Plain. 518-993-5426.(NY)

300 gallon Mueller or Sunset bulk tank. Dan D. Miller, 3201 Maple Street Road, Lyons, NY 14489

16.9x34 6 ply tire & tube, 30% tread, $50; NI mod. 4150 hay rake, vg condition, $975. NI manure spreader 413-738-5379.(MA)

IH 3414 backhoe, 4256.(NY)

WANTED: Hay tool collector buying haymow forks, hay carriers, grappling hooks, hay carriers, for wood, steel, cable, rod tracks. Mfg.’rs catalogs. 717-792-0278.(PA)

WANTED: International Harvester Fifty Six, two row pull corn planter, good condition. 716-523-1391.(NY)

3 SETS HD log tongs (3 sizes), (2) balder electric motors, self-propelled bale unwrapper. 585-492-1692.(NY)

PEQUEA 710 tedder, needs some work and teeth, $600 or b/o - Hay spreader for bucket loader, $75. 585-624-7637.(NY)

FOR RENT: Kernel processor, hammer mills, blowers, lower your feed cost going from nonprcoessed to processed corn silage, H.M. Corn. 315-536-7634.(NY)

6 TON Behlen grain bin, very good shape, $1,100; Also, 3 ton running gear, needs work, $375. Assorted harnesses, all sizes. 413-283-2743.(MA)

Electric Uebler feed cart 810. JD 7720 4wd combine. Syracuse Area. 315-430-4115, 315-492-1510.(NY)

HEREFORD cows, bred, AI, and bull, mixed sheep, forty, must take all. Two rams. 50’ hay grain elevator, like new. 315-3800089.(NY)

GEHL 1230 rebuilt 3 row corn head, kept inside, extra parts, belts for kernel processor, $1,200. 860-428-3554.(CT)

7 TINE MOHAWK chisel plow, $800; Papec 35A chopper, CH + pts mach $300; 16’ shell corn elevator, $250. All bro. 603-7872396.(NY)

12.4-38 tire, $75; 12.4-38 JD tire & rim, $75; Year around cab for JD $575 or BO. 585-356-1667.(NY)

BUCKETS for John Deere backhoe, 12” and 24”, new, $450 ea.; Laser alignment laser, tripod, and rodeye, $550. 585-7323376.(NY)

JAMESWAY 16’ silo unloader, blower only 1 year old. Also, unloader winch. Both used this month. 315-843-4852.(NY)

BUNNIES, young, mature, female, male, various colors, mini, max, lion heads, california, giants, chinchilla cross. Answering machine is always on. 315-776-4590.(NY) FARMALL “C” tractor, new tires, battery, paint, decals, restored, PTO, pulley, lights, like new, $1,900 OBO. 716-942-3994.(NY) SINGLE SEAT Buggy lights, work, brakes, wheels & gear guaranteed for 2 years, possible 2 seat buggy available. 315-5362596.(NY)



FORD 641 work master, all original, good condition, tires fair, $2,600. 724-4528063.(PA) 2 20.8 38 tires, 1 Goodyear, 20% tread, $100; 1 Firestone, all tractor radial, 30% tread, $200. 315-651-3076.(NY) JOHN DEERE 260 loader, complete. 96” bucket. Good condition. $4,000. 315-8274311.(NY) 1949 FORD Panel Truck VG Flathead engine, $5,500; 603-869-5819.(NH)

JACK RUSSELL Puppy, $75. No Sunday Calls, Please! Yates Co. 585-5545204.(NY)

1086 IH tractor, 540, 1000 PTO front weights, wheel weights, Cab, AC, heat, works good, $1,100; Good condition 139 HP. 585-554-4423.(NY)

McConnell dump wagon, 14 foot long, $4,500; WD Allis Chalmer, $1,200. 315688-4488.(NY)

WANTED: 6” or 7” transport auger, approx 46’ with electric or PTO driven. Ontario Co. 585-748-9474.(NY)

JOHN DEERE 12 ton tandem gear, very good condition, asking $1,500. Boonville. 315-942-4475.(NY)

41’ PTO drive speed, King Hay grain elevator, $800; Gravity wagon, 6 ton gear, $450; IH 56 blower, $500. 585-786-3364.(NY)

JOHN DEERE 1941 LA plows, cultivator, mower, belt pulley wheels, wgts, owners manual; 1941 H, 1943 A, 1946 B, all restored. 607-369-7656.(NY)

INNES 4 row bean windrower, gc; Wheat straw, small squares, assorted roughcut lumber. 315-945-1923.(CNY)

‘85 GMC 7000 silage dump B.O., F350 ‘93 diesel 72,000 mi., dually 12’ diamond plate deck, 2wd, JD A, 315-684-9465.(NY)

FOR SALE: NEW HOLLAND 570 baler, 2009 model, like brand new. No Sunday calls. 315-694-2039 or 315-536-6486.(NY)

TWO HORSE Trailer; Cattle or horse trailer. 518-885-6286.(NY)

ELECTRIC FENCE insulators, all types, approx. 300, $50 for the lot. Five fences, two AC units, $80. Two Solar $25. 518-7893035.(NY)

HEREFORD cows, bred to calve spring 2012, $1,200. 518-332-9143.(NY)

PEQUEA 8’x18’ kicker hay wagon, metal sides, good condition, $2,200; 203-6232956.(CT)

ANGUS Cattle - 2011 heifers, -2010 Registered Bull. Near Cazenovia. 315-4403083.(NY)

(4) REAR WHEEL tractor weights off Case; Also, (4) 8.25x20 power lug tires on rims, less that 1000 mi. 607-5256417.(NY)

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NH 707 3 pt chopper corn head, hay head, stored inside, parts machine also, $1,200; 518-993-4619.(NY)

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Page 14 - Section A • COUNTRY FOLKS New England • October 3, 2011

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Alliance up for the daunting task ahead FOCUS ON AGRICULTURE

by John Hart When the U.S. Farmers and Ranchers Alliance was formed in November 2010, organizers knew that the task ahead would be daunting. After all, this was the first time ever that all of agriculture would come together under one banner to increase its share of voice in the food conversation arena. “This is a historic joining together of farm organizations,” said American Farm Bureau Federation President Bob Stallman, when the formation of USFRA was announced. “We are committed to developing a

united in the goal to engage in a dialogue about the value of modern food production. The public conversation with consumers and food decision makers has begun. On Sept. 22, USFRA held “The Food Dialogues” a connected, town-hall-style meeting at four locations across the country — Washington, D.C., New York City, Fair Oaks Farms in Indiana and at the University of California-Davis. The live event was also viewed online by consumers and farmers alike and was quite the buzz on social media platforms such as Twitter.


During the dialogues, USFRA released the results of two national surveys that polled farmers and consumers about food and farm issues. The results of those surveys further underscore the difficult task at hand. The surveys show that consumers think about food production constantly and are interested in knowing about the food they eat, yet they know very little about how food is brought to the dinner table. This finding doesn’t surprise Stallman. At the Washington, D.C. town hall, Stallman said the results of the survey underscore the need of farmers and ranchers to do a better job of reaching out to consumers. The good news, he says, is that farmers and ranchers want to open up to their customers and become more transparent. The consumer survey makes it clear that Americans have become disconnected from their

American Farm Bureau Federation food. A staggering 72 percent surveyed know nothing or very little about farming and ranching. Still, 70 percent said their purchase decisions are affected by how food is grown and raised, while 72 percent say they think about the topic when purchasing groceries. Another important finding of the survey shows that consumers expect farmers to produce healthy foods, with 79 percent of those surveyed saying producing healthy choices for all consumers is very important for farmers and ranchers to consider when planning farming and ranching practices. In the survey of farmers and ranchers, a whopping 86 percent responded that the average consumer has little or no knowledge about modern farming and ranching. A clear result of the survey was that farmers and

ranchers believe the top misconception they must overcome is the notion that a few “bad actors” represent all of agriculture. Additionally, farmers and ranchers identified the role of pesticides, antibiotics and fertilizers in food production as the most important priorities they should address when communicating with consumers. The results of the survey underscore the daunting task USFRA faces. But the dialogue has begun and leaders of USFRA are committed to engaging, openly and honestly answering questions about how food is grown and tended. Already, USFRA is proving the skeptics wrong. Stallman and other USFRA leaders have one clear message to consumers: “We’re listening.” John Hart is director of news services for the American Farm Bureau Federation.


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October 3, 2011 • COUNTRY FOLKS New England • Section A - Page 15


well-funded, long-term, coordinated campaign to increase consumer trust in agricultural producers and the food system.” Stallman, who serves as chairman of USFRA, would be the first to tell you that USFRA faces skeptics who doubt that all sectors of agriculture with disparate interests can work together in a united effort. But as USFRA approaches its first anniversary, it is proving the skeptics wrong. USFRA is financially strong and the current membership of 49 organizations, representing groups as diverse as egg farmers and rice producers, is

Biodiesel industry applauds USDA advanced biofuel payments Payments will boost economy while advancing U.S. technologies On Sept. 27, the National Biodiesel Board (NBB) applauded the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s announcement that it will award millions of dollars in bioenergy payments to spur the production of advanced biofuels such as biodiesel. The payments, authorized under the 2008 Farm Bill, are going to more

than 160 producers in 41 states, including dozens of biodiesel companies across the country. “These payments will create jobs and economic activity while helping the biodiesel industry advance new technologies and improve efficiency,” said Anne Steckel, NBB’s vice president of federal affairs. “It’s another example of this administra-

tion’s strong commitment to boosting domestic production of advanced biofuels and securing our energy future.” The payments are authorized under the Farm Bill’s Bioenergy Program for Advanced Biofuels, which Congress created to ensure an expanding supply of domestic energy. Payments are based on the amount of biofuels

a recipient produces from renewable biomass other than corn kernel starch. Eligible recipients include biofuels derived from vegetable oil and animal fats, cellulose, crop residue, animal, food and yard waste, and gases from landfill or sewage waste treatment. Biodiesel is America’s first advanced biofuel — a renewable, clean-burn-

ing diesel replacement that is creating jobs, reducing U.S. dependence on foreign petroleum and improving our environment. Made from an increasingly diverse mix of resources such as secondary-use agricultural oils, recycled cooking oil and animal fats, it is the first and only commercial-scale fuel used across the U.S. to meet

the Environmental Protection Agency’s definition of an advanced biofuel. Biodiesel is produced in nearly every state in the country and will support more than 31,000 U.S. jobs in 2011 while replacing nearly 1 billion gallons of petroleum diesel. It can be used in existing diesel engines and meets strict specifications of ASTM D6751.

Biodiesel tax incentive creating jobs, economic productivity

Page 16 - Section A • COUNTRY FOLKS New England • October 3, 2011

Industry thriving even in struggling economy The U.S. biodiesel tax incentive is working as intended to create jobs across the country and reduce America’s dependence on foreign oil, according to testimony submitted by the National Biodiesel Board (NBB) to the House Ways and Means Committee. “While we understand the pressures facing Congress, this is the wrong time to pull support from

a growing American industry that is a rare bright spot in this economy,” said Anne Steckel, NBB vice president of federal affairs. “Our industry is having a record year of production, and the tax incentive is a key ingredient in that success. Stripping the incentive away this year would put thousands of jobs in jeopardy.” Steckel’s written testi-

mony was submitted to the committee for a hearing on energy tax policy and tax reform. In it, she highlighted the biodiesel industry’s rebound this year after the biodiesel tax incentive was reinstated following a oneyear lapse in 2010. Without the incentive, production dropped dramatically last year as dozens of plants shuttered and thousands of

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people lost jobs. Since its reinstatement this year, biodiesel production is thriving, with plants ramping up production again and hiring new employees. Through July, the industry had produced roughly 475 million gallons compared with 315 million gallons in all of 2010. This year’s increased production of at least 800 million gallons will sup-

port more than 31,000 jobs while generating at least $3 billion in GDP and $628 million in federal, state and local tax revenues, according to a recent economic study conducted by CardnoEntrix. “We believe the U.S. biodiesel industry offers a clear and compelling case that strong domestic energy policy can boost this economy,” she said. “Our

TRACTORS 1994 Ford 1920 4wd, ROPS w/ Ford 7108 Loader, 12x12 Shuttle Trans., 2,410 Hrs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $11,250 2004 NH TL90 4wd, ROPS, Excellent Cond, 1,976 Hrs. . . . . . . $25,900 1997 NH 8770 4wd, Supersteer, Mega Flow Hydraulics, Rear Duals, 7,164 Hrs.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $53,750 2009 NH TD5050 4wd, Cab, 90 HP, 2683 Hrs., Excellent Cond.. . . . . $29,750 2000 NH TS100 4wd, Cab, 32x32 Shuttle, 2 Remotes, 2,135 Hrs. . . $39,995 2008 NH TN75A4wd, Cab, Power Shuttle w/NH 810TL Loader, 900 Hrs.$37,500 1995 White 6215 Cab, Tractor, 4wd, Duals, 215 HP, w/Degelman Blade P.O.R. 2007 NH TL100A 4WD, Cab, w/NH 830TL Loader . . . . . . . . . . $43,795 1988 Ford 1720 4wd, ROPS w/Loader, 12x12 Shuttle Transmission, 3,140 Hrs.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $8,995 2008 Mahindra 1815 4wd, ROPS, HST, Loader, 185 Hrs.. . . . . . $9,875 1976 Ford 3000 3cyl. Gas Tractor, 2wd, Good Condition. . . . . . . $2,995 Yamaha Rhino UTV, 4wd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $5,995 2008 M.F. 1528 4wd, ROPS w/Loader, 9x3 Gear Trans., R4 Tires - 325 Hrs. - Like New. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $12,500 2010 Mahindra 2816 4wd, ROPS w/Loader, 9x3 Gear Trans., R4 Tires, Forks, Bucket, 112 Hrs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $14,200 2011 Mahindra 1816 4wd, ROPS, HST, Loader + 52” Mid Mower - 90 Hrs., Like New . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $14,750 2008 Mahindra 1815 4wd, ROPS, HST, Loader, 185 Hrs.. . . . . . $9,875 AGRICULTURE EQUIPMENT 2004 NH 92LB Loader w/ 108" Bucket fits NH TG Series or 8000 Series, Excellent Cond., Like New . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $9,000 2000 Unverferth 5 Shank Zone Builder, 2 TO CHOOSE FROM . $8,400 2008 Pequea 175 Manure Spreader w/Hyd. End Gate, T Rod Chain, Like New. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $5,595 2001 Gehl 1075 Forage Harvester, 2 Row Corn Head, Hay Pickup, Metal Stop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $7,700 2009 NH 74CSRA 3Pt Snowblower, Like New . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $3,450 2000 Gehl 1287 Tandem Manure Spreader, 287 Bushel, Slurry Sides, Hyd. Gate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $3,495 1987 NH 790 Forage Harvester, Metalert, 790W Hay Pickup . . . $4,995 2003 Challenger SB34 Inline Square Baler w/Thrower, Hyd. Tension Like New. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $14,375 2001 Krause 6152 Landsman one pass tillage tool. . . . . . . . . . . $7,450 2000 LP RCR 2584 7’ Rotary Cutter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $1,540 2005 H&S ST420 Rotary Rake. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $4,900 Brillion 24’ Drag Harrow w/Transport Cart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $4,200 WIC Cart Mounted Bedding Chopper with Honda Engine . . . . $1,450

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production turnaround this year is creating goodpaying jobs in nearly every state in the country.” Steckel also highlighted biodiesel’s strong public policy benefits. In addition to creating jobs and economic activity, biodiesel is reducing U.S. reliance on foreign oil, bolstering U.S. national security and improving the environment.

2008 Cole 1 Row 3pt. Planter with multiple Seed Plates . . . . . . . $1,195 1981 NH 320 Baler w/70 Thrower Hyd. Bale Tension . . . . . . . . . . $4,995 2001 Keenan FP80 Mixer Wagon (needs new liner) . . . . . . . . . . $4,200 Gehl Forage Box, on Dion D1200 Gear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $1,895 JD 336 Baler w/Thrower . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $4,200 2010 NH H7230 10’4” Discbine, Roll Conditioner, Like New, Demo. . $24,900 1987 NH 326 Baler w/70 Thrower, Hydra Formatic Tension, Hyd.Pickup . $7,700 2010 E-Z Trail CF890 Rd Bale Carrier/Feeder, 4 Available . . . . . $4,995 1989 NH 570 Baler w/72 Thrower . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $13,300 2003 NH 1411 Discbine, 10’4” Cut w/Rubber Rolls, Field Ready . $15,950 Woods B60C 60” Brush Bull Rotary Cutter w/New Blades . . . . . $1,195 2010 Kuhn SR112 Wheel Rake, Like New. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $6.300 Majaco M580LD, Bale Wrapper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $10,500 2010 LP RCR 1884 7’ Rotary Cutter, Like New . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $2,495 NH 824 2 Row Corn Head for a NH 900. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $4,250 Miller Pro 1150 Rotary Rake . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $4,200 CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT 2008 NH W50BTC Mini Wheel Loader, Cab w/ Heat/Air, Bucket/Forks, 290 Hrs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $69,500 2009 NH E135B SR Excavator w/Cab, Dozer Blade, 36” Bucket, 1,211 Hrs.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $128,500 2009 NH E50B Cab w/Heat & Air, Blade, Rubber Track, Hyd. Thumb, 348 Hrs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $48,500 2000 Cat 313B CR Cab, Heat/Air, Removable Rubber Pads on Steel Tracks, 32” Bucket, 5,884 Hrs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $32,500 2007/08 (2) NH C185 Track Skidsteer, Cab, Heat/AC, Pilot, 84” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Your Choice $46,250 2010 NH L170 Skidsteer, OROPS, 72” Bucket. . . . . . . . . . . . . . $21,500 2000 NH LS180 Skidsteer, OROPS, Bucket, 3,105 Hrs. . . . . . . $15,025 Mustang MS60P 60” SSL Pickup Broom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $2,650 2004 NH LS150 Skidsteer, Hand Controls, 60” Bucket, 3,908 Hrs.. . $9,750 2002 NH LS170 Skidsteer, OROPS, 72” Bucket, 4,685 Hrs. . . . . $9,875 1999 NH LX865 Skidsteer, OROPS, Bucket, Hi Flow Hyd., 1,202 Hrs.$15,625 2008 NH L160 Skidsteer, Cab w/Heat, Hyd. Quick Attach Plate, 72” Bucket, 3476 Hrs.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $14,795 ATTACHMENTS 1999 Mensch M1100 6’Sawdust Shooter, SSL Mount, Good Cond. . $3,150 2002 Mensch M1100 6’ Sawdust Shooter, SSL Mount, Like New . . $3,640 1999 Coneqtec APX400 Adjustable Cold Planer. . . . . . . . . . . . . $4,995 2008 NH 96” Hyd. Angle Dozer Blade, Demo . . . . . . . . . . . . $4,875 2010 NH/Bradco 6” x 4’Trencher, Skidsteer Mount, Like New. . . $3,995 2009 Virnig HD Hyd. Drive SSL Post Hole Digger w/ 9” Auger . .$2,195

RFA warns against reported effort to relegislate the RFS Relegislating, repealing, or reopening the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) at this time is bad policy, the Renewable Fuels Association (RFA) said. That includes the reportedly newest effort by Representative Bob Goodlatte and Representative Jim Costa to waive a portion of the RFS when the corn stocks-touse ratio falls below an arbitrarily determined level.

“Seeking to relegislate the RFS in this manner would do nothing to address the concerns raised by the livestock constituents of Representatives Goodlate and Costa,” said RFA President and CEO Bob Dinneen. “Research clearly demonstrates that implementing an RFS waiver trigger based on the stocks-to-use ratio will not have the effects on corn prices desired by

livestock and poultry interests, nor will it mean more corn is immediately available for feed use. Rather than knee-jerk policy reactions, Congress should maintain the integrity of the RFS to help drive job creation and wean America from its addiction to foreign oil.” Recent studies have concluded that the RFS has been only a minor contributor to corn

prices in recent years. A July 2011 analysis commissioned by the International Centre for Trade and Sustainable Development found that corn prices would have been exactly the same in 2009/10 if both the RFS and Volumetric Ethanol Excise Tax Credit (VEETC) had not existed. Additionally, the stocks-to-use ratio has limited value as an indicator of expected market

dynamics and price. University of Illinois economist Darrell Good cautions that stocks-to-use ratio should only be considered as “a starting point (for estimating potential price impacts) since very different supply and demand conditions in individual years can lead to similar ratios of stocks-to-use but very different prices.” The RFA also cautioned that if this effort were to be successful, the loss of ethanol in the fuel supply would hammer American consumers at the pump. A study from the Center for Agriculture Development (CARD) this past spring estimated that the use of nearly 13 billion gallons of ethanol in 2010 kept gasoline

prices $0.89 lower than they otherwise would have been. In the past decade, the average annual savings has been $0.25 per gallon, according to CARD. “If successful, reducing America’s use of its own domestic renewable fuel would wallop consumers at the pump, resulting in far greater economic pain than the marginal impact ethanol production has on grain prices,” said Dinneen. “In fact, given the disproportionate impact on food pricing exerted by energy and fuel prices, raising gas prices by reducing ethanol use would exacerbate concerns with rising food prices. This is simply the wrong policy to address corn supply concerns.”

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Contact Owner • 518-568-5115 or Hubbell’s Real Estate • 607-547-5740

October 3, 2011 • COUNTRY FOLKS New England • Section A - Page 17

Page 18 - Section A • COUNTRY FOLKS New England • October 3, 2011

Humane castrator for newborn livestock introduced The U.S. company known for inventing the premiere high-tension banding castration tool on the market is now introducing a lighter, sleeker version designed to bring the same humane, user-friendly technique to newborn calves, sheep and goats. No-Bull Enterprises is unveiling the next generation of innovation in bloodless castration with the Callicrate ‘WEE’ Bander™, an instrument crafted from surgical quality, corrosion resistant stainless steel. It is designed to insure proper ligation with every application — the key to effective humane castration and a signature feature of the Callicrate Bander® which has been manufactured and distributed worldwide since 1991 with more than 50,000 units sold. Achieving adequate tightness is the single most essential component in reducing stress during banding, according to animal welfare experts like Colorado State University animal science professor Temple Grandin. “Previously, the only banding option available for the smaller animals was the green elastrator ring,” says inventor Mike Callicrate, owner of No Bull Enterprises, based in St. Francis, KS. “We

used the same simple technology, but combined it with a means of attaining proper tension, resulting in a complete ligation. In replacing the elastrator rings, which lack sufficient tension and are considered the most stressful method of castrating young animals, the ‘WEE’ Bander™ also provides an alternative to castration with a knife, which is probably the second most stressful method you can use.” Studies of high tension banding have demonstrated that the complete negation of blood flow triggers a natural analgesic effect that blocks pain while minimizing swelling and related complications. “While in New Zealand testing our high tension banding technology, I castrated a set of lambs with veterinarian John Southworth,” Callicrate says. “All of the lambs receiving the elastrator rings showed extreme discomfort,” Callicrate continues. “They were rolling around bleating and kicking. The lambs with the high-tension Callicrate bands, both newborn and larger in size, were comfortable and back suckling their mothers right away. We checked on the lambs frequently. The lambs with elastrator rings

were still showing signs of pain 24 hours later. The high-tension banded lambs were lying around comfortably and nursing, similar to what we would expect to see based on our results with cattle.” Those findings are consistent with research at the University of California-Davis, which showed high tension banding generated a more localized immune response with no discernable depression in appetite or rate of gain when used on young bulls. “The stress of using an elastrator ring, which lacks sufficient tension to block pain, doesn’t meet the public’s height-

ened standards for humane animal treatment,” Callicrate says. By insuring proper application of the band, the Callicrate ‘WEE’ Bander™ measures up to the increasingly rigorous worldwide emphasis on animal care and well-being. Not only is the Callicrate method for hightension banding the most stress-free castration method for the animal, it’s also easiest for the person performing the operation. With the Callicrate Bander®, band application is mechanically assisted to insure consistent results every time. The ‘WEE’ Bander™ is even lighter weight, just

as fast, effective and bloodless, but requires no manual cutting or crimping of the rubber loop. The process works like this: the operator loads a rubber loop on a triangular nosepiece at the front of the applicator and places it around the testicles of the newborn calf, lamb or goat. Once both testicles are within the loop, the operator simply releases a small thumb tab to secure the band firmly in place. The process of tightening the band around the testicles to reach proper compression is very quick and simple and requires no cutting of the banding material. “The bands are spe-

cially formulated to withstand and maintain the high tension needed for consistent results,” Callicrate says. “The correct formulation and curing of the rubber gives it the elasticity, strength and memory for fail-proof application.” Like the Callicrate Bander®, the Callicrate ‘WEE’ Bander™ is made in the USA using the highest quality materials. It is essentially maintenance free. Five loops are included with each ‘WEE’ Bander. Additional loops can be purchased in bags of 25 or 100. For more information, visit or call 800858-5974.

Vermont farm - raiser Brought to you by your friends at Shelburne Farms, Starry Night Café and the Starline Rhythm Boys! Great locally produced food donated by The Inn at Shelburne Farms and Starry Night served in a spectacular lakeside setting with a popular local band providing the music … it adds up to a notto-be-missed benefit for the Vermont Farm Disaster Relief Fund. On Wednesday, Oct. 5, from 5 - 8 p.m., at the Coach Barn at Shelburne Farms, there will be barbecued beef, pork and lamb and a vegetarian option, vegetables and salads from the Farms' Market Garden and delicious desserts from Starry Night Café. And the popular Starline

Rhythm Boys will be playing for listening and dancing. Cost for tickets is $20 with the opportunity to donate more. All proceeds will go to the Vermont Farm Disaster Relief Fund, administered by the Vermont Community Foundation and the Vermont Agency of Agriculture where, according to Agency Secretary, Chuck Ross, “the fund creates a vehicle where we can connect the resources of concerned donors to the needs of affected farmers who have suffered damages from Tropical Storm Irene.” To purchase advance tickets, go to the Shelburne Farms on-line store at www.shelburne Purchase early as event may sell out!

Visit These New York-New England Dealers KRAMER'S INC. RFD #3 Box 245, Augusta, ME 04330 207-547-3345

CLINTON TRACTOR & IMPLEMENT CO. Meadow Street, PO Box 262 Clinton, NY 13323-0262 315-853-6151

FOSTERDALE EQUIPMENT CORP. 3137 Route 17B Cochecton, NY 12726 845-932-8611

WHITE'S FARM SUPPLY, INC. RD 4, Box 11 Jct. Rtes. 31 & 316 Canastota, NY 13032 315-697-2214

LAMB & WEBSTER INC. 601 West Main Springville, NY 14141 716-592-4924

Brookside Dairy turning on-farm waste into energy INDIANA COUNTY, PENNSYLVANIA — Managing manure on a large dairy farm takes serious planning, and Brookside Dairy is adopting new technology that that saves money and protects the environment. The family

Seven generations of Georges have lived at Brookside Dairy since 1781. Now Bill George and his two sons, Kevin and Keith, along with Keith’s son Shane, are partners on the farm, with Kevin overseeing the dairy operation while Kei-

th manages the 1,200 acres of crops. The dairy operation The Georges expanded their herd in 2001 to milk 550 dairy cows in a 200 by 300 foot freestall barn with 326 stalls. The high ventilation barn features 28 five-foot fans at one

end that produce a 7.5 mile per hour wind to keep the cows cool during hot weather. A sprinkler system uses water to cool the cows, and rubber matting on the floors provides cushion for the cows as they walk through the barn.

A 100-horse power motor run on biogas operates a 90 kilowatt generator to keep the Brookside Dairy methane digester in motion. Photos courtesy of Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture

YOUR NEW ENGLAND DEALER Hicks Sales LLC Ken & Debbie Hicks Toll Free 877-585-5167 1400 Bowen Rd, E. Corinth, VT 05040

The renewable energy produced through the biogas is set up to offset the farm’s electricity use and/or sell at wholesale rates to the local utility. The conversion to biogas results in less odorcausing compounds in manure in a typical liquid storage system. The breakdown of ma-

After the manure is circulated through the digester at Brookside Dairy, the solids are separated and dried and used for bedding. The remaining liquid, or effluent, is spread onto the fields as fertilizer.


several reasons for considering a digester on their dairy operation “economics, odor control and the resulting better quality fertilizer.” The decision The Georges sought help from Jim Resh, of the Indiana County Conservation District, to in-

nure in the digester converts the organic nitrogen into ammonium which, when spread on the fields, is more readily available when taken up by the plants, allowing for less nutrient runoff. The process also reduces weed seeds in the fields, causing fewer weeds

Keith George, partner in Brookside Dairy in Indiana County, stands beside the anaerobic digester built in 2006. The digester produces enough energy to power the farm in addition to 55 homes each day. vestigate installing an onfarm digester. They found a digester would meet the specific needs they were considering.

growing among the crops. The digestion process also reduces methane, a greenhouse gas, emis-

Brookside 18

October 3, 2011 • COUNTRY FOLKS New England • Section A - Page 19

With the expansion came increased electricity costs for the new barn and more manure waste with the additional cows. The Georges began researching options to address the new issues that arose, specifically an anaerobic methane digester. Keith says there were

Page 20 - Section A • COUNTRY FOLKS New England • October 3, 2011

Brookside from 19 sions that would otherwise remain in the atmosphere for nine to 15 years. After deciding it was a viable option and met the needs of their farm, the Georges secured an Energy Harvest Grant from the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection. The grants are designed to help fund projects that address energy and environmental issues. The digester They opted to install an anaerobic digester, which means no oxygen is involved in the process of using the cow manure to produce a biogas of methane and carbon dioxide. Microorganisms in the manure perform the decomposition process. The manure is removed with automatic alley scrapers from the barn and is combined with waste water from the milking parlor, along with food wastes from a local brewery and Pittsburgh restaurants. Four times a day, 3,000 gallons of manure is pumped into the digester, which holds 260,000 gallons. “The digester is like a cow — it likes to be fed at the same time with the same quality feed every day,” said Keith. The digester is a 14-feet deep concrete pit and covered with a dome made of plastic and cloth. A 100- horse power motor that is run on the biogas operates a 90 kilowatt generator to keep the digester in constant motion. All the machinery is automated and run through a computer system. The manure spends one month rotating in the digester at 98 degrees Fahrenheit after which it is pumped to the manure solids building where the nutrient-rich liquid, or effluent, is pressed out to a 400,000 gallon holding pit. The effluent is pumped from the pit and spread onto the fields every two months. The separated dried solids are used for bedding the freestalls, which require 20 tons per week to keep the stalls clean and dry. Pennsylvania is home to more than 50 operational or proposed anaerobic digesters, with more than half in the Chesapeake Bay watershed. Most digesters are located on dairy and swine farms. The capital costs for in-

stalling a digester are dependent on many factors including number of animals, type of digester and site-specific conditions. The estimated range is from $500,000 to more than $1 million. The results Keith believes, in the five years since the digester was installed, Brookside Dairy has already seen the benefits of the investment. “The digester produces enough energy to power the farm in addition to 55

homes each day,” said Keith. “We’ve also seen an improvement in the quality and yield in the crops with the better fertilizer we can spread on the fields, and we’ve had no negative effect on the cows’ health as a result of using the solids for bedding.” All told, the time and cost involved in adopting this project has had a positive effect on Brookside Dairy, making good business and environmental sense.

The 200 by 300-foot freestall barn at Brookside Dairy in Indiana County is a highventilation barn. The 28 five-foot fans produce a 7.5 mile per hour wind that keeps the cows cool during hot weather.

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Issued Sept 23, 2011 August milk production in the top 23 states totaled 15.3 billion pounds, up 2.2 percent from August 2010, according to the Agriculture Department’s preliminary data. Output in the 50 states amounted to 16.4 billion pounds, up 2.1 percent.

The increase was more than expected. July output in the 23 states was revised 45 million pounds lower, to 15.4 billion, up a half percent from a year ago. August cow numbers in the 23 states totaled 8.47 million head, up 3,000 head from July, and

nesota was next, followed by Ohio, down 2.8 percent, on a 20 pound drop per cow and 4,000 fewer cows. Weather had varying effects on output per cow; up in Michigan, Iowa, Kansas, Wisconsin, and Indiana as temperatures and humidity moderated from July while Western output showed consistent gains per cow and cow numbers. eDairy economist Bill Brooks wrote in the September 20 Insider Opening Bell that the August gain was “above average and compared to strong growth a yearago.” USDA’s Livestock Slaughter report shows an estimated 244,600 culled dairy cows were slaughtered under federal inspection in August, up 37,500 from July and 13,700 more than August 2010. January to August 2011 dairy cow slaughter was estimated at 1.909 million head, up 83,400 from the same period in 2010. Checking the cupboard; August butter stocks totaled 165.6 million pounds, down 22.2 million pounds or 12 percent from July, but 10.4 million pounds or 7 percent above August 2010, according to USDA’s lat-

Mielke 23

October 3, 2011 • COUNTRY FOLKS New England • Section A - Page 21

102,000 more than a year ago. Output per cow averaged 1,810 pounds, up 18 from a year ago. California milk output was up 2.9 percent from a year ago, thanks to 24,000 more cows and a 30 pound gain per cow while Wisconsin was up 1.2 percent on a 20 pound gain per cow. Cow numbers were up 1,000 head. Third place Idaho was up 3.9 percent on 11,000 more cows and a 40 pound gain per cow. New York was down a half percent on a 5 pound loss per cow and 1,000 fewer cows. Pennsylvania was down 2.1 percent on a 30 pound loss per cow and 2,000 fewer cows, and Minnesota saw a 4.5 percent drop due to a 75 pound loss per cow. Cow numbers were up 1,000 head. The biggest gain was 11.1 percent in Texas where output per cow jumped a whopping 100 pounds and cow numbers were up 20,000. Next was Florida, up 9.9 percent on a 65 pound gain per cow and 5,000 more cows, followed by Washington, up 6.7 percent on a 30 pound gain per cow and 13,000 more cows. The biggest drop occurred in Missouri, down 7.9 percent, due to a 60 pound drop per cow and 3,000 fewer cows. Min-

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Page 22 - Section A • COUNTRY FOLKS New England • October 3, 2011

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Mielke from 21 est Cold Storage report. American cheese totaled 641.8 million, down 1 percent from July and 7 percent above a year ago. Total cheese stocks, at 1.06 billion pounds, were down 2 percent from July and virtually unchanged from a year ago. The cash cheese mar-

ket dropped following the milk production report but inched up following the Cold Storage data. The 40-pound cheese blocks closed the fourth Friday in September at $1.7275 per pound, down a nickel on the week, and 2 1/4-cents below a year ago. The 500-pound bar-

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rels closed at $1.7075, down a penny and a quarter on the week, and 2 3/4-cents below a year ago. Twenty five cars of block traded hands on the week and 22 of barrel. The NASS-surveyed U.S. average block price fell to $1.8159, down 5.9 cents, and the barrels av-

eraged $1.7815, down 2.2 cents. Spot butter closed Friday at $1.77, down another 13 1/4-cents on the week, and 46 cents below a year ago. It has lost 23 1/2-cents in four weeks. Three cars found new homes this week. NASS butter averaged $1.9393,

down 9.6 cents. Cash Grade A nonfat dry milk held all week at $1.49 while the Extra Grade lost 3 cents, slipping to $1.58. NASS powder averaged $1.5364, down 2.1 cents, and dry whey averaged 59.08 cents, up 0.2 cent. The October Federal or-

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Mielke 24

October 3, 2011 • COUNTRY FOLKS New England • Section A - Page 23

Will Feature: Barn Building, Winter Horse Care &

der Class I base milk price was announced by USDA at $19.56 per hundredweight, down $2.22 from September, but still $2.98 above October 2010. It equates to about $1.68 per gallon and pulled the 2011 average down to $19.26, still $4.26 above a year ago at this time, and $8.17 above 2009. The NASS butter price averaged $1.9893 per pound, down 9.6 cents from September. Nonfat dry milk averaged $1.5461, down 3.4 cents. Cheese averaged $1.8347, down 3.2 cents, and dry whey averaged 59 cents, up 2.6 cents. No MILC payment to producers is expected for October but is possible for November and/or December, according to our sources. There have been no MILC payments since October 2009. The CME’s Daily Dairy Report warns that Americans continue to drink less milk. Estimated milk use in the May to July period was off 2.4 percent from last year and down 4.3 percent from two years ago, according to Federal Order and California data. Sales were down 1.8 percent in the first seven months of the year and July was the worst month in at least 15 years, according to the DDR. USDA says sales were down 4.5 percent from a year ago however estimated sales of total organic fluid milk products increased 10.7 percent from 2010. In politics, with the issue of supply management threatening the future of National Milk’s “Foundation for the Future” (FFTF) dairy policy reform proposal, the Federation announced it would modify its plan. Dairy Profit Weekly editor Dave Natzke reported in his Friday DairyLine program that the revisions would make participation in the supply management portion voluntary. However, participation in the supply management program, called the Dairy Management Stabilization Program, would be a prerequisite for farmer eligibility for income insurance payments under the Dairy Producer Margin Protection Program. “By making the program voluntary instead of mandatory, it also eliminates another controversial area,” Natzke said. “Under the previous plan, half of all money collected under the Dairy Management Stabilization Program would have

Page 24 - Section A • COUNTRY FOLKS New England • October 3, 2011

Mielke from 25 gone to the U.S. Treasury. Now, all funds could go to purchase dairy products to be used for feeding programs.” Instead of specifying comprehensive changes to the federal milk marketing order system, the revised plan mandates USDA to replace current end-product pricing formulas and make allowances with a competitive pay price formula, but leaves the method up to a dairy farmer vote. The plan still calls for elimination of the Dairy Price Support and Milk Income Loss Contract programs and the revisions were rolled into legislation drafted by Rep. Collin Peterson, Ranking Member on the House Ag Committee, and Rep. Mike Simpson, Idaho Republican. In a Friday morning conference call, Peterson reported that he would introduce the bill (“Dairy Security Act of 2011”) that afternoon in the House with National Milk’s modifications. He said support is growing for the plan but, because of delays in getting the original bill scored by the Congressional Budget Office, it will now likely be part of the new Farm Bill. The International Dairy

Foods Association said the changes to the FFTF still “miss the mark.” Natzke also reported that a second dairy policy reform plan was outlined this week, this one from U.S. Sen. Kirsten Gillibrand (D-N.Y.), a member of the Senate Ag Committee. Gillibrand’s plan addresses the supply management issue by limiting it to regional supply and demand conditions, instead of a national balancing plan. She would also incorporate income insurance into the existing MILC program, using production limits to determine insurance payment eligibility, and asks USDA to evaluate changes to federal milk marketing orders. Meanwhile; Dairy Profit Weekly reports that several dairy organizations sent a letter to House Agriculture Committee leaders, opposing supply management provisions contained in impending dairy policy reform legislation. The organizations urged lawmakers to reject the Dairy Market Stabilization Program, proposed in National Milk’s FFTF program and included in the legislation authored by Representative Collin Peterson. Co-signing the letter






were the Dairy Business Association, a Wisconsinbased producer organization, along with its marketing co-op, Dairy Business Milk Marketing Cooperative; the board of directors of Bongards’ Creameries, Minnesota Milk Producers Association, First District Association, all of Minnesota; Alliance Dairies, Florida; Dairy Policy Action Coalition, Pennsylvania; High Desert Milk, Idaho; National All-Jersey, Inc., headquartered in Ohio; and the Northeast Dairy Producers Association. On the other hand; the

Holstein Association USA’s board of directors confirmed their support of discussion draft legislation containing major components of the Foundation for the Future program, stating that “The Dairy Market Stabilization part of the program is key, and a major reason for the Association’s support of the program,” according to Holstein Association president Chuck Worden. In yet another political issue; the National Family Farm Coalition and 56 allied organizations representing family farmers,

ranchers, fishermen and advocates signed a letter to Congress condemning the pending free trade agreements (FTAs) with South Korea, Colombia, and Panama. As the letter states, more FTAs will only accelerate the economic disasters in agriculture: industrial farms dependent on massive amounts of petroleum-based inputs, low-paying exploitative jobs in processing and packing plants, and increased consolidation throughout the agricultural supply chain. For complete details, log

on to http://nf eltr.Sept2011.pdf. While we’re talking about international markets; the Global Dairy Trade (Fonterra) auction index dropped to its lowest level in more than a year with large declines in anhydrous milkfat (AMF) and skim milk powder (SMP), according to the CME’s Daily Dairy Report. The weighted average price for AMF was $1.74 per pound, down 11.2 percent from the

Mielke 25

Claas 870 Sp w/RU 450 corn hd and pick up 2.9% Fix Rate Financing ^ 72 Months ^

TRACTORS Case IH 9110 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $23,900 . . . . . . . . Fultonville CAT D4H LGP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $27,500. . . . . . . . . . Goshen Ford 8N w/Blade. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $1,500 . . . . . . . . Fultonville JD 4240 Quad Cab. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $17,500 . . . . . . . . Fultonville JD 5510 w/540 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $18,500 . . . . . . . . Fultonville (2) JD 244 J Loaders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $37,900 . . . . . . . . Fultonville AC CA 2btm/cult . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $2,750 . . . . . . . . Fultonville Kubota MX5000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $14,400 . . . . . . . . Fultonville NH TL90 cab 2WD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $27,900. . . . . . . . . Chatham AC 200 w/ cab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $8,900 . . . . . Schaghticoke JD 4230 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $13,500 . . . . . . . . Fultonville JD 5425 w/542 ldr. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $36,500 . . . . . . . . Fultonville JD 5325 2WD/Cab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $26,500 . . . . . . . . Fultonville JD 5325 2WD/Cab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $26,000 . . . . . . . . Fultonville JD 5065M w/553. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $35,500. . . . . . . . . . Goshen COMPACT TRACTORS MF 1220 w/mower. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $6,595. . . . . . . . . Chatham JD 2305 w/ldr & deck . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $11,900 . . . . . Schaghticoke JD 110 TLB, w/cab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $27,800 . . . . . Schaghticoke JD 855 w/cab, & loader. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $9,800 . . . . . Schaghticoke JD 2520 w/loader . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $12,900. . . . . . . . . Chatham JD 3720 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $24,900. . . . . . . Clifton Park JD 4400 w/loader . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $11,500. . . . . . . . . Chatham Kioti DK455 TLB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $20,000. . . . . . . . . . Goshen Kubota L39 TLB, canopy . . . . . . . . . . . . $28,400. . . . . . . Clifton Park Kubota L5450 loader/backhoe . . . . . . . . $21,000. . . . . . . . . Chatham NH TC45D cab/loader . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $27,500. . . . . . . . . . Goshen NH TZ25DA. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $11,900. . . . . . . . . . Goshen SKID STEER / CONSTRUCTION 317 Skid steer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $14,500. . . . . . . . . . Goshen Cat 236 cab, heat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $19,500 . . . . . . . . Fultonville NH L160 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $12,900. . . . . . . . . Chatham NH L170 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $21,500 . . . . . . . . Fultonville MOWERS CONDITIONERS NH 477 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $1,900. . . . . . . . . Chatham JD 925 Moco. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $10,900 . . . . . . . . Fultonville JD 946 Moco. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $13,500. . . . . . . . . . Goshen Kuhn FC 302 Moco . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $5,500. . . . . . . . . Chatham TILLAGE Brillion Seeder 10’ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Coming In . . . . . Schaghticoke IH 710 4 bottom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Coming In . . . . . Schaghticoke IH II Shank Chisel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Coming In . . . . . Schaghticoke JD 1450 4 bottom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $2,500 . . . . . . . . Fultonville JD 2000 6 bottom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $1,500 . . . . . . . . Fultonville JD 2500 4 bottom plow. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $1,000 . . . . . . . . Fultonville HAY AND FORAGE Claas 870 SPF H w/Heads . . . . . . . . . $169,500 . . . . . Schaghticoke Gehl 860 w/2R 6’ po . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $4,950 . . . . . . . . Fultonville Gehl 1470 RB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $7,500. . . . . . . . . Chatham NH 258 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $2,750 . . . . . . . . Fultonville

NH Flail Chopper. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $7,500 . . . . . . . . Fultonville Miller Pro Rake . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $3,900 . . . . . . . . Fultonville Miller Pro Rake . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $2,750 . . . . . . . . Fultonville Miller 1416 merger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $28,500 . . . . . Schaghticoke Miller 1416 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $18,500 . . . . . Schaghticoke JD 714 Forage Box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $3,750 . . . . . . . . Fultonville JD 6750 SP w/640 . . . . . . . . . .SOLD . . . . . Coming In . . . . . . . . Fultonville JD 7300 SP w/686 & 640 . . . . . . . . . . . $139,500 . . . . . . . . Fultonville JD 3960 forage harv., base unit . . . . . . . . $3,800 . . . . . . . . Fultonville JD 3970 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $9,000 . . . . . . . . Fultonville JD 3970 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Coming In $8,000 . . . . . . . . Fultonville JD 3RN corn head . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $3,500 . . . . . . . . Fultonville JD 5 1/2 pickup (like new). . . . . . . . . . . . . $2,500 . . . . . . . . Fultonville NH 166 inverter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $3,850 . . . . . . . . Fultonville Fahr KH500 Tedder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $1,200 . . . . . . . . Fultonville Vicon 4 Star Tedder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $3,200. . . . . . . . . . Goshen Kuhn 500 Disc Mower . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $7,500. . . . . . . . . Chatham Krone 550 Tedder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $2,650 . . . . . . . . Fultonville Sitrex 302 Tedder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $1,500 . . . . . . . . Fultonville PLANTING / TILLAGE Brillion 18’ Harrow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $1,900 . . . . . Schaghticoke JD 220 disk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $1,500 . . . . . . . . Fultonville Taylorway 16’ disc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $5,500 . . . . . Schaghticoke JD 2500 4 btm hyd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $1,000 . . . . . . . . Fultonville JD 7000 4RH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $2,550 . . . . . . . . Fultonville JD 12’ BWA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $750 . . . . . . . . Fultonville BALERS NH 326 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $8,900 . . . . . Schaghticoke NH 316 baler. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $4,500. . . . . . . . . . Goshen JD 335 Round Baler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $7,850 . . . . . . . . Fultonville Pequea Fluffer 81⁄2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $1,500 . . . . . . . . Fultonville Hesston 560. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $4,500. . . . . . . . . Chatham Hesston Rounder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $4,500 . . . . . . . . Fultonville MISCELLANEOUS HARDI 210 3pt Sprayer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $2,850 . . . . . . . . Fultonville POLARIS RAZOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $8,950 . . . . . . . . Fultonville ARCTIC CAT 650 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $6,850 . . . . . . . . Fultonville JD 135 mixer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $3,500 . . . . . . . . Fultonville JD 245 loader . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $3,500 . . . . . Schaghticoke JD 840 loader . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $6,950. . . . . . . . . Chatham JD 6600 combine w/215 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $7,800 . . . . . . . . Fultonville JD 7000 Series 3 pt./PTO, front hitch . . . $4,950 . . . . . . . . Fultonville JD 9500 combine, “nice” . . . . . . . . . . . Comin In. . . . . . . . . Chatham H&S 125 spreader . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $3,000 . . . . . . . . Fultonville Great Bend loader for JD 7000’s . . . . . . . $5,500 . . . . . . . . Fultonville Bush Hog 4 ft. mower . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $850. . . . . . . . . Chatham 7’Loader blade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $875 . . . . . . . . Fultonville MC 7’ Rotary Cutter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $1,200 . . . . . . . . Fultonville Landpride 7’ HD Blade. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $1,900 . . . . . Schaghticoke Frontier 7’ HD back blade, hyd Angle . . . $1,850 . . . . . Schaghticoke


GOSHEN 845-294-2500

CHATHAM 518-392-2505

SCHAGHTICOKE 518-692-2676

CLIFTON PARK 518-877-5059

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Information on Furthering Your Agricultural Education

FALL 2011

Supplement to Country Folks & Country Folks GROWER

Choose your course of study: APPLIED ANIMAL SCIENCE Dairy Management Equine Management Small Animal Care APPLIED BUSINESS MANAGEMENT Business Management Restaurant Managment CIVIL TECHNOLOGY Architectural Technology Construction Management Surveying and Mapping COMMUNITY LEADERSHIP CULINARY ARTS AND NUTRITION Culinary Arts Dietetic Technician FOREST TECHNOLOGY HORTICULTURAL TECHNOLOGY Landscape Operations Ornamental Horticulture THOMPSON SCHOOL DIPLOMA PROGRAMS Pet Grooming Community Leadership Landscape Operations

Don’t miss our open house on October 31, 2011. Register at

University of New Hampshire’s Thompson School of Applied Science: New England’s best kept secret

The Thompson School of Applied Science was founded in 1895 by the legislators of New Hampshire to provide a broader opportunity to the citizens of the state to study the agricultural sciences in a 2-year timeframe instead of having only the 4-year option. The Thompson School continues to uphold this legacy providing quality associate degree programs with an educational belief that the best way to learn is by doing. Our programs are designed to bring the ideas of the classroom to life, inspiring students to learn and achieve with their minds and hands engaged. The Thompson School currently offers seven associate in applied science degree programs: applied animal science, applied business management, civil technology, community leadership, culinary arts and nutrition, forest technology, and horticultural technology. Most programs additionally offer the opportunity for students to specialize within their fields of study. To guide students in these pursuits are faculty who not only excel as teachers, but as professionals who practice what they teach. The Thompson School is located on the Durham campus of the University of New Hampshire surrounded by acres of fields and forests and supported by first-rate academic buildings and facilities, including greenhouses, equine and dairy centers, laboratories, a sawmill, a restaurant, and a grooming shop. We encourage you to visit UNH, to meet with our faculty and current students, tour the campus and at-

tend a class or two. UNH students have options: they may attend parttime or full-time, may live on campus or commute and may choose from the many activities and organizations offered on campus. As UNH is a Common Application school, the application process is fast and easy. As members of the UNH community, Thompson School students enjoy the best of both worlds in the personalized attention and support of a small school, along with the resources of a major research and land-grant university. The Thompson School is an academic unit of UNH’s College of Life Sciences and Agriculture. It is fully accredited by the New England Association of Schools and Colleges. Our seven degree programs and 14 program concetrations (architectural technology, business management, community leadership, construction management, culinary arts, dairy management, dietetic technician, equine management, forest technology, landscape operations, ornamental horticulture, restaurant management, small animal care and surveying and mapping) comprise a balance of professional, science-related, and general education courses in applied curriculums that prepare students to meet the specific demands of a technical or applied profession, continuing education, and the general demands of life. Here is a brief glance of each of our degree programs: From muzzle to hoof, the Applied Animal Science program at the Thompson

School prepares students for leadership roles in an animal-related industry. Students gain expertise with the latest technology and a firm grounding in animal anatomy, physiology, nutrition, health, breeding, and business management. They put classroom theory to the test in facilities that include the UNH Equine and Dairy Centers, Grooming Shop, Biology laboratories, and nearby, animal shelters. Proposed for Fall 2012 is a Veterinary Technician Program and an Integrated Agriculture Management concentration. The Applied Business Management program connects to every business, restaurant, organization and government agency on Earth! Effective Marketing and Sales — getting and keeping customers, Personnel Management — getting and keeping good employees, Finance, and Operations Management — location, layout and day-to-day operations are the major keys to success for any enterprise and make up the core of our program. This program is for individuals who aspire to own or manage a small to medium size business. In Civil Technology, learn in one of the finest Computer Aided Design (CAD) facilities in New England, open 24/7. Work with a faculty of licensed and professionally active land surveyors, engineers and an architect. Utilize a state-of the-art computer mapping and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) laboratory. The motto for our Civil Technology program could very well be if you build it, they will come. And

our students do. They come to us with a strong sense of place and a natural curiosity about the construction of everything from roads to bridges to buildings. We offer a firm foundation in computer drafting, field surveying and mapping, construction business management, math and science. The Community Leadership program is designed for students who wish to transform a passion for community activism into a rewarding career. This program is one of only a handful nationwide to combine hands-on community outreach with an academic study of communities, leadership, citizen influence, and non-profit organization management. The courses help students gain skills such as supervising volunteers, facilitating meetings, speaking in public, organizing events, and grant writing. The Culinary Arts and Nutrition Program gives career choices to students that are plentiful in numerous fields such as the hotel industry, restaurant industry, healthcare, sales of food and food service related items and yes, even television celebrities! Students will develop practical skills and will study a variety of topics such as classical culinary cuisine, nutrition and management techniques. Thompson School’s 180 Blue Restaurant combines practical lab experiences with the benefit of fine dining for our customers as well. Forest Technicians are stewards of the forest, one of our most valu-

Thompson 4

Cornell University College of Agriculture and Life Sciences

The Cornell University College of Agriculture and Life Sciences (CALS) is considered the very best college of its kind in the nation, if not the world. Our mission is to discover, integrate, disseminate, and apply knowledge about agriculture and Food Sciences, applied social sciences, environmental sciences and the life sciences as a basis for sustainable improvement in the lives of people throughout New York State, the nation, and the world. Fluid, overlapping, and interdependent, these priority areas were developed in response to the global challenges of the 21st century and represent the college’s land grant mission of public service and outreach at its broadest and most dynamic. Ezra Cornell favored an education that was both classical and prac-

tical: accordingly, the college’s academic programs address contemporary, real-world issues while building on a traditional liberal arts foundation. Faculty, staff, and students at CALS are at the cutting edge of research in areas such as environmental sustainability, advancing agriculture and food systems, health and nutrition, food security, biological sciences, education, economic development, communication, and information science. Flexibility and opportunity for substantial exploration and cross-collaboration within the college, and among Cornell’s other six undergraduate colleges, are hallmarks of CALS’ academic programs. Home to the world’s largest academic agricultural and life sciences library in the United States, CALS also maintains unique and out-

standing facilities, including a teaching winery, a biofuels research laboratory, Shoals Marine Laboratory, a student run organic farm, the Lab of Ornithology, a working orchard, and world-class collections of plants, insects and vertebrates. The college is also home to the Charles H. Dyson School of Applied Economics and Management, one of the top-ranked undergraduate business programs in the country, and a Food Science program that is ranked among the top in the nation. With more than 3,000 students, CALS is the second-largest undergraduate college at Cornell University and the third-largest college of its kind in the United States. Read what a few of our students are saying about CALS: “Opportunities are lurking around every corner waiting for you to

state has become more technology based and has shifted from food crops to a sustainable ornamental horticulture and landscaping industry. Students who pursue horticulture graduate with the technical ability, scientific expertise, creative insight, and problem solving skills necessary to start a career. The need for graduates with an associate degree education is more in demand than ever. The United States Department of Labor is stating that the greatest need employers have is for employees with associate degrees. Thus students entering the Thompson School are positioning themselves for success in the world of work. Additionally, over half of our graduates continue on to earn a baccalaureate degree either right here at UNH or at another college or university. To learn firsthand about UNH’s Thompson School, join us for our Fall Open House, Monday, Oct. 31. Come meet

the faculty, students and staff of Thompson School of Applied Science and experience what we are all about. For more information, visit us online at or contact Deb Pack, our Assistant Director of Admissions, at 603-862-3115 or deborah.pack@

Thompson from 3 able natural resources. Trees are an important part of the New Hampshire landscape and bring many tourists to the Granite State. The students in this program have the opportunity to help manage UNH’s extensive woodlands. In traditional lecture and outdoor lab settings, students will learn to use the tools of the trade including GIS and GPS technologies, forest ecology, dendrology, forest surveying and mapping, logging, forest fire control/use and how to produce forest products in the new UNH sawmill. Our Forest Technology graduates are proud to play a vital role in managing and sustaining our important forest resources. Our Horticultural Technology program gives students the opportunities afforded by a large 4-year campus and the advantages of a small school atmosphere. The program has developed and changed as horticulture in the

take advantage of them.” - Corey Reed, Adams Center, NY “Cornell is the best university that any FFA

member could attend!” Katie Grandle, Las Cruces, NM “Cornell has been a great way to continue my education after attending a two year school.” - Tedra McDougal, Adams, NY “I knew that the academic environment would

challenge me and help me succeed in the future.” - Kaylie Ackerley, Liberty, NY “My Cornell experience has been much more rewarding than I could have ever expected.” Rebecca Deveau, Cambridge, NY

FALL 2011

SMALL FARM QUARTERLY Good Living Living and and Good Good Farming Farming –– Connecting Connecting People, People, Land, Land, and and Communities Communities Good

Feature Articles Soap Bubbles to Insulate Greenhouses . . . . . . . . . .Page 5 Boat to Fork Community Supported Fisheries . . .Page 11 Juneberries - They Go Where Blueberries Can’t . .Page 13 Managing a Buyers Club for Freezer Lambs . . . . .Page 16 Supplement to Country Folks

Page 2

October 3, 2011


SMALL FARM QUARTERLY - FALL 2011 TABLE OF CONTENTS SMALL FARM PROGRAM UPDATE Cornell Small Farms Program Update ........................................................Page 3

COMMUNITY AND WORLD Boat-to-Fork Community Supported Fisheries Riding A Wave, by Martha Herbert Izzi.............................................................................Page 11

DAIRY Whole Farm Nutrient Analysis: The Casey Farm, by Lisa Fields...............Page 4

FARM ENERGY Sopa Bubbles to Insulate Greenhouses, by Bruce Parker & Margaret Skinner .......................................................Page 5

FOREST, FIELD AND WOODLOT Strategies to Control Undesirable and Interfering Vegetation in Your Forest, by Peter J. Smallidge ...............................................................................Page 8

HOME & FAMILY Switchel - A Time Tested Thirst Quenching Favorite, by Ron Mac Lean ..Page 3

HORTICULTURE Juneberries - They Go Where Blueberries Can’t, by Jim Ochterski.........Page 13 Black Currents Bring Opportunity, by Christen Trewer.............................Page 17

LOCAL FOODS & MARKETING Building the C in CSA, by Elizabeth Lamb...................................................Page 6 New York Cheese Wrapped Up, by Patricia Brhel ......................................Page 15

SMALL FARM QUARTERLY Good Farming and Good Living — Connecting People, Land, and Communities Small Farm Quarterly is for farmers and farm families — including spouses and children - who value the quality of life that smaller farms provide. OUR GOALS ARE TO: • Celebrate the Northeast region’s smaller farms; • Inspire and inform farm families and their supporters; • Help farmers share expertise and opinions with each other; • Increase awareness of the benefits that small farms contribute to society and the environment. • Share important research, extension, and other resources. Small Farm Quarterly is produced by Lee Publications, Inc., and is distributed four times a year as a special section of Country Folks. Volume 9 publication dates: January 10, April 4, July 4 and October 3, 2011. EDITORIAL TEAM: • Anu Rangarajan, Cornell Small Farms Program Editor in Chief • Violet Stone, Cornell Small Farms Program Managing Editor • Laura Biasillo, Broome County CCE New Farmers • Celeste Carmichael, NYS 4-H Youth Development Program Youth Pages; Home and Family • Gary Goff, Cornell Natural Resources Department Forest and Woodlot • Martha Herbert Izzi, Vermont Farmer New England Correspondent • Betsy Lamb, CCE Integrated Pest Management Program Horticulture • John Thurgood, USDA-Natural Resources Conservation Service-Vermont Stewardship and Nature • Nancy Glazier, Northwest NY Dairy, Livestock and Field Crops Team, Cornell Cooperative Extension Grazing • Jill Swenson Community and World • Michelle Striney Farm Technology

607-255-1780 607-255-9227 607-584-5007 607-255-4799 607-255-2824 802-492-3346 607-254-8800 802-865-7895 315-536-5123 607-539-3278 607-255-9911

NEW FARMERS Farmer Driven Company Evolves, by Kathleen Harris..............................Page 12 Young Farmers Take Their Message to Washington, by Lindsey Lusher-Shute .......................................................................Page 15 FarmStart: Continuing the Tradition of Agriculture in the Northeast by Kristie Schmitt ...................................................................................Page 20

FOR SUBSCRIPTION INFORMATION CONTACT Tracy Crouse, Lee Publications, Inc., PO Box 121, Palatine Bridge, NY 13428 888-596-5329 FOR ADVERTISING INFORMATION CONTACT: Laura Clary, Lee Publications, Inc., 518-673-0118 or 800-218-5586, ext. 118 or

NON-DAIRY LIVESTOCK Managing a Buying Club for Freezer Lambs, by Ulf Kintzel ....................Page 16

NORTHEAST SARE SPOTLIGHT For Disease-Resistant Apples, A Moment in the Sun, by Elisabeth Rosen ..................................................................................Page 9

SEND YOUR LETTERS AND STORIES TO: Cornell Small Farms Program 15A Plant Science Building, Cornell University , Ithaca, NY, 14853 607-255-9227 • About copyright: The material published in Small Farm Quarterly is not copyrighted unless otherwise noted. However, we ask that you please be sure to credit both the author and Small Farm Quarterly.

RESOURCE SPOTLIGHTS The Art of Silvopasturing: A Regional Conference, by Nancy Glazier ..Page 17


STEWARDSHIP & NATURE Farmscapes for Birds, by Margaret Fowle .................................................Page 19

Cornell Small Farms Program 607-255-9227

TECHNOLOGY ON THE FARM The New Town Crier, by Michelle Podolec ....................................................Page 7

WOMEN FARMERS Beginning Women Farmer Program Provides Tools for Personal and Professinal Growth, by Crystal Stewart ...............................................Page 14

NYS 4-H Teen Program 607-255-0886 802-865-7895

ABOUT OUR ADS... YOUTH PAGE A “Fruitful” Adventure by Meredith Bell ........................................................Page 10 Not the Computer Job!, by Natalia Panzironi.............................................Page 10

All advertisements in Small Farm Quarterly are managed by Lee Publications. Cornell’s Small Farms Program, Cornell Cooperative Extension, and other Small Farm Quarterly sponsors and contributors do not endorse advertisers, their products or services. We receive no revenues from advertisers.

Cover photo: Cod freshly caught and on its way to Cape Ann’s Community Supported Fisheries customers. Photo by Steve Tousignant.

To find out how your business or organization can advertise in Small Farm Quarterly, contact: Laura Clary, Lee Publications, 518-673-0118 or 800-218-5586, ext. 118,

October 3, 2011 Message from the Managing Editor It’s been a difficult fall, with a series of tropical storms causing disastrous flooding to many areas in our readership. We at the Cornell Small Farm Program send our deepest sympathy to the hundreds of farmers and homesteaders that lost crops, livestock, buildings, roads and precious topsoil. As I look back upon the 2011 issues of Small Farm Quarterly, a reoccuring theme this year has been the many ways in which farming builds community. I hope in the aftermath of the severe weather, your farming neighbors, friends and customers come togther as a community to begin restoring what was lost. I also hope Small Farm Quarterly serves as a reminder that you are part of a vibrant community of creative, hardworking, spirited individuals. As always, we love to hear from you. Drop us a line anytime! Best wishes, Violet

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Violet Stone

Cornell Small Farms Program Update Help for Flooded Farms There are many organizations and resources to offer you support. These resources are mainly focused on New York Farms. Contact your local Cooperative Extension, Farm Service Agency or Soil and Water Conservation office in your region for assistance. • Farm Service Agency Assistance: • Cornell Cooperative Extension Resources: • Agricultural and Community Recovery Fund: To see if your farm is eligible and to learn more, visit • New York Extension Disaster Education Network: x Fall Online Courses for Beginning Farmers Open for Registration! This Fall, we'll be offering 7 online courses - including 4 new topics - to help you continue your farming education. As always, our courses are taught by experienced Cooperative Extension educators, farmers, and other specialists. Courses are typically 6 weeks long, cost $175, and include both real-time meetings (online webi-

nars) and on-your-own time reading and activities. We do not offer any academic credit, but those who successfully complete a course will receive a certificate and are also eligible for Farm Service Agency (FSA) borrower training credit, which can improve eligibility to receive a low-interest FSA loan. Courses fill up fast so check our calendar for details, times, dates and availability. More info at Let the Sun Shine In: Farms Show Off Renewable Energy This past September, over 100 attendees gathered at farms around New York to get plugged in to the possibilities of renewable energy at four small farms around New York. Tim and Jean McCumber at Dorpers Sheep Farm taught a do-it-yourself solar electric and solar thermal workshop. Jay and Polly Armour at Four Winds Farm described their professionally installed PV electric system and share other techniques to reduce fossil fuel use. Jan and Ron Bever, shared info on how to live off the grid on a maple sugar farm. And Dani Baker and David Belding at Cross Island Farms led a tour of their brand new 10KW wind turbine and a 7KW solar array. To see videos from the field days or to locate other energy resources, visit pages/resources/production/energy.cfm


Switchel - A Time Tested Thirst Quenching Favorite By Ron Mac Lean My Dad used to tell about working on his aunt and uncle's farm in the summer. Doing some rapid math, that may have been in the early 1930's. He didn't tell many farm stories but a brief one that stands out involved working during haying season. He emphasized the extremely hard work -- the heat, the sweat, the breathing, the hay mow -- all to impress upon me his good work ethics. Dad's farm story always ended with Aunt Minnie preparing and bringing out to the field or barn a very refreshing drink called switchel.

Recipe for Switchel (or Haymaker Punch) 1 Cup 1 Cup 1 Tbs 1 Quart

Cider Vinegar Molasses Fresh Ginger (grated) Water

Stir all ingredients together and serve on ice. Serves 4 to 6 people. If you have time, prepare 4 to 8 hours in advance, as it helps to mellow the ginger.

When asked what switchel was, my father said he really didn't know exactly but thought it had vinegar, water and honey in it. For years I thought it was an Aunt Minnie and Uncle Charley thing. However, over the last seventysome years I have heard other references to switchel and I discovered some people called it haymakers punch. Others have referred to it as switzel, swizzle, ginger-water, and switchy. One summer as a teenager, I helped a farmer family friend with his haying when he was short of manpower. My father was absolutely right, it was hard work. In the early 1950's, hay was baled and left on the field to be lifted and stacked onto the hay wagon for the trip back to the barn. After the baler dropped the bale, one of us would carry it with a hay hook and lift that heavy concentration of hay to the wagon, where one or two others would lift and stack them. The longer the day grew, the heavier the bales got. "Hay dust" was created every step of the way which made breathing difficult. A hay bale elevator moved the bales from the wagon to the hay mow door. The worst job of all was to be in the hay mow stacking bales where the heat and hay dust intensified. The chaff would stick to a sweating body and the air circulation was

How can I get Small Farm Quarterly? Country Folks subscribers automatically receive SFQ four times a year at no extra cost. Country Folks is delivered weekly for $45 per year. SFQ-only subscribers receive just the 4 issues of Country Folks that contain the SFQ insert for only $5 a year. Cooperative Extension Associations and other organizations can offer their members a subscription to SFQ as a member benefit! Your organization collects the names, forwards them to Country Folks Subscriptions, and pays Country Folks just $2.50 for each subscriber. Country Folks mails out the copies. Bulk orders: You can order multiple copies of any issue for just 10¢ a copy! Minimum order is 50. Orders must be placed at least 4 weeks before the publication date - Winter 2012 copies need to be ordered by December 9th. To find out more, contact: Tracy Crouse Country Folks Subscriptions P.O. Box 121, Palatine Bridge, NY 13428 1-888-596-5329 email:

An elderly farm couple hoists hay into the wagon in Schenectady County, New York, 1943. Photo courtesy Library of Congress Archive almost non-existent. All we got to quench our thirst was cold spring water. No switchel for us. Switchel originated in the Caribbean and became a popular summer drink in the American Colonies in the late 17th century. By the 19th century, it was a traditional drink to serve to thirsty farmers at hay harvest time. Hence, the nickname haymakers punch. Switchel not only quenched the thirst of those farmers in the hay fields but it also replenished their electrolytes needed to keep them going in those hot, humid summer days. Like many other recipes, all the "Aunt Minnie's" out there had their own version and called it whatever they wanted. Most recipes call for Cider Vinegar, Molasses, Ginger and very cold Water. However, many resources mention that honey, sugar, brown sugar or maple syrup could be substituted in place of molasses. Dad wasn't too far off in his description of Aunt Minnie's recipe. In Vermont, oatmeal and lemon juice were sometimes added. Once the drink was consumed, the switchel-soaked oatmeal became a snack to be eaten. A Vermont physician D.C. Jarvis, recommended a mixture of honey and cider vinegar which he called "honegar". Even our literature contains references to this beverage for the thirsty. Herman Melville wrote in I and My Chimney, "I will give a traveler a cup of switchel, if he want it; but am I bound to supply him with a sweet taste?" Another author,

Laura Ingalls Wilder in The Long Winter, describes a switchel-like beverage that her mother had sent for Laura and her father to drink while haying: "Ma had sent them gingerwater. She had sweetened the cool well-water with sugar, flavored it with vinegar, and put in plenty of ginger to warm their stomachs so they could drink till they were not thirsty." It was another time but the same old beverage.

I have a neighbor who is about the same age as my father would be, if he were alive, and who was raised on a farm in our area. While having coffee one morning, I asked him if he ever heard of switchel on his farm. "I sure did" he said. "Did you drink it?" "Yes I did and it tasted good," he added. "Do you know what ingredients were in it," I asked? "I have no idea," he confessed.

I'm guessing that times were tough even in the years leading up to the Depression. Folks cut corners any way they could and maybe it popularized switchel as a refreshing social drink as well as a necessity in the hay field.

In hopes that Switchel, the time tested, thirst quenching, refreshing beverage from the Caribbean may be enjoyed today, the following basic recipe is provided for all of you to try. You might even like it.

Ron Mac Lean grew up in a small village surrounded by farms in Central New York. He is now retired and lives in the Fingerlakes Region of the state.

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Whole Farm Nutrient Analysis: The Casey Farm By Lisa Fields Bill and Joanne Casey of Apulia Station, NY own a 60 cow organic, grass based dairy farm. Management intensive grazing is essential to feeding the herd. Pastures, which are both grazed and mechanically harvested as baleage, only receive manure deposited by the cows. The Caseys also compost manure and spread it in the fall on hay ground. In 2009, the Caseys joined the three year Whole Farm Nutrient Analysis project (WFA), a Cornell Nutrient Management Spear Program (NMSP) initiative. A WFA goal for the 11 participating farms was to identify opportunities for improved nutrient inputs or allocations to benefit the environment and farm profitability. Casey explained why he participated. "I thought it would be a good learning opportunity to gain a better handle on my management's impact on the soil resources. I spread compost in the fall to avoid manure residue in baleage, but haven't applied any other nutrients for 15 years. I hoped to learn about the effect over time." Patty Ristow, NMSP Extension Associate, outlined the WFA process. "Each farmer assembled a team of people. Initially, farmer concerns were identified and goals were set. After data analysis got underway, we held meetings to discuss the results and their application to the farmer's concerns. We then developed an action plan to address those issues." Casey identified a herd health concern. "I had a few fresh cows three years ago that didn't respond to normal milk fever treatments. Pumping the cows with phosphorus got them up and going but I wasn't fully aware of the cause. I questioned the risk of repeated problems and hoped the farm data would reveal answers to the team. Compounding the problem is that we're unable to separate dry cows from the milking herd so a dry cow ration isn't an option". The Casey's team included Ristow, John Conway, Cornell PRO-Dairy Extension Associate and Janice Degni, Cornell South Central NY Dairy Team Field Crop Specialist. Ristow explained, "The first team step was gathering relevant data to analyze the farm's nutrient use efficiency. The next step was running the data through diagnostic tools generally used in stand-alone fashion. The tools applied on the Casey farm were five years of Nutrient Mass Balance (NMB) data, past and current soil tests, and manure and forage analyses. The integrated results provided a comprehensive view (of the nutrient status) of the farm." The NMB approach calculates the annual net nutrients (N, P and K) that remain on a farm by subtracting nutrients exported from those imported, providing a picture of nutrient trends across the entire operation. Soil test reports in

October 3, 2011


conjunction with manure and forage analyses provide a more field specific view of these trends. Degni compiled the Casey's NMB and noted, "This went smoothly as the Caseys' had excellent records. The NMB showed that compared to other NYS farms, potassium remaining on the farm was relatively high, phosphorus was moderately low and nitrogen was wellbalanced." Degni explained how the data fit together. "The NMB trend of high K balances along with moderate to high K forage analyses, high K manure nutrient ratios and somewhat high K soils were very useful in identifying potential dry cow issues." Conway remarked, "Having everyone at the table facilitated data interpretation. Bill faces the same challenge as non-

opportunity to adjust P and K levels on individual fields by changing manure distribution." Casey added evidence to the nutrient imbalance discussion, "Back when the cow health problems occurred, I had to purchase some forage that was organic-by-neglect. I believe low nutrient levels, especially P rather than high K, caused the problems. The severe milk fevers were resolved by returning to homegrown forages. In addition, I decreased milk fever occurrence by reducing the cows' dry period to 45 days. The P and K data changed Casey's manure application management as well. He commented, "Before this program, I hadn't sat down and analyzed my farm's soil test data. I was spreading to obtain maximum yields with manure N. When I learned how high the potassium levels were in some fields, I changed where the manure compost gets spread. As an organic farm, I've maximized on-farm resources to avoid purchased inputs. By continuing to track soil tests I can determine if the changes I'm making in manure allocations

Group discussions facilitated data interpretation at Casey Dairy. Photo by Quirine Ketterings organic dairies in trying to provide some low K forage. The data are a point of awareness. If dry cow issues persist, Bill knows to consider their K intake from the forages." Casey noted, "The team discussions about potassium levels have proven useful, as I'm finding the cows rejecting high quality, very high K forages. I'm more keenly aware of how forage quality affects animal performance and the cows' view of the feed".

address phosphorus needs or whether I might have to purchase phosphorus. Where the WFA program really provided insight was getting specific about nutrient allocation. Now I have the knowledge to plan manure applications and improve the forage allocation to the cows." The Casey's team summarized their WFA experience. Degni stated, "It was very worth-

while as we're all learning. I view it as part of a process in developing effective tools to help farms be more efficient and profitable." Conway agreed," It was really interesting to see how the diagnostic tools can fit together to provide useful information." Casey noted the project's impacts. "Farming in an environmentally sound manner is very important to me. Participation in the WFA project helped with my nutrient efficiency goals. It also had a positive impact on profitability by helping me increase forage quality, palatability and yields."

Lisa Fields is an independent consultant in Agronomy and Farm Management and resides in Worcester, NY. She may be reached at

Starting a Farm? Visit our Northeast Beginning Farmers Project online resource center! Enter the ‘New Farmer Hub’ to start drafting your business plan with the help of tutorials and interactive worksheets. Find answers to common questions, browse the Guide to Farming, and check out the latest beginning farmer online courses. You can browse our events calendar, subscribe to our monthly e-news, follow our blog, or visit us on Facebook and Twitter, all from the homepage of the new site: at

The diagnostic tools led the discussions from problem identification to solutions. Ristow explained, "The soil results were displayed graphically and, together with farm maps, clearly showed where nutrients were ultimately ending up. The soil tests also indicated mostly optimum-range phosphorus, with many fields at the low end of optimum. Along with the NMB trend, this illustrated that phosphorus could drop too low in certain fields. This identified the

Call today for your installation: Fall time may be a good time to turn your cows out for a day of renovating.

Call today to pick your installation date 717-442-8850

October 3, 2011

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Soap Bubbles to Insulate Greenhouses: A New Approach to Energy Conservation By Bruce Parker and Margaret Skinner Unfavorable weather is an unpredictable challenge for farmers often leading to financial instability. Growers are turning to greenhouse production to reduce their losses from poor weather and to increase the length of the growing season. Though plastic hoop houses are inexpensive to erect, they demand large amounts of energy to keep them warm, especially in northern climates. Scientists from the University of Vermont have teamed up with several engineers and Chris Conant, from Claussen's Greenhouses and Florist in Colchester, VT, to test two energy-saving devices in his traditional plastic covered greenhouses. One greenhouse has been retrofitted with an energy/thermal curtain, which is available off-the-shelf (Fig. 1). This technology is in common use, particularly in large gutter-connected greenhouses. The curtain is closed in the afternoon to hold the heat close to the plants, and reduce the space that needs to be heated.

Figure 2. Bubble system in operation, filling void with soap bubbles. Arrows indicate stream of bubbles generated at the peak of the greenhouse. The R-value is a term used to rate the insulation potential of a material. The larger the R-value, the more insulation it provides. In 2001, a grower constructed one of the first hoop greenhouses with bubble insulation in Ontario where winter temperatures commonly reach 20 below zero (°F). He reduced propane heating costs from $1,137 to $146 per year and extended greenhouse production from 6 to 10 mo. We are testing this system and will compare heating costs for the thermal curtain greenhouse with the bubble greenhouse and a standard greenhouse with no improvements. The bubble insulation system is not new. Over 20 years ago researchers from the Univ. of New Hampshire tested it, but ran into many problems. The foam solution leaked out or froze up slicing holes in the plastic. The freezing problem has been solved with the development of a new foam solution and leakage can be minimized by carefully making sure the plastic coverings are secure at all contact points. More recently Sunarc, a Canadian company, developed a bubble system for gutter-connected greenhouses, but it is not fully operational nor commercially available. We were fortunate to be able to obtain a prototype of their system to retrofit for smaller hoop style greenhouses that are more common in the Northeast.

Figure 1. Thermal curtain in the gable-roof greenhouse before it was filled with plants (insert shows the open curtain). In an adjacent greenhouse we installed a novel experimental system that injects soap bubbles into the air space between the two layers of plastic that cover the greenhouse (Fig. 2).



Grapevines Blueberries Jostaberries Gooseberries

Red Raspberries Purple Raspberries Yellow Raspberries Black Raspberries

Black Currants Red Currants White Currants Asparagus ALL STOCK GRADED TO AAN STANDARDS

The energy curtain was installed in October 2010, in time for testing during production of the fall poinsettia crop and Chris Conant was extremely pleased with the system. Over the entire cropping season (Oct. - Dec.), he used half as much natural gas in the greenhouse with the curtain than in the standard unimproved house. Installation of the bubble system has taken time because a standard system suitable for a hoop house does not currently exist, and the equipment we obtained from Sunarc required major retrofitting (Fig. 4). Limited testing of the bubble system was done in mid-February (2011). Over the period of operation, gas use was 25% less in the house with the bubble system and 7% less in the house with the curtain than in the unimproved control house. Gas use was 20% less in the house with the bubble system than in the house with the curtain. In general, 37 ccf/day more natural gas was used in the control house than in the house with the bubble system. Savings would be even greater for greenhouses that heat with propane or oil, which are the more common fuels used by greenhouse growers in New England. These preliminary results clearly demonstrate the promise of the bubble system for conserving energy and saving growers money. Monitoring equipment has been installed to quantify the energy savings over time relative to ambient temperature. This will provide growers with tangible information on the energy conservation benefits and costs of construction and operation. While the chill of the approaching winter is in the air, the future potential of bubbles should give greenhouse growers hope for a future of lower energy costs in the future.

Drs. Bruce L. Parker and Margaret Skinner are professors at the University of Vermont Entomology Research Laboratory in Burlington, VT. For more information they can be contacted by telephone at 802-656-5440 or by email at or Additional information about their research is available on their website at

Greenhouses are commonly covered with two layers of plastic that are inflated with air, which provides a small level of insulation. The bubble insulation system is reported to increase the Rvalue for the standard inflated greenhouse from 1-2 to over 30.

9555 North Gast Road, P.O. Box 116 - Bridgman, Michigan 49106 Phone: 269-465-5522 Fax: 269-465-4822

Figure 4. Installation of bubble system by consulting engineer and UVM personnel. Photos by Margaret Skinner

Figure 3. Piping system developed by Sunarc to inject soap bubbles between the two layers of plastic. SunArc, a company located in Canada, expanded and improved upon the concept (, and until recently marketed the technology in the US and Canada. Economic constraints linked with the recent financial crisis led to downsizing Sunarc, though rights to the system have been shared with a company in Israel, where it is being developed as a means of shading. While this technology is not currently available commercially, given the steadily increasing cost of fuel, we believe the work we are doing to test the system in hoop houses will revive interest and lead to its expanded commercial use by growers.

Combine Salvage

K & J Surplus 60 Dublin Rd. Lansing, NY 14882 (607) 533-4850 • (607) 279-6232

Acknowledgments: This project is supported with funding from the NE Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education Program (SARE), University of Vermont College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, and the USDA Natural Resources and Conservation Service Conservation Innovation Program.

Join the Cornell Small Farms Program on Facebook! You can now receive small farm news, events and much more on Facebook! This venue will help us to continue providing great resources to the Northeast community without cluttering your email inbox! Visit Cornell Small Farms Program on Facebook and click the “Like” button to see our resources pop up in your newsfeed.

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October 3, 2011





Building the C in CSA: Websites, Newsletters and Blogs for Community Supported Agriculture Members By Elizabeth Lamb

graphs or video ( They may be interactive, with the potential for readers to leave comments. A blog does require more time, as the expectation is that new blog posts will be available fairly frequently. The blog from Little Flower Farm in Michigan is a good example. It combines wonderful story telling on the daily activities of family farming with pragmatic information on CSA shares and pickup information (

The first things that come to mind when starting a Community Supported Agriculture (CSA) farming operation probably relate more to the what, where, when, and who of growing crops than to planning your website and writing newsletters. But the C in CSA does stand for community and getting and keeping members is essential to your success. Newsletters A newsletter that is sent to existing members is probably the easiest place to start. Create a listserve and e-mail members a weekly list of what is available. You can even print out a few copies for pickup with the produce for those members that prefer hardcopy. Add recipes for the ingredients in the share, particularly if they are somewhat unusual. You could even title it "What do I do with this?" and avoid your own set of emails with that question from members.

Blogs may be incorporated into websites, or be tied to social networking sites like Facebook or Twitter. In fact all your methods of communication can be linked together. Pete's Greens Good Eats CSA has information and discussion items on the farm Facebook page ( group.php?gid=48147346697&v=info) which links to the website where you can find their blog! Mano Farm has a Twitter feed for announcements, new photos and other items of interest to members (!/manofarm). Check Michelle Podolec's article on social media in this edition of Small Farm Quarterly for more information.

The blog from Little Flower Farm in Michigan combines wonderful story telling on the daily Risk is part of being in a CSA and a newsletter activities of family farming with pragmatic information on CSA shares and pickup details. gives you the opportunity to explain that risk to your members. One of Full Plate Farm Collectives' recent newsletters said "Nature throws something So, start simple and see what works best for you and for your You can find lists of questions to ask before joining a CSA at different our way every season, and one of the most important members. As you gather information and images and experiwebsites like of a good farmer is a constantly learning, self-educating ence, you will continue to build the community in your tions-to-ask-before-joining-a-csa/, and experimenting mind. We're in safe hands with these Community Supported Agriculture enterprise! and guys!" (Katie Church, Answering Elizabeth Lamb is a Senior Extension Associate with the NYS Then it becomes easier to break it to the members that no, some of those questions in a clearly marked spot on your Integrated Pest Management Program at Cornell University in there aren't any tomatoes, yet. website will help make a perfect match of CSA and member. Ithaca, NY. She may be contacted at 607 254-8800 or Other suggestions can come from lists of advantages and If you have a little more time, you can include announcements advantages of CSA's to members or even "tips for Potential of special events or volunteer activities on the farm. You can Members" ( also include community events that might appeal to your members, such as Field-to-Fork type events or crop mobs. And As long as your website is up to date on information that might don't forget to include some out-of-season emails to remind Resource Spotlight change (are you still accepting members?), it doesn't have to members that farming is a year 'round occupation and to get Communicating with Your CSA change constantly. However, a new picture or two or a recipe them salivating for harvest - and signing up for next year! featuring a current share item help keep it interesting. There are several broad-based resources on starting a Of course, finding the time to write something weekly in the Community Supported Agriculture enterprise that have Be creative and have fun! The WE Cooperative and Catalan thick of the season can be daunting. Perhaps you have a basics on reaching your customer base. Family Farm website has a haiku contest for their members member who would be happy to write up and send out your ( - and might even have the time to get creative! But Rodale Institute - Starting a CSA (some links are dated ture/)! a newsletter is meant to be a brief reminder to your members and you may have to search a bit) so save some of that creativity for the next level . . . . Blogs urce_list.shtml A blog, or weblog, is a series of regular entries, or posts, with Websites commentary or descriptions of events and graphics, photoA website is a resource for your members, but also a way of Robyn Van En Center - a national resource center for attracting new members. CSAs are lucky in Tompkins County to have a CSA fair where van-en-center/robyns-resources/index.aspx potential members can meet growers and gather information


before deciding which CSA is the best match. If you don't have that option, your website might be your primary tool for attracting new members. Most of us have used search engines to find what's available in an area, from ice cream stores to Farmers' Markets. Try googling CSA and your area to see what you find. Websites don't have to be fancy to be effective and it is getting easier and easier to create your own website (see the Resource Spotlight for some suggestions). You can also create a page on a national website. From the Ithaca area, High Point Farms, LLC, has a page on and Kestrel Perch Berry CSA has a page on

2033 Brothertown Rd., Deansboro, NY 13328 Phone: (315) 841-4910 Fax: (315) 841-4649 Summer Hrs.: Mon.-Fri. 8am-4pm; Sat. 8am-Noon

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Creating Websites and Blogs Local Harvest: - post your business, location, and product in this great national website. Has free and low cost options for individual websites for farmers, very good reputation and well known! The Eat Well Guide: is a consumer oriented website where you can create a page with photos and link to your website, too. Farmer Faces (Small Farms Central): - a low cost webpage great for CSA's or markets that work as co-ops. Features a central page for your business with individual farmer 'pages' to highlight individual sellers. Word Press: - free blogs for individuals or businesses, with low-cost options for upgrades and more design capacity. Easy to learn with many helpful online tutorials. Constant Contact: - to manage their emails to customers, social media, and newsletters. They have great templates and helpful videos that will have you creating beautiful, custom emails with links and pictures in no time. Low cost, fee based service (Their website might overwhelm you but play around in it - perhaps start with the Email templates under Email Marketing)

October 3, 2011




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The New Town Crier: Demystifying Twitter and Other Social Media By Michelle Podolec You've heard all the hype: supposedly everyone is using social media these days. But as a small farmer, how can social media help you and your business? Creating an online presence using the free or low-cost online software applications provided by social media sites can help drive new customers to your business. This can be a wonderful low-cost way to advertise your business and expand your market. Online social media tools liked Twitter and Facebook allow users to keep in contact with lists of friends and connections, and send these contacts short updates. Social media sites are accessed through the internet. If you happen to have a smart phone or other internet connected mobile phone, these social media sites have downloadable 'apps' that place a shortcut to your profile on your device and make accessing your profile quick and easy. These applications can be used to enhance conversations between you and your customers, and can drive more views to your websites and blogs by allowing instant updates to online content. Farmer and entrepreneur Gordon Sacks of 9 Miles East Farm in Northumberland, NY, has found success with an integrated social media outreach strategy that involves a website, Facebook, Twitter, Constant Contact email newsletters, and even a LinkedIn resume.

Every week during the growing season, Gordon and his crew harvest what's in peak season and cook hearty, full-flavored meals that put the focus on high-quality ingredients. His clientele subscribe to weekly meals just like a vegetable share in a CSA. Gordon says, "We communicate with our customers and community to help them understand what we can do to make their lives easier. E-mail and social Web sites like Facebook are great tools for telling our story, but even better than that, they allow customers to share their appreciation for our farm with their friends." As a farmer and business owner, think of social media as an opportunity to have brief, casual online interactions with your clients as you go about your daily tasks. Many customers enjoy learning more about your daily activities on the farm, crop conditions, sneak peeks into CSA shares for the week, and where they can find you selling your product. These conversations keep customers connected to your business and remind them to look for YOU at the market. Social media not only keeps your customers goes beyond that and creates community. Gordon says, "We use e-mail and Facebook to invite people inside [our farm] and build a community that cares about local food. We think that there is a social value to the farm that extends beyond the meals we deliver and the vegetables we grow. Anything that fosters community helps to build that bond and include

Tips to make your social media a success: * Start slow. Commit to one or two postings of new content each week, and see what kind of a response you get from your customers. Not every social media application will suit you and your business; don't be afraid to bail out if after a decent trial period, you are unsatisfied with customer response. * Begin small. Social media relies on personal connections between individuals to be a success. Limit your early connections to good friends and customers who you know have an interest in your farm and activities, and grow a larger audience as you become more comfortable. * Separate business and personal life online. Sites like Facebook offer different features in personal and business pages. Use a dedicated business profile for your social media and keep your topics on farm work, products, staff, and news about your farm and neighbors. General farm family news and updates can be fun to share occasionally, but keeping work and play separate helps you maintain a professional business image and ensures personal privacy. * Pick a topic. Create a list of topics, activities or concerns that come up during your farm year, and use these to help guide your social media outreach. Think seasonally - summertime is great for conversations on crops, insect pests, hot weather, and grazing, while wintertime is more appropriate for conversations on seed selection, books you are reading, conference reviews, and cold weather animal care. * Keep it short, interesting, and fun. Gordon Sacks gave us the following great advice... "People don't have time to read an opus on the woes of your wet spring and how it delayed planting, or the problems you're having with flea beetles. I'm not suggesting you romanticize what is clearly a very challenging business, but focus on what will be of interest to your audience." * Have conversations. Ask questions of your friends and followers, and leave comments on other people's posts. This is a great opportunity to get feedback and talk about new ideas with your customers and friends. Share links to resources and articles that interest you and relate to your farm business. * Use pictures. People are more likely to click, comment, and linger on your profile if you share photographs of you and your farm. Be cautious when using hosted sites, and make sure you read the Terms of Use completely for each hosting site, notes Ontario County extension specialist Jim Ochterski. "Anything shared that goes undeleted is open for Facebook's use. Be judicious: Facebook content gets passed along in directions you would not expect, and Facebook has the right to use anything you post, even if it is not consistent with your intent. Make sure that everything you share is truly meant to be public and openly sharable everywhere." * Promote your social media presence. Now that you are comfortable with your social media activities, share your profile information on brochures, your website, and at your business. * Be consistent with updates. Friends and clients can't have a conversation with you if you don't post updates to your social media. Assign yourself a regular and frequent dates or times to devote to creating your posts, and your friends and clients will learn when to watch for new information coming from you. People quickly lose interest in your site if content is old - keep it fresh!

Small Farm Quarterly is Recruiting! We are looking for several new members to join the Small Farm Quarterly Editorial Team, and we are always looking for new writers and photographers. We are especially looking for editors and writers from outside of New York State, so that we can improve our coverage of New England and Pennsylvania small farm issues and innovators. All SFQ editors and writers are volunteers. If you're interested, please contact Violet Stone at 607-2559227 or

Farmer and entrepreneur Gordon Sacks of 9 Miles East Farm in Northumberland, NY, has found success with an integrated social media outreach strategy that involves a website, Facebook, Twitter, Constant Contact email newsletters people in this fundamental aspect of life: growing and preparing food. It sounds basic, but it still means something to know and trust your farmer." Most online social media applications are free, and the most popular (and a great place to start) are Facebook and Twitter. Think of Facebook as a public square where groups of people chat and share information, and Twitter as the town crier shouting out headlines and hot topics. Other interesting options for small farmers include YouTube (post videos of your farm activities), and Foursquare (share your location as you travel about to markets and stores).

applications, you may find you want more information about your followers and help managing your new activities online. Management sites like Hoot Suite help you schedule and organize your posts to social networks, and can assist you by automatically sending scheduled updates while you are away on vacation or facing a busy harvest season. Online analytical tools like Google Analytics can help you assess what topics excite your customers and what times of day your profile receives the most visits. You'll know you've really made it in the social media network when your Klout networking score rises, and shows your online reputation to be growing grows in leaps and bounds.

How can you use social media to make your business a success? Take advice from other experienced farmers. Gordon Sacks shares the following from his experiences with social media: "Make it interesting and fun for people. Share your expertise in a small specific way, with concrete detail... Social media is an intimidating term, but it's really pretty easy to use simple tools to reach out and share your enthusiasm for farming. Make the time every week and get your message out there. It doesn't have to be perfect."

Michelle Podolec is the co-coordinator of the Northeast Beginning Farmer Project. She may be reached at (607) 255-9911 or

Once you have explored the basics of social media and have developed a familiarity with the

To learn more about 9 Miles East Farm, visit

The internet offers small farmers many ways to access their customers in free or low-cost ways. Give social media a try and see if it fits into your plans for advertising and marketing your business!

Social Media References Facebook A must-visit site for young folks, and rapidly growing in popularity with baby-boomers, this is the best place to start if you're considering online social media. Easy to learn with pages available for personal or business use. Share status updates, pictures, web links, GPS locations, and more. Free basic services for business use. Twitter Participate in fun, fast paced conversations with your 'followers' using this short message service. Best for those who like to share news clippings, snapshots, and stay on top of the hottest topics. A great site for networking with other farms and agricultural organizations. Free YouTube The best site for amateur videographers! Post videos of your farm and market activities, link your profile with other friends and businesses. Access thousands of people looking for fun, interesting, thought-provoking videos. Free Foursquare This mobile web application links your GPS enabled phone or device with Facebook and Twitter and enables you to share your real time travels via postings with linked map locations. Great for those who sell at multiple markets, make CSA deliveries, and sell their products at local restaurants. Free Hoot Suite Management of your social media campaigns is easier when you can schedule updates ahead of time. See all your social networking profiles in one place, and create updates in advance for weeks when you know you will be too busy to update regularly. Free basic services. Klout Klout uses an algorithm to measure your overall online influence. This interesting site categorizes how you communicate with your contacts and helps you develop a better understanding of the true reach of your reputation. Free basic services. Google Analytics This analytics tool help you gain insights into your website traffic and marketing effectiveness. Free basic services.

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October 3, 2011


Strategies to Control Undesirable and Interfering Vegetation in Your Forest By Peter J. Smallidge On most wooded properties, the owner will recognize the presence of at least a few undesired plants species. In some cases, these plants become sufficiently abundant and interfere with the owner's objectives. Interference might include the development of a beech or fern understory that impedes oak or pine regeneration; hardwoods that interfere with the establishment and growth of conifer forests; or invasive shrubs that reduce the diversity of native plant species. In situations of overabundance, the owner may need to control the interfering plant to more fully achieve his or her objectives. Landowners should resist the temptation to grab a saw, brush loppers, a bottle of herbicide, etc. and head out to do battle against the undesirables. We all have limited time, experience, ability, equipment, and money to commit to "weed" control, so it is wise to plan ahead to make the most of our efforts! Each situation of interfering plant control is somewhat unique, so a set of guiding principles will help owners consider the range of management strategies. Strategic Goals Landowners should consider the following factors when planning for control of interfering plants: * Efficient use of labor, energy and equipment * Cost effective to minimize the consumption of tools, supplies and especially time * Targeted control of the interfering plants with minimal damage to desired plants Integrated vegetation management, or IVM, is the approach that incorporates these management goals in a framework that allows optimal control of interfering plants. IVM originated with plant management on power utility corridors, but its principles apply to private lands. The foundation for effective IVM is a situation profile that includes knowledge of: plant biology, the extent of the plant problem, the desired level of control, and an estimate of the costs (equipment, supplies, and time). The owner and manager should consider these four elements of the profile before commencing any treatment of the vegetation. Not considering these elements may result in unnecessary cost, undesired damage to desired plants, excessive use of herbicides or wasted labor and supplies, and ultimate failure to control the target plant(s). IVM Situation Profile and Vegetation Treatments * Plant Biology - Identify the plant, understand its life cycle, reproductive strategy, and any mechanism that the plant uses to store propagules or energy reserves. Give special attention to what allows the interfering plant to be successful. * Extent of the Problem - The geographic extent of the problem plant on the property being treated and within the landscape will influence the likelihood of reintroduction, the operational efficiency of potential treatments, the likelihood of treatments affecting viable non-target species, and the amount of disturbance and open space following the treatment. * Desired Level of Control - Complete annihilation of a species is a difficult task. In many cases, ownership objectives can be satisfied with less than 100% control of the target plant. However, any residual plants may allow for spread into the treated areas. Some objectives may be satisfied with spatial control (e.g., within rows for a plantation) or control for a period of time to allow other species to become established. * Costs - Costs include the actual financial cost of the materials and labor, the ecological costs associated with the treatment, the ecological costs of not controlling the undesirable plant, the cost for re-treatment if the initial effort fails, and the risk to the staff applying the treatment. Failure to plan to successful revegetation with desired species is an added future cost.

growth hormones or form enzymes used in photosynthesis. Biological methods include a variety of host-specific insects, fungi, viruses and bacteria that limit the success of the target plant to grow and reproduce. All the advantages (Table 2) and the disadvantages (Table 3) may not apply to each situation, but should be considered. The integration of ownership goals and IVM situation profile determine the combinations of methods and modes to consider. Use the treatment that is least intrusive and has the lowest environmental impact, but that gives an adequate level of effectiveness and efficiency. Managers should independently scrutinize each situation, assess the likelihood of potential advantages and disadvantages, and discuss treatment options with the owner (if not your land) to achieve management goals with minimal costs.

Potential advantages of method-mode approaches to vegetation management

Potential disadvantages of method-mode approaches to vegetation management Hypothetical Example Here is a hypothetical example of IVM in practice. 1. Profile - multiflora rose (Rosa multiflora) has invaded a 60year-old hardwood forest. Positive identification confirms it is not a desired species. The plants have an average height of over 5 feet. The shrub's abundance has reduced wildflower diversity and will restrict the future regeneration of desired hardwoods. The shrub has reduced access by the owner into this section of the woods. A moderate to large deer herd is likely helping to favor the multiflora rose (not heavily browsed) over desired species. The shrub dominates 15 acres of the property and has spotty but limited presence in other areas. The manager recommends at least 90% control, sustained for 10 to 12 years, to ensure successful hardwood natural regeneration. The desire to control the shrub is fairly high and the owner wants to avoid a prolonged treatment period. 2. Response Selected - The owner and manager want to minimize the use of herbicides, but recognize that some herbicide will be needed to kill the root system in an effort to minimize soil disturbance. They opt for a combination of selective mechanical and selective chemical treatments. The prescription involves cutting the shrub and applying an appropriate herbicide to the freshly cut surface of the stump (NOTE check with your local office of Cooperative Extension for assistance in the selection and application of herbicides). The owner has the equipment and labor necessary to apply this type of treatment at a reasonable cost. The cut stems will be left clustered but not piled in an effort to impede the access of deer to the area and minimize their impact. Further, the owner works with hunters on his property and neighbors to increase the harvest of female deer. Initial IVM efforts will concentrate in the main area of infestation, but also expand to scattered shrubs. In future years, the owner will pull small shrubs as they are noticed or apply a selective foliar herbicide to areas having numerous small scattered multiflora rose shrubs. A forester has developed a prescrip-

IVM treatments can be described by mode and method (Table 1). Mode is the specificity of the treatment to the target and is either broadcast or selective. Method is the mechanism that allows the treatment to limit the plant and includes mechanical, chemical and biological. Each treatment is a combination of mode and method, the choice depends on the profile of the target plant. Each method functions differently to control target plants. Mechanical methods remove the plant and thus future propagules. This removes the plant, depletes the root energy reserves as plants attempt to resprout, and limits the ability for on-site reintroduction. Chemical methods disrupt biochemical pathways by changing the plants' ability to, for example, regulate

Examples of vegetation management techniques.

A productive hardwood forest, reverted from an abandoned agricultural field.

Flame weeding is an organic control option that provides control for some woody species such as autumn olive, bush honeysuckle, and barberry.

This native honeysuckle (Diervilla lonicera) has no interfering qualities, although other species of honeysuckle can become problematic. Photos by Peter J Smallidge tion to open the forest canopy to increase sunlight and further aid in hardwood seedling regeneration. 3. Why not other treatments - Each situation is different and the treatments used by one owner might not work in the future or might not work for the neighbor's need. The owners and managers decided against selective foliar herbicide sprays because these would not have been as effective given the shrub's abundance and height. Repeated cutting would not sufficiently control the shrub and would have required repeated entry that the owner did not have time to complete. Grubbing and excavation was deemed too disruptive to the soil in this location. Controlled grazing with silvopasture principles would work, but the owner lacked access to livestock or funds for fencing. The complexity of IVM rests primarily in understanding the biology of the plant and the relative merits of the different treatment options. Most owners will benefit from the advice of foresters or others trained and experienced in plant biology and vegetation management. Consult with your state's forestry agency and Cooperative Extension Service to help identify people who can help. A recorded web conference of IVM, including descriptions of several problem species, is provided at

Land managers need to understand the biology of the species they hope to control. Biennial plants, such as the garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata) pictured, or woody shrubs may have one or more years of vegetative growth before they produce fruit.

Peter J. Smallidge is a New York State Extension Forester with Cornell University Cooperative Extension. He may be reached at or visit

October 3, 2011

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For Disease-Resistant Apples, A Moment in the Sun Lou Lego found the best apple varieties for each culinary use. By Elisabeth Rosen It was a winter morning in 2006, and Lou Lego was indignant. Leafing through Core Report, an apple industry magazine, he had discovered a startling claim: the new disease-resistant apple varieties which had produced beautiful fruit on his own farm did not have the "quality" to be grown in large commercial orchards. "This was certainly not our experience," Lou says, his voice as flavorful as the heritage apples he favors over more conventional fruits like Empire and Red Delicious.

Welcome to the Northeast SARE Spotlight! SARE (Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education) offers grants to farmers, educators, universities and communities that are working to make agriculture more sustainable - economically, environmentally, and socially. Learn about whether a SARE grant would be a good fit for you.

Upcoming SARE Grant Deadlines Sustainable Community Grants - Due October 19, 2011 Sustainable Community Grants - Due October 19, 2011 Sustainable Community Grants are for projects that strengthen the position of sustainable agriculture as it affects community economic development. Communities and commercial farmers must benefit from these proposals, and the selection emphasis is on model projects that others can replicate.We also look for projects that are likely to bring about durable and positive institutional change and for projects that benefit more than one farm. Grants are capped at $15,000. Learn more at: Partnership Grants - Due November 1, 2011 Partnership Grants are for agricultural service providers-extension staff, consultants, nonprofits, state departments of agriculture, and others working in the agricultural community--who want to conduct on-farm demonstrations, research, marketing, and other projects with farmers as cooperators. Partnership Grants allow agricultural service providers to explore topics in sustainable production and marketing in cooperation with client farmers. The goal is to build knowledge farmers can use, encourage the understanding and widespread use of sustainable techniques, and strengthen working partnerships between farmers and farm service providers. Projects must take place on farms or directly involve farm businesses. Reviewers look for welldesigned inquiries into how agriculture can enhance the environment, improve the quality of life, or be made more profitable through good stewardship. Grants are capped at $15,000. Learn more at: Farmers Grants - Due December 1, 2011 Farmer Grants are for commercial producers who have an innovative idea they want to test using a field trial, on-farm demonstration, or other technique. Farmer Grants let commercial producers explore new ideas in production or marketing; reviewers look for innovation, potential for improved sustainability and results that will be useful to other farmers. Projects should be technically sound and explore ways to boost profits, improve farm stewardship, or have a positive impact on the environment or the farm community. Grants are capped at$15,000. Learn more at:

Over 25 years, Lou has experimented with many apple varieties, growing newer disease-resistant strains alongside classic European and early American fruit with names rich in history: Northern Spy, Bramley's seedling. The most successful apples become fixtures on Elderberry Pond, the family's 100 acre certified organic farm in Auburn, NY. Visit the farm, and you can try them all in the tasting room or in the farm restaurant run by Lou's son Chris, a Culinary Institute of America graduate, where the prized heirloom apples are baked into seasonal desserts like a baked apple nest featuring Caville Blanc d'Hiver. Disease-resistant varieties have grown well at Elderberry Pond for several years, but Lou thinks that Core Report discouraged their use because grower's associations like the New York State Apple Association, which produces Core Report, receive much of their financial support from chemical companies. If they endorsed disease-resistant apples, which do not have to be treated with chemical sprays, the chemical companies would lose revenue and perhaps reduce their support to the grower's associations. So Lou came up with the idea of carrying out a systematic evaluation. By comparing new disease-resistant apples to popular commercial and heritage varieties, he could show growers that these varieties really could work for them. Lou emphasizes that the stakes are high. Apples are number one on the Dirty Dozen (the annual list produced by the USDA EWG, which lists the 12 most pesticide-laden fruits and vegetables). For both organic and non-organic farmers, diseaseresistant apples provide an easy way to reduce chemical exposure. The Proof is in the Pie How do you prove that one apple is better than another? The answer seems simple: take a bite. But since many people cook apples as well as eating them raw, getting to the core of the matter required considerable effort. With help from a SARE grant, Lou and his co-workers harvested an exhaustive variety of apples and prepared them in several different ways. They squeezed the fruit into juice and cider, baked it into pie, sliced and dried it, and of course, set some aside for plain old munching. A panel of tasters decided which products tasted best. "I think every farmer has questions that they would like to

An old Pennsylvania Dutch apple called "Smokehouse" Photos by Lou Lego have answered," Lou says. "The farmer grant program is an opportunity to do evaluations to answer these questions for you and for other farmers." And even though writing the proposal can be onerous, he points out that putting your plans down on paper can help you organize your farm's future-even if you don't end up getting funding. An Apple in the Hand... For straight-up eating, the top 10 list contains mostly familiar names- Gala, Golden Delicious, Honey Crisp-as well as a few more unusual varieties like Pink Pearl, a crisp, tart apple with signature bright pink skin, and Esopus Spitzenberg, a spicy heirloom rumored to be a favorite of Thomas Jefferson (it's also Lou's apple of choice.) But for juicing, there were some surprising results. Gala, which ranked high among the eating apples, produced a disappointingly bland juice. "You can't pick a great juicing or cider apple by tasting it out of hand," Lou says, explaining that when you bite into an apple, this produces "volatile flavor bursts" that disappear when the apple is crushed and juiced. Another surprising finding: many sweet-tasting apples, like Pound Sweet, were low in soluble sugars-and vice versa. It's low acidity and not sugar content, Lou says, which provides the sweetness that we taste when we bite into a Honey Crisp. Lou's favorite findings, of course, are those which confirm his support for disease-resistant fruit. Pristine, the farm's bestselling apple-a disease-resistant variety developed by the Purdue, Rutgers, Illinois (PRI) breeding program-was a favorite among taste testers. And several other disease-resistant apples also scored high (see sidebar for complete details). A Sustainable Future Lou hopes that the project will encourage larger growers to plant some of the new disease-resistant varieties. It looks like he may have gained a following: after publicizing his results, Lou received scores of invitations to present at conferences and apple festivals throughout the Northeast. But although growers might be grateful for the findings, home cooks might be just as thrilled to finally know exactly which apples to use in that Thanksgiving pie. This article discusses SARE grant FNE07-614. To view the final report, visit ProjectReport.aspx?do=viewProj&pn=FNE07-614. For more information, contact Lou Lego at

Elisabeth Rosen was a summer intern with the Cornell Small Farms Program in 2011.

Apples being dried for taste testing.

SARE offers sustainable agriculture grants, bulletins, books, an online events calendar and many other resources. Learn more about the Northeast SARE program by visiting or by contacting Northeast SARE 655 Spear Street University of Vermont, Burlington VT 05405 Phone (802) 656-0471 Fax (802) 656 -0500 E-mail:

Taste Test Results Best Eating Best Pie Baking

Pristine (DR), Gala, Honeycrisp Duchess, Smokehouse, Northern Spy, Enterprise (DR) Best Juice: Esopus Spitzenberg, Enterprise (DR), Goldrush (DR) Best Drying: Esopus Spitzenberg, Pink Pearl (DR), Enterprise (DR) Best Fresh Slice: Enterprise(DR), Winesap, Cameo, Goldrush (DR) (DR = Disease Resistant)

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The youth pages are written by and for young people. Many thanks to the 4-H'ers who contributed to this issue. We believe there's a bright future for young farmers in the Northeast. Whether you live on a farm or only wish you did, we'd love to hear from you.

Small Farm Quarterly

Youth Page

More information about the Cornell Cooperative Extension 4-H Youth Development program can be found at:

Is Farming Right for You?

4H teens learn about the hard work and creativity needed to run a successful small farm during Career Exploration Days on the Cornell University Campus.

A "Fruitful" Adventure By Meredith Bell

Through the 4-H program, I have been able to travel to Cornell University and choose a career class. I chose "A small Farm Dream!" Living on a farm with different things like cattle, sheep, crops, and horses, I thought that I knew almost everything about farming, how it works, and what jobs are available through farming. I can certainly tell you I was wrong. There is so much more to farming than I can imagine and "Small Farm Dream" helped me understand that.

Throughout the three day class, we visited many interesting places, both on campus and also off. Our first visit was to the MacDaniel's Nut Grove, which was located in a part of woods on campus. Mr. Ken Mudge showed us a few projects he and his graduate students are working on, and new experimental ways to make a profit. One of their main projects in mushroom production, and we even got to inoculate our own logs with mushroom spawn. We drilled holes about four inches apart in a straight line, and made four rows around the log. We filled these holes with a sawdust mixture that will start the growth of the mushrooms. Next we painted a thin coat of wax on each of the holes. This helps to keep the moisture in the

log to create the right environment for mushroom spawn. We all took a log home, and if we soak our logs, next summer we should get about two crops of mushrooms. Our second day consisted of visits to Dilmun Hill Farm, Finger Lakes Farmstead Cheese and Black Diamond Orchard. Dilmun Hill was on campus, and run by different student managers. They showed us their organic produce farm, and the methods in which they grow their crops. We got to learn about the different vegetable families and how they have similar characteristics. We also learned how important it is to have your farm on a crop rotation, and the different ways to rotate your farm. If crop rotation is not done, your produce can be more susceptible to disease. Our next visit was to Finger Lakes Farmstead Cheese. For many of us this was the most interesting, since it is not a common field trip for most people. Ms. Nancy Richards explained the process of making cheese and how crucial it is to keep harmful bacteria out of the processing rooms. She then took us into the Cheese cave, where all of the aging cheese is kept in a humid, chilled room. We ended the tour with a taste of the amazing cheese from the creamery.

are animal pests, too. Ian says that "when it comes to fruit, the best pest repellent is fencing and netting." We then finished our day with helping Ian and Jackie pick cherries, which was rewarding in many different ways!

One of 75 varieties of unique apples grown on Black Diamond Orchard. Photo credit: Black Diamond Orchard

Our last stop was at Black Diamond Orchard, owned by Mr. & Mrs. Ian and Jackie Merwin. We met them in their cherry orchard picking ripe cherries, which were very delicious! They gave us a full tour of the entire farm; they grow many different types of fruit. We also got to see the different stages of fruit planted and the various growing methods that Ian uses to produce better quality. He also showed us many alternatives for keeping pests under control. One of my favorites was the Pheromone Trap, which is a trap that uses female scents to attract males. There

All three of the farms explained an aspect of farming which many people don't think about, the marketing. All three of the farms said that they sell most of their produce and cheese to local farm markets. Some also said that they sold through special orders or wholesale delivery. All in all, all three farms were an example of how small farms can be beneficial, rewarding, and career oriented in many ways. The "Small Farms Dream" was a great experience for me and many others also. It showed the many different career options within farming, one's that never even knew existed! We got to meet new people, see the scenic Ithaca area, and get hands on experience with farming materials. Small farms can be dreams, hobbies, careers, and lifestyles for many people, and "small Farms Dream" helped me understand that!

Meredith Bell is from Wyoming County, NY and may be reached at

Not the Computer Job! By Natalia Panzironi

Merwin had over seventy five different types of apples. He also had cherries, apricots, blueberries, prunes, and grapes. We got to learn about how he takes care of his farm and what type of pests they have in their farm.

Remember when you were a young kid and people asked you what you wanted to be when you grow up? I do! I always wanted to have an animal rescue farm! This summer a bunch of 4-h teens gathered together from all over New York to learn about careers. I learned that farming isn't just putting a seed in the ground and watering the seed till it grows. Farming is actually a lot of hard work and you have to have creativity. The first place we went to was MacDaniel's Nut Grove. This farm is located on the Cornell campus. This was very interesting because I never heard of forest farming before. The people who worked there explained how to grow mushrooms and then let us take a log home so we can start our own mushroom growing. Growing mushrooms is simple but they take at least a year to harvest.

The next place we went to was Dilmun Hill Farm which is also located on the Cornell campus. The people who worked there were also students at Cornell University, so it was good to get a view point from a younger generation of people. It was exciting to see the expressions on their face when they were showing off part of their section of the farm. It showed that there are people out there who actually have pride in what they do; they are not just farming because they need a job. I think that is very important, you have to find a career that you love and you're not doing for the money. The next place we visited was a cheese making farm. Nancy Richards has about 40 cows that her brother milks every day. Then she turns that milk into cheese. Hard cheese isn't a food that you can eat an hour after you make it. It must go into a cooling cave to age. Some of the cheese stays in the cooling cave for years, depending on the type of cheese and how big the cheese wheel is. It's not as simple as putting the cheese in the cooling cave and coming back in a few years so you can eat it. The cheese has to be flipped once in a while

The past few days I learned that there is more to life than just sitting around at a computer working! There are jobs that allow you to go outside and get dirty! This experience opened my eyes and showed me that maybe animals aren't going to be the only farm pursuit in my life.

Natalia Panzironiisfrom Orange County, NY and may be reached at

Enthusiastic student Farm Managers at Dilmun Hill offered inspiration to the teen Career Explorers.

so the rind on the cheese can get hardened. Cheese produced in larger batches commercially always tastes different from the cheese you buy on a farm. The last place we went to was an orchard. I found the orchard very interesting even though I live next to one at home. Ian

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October 3, 2011



Page 11


Boat-to-Fork Community Supported Fisheries Riding a Wave We are pleased to introduce the community supported fisheries model in this edition and to feature two of the producers and one distributor who are creating the roadmap for direct consumer access to fresh, healthy fish from local waters. In subsequent issues we will feature more 'boat to fork' stories. They are inspiring examples of innovation in a time of desperation that have the potential of turning the small-scale fishing industry around.

would receive at auction, on average about 50% more." Fishermen are encouraged to diversify their catch according to the conditions of the ecosystem, which promotes sustainability. Cape Ann handles about seven to eight kinds of fish from the Gulf of Maine; haddock, cod, pollack, ocean perch, also known as red fish, monkfish and flat fish such as yellow tail. The Cape Ann metric which makes the business 'economically viable' requires forty subscribers for bi-weekly deliveries of at least two pounds of fish and an additional eighty members for weekly drop-offs. Meredith Lubking, Social Enterprise and Local Foods Initiative

By Martha Herbert Izzi The Community Supported Agriculture model (CSA) - where the farmer provides fresh produce weekly to members who have bought shares at the beginning of the season - is now one of the most popular means of marketing for the small grower. The model has been adopted by farmers coast to coast and continues to find its way into new kitchens as more people realize the value of locally grown produce and the growers who provide it.

Essentially the Cape Ann model begins in Gloucester where the fish is landed and purchased by Ocean Crest Seafood, the region's official dealer. Tousignant says, "They get the freshest fish that comes in from a core group of about three dozen, mostly day-boats". The daily catch is then transferred to Turner Fisheries who process and package the fish, and within hours, the fish are loaded on to Cape Ann's refrigerated truck and taken to the scheduled delivery sites for member pick-up. Cape Ann runs on a five day delivery cycle and provides 700 summer members with their fish. Tousignant says, "We pay the boats a higher price than they

Cape Ann operates on a twelve week share-purchasing schedule. In addition to the various white fish, they also offer Gulf of Maine shrimp and mussels. Beginning with the winter cycle, Cape Ann will offer a Saturday pickup once a month at the Pawtucket RI farmers' market at which subscribers will be able to receive five pounds of peeled, uncooked Maine shrimp, which will be vacuum sealed and frozen in one pound bags. During the five-month subscription period, they will get 20 pounds of shrimp, and each share will be priced at $150. When questioned about Cape Ann's growth plan, Tousignant responded, "We'd love to bring fresh seafood to as many places as we can. We are in preliminary conversations with the western part of the state. But we are interested in controlled growth. Undoubtedly we can create more jobs, and strengthen the local economy".

So, perhaps we shouldn't be surprised that the diminishing small-scale fishing industry has started looking to the CSA model as a means of survival. Small-scale fishermen have struggled to compete for years with the behemoth industrial scale factory fleets operating in global markets. Today, there is hope for those small, mostly day-boat owners who have been rapidly disappearing. Thanks to an innovation that began in North Carolina and then spread to Port Clyde, Maine in 2007, the National Atlantic Marine Alliance estimates that there are approximately twenty other sites in the U.S. and Canada where Community Supported Fisheries (CSF) are operating, and the list is growing. Cape Ann Fresh Catch CSF Cape Ann Fresh Catch out of Gloucester, Massachusetts began in 2009 and is now the largest Community Supported Fishery, according to Operations Manager Steve Tousignant. The CSF purchases approximately 100,000 pounds of fish a year. It operates under the administrative and purchasing arm of the Gloucester Fishermans' Wives, a non-profit organization, who took action when they saw the cultural and social erosion of their venerable centuries-old fishing community. It is a spiraling problem that has spread rapidly in many coastal areas.

Kathy Cahill, Cape Ann Subscriber getting pollack from Meredith Lubking Photo by Martha Izzi

Cape Cod CSF Meri Rapzel is one of four proprietors involved in Cape Cod CSF, which differs from Cape Ann in that it's a for-profit model. She is a self-described "food activist" who once worked for Marine Fisheries. She comes from a CSA market garden background, on a farm in New Hampshire. "I am now working with the fishermen and local food groups trying to bring everyone together".

Cod freshly caught and on its way to Cape Ann's CSF customers. Photo by Steve Tousignant Manager for Community Servings, in Jamaica Plain, a part of Boston, is heavily involved with Cape Ann. She organizes one of the nineteen subscriber pick-up sites. This week she is distributing pollack for Cape Ann and at the same time, she is handling the extensive produce that is delivered by CSA farmers from outlying communities for their members, some of which overlap as Cape Ann subscribers. She calls Cape Ann, "absolutely consistent and reliable." She says that perhaps "three of four times a year the boats can't go out because of weather and they will call and cancel ahead of time". She smiles thinking of the emails she gets from subscribers asking for the "name of the boat the fish came in on. Meredith distributes the fish which has come off the day-boat within the previous 24 hours, from 3-6 p.m. on Tuesdays at her site. If the subscriber does not arrive, that order is donated by Cape Ann to Community Servings which distributes 750 meals a day to the critically ill, their families and/or caregivers within a hundred mile radius. Steve Tousignant says that one week in early August, (a time when many people vacation) for example, twenty five pounds of their fish were donated to one of three food pantries.

Meri speaks of Shannon Eldredge and her daughter who come from a historic fishing family in Chatham, one of the few remaining trap or weirs fisheries. Weir fishing is best described as a "whole empoundment set up on Nantucket Sound so that fish will swim right into nets and will continue to swim. When weir poles come down and nets are removed, those fish are back out." She is referring to fish, such as scup, mackerel, butterfish, and squid. Fishermen take a dory into the actual empoundment. They take what they need, within the quota regulated by the state. The fishermen have dedicated a portion of the catch to the CSF. The fourth proprieter is Linda Kelley of George's Fish Market. She is the person "who lands all the fish" because she is a dealer and the fish are regulated through a dealer. Mary says, "The fishermen get a better price, usually $1.00 over the auction price. Linda is landing 100 pounds a week." In contrast to other CSF models, Meri says, "we have one location on the state harbor dock in Chatham. We are trying to preserve 'community fishing' which has existed on Cape Cod for hundreds of years. Ours is a large education piece for CSF subscribers. With a smaller subscriber number we are teaching people how to process the whole fish (we do not offer fillets) with information, videos, and demonstrations." An example that Meri uses is squid which "can be cooked for 60 seconds in a hot pan or thrown into Portuguese stew for two hours. We are teaching people about species, how to handle them in the kitchen and different options for cooking." For summer season share holders who often don't understand that fish is "terribly seasonal" says Meri, Cape Cod CSF is offering White hake, pollock, haddock and some cod. This is Cape Cod's second year as a CSF and the first year of three season shares. "We are picking up four members a week through word of mouth," says Meri. In terms of cost, Cape Cod provides only whole fish for $150 per five- week cycle. There are two other available options. A subscriber can select two lobsters and a half pound of scallops. That combination is a $150 for five weeks. Another option is a five-week combination of fin fish and scallops for $175. Meri signs off, saying "We are trying to be fish mongers reacquainting people with their food."

Rt. 20, Sharon Springs, NY • (800) 887-1872 or (518) 284-2346 1175 Hoosick St. Troy, NY • (518) 279-9709

Cape Cod CSF member, Susan Dimm picks up her weekly fish share from CSF coordinator Meri Ratzel and weir fisherman Ernie Eldredge. Catch of the day; squid and scup. Photo by Shareen Davis

In conclusion, it is not surprising that community supported fisheries are new to so many of us given the relatively short time they have been in existence. Under the CSF umbrella the emphasis is on community, forming community and informing community. Most of us know precious little about fish and the people who go out year-round and face the climate and oceanic challenges to do what they love and to bring us fish that many of us love. To see people picking up their weekly catch along with their fruits and vegetables from other local CSA farmers at the Community Servings distribution center was a celebratory occasion. The sights, sounds and smells together with the smiles made this experience a 'ten.'

Martha Herbert Izzi is the owner of Bel Lana Farm in Chestnut, MA. She can be reached at 802-492-3346 or

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October 3, 2011



Farmer Driven Company Evolves By Kathleen Harris The Northeast Livestock Processing Service (NELPSC) is a company that was started by 5 farmers with a notion to help their fellow farmers with livestock processing problems. Now in business for 6 years, NELPSC has evolved from a totally grant supported notion to a self supporting viable LLC owned by those same farmers who became partners. Starting with an untested business model, it now boasts 123 farmer members and working agreements with 11 processing plants. While it continues to assist small and large farmers alike with livestock processing, NELPSC also expanded their mission to assist farmers with their marketing. But how did it all get started? Where is it now? And where is it headed? About 10 years ago, Seymour Vander Veen, a dairy farmer from Schenectady County was the sitting president of the Hudson Mohawk RC&D (Resource, Conservation and Development) Council, the organization that led the charge in gathering livestock farmers and processors together in order to solve a looming problem-insufficient and unreliable USDA livestock processing. Vander Veen was known to illustrate the severity of the problem by telling of his own experience in attempting to schedule slaughter of a veal calf. When his processor scheduled him 6 months out, his response was, "are you kidding, man--by then it won't even be veal anymore!" With new found determination, VanderVeen and 2 other RC&D Council members, Ed Armstrong and John Walston joined with 2 other prominent livestock farmers, Jim Hayes and Jim Sullivan to steer the project. Walston secured the initial funding from the David Rockefeller Foundation and that was matched by New York State Ag & Markets to do the feasibility study and business plan. Upon completion of the feasibility study, these 5 farmers formed the Northeast Livestock Processing Service Company, LLC (NELPSC) and became incorporated on June 1, 2005. Soon after incorporation, they hired a Processing Coordinator, Kathleen Harris, a USDA trained livestock grader and long time meat marketer. She was charged by the Board of Directors to take the recommendations of the feasibility study and develop a livestock processing Service Company that would help farmers navigate the nuances of the USDA custom processing business. Initially selling the concept of the untested business model to farmers wasn't easy. Most had a "wait and see" attitude. However, by April of 2006 the first NELPSC farmer member was signed on and (8) USDA and New York State Custom processors had working agreements with NELPSC to provide processing for their members. NELPSC then positioned themselves between the farmers and processors to ease the development of the farmer/processor relationship and mitigate any problems that might occur there. This service is called Processing Facilitation and is performed on a fee-for-service basis. Processing Facilitation includes 4 basic services: farmer/processor matching, scheduling, taking and conveying cutting instructions and in-plant oversight. First the NELPSC Processing Coordinator works one-on-one with the farmer member to determine a best-fit processor for them. This is determined by matching the farmer's location, service needs and price point with the closest, most affordable processor that has the capabilities to match. For instance, not all processors make beef patties. Some don't put weights on the packages. And those that slaughter hogs may not be able to scald them, leaving the skin on (a preference for many restaurants.)

Fox Hill Farm British White Cattle. Photo by Larry Lampman. After matching the farmer with a processor, NELPSC also will schedule for the farmers and assist with cutting instructions. Kathleen Harris, the Processing Coordinator says, "Most farmers new to direct marketing lack knowledge about the cuts of meat and are unfamiliar with the language of the processor. When I work with farmers to fill out a cut sheet I send them a copy of it for their records, in addition to sending it to the processor. After one or two times, and having the cut sheet as a reference, the farmers quickly learn how to take their own cutting instructions. Most farmers take over their scheduling and

cutting instructions after the first couple of times. Our goal is for our farmer members to achieve processing independence. We are here for as much or as little as they need us" NELPSC can also provide in-plant oversight on a half day or full day basis to further allay a farmers trepidation about dealing with a new plant. Debbie and Lee Millington from Indian Ladder farm in Little Falls joined NELPSC in 2008 and had this to say about the processing facilitation services: "We were just getting started in the beef trade and to say we needed some direction would be an understatement. We had the basic concept-get the beef sold locally...but when it came to pricing and helping customers with cutting choices, we were groping in the dark. Your advice, information and help were well worth the money. Thanks for your patience in answering our many questions during our frequent phone calls and for calming our fears about the processor-your presence on processing day was invaluable...It certainly moved our marketing to a professional level." After a year of offering processing assistance, it became apparent that many farmers also needed help with marketing. Although some NELPSC farmers were savvy marketers and able to retail their products through farmers markets, restaurants and farm stands, there still were those farmers who lacked the time, skill or desire to market face-to-face. The NELPSC Board of Directors recognized this and moved to assist those farmers by purchasing their grassfed and natural grainfed meats at a price that compensated them for their efforts to produce a sustainable product. Michael Brunn from Schoharie County said, "I've been a farmer for 36 years and for the first time I feel like I am finally getting an honest price for my product."

The NELPSC team. Left to right: Seymour Vander Veen, Jim Sullivan, Hal Hermance, Kathleen Harris, Ed Armstrong (recently retired NELPSC owner), Jim Hayes (not pictured) from USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service, Rensselaer County Economic Development Office, the Hudson Mohawk RC&D Council and the New York State Senate Majority Leader's Office. The last grant funding was received in May of 2010. Since then the company has been self supporting. To learn more about NELPSC visit or contact Kathleen Harris at (518) 258-4823.

Kathleen Harris is the Processing and Marketing Coordinator for the Northeast Livestock Processing Service Company and can be reached at (518) 258-4823

But before NELPSC could start buying the livestock, they had to develop the outlets for such products. Because NELPSC has a core value not to compete with their farmers in the same markets, they developed an outlet for those products by becoming an approved vendor with a major food service company that supplies colleges and institutions. The market entry requirements were onerous and expensive and more than any one

NELPSC refrigerated delivery truck.

Eric Shelley, owner of Cowboy's Custom Cutting, cuts meat in his mobile processing unit. farmer could do for themselves. And because the entire industry was geared to purchasing inexpensive boxed meats from the large packing plants of the midwest, it took 2 years to overcome the barriers before finally becoming an approved vendor. Now as the orders come in, the livestock are sourced from NELPSC farmers. Kathleen Harris travels to the farms to select the livestock and gather the farmer affidavits. She then coordinates slaughter and processing with the USDA and 3rd party audited plants, performs in-plant oversight when necessary and arranges delivery with the NELPSC refrigerated truck and the receiving personnel. NELPSC meats are not branded. Instead the farm name and location is tracked with each order so that the purchasing institution knows exactly where their meat came from and where it was processed. NELPSC is presently preparing orders for 15 schools (k-12), colleges and universities amounting to 13,000 lbs of meat from 27 head of livestock from 10 different farmers. The NELPSC delivery truck signage captures it all...Local Foods from Local Farms. The NELPSC mission and values are arguably altruistic for a for-profit company. Despite that, the company continues to grow steadily with increased farmer membership, increased processor agreements and increased sales each year. Grant support was integral to the development of NELPSC. The majority of those funds came from the New York Farm Viability Institute. They acknowledged that processing and marketing were problems for our livestock farmers and chose to invest in NELPSC and other projects that helped to alter the course of livestock processing events. That investment helped to bridge the gap for livestock farmers so they could get the processing they needed to keep their businesses sustained while the processing industry was gearing up to take on the local food movement. Now, there are more USDA plants, at least in this eastern region of New York, and the future looks very bright for our livestock farmers. Over the years, support for NELPSC was also received

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Juneberries - They Go Where Blueberries Can't By Jim Ochterski Many small farm operators and fruit enthusiasts see blueberries as Plan A. We all know that blueberries are popular, tasty, and they practically market themselves. But if you do not have very well-drained, acidic soils, you have to go with Plan B. It would be great if there was a productive berry that very much looked and tasted like a blueberry, but was not so fickle about soils. That's where juneberries come in. And it turns out, juneberries have several advantages over blueberries. The juneberry (known commonly elsewhere as a "saskatoon berry") is a dark-colored fruit that is grown on the Canadian prairies for wholesale processing, with some fresh market and youpick sales. The species of commercial interest is Amelanchier alnifolia, a close cousin of our Eastern serviceberry (Amelanchier canadensis), which is found as a tall shrub in our local forests. Juneberries are currently considered an "uncommon" fruit with virtually no commercial cultivation in the Northeast US. In comparison, juneberries are grown on almost 900 farms covering more than 3,200 acres of production in Canada. Juneberries are an early season fruit crop with self-pollinating, frost hardy flowers. Mature fruit is ready for harvest 45 to 60 days after the very early bloom; they ripen in mid-June to early July in most parts of New York State. This mediumsized shrub tolerates a wide range of soil pH conditions (4.8 - 8.0) and soil textures (coarse sand to silty clay). They will not tolerate soggy ground or standing water, but will tolerate many of the soil types unsuitable for blueberries. The juneberry is native to North America, more particularly to the upper Midwest and northern prairie region of Canada - a bitterly cold and dry climate with low-fertility soils. The Northeastern climate appears to be favorable for juneberry production, although high humidity can lead to problems with powdery mildew and fungal diseases on young plants. The ripe juneberry fruit is dark purple, with several tiny soft seeds, and very closely resembles a highbush blueberry. The fruit is best eaten fresh, but even after prolonged freezing, it retains its firmness and overall shape without becoming mushy. Juneberries have a flavor reminiscent of dark cherries or raisins, and is generally milder than blueberries. Nutritionally, juneberries seem to be naturally designed for athletes more than anything else: * A typical juneberry is 18 percent sugar, and about 80 percent water. Juneberries have a lower moisture content than blueberries, so they have relatively higher amounts of calcium, natural fiber, proteins, carbohydrates and lipids in them. * Juneberries are an excellent source of iron

Commercial juneberries are very productive and appealing Photos by Jim Ochterski - each serving provides about 23% RDA for iron (almost twice as much iron as blueberries). They contain high levels of phenolic compounds, particularly anthocyanins, and, they provide healthy amounts of potassium, magnesium and phosphorous. * Juneberries have about as much vitamin C, thiamin, riboflavin, pantothenic acid, vitamin B-6, folate, vitamin A and vitamin E as blueberries, and also trace amounts of biotin. The key to successful establishment of a juneberry orchard is thorough weed control. Having evolved in a fire-oriented ecosystem, juneberries need two or three years of zero competition from other plants while they become established. There are many ways to maintain this "barren soil" environment, and black fabric mulch appears to be best (you know - so it looks as though a prairie wildfire had swept through). With all these great features, juneberries are primed to grow from a minor berry to a more common high-value fruit crop in the coming years. Consumers are ready for a new fruit, especially one with a familiar and appealing taste. During a juneberry tasting session, we received many positive responses from more than 1,500 samples. If you want to get juneberries in the ground, start by developing your rows well in advance of ordering or delivery. Rows should be spaced 10 - 12 feet apart, planning for about 4 feet between bushes. The first crop will be ready three years after planting, and bushes will yield 4 - 6 pounds of berries annually. Plant material for small-scale commercial plantings can be hard to find, since it is a new crop. Most plants are currently purchased from Canadian nurseries, but several Michiganbased operations are increasing their inventory of juneberry plants. Cornell Cooperative Extension of Ontario County is leading a detailed project to give small-scale fruit growers a realistic sense of the agronomic suitability of juneberries and how well this crop might or might not go over with consumers. The project has been made possible by the Northeast Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education program (NESARE). Four farms signed on to provide testing grounds for more than 400 juneberry plants of four different varieties. We will post all new information at our website at

Juneberries will be a good fit for you-pick fruit farms

Jim Ochterski is the project leader to introduce juneberries in the Northeast. He is based at the Cornell Cooperative Extension office in Canandaigua, NY (Ontario County) and has an ongoing interest in sustainable, native crops with significant commercial potential. Jim can be reached at 585-394-3977 x402 or

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October 3, 2011



Beginning Women Farmer Program Provides Tools for Personal and Professional Growth By Crystal Stewart It is rare to see a group of all women circled in a farm field, kicking at the dirt and talking about the weather. But across the northeast for the last two years, women have been getting together to do just that, and to gain all the benefits that come from having a group to talk farming with. A total of 180 of these women across the Northeast have come together through a program organized by Holistic Management International, an organization which advocates balancing the social, environmental and economic aspects of farming to increase quality of life. Funding was provided by a USDA/NIFA grant, which has allowed all participants to attend ten days of training free of charge. The program launched in the Winter of 2010, when women gathered at farms and community centers in New York, New Hampshire, Vermont, Connecticut, Massachusetts, and Maine intent on learning to be better farmers. Some were fresh out of school or internships and were thinking of starting their own farm; some were looking to use their land for agriculture during retirement. Many had already begun farming, and were especially eager to learn how to do a better job of everything from marketing products to purchasing the right equipment. Among the eager faces in each room were two women farmer mentors, ready to meet with each beginning farmer individually over the course of the season and help with specific issues during on-farm meetings. The ten week program began not with discussions of crop or animal specific issues, but with a bigger picture question: What is your whole farm plan? Who has a say in decisions on the farm, and what do those people want their lives to be like both now and in the future? How does the farm work to enhance that goal? All other decisions would be made with this whole farm plan in mind, from choosing enterprises to adjusting management practices. After articulating a goal for the farm and its decision makers, weeks were spent hashing out the details. First, participants tackled finances. This was a tough couple of weeks for many people, particularly those who had not previously spent time determining if their enterprises or potential enterprises were profitable. Quite a few were not. Fortunately, everyone had time to carefully look at their expenses and their income. Groups helped each other brainstorm ways to cut maintenance costs while protecting wealth generating expenses and later helped each other develop better marketing plans to increase revenue. If an enterprise simply couldn't be profitable, groups brainstormed other enterprises that could be and still fit into the farmer's whole farm plan. In looking back on the class recently, Mary Beth Welsh, a farmer from the 2011 class said of the financial planning sessions, "[this] portion of the class made it very clear that to be successful, understanding the financial issues and catching errors early is essential to keep moving forward ..." When asked immediately after the sessions about attitude change, 95% of participants said they had gained confidence about writing a business plan. Five months after the course was finished, 43% of survey respondents indicated that they had actually developed a financial plan. One farmer survey respondent wrote the following about financial planning's effect five months later: "The budget planning that

Hawthorne Valley Farm's Vegetable Farmer talking about their operation.

we did at the beginning of the season set me and my husband on a solid path for our first season of farming: we exceeded our planned profit, in part thanks to the decision making and budgeting tools I learned from HMI." As the weather warmed, sessions moved outdoors, and focused more on "nuts and bolts" aspects of farming including soil health, biological monitoring and management of animals to improve the land and increase productivity/profitability, and infrastructure planning. Many of these sessions took place on participants' farms, where the group was able to first assess the situation and then brainstorm improvements. Lunchtimes during these summer sessions were filled with talk of animal breeds, cultivation equipment, and countless tips and tricks. Tours of each farm were a highpoint for many participants, many of whom had not been able to spend so much time on another person's farm. The diversity of farms was seen as a positive, even if the enterprises were not exactly in line with what each participant was doing. Tricia Park, 2010 class participant, noted," It was interesting to see the age differences and different types of farms- but we all had a common goal: Doing what we love and making it successful." Another highpoint for some participants came during biological monitoring sessions, when lawn darts were used to take a detailed inventory of what was happening in pastures rather than making "windshield assessments." Participants quickly learned how to identify signs of biological activity, healthy nutrient and water cycling, and efficient energy flow, all of which contribute to the productivity of the land. They learned to be

Beginning Women Farmers and their mentors planning infrastructure at Hawthorne Valley Farm thorough, and to look for positive change from year to year in a given field. Many participants have indicated in surveys that their productivity and animal health has improved after learning to better manage pastures. The benefits of the last two years' programs will continue on based on the relationships formed by participants in the program. A listserve has been created for participants to keep in touch and ask questions, and some states have decided to keep meeting, often combining participants from years one and two. One of my favorite thoughts from my conversation with Mary Beth was on this very topic: "Being part of this group has opened up an entire network which also includes women from previous and future classes - women I haven't even met yet." This is a very true statement-the grant has one more year of funding, so another twenty women will be accepted from the pool of applicants in each state. Anyone with less than ten years of farming is welcome to apply.

Crystal Stewart is the Regional Agriculture Specialist with the Capital District Vegetable and Small Fruit program. She taught financial planning, animal impact, soils and marketing for this program. She can be reached at (518) 775-0018 or See the resource spotlight for more information on the Beginning Women Farmer program and contacts for your state.

Empowering Beginning Women Farmers Coordinators Regional Coordinator Lauren Lines Central NY RC&D Project, Inc. 99 North Broad Street, Norwich, NY 13815 607-334-3231, ext. 4,

A Beginning Woman Farmer who worked at Hawthorne Valley showing other BWF's how to secure floating row cover Photos by Crystal Stewart

Local Coordinators Bill Duesing / Deb Legge - CT Connecticut NOFA Box 164, Stevenson, CT 06491-0164 203-888-5146 / Devon Whitney-Deal - MA Community Involved in Sustaining Agriculture (CISA) 1 Sugarloaf Street, South Deerfield, MA 01373 413-665-7100 x22 Gail Chase - ME WAgN Maine 314 Clark Road, Unity, ME 04988 207-568-7599 Kate Kerman - NH Small and, Beginner Farmers of New Hampshire Phoenix Farm Learning Center 350 Troy Road, Marlborough, NH 03455 603-876-4562 Lauren Lines - NY Central New York RC&D 99 North Broad Street, Norwich, NY 13815 607-334-3231, Jessie Schmidt - VT UVM Extension 617 Comstock Road, Suite 5, Berlin, VT 05602-9194 802-223-2389 extension 203 or toll free: 866-860-1382 extension 203

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New York Cheese Wrapped Up By Patricia Brhel Cheese unexpectedly became controversial at farmers markets across New York State in the summer of 2011. One duty of the New York State Department of Agriculture is inspecting and enforcing New York state law regarding safe distribution of farm products. In late June, they stepped into New York City's Green Market and shut down several artisanal cheese vendors who had been cutting cheese on site and selling it to their customers. New York State Agriculture and Markets Law, Article 20C, states that anyone cutting cheese for sale must have a processing license and do so in an approved facility. This means that farmers markets without electricity, running water or refrigeration on site can not allow an artisanal cheese producer to cut their product to order at the market. To sell at a market without modern amenities, cheese vendors can legally cut the cheese at their farm, in a room approved and licensed for that purpose, and pre-wrap it in plastic so that it is properly sealed. They can then use an ice chest to keep the product at the proper temperature, only displaying a small amount of product at a time. Cheese producers and many of their customers, used to having their cheese custom cut while they waited, were not happy and let it be known. As a result, the law was temporarily rescinded on July 1. If the cheese is cut in a sanitary manner, it does not have to cut in a licensed processing facility. This temporary solution regarding enforcement of the law is good through September 28, 2011. During this period, the determination currently exempts anyone cutting cheese at a farmer's market

Cheese wheels from the need to obtain a processing license. "While the degree of enforcement has varied, the law has been in place for years and it's always required a processing license for the premises or pre-packaging of items like sandwiches and cheese that require sanitary conditions. It's not because we're trying to interfere with the farmers business, it makes sense from a health standpoint. Some people will willingly follow sanitary guidelines and some markets have a clean space. Others do not know the rules or are careless. Some markets, because of their location, have rodent or insect problems. Even though Article 20C has been temporarily rescinded, anyone cutting cheese at a

market still needs to follow basic sanitary guidelines. They need to keep the product cold, wear gloves and restrain their hair. They need to sanitize the cutting surface and the knife they use, or change the knife frequently to ensure that it's sanitary. Hand washing is very important. Soft cheeses should still be prepackaged, but hard cheeses such as cheddar and provolone can be cut on site. Retail rules also apply. "The type of cheese needs to be identified with a label, the price per pound prominently displayed and the cut pieces labeled with the identity of the wheel of cheese from which the slice was obtained," according to Michael Moran, press officer, New York State Department of Agriculture and Markets. "While we're doing OK, as we can precut our cheese and sell it at the Central New York Regional market in Syracuse, it's certainly cut into the profits of many of our vendors. We sell about 60 kinds of cheese at the Regional Market, so most of what we stock is precut anyhow, but we also sell wholesale to many of the farm markets in the area. Until this latest push on enforcement they had been able to buy a 10 lb. block of cheddar and other cheese each week and cut it to order for their customers. Now many of them can't do that. For instance, one of our customers buys about ten pounds of cheese a week. She used to buy a wheel and cut it to order for her customers. Now we must deliver the cheese pre-wrapped and she's not making as much of a profit, both because the pre-wrapped cheese is more expensive. In order to cut the cheese on site, she'd have to install a three bay sink and do other remodeling, but the difference in earnings wouldn't justify that," according to Molly Buchanen of Buttercup Cheese from Central Square, NY. "We've never had anyone get sick from our cheese, but I suppose not everyone is as careful about cleanliness as we are. Nowadays, too, there are a lot more people willing to sue, looking for an easy out, so it makes sense that Ag and Market is requiring this. It's just a shame that after all these years

Aaron Snow holding a piece of prewrapped cheese Photos by Patricia Brhel in business -- we've been selling cheese since 1969 -- that we have to make these changes." The Governor's office is considering making the current determination, which rescinds the need for a processing license at the market location, permanent. The regulations can be found at Text of the rules and analysis can be obtained from Stephen Stich, Director, Food Safety and Inspection. For information or to comment contact,, or call 518457-4492. Check at the New York State register,, in October for the state's final decision.

Pat Brhel is a community volunteer and freelance writer who lives in Caroline, N.Y. She can be reached at or 607539-9928.


Young Farmers Take Their Message to Washington By Lindsey Lusher-Shute With farmers retiring faster than they're being replaced, a lot of people are worried about who will be feeding America in fifty years. There is growing interest among young people in farming careers, but they are experiencing significant barriers that are keeping them from realizing their potential in agriculture-and preventing the nation from renewing its farming population. In June, eleven beginning farmers, representing ten key states, traveled to the nation's capital to talk to their elected officials about what they need to succeed and how the federal government can help. A diverse group, including the National Sustainable Agriculture Coalition, Center for Rural Affairs, Land Stewardship Project, Maine Organic Farmers and Gardeners Association, Practical Farmers of Iowa, The Land Connection, California Farm Link and the National Young Farmers' Coalition, organized the trip. The primary focus of the meetings was the "Beginning Farmers and Ranchers Opportunity Act of 2011". This soon-to-be-introduced bill, sponsored by Representative Waltz of Minnesota and Senator Harkin of Iowa, contains a set of provisions to fix, fund and add to existing USDA programs for young and beginning farmers in the US. The hope is that the bill will be rolled into the eventual Farm Bill legislation. The Farm Bill first recognized beginning farmers in 1990, defining farmers of any age in their first ten years. The 2008 bill went further by expanding programs and adding new grant money for training. The Opportunity Act seeks to build on the 2008 bill. The Environmental Quality Incentives Program (EQIP), overseen by the Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS), is one of the programs that would go further to help beginners. This program shares in the cost of conservation-minded farm improvements, such as cover crop planting and hoop houses. One of the current challenges with EQIP is that farmers must pay for these projects up front and then be reimbursed by USDA, which can pose a significant challenge for limited resource beginners. The existing program allows beginning farmers a 30% advance on the cost of the project, and the Act would up that advance payment to 50% of the project cost. The resulting payment from the USDA would be the same, but beginners would need to come up with less cash to get their projects started. The program would also give additional preference to beginning farmers, at least 10% of program funds.

Farm Service Agency (FSA) loan rules would also be revamped under the Opportunity Act. FSA's direct farm ownership loans, an important tool for farmers looking to buy land, are now capped at $300,000--which doesn't go far in the many real estate markets. The Opportunity Act would give FSA the discretionary authority to adjust the current loan limit upwards in regions with exceptionally high real estate prices, making these loans more applicable in the Northeast. The Opportunity Act would also help more beginners qualify for FSA farm ownership loans by reducing the requirement for farm managerial experience. At present, growers must have three years of farm ownership or managerial experience to qualify for a loan. The Opportunity Act reduces that requirement to two years and directs FSA to consider a broader range of farm experience, including apprenticeships, on-farm employment and mentorships as relevant experience in meeting the requirement. Access to capital being one of the most significant barriers to getting a farm business started, one of the most exciting elements of the Opportunity Act is a newly proposed microloan program. The Act would enable FSA to serve young growers more effectively by creating a new category of microloans loans. As written, the microloan program offers growers ages 20-35 up to $35,000 in assistance. The loans would be marketed to young people, with simplified paperwork and loan requirements. Another way to get capital into the hands of beginners is through Individual Development Accounts (IDAs) or a matched savings account. This model, now employed by non-profit organizations in California, Iowa and Michigan, helps growers save money in their first years by matching up to a specific amount of money for farm investments. During the saving period, program participants are typically required to attend business development classes and they may be matched with a mentor. A pilot IDA program was authorized for 15 states in the 2008 Farm Bill, but despite advocacy efforts, it yet to receive funding from Congress. The Opportunity Act proposes that IDAs receive mandatory funding. The Beginning Farmer and Rancher Development Program (BFRDP), a competitive grant program that supports universities and non-profits in the training of beginning farmers, would also be reauthorized and given more funding in the Opportunity Act. Two recipients in New York State include Cornell University and

Young farmers take their message to Washington DC Photo by: National Sustainable Agriculture Coalition the NY Organic Farming Association. Cornell's funds were used to start a Beginning Farmer Learning Network among hundreds of service providers in the Northeast, as well as an educational website and video series. With help from BFRDP, NOFA-NY hired a beginning farmer specialist and offered new classes targeted at new and aspiring growers. There is much more to the Beginning Farmer and Ranchers Opportunity Act, and help is needed to win bill sponsors and local support. To read the full set of proposals and engage your local member of Congress on the issue of beginning farmers, visit the National Young Farmers' Coalition at

For more information on the National Young Farmer Coalition or beginning farmer issues pertaining to the upcoming Farm Bill, contact Lindsey Lusher-Shute at or 917.318.1488.

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Managing a Buying Club for Freezer Lambs By Ulf Kintzel

October 3, 2011 even well before harvest. I believe the great majority understands and is grateful to get lamb delivered that would otherwise not be accessible to them or only accessible at far greater effort and cost. And the orders and the feedback of these folks reflect just that. The orders come in like clockwork and the feedback is always great. New customers need to be educated a lot. It is entirely possible that there is an e-mail exchange of 10 e-mails going back and forth just to agree on how the lamb should be cut. That is understandable since most of these folks initially know absolutely nothing. Here is one example: "I want all four legs cut in half and boneless". Sorry, there are only two legs. The front legs are the shoulders and aren't called leg of lamb. Once educated, the e-mail exchange is reduced by ninety percent. So, take the time and educate. The better of a job you do, the fewer questions there will be later on.

If you are raising animals and are looking for an additional option to sell your product, consider selling it through a buying club. I do. While this method is the most involved and also the most nerve-wracking, it is also one of the least vulnerable options of all my sales, only second to my direct sales off the farm. Half way through reading this article you might start thinking that the local sales barn is not such a bad option after all, and I agree. Running a buying club is anything but easy. Yet, in the end it is rewarding and I don't want to be without mine. So, here it goes:

The harvesting process has its own challenges. I don't control what the butcher is doing and it is in When I left New Jersey and moved to upstate New the nature of his business that cuts are at times not York, one customer from near "the city" (in New as ordered or that my instructions weren't as preJersey that refers to New York City) asked me to cise as I had thought. My butcher works with me deliver her lamb order to her. I asked her to get me and at times we try to accommodate unusual wishnine additional orders to make it worth my while and es but at the end of the day mistakes happen, she did. Fast forward, it is 4 years later and the lamb unforeseen things happen. What the customer had sales have grown from ten lambs once a year to a in mind and what we understood is not always one total of 50 lambs split into two annual deliveries of and the same. That's' why I have a nice disclaimer frozen, custom-harvested whole and half lamb The entire freezer lamb fits snug in a 12 by 12 by 12 box, 18 of those fit into our SUV's in my e-mail to customers that cutting mistakes may orders. Each time I plan a delivery, I have to set a cargo space. Photo by Ulf Kintzel happen, that I have no control or leverage over it, maximum number of orders, dictated by what I can and that I shall not be held liable. load in my car in the summer and in my truck in the fall, and I always sell out within two days of keep track If I discuss things over the phone I will have forFour years into it, I hope to have worked out most of the kinks. announcing the delivery. The economic downturn put gotten half of what was said by the time I have hung up. The buying club remains one of the most involved ways of absolutely no dent into these sales. The customer base is Having everything in e-mails helps me to remember. Secondly, marketing my lambs. And yes, it is at times the most aggravatextremely broad and represents a complete cross section of I do so to avoid arguments. A customer might say, "I had no ing but what I say to the computer stays in the office and the population (although it all more or less started with a ground meat in my order. Where is my ground meat?". I can helps to blow off steam. The profit margin is as high as direct chapter group of the Weston A. Price foundation that passed go back in my e-mails, re-send their cutting instructions and sales and I don't depend on distributors to sell them. The the info around). My competition in that region is "Whole simply say "Sorry, you didn't order any, you ordered stew meat sales account for about 20 percent of my total market lamb Foods", also referred to as "Whole Paycheck" due to its instead. Do you want ground meat with your next order?". That sales and are just as high as my off-farm sales. When the extremely high prices. My prices are lower and my lamb is stops an argument before it begins and the customer won't economy went sour in 2008 the buying club kept working like better. get mad. Here and there I do indeed make a mistake. The volthe recession never happened. You also meet a number of ume of information is at times too big to process. The best interesting people with various backgrounds. And you can feel My initial e-mail to all potential customers lays out the terms way of dealing with it is admitting it without excuses and offera little good about yourself, restoring some connection and conditions - as far as pickup location and time is coning something to make up for it. In one instance the mistake between city-dwellers and farmer by educating them throughcerned. It stresses that I will be at that location for the hour was big enough that I waived the delivery fee. The customer is out the year with a farm newsletter via e-mail. Needless to specified. It also offers cutting instructions to choose from. It still ordering, so it must have worked. say, I don't want to be without this buying club as an option of gives a price list for whole and half lamb orders. The prices selling my market lambs. If you can bear it, it's a win-win situaare the same as the ones picked up at the farm and I charge As far as the customers are concerned, buying clubs are not tion for everyone. a $20 delivery fee per order no matter what the size of the for everyone. In a society where people are used to getting order is. It encourages people to put in larger orders. Half whatever they want whenever they want it, it is not easy to Ulf Kintzel owns and manages White Clover Sheep Farm lamb orders are the most work but cost the same delivery fee. convey the message that they have to be at a certain hour at ( in Rushville, NY where he The delivery fee covers the travelling cost well, even at high a certain location and that the product cannot be left at the breeds grass-fed White Dorper sheep. He offers breeding gas prices. Does it also pay for my time? No, it does not. location. They MUST be there to pick it up. Most get it. Some stock and freezer lambs. He can be reached at 585-554-3313 However, the drop-off location is near Clifton, NJ which is do not. Some also just do not have the organizational skills to or by e-mail at basically Polish. So is my wife which means we use the trip to plan ahead, leave early enough from home, and be on time. go shopping in an authentic Polish store and eat lunch at a These few make it at times difficult and nerve-wracking, even Copyright 2010 Ulf Kintzel. For permission to use either text or real Polish restaurant. The kids are always with us. Yet another aggravating at times. What to do with those few? I am sorry to photographs please contact the author at ulf@whitecloverexample of making farming a lifestyle, don't you think? say but you just drop them as customers. The whole buying club will not work otherwise and will suffer because of a few. I do all communication by e-mail and I save all correspondence. My initial e-mail states that all correspondence will be Initially, I had read about buying clubs in an article by Joel by e-mail and that one should not order if he or she does not Salatin. He stressed how rigorous he is about pre-payment check e-mail frequently enough...just don't be surprised if you and pickup time. I agree that without such rigid rules it won't get a call or two anyway from folks wanting to order by phone. work. Some people do get upset with you over this. Some also I do everything by e-mail for my own sake, so that I am able to get upset that the lamb needs to be paid for well in advance,

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The Agri-Mark dairy cooperative works year-round for higher farm milk prices, better markets and effective dairy legislation on behalf of our Northeast dairy farm families. For more information on working with other farm families for higher on-farm milk prices, contact our Membership Department toll-free at


We welcome letters to the editor Please write to us! Or send a question and we’ll do our best to answer it. We’re also looking for beautiful, interesting and/or funny small farm photos to print. Write or email Violet Stone, Cornell Small Farms Program, 15CA Plant Science Building, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853

October 3, 2011

Page 17



Black Currents Bring Opportunity

sold almost before it is grown. This is much different than the vegetable crops that were grown on the farm before. Approximately 25% of the sales are from jams and jellies with the rest of the harvest being sold as juice. Challenges facing the operation are similar to any farmer producing a crop; they cannot control the weather. Overall, Carolyn feels the cooperation, dedication and knowledge base of the family has kept the farm successful since the transition. The best recognition is that their customers keep coming back year after year.

By Christen Trewer "Change brings opportunity. ~ Nido Qubein" This can be said for the transition made by R H Rhodes & Son Inc, of Penn Yan, NY, when they stopped farming vegetable cash crops in 2003 and explored the venture of becoming black currant producers. Most people are not familiar with the small black berry that is so popular in Europe and in the culinary world. Many European countries utilize the berries as a substitute for the nutrient rich citrus fruits that are at times hard to obtain. Black currants were once widely grown in the United States until the early 1900s when they were banned as a vector of white pine blister rust. In the late 1960s, the federal government transferred the jurisdiction of the ban to the state governments and in 2003, New York lifted the ban. Decades after the plant was banned, the average person would find little use for the obscure, sharp tasting berry. Black currants grow on a bush similar to a blueberry bush. Once they are planted it takes 2-3 years to produce fruit. The shrubs are hardy in harsh climates and drought resistant. The weather in the Finger Lakes Region of New York can be a gamble when growing crops, making the black currant a lower risk wager. The nutritional benefits of the black currant are most likely as little known as the berry itself. It is extremely high in Vitamin C, containing 3 times the daily value of the vitamin. It is high in minerals, vitamins, antioxidants and also contains unsaturated fatty acids, making it somewhat of a "super fruit". In 2003, Curt Rhodes of R H Rhodes & Son Inc, a family farming corporation, read an article about black currants and the idea piqued the family's interest. Switching from a labor intensive vegetable farm to such a unique commodity would take a large investment of family participation and everyone rose to the challenge. According to Carolyn Sullivan, Curt's sister, one of the most important steps in the decision was to take a good look at what their farm had to offer. The area offers optimum soils, the family has a deep well of farming knowledge and some of the equipment necessary was already part of the farming operation, including a cold storage building. With the ability and the interest present, the next step would be to see if there was a market for the little known crop. Cathy Fritz, another Rhodes family sister, sent out a survey to gauge the interest in black currant use in wine as the farm is located in the heart of the Finger Lakes wine region. The response from the wineries was that the product had a market. The Rhodes family now had the opportunity to make a successful transition to a new crop. The first acre was planted that year based on the availability of plants; today, the farm has a total of 25 acres dedicated to currents. In the summer of 2007, the Rhodes family complete with brothers, sisters, in-law, sons, daughters, nieces and nephews, harvested the first acre by hand. Carolyn credits the Cornell University Geneva Experimental Research

Looking ahead, the Rhodes' plan to plant 3 more acres of currants and perhaps invest in a large cold storage unit. At the end of the day, the satisfaction of taking a unique transitioning opportunity and making it a successful venture is the best reward.

Christen Trewer is a loan officer trainee with the USDA-Farm Service Agency in Bath, NY. She can be reached at Christen.Trewer@ or (607) 776-7378.

Resource Spotlight The Art of Silvopasturing: A Regional Conference by Nancy Glazier Black Currants grown @ R.H. Rhodes & Son, Inc. Photos by Christen Trewer Station as a valuable resource for crop and market information. Two of the first customers that made the difference for the farm were Montezuma Winery and Bellwether Hard Cider. After some extensive research and number crunching, the corporation made the decision to purchase a mechanical harvester from Oregon. This would make the long hot harvesting days a bit easier on the family as well as making it feasible for them to farm a full 25 acres of black currant bushes. Over the years

The practice of Silvopasturing is causing quite a buzz these days. It was a fairly new concept to me until a year and a half ago, a concept that brings together forestry management and grazing management into one single system of sustainable woodland grazing. It can diversify income by tapping into products of trees, tree products, forage, and livestock. Trees Photo by Brett Chedzoy can be introduced to the pasture or pasture introduced to the trees. Management is the key to reduce the likelihood of soil compaction, debarking of trees, and trampling and browsing of regeneration. But in the modern world of invasive plants, high land ownership costs, and other challenges to healthy and sustainable woodlands, it is worth taking another look at livestock grazing as an acceptable and valuable tool for the management of some woodlots. The purposeful and managed grazing of livestock in the woods, known as silvopasturing, differs from woodlot grazing of the past in that the frequency and intensity of the grazing is controlled to achieve the desired objectives. New fencing systems, a better understanding of animal behavior and the evolution of "management intensive grazing" have enabled us to gain the necessary level of control over livestock to achieve positive impacts from woodland grazing.

The black currant harvester hard at work in the field

R H Rhodes & Son Inc. has expanded their juice market to include other wineries and cider mills. Wineries as far away as South Dakota are interested in what the Rhodes family currants have to offer their wines. With the help of an off-farm co-packer, jams and jellies are made and sold at local farm markets. R H Rhodes & Son Inc. saw the opportunity in producing black currants and seized it. Harvest time is the first few weeks in July. They are currently producing an average of 1 1/2 tons of berries per acre and have their entire harvest

Watching the currants travel along the harvester

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Silvopasturing isn't for every woodland owner or every woodlot as it requires a commitment to caring for animals and enclosing portions of the woods with a secure fence to keep your animals in and predators out. Wooded areas on poor growing sites, rough terrain, or with difficult access would obviously have fewer advantages for successful silvopasturing than the converse. But the most important key for success is skilled management of the system. This requires considerable knowledge of both silviculture and grazing. If grazing and silviculture are the "artful application of science", then combining the two systems in certainly a fine art! But this shouldn't discourage the novice from exploring the potential of silvopasturing on their property, even though results are likely to improve with increased skill and experience. Cornell Cooperative Extension is looking to assist in providing an educational opportunity to learn more about the art of silvopasturing. The 2-day conference will be November 7 and 8, 2011 at the Watkins Glen Harbor Hotel, 16 North Franklin Street, Watkins Glen, Schuyler County. The goals of the conference are to broaden a collective understanding of silvopasturing and its applications in the Northeastern US across multiple professions and stakeholders, identify opportunities and challenges to its implementation, and develop networks for collaborative research, learning and promotion of silvopasturing activities. It is open to the public, with land use and conservation professionals, foresters, graziers, woodland owners and members of the academic community are especially encouraged to attend. The multistate list of presenters represents areas of in the East where the practice is in place. Highlights, though not all the speakers include John Hopkins, Consulting Forester from Bloomsburg, PA will discuss restoration and revitalization of an Appalachian farm. Charles Feldrake with USDA Agricultural Research Service's Appalachian Farming Systems Research Centerin Beaver, West Virginia, will talk about their applied research there. Mike Jacobson with Penn State University will cover great opportunities and challenges in the Northeast. Three of our speakers are coming from University of Missouri Center for Agroforestry. Dusty Walters, Larry Godsey, and Gene Garrett will at length focus on silvopasture design, implementation and impacts. Doug Wallace is the NRCS Lead Agroforester at the USDA National Agroforestry Center in Lincoln, Nebraska will provide an overview of current resources and assistance available for practitioners and researchers. Brett Chedzoy, CCE, is a forester and practitioner of the silvopasturing. He and his wife, Maria, will host the field tour/discussion portion and conclusion of the conference. We will see first-hand their system in place. This is by no means a complete overview of the conference! Every attempt is being made to keep the cost of the conference as reasonable as possible with support coming from National Agroforestry Center, Upper Susquehanna Coalition, Cornell's Department of Natural Resources, as well as others in the works. An agenda and registration for the event can be foundonline at A block of rooms are reserved at the hotel; contact them on the web at or 607-535-6116. For more information on the event, contact Brett at 607-742-3657 or Nancy Glazier is Small Farms Support Specialist for the Northwest New York Dairy, Livestock and Field Crops Team of Cornell Cooperative Extension/PRO-DAIRY. You can reach her at585-315-7746 or

Page 18


October 3, 2011

October 3, 2011

Page 19



Farmscapes for Birds By Margaret Fowle

This article is the first in a two-part series. In the winter article I will highlight some real-life success stories of working with landowners in partnership with NRCS and Audubon Vermont. Audubon Vermont is working with the Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS) on two exciting programs, called the Forest Bird Initiative (FBI) and Champlain Valley Bird Initiative (CVBI). Both programs engage landowners in managing their land to protect a number of priority bird species in the region. Through these programs, forest, shrubland, and grass landowners are given the tools they need to make decisions about land management that benefit both the land and nesting birds. Breeding bird surveys have shown that the forests and early successional grasslands and shrublands of Vermont and Northern New England are a globally important resource for birds throughout the hemisphere. However, many relatively common birds in Vermont are still declining throughout their range. Rather than waiting for species such as the Canada Warbler, Eastern Towhee, or Bobolink to become vulnerable and end up on a threatened or endangered species list, it is important to take action to proactively conserve birds in the core of their range. The advantage to this approach is that lowcost management activities, education, and monitoring can help maintain or increase the populations of these birds. Audubon Vermont's programs provide technical assistance to individual forest and early successional habitat (grassland and shrubland) landowners at no charge. The key to both initiatives is providing landowners with the information they need to make positive conservation decisions and then working with them to make those decisions happen on the ground. Audubon works in partnership with NRCS and informs and helps

The Golden Winged Warbler is losing habitat, in part because of reforestation. Photo by John Hannan landowners enroll in cost-sharing programs that maintain and enhance bird habitat on their land. Some of the management recommendations that Audubon VT biologists recommend to landowners are: altering hayland cutting schedules to accommodate nesting birds, maintaining and enhancing shrubland habitat, and creating small openings in forests that enhance the overall diversity and vertical structure of the forest. NRCS will share the costs of many of these practices through its Wildlife Habitat and Environmental Quality Incentive Programs.

This article is the first in a two-part series. Stay tuned to the winter issue for some real-life success stories of working with landowners in partnership with NRCS and Audubon Vermont. Margaret Fowle is a Conservation Biologist for Audubon Vermont. She can be reached at

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The Bobolink is a distinctive bird of open grasslands Photo by Allan Strong

More information on protecting and creating bird habitat can be found at:, or you can find the chapter for your area by going to: For more on the NRCS Wildlife Habitat and Environmental Quality Incentive Programs please visit: (or substitute your states abbreviation) or

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October 3, 2011



FarmStart: Continuing the Tradition of Agriculture in the Northeast By Kristie Schmitt Starting a new business in any industry comes with challenges, but new businesses in agriculture are presented with an additional slate of obstacles. Many startup farms don't have the capital needed for upfront expenses, such as land, equipment, seed, etc. New farms often lack the credit history, repayment ability and/or collateral, so investors and lending institutions are often hesitant to invest in their startup business. Furthermore, any new business lacks sufficient business knowledge, time management skills, confidence and marketing resources to efficiently launch and run a new business. Farm Credit has a long-term commitment of helping young individuals get started in farming. As a result, five years ago, Farm Credit East initiated a program to support talented, hardworking individuals entering agriculture. This program is today known as FarmStart, LLP. Now celebrating its fifth year, FarmStart has invested more than $3 million to 75 participants, some of whom have graduated and moved on to traditional Farm Credit East loans. The first initiative of its kind in the United States, FarmStart helps to fulfill Farm Credit East's vision of a vibrant, entrepreneurial agricultural community by giving strong, new entrants a healthy start. Through FarmStart, LLP, Farm Credit East recognizes the need to invest in the future of farming and agriculture in the Northeast.

"FarmStart allowed us the financial flexibility to learn about cash flow and sales fluxes during our first few years in business. Thanks to FarmStart we are now in a better position to project expenses and balance our budget" Bruce Schader of Wake Robin Farms in Jordan, NY explains of the required business plan. Any beginning farmer, fisherman, forestry producer, farm related business owners and/or cooperative with great promise for success, but a minimal track record to date and limited financial resources is eligible to apply to FarmStart. Candidates are either transitioning into agriculture from another occupation or pursuing nontraditional agricultural businesses, many with a creative agricultural idea or niche. Candidates have at least two years of relevant experience and are in the early startup phase of operation or making major changes in the first several years. The applicant must be an independent enterprise and cannot be affiliated with an established operation. FarmStart allows new producers to get their business off the ground. "Knowing there are funds available through the FarmStart program has helped me to stay calm in financial situations" proclaims FarmStart participant Marcy O'Connell of Holland Farm,

Zachary Heiken, Heiken Farms, Perkintown, N Photo by Craig Muhlbaier, Farm Credit East LLC in Milford, NH. "The staff at Farm Credit East are extremely knowledgeable in farming, and knowing they are just a phone call away has allowed me to stay focused on my true passion, farming." To apply to FarmStart, an applicant must submit a FarmStart application, current balance sheet, income statement, monthly cash flow budget and a business plan, along with two personal references. For more information on the program and how to apply, please visit

Kristie Schmitt is Knowledge Exchange & Communications Specialist at Farm Credit East, ACA in Enfield, CT. She can be reached at or (800) 562-2235.

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"Our farm is in an area where we will probably never be able to own the land we farm, so we have no land for collateral," explains Ian Calder-Piedmonte of Balsam Farms, LLC in Amagansett, N.Y. "Without collateral, we couldn't obtain the financing we needed to build our business. That's where


FarmStart came in and helped us as new growers." FarmStart invests working capital in northeast agriculture ventures that show promise of success. This investment functions the same as an operating line of credit. It is intended to provide the critical last dollar of funding to overcome the timing mismatch that makes it difficult for true startup farming operations to generate working capital.

January 24-25-26 2012

"When I got started with FarmStart, I was already a year into my business," says Terri Lawton of Oake Knoll Ayrshires (OKA) in Foxboro, Mass. "My business was expanding due to demand, but I needed money to buy hay for the winter. I didn't have enough of the quality hay I needed in order to expand the business, so I called Farm Credit." FarmStart funds allowed Terri to increase her herd to 20 milk cows and purchase quality western hay and glass milk bottles. FarmStart's working capital investment is limited to $50,000 with a minimum interest only for five years and principal due in full in five years. This investment helps recipients learn the discipline and skills of effective cash flow management as they develop a successful track record of credit use. A FarmStart advisor works with each recipient. This advisor provides substantial consulting and financial planning to help young farmers stay on track toward achieving their business objectives and establishing a positive business and credit history. "Working with someone who understands my business and my financials were important to me; and that's just the quality service FarmStart provided" says Zachary Heiken of Heiken Farms in Perkintown, N.J. "FarmStart provided the additional money I needed to allow my business to grow during the early years." The final component of FarmStart is the required business plan. All FarmStart applicants are required to submit a business plan along with their application. This plan will help organize the new entrepreneur's mission and business goals as well as define how to distribute their FarmStart funds. The business plan will serve as a roadmap for the first few years of their startup business.

Terri Lawton, Oake Knoll Ayrshires, Foxboro, Mass. Photo by Custis Drown

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Country Folks New England October 3, 2011

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