VOL. 46/NO. 2
The Official Publication of The Kentucky Nursery and Landscape Association
Interpreting Herbicide Damage in the Nursery
Program Preview for
KNLa’s Spring training & showplace January 25–26, 2017
VOL. 46/NO. 2
8 Green gathering/ 16 Green Gathering/ Upcoming Event Recent event
KNLA’s Spring Training & Showplace, January 25–26, 2017
12 Cover Story
I nterpreting Herbicide Damage in the Nursery
KNLA’s Summer Retreat — Leadership Forum & Marketplace, September 8
18 Green Gathering/ Recent event
NLA Horticulture K Bus Tour, October 6
6 From the President, Kim Fritz 7 Charles Wilson memorial scholarship 17 Index of Advertisers
Nurs ery Views • winte r 2016
18 The Kentucky Nursery and Landscape Association serves its members in the industry through education, promotion and representation. The statements and opinions expressed herein are those of the individual authors and do not necessarily represent the views of the association, its staff, or its board of directors, Nursery Views, or its editors. Likewise, the appearance of advertisers, or their identification as Kentucky Nursery and Landscape Association members, does not constitute an endorsement of the products or services featured in this, past or subsequent issues of this bi-annual publication. Copyright © 2016 by the Kentucky Nursery and Landscape Association. Nursery Views is published bi-annually. Subscriptions are complimentary to members of the Kentucky Nursery and Landscape Association. We are not responsible for unsolicited freelance manuscripts and photographs. Contact the managing editor for contribution information. Advertising: For display and classified advertising rates and insertions, please contact Leading Edge Communications, LLC, 206 Bridge Street, Franklin, TN 37064, (615) 790-3718, Fax (615) 794-4524. 4
The official publication of the Kentucky Nursery and Landscape Association
P.O. Box 5006 l Frankfort, KY 40602-5006 502-330-8300 Email: email@example.com • firstname.lastname@example.org www.knla.org • www.thelandlovers.org KNLA Officers President Kim Fritz Village Green Wholesale Nursery 4251 Bloomfield Road Springfield, KY 40069 • Tel: 502-460-0764 email@example.com Vice President Michael Mueller Inside Out Design, LLC 100 Old Georgetown Road • Frankfort, KY 40601 Tel: 502-695-7020 • firstname.lastname@example.org Past President Martin Korfhage Clinton Korfhage Nursery, Inc. 1823 Heaton Rd. • Louisville, KY 40216 Tel: 502-448-1544 • email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org Directors Pat Carey (2017) Riverfarm Nursery 2901 N. Buckeye Lane • Goshen, KY 40006 Tel: 502-228-5408 • email@example.com
Published by Leading Edge Communications, LLC
206 Bridge Street l Franklin, TN 37064 615-790-3718 l Fax: 615-794-4525 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org www.leadingedgecommunications.com
Eric Garris (2017) Bernheim Arboretum & Research Forest P.O. Box 130, Hwy. 245 • Clermont, KY 40110 Tel: 502-955-8512 • email@example.com
Beau Spicer (2018) Louis’ Flower Power Shop 3391 Tates Creek Road • Lexington, KY 40502 Tel: 859-266-6889 • firstname.lastname@example.org
Brent Grunfeld (2018) Monrovia 7504 Knight Lane • Fairview, TN 37062 Tel: 615-584-0116 • BGrunfeld@monrovia.com
Jeff Wallitsch (2018) Wallitsch Nursery & Garden Center 206 Hikes Lane • Louisville, KY 40218 Tel: 502-454-3553 • email@example.com
Wes King (2016) King’s Gardens 4560 Nicholasville Road • Lexington, KY 40515 Tel: 859-272-7077 • firstname.lastname@example.org
Educational Advisors Dr. Winston Dunwell UK Research & Education Center P.O. Box 469 • Princeton, KY 42445 Tel: 270-365-7541, ext. 209 email@example.com
Cora Martin (2017) Ammon Nursery, Inc. 6089 Camp Ernst Road • Burlington, KY 41005 Tel: 859-586-6246 • firstname.lastname@example.org Jeff Moore (2016) Signature Landscapes, LLC 1084 Baker Lane • Nicholasville, KY 40356 Tel: 859-887-2735 email@example.com
Dr. Dewayne Ingram University of Kentucky, Horticulture Dept. N-308F Agri. Sci. Center • Lexington, KY 40546 Tel: 859-257-8903 • firstname.lastname@example.org Dr. Robert (Bob) E. McNiel (Emeritus) Highland Moor 226 Shady Lane • Midway, KY 40347 Tel: 859-509-2719 • email@example.com
FROM THE PRESIDENT l Kim Fritz
See You at
Spring Training! I
hope everyone has had a busy and profitable season. It was so nice to see so many of you at the Kentucky Nursery & Landscape Association (KNLA) Summer Retreat and Bus Tour! For those of you who attended, exhibited or sponsored, thank you! Both were a tremendous success, and we are already making plans for next year. Pictures of both events are included in this issue of Nursery Views (see page 16 and 18). I hope you have all received your “Save-the-Dates” notice for our Spring Training and Showplace. This two-day event will be on Wednesday, January 25, and Thursday, January 26, 2017, at the Ramada Inn and Conference Center in Louisville, KY. This was very successful last year, and we have even more fun in store for you this year! This meeting will be comprised of seminars geared towards crew academy, plant production and management. It will include pesticide classes for those wanting to obtain a pesticide license and for those who need CEUs to maintain their pesticide license. There will be classes and CEUs for arborists and for landscape architects. We will continue the Kentucky Certified Nursery Exam and Pesticide Exam. As many of you have heard, KNLA is currently operating without an executive director. Because of the circumstances involved in the executive director vacating this position, we have revised our bylaws, and changes to the bylaws will be voted on at the KNLA Annual Meeting at 4:00 p.m. on Wednesday, January 25, 2017. To entice you into coming, we will offer 25¢ beer and yummy appetizers! In the meantime, please join me in thanking all the KNLA board members, as they have really stepped up to take over the executive director role: Michael Mueller, Vice-President Martin Korfhage, Past President Pat Carey, Director Eric Garris, Director Brent Grunfeld, Director Wes King, Director Cora Martin, Director Jeff Moore, Director Beau Spicer, Director Jeff Wallitsch, Director Dr. Win Dunwell, Education Advisor Dr. Dewayne Ingram, Education Advisor Dr. Bob McNiel, Education Advisor
Nurs ery Views • win ter 2016
2016–2018 KNLA President
Thank you for your contributions any time of year to perpetuate and grow this fund. Please make checks payable to: Kentucky Nursery & Landscape Association c/o Charles E. Wilson Scholarship P.O. Box 5006, Frankfort, KY 40602-5006
KNLA’s Training & Showplace Nurture your Team & Bloom your Business! January 25–26, 2017 • Ramada Plaza Louisville Hotel and Conference Center, Louisville, KY
Showplace open Wed., Jan. 25, 10 a.m. – 4 p.m., and Thurs., Jan. 26, 9 a.m. – 4 p.m.
Kentucky Nursery & Landscape Association is excited to offer its winter educational event — KNLA’s Spring Training & Showplace. The presentations at this event are designed to assist the green industry with key information to help businesses remain viable in this time of shrinking dollars. The event features two full days of educational sessions to choose from, plus extra time for you to browse the tradeshow floor at the Showplace!
The Education Conference allows you to: • Keep current with industry trends, issues and technology. • Earn pesticide, arborist and landscape architect CEUs!
Nurs ery Views • Winte r 2016
The Showplace — January 25–26 — provides:
• A convenient and economical alternative to traveling around the country searching for the products you need to move your business forward. • Two days to explore a diverse selection of horticultural products. • A profitable opportunity to discover new product sources and boost your bottom line.
• The chance to expand your network and meet face-to-face with industry peers.
Attention KNLA Members!
Make sure to join us for KNLA’s Annual Business Meeting, to be held Wednesday evening, January 25, at 4:00 p.m., in the Ballroom in the Convention Center. Join us as we honor and vote in new — and reward outgoing — officers and directors. Also, hear about the state of the industry in Kentucky, and hear important updates from the Kentucky Dept. of Agriculture, Kentucky Horticulture Council and the University of Kentucky. We will honor the Charles E. Wilson Scholarship and KNLA Hall of Fame recipients. We will then unwind and gear up for the upcoming spring season by networking with your industry peers.
Kentucky Certified Nurseryman and KDA Pesticide Certification Exams The Kentucky Certified Nurseryman exam will be offered on Wednesday, January 25, from 8:30 a.m. (EST) to 3:00 p.m., and applicants can register using the conference brochure registration form or by visiting www.KNLA.org (go to “Awards and Certification, and click on “KCN Certification”). The cost
of the KCN Exam is $50.00 for KNLA members and $75.00 for non-members. The Kentucky Department of Agriculture, Division of Environmental Services Pesticide Certification written exam will be held on Thursday afternoon January 26. Exam fees are $25.00 for the first category and $10.00 for each additional category. Please make checks payable to: Kentucky State Treasurer. All fees must be paid at the time of testing (directly to the Kentucky Department of Agriculture, Division of Environmental Services) with a check or money order (cash will not be accepted). If you have any questions regarding the Initial Pesticide Certification Exam, please call David Wayne at the Kentucky Department of Agriculture, Division of Environmental Services at 502-782-9240.
Pre-registration deadline ends on Wednesday, January 13, 2017. All Full registrants receive lunch on Thursday and a complimentary KLI Expo badge to use Wednesday and Thursday (1/25 and 1/26). Wednesday registrants receive complimentary Expo badge to use 1/25 and 1/26. Thursday registrants receive lunch and complimen-
tary Expo badge to use 1/25 and 1/26. Complete and mail in the form from your registration packed (mailed out earlier), or register online at
www.2017SpringTraining eventbrite.com. Per Person
Wednesday KCN Exam
After January 13, the following Onsite Fees will apply. Per Person
Questions and sponsorship information can be directed to KNLA, P.O. Box 5006, Frankfort, KY 40602; 502-330-8300; or firstname.lastname@example.org or email@example.com. For Ramada Plaza reservations, call 502-491-4830. 2
Earn Your Continuing Education Credits! Need to earn some CEUs to retain your pesticide license or professional certification? As of press time for this issue of Nursery Views, here are the tentative CEUs you can earn from the following organizations: • Kentucky Department of Agriculture — up to 8 pesticide points • International Society of Arboriculture Certified Arborists — 9 hours available • Kentucky Landscape Architect Board — TBA hours available These are the maximum credits you can earn if you attend the full conference.
Nur sery Views • win ter 2016
Wednesday, January 25, 2016 Registration begins at 7:30 a.m. (EST)
8:15 a.m. – 9:15 p.m.
CMV Safety in a World of Landscaping Sgt. Bill Patterson, Louisville Metro Police
9:20 a.m. – 10:20 a.m.
Big Picture Thinking — Using Clues to Diagnose Landscape Problems, Part 1 Nicole Ward Gauthier, Ph.D., Univ. of Kentucky
10:25 a.m. – 11:25 a.m.
Planting Holes Are More Than Holes in the Ground William M. Fountain, Ph.D., Univ. of Kentucky
11:30 a.m. – 12:15 p.m. 12:15 p.m. – 1:50 p.m. 1:50 p.m. – 2:50 p.m.
2:55 p.m. – 3:55 p.m. 4:00 p.m. – 5:00 p.m.
Production and Business Mastering Inventory Control with RFID Applications Mattieu Vollmer, MBA, and Benjamin Meyers, Arbre Technologies Team Habits for Working Smarter, Not Harder: A Discussion of Lean Management in the Green Industry Sarah Vanek, Mulhall’s State of the Horticulture Union Craig Regelbrugge, AmericanHort
Vendor Introduction in the Conference Ballroom LuncH & SHOWPLACE EXPO Make Your Equipment Last Longer — What’s Different about Equipment Is My Tree Safe? You Buy Today? William M. Fountain, Ph.D., Univ. of Kentucky Tom Aull, Midwest Equipment Company Planting Disease Diagnosis: Making the Most of Your Resources Julie Beale, University of Kentucky
Building Relationships to Increase Sales: A Different Approach Stephan Zimmerman, Limbwalker Tree Service
KNLA Annual Meeting and reception
Thursday, January 26, 2016
Registration begins at 7:30 a.m. (EST)
Plants and Design
8:15 a.m. – 9:15 p.m.
Ornamental IPM Frank Hale, Ph.D., University of Tennessee
I-Tree Tools for Landscaping and Marketing Josh Knight, University of Kentucky
9:20 a.m. – 10:20 a.m.
Big Picture Thinking — Using Clues to Diagnose Landscape Problems, Part 2 Nicole Ward Gauthier, Ph.D., Univ. of Kentucky
Ash Alternatives for Kentucky Kris Stone, Boone County Arboretum
10:25 a.m. – 11:25 a.m.
Diversity and Phenology of Ambrosia Beetles in Western Kentucky Zenaida Viloria, Ph.D.; Win Dunwell, Ph.D.; Ginny Travis and Raul Villanueva, Univ. of Kentucky.
Plants That Help You Stay Ahead of the Curve and Meet Customer Demands Blair Leano-Helvey, Idyllwild Butterfly Farm
11:30 a.m. – 12:15 p.m.
Vendor Introduction in the Conference Ballroom
12:15 p.m. – 1:50 p.m.
LuncH & SHOWPLACE EXPO
1:50 p.m. – 2:50 p.m.
Top 20 Landscape Weeds and Management Strategies Shawn Wright, Ph.D., University of Kentucky
Developing Superior Floral and Woody Nursery Plants at the U.S. National Arboretum Lisa W. Alexander, Ph.D., U.S. National Arboretum
2:55 p.m. – 3:55 p.m.
The Importance of Beneficial Insects in the Landscape and Nursery Frank Hale, Ph.D., University of Tennessee
Trees for Healthy Cities Kristin Booker, PLA, ASLA, Booker Design Collaborative
4:00 p.m. – 5:00 p.m
Identifying and Managing Wildlife Issues in Nurseries and Urban Landscapes Matthew Springer, Ph.D., Univ. of Kentucky
Nursery crops nearest to a row-crop field may be susceptible to damage from spray drift when that field is sprayed with an herbicide.
Chlorotic growth resulting from glyphosate spray drift.
Bud proliferation resulting from glyphosate spray drift.
Damage in the Nursery
By Adam Blalock, Former TSU Area Nursery Extension Specialist; Anthony Witcher, Ph.D., TSU Assistant Professor, Nursery Production and Sustainability; and Heath Nokes, UT Warren Co. Extension Agent; Otis L. Floyd Nursery Research Center
Looped or contorted and kinked growth of stems resulting from exposure to phenoxy-based herbicides.
erbicides are an important tool to help wholesale nursery growers, landscape professionals and rowcrop farmers control weeds effectively. When herbicide products are used correctly, they can save both time and money. When herbicides are used incorrectly or without regard for nearby plantings, however, catastrophic plant damage called phytotoxicity may result. Symptoms of herbicide damage can vary greatly and are influenced by factors including type of chemical sprayed, the active ingredient mode of action (MOA), interaction with adjuvants, wind speed and direction, air temperature, humidity and species or cultivar of plant affected. Middle Tennessee nurseries observed considerable herbicide injury to ornamental plant crops between April and June in Photos by Adam Blalock
Stunted or disfigured young leaves resulting from exposure to phenoxy-based herbicides.
2015. Some re-occurring herbicide-damage symptoms included leaf defoliation, axillary bud proliferation, leaf chlorosis and deformed leaves and shoots. Diagnosing a herbicidal cause from these symptoms alone can be difficult because some plant diseases, insects, mites and other abiotic (non-living) factors may cause similar symptoms. After visiting the nurseries and examining symptomatic plants, these observations stood out: affected plants were frequently in near proximity to a corn or soybean field, and damage to large trees and shrubs was more severe on the side facing the corn or soybean field (Photo 1). Symptoms on affected crops were often more severe among specimens planted closest to the corn or soybean field. Farmers who plant corn, soybeans and other row crops may commonly apply a broad-spectrum, post-emergent (POST) herbicide prior to planting to kill all existing weeds. Glyphosate (Roundup) is one of the most commonly used broad-
spectrum herbicides, and this compound kills plants by inhibiting an essential amino acid found only in plants. Although glyphosate is effective at killing the majority of herbaceous weeds, there are at least seven weed species known to be glyphosate-resistant, including horseweed, Palmer amaranth, common and giant ragweeds, tall waterhemp, annual bluegrass and Italian ryegrass (Heap 2015). As a result of glyphosate resistance in these weeds, a different POST-herbicide with a different MOA must be used to control them. Glyphosate is so commonly sprayed across landscape, nursery and agriculture settings that accidents occasionally happen. Although glyphosate is not volatile like phenoxy-based herbicides (see below), damage can still occur following drift and direct liquid-spray contact to crop foliage and plant suckers, as well as careless application practices. In cases where glyphosate spray drift has directly contacted woody
ornamental plant tissues, bud proliferation (Photo 2), leaf abscission and chlorotic growth (Photos 3 and 4) have resulted. Glyphosate uptake occurs less efficiently, and the active ingredient is processed differently by hardwood plants than herbaceous plants (D’Anieri et al. 1990 and Green et al. 1992). For this reason, glyphosate damage to woody ornamentals may not appear for several weeks following the initial spray drift occurrence. Farmers producing hay and forage commonly use a phenoxy-based herbicide like 2,4-D to control broadleaf weeds, including weeds that are resistant to glyphosate. Phenoxy-based herbicides mimic auxins, which are naturally occurring plant growth regulators (PGRs) found in plants. At normal levels, plantderived auxins yield normal plant growth and development. When auxin levels are elevated (for example, by treatment with synthetic herbicide derivatives), uncontrolled cellular growth will occur. In essence, spraying a synthetic auxin on a broadleaf plant floods the plant cells with a PGR mimic, causing the plant to “grow itself to death” by exhausting energy resources. The uncontrolled growth that results will yield symptoms in affected plants including looped or contorted and kinked growth of stems (Photo 5) and stunted or disfigured young leaves (Photos 6 and 7). The molecular structure of phenoxybased herbicides makes many of them volatile, and in gaseous form, they can drift off-site, leading to phytotoxicity symptoms. Phenoxy-based herbicides are usually synthesized in amine or ester formulations. Amine formulations are more water soluble and less likely to volatize, while ester formulations are more readily absorbed by the plant and are more subject to volatility. Regardless, air temperatures that exceed 85°F increase the volatilization risk of both formulations, particularly when paired with high soil moisture content. When investigating plants with suspected phenoxy-based herbicide damage, it’s important to take into account the weather conditions the day the spraying occurred, as well as the weather conditions the following few days. If you suspect herbicide damage to
ornamental plants or crops, it is important to take immediate action because chemicals are continuously degraded by the environment and metabolized by the plant. First, gather plant material and send it to a laboratory that will test for herbicide residue. Put the plant material into a sealed plastic bag, and place it into a refrigerator (not a freezer) until the sample can be mailed. Samples should be mailed early in the week to avoid sample decline across weekends. Second, take photos of plant and foliar damage, and make detailed notes, including the dates symptoms were first observed, affected plant species and cultivar, location within the nursery or landscape and any relevant weather or other observations, should the case need to be settled in a court. If a neighbor is actively spraying during a windy day, hang a few towels or sheets around the perimeter of the nursery. This clothesline might look odd and out of place but the towels and sheets can also be collected and tested for herbicide residue. In areas where agriculture and nursery fields overlap, producers should be aware of herbicide volatilization and the potential effects that drift can have on neighboring crops and plants in the surrounding landscape. By taking steps such as getting to know what crops your neighbors are growing, setting sprayers to produce larger droplets (by reducing psi) and not spraying on windy or hot and humid days, the chance for herbicide drift will be minimized. 2
References Dâ€™Anieri, P., S.M. Zedaker, J.R. Seiler, and R.E. Kreh. 1990. Glyphosate translocation and efficacy relationships in red maple, sweet gum and loblolly pine seedlings. Forest Science 36:438-447. Green, T.H., P.J. Minogue, C.H. Brewer, G.R. Glover, and D.H. Gjerstad. 1992. Absorption and translocation of [14C] glyphosate in four woody plant species. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 22:785-789. Heap, I. The International Survey of Herbicide Resistant Weeds. [last accessed, 22 September 2015, www. weedscience.org]
Thanks to our Summer Retreat
Sponsors Facility Sponsor Buffalo Trace Distillery Platinum Sponsors Monrovia Valley Hill Nurseries Tent Sponsor Wilson Nurseries, Inc. Water Bottle Sponsor McHutchison, LLC
KNLA director Pat Carey (standing, center) addresses attendees at the Summer Retreat.
Lunch Sponsor Anderson Mulch & Soil Beverage Sponsor Caudill Seed Co.
Thanks Also to our Summer Retreat
exhibitors Airtech Tools Ammon Wholesale Nursery Caudill Seed & Warehouse Co., Inc.
Buffalo Trace Distillery • Frankfort, KY
September 8, 2016
Dayton Bag & Burlap Encon Equipment Highland Moor HortAlliance Group, LLC Kelly Nursery, LLC KY Dept. of Agriculture – Marketing & Product Promotion KNLA Klyn Nurseries National Nursery Products Natorp Wholesale Nursery Scarff’s Nursery Snow Hill Nursery, Inc. Tom Green Nursery Sales, LLC United Label University of Kentucky Nursery Crops Village Green Wholesale Nursery Wilson Equipment Company 2
index of advertisers
Ammon Wholesale Nursery, Inc.......... 15
anderson mulch & soil, LLC.....Back Cover
bobcat enterprises, inc.............Inside Front Cover Boshancee nursery, inc........................... 7
Center Hill Nursery................................ 17
Fairview Evergreen Nurseries.............. 5
Jelitto Perennial Seeds........................... 9
Landscapers Corner, Inc...................... 15
Leading edge communications............ 11
Low Falls Wholesale Nursery.............. 7
McHutchison Horticultural................ 17
Millcreek Gardens, LLC............................ 7
Motz and son Nursery............................ 18 Richey Nursery Company, LLC.............. 17
Riverside Plastics.................................... 14
Smith Seed Services................................. 17
Thomas Nursery........................................ 17
Wellmaster Carts......... Inside Back Cover
Marketplace Scan the QR code: Download a QR reader to your phone and scan the code to learn more about these companies.
Nur sery Views â€˘ Win ter 2016
KNLA members Michael Mueller, Richard Webber and Wes King.
October 6, 2016
KNLA Horticulture Bus Tour
KNLA Horticulture Bus Tour on October 6 began at the Parklands of Floyd Park (Louisville), and proceeded to a tour of and lunch at Whitehall (Louisville), a tour of Wallitsch Nursery and Garden Center (Louisville) and a tour and twilight dinner at Riverfarm Nursery (Goshen, KY). The all-day tour was attended by more than two dozen KNLA members who thoroughly enjoyed the event.
Thank You to our
Nurs ery Views â€˘ Winte r 2016
Carlton Plants Dayton Bag & Burlap Garden Debut Greenleaf Nursery Co. J. Frank Schmidt & Son Co. Listerman & Assoc., Inc. Proven Winners Riverfarm Nursery 2 18