Nursery Views - Winter 2015

Page 1

VOL. 45/NO. 2

Winter 2015

The Official Publication of The Kentucky Nursery and Landscape Association

Program Preview for KNLA’s

Spring Training & Showplace January 27–28, 2016

Kentucky’s Nursery and Greenhouse Industries:

General Characteristics

Tree Wounds —

Invitations to Wood Decay Fungi

VOL. 45/NO. 2

winter 2015


Top Features

8 Green GATHERINg/ Upcoming Event

12 Cover Story

19 Green Gathering/ recent event

KNLA’s Spring Training & Showplace, January 27–28, 2016 Kentucky’s Nursery and Greenhouse Industries: General Characteristics

14 In the Landscape

Nurs ery Views • Winte r 2015

illingness-to-Pay Comparisons W for Groundcover Plants in Plantable Containers

NLA’s Summer Retreat – K Leadership Forum & Marketplace September 1-2, 2015


Tree Wounds — Invitations to Wood Decay Fungi


6 From the President, Martin Korfhage 6 Welcome, New KNLA Members 20 industry news 21 Index of Advertisers 22 in memoriam

The Kentucky Nursery and Landscape Association serves its members in the industry through education, promotion and representation. The statements and opinions expressed herein are those of the individual authors and do not necessarily represent the views of the association, its staff, or its board of directors, Nursery Views, or its editors. Likewise, the appearance of advertisers, or their identification as Kentucky Nursery and Landscape Association members, does not constitute an endorsement of the products or services featured in this, past or subsequent issues of this bi-annual publication. Copyright ©2015 by the Kentucky Nursery and Landscape Association. Nursery Views is published bi-annually. Subscriptions are complimentary to members of the Kentucky Nursery and Landscape Association. We are not responsible for unsolicited freelance manuscripts and photographs. Contact the managing editor for contribution information. Advertising: For display and classified advertising rates and insertions, please contact Leading Edge Communications, LLC, 206 Bridge Street, Franklin, TN 37064, (615) 790-3718, Fax (615) 794-4524.


17 In the Nursery

The official publication of the Kentucky Nursery and Landscape Association

P.O. Box 6827 l Frankfort, KY 40602-6827 502-320-1488 Email: • KNLA Executive Director and Nursery Views Editor Betsie Aldridge Taylor P.O. Box 6827 • Frankfort, KY 40602-6827 Tel: 502-320-3733 Email: KNLA OFFICERS President Martin Korfhage Clinton Korfhage Nursery, Inc. 1823 Heaton Rd. • Louisville, KY 40216 Tel: 502-448-1544 • Fax: 502-447-1931 Vice President Kim Fritz Village Green Wholesale Nursery 4251 Bloomfield Rd. • Springfield, KY 40069 Tel: 502-460-0764 • Fax: 859-336-9010 Past President ToM WEEKS Wilson Nurseries P.O. Box 4009 • Frankfort, KY 40604-4009 Tel: 502-223-7735 • Fax: 502-223-3159

17 Published by Leading Edge Communications, LLC

206 Bridge Street l Franklin, TN 37064 615-790-3718 l Fax: 615-794-4525 Email:

Directors Eric Garris (2017) Bernheim Arboretum & Research Forest P.O. Box 130, Hwy. 245 • Clermont, KY 40110 Tel: 502-955-8512 • Fax: 502-955-4039 Brent grunfeld (2015) Monrovia 7504 Knight Lane • Fairview, TN 37062 Tel: 615-584-0116 • Fax: 615-266-2612 Wes King (2016) King’s Gardens 4560 Nicholasville Road • Lexington, KY 40515 Tel: 859-272-7077 • Fax: 859-272-4137 Jeff moore (2016) Signature Landscapes, LLC 1084 Baker Lane • Nicholasville, KY 40356 Tel: 859-887-2735 • Fax: 859-887-2736 Michael Mueller (2015) Inside Out Design, LLC 100 Old Georgetown Road • Frankfort, KY 40601 Tel: 502-695-7020 • Fax: 502-695-7021

SUZETTE WHITE (2015) Nature by Design 1819 Circleview Drive • LaGrange, KY 40031 Tel: 502-222-4501 • Fax: 502-222-4501 Margie witt (2017) Ammon Wholesale Nursery, Inc. 6089 Camp Ernst Road • Burlington, KY 41005 Tel: 859-586-6146 • Fax: 859-586-6183 EDUCATIONAL ADVISORS Dr. Winston Dunwell UK Research & Education Center P.O. Box 469 • Princeton, KY 42445 Tel: 270-365-7541, ext. 209 Fax: 270-365-2667 Dr. Dewayne ingram University of Kentucky, Horticulture Dept. N-308F Agri. Sci. Center • Lexington, KY 40546 Tel: 859-257-8903 • Fax: 859-257-2859 Dr. Robert (Bob) E. McNiel (Emeritus) Highland Moor 226 Shady Lane • Midway, KY 40347 Tel: 859-509-2719

From the President l Martin Korfhage

See You at

Spring Training! H

appy New Year! What a fabulous year we had in the nursery industry in 2015! We are very excited about KNLA’s Spring Training & Showplace, which will be held January 27–28 at the Ramada Plaza and Conference Center in Louisville. This has been a very successful meeting over the past several years. We felt that this location would be more accessible for all involved, and the hotel has much to offer, as you can see on our website. I want to thank the KNLA board members for all of their time spent. A special thanks goes to Tom Weeks, of Wilson Nurseries, our past president, for all of his diligence with the organization. In January, Kim Fritz, of Village Green Wholesale Nursery, will be assuming the title of president of the KNLA. Kim Fritz, as I am sure you are all aware, will be the first female president of the KNLA. Her knowledge of the industry and its trends, her involvement and her knowledge of the legislative issues regarding the agricultural industry are a

great asset to our leadership. It has truly been a pleasure to serve as the KNLA president for the past two years. The nursery and landscape industry has been changing rapidly over the past several years, presenting real challenges for our board. A very special thank you is in order to our board members, educators and Betsie Taylor, executive director of KNLA, who has spent substantial time trying to find the right recipe for the future of the KNLA. As I become a “past” president at our annual meeting in January, I truly believe that the KNLA will be in excellent hands. I will continue to be active and support Kim, the board and the future endeavors of this organization. I encourage the membership to become more active to ensure the future of the KNLA. Martin Korfhage 2014-2015 KNLA President

Welcome, New KNLA Members

Welcome New KNLA Members! Alexander’s Lawn & Tree Experts Contact: James Alexander, Owner

2209 Broadhead Place Lexington, KY 40515 Office: (859) 797-9327 The Garden Artisan, LLC Contact: Richard J. Spalding, Owner

Nurs ery Views • winte r 2015

3326 Illinois Avenue Louisville, KY 40213 Office: (502) 419-4683


Upcoming Event

KNLA’s Training & Showplace Nurture your Team & Bloom your Business! January 27–28, 2016 • Ramada Plaza Louisville Hotel and Conference Center, Louisville, KY

Showplace open Wed., Jan. 27, 10 a.m. – 4 p.m., and Thurs., Jan. 28, 9:00 a.m. – 4:00 p.m.


Kentucky Nursery & Landscape Association is excited to offer, for the first time, a new winter educational event — KNLA’s Spring Training & Showplace. The presentations at this event are designed to assist the green industry with key information to help businesses remain viable in this time of shrinking dollars. This year, our event features two full days of educational sessions to choose from, plus extra time for you to browse the tradeshow floor at the Showplace!

The Education Conference allows you to: • Keep current with industry trends, issues and technology. • Earn pesticide, arborist and landscape architect CEUs!

Nurs ery Views • winte r 2015

The Showplace — January 27–28 — provides: • A convenient and economical alternative to traveling around the country searching for the products you need to move your business forward. • Two days to explore a diverse selection of horticultural products.


• A profitable opportunity to discover new product sources and boost your bottom line. • The chance to expand your network and meet face-to-face with industry peers.

Attention KNLA Members! Make sure to join us for KNLA’s Annual Business Meeting, to be held Wednesday evening, January 27, at 4:00 p.m., in the Ballroom in the Convention Center. Join us as we honor and vote in new — and reward outgoing — officers and directors. Also hear about the state of the industry in Kentucky, and hear important updates from the Kentucky Dept. of Agriculture, Kentucky Horticulture Council and the University of Kentucky. We will also honor the Charles E. Wilson Scholarship and KNLA Hall of Fame recipients. We will then unwind and gear up for the upcoming spring season by networking with your industry peers, complete with a pitching machine/batting cage and .25 cent beer!

Kentucky Certified Nurseryman and KDA Pesticide Certification Exams

The Kentucky Certified Nurseryman exam will be offered on Wednesday, January 27, from 8:30 a.m. (EST) to 3:00 p.m., and applicants can register using the conference brochure registration form or by visiting (go to “Awards and Certification, and click on “KCN Certification”). The cost of the KCN Exam is $75 for KNLA members and $100 for non-members. The Kentucky Department of Agriculture, Division of Environmental Services Pesticide Certification written exam will be held on Thursday, January 28, from 8:30 a.m. to 9:30 p.m. Exam fees are $25.00 for the first category and $10.00 for each additional category. Please make checks payable to: Kentucky State Treasurer. All fees must be paid at the time of testing (directly to the Kentucky Department of Agriculture, Division of Environmental Services) with a check or money order (cash will not be accepted). If you have any questions regarding the Initial Pesticide Certification Exam, please call David Wayne at the Kentucky Department of Agriculture, Division of Environmental Services at 502-573-0282.

Conference Registration Pre-registration deadline ends on Wednesday, January 13, 2016. All Full registrants receive a Showplace badge to use 1/27–1/28, including coffee/breaks, Wed./Thurs. lunches and Wed. reception. Wednesday only registrants receive a Showplace badge to use 1/27–1/28, including coffee/breaks, Wed. lunch and Wed. reception. Thursday only registrants receive a Showplace badge to use 1/27–1/28, including coffee/breaks and Thurs. lunch. Complete and mail in the form from your registration packed (mailed out earlier), or register online at

Earn Your Continuing Education Credits! Need to earn some CEUs to retain your pesticide license or professional certification? Here, you can earn CEUs for the following organizations: • Kentucky Department of Agriculture — 4 general hours and 5 specific hours available • International Society of Arboriculture Certified Arborists — 8 hours available • Kentucky Landscape Architect Board — 3 hours available These are the maximum credits you can earn if you attend the full conference.

www.2016SpringTraining. Per Person

Members Non-Members

Full Conference



Wednesday Only



Wednesday KCN Exam



Thursday Only



Expo Badge



(Pre-registration required)

(one-day pass)

After January 13, the following Onsite Fees will apply. Per Person

Members Non-Members

Full Conference



Wednesday Only



Thursday Only



Expo Badge



(one-day pass)

Questions and sponsorship information can be directed to Betsie A. Taylor, KNLA executive director, by calling 502-302-3733 or emailing at mail.


Nur sery Views • win ter 2015

For Ramada Plaza online reservations, visit, or call 502-491-4830. 2

Upcoming Event l continued

Wednesday, January 27, 2016

Registration begins at 7:30 a.m. (EST)

Crew Academy


8:15 a.m. – 9:15 p.m.

CMV Safety in a World of Landscaping Sr. Officer Jason Morris ISA — I CEU

Characteristics and Economic Impact of the KY Green Industry Dewayne Ingram, Ph.D.

9:20 a.m. – 10:20 a.m.

10:25 a.m. – 11:25 a.m. 11:30 a.m. – 12:15 p.m. 12:15 p.m. – 1:50 p.m. 1:50 p.m. – 2:50 p.m.

2:55 p.m. – 3:55 p.m.

4:00 p.m. – 5:00 p.m

Pathogen Biology: How Fungal Spores Spread and Overwinter Nicole Ward Gauthier, Ph.D. Plant Winter Injury and Overwintering Options KDA — 1 Specific Pesticide CEU Carey Grable and Dewayne Ingram, Ph.D. (Cat. 3, 10, 12, 18, 20) ISA — I CEU Protecting Pollinators: The Kentucky Plan Ric Bessin, Ph.D. Ecosystem Services Provided by Plants KDA — 1 General Pesticide CEU Josh Knight and Dewayne Ingram, Ph.D. ISA — I CEU Vendor Introduction in the Conference Ballroom LuncH & SHOWPLACE EXPO Tips for Production Scouting for Plant Problems Joe Boggs Kentucky Department of Agriculture KDA — 1 Specific Pesticide CEU Kentucky Proud (Cat. 3, 10, 12) Kristen Branscum and Roger Snell ISA — 1 CEU Combining Science and CommonHorticultural Practices for Improved Sense Pruning for Stronger, Healthier Trees Quality and Pest Management Stephan Zimmerman Win Dunwell, Ph.D., and Carey Grable KDA — 1 Specific Pesticide CEU KDA — 1 Specific Pesticide CEU (Cat. 3, 10, 12) (Cat. 3, 10, 12, 18, 20) ISA — 1 CEU KNLA Annual Meeting and reception

Thursday, January 28, 2016 Registration begins at 7:30 a.m. (EST)

8:15 a.m. – 9:15 p.m.

9:20 a.m. – 10:20 a.m.

10:25 a.m. – 11:25 a.m.

Nurs ery Views • winte r 2015

11:30 a.m. – 12:15 p.m. 12:15 p.m. – 1:50 p.m. 1:50 p.m. – 2:50 p.m. 2:55 p.m. – 3:55 p.m. 4:00 p.m. – 5:00 p.m 10

Pest Management

Plants and Design

2015 Plant Disease Observations from the University of Kentucky Plant Disease Diagnostic Laboratory Kentucky Native Plants Brenda Kennedy, Julie Beale and Sara Long for Home Landscapes KDA — 1 Specific Pesticide CEU Margaret Shea (Cat. 3, 10, 12) ISA — 1 CEU What Makes the Bluegrass a I’m Confused! Organic vs. No Spray vs. Low Input Nicole Ward Gauthier, Ph.D. World-Class Cultural Landscape? KDA — 1 General Pesticide CEU Horst Schach ISA — 1 CEU LA Board — 1 CEU Water and Pesticides Finding Creative Solutions to Aaron Patton, Ph.D. Complex Design Issues KDA — 1 General Pesticide CEU John Korfhage ISA — 1 CEU LA Board — 1 CEU Vendor Introduction in the Conference Ballroom LuncH & SHOWPLACE EXPO Invasive Pests and IPM: Is the Sky Falling? Plants and Butterflies Ric Bessin, Ph.D. Blair Leno-Heavy KDA — 1 General Pesticide CEU LA Board — 1 CEU Enhance Crabgrass Control and New Pesticides Aaron Patton, Ph.D. KDA — 1 Specific Pesticide CEU (Cat. 3, 10, 12, 18, 20)

Take a Closer Look at This Flower Robert Geneve, Ph.D.

Cover Story

Kentucky’s Nursery and Greenhouse Industries:

General Characteristics By Dewayne L. Ingram, Ph.D., and Winston Dunwell, Ph.D., Horticulture Department, University of Kentucky

Nurs ery Views • winte r 2015


Kentucky nursery and greenhouse industry is diverse, distributed throughout the state, and contributes significantly to the local and state economy. This industry represents the largest segment of Kentucky’s sales of horticultural products and is comprised almost completely of farm families. Kentucky’s nursery and greenhouse industry has grown at a rate of 8% to 10% per year for many years. The most significant U.S. industry growth was in the 1980s and 1990s, but the most rapid growth of Kentucky’s industry has been between 2000 and 2008. A recent publication reported U.S. sales of nursery and greenhouse crops to be more than $16.7 billion in 2013, and Kentucky’s sales were more than $92 million (Hodges et al, 2015). The total employment


(fulltime and part-time) by Kentucky nursery growers in 2013 was 1,862, while landscape service firms accounted for 9,360 jobs. Landscape service firms in Kentucky had 2013 sales of $545 million. Economists’ knowledgeable of this industry describe it as a “maturing” industry with a slower growth rate (3% to 5%) and tighter profit margins than during the rapid growth period. The demand for landscape plants by new home construction decreased dramatically during the recession of 2007–2009 and subsequently for a couple years during the slow recovery. However, since that time, demand has come back strongly, and shortages of some landscape plants were evident by 2013. Changes in the market to reflect environmental quality considerations (e.g., reforestation of cities, phytoremediation and carbon offsets)

could impact the size of the market as well as the diversity of products necessary to satisfy that market.

The 2013 state survey The Green Industry Research Consortium, a Multi-State Research Project of the Southern Region’s Agricultural Experiment Stations (S-1051), conducts a survey of the U.S. nursery and greenhouse industries every five years. The University of Kentucky’s Agricultural Experiment Station is a member institution in the consortium, represented by Dr. Dewayne Ingram. The most recent survey was conducted in 2014 in all 50 states, reflecting 2013 business operations. Drs. Alan Hodges, Hayk Khachatryan, Charles Hall and Marco Palma took the lead on this survey and published the results in the Southern

Figure 1. Percentage of responding green-industry firms by size categories of annual sales for Kentucky, the Appalachian Region and the United States.

Cooperative Series Bulletin #420, Trade Flows and Marketing Practices with the U.S. Nursery Industry, 2013 (available at The Kentucky data have been extracted from this publication, and additional computations have been made from the original data for this circular. Kentucky’s nursery and greenhouse industry firms were identified for the survey through the state’s licensing and certification program. In the survey for 2013, for the first time, plant dealer firms (e.g., retailers, landscapers, florists, re-wholesalers) were included in the survey, as well as grower firms. Questionnaires were mailed to 96 growers in Kentucky, and an electronic version of the survey was emailed to 269 firms, including 221 growers and 48 identified as dealers. Based upon the number of surveys that were undeliverable, it was determined that the validated business population in Kentucky was 405 growers and 600 dealers. The 2013 data were compared to the 2003 and 2008 data for selected characteristics. Results of the 2003 and 2008 national survey were published as Southern Cooperative Series Bulletins #404 and 411, available at

Survey results

in the industry from 2003 to 2013. Forty-eight percent of Kentucky respondents established their operations in the 2000s; 23% were established after 2009; 13% were established in the 1990s; and 15% before 1990. Generally, Kentucky has experienced the greatest entry into the industry since the turn of the century, lagging somewhat the timing of the U.S. as a whole. The growth of the Kentucky nursery and greenhouse industry coincides with state investments by the KY Agricultural Development Fund in research, extension, marketing assistance and advertising cost-share programs through the Kentucky Horticulture Council. The growth rate was also influenced greatly by the economic recession in 2008–2010, during which sales were down as well as planting of future crops.

What does all this mean to us?

The nursery and greenhouse industry is a significant portion of Kentucky’s horticulture industry and the state’s important agricultural economy. Industry leaders can utilize this information when working with other agricultural leaders and state government. Owners and managers of nursery and/or greenhouse businesses can also use these data to compare their business with the state, regional and national averages. 2


Nur sery Views • win ter 2015

The majority of Kentucky firms responding to the latest edition of the national survey had both wholesale and retail sales, with 33% of total sales being wholesale. Seventy percent of the firms responding sold in wholesale markets, and 76% had retail sales. This breakdown between wholesale and retail sales for Kentucky firms has remained similar over the past three five-year survey periods. Of firms responding to the 2013 survey, 67% of total sales were at the retail level, which was significantly higher than the Appalachian region, including Kentucky, North Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia and West Virginia (26%), and nationally (40%). The average annual sales reported by Kentucky respondents were $1.7 million per firm, and the national and Appalachian region average was $1.8 million. Seventy-

nine percent of Kentucky firms responding had annual sales less than $250,000; 9% had sales of $250,000–$999,999; 6% had sales of $1 to 4.9 million; and 6% had sales of $10 million or greater (Figure 1). The statistics are similar to national data; 68% of respondents had less than $250,000 in annual sales, and 5% had sales of $1 million or greater. The broader green industry includes lawn and garden equipment manufacturing, landscape services and wholesale/retail distribution of plants and allied products, as well as nursery and greenhouse production. The estimated revenue for the U.S. green industry in 2013 was more than $136.44 billion. Kentucky’s annual sales were $1.52 billion. Kentucky’s 2013 sales were less than in most states in the Appalachian Region (NC = $4.55 billion; VA = $3.22 billion; and TN = $2.95 billion) with the exception of West Virginia, which was $451 million. A review of the data from this study indicates the authors were conservative on their projections of annual sales. Often, government reports of sales in the horticultural industries are significantly less than reality due to a variety of reasons, such as misclassification of firms and non-coverage of small, non-employer firms. In 2003, the value of the Kentucky nursery and greenhouse industry published by the USDA was slightly more than $75 million. This reflects significant growth

In the Landscape



Tree Wounds By Nicole Ward Gauthier

Nurs ery Views • winte r 2015

, Extension Plant Patho logist; William M. Foun tain, Extension Professor and Traci Missun, Coun of Arboriculture; ty Extension Agent, Unive rsity of Kentucky







ood decay leads to loss of tree vigor and vitality, resulting in decline, dieback and structural failure. Wounds play an important part in this process since they are the primary point of entry for wood decay pathogens. While other factors may also result in decline and dieback, the presence of wounds and/or outward signs of pathogens provides confirmation that wood decay is an underlying problem. Wounds and wood decay reduce the ability of trees to support themselves.


Bark, which serves to protect tree tissues, is the first line of defense against wood decay organisms. Whenever bark is broken, a wound results. Wounds that penetrate bark expose underlying tissues to invading pathogens (e.g., fungi and bacteria) that cause rot or decay. Wounds may be as small as nail holes or much larger. They may be caused by any number of mechanical factors, human activities, insect pests or animals. Some factors that cause wounds include: • Lawn equipment (e.g., mower and string trimmer damage to trunk and surface roots) (Photo 3) • Pruning (especially stubs left from topping or other improper pruning cuts) • Construction equipment and activities (trenching, grade changes, etc.) • Vehicles, bikes, scooters or other objects running into tree trunks • Wire, twine or other objects girdling or embedded in trunk or branch • Herbicides (especially sub-lethal rates of glyphosate) • Animal damage (deer, mice, woodpeckers, squirrels, etc.) • Insect injury (especially wood-boring insects) • Severe weather (e.g., lightning, wet snow, ice, high wind, sunscald)

Tree responses to wood decay

Wounded trees do not technically “heal,” since they are not capable of repair or replacement of damaged tissues. Instead, trees close over their damaged tissues

with woundwood/callus tissue. Trees also wall-off (compartmentalize) injuries by producing chemical and physical barriers to pathogens. Organisms that are able to overcome these protective barriers can then colonize and invade wounded tissues. Among the most aggressive of these organisms are the wood decay fungi. Not all wounds lead to wood decay, as they are frequently able to successfully compartmentalize wounded tissues. In many cases, formation of internal barriers within trees can prevent spread of infectious microbes. Rapid formation of woundwood/callus can also prevent the introduction of new pathogens. The ability of trees to compartmentalize decay differs between woody plants. Factors that affect this ability to compartmentalize decay include: • Plant species (genetic ability of the plant to compartmentalize) • Type of pathogen or disease • Tree age • Size and shape of wound • Location of wound • Vigor (how much the tree has grown) • Vitality (overall tree health) • Season (time of year) Healthy trees normally respond more quickly to injury than those that are stressed. Small wounds on young, healthy plants may close within a single growing season. Large wounds require several growing seasons to close, and some may never close. The rate of formation of woundwood/callus is often an indicator of relative tree vigor, but it is not necessarily indicative of tree resistance to the internal spread of decay. Extensive internal decay may exist behind a completely closed wound.

Wood-decay diseases

Wood decay begins when microscopic fungal strands (mycelia) or spores are carried by wind, insects, pruning equipment or other means to a wound. Depending on the host plant, fungal species and point of entry, decay is classified as a root rot, butt rot (decay at tree base) or trunk and branch rot. As the decay pathogen overcomes the host

plant’s defenses and colonizes, tissues essential for tree function and structural support are destroyed. During rainy seasons and moderate temperatures, many wood decay fungi produce visible reproductive structures, such as shelf-like fungal bodies or mushrooms. Rate of wood decay and appearance of structures can vary greatly, depending upon the type of tree, as well as its vigor and age. There are hundreds of species of wood decay fungi. Some disease organisms infect many species of plants, while others infect just a few. Examples of wood decay fungi include: Armillaria (shoestring root rot fungus, honey mushrooms), Fomes, Ganoderma (artist’s conk) (Photo 1), Polyporus, Trametes and Xylaria (dead man’s fingers).

Indications of decay

The most conclusive indicators of decay include: • Presence of mushrooms or mushroomlike structures in soil at or near tree base • Bracket or shelf-like fungal structures on trunks or branches Absence of these obvious indicators does not mean the tree is free of decay. Fruiting bodies of some decay fungi do not appear until decay is well advanced; others may go unnoticed because they are small, short-lived, hidden or produced infrequently. Other potential indicators of decay include: • Old wounds or cracks that fail to close • Loose bark • Abnormal swellings or bulges • Presence of compression rings evident on the trunk • Wood that is soft, white, spongy and stringy; or brown and brittle • An open cavity • Bleeding (oozing sap) from the trunk or branch (Photo 2) • Dead branches within the crown • Weakened wood that is highly susceptible to wind or other storm damage • Presence of ants, termites, fungus beetles, millipedes, pill bugs and/or white grubs


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Photo 1. Ganoderma conks are an indication of root and butt rot. (Photo: Curtis E. Young, The Ohio State University, Photo 2. Oozing sap (also called bleeding canker) can be the result of a wood-rotting pathogen. (Photo: Nicole Ward Gauthier, UK) Photo 3. Mulch was applied after trunk was damaged by lawn equipment, too late to protect the tree. (Photo: Cheryl Kaiser, UK)

in the landscape l continued

Wound prevention

Closing a wound requires considerable energy from the tree, and it takes time. Long delays in closing wounds provide wood decay organisms the opportunity to infect and colonize. Once wood decay has begun, there are no controls or cures. Thus, wound prevention is critical. • Protect trees and shrubs from injuries due to lawn equipment by managing grass and weed growth near trunks. Maintain a layer of organic mulch around tree bases, but not against trunks. Plastic tree guards, gravel and

rubber mulch are never recommended. Additional information on mulching can be found in HO-106, listed below. • Choose a planting site that provides adequate space for full growth to maturity. Avoid planting large trees under or adjacent to utility lines or too close to houses. This will eliminate the need for pruning to control plant size. • Do not plant trees in areas where damage is likely (e.g., vehicle traffic). • Prune damaged and diseased branches promptly. Do not cut into the branch collar or the branch bark ridge. Never

leave pruning stubs (they will not close), and never top trees. For more information on proper pruning techniques and on topping, see Additional Resources.

Treating wounds Proper care of a tree wound encourages the development of woundwood/callus formation. Promptly contact a certified arborist for an evaluation and treatment options, especially when damaged trees are large or located near houses or playgrounds. • Make corrective pruning cuts, as instructed by an arborist. • Wound sealants and paints do not prevent decay and are not recommended for treating wounds. • Maintain tree vigor by mulching to moderate rootzone temperatures, irrigating during dry seasons and fertilizing according to soil test results.

Additional Resources

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• Insect Borers in Trees and Shrubs, ENT-43 (UK) edu/entomology/entfacts/entfactpdf/ ent43.pdf • Mulch Myths, HO-106 (UK) http:// ho106.pdf • Pruning Landscape Trees, HO-45 (UK) pubs/ho/ho45/ho45.pdf • Shoestring Root Rot – A Cause of Tree and Shrub Decline, PPFS-OR-W-05 (UK) agcollege/plantpathology/ext_files/ PPFShtml/PPFS-OR-W-5.pdf • Stress and Decline in Woody Plants, ID-50 (UK) agc/pubs/id/id50/id50.pdf • Topping Is Hazardous to Your Tree’s Health, ID-55 (UK) http://www. • Urban and Community Forestry Publications and Information (U.S. Forest Service) urban/ucfpubs/ucfpubs.shtm

Acknowledgements The authors thank Ellen Crocker, Urban Forest Initiative, for her review; and Lee Townsend, Extension Entomologist, for his technical expertise. 2 16

in the nursery

Willingness-to-Pay Comparisons for Groundcover Plants in Plantable Containers


By Dewayne L. Ingram, Ph.D., Timothy A. Woods, Wuyang Hu, Ph.D., and Susmitha S. Nambuthiri, Dept. of Horticulture and Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Kentucky landscape. The plantable containers also required 20% less time to transplant into the landscape and reduced the requirement for plastic recycling or disposal.

Our buyer survey

However, how will flats of groundcover plants in these plantable containers be accepted by commercial buyers and consumers? To answer this question, a study was conducted to determine the acceptance of two common groundcover plants — Ajuga reptans ‘Bronze Beauty’ and Sedum kamtschaticum ‘Variegatum’ — grown in 12- or 18-count flats of plastic and plantable containers (Ellepot and SoilWrap), by commercial buyers and consumers. Plants grown in these containers and flat sizes were used as examples in the in-person survey of consumers at a Lexington garden center and by commercial nursery/landscape industry personnel attending the KNLA 2014 Summer Outing to determine their willingness to pay (WTP) for features of the treatments. Traditionally, these buyer groups have quite different buying patterns. Commercial installers usually purchase in bulk, look for volume discounts and have a view toward providing an installation service, while garden-center consumers would be more likely to be purchasing in smaller lots for home installation.

Survey results

We found that commercial buyers

wanted to purchase groundcovers. The business size for the commercial buyers was an-important determinant for their preference and WTP for groundcover attributes. Generally, flats of Ellepot containers were preferred to SoilWrap containers. When compared to other types of commercial buyers, those with high sales did not prefer to purchase plants in plastic containers, and they were willing to pay an additional $11.52 for flats of Ellepot over the flats of SoilWrap containers. Interestingly, buyers from smaller firms preferred plastic containers, especially when considering any price difference. Commercial buyers preferred sedum over ajuga and also preferred 18-count flats over 12-count flats. Commercial installers prefer to purchase in volume and also appear to place a value on sustainable containers that will reduce installation time. Garden-center customers surveyed revealed no clear preference for the flats of plantable containers. The price points impacted consumer WTP for those product attributes. While flats of plastic containers were generally preferred overall by these garden-center customers, preference for plastic declined among older buyers and buyers with children at home. Consumers preferred sedum over ajuga. Interestingly, buyers with children in the household were more in favor of the 12-count flats than 18-count flat. 17

Nur sery Views • win ter 2015

roundcover plants are in demand for residential and commercial landscapes due to the aesthetic appeal of masses of these low-growing plants, their low-maintenance requirement, enhanced environmental impact by reducing storm water runoff velocity and controlling weeds in landscapes. The landscape industry is truly a “green” industry. However, hundreds of plastic pots scattered across a client’s landscape that must be collected and disposed of (recycled) can detract from that image. An increasing number of biodegradable and plantable containers are becoming available in sizes appropriate for ground cover production. Our two-year study found that commonly marketed groundcover plants in Kentucky — including ‘Bronze Beauty’ ajuga (Ajuga reptans), ‘Herman’s Pride’ lamiastrum (Lamiastrum galeobdolon), ‘Beacon Silver’ lamium (Lamium maculatum), ‘Immergrunchen’ sedum (Sedum hybridum), ‘Red Carpet Stonecrop’ sedum (Sedum spurium) and ‘Vera Jameson’ sedum (Sedum telephium) — can be grown to a marketable size in 3" or 3.5" containers from 1.5" plugs in 8 weeks in Kentucky. Plant quality and growth rates in landscape for these plants were similar in two types of plantable containers made from paper (Ellepot) and bioplastic (SoilWrap) and a standard plastic container, and plants established well in the



‘Variegata’ sedum in SoilWrap in an 18–count flat.

Results from the analysis indicate that producers of flats of groundcover plants should consider the different needs between commercial buyers and consumers. Regardless of purpose, specific characteristics of your customer(s) should be considered. We recommend that growers consider a trial offering of groundcover plants in flats of plantable containers to their customers. There could very well be a premium market for these products among landscapers.

Additional reading: Nambuthiri, S.S. and D. L. Ingram. 2014. Evaluation of plantable containers for groundcover plant production and their establishment in a landscape. HortTechnology 24(1):48-52.

Nurs ery Views • winte r 2015

‘Variegata’ sedum in Ellepots in an 18–count flat.


Ingram, D. L., T.A. Woods, H. Wuyang and S.S. Nambuthiri. 2015. Willingness-to-Pay Comparisons for Flats of Groundcovers with Plantable Containers — Home Versus Commercial Buyers. HortScience 50 (3):1-4. 2

Recent event

The KNLA Board with Lexington Mayor Jim Gray.

Da Mudcats, the Reception band.


Leadership Forum & Marketplace Learn & Earn to Flourish Your Business (Left to right) Mike Mueller (KNLA board member), Tom Green and Bob Couch.

September 1–2, 2015 Embassy Suites • Lexington, KY

Nurs er y Views • Fall 2015


recent event l continued

THANKS TO OUR SUMMER RETREAT SPONSORS! Luncheon Sponsor Valley Hill Nurseries Da Mudcats Band Sponsor Wilson Nurseries Beverage Sponsors Ammon Nursery Lawnco, LLC Tent Sponsors Bobby Hall of Wilson Nurseries Wilson Nurseries Gold Sponsors Caudill Seed & Warehouse Company, Inc. Dayton Bag & Burlap Village Green Wholesale Nursery


Nurs ery Views • winte r 2015


Airtech Tools Ammon Wholesale Nursery Anderson Mulch & Soil, LLC Buckeye Resources Caudill Seed & Warehouse Company, Inc. Dayton Bag & Burlap Hans Nelson & Sons Nursery Highlandbrook Nursery Highland Moor Home Nursery HortAlliance, LLC Kelly Nursery, LLC Klyn Nurseries Laurel Nursery Massey Nursery Sales McHutchison, LLC Mill Creek Gardens National Nursery Products Natorp Wholesale Nursery Richie Nursery Company Riverfarm Nursery Samara Farms United Label University of Kentucky Nursery Crops Village Green Wholesale Nursery Wilson Nurseries Wolf Creek Company 20

industry news

Dr. Win Dunwell

Named a Fellow of the IPPS Eastern Region


inston Dunwell, P.D., University of Kentucky Extension Horticulture Specialist for Nursery Crops, was honored by his peers on September 25, 2015, at the International Plant Propagators’ Society (IPPS) Eastern Region annual conference. Win was presented with the 2015 Fellow Award, which was created to honor Eastern Region members for contributions to plant propagation or production in one or more areas — teaching, research or Extension activities — as well as for service to the Society. Win attended the State University of New York at Farmingdale, receiving an associate’s degree in Nursery Management. Following four years in the U.S. Air Force, he attended the University of Wyoming and received his bachelor’s degree in Plant Science/Horticulture. He earned his Ph.D. at the University of Idaho. In 1979, Win accepted a position with The University of Kentucky as an Extension Horticulture Specialist for Nursery Crops, where he remains today. Win’s area of interest is developing educational programs related to sustainable ornamental-plant introduction, propagation, production and utilization. He established the Nursery Crops Development Center to carry out trials on cultivated and native plants with unique characteristics of special interest to the nursery/landscape industry and the gardening public. He received the Southern Nursery Association Porter Henegar Memorial Award in 2012. Win has participated and chaired many IPPS committees, including his recent position as Publicity Committee chair. He is also currently a director on the IPPS Eastern Region board. He has presented papers at the conferences of both the Eastern and Southern Regions of IPPS. 2

index of advertisers Ammon Wholesale Nursery, Inc................. 9

Boshancee Nursery, Inc................................... 6

Braun HorticultUre.......................................... 21

Buckeye resources inc........Inside Front Cover

Center Hill Nursery.......................................... 22

dry shave mountain nursery..................... 16 Fairview Evergreen Nurseries.................... 5

Hortica.........................................................Back Cover

Jelitto Perennial seeds.................................... 7

john holmlund nursery................................. 22

Landscapers corner inc............................... 16

Dr. Robert Geneve Receives IPPS-Eastern Region Award of Merit

Leading edge communications.................. 11

Low Falls WholEsale Nursery, Inc....... 18

Millcreek Gardens, LLC.................................. 18

Motz & Son Nursery........................................... 18 OHP................................................................................... 22

Richey Nursery Company, LLC.................... 16

Smith Seed Services........................................... 22

Village Green wholesale nursery.......... 6

Wellmaster Carts................... Inside Back Cover

Whayne Supply Company.................................. 3



Nur sery Views • win ter 2015

Robert Geneve, Ph.D., University of Kentucky Horticulture Professor, received the 2014 IPPS Eastern Region Award of Merit, the organization’s highest honor. One member from the Eastern Region is selected each year for significant contributions to the field of plant production and/or extraordinary service to the Society. The announcement on September 18 brought conference attendees to their feet for a standing ovation at the 64th annual meeting of the IPPS Eastern Region held in Niagara Falls, Ontario. An IPPS-ER member since 1991, Dr. Geneve has served as director, officer and president on the Eastern Region Board and is currently the international delegate to the IPPS International Board. He has served on over a dozen committees and has more than 30 papers published in the Society’s Combined Proceedings. Dr. Geneve is a highly successful researcher with scores of scientific papers to his credit. His wide-ranging work on nursery production and plant propagation — specifically seed biology — has earned him an international reputation as a firstclass plant physiologist. He is co-author of the venerable bible of plant propagation, Plant Propagation: Principles and Practices as well as Biotechnology of Ornamental Plants and Book of Blue Flowers. “Whether he is new teaching methods to enhance the classroom experience, taking students on trips across the globe, pushing for IPPS student memberships or any other effort to enhance student opportunity and knowledge, he is never out of the conversation,” said Recognition Committee Chair Dr. Paul Cappiello. “He is a dedicated teacher, known for innovative teaching techniques and approaches.” 2

In Memoriam

In Memory of

Maxwell Mitchell Leichhardt,1923 – 2015


andscape architect Maxwell Mitchell Leichhardt was born on November 29, 1923, to Maxwell and Marjorie Mitchell Leichhardt. He passed away at his home on September 23, 2015. Mitchell attended Bowling Green schools. At age 16, he held a part-time job with Deemer’s Florist and Greenhouse, helping to grow and propagate plants. He served as a navigator for the U.S. Air Force during World War II, flying missions across Africa and Europe and rose to the rank of Captain. Following his military service, he and his business partner, Sonny Barr, founded what became Leichhardt Landscape Company.

Mitchell hybridized and introduced outstanding daylilies, naming many for friends. Displays of his handiwork have been seen along Nashville Road in the front of his business for years. He graduated from Western Kentucky University in 1970 and studied German. Mitchell landscaped numerous residential and commercial properties through the years in Bowling Green, Nashville, Louisville and parts between. He was instrumental in the design and development of the Baker Arboretum. He served as a board member and president of the Kentucky Nursery and Landscape Association and was a registered landscaper with the Kentucky Landscape

Architecture Board. He was responsible for the restoration of the Four Seasons Statues in Van Meter Auditorium. The Augustin Alumni Center at WKU is blessed with the Mitchell Leichhardt Flower Garden, and his friend, Jerry Baker, endowed the Mitchell Leichhardt Professorship in Horticulture in his honor. The alumni garden, the professorship and his thumbprint on the Baker Arboretum will serve as reminders to generations to come the impact that Mitchell Leichhardt had on WKU and the Bowling Green and Kentucky communities. Mitchell will be sorely missed but will never be forgotten. 2

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Nurs ery Views • winte r 2015

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