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KENYA PORTS AUTHORITY PO Box 95009-80104, Mombasa, Kenya Tel: +254 (0)41 211 3999 +254 (0)41 211 2999 +254 (0)41 211 3497 Fax: +254 (0)41 211 1867 Email: kpamd@kpa.co.ke ca@kpa.co.ke www.kpa.co.ke

03 FOREWORD Revitalised


05 INTRODUCTION New projects

30 SECURITY Port security is

07 GROWTH Port investment leads


gateway has a bright future underline port’s gateway status to strong growth in cargo

08 PORT CHARTER Charter helps

port community to work as a team

09 KENYA PORTS AUTHORITY Kenya Ports Authority Handbook 2017-18 is published by:

land&MARINE Land & Marine Publications Ltd 1 Kings Court, Newcomen Way Severalls Business Park Colchester, Essex CO4 9RA, UK Tel: +44 (0)1206 752 902 Fax: +44 (0)1206 842 958 Email: publishing@landmarine.com www.landmarine.com The opinions expressed in this publication are not necessarily those of the editor nor of any other organisation associated with this publication. No liability can be accepted for any inaccuracies or omissions. Printed by Buxton Press ISSN 1743-5056 © 2017 Land & Marine Publications Ltd


New port will expand operational role of KPA

10 PORT MAP 12 KENYA MARITIME AUTHORITY KMA plays a vital role in maritime safety and training

17 CAPACITY Port’s capacity and efficiency go on rising

18 CONTAINERS Mombasa joins the big league

21 OPERATORS Private sector

plays key role in cargo handling

22 EQUIPMENT KPA invests in new container handling equipment

25 CFS CFS services assist free flow of traffic

facilities on way at grain terminal tighter than ever

Mombasa sees record levels of cargo traffic

34 ICT Paperless system gives

major boost to port efficiency


terminal will boost port capacity

36 TRANSPORT Better-than-ever hinterland links by road and rail


KPA reinvests in local communities


Dedicated cruise terminal will enhance city’s appeal

40 DONGO KUNDU Greenfield site earmarked for new port area

42 GREEN PORT Mombasa moves closer to status of a green port

44 LAPSSET New port is a vital part of LAPSSET chain




Revitalised gateway has a bright future


elcome to the latest edition of the Kenya Ports Authority Handbook. These are exciting times for the Kenya Ports Authority (KPA), for Kenya and more generally for Africa as a continent. I believe that the KPA and the Port of Mombasa are in the vanguard of this optimistic period in the development of Kenya and, more widely, of Africa. Mombasa is well positioned geographically and ready to handle the forecast growth in the region’s external trade. This is because, as a port authority, we have made remarkable improvements over the last 10 years or so – not only in terms of installing the very latest cargo handling equipment and building the necessary infrastructure; but also in regard to increasing day-to-day productivity and streamlining internal procedures.

The centrepiece of the KPA’s recent development has been the opening in 2016 of a new container terminal and carefully phased plans to further develop the facility. So Mombasa is clearly on the right track. This is evidenced by the building of the new Standard Gauge Railway (SGR) between Mombasa and Nairobi (and beyond) and this project will also help take the KPA to a new, higher level by speeding the flow of freight between the coast and Kenya’s capital and points beyond. Furthermore, the opening in August 2016 of Nairobi’s new southern bypass has dramatically improved transit times for trucks serving markets in western Kenya and East Africa’s landlocked neighbours. In addition, work on the new port at Lamu continues apace. This world-scale facility will transform Kenya’s ability to handle cargo in transit to and from its neighbours while opening up new freight corridor possibilities to the north. I am pleased to say that this handbook provides a comprehensive overview of the KPA’s activities and those of the Authority’s stakeholders and partners. This publication also outlines a vision of the future – and, in my view, that future is very bright indeed.

Catherine Mturi-Wairi Managing Director Kenya Ports Authority




New projects underline port’s gateway status to the success of Vision 2030, but the KPA is also deeply committed to the creation and operation of Kenya’s new second port – and associated transport corridor – now under construction at Lamu.


Ever since it opened for trade in 1895, the Port of Mombasa has played a key role in the economy of Kenya and the wider region.

Not only is expansion of the Port of Mombasa central in many ways

Today, this position is further enhanced with the opening in 2016 of the port’s new container terminal and, in time, the completion in mid 2017 of a new 472 km standard gauge railway (SGR) to Nairobi and beyond

s many of the projects first outlined in the Kenya government’s highly ambitious Vision 2030 development plan start to come on stream – or at least get under way – the Kenya Ports Authority (KPA) finds itself at the cutting edge of the nation’s future.


– a scheme that almost replicates the late-19th-century rationale for Mombasa as a port, but in modern form.

Rail freight This new line is the country’s largest infrastructure project since independence in 1963 and represents an investment of US$ 3.8 billion. Once complete, it will dramatically increase rail freight capacity from the coast to the capital; and, when extended, it will also have far-reaching and beneficial consequences for Kenya’s neighbours. There are now plans to complement the soon-to-be-open SGR line with a new six-lane highway between Mombasa and Nairobi – further evidence that Kenya means business



and the movement of freight is set to be much faster. At the same time, work on the new port at Lamu proceeds apace. Once operational, it will provide new transport networks to points in northern Kenya, South Sudan and Ethiopia. At present, all are poorly served by land transport and have limited outlets to the coast. The upgrading of Kenya’s ports, railways and roads will ease the flow of freight between the coast and the traditional hinterland markets of Uganda, Burundi, the Democratic Republic of Congo, South Sudan, Tanzania and Rwanda. These nations currently account for some 30 per cent of Mombasa’s throughput. And so the original reasons for building the Port of Mombasa 120 years ago are as relevant now as they were then – only, of course, on a much grander scale; and that grand scale is at the heart of Vision 2030.

History Mombasa’s role in the region’s transport and logistics chain has evolved


over many centuries. The Port of Mombasa has been handling cargo since 1895; but before that it was a busy dhow harbour with vessels calling from as far away as Oman. The Portuguese arrived in 1498 and controlled Mombasa until it came under the suzerainty of the Sultanate of Oman in 1698. It was briefly a British protectorate from 1824 to 1826 and then Omani rule was restored. In 1887 administration passed to the British East Africa Association. Mombasa was formally handed over to the British in 1898, although Kenya’s coastal strip surprisingly remained under Zanzibari sovereignty right up until Kenyan independence in 1963. The building of a narrow-gauge railway in the 1890s between Mombasa and Kampala led to a need for harbour facilities in Kilindini Creek. For the first time, this allowed oceangoing vessels to discharge their cargo directly to dedicated shoreside facilities. En route to Kampala, a supply point was built where the track passed through an area of uninhabited

swamp. This became known as Nairobi, derived from the Maasai words Enkare Nyrobi, meaning cold water. In 1926 the modern-day port began to take its present shape. Two deepwater berths were constructed and a further three were added in 1931. The Shimanzi Oil Terminal and another two berths were completed during the Second World War. More berths were opened in the 1950s and 1960s as trade continued to grow and as independence was achieved.

Containers After being administered briefly by the East African Harbour Corporation under an ill-fated trinational association with Tanzania and Uganda, the Kenya Ports Authority was established in 1978 to run the port. The first containers arrived in 1975, leading the KPA to convert existing facilities into dedicated container berths. Later, inland container depots were opened in Nairobi, Kisumu and Eldoret.


Port investment leads to strong growth in cargo


ver the past 10 years or so the performance of the Port of Mombasa has been nothing short of extraordinary – outpacing in percentage terms even that of the generally buoyant Kenyan economy. The strong and consistent upward trajectory of its figures is a reflection of the Kenya Ports Authority’s longterm investment strategy, which has seen the construction of new facilities along with the purchase of modern cargo handling equipment. This has been underpinned by dramatic improvements to other aspects of the port’s operations. Since 2005, in response to growing demand, the KPA has added new berths, refurbished existing berths and rededicated others as well as driving up productivity and investing in new technology. Perhaps the best example of this progress is the port’s second container terminal, opened in 2016. This state-of-the-art facility has enabled the KPA to take Mombasa to the next level in terms of container capacity – a key investment, since the authority does not expect to see any slowdown in traffic in the years ahead.


By any measure, the growth in cargo traffic across a wide range of commodities has been impressive and continues to be so. Overall, Mombasa handled a record 27.36 million tonnes in 2016 compared with 26.73 million tonnes the previous year – a respectable increase of 2.4 per cent. Container traffic is a useful yardstick of any port’s performance. Mombasa has seen an increase in container handling from just 436,671 teu a year in 2005 to an impressive 1,091,000 teu in 2016. This 2016 figure was a rise of 1.4 per cent compared with 2015 and, significantly up on the figure recorded 10 years previously, thus underlining Mombasa’s status as one of Africa’s leading container ports. In addition to the new container terminal, Mombasa will benefit from the opening in 2017 of a new standard gauge railway to Nairobi and the additional capacity this will create. No matter how big and efficient Mombasa expects to become, it can only truly develop if its hinterland road and rail connections and inland container depots can match the port’s own vision.

If any evidence were necessary, these two projects in particular show how Kenya in general, and the KPA in particular, are carefully planning ahead and not just reacting to an increase in traffic once it has already become a reality. This is a marked change from the past and clearly illustrates the KPA’s commitment to the government’s Vision 2030 development plan.

Dry bulk Growth has not been confined to container traffic, however. Dry bulk commodities such as exports of soda ash and imports of grain and cement have also grown exponentially, while liquid bulk traffic has increased so much so that in 2016 the KPA announced plans for a new oil terminal. In general, the KPA expects future growth in Mombasa to come from handling cargoes moving to and from its vast natural hinterland. As a result, there is less emphasis on generating transhipment traffic, which actually saw a decline in 2015 compared with 2014 and now represents less than two per cent of total throughput.



Charter helps port community to work as a team


he Mombasa Port Community Charter was formed in 2013 by a broad range of interests from within the maritime, freight and transport communities. Its aim is to improve communications between those involved in the handling and movement of cargo in and out of Mombasa and along a transport corridor stretching from the port to Burundi, Rwanda and Uganda. The Kenya Ports Authority took a leading role in the formation of the Charter and acts as the secretariat. Within Kenya, other key public sector signatories include the Kenya Revenue Authority (KRA), the Kenya Railways Corporation (KRC), the Kenya National Highways Authority (KeNHA), the Kenya Trade Network Agency (Kentrade), the Kenya Maritime Authority (KMA), the National Police Service, Kenya Pipeline Co (KPC), the National Transport & Safety Authority (NTSA), the Kenya Plant Health Inspectorate Service (KEPHIS), the Port Health Service and the Kenya Bureau of Standards (KEBS). These are supported by private-sector organisations such as the Kenya Ships Agents Association (KSAA), the Kenya Private Sector Alliance (KEPSA), the Kenya National Chamber of Commerce


& Industry (KNCCI), the Kenya Shippers’ Council (KSC), the Kenya International Freight & Warehousing Association (KIFWA), the Kenya Transporters Association (KTA), the Container Freight Stations Association (CFSA) and the Shippers Council of East Africa (SCEA). The Charter comes at a time when the Port of Mombasa is growing rapidly with new infrastructure coming on stream. It is forecast that the port will be handling 44 million tonnes of cargo by 2025 – double the present throughput. For the KPA, it’s important that the increased level of traffic does not create bottlenecks or generate capacity constraints in terms of the port’s vital links with its natural hinterland – the world’s second-fastest area in terms of economic growth. The Charter brings together all players in order to engender better co-operation between various bodies and interests. The principal aims of the charter are:

• To establish a permanent frame-

work of collaboration that binds the port community together to specific actions, collective obligations, targets and timelines


• To complement the individual

services charters so as to address the challenges and improve seamless trade facilitation

• To introduce, educate and publicise

to other players and the public best practice to influence acceptable behaviour by all

• To develop and implement a self

monitoring and evaluation mechanism.

The port community will seek to benchmark itself against other successful operations worldwide. It has set ambitious but achievable longterm goals that include streamlining operations, increasing capacity and changing cargo flows. It is hoped that this will help to dramatically reduce the cost of goods across East Africa, which can account for around 30 per cent of their retail price. This compares with a figure of less than five per cent in the most efficient trade corridors. Perhaps the Charter’s greatest achievement has been to integrate the disparate systems of all port community members into the Kenya National Electronic Single Window System.


New port will expand operational role of KPA


he Kenya Ports Authority (KPA) has sole responsibility for the management and administration of the nation’s ports and harbours. It is a publicly held body established under an Act of Parliament in January 1978.

This situation is set to change with the opening of a new 32-berth commercial port now under construction at Manda Bay, Lamu, which will also be operated by the KPA.

The KPA is also charged with maintaining navigation aids, pilotage, towage, mooring, stevedoring and shoreside handling.


Until now these responsibilities have been confined largely to the Port of Mombasa and a few small harbours along the coast such as Lamu, Malindi, Kilifi, Mtwapa, Kiunga, Shimoni, Funzi and Vanga. In addition, two potential port sites have been identified by the KPA at Takaungu and Ngomeni.

The Port of Mombasa is the gateway to East and Central Africa. It is one of the busiest ports on the East African coast, with direct connectivity to over 80 ports worldwide. The port’s natural hinterland comprises Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, the eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo, northern Tanzania, South Sudan, Somalia and Ethiopia. Once complete, the new Lamu port will improve connections to South Sudan and Ethiopia. Despite calls for some berths within the Port of Mombasa to be operated by non-KPA interests, the main cargo handling facilities, including the new


second container terminal, remain under the Authority’s direct control and day-to-day operation. As such, the KPA is not moving to a landlord status as previously envisaged under a government restructuring policy. Instead, the emphasis has been placed on enhancing the KPA’s own capabilities by raising productivity, eliminating delays and bottlenecks and working closely with port users, both in Kenya and in key neighbouring states. The aim is to speed up transit times to Nairobi and beyond.





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KPA Headquarters New Second Container Terminal









10 N




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Kipivu Oil Terminal




Proposed location of Oil Terminal

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Proposed location of LNG Terminal

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Proposed high capacity standard gauge railway network in Kenya and connections to the region



Lake Tang











Lamu to Lokichogio

Murram Earth Roads

Mombasa to Malaba/Kisumu

Railway Line

Nairobi to Moyale Rongai to Lodwar

The Great Equatorial Land Bridge, Africa








KMA plays a vital role in maritime safety and training


orking closely with the Kenya Ports Authority is the Kenya Maritime Authority.

• Prevention of marine pollution • Preservation of the marine environment

Located close to KPA headquarters in Mombasa, the KMA was set up in 2004 as the semi-autonomous agency in charge of regulatory oversight of the local maritime sector.

Pacesetter Maritime safety and security is one of the KMA’s key functions. As the pacesetter of the local maritime industry, it aims to strengthen national maritime administration through:

• Promoting of trade facilitation and maritime investments.

The Merchant Shipping Act of 2009 enhanced the delivery of services by the KMA in all of these areas. At the same time, foreign vessels calling at the Port of Mombasa are inspected by KMA ship surveyors in accordance with the Indian Ocean Memorandum of Understanding on

• Enhancement of regulatory and

institutional capacities for safety and security

• Effective implementation of

international maritime conventions and other mandatory instruments on safety and security

• Promotion of maritime training • Coordination of search and rescue


Port State Control, of which Kenya is a member. These inspections ensure visiting ships comply with safety of life and safe manning regulations, protection of the marine environment regulations and load line regulations.


The KMA is also responsible for the operation of the Regional Maritime Rescue Co-ordination Centre, also known as the Mombasa Information Sharing Centre (ICS). The centre provides a regional communications base where seafarers can call for help in the event of distress at sea. The ICS covers a large area comprising Tanzania, Seychelles and

Somalia and also responds to piracy alerts and requests for information or assistance. The KMA has led the way in promoting local maritime training and education. Kenya has International Maritime Organization White List status, which means its maritime education system is up to international standards. This valued status enables Kenyan seafarers to compete for jobs on foreign-flagged vessels. As the pacesetter of Kenya’s maritime industry

and in solidarity with the IMO’s ‘Go To Sea!’ campaign, the KMA has increased its focus on boosting the image of the maritime industry and supporting cadet recruitment among young people of both sexes. The authority is further committed to IMO programmes aimed at the integration of women in the maritime sector as part of the Millennium Development Goal number three: promoting gender equality and empowerment of women in the maritime sector.

whose aim is to promote the role of women in the maritime sector. By regulating and overseeing the orderly development of merchant shipping and related services, the KMA aims to make a positive impact on trade facilitation and on the promotion of maritime investments in Kenya.

Positive In this regard, KMA hosts the Association of Women in the Maritime Sector in East and Southern Africa,


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Port’s capacity and efficiency go on rising


he fast pace of growth in many East African economies in recent years has resulted in the Port of Mombasa constantly planning for significant traffic increases and ensuring it has the correct additional capacity to handle future cargo flows. This has meant almost non-stop expansion of the port since 2005 as well as moves to enhance handling efficiency, improve storage and ease documentation burdens. As part of a planned development programme, Mombasa has added new berths, dredged access channels and facilitated the growth of off-terminal storage capacity. This has all been necessary to stay ahead of the curve. In order to continue doing so, Mombasa has increased its container handling capability by 50 per cent in early 2016 with the opening of a second container terminal, 900 metres in length with three berths. Once phased construction is complete in the coming years, this new terminal will eventually boost the port’s throughput capacity by about 1.5 million teu.


Previously, Mombasa’s container capacity was expanded by opening a new berth in the existing port area and introducing new handling equipment. For example, 250 metres of new berthing was completed at Berth 19 in 2013, providing an extra 250,000 teu of annual capacity. The original container terminal covered Berths 16 to 18.

Growth Meanwhile, container traffic has been growing steadily year on year and in 2016 this represented a 1.4 per cent increase over the previous 12 months. Taking all cargoes in to account, the overall growth rate was even higher at 2.4 per cent. Mombasa handled some 27.36 million tonnes of cargo in 2015 – another record year – of which over 6 million tonnes was freight moving to and from Uganda. At the same time, the port has worked hard to reduce both vessel waiting and container dwell times within the area administered by the KPA. Again, the port authority has sought to enhance the overall efficiency of Mombasa as well as providing fresh capacity.

But the port’s capacity and recently enhanced capability does not end at the perimeter fence. The construction and completion of the new standard gauge railway from Mombasa to Nairobi and beyond will enable the whole transport corridor linking Mombasa with its natural hinterland to absorb and manage these additional freight flows. Containers are not the only cargo to grow exponentially. Other imports such as cereals, petroleum products (a new oil terminal is to be built and the existing facility at Kipevu is to be demolished) and vehicles have shown a similar increase in traffic, while traditional exports such as tea, coffee and soda ash have performed solidly but not as spectacularly.



Mombasa joins the big league


he opening in April 2016 of the first phase of Mombasa’s second container terminal has increased box handling capability at the port by some 50 per cent. As a result, Mombasa can rightly claim to have joined the elite league of African container hubs.

1.5 million teu. This is in addition to the port’s pre-existing annual handling capacity of just over 1 million teu.

Spacious Phase 1 involved the construction of two main deepwater berths (20 and

Managed by Kenya Ports Authority, the impressive new terminal at Kilindini forms part of the long-term Mombasa Port Development Project (MPDP) and this important first phase provides an additional and much-needed 550,000 teu of annual throughput capacity. This key project comprises three distinct phases. On completion of the final element, the fully completed container facility will provide an annual throughput capacity of about



21) measuring 250 metres and 320 metres in length respectively as well as the creation of an adjacent smaller berth for feeder vessels. Berth 21 is equipped with two ship-to-shore gantry cranes, four rubber tyred gantry (RTG) cranes and a spacious stacking yard.

The new terminal has an alongside draught of 15.0 metres, so it can accommodate fourth-generation containerships of above 6,000 teu. The Kilindini site is located slightly away from Mombasa’s existing and largely contiguous port area, so its construction has also involved the completion of a new access road for trucks. There are also plans to link the terminal to the US$ 3.8 billion Mombasa-Nairobi Standard Gauge Railway, which eventually will reach beyond Nairobi to Kampala and after that Kigali. Phase 1 was funded by a 40-year loan from the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA),

which since Kenyan independence in 1963 has consistently backed local infrastructural projects. Construction of the terminal was carried out by Toyota Construction Company of Japan, while the access channel was deepened by Van Oord Dredging & Marine Contracting of the Netherlands. Japan’s Toyota Tsusho Corporation and Mitsui Engineering & Shipbuilding Co supplied the initial two gantry cranes. Boskalis Dredging and Marine Experts dredged and reclaimed new land.

vessels or are already struggling with congestion (or both). Now that Phase 1 is complete, the KPA is working to fulfil the terminal’s second phase. This will involve funding from JICA, which is providing a further loan of KES 24 billion. When complete, the facility will cover 100 acres and will feature a 900 metre terminal equipped with six ship-to-shore gantry cranes. This will give Mombasa an annual throughput capacity of 2.5 million teu.

Perfect With its enhanced capacity, the Port of Mombasa is now in the perfect position to step up its container transhipment activities – especially as some other ports on the Indian Ocean coast are unable to handle 6,000 teu



Private sector plays key role in cargo handling


he Kenya Ports Authority has overall control of all berths in the Port of Mombasa.

Nevertheless, there are areas within the port where private sector interests – and also the United Nations agency Unicef – have a significant role to play in cargo flows in conjunction with the KPA. Perhaps the biggest of these operators in volume terms is Grain Bulk Handlers Ltd (GBHL), which exclusively handles imports of cereals for merchants in Kenya and neighbouring states. GBHL has a modern terminal at Berth 3 and commensurate storage facilities consisting of 85,500 tonnes of capacity in transit silos


and a flat-storage shed and a further 55,000 tonnes of long-term bulk storage. Tata Chemicals Magadi (formerly Magadi Soda) is responsible for the export of soda ash from the Port of Mombasa. The soda ash is transported in dedicated hopper wagons from Lake Magadi to the terminal (Berth 9) in Mombasa, where it is bagged in 50 kg or 1 tonne bags or shipped in bulk form.

VTTI (Kenya) operates a jetty for gasoil and diesel products along with 111,000 cubic metres of storage capacity. It is the only privately owned terminal to link Mombasa directly with the state-owned Kenya Pipeline Company. The pipeline takes product from Mombasa to Nairobi and then on to Nakuru, Eldoret and Kisumu and ultimately provides access to markets in Uganda and other landlocked countries further west.

Dedicated Unicef, too, has its own dedicated regional storage sheds in the Port of Mombasa. They allow the UN International Children’s Emergency Fund to deal quickly with ongoing and emergency situations in East Africa. The sheds are used to store grain and also ready-to-use therapeutic food of the Plumpy’Nut variety.



KPA invests in new container handling equipment


he list of equipment operated by the Kenya Ports Authority is long and impressive. The KPA has invested heavily in recent years to provide the Port of Mombasa with the very latest cargo handling equipment. Orders for new equipment have been prompted by the construction

of a second container terminal as well as a change in use for Berth 19.

in the second and third phases of the project.


Mombasa’s existing container terminal (Berths 16-19) is served by ten 40 tonne capacity ship-to-shore gantry cranes and supported by a fleet of rubber tyred gantry (RTG) cranes. In 2014 the KPA took delivery of 12 Kalmar E-One2 hybrid RTGs for use at Berth 19 in an investment worth EUR 17 million.

In its first phase, the new container terminal is operating with two Mitsuibuilt ship-to-shore gantry cranes with a span of 30.4 metres and four Mitusi-built RTGs. A further four RTGs are on order. Toyota Tsusho Corporation and Mitsui Engineering & Shipbuilding Co won the contract to supply gantry cranes at the new terminal. More container handling equipment will be purchased



Gantry cranes The construction of Berth 19, a dedicated container facility, saw the installation of three new Liebherr gantry cranes. These units were all assembled at the Comarco Supply Base in the Port of Mombasa. The last of the trio was placed in position in May 2016.

Supplementing the rail-mounted gantry cranes are two highly flexible Gottwald HMK 170 E mobile harbour cranes, delivered in 2012.

In addition to shore-side handling, KPA has made similar investments in tugs and pilot boats.



CFS services assist free flow of traffic


ombasa’s array of privately operated, off-dock container freight stations play a vital role in the smooth running of the port by providing storage, stripping, cargo inspection and reloading capacity well away from the port’s two busy container terminals. These CFS facilities, first introduced in 2007, have been very successful. Previously, typical freight station


activities were carried out within the port area, thus adding to terminal and yard congestion and hindering the flow of containers. Mombasa’s CFS facilities are, in effect, bonded extensions of the area administered by the Kenya Ports Authority. They allow containers to be removed from inside the port for processing ahead of their delivery to final destination.



Around half of the CFS units have been designated by the KPA and one specialises in cargo bound for neighbouring and landlocked Uganda. Other transit cargoes are handled


by the port directly. As a result, CFS units tend to handle mainly domestic cargo.

Quickly Inbound containers are discharged from vessels and taken quickly by truck or tractor to the designated CFS. Each container can then be cleared for on-carriage to final destination or, in the case of LCL containers, stripped into a warehouse for customer collection or groupage. Each CFS is a self-administered area containing government agencies

such as customs, police, the Kenya Revenue Authority and the Kenya Bureau of Standards and sanitary inspectors. As well as handling containers, these freight stations are used for all types of other out-of-gauge cargoes including machinery and new and used vehicles. Most operate 24 hours a day and all must comply with strict KPA tariffs and regulations.


Image courtesy of AutoPort Freight Terminals Ltd

There are now some 20 CFS units located close to the Port of Mombasa. They are mostly in the nearby mainland area of Changamwe, which in recent years has developed into a busy cargo handling area as container trucks move backwards and forwards via the port’s Gate B. The main A109 Mombasa to Nairobi highway passes through Changamwe.


New facilities on way at grain terminal


he Port of Mombasa’s only dry bulk discharge terminal is owned and operated by Grain Bulk Handlers Ltd (GBHL). The facility is located in the Shimanzi area of the port and is linked by overhead conveyor to Berth 3. The grain handling facility was completed in 2000 at a cost of US$ 35 million. It consists of a bulk transit terminal, a bulk storage terminal, warehousing for bagged cargo and local transport operations. Two Bühler Portalino ship unloaders with a combined capacity of 600 tonnes per hour are used for the main vessel handling aspect of GBHL’s operations. There are two fixed-belt conveyors linking the berth to the transit silo complex as well as two automatic scales to record the weight of discharged cargo, a 50 tonne mobile crane for general lifting and seven Bobcat utility vehicles for trimming the hold as the vessels discharge their cargo.


The bulk transit terminal has 24 silos with a total storage capacity of 67,500 tonnes; a flat-store shed of 18,000 tonnes capacity; two bagging sheds with four bagging plants each with a combined capacity of 400 tonnes per hour; two calibrated bulk delivery hoppers for road and rail traffic; a 140 tonne rail weighbridge; two road weighbridges and two standby generators covering full terminal operations, both discharge and delivery. The bulk storage terminal has 14 long-term storage silos with a total capacity of 55,000 tonnes; a bagging


shed with four bagging lines with a combined capacity of 200 tonnes per hour; a calibrated bulk delivery hopper for road traffic; and road weighbridges. There is ample off-road parking for customers’ trucks.

Bagging GBHL plans to increase bulk storage capacity by 50,000 tonnes. There will also be a new bagging shed and a further four bagging lines, a calibrated bulk delivery hopper for road and rail traffic and another 140 tonne capacity rail weighbridge.

In addition, the company has a total of 75,000 tonnes of bagged warehousing capacity at various locations together with 15 trucks and trailers for moving this bagged cargo. The terminal is recognised by Kenya Revenue Authority as a designated customs area with permission to receive un-entered cargo. Using road and rail transport and in conjunction with the Kenya Ports Authority, the terminal provides transit and transhipment services for the immediate hinterland.

Quality GBHL complies with ISO 9001:2000 quality management standards and with the ISPS Code and is also a member of the International Association of Ports and Harbors (IAPH).

Image courtesy of Grain Bulk Handlers Ltd

The key location of the Port of Mombasa is well recognised by customers of GBHL. They embrace millers, traders and NGOs in East and Central Africa including the Great Lakes region, South Sudan and Somalia. By virtue of its strategic position and its large storage capacity, GBHL is well able to respond rapidly to regional food emergencies.

The company employs about 175 full-time personnel and contracts up to 750 additional workers on a daily basis.



Port security is tighter than ever


ecurity has the highest priority at the Port of Mombasa and the Kenya Ports Authority has taken steps to increase the level of security checks and supervision in all sectors. Until recently the KPA was concerned mainly with cargo security. But now, in common with other port authorities around the world, it is focusing on the security of everyone visiting its ports and using their facilities. The KPA is determined to ensure that its ports comply with the security rules of the International Maritime Organization (IMO).

Accordingly, the Port of Mombasa has introduced the following safety and security measures:

• New electronic surveillance

equipment including closed circuit TV as advised by international consultants

• Coastguard surveillance of waters in the port area

• A new search and rescue centre,

set up jointly with the IMO to supplement maritime surveillance

• More plain-clothes and uniformed security officers on patrol in and around port areas

• Strict controls on port entry for all

port users, with visitors required to display security passes at all times

• Restricted entry to the container

terminal and other key sections of the port

• A rapid response team to deal with urgent security matters in or near the port area



• New centralised verification areas at the container terminal, the car handling area and the container freight station

• Barriers and speed bumps at port

gates to deter entry and ensure proper security checks by security staff

• A ‘ramp tally’ required for every

imported car, which must be inspected and docketed at the ship’s ramp before it is handed over to the KPA. This allows staff to determine responsibility in the event of damage or vandalism.

The KPA carried out a comprehensive port facility security assessment (PFSA) for Mombasa and Lamu in compliance with the ISPS Code. The assessment was conducted by an international security consulting firm contracted and funded by the World Bank. Following this assessment, the KPA updated and bolstered its port facility security plan:

• All ships calling Mombasa and

Lamu are required to submit their

detailed pre-arrival information to the harbour master or the port facility security officer 24 hours before arrival

• On arrival, the ship is boarded by a port security officer to verify the pre-arrival information. The ship security officer (SSO) or the master then completes the port facility ISPS Code interface checklist

• A declaration of security form is

filled in and signed by the SSO or the master and the facility boarding port security officer which is needed for the period the ship will be at the facility.

• Kenya Navy patrol boat to be on standby and listening on VHF Channels 12 and 16.

Seclusion zone A 50 metre exclusion zone created at Berths 1 and 2 and on the waterfront by police boat patrols.

Armed patrols At least four armed police officers and three undercover detectives to patrol the ship on the berth every 24 hours.

Gate patrols Screening and searching of all persons at the port entry and exit points.

KPA divers on standby to carry out bottom search if necessary. No small boat, barge or vessel to be allowed alongside or near the ship without permission from the berthing manager.

Port approaches • Vessel to notify Kenya Navy on

VHF Channel 16 when entering Kenyan territorial waters or at least 20 miles from the port entrance

• Vessel to notify Ras Serani Signal Station on VHF Channel 12 or 16 when 20 miles from entrance



Mombasa sees record levels of cargo traffic


he Port of Mombasa continues to post record cargo throughput figures – and with the recent introduction of new capacity there are no constraints on the future growth potential of East Africa’s busiest gateway. Total cargo throughput at Mombasa continues to increase year on year. In 2016 the port handled a record total of 27.36 million tonnes, a rise of 2.4 per cent over the previous 12 months. The vast majority of cargo handled was imports, which accounted for 23.12 million tonnes compared with 3.66 million tonnes of exports. The port saw annual container throughput reach 1.091 million teu – a 1.4 per cent rise on 2015. These containers actually represented some


9 million tonnes of traffic or about 40 per cent of the port’s cargo figures by volume. By contrast, transhipment traffic fell in 2015.

30 per cent of all imports. Other major imports are clinker, wheat, iron and steel, plastics, fertilizers, paper products, rice and vehicles.

Cargoes moving to and from countries beyond Kenya’s borders were 7.75 million tonnes – up 1.1 per cent on 2015. The largest of these hinterland markets was Uganda, which accounted for 6,346,715 tonnes or 81.9 per cent of transit traffic. Uganda was followed by South Sudan as the second-biggest national customer of the Port of Mombasa.

Commodity On the export side, the largest commodity is tea, followed by soda ash, coffee and other food products. While exports continue to rise year on year, they account for only 13 per cent of the port’s total throughout. Imports, on the other hand, have also grown.

Cargo also moves through Mombasa to and from Burundi, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Tanzania and Somalia. Liquid bulks such as petroleum, oil and lubricants account for just under



Paperless system gives major boost to port efficiency


nformation and communications technology (ICT) has a big role to play in the updating of any seaport, and this is particularly true of the Port of Mombasa. Today, the process of transforming the KPA and its principal port into a paperless e-system is complete.

Terminal Operations System (KWATOS), which allowed key sectors such as containers, conventional cargo and marine operations to be fully automated, along with the inland container depots in Nairobi, Kisumu and Eldoret.

In its recent development programme, the Kenya Ports Authority has invested in new hardware and the construction of additional facilities at Mombasa; but modern ICT technology has been the key extra ingredient. In common with other port operations, it’s the quality of the software that makes all the difference.

Further investments from 2010 to 2013 led to an upgrading of both the physical and functional aspects of the systems. In particular, a functional upgrade of the SAP system included new modules for a general ledger, financial supply chain management, employee and manager self-service and supplier relationship management.

Back in 2008 the KPA installed the Kilindini Waterfront Automated

At the same time, members of the KPA staff are fully integrated.


All workers now have access to terminals throughout the port and are able to obtain information and check their payslips online as well as making leave requests. The Kenya Trade Network Agency (KenTrade) launched the Kenya National Electronic Single Window (KNESW) system two months ahead of the government deadline.


Based on the Singapore single window system, KNESW is part of the Kenya Vision 2030 initiative to facilitate trade, customs clearance and competitiveness and to reduce the cost of trade in order to boost the economy. Introduction of the single window system has led to big improvements in efficiency across the port and beyond. It provides Kenya’s trading community and stakeholders with a single point of access for all external trade-related services. Importers have to submit only one manifest online and clearance can be obtained very quickly. Eliminating the old inefficiencies from the clearance process will dramatically reduce the cost of cargo handling thanks to the reduction in delays. These cost savings can be passed on to the importer or exporter, helping to boost trade throughout the country.

Single goal Perhaps the most pertinent part of the process was engaging the many stakeholders in the pursuit of a single goal to the benefit of every stakeholder and cargo handler in Kenya. It marks the beginning of a new growth in trade within the country.


New oil terminal will boost port capacity


he Kenya Ports Authority is building a new and much larger capacity oil terminal while dismantling its long-standing liquid bulk facility in the Port of Mombasa. Construction is expected to take about 30 months and the new oil terminal is expected to have sufficient capacity to accommodate four vessels of up to 200,000 dwt simultaneously. This project arose from the ongoing expansion programme in the port, which has seen the development of additional cargo handling facilities. These include the neighbouring Berth 19, which is 240 metres in length and was commissioned in 2013.

In a much earlier port development plan, the Kipevu Oil Terminal (KOT) was built as the most extreme-end installation and well away from other cargo handling facilities. Over the years, however, other developments have grown up in the vicinity and so it was necessary to relocate the terminal to a safer area.

Offshore jetty The multi-billion-dollar project will involve decommissioning the existing KOT and constructing a new offshore jetty near Dongo Kundu. The replacement terminal will be connected by subsea and land-based pipelines to the bulk storage facilities in Kipevu. Among the key elements of the project will be a four-berth island terminal, located slightly inland and capable of loading and discharging five different hydrocarbon


products, namely, crude oil, heavy fuel oil and three types of white oil product (DPK aviation fuel, AGO diesel and PMS petrol). The initial implementation will be for three berths but the layout will recognise the need for implementation of the fourth berth at a later date. There will also be a subsea pipeline corridor and associated pipelines that will have an element of pre-investment to accommodate all the four berths. Once the move is complete and the new terminal fully commissioned, the old Kipevu area will be reclaimed and joined with the new facility.



Better-than-ever hinterland links by road and rail


ransit times for cargo moving through the Port of Mombasa are expected to improve dramatically as a result of a range of major infrastructure projects now under way in Kenya and spreading across East Africa.

age very effectively, but the railway cannot cope with present-day trade requirements. As a result, only about four per cent of freight moving to and from Mombasa is carried by rail. The new SGR is set to dramatically change this situation and low percentage.

Centrepiece of these projects in the building of a new Standard Gauge Railway (SGR) from Mombasa to Nairobi and beyond. It is hoped that the rail line will be complemented by an equally impressive and greatly expanded highway between the port and the nation’s capital.

The China Road & Bridge Corporation (CRBC) is building the line at a cost of around US$ 3.2 billion, mostly funded by loans from the Chinese government.

Mombasa has always played a vital role in East Africa’s transport chain; but in the past this freight corridor has been subject to bottlenecks that have added to the cost of both imports and exports. This corridor connects Mombasa with as many as seven East African states. The existing rail link between Mombasa, Nairobi and Kampala dates back well over 100 years. It is mostly single track and, crucially, narrow gauge (1 metre). This may have served the needs of a bygone


The new line is scheduled for completion in 2017. Once it reaches Nairobi, the line will be extended to Malaba, on the Ugandan border, and eventually to Kampala. But the line from Nairobi is not the only major rail project on the horizon. The Chinese also plan to construct another line from the new Lamu port, now under construction, to Lockichoggio. It is hoped that this line will eventually be extended to Juba in South Sudan. The main Mombasa-Nairobi highway has already been improved, but there is still more work to be done

to relieve congestion at certain key points, especially in the Changamwe area close to the port. This road handles about 50 per cent all goods traded in East Africa. It seems that minor improvements are set to be dwarfed by plans to upgrade the highway from two to six lanes – and even 12 in some places – along its entire 485 km length. Closer to Mombasa, work has finally started on the Dongo Kundu bypass that will link the south coast of Kenya with the Port of Mombasa and the main Mombasa to Nairobi Highway. It will also provide a new link to Tanga in northern Tanzania.

Faster Beyond Nairobi, various road improvement schemes are planned or under way in order to provide faster links to Kigali, Kampala, Juba and even Addis Ababa. It is estimated that around 13,000 km of roads are being built across East Africa. Total size of the road network is put at 160,000 km, of which only 14,000 km is currently surfaced.


KPA reinvests in local communities


he Kenya Ports Authority is mindful of the key role played by local communities and their people in supporting and contributing to the success of its operations. Accordingly, the KPA aims to share its success with the communities of the Coast Province by providing widespread benefits through its Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) programme. These benefits take the form of physical construction projects as well as relief and hardship funding. The KPA allocates two per cent of its profits to needy causes. The main beneficiaries are the education sector and health projects, which receive about 65 per cent of the CSR funding, while the remaining 35 per cent is earmarked for charities, disaster and relief funds and other worthy causes. In terms of education spending, the KPA has allocated funds to infrastructure projects such as new


school buildings as well as books, computers and other key items. Recent projects include a dining hall for Kibarani School for the Deaf in Kilifi County; a girls’ dormitory for the same school; and a classroom block for Mokowe Arid Special School in Lamu County. The funding programme also includes health care clinics and dispensaries. Since the programme began, the KPA has helped with the construction or expansion of over a dozen primary and secondary schools as well as building four dispensaries.

centre. The programme also pays for the year-round maintenance of the gardens, thus providing a place where people can relax and enjoy the natural environment.

The CSR programme has benefited communities as far apart as Faza in Lamu County and Mwaluphamba on the south coast.

The Corporate Social Responsibility

Other recent projects include the Gede Dispensary in Malindi; and a 40-bed capacity girls’ dormitory at Pwani School for the Deaf in Kilifi. One aspect of the CSR programme that has enhanced the daily life of hundreds of people in Mombasa has been the rehabilitation of the historical Uhuru Gardens in the city

Creating a bond programme of the KPA is focused on creating and maintaining a strong bond with the community and its stakeholders. Each financial year, a committee appointed by the KPA’s managing director considers the applications received. The successful proposals are overseen through to implementation, monitoring and finally handing over to the community.



Dedicated cruise terminal will enhance city’s appeal


he Indian Ocean is one of the world’s fastest-growing cruise destinations, with the East Africa coast a particular favourite. With its combination of exotic islands and wide choice of mainland ports, it’s an itinerary planner’s dream. More or less at the heart of this increasingly popular cruise area is the Port of Mombasa, a unique destination with its own set of colourful attractions.

The KPA has earmarked around KES 100 million for the project to meet an expected upsurge in cruise ship calls.

by a notoriously discerning segment of the global tourism industry.

The new airport-style terminal will be equipped with a range of shops, lounge areas and restaurants and will provide passengers with a fitting first glimpse of Mombasa. The berths have an alongside depth of 11.0 metres.

Kenya Ports Authority is now ready to capture a slice of this growing segment of the tourism market and is making significant investments in order to do so.

As it is, Mombasa was acclaimed Africa’s best cruise port by World Travel Awards in 2016 – a welcome vote of confidence in the destination

For cruise passengers Mombasa offers a variety of nearby attractions: the city itself with its historical buildings and intriguing Arab quarter and some of Africa’s best beaches: Nyali, Bamburi and, to the south, Diani. The city’s Bombolulu Workshops & Cultural Centre and Haller Park nature reserve (also in Bamburi) are equally popular with passengers.


In addition, of course, there’s an

The key element of this scheme is to convert Berths 1 and 2 into a dedicated cruise terminal. Traditionally, these two berths have been used for cruise ship calls, but they have also handled other maritime traffic, including cargo. This will change once the new terminal is completed in 2017 with two berths being wholly given over to cruise ships.



IndustryAndTravel / Shutterstock.com


opportunity to visit famous wildlife areas such as the Tsavo East and Tsavo West national parks and even Shimba Hills – the only place in Kenya to view the spectacular sable antelope – as well as the adjacent Mwalughanje Elephant Sanctuary. In fact, Tsavo is only two hours by road from Mombasa – or just minutes away by chartered light aircraft from the city’s Moi International Airport. In all, Tsavo makes for a truly memorable experience and Mombasa is probably the best port in Africa in which to combine a cruise call with a day-long safari.

Dedicated staff A cruise call is only as good as the destination and a destination is only as good as the people whose job it is to ensure that each visit is highly personalised, safe and well organised. Many local destination management companies (DMCs) have dedicated cruise divisions whose staff have years of experience in customising tours for passengers and arranging tailored shore excursions in Mombasa. It’s these Mombasa-based DMCs that ensure cruise passengers get the most from their visit to Africa’s best cruise port – and why the awards just keep coming.

Welcome upturn The number of cruise ship passengers handled by the Port of

The two Tsavo Parks (separated only by the Mombasa-Nairobi rail line) cover a total of nearly 22,000 hectares and form one of the largest conservation areas in Africa – universally acknowledged for its impressively high elephant populations and range of other plains game.

Mombasa in 2016 topped 10,000 – the highest number since 2009. Kenya is benefiting from the relaunch of Indian Ocean cruise itineraries with calls on the African mainland. Most cruise passengers are likely to go on short safaris and excursions and Kenya Ports Authority is a member of

this has been welcomed by Kenya’s

the Cruise Indian Ocean Association and

tourism sector, especially on the

regularly exhibits at major international


cruise industry events.



Greenfield site earmarked for new port area


o the south of Mombasa and across Port Reitz Bay there is an undeveloped area of largely uninhabited land known as Dongo Kundu. For some time, Dongo Kundu has been earmarked as the site for an entirely new port area and the development of new free trade and industrial zones and is collectively known as the Mombasa Special Economic Zone (SEZ).

engine and production hub for the coast region. The SEZ will also provide a bonded area next to the port so that imported goods can be exempted from duty. Resident businesses will enjoy relaxed regulations and exemptions from many taxes. This will also allow

This 3,000 acre greenfield site is located well away from the existing island city of Mombasa and will be developed into the Dongo Kundu Free Trade Zone, which is set to accommodate over 10,000 businesses, the adjacent Dongo Kundu Industrial Area and some smaller specialist zones. Together they will form an economic



those importing raw materials and those producing goods in the SEZ and then exporting them through the port to trade at internationally competitive prices thanks to reduced handling time and cost. Sectors thought likely to be attracted to the SEZ include steel mills,

machine and motor vehicle assembly, pharmaceutical industries, mineral processing and light industries such as agro-processing and furniture making. These labour-intensive industries are expected to create thousands of jobs.

China Civil Engineering Construction Corporation won the contract for the new road, which is being built in three phases at a cost of about US$ 250 million. The project is funded by the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA).

Other planned zones include an enterprise area, a zone for MICE-based tourism, a residential area and a utility area for an electricity substation and other basic utilities. These will be developed in phases. The SEZ should be fully operational by 2030.

At the same time, the Kenyan government has given the go-ahead for a new road, the Dongo Kundu Bypass Highway, which will allow traffic to avoid both congested Mombasa and the busy Likoni ferry. This new 19.85 km link road will greatly improve road transport links with Kenya’s south coast area and with northern Tanzania via the existing A14, which is in effect the Malindi to Bagamoyo highway. Mombasa is around 440 km from Bagamoyo.

Phases The SEZ will also be served by a new road network.

The bypass is also connected to the 5.7 km Kipevu Link Road, which will provide access to Mombasa’s second container terminal. Work on the new road system is expected to be completed by August 2018.



Mombasa moves closer to status of a green port


he Port of Mombasa has successfully undertaken major infrastructural projects in recent years. Now, to bring it into line with international environmental standards, regulations and emerging commercial trends, the port is addressing the environmental challenges with which it has grappled for many years. The US$ 36 million Green Port Policy project is financed by TradeMark East Africa (TMEA) and is being implemented by the Kenya Ports Authority through various consultants. In recent years the KPA has introduced measures to remedy a deteriorating situation, but many areas have required huge financial resources and human capacity for proper interventions, so the partnership with TMEA is a sound idea. Mombasa currently emits 335 tonnes of greenhouse gases per year – an untenable level compared with internationally recommended standards. Without the ongoing interventions, this figure would have been expected to double in the next 10 to 13 years. This is due to the significant growth


in volumes of cargo handled by Mombasa in the past 10 years, with projections indicating an even stronger performance in the coming decade. The KPA recognises that it cannot take on any major infrastructural projects without critical assessment of their impact on the environment. In short, environmental considerations are increasingly becoming a key consideration.


the port are roofed with harmful asbestos, a material that has been phased out and banned in many other countries. The first phase will involve replacing the roofing materials at Kapenguria, a section of the port yard containing several workshops. Instead, aluminium sheets will be used. Under the Green Port Project, two workshops will be fitted with solar panels and connected to a nearby electricity substation.

Out of the 335 tonnes of greenhouse gases emitted at the Port of Mombasa, only five per cent can actually be controlled by the KPA – hence the need for a comprehensive intervention policy of the kind now being implemented. About 99 per cent of the gas emissions are carbon dioxide.

The handling of dusty cargo, coal and clinker has been a contentious issue at the port. Those working at sheds near berths that handle these cargoes have complained of harmful dust. According to international standards, clinker and coal are supposed to be handled using specialised equipment, which Mombasa currently lacks.

The TMEA projects are targeting 10 areas that have already been rolled out. One of the key areas of intervention is the roofing of port structures. Built many years ago, a large number of the buildings located in and outside

Clinker is one of the dry cargo imports through Mombasa; and it has recorded an annual growth of over 12.4 per cent in recent years. Today it is one of the biggest pollutants in the port. It is currently handled


using hoppers. The port has adopted measures to reduce the emission of dust by requiring haulage only in closed trucks. Unfortunately, this has not reduced the pollution to anticipated levels. The Green Port Project aims to draw up detailed designs for a multidirectional and multipurpose closed conveyor system of the type used in other developed ports around the world. Meanwhile, the Green Port Project plans to acquire four eco-friendly

hoppers to offload clinker from the ship to waiting trucks. Two mobile harbour cranes will also be acquired. The joint initiative between the KPA and TMEA is commissioning a study on the energy required for port activities with a view to identifying alternative sources of energy and also looking at the need for shore power. Currently, ships – one of the port’s biggest external pollutants – have to keep their generators running while loading and discharging. With shore power available, they will no longer need to do so. ISO certification is becoming a key component and a strategic pillar in transacting global trade. The Green Port Project has completed the tendering process for implementation of ISO 14001 in relation to its environmental management system and eventually ISO 18001 for occupational health and management. In common with many other parts of Mombasa County, the port is not connected to a sewerage system. Instead, the KPA processes the waste at the site, both in the port

and in port workers’ houses, and a significant amount of raw waste finds its way into the sea. To address this challenge, the Green Port Project seeks to develop a strategic waste management plan, a water supply and reticulation plan and a water storage system.

Improve Eco terracing has become a common concept in ports around the world. Although Mombasa has many hillsides, the port has not yet created green areas that would not only improve the facility’s outlook but would also absorb carbon waste. One of the key ingredients of the project is tree planting; but due to space limitations, less than 10 per cent of the port is available for such an undertaking, so this will be extended to the five coastal counties as a corporate social responsibility exercise and some 7,000 trees are to be planted.



New port is a vital part of LAPSSET chain


t’s more than 120 years since a new commercial port has been built in Kenya. This is all set to change with the opening of a new port close to Lamu and north of Mombasa.

But in the medium term, the aim is to have up to 20 berths completed by 2030.

Once complete, the new port will eventually comprise 32 berths at a site in sheltered Manda Bay, and as a result Kenya will have doubled its cargo handling capability and enhanced its position as the premier cargo gateway to much of eastern of Africa.

The port is a key element in the giant Lamu Port, South Sudan and Ethiopia Transport (LAPSSET) project and a vital part of the Kenyan government’s ambitious Vision 2030 strategy.


NAKODOK Lokichogio

Ambitious Lodwar UGANDA

In total, LAPSSET is expected to cost about US$ 24.5 billion. The new

Eldoret Kisumu

PROPOSED NETWORK LAPSET Railway LAPSET Highway Oil Pipeline Northern Corridor




transport corridor includes the port at Lamu, a new railway, highways, a crude oil pipeline, an oil refinery at Isiolo and ancillary aspects such as new airports (in Lamu, Isiolo and Lokichoggio) and resort cities (Lamu, Isiolo and on the banks of Lake Turkana) along the project’s route.



The port and its hinterland links are being built to create a fully integrated freight corridor that will offer an alternative to the existing historic land and rail route from Mombasa to Nairobi and on to Kisumu, Kampala and Kigali. In particular, the new LAPSSET corridor will improve and speed up freight movements to




underdeveloped northern Kenya and especially to landlocked South Sudan and Ethiopia. Centrepiece of the corridor will be a 1,710 km standard gauge railway from Lamu to Isiolo, Juba (via Nakdok) and Addis Ababa (via the border town of Moyale). For the time being, this aspect of the corridor is only at the feasibility stage. This will be complemented by a road that will also serve Lamu, Isiolo Juba and Addis Ababa. The Nairobi-based LAPSSET Corridor Development Authority (LCDA) has been charged with the management of the route.









Lamu AIRPORT Lamu, 2 km (light aircraft only).

ACCOMMODATION Secure port with three anchorages for vessels of 91.43 metres LOA and 5.18 metres draught to enter the harbour at LWST. Spring tide rise is 3.35 metres.

Depth at anchorage: Shela 6.4 metres, Lamu South 5.8 metres, Lamu Upper 8.8 metres. Loading and discharge by dhows of 5 to 60 tons capacity.

Indian Ocean started in 2013 for completion 2018.



Construction of the first three berths (of 23) for a new mega port for the

Tugs of up to 4,626 hp available from Mombasa.

Serani and Mackenzie Point about 0.8 km NNE. The Old Port is used only by dhows, small coasters of 53.33 metres LOA and bulk cement carriers up to 145.08 metres LOA and 7.92 metres draught. These moor off the bulk cement loading installations on the mainland side of the Old Harbour on Ras Kidomoni (English Point).

Berths are numbered from 1 to 21. Two berths for handling bulk/bagged cement at Mbaraki with a total of 315 metres length and 10.5 metres depth. A depth of 10.97 metres may be achieved by placing additional Yokohama fenders.

POSITION Lat 2°18’S; long 40°55’E.

Mombasa Includes Kilindini Harbour, Port Reitz, the Old Port and Port Tudor. The port is the main outlet for the landlocked East African countries of Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi and the Democratic Republic of Congo.

ACCOMMODATION The port has two harbours: Kilindini Harbour on the south-west side of Mombasa Island and, on the east side of the island, Mombasa Old Port, which is entered between Ras


There is a total of 3,284 metres of deepwater quays with depths of 9.45 metres to 15.0 metres LWOST.

A new terminal has been opened at Berths 20 and 21. Berth 20 has a depth of 12.0 metres and a quay length of 210 metres. Berth 21 has a depth of 15.0 metres and 350 metres of quay.

The North and South lighterage wharves, with a total length of 412 metres, are also available. Berth 9 is used for loading of soda ash by conveyor. Two tanker berths and one oil jetty.

AIRPORT Moi International Airport, Mombasa, is 6 km distant.

APPROACH Entrance channel to Old Port has a minimum depth of 11.6 metres. Entrance from the sea to Kilindini Harbour is by an approach channel 7 nautical miles long, 300 metres wide, with 15.0 metres depth, on a transit of 301º (Ras Serani leads), thence directly to the harbour between Ras Mwa Kisenge on the mainland south and Ras Mzimili on the south of Mombasa Island about 0.6 km SW of Ras Serani lighthouse.

ANCHORAGES Kilindini is a fine sheltered harbour with anchorages for oceangoing vessels of between 6.0 and 12.0 metres draught. Anchorage for coasters and fishing vessels also available. Anchorage outside the port area is not


recommended because of poor holding grounds and strong currents.

AUTHORITY Kenya Ports Authority (KPA) PO Box 95009-80104, Mombasa, Kenya Tel: +254 (0)41 211 3999; +254 (0)41 211 2999; +254 (0)41 211 3497 Fax: +254 (0)41 211 1867 Email: kpamd@kpa.co.ke; ca@kpa.co.ke Web: www.kpa.co.ke

BUNKERS Available by barge.

CONTAINER AND RO-RO FACILITIES Mainly at Berths 16, 17, 18, 19, 20 and 21 (total length of 1,400 metres) with a back-up area for stacking and handling containers. Ro-ro facilities available at Berths 5 and 13.

CRANES Quays and port areas are served by travelling cranes of 5 to 20 tonnes capacity; three electric portal cranes of 5 to 20 tonnes; and 11 mobile cranes. Berths 16 to 21: equipment includes 12 rail mounted ship-to-shore gantry cranes – five

(new) of 45 tonnes capacity and four (old) of 40 tonnes. Two rail mounted gantry cranes, 38 rubber tyred gantry cranes plus mobile yard cranes of 5 to 35 tonnes. Various mobile cranes and rail mounted cranes from 5 to 25 tonnes operate in the port area.

CRUISE TERMINAL Cruise ships are usually accommodated at Berths 1 and 2. There are plans to build a dedicated cruise terminal at these two berths.

DEVELOPMENT Plans to build a free zone at Dongo Kundu; construction of a new 1.2 million teu container terminal under way – first phase (Berths 20 and 21) completed in February 2016 and now operational. Construction of second phase to commence mid 2017; Kipevu Oil Terminal to be relocated; new Standard Gauge Rail infrastructure under construction to start operations mid 2017.

FRESH WATER Fresh water is always available from shore hydrants at Berths 1 to 3. Average rate is 20 tonnes



per hour. Fresh water available at anchorage and other berths by barge (max 300 tonnes per trip) and harbour tug ‘El-Lamy’ (max 150 tonnes per trip).


POSITION Lat 4°04’S; long 39°41’E.

13.41 metres at LOWST. Shimanzi Oil Terminal (SOT) can accommodate vessels up to 35,000 dwt, 198.0 metres LOA and 9.75 metres draught. Slop tank facilities available. Cased Oil Jetty between Berth 10 and Shimanzi Oil Terminal can accommodate vessels up to 73 metres LOA and 6.0 metres draught. Currently not in use.



Fresh meat, fruit and vegetables available. ISSA members on hand.

Tidal range is 4.0 metres maximum at spring tide and 2.5 metres at neap tides.

The port can accommodate vessels up to 15.0 metres draught and 300 metres LOA.



Available 24 hours a day on VHF Channels 12 and 16.



Labour Day (1 May) and Christmas Day are normally the only holidays on which the port is closed, except for necessary pilotage of ships in and out of harbour and for dealing with mail, passengers, baggage, livestock and perishables. On other public holidays, restricted working may be carried out at overtime rates.

African Marine & General Engineering Co. One dry dock, length 180 metres, entrance width 24.75 metres, maximum water depth HWS 7.9 metres. Most types of repair work undertaken. Southern Engineering Co Ltd also has repair facilities.

Compulsory. Tugs up to 4,626 hp (3,450 kw) and 57.8 tons bollard pull available. Marine operations: four berthing tugs (one new delivered August 2016), four pilot boats (one for security patrols) and two mooring boats have been acquired. New 55 to 60 ton bollard pull tugs are multipurpose. A fifth tug, ‘El-Lamy’, was refurbished and is also in service.

IMPORTS AND EXPORTS Main imports: crude oil, fertilizers, salt, sugar, paper, iron and steel, motor vehicles, farm machinery, wheat, maize. Main exports: coffee, tea, soda ash, cement, canned fruit.



Private and public hospitals in the town.

PILOTAGE Compulsory for all vessels except pleasure boats and small fishing vessels. VHF Channels 16 and 12.



Total stacking area at the container terminal is 137,000 square metres.

The port handled a total of 27.364 million tonnes of cargo and container cargo was 1,091,371 teu in 2016.



Eight main quay transit sheds with a total floor area of 62,890 square metres and three other transit sheds with 36,952 square metres of floor area.

Ships’ agents appoint waste collectors licensed by the National Environment Management Authority (NEMA) and Kenya Ports Authority (KPA).



Kipevu Oil Terminal (KOT), at Port Reitz, can accommodate crude oil tankers up to 100,000 dwt and 259 metres LOA. Depth alongside is

07.00 to 15.00, 15.00 to 23.00. Extension of regular hours, Saturdays, Sundays and public holidays all constitute overtime.



PO Box 95009-80104, Mombasa, Kenya Tel: +254 (0)41 211 3999; +254 (0)41 211 2999; +254 (0)41 211 3497 Wireless: +254 (0)20 357 5880/8 Mobile: +254 (0)72 020 2525; +254 (0)73 431 2211 Fax: +254 (0)41 211 1867 Email: kpamd@kpa.co.ke; ca@kpa.co.ke


Profile for Land & Marine Publications Ltd.

Kenya Ports Authority Handbook 2017-18  

The latest edition of the Kenya Ports Handbook is published today on behalf of the Kenya Ports Authority.

Kenya Ports Authority Handbook 2017-18  

The latest edition of the Kenya Ports Handbook is published today on behalf of the Kenya Ports Authority.