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WORLD RURAL LANDSCAPES A worldwide initiative for global conservation and management

Rural Landscapes in China Liu Jian Institute of Architectual History, China Architecture Design & Research Group Milan, November 5th


RURAL LANDSCAPES IN CHINA A Brief Introduction of Atlas of Chinese Rural Landscapes

China is situated at the eastern part of the Asian Continent, as a large country with a long history and agricultural tradition. It is of a vast territory, complex natural resources, and significant cultural difference between the regions, these have resulted in diverse and complex form of land resources and use in China, as well as extremely rich and diverse rural landscapes.


CONTENTS

RURAL LANDSCAPES IN CHINA A Brief Introduction of Atlas of Chinese Rural Landscapes

1. Characteristics 2.Key Factors 3.Current Status 4.Classification 5.Cases


1、Key Characteristics

RURAL LANDSCAPES IN CHINA A Brief Introduction of Atlas of Chinese Rural Landscapes

(1)Long History The history of land resources and use in China is of a long history for thousands of years, and retained a large number of heritages. Among them, Chengtoushan Archaeological Site in Li County is the earliest known (6,300-6,500 years B.P.) and best preserved rice field remains in the world. Most of the existing agricultural production methods in China are of long-held traditions of over a thousand years.


1、Key Characteristics

RURAL LANDSCAPES IN CHINA A Brief Introduction of Atlas of Chinese Rural Landscapes

(2)Large Quantity To date (2014), the land of human occupation covers an area of about 709 square kilometres, which makes up 74% of the total area of the land in China, whereas the rest are non-occupied land and mostly uninhabitable. Among the land of human occupation, 98% of the areas are non-urban land. According to statistics, there were a total number of 588,407 villages, 62,961 rural populations in 2013, which made up 46% of China’s population. The large number of villages decided the huge number of rural landscapes in China. (3)Rich Diversity China is of a vast territory, lying across a wide span of latitude, with largely different distances from the sea, as well as different altitudes, landforms, orientations of mountain ranges and regional climates, which allow the land to be used in a variety of ways, and hence have resulted in numerous types of land use and large regional differences in China.


2、Key Factors

RURAL LANDSCAPES IN CHINA A Brief Introduction of Atlas of Chinese Rural Landscapes

(1)Geographical Factors In terms of landforms, China contains most of the typical landforms in the world, including islands, plains, basins, hilly areas, mountains, plateau, etc. In terms of geographical distribution, cultivated field are found mainly in plains or basins; forests are found mainly in hilly areas; forests and grasslands are found mainly in mountains; grassland and alpine scenery are found mainly in Meng Xin Plateau or Qing Zang Plateau.


2〠Key Factors

RURAL LANDSCAPES IN CHINA A Brief Introduction of Atlas of Chinese Rural Landscapes

In terms climate, the east regions have subtropical monsoon climate, temperate monsoon climate and tropical monsoon climate; the west regions have the temperate continental climate; whereas the Qing Zang Plateau have the alpine climate.


2〠Key Factors

RURAL LANDSCAPES IN CHINA A Brief Introduction of Atlas of Chinese Rural Landscapes

In terms of land-use, the east and south regions are mostly cultivated fields, forests, waters, nonagricultural land; the central region of pastoral farming are mostly cultivated fields or grassland; the northwest regions are mostly uninhabitable lands; To a certain extent, agriculture in the east and south regions are of a considerably longer history, along with a higher rate of habitant land, and the northwest regions are of relatively lower rate of habitant lands.


2、Key Factors

RURAL LANDSCAPES IN CHINA A Brief Introduction of Atlas of Chinese Rural Landscapes

(2)Cultural Factors China consists of 56 ethnic groups, which are mixed well in terms of culture and settlement locations. Han People is the largest ethnic group that makes up 90.6% of China’s population, and mainly settles in the central and east regions of China, where the landforms are mainly plains, and some plateau and basin or hilly areas of relatively flat forms. Other 55 ethnic groups mainly settle in the northwest, west, and southwest regions of China, where the landforms are mainly highlands or mountainous areas.

The different ethnic groups can be divided into: agricultural, nomadic and other cultural types, according to their production methods. Among them, the region of Han People is dominated by agriculture, whereas other ethnic minorities are more diverse in terms of cultural types. The different cultural and production methods that are represented by different ethnic groups have resulted in different types of rural landscapes.


3〠Current Status

RURAL LANDSCAPES IN CHINA A Brief Introduction of Atlas of Chinese Rural Landscapes

The rural landscapes studies in China were started not very long ago, so there is not much research in the concept of rural landscapes. There is still a lack of common understanding of the concept in China. Most of our colleagues involved in the research are specialists in geography, ecology, agriculture, landscape design and planning, but lack of professional heritage conservationist. None of the past research was able to provide a wider perspective on rural landscapes as heritage. In regard to the agricultural heritage as a type of rural landscapes, China is the first country that has worked cooperatively with FAO and took part in the GIAHS project. Until now, there are 31 GIAHS pilot sites all over the world, and 11 of them are in China (FAO 2014) Moreover, as the rural settlement studies in China were started quite early, a large number of investigations and researches have been carried out, as well as the practice in conservation, from which China have also gained valuable experience.


4、Classification

RURAL LANDSCAPES IN CHINA A Brief Introduction of Atlas of Chinese Rural Landscapes

(1)Selection of the Research Objects The rural landscapes in China are of large quantity and rich diversity, most of them have been included in the list of priority protected site at various levels. The selection of objects for this study is proposed only from the different lists of designated cultural heritage sites in China, so as to select rural landscapes that are of strong characteristics, including: To sum up, more than 300 cultural landscapes are potential rural landscapes. Designation

Designated by

Total Number of Sites

Number of Rural Landscapes

Notes

World Cultural WHC Heritage List of China World Cultural WHC Heritage Tentative List of China

33

1

Hani Rice Terraces can be rural landscapes

42

8

Historically and Culturally Famous villages State Priority Protected Cultural Heritage Sites Globally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems of China Important Agricultural Heritage Systems of China

SACH, Ministry of Construction SACH, Ministry of Construction FAO

276

276

Lingqu Canal, Shudao Route, Diaolou Buildings and Villages of Tibetan and Qiang Ethnic Groups, Dong Villages, Miao Villages, Ancient Tea Plantations of Jingmai Mountain in Pu’er, Karez Well, Ancient Salt Fields in Mangkang County can be rural landscapes All can be rural landscapes

11

11

All can be rural landscapes

Ministry of Agriculture

39

39

All can be rural landscapes

4295

A few ancient building complex and cultural landscapes can be rural landscapes


4、Classification

RURAL LANDSCAPES IN CHINA A Brief Introduction of Atlas of Chinese Rural Landscapes

(2)Principle of Classification As a new concept and typology for heritages of the Cultural Landscapes, the rural landscapes shall be classified according to their valued attributes, in other words, following the idea of value-based heritage conservation. With a wider perspective on rural landscapes as heritage, the rural landscapes shall possess and reflect the values as cultural heritage to a certain extent, therefore, the classification works shall be carried out on the basis of the assessment of valued attributes. Since the rural landscapes mainly reflect the interaction between man and nature, there should be enough thought to be put into the list of evaluation criteria, the ‘spatial, social, environmental, historical, perception, cultural’ as mentioned in the Guidelines, so as to put emphasis on the difference in geographical resources, cultural characteristics of different rural landscapes, and so on. The rural landscapes are to be conserved as heritage, and the essential importance of that is to conserve not only these fragile natural resources, but also the creativity of human intelligence (such as techniques, technical procedures, etc.,) which is reflected along with the developing process of using and controlling natural resources, as well as the derived cultural activities (such as custom, song/dance, poetry, festival, etc.,) which are of unique geographical characteristics.


4、Classification

RURAL LANDSCAPES IN CHINA A Brief Introduction of Atlas of Chinese Rural Landscapes

(4)Classification of Rural Landscapes in China The Rural Landscapes in China with regard to their valued attributes can be classified as follows: Settlement Landscapes

Traditional Village Landscapes Irrigation System Food Production Landscapes

Arable Farming Livestock Farming Fish Farming Medical Herbs Plantation

Agricultural Lanscapes Rural Landscapes

Commercial Production Landscapes

Production System Landscapes

Tea Plantation Vegetable Plantation Fruit Plantation Flower Plantation Fruit Tree Growing

Mining Landscapes Other Production Landscapes Compound System Landscapes

Salt Industry Mining Industry


CASES: Compound System Landscapes

RURAL LANDSCAPES IN CHINA A Brief Introduction of Atlas of Chinese Rural Landscapes

Honghe Hani Rice Terraces TYPE: Compound System Landscapes\ Terraces System

LOCATION: Yuanyang County, Yunnan Province, P. R. China TITLE •Inscribed on World Heritage List, UNESCO, 2013 •Listed in GIAHS, FAO, 2013 •State Priority Protected Cultural Heritage Sites, SACH, 2013


哈尼梯田

云南省·元阳县


哈尼梯田

云南省·元阳县

哈尼族蘑菇房


哈尼梯田

云南省·元阳县


哈尼族长街宴


4、Classification - Compound System Landscapes

RURAL LANDSCAPES IN CHINA A Brief Introduction of Atlas of Chinese Rural Landscapes

云南红河哈尼梯田


CASES: Settlement Landscapes

RURAL LANDSCAPES IN CHINA A Brief Introduction of Atlas of Chinese Rural Landscapes

Diaolou Buildings and Villages for Tibetan and Qiang Ethnic Groups TYPE: Settlement Landscapes\ Traditional Village Landscapes

LOCATION: Yuanyang County, Yunnan Province, P. R. China ●

丹巴中路乡藏族村寨


阿坝州理县桃坪乡桃坪羌寨


甲居藏寨


丹巴中路乡罕额依藏族村寨


丹巴县聂呷乡甲居藏族村寨


CASES: Production System Landscapes

RURAL LANDSCAPES IN CHINA A Brief Introduction of Atlas of Chinese Rural Landscapes

Ancient Salt Fields in Mangkang County TYPE: Production System Landscapes \ Mining Landscapes \Salt Industry LOCATION: Mangkang County, Tibet Autonomous Region

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CASES: Production System Landscapes

RURAL LANDSCAPES IN CHINA A Brief Introduction of Atlas of Chinese Rural Landscapes

Karez Wells TYPE: Production System Landscapes \ Agricultural and Food Production Landscapes\ Irrigation System LOCATION: Turfan, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region

â—?


RURAL LANDSCAPES IN CHINA A Brief Introduction of Atlas of Chinese Rural Landscapes


CASES: Production System Landscapes

RURAL LANDSCAPES IN CHINA A Brief Introduction of Atlas of Chinese Rural Landscapes

Aohan Dryland Farming System TYPE: Production System Landscapes \ Agricultural and Food Production Landscapes\ Arable Farming LOCATION: Aohan Banner, Chifeng City, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region

â—?


RURAL LANDSCAPES IN CHINA A Brief Introduction of Atlas of Chinese Rural Landscapes


RURAL LANDSCAPES IN CHINA A Brief Introduction of Atlas of Chinese Rural Landscapes


CASES: Production System Landscapes

RURAL LANDSCAPES IN CHINA A Brief Introduction of Atlas of Chinese Rural Landscapes

Xinghua Duotian Agrosystem TYPE: Production System Landscapes \ Agricultural and Food Production Landscapes\ Arable Farming â—?

LOCATION: Xinghua City, Jiangsu Province


RURAL LANDSCAPES IN CHINA A Brief Introduction of Atlas of Chinese Rural Landscapes


RURAL LANDSCAPES IN CHINA A Brief Introduction of Atlas of Chinese Rural Landscapes


CASES: Production System Landscapes

RURAL LANDSCAPES IN CHINA A Brief Introduction of Atlas of Chinese Rural Landscapes

Mulberry Dike-Fish Pond TYPE: Production System Landscapes \ Agricultural and Food Production Landscapes\ Arable Farming â—?

LOCATION: Zhujiagua Town, Jia County, Shaanxi Province


RURAL LANDSCAPES IN CHINA A Brief Introduction of Atlas of Chinese Rural Landscapes


RURAL LANDSCAPES IN CHINA A Brief Introduction of Atlas of Chinese Rural Landscapes


RURAL LANDSCAPES IN CHINA A Brief Introduction of Atlas of Chinese Rural Landscapes


CASES: Production System Landscapes

RURAL LANDSCAPES IN CHINA A Brief Introduction of Atlas of Chinese Rural Landscapes

Ancient Tea Plantations of Jingmai Mountain in Pu'er TYPE: Production System Landscapes \ Commercial Production Landscapes\ Tea Plantation

LOCATION: Mangkang County, Tibet Autonomous Region

â—?


RURAL LANDSCAPES IN CHINA A Brief Introduction of Atlas of Chinese Rural Landscapes


RURAL LANDSCAPES IN CHINA A Brief Introduction of Atlas of Chinese Rural Landscapes


CASES: Production System Landscapes

RURAL LANDSCAPES IN CHINA A Brief Introduction of Atlas of Chinese Rural Landscapes

Xuanhua Traditional Vineyard System TYPE: Production System Landscapes \ Commercial Production Landscapes\Vineyard

LOCATION: Chunguang Town, Xuanhua District, Zhangjiakou City, Hebei Province

â—?


RURAL LANDSCAPES IN CHINA A Brief Introduction of Atlas of Chinese Rural Landscapes


RURAL LANDSCAPES IN CHINA A Brief Introduction of Atlas of Chinese Rural Landscapes

THE END Thank you for your attention!

Rural Landscapes in China  

WRL Meeting Milan, 2014

Rural Landscapes in China  

WRL Meeting Milan, 2014

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