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kultura plus / CULTURE PLUS 2 (4) 2016

2 4 2016

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s a g a n m a n a T l e b l o - s a z o g a d o e b r i v i

J u r n a l i

sarCevi / Contents gadarCena nebaSia

2

SALVATION IS A QUESTION OF WILL

zubalaSvilebi

12

THE ZUBALASHVILIS

Cangli

20

CHANGLI

saqme #13085

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CASE #13085

ra wigni SeiZine?

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WHAT BOOK DID YOU BUY?

arc ra aris warmavali

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NOTHING IS TEMPORARY

kinocentris roli...

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MISSION OF THE FILM CENTER...

kino movida

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CINEMA HAS ARRIVED

qaravan art forumi 2016

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CARAVAN ART FORUM 2016

mogviTxroben TumaniSvilebi

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TUMANISHVILIS SHARE THEIR STORY

iuneskos nusxaSi

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LISTED BY UNESCO

amas musikis `keTebas~ veZaxiT

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WE CALL THIS “MAKING” MUSIC

iberielTa gamofena

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EXHIBITION OF THE TWO IBERIAS

saredaqcio jgufi EDITORIAL STAFF revaz iukuriZe ramaz Wilaia xaTuna kereseliZe aleqsandre ServaSiZe qeiTi ruTi deivisi

REVAZ IUKURIDZE RAMAZ CHILAIA KHATUNA KERESELIDZE ALEKSANDRE SHERVASHIDZE KATIE RUTH DAVIES

dizaineri DESIGNER nikoloz bagrationi NIKOLOZ BAGRATIONI

el-fosta: kulturaplusm@gmail.com facebook.com/kulturaplusm tel: 032 298 96 13 gamodis kvartalSi erTxel JurnalSi ganTavsebuli masalis gamoyeneba SeiZleba mxolod redaqciis TanxmobiT

Issued quarterly The material published in this magazine cannot be used without the authorization of the editorial staff

ISSN 2346-8165 beWdva: Sps „sezani“/Print: LTD Cezanne fotomasalis mowodebisTvis redaqcia madlobas uxdis: saqarTvelos Teatris, musikis, kinosa da qoreografiis saxelmwifo muzeums; saqarTvelos parlamentis erovnul biblioTekas garekanis pirvel gverdze: petre ocxeli, dekoraciis eskizi leo esakias filmisTvis `mfrinavi mRebavi~ Cover: Petre Otskheli, decoration for leo esakia movie “flying decorator”

garekanis meoTxe gverdze: petre ocxeli, siurrealisturi etiudi / Back cover: Petre Otskheli, surrealistic study

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Salvation is a Question of Will

T. Gotsadze

eri istoriis subieqtia... sxva erebTan erTad qmnis da aRnusxavs dro-Jams, miseuli wvlili Seaqvs zogadsakacobrio faseulobaTa SeqmnaSi, gamoimuSavebs TviTgadarCenis instinqts da rogorc koleqtiuri warmonaqmni kacobriobis mier aRiarebuli zneobrivi kriteriumebis Sesabamisad imkvidrebs Tavs. istoriis yovel fiqsirebul momentSi igi im individTa erTobaa, romelTac gacnobierebuli aqvT pasuxismgebloba winaparTa qmedebasa da saerTo momavlis xedvaze. eris wevroba yoveli adamianis Tandayolili, ganuyofeli Tviseba da pirovnebad Camoyalibebis umniSvnelovanesi pirobaa. eris arsebobas, mis ganviTarebas ramdenime principuli winapiroba aqvs, saxeldobr: saarsebo sivrce; bunebrivi da inteleqtualuri resursebis marTvisa da maTi racionaluri gankargvis saSualeba; samarTalsa da samarTlianobaze

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A nation contributes to history… Together with other nations, it creates and chronicles time, plays its part in the creation of universal human values, produces a survival instinct, and establishes itself as a collective entity according to universally recognized moral criteria. At any point in history, it represents the unity of individuals who share a conscious accountability to their ancestors’ actions and a common vision of the future. Being part of a nation is every human’s inherent attribute, as well as one of the most important conditions in order to become an accomplished individual. The existence and development of a nation has several essential preconditions, namely: a territory to live in; the possibility of managing and rationally disposing of natural and intellectual resources; a common vision of law and justice; tolerance, and in general, respect of human values; and the foundation of an autonomous national culture based on collective experience.


saerTo warmodgena; Semwynarebloba da zogadadamianuri faseulobebis pativiscema; koleqtiur gamocdilebaze TviTmyofadi erovnuli kulturis dafuZneba. SevCerdeT kulturaze, mis erTobaze... eris wiaRSi saukuneTa ganmavlobaSi yalibdeba sulieri cxovrebisTvis aucilebeli wesebi _ erovnul kulturasa da gamocdilebaze dafuZnebuli sinamdvilesTan Seguebisa da ganviTarebis meqanizmebi. mecnierebisgan gansxvavebiT kultura (ena, miTologia, folklori, musika, literatura, Teatri, saxviTi xelovneba, kino, xalxuri rewva da a.S) mkveTrad gamoxatuli erovnuli specifikurobiT xasiaTdeba. araerovnuli kultura ar arsebobs. igi iseTive unikaluria, rogorc yoveli eris saarsebo sivrce da Tavis mxriv gansazRvravs mis mentalur konturs. gavrcelebulia azri, rom informaciis, kapitalisa da Sromisunarian adamianTa daubrkolebeli gadaadgileba xels uwyobs kulturaTa mravalferovnebis mospobasa da erTi, zogadi, e.w. sakacobrio kulturis formirebas. mas-kulturis nimuSebis tiraJireba da propaganda am tendenciis utyuari simptomia, magram mTeli es surogatuli, viTomda zeerovnuli, zogadsakacobrio fsevdokultura sruliad uperspeqtivo da unayofoa _ erisagan gansxvavebiT kacobrioba ar aris istoriis subieqti da Sesabamisad mas kulturis generireba ar SeuZlia. WeSmariti kulturis Seqmna mxolod eris, rogorc istoriis subieqtis prerogativaa. saxelmwifos mxridan mas-kulturis winaaRmdeg brZola an miT umetes misi akrZalva uazrobaa, Tumca kulturuli memkvidreobis dacva da Tanamedrove erovnuli Semoqmedebis stimulireba xelisuflebis pirdapiri movaleobaa. Tanamedroveobas istoriuli analogi ar gaaCnia _ dRevandeloba xasiaTdeba arnaxuli tempiT, globalurobiT da SeuqcevadobiT. yovelive es Cveni patara samSoblosTvis yuradsaRebi da safrTxiloa _ Cveni qveyana xom mniSvnelovani qartexilebis epicentrSia _ istoriuli memkvidreobis gamo mentalurad da ekonomikurad dasustebuli. am pirobebSi obieqturad rTulia qveyanam gza gaikvlios globalizaciis SesaZloa aramtrul, magram pragmatul da sakmarisad agresiul garemoSi. TviTmyofadoba da Semoqmedeba-Seqmna, eris raobis Zireuli maxasiaTeblebia. isini „miwa-wyalTan“ erTad qveynis arsebiT parametrebs qmnian. marTlac riT SeiZleba „sisxlisgan dacalo“ qveyana, rezistentoba daukargo da momavali waarTva mas? ra Tqma unda qveynis bunebriv da adamianur resursebze zemoqmedebiT. miwa-wylis gayidviT, imgvari pirobebis SeqmniT, roca mosaxleobis aqtiuri nawili iZulebulia icxovros sazRvargareT. ganaTlebis donis dacemiT, rac sazogadoebis azrovnebis kulturis da, zogadad, kulturis nivelirebas iwvevs. Sedegad eri, rogorc TviTmyofadi erToba, faqtobrivad, qreba da adamianebi usamSoblod rCebian.

Let us focus on culture as an entity… The rules that are necessary for a spiritual life evolve at the core of nations over centuries – these are mechanisms to adapt to and enhance the reality created by national culture and experience. Unlike science, culture (language, mythology, folklore, music, literature, theater, fine arts, cinema, and so on) is characterized by a very distinctive national specificity. There is no culture that is not national. It is as unique as the living area of each nation, and for its part, it defines the nation’s mental outline. There is a general consensus on the fact that the spread of information and capital, as well as the free movement of professionals, encourages the disappearance of cultural diversity and the formation of a unique universal culture. The replication and propaganda of mass cultural products are irrefutable symptoms of this tendency, but all this surrogate, allegedly supranational, universal pseudo‑culture is utterly sterile and has no perspective, as, unlike a nation, humanity is not a participant in history and therefore it cannot generate culture. Genuine culture is the prerogative of nations only, as they are the ones contributing to history.

cixe-simagre, 120X100, tilo, zeTi CASTLE, 120X100, CANVAS, OIL

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aisi, 162X170, tilo, zeTi SUNRISE, 162X170, CANVAS, OIL

ra momavals uqadis saqarTveloSi mimdinare „saganmanaTleblo“ saqmianoba CvenSi saR azrovnebas da saerTod kulturas? aZlierebs igi SemoqmedebiT-SeqmniT potencials, Tu akninebs da aqrobs mas? XXI saukunis dasawyisSi evropis qveynebis meTaurebma xeli moaweres deklaraciebs, romlis mixedviTac evropas miznad hqonda 2010 wlisTvis codnaze damyarebuli sazogadoeba da ekonomika Seeqmna (2000 w. lisaboni; 2002 w. barselona). codna ganaTlebaa _ igi Sedgeba SeZenili codnisgan, azrovnebis kulturisgan da zneobrivi aRzrdisgan. es

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It would be foolish for a state to oppose mass culture, and even more so to forbid it, but the protection of cultural heritage and the stimulation of contemporary national creation are paramount duties of any government. Modern times have no analog in history: they are characterized by unseen rhythm, globalization and irreversibility. All this is very significant for our small country and has to be dealt with carefully – Georgia is at the epicenter of a region with important issues, and mentally and economically weakened due to its historic heritage. In these conditions, it is objectively difficult for a country to clear its path through the perhaps non-hostile, but pragmatic and quite aggressive environment of globalization.


ukanaskneli ganaTlebis yvelaze mniSvnelovani, rTuli da Znelad misaRwevi nawilia. aq mxolod erTs gamovyofT: zneobrivi aRzrda mniSvnelovanwiladaa gadajaWvuli mozardis religiur aRzrdasTan. zneobis harmonizacia rwmenis harmonizaciiT miiRweva. rac Seexeba azrovnebis kulturas, swavlis unars, misi SeZena mxolod sagnis sistemuri swavlebis SemTxvevaSia SesaZlebeli anu sakmarisad datvirTuli saSualo da umaRlesi swavlebis dros. dRes `reformirebul-modernizebul~ saxelovnebo skolebis saxelmwifo standartebsa da saswavlo gegmebs

Autonomy and creation are fundamental features of a nation’s essence. Together with territory, they form the primary parameters of a country. And what could remove the soul of a country, make it lose its resistance and take away its future? Naturally, impacts on the country’s natural and human resources: the selling of land and the creation of conditions forcing the active part of the population to move abroad; and the decrease of the educational level, which results in the overall decline of a society’s critical thinking and culture in general. As a consequence, the nation practically disappears as an autonomous entity and people are left without a homeland.

daisi, 170,5X186, tilo, zeTi DUSK, 170,5X186, CANVAS, OIL

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cxenebi, 47X43, qaRaldi, akvarelis fanqari HORSES, 47X43, PAPER, WATERCOLOR

zedapirulobiT mxolod gaocebis gamowveva SeuZliaT. cxadia, rom aseTi zedapiruli programiT studentebi ver SeZleben raime disciplinis Rrmad gaazrebas, rac mTavaria maT ver ganuviTardebaT azrovnebis kultura. sabolood yovelive es mZime tvirTad daawveba qveynis momavals. gamokveTili tendenciebi cxadyofen, rom saxelovnebosaganmanaTleblo sistemaSi arsebuli prioritetebi mdare ganaTlebis miRebazea orientirebuli, rac eWvqveS ayenebs fundamenturi codnisa da azrovnebis kulturis mqone adamianebis aRzrdas. arada swored es ukanaskneli qmnis

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What kind of future do the current “educational” activities foreshadow for our cognitive abilities and culture? Does it increase our creative potential or does it diminish it or wipe it out? At the beginning of the 21st century, European leaders signed a declaration assigning Europe the objective of forming a society and economy based on knowledge starting from 2010 (in Lisbon in 2000 and Barcelona 2002). Knowledge is education – it comes from the knowledge we acquire, critical thinking capabilities, and a moral upbringing. The latter is the most important aspect of education, and it is the most complex and hardest-to-achieve part. I would stress one point here: moral upbringing


lurja cxenebi, 27X27, qaRaldi, akvarelis fanqari BLUE STALLIONS, 27X27, PAPER, WATERCOLOR

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qveyanaSi pasionarul birTvs, romelic gansazRvravs qveynis TviTmyofadobas, mis srulyofas. cxadia, adamianebs unda SeeZloT konkurentuli saqmianobis kargad Sesruleba, magram es srulebiT ar ewinaaRmdegeba Rrma codnis mqone, qveyanaSi moazrovne adamianis aRzrdis aucileblobas. piriqiT, isini erTmaneTs unda avsebdnen. unda iTqvas, rom mdare ganaTlebaze orientireba gaaqrobs jer kidev SemorCenil maRali xelovnebisa da kulturis kunZulebs qveyanaSi. igi saqarTvelos TviTmyofadobis sawinaaRmdegodaa mimarTuli _ mosaxleobas usaxo masad, globaluri satranzito proeqtebis momsaxurebisTvis saWiro, moqnil masalad aqcevs. aseT SemTxvevaSi mosaxleobas SeiZleba lukma-puri hqondes, magram faseulobaze dafuZnebul erTobaze, eris kulturulobaze saubari zedmeti iqneba. ra vqnaT, ra viRonoT? pirvel rigSi unda aRvadginoT saxelovnebo swavlebis sami safexuri (dawyebiTi 8 weli, saSualo 4 weli da umaRlesi 6 weli). es niSnavs imas, rom saxelovnebo ganaTleba unda gamoeyos boloniis process, sadac sauniversiteto swavleba gulisxmobs Teoriuli disciplinebis primats, sadac Teoria 70%-ia, xolo praqtika 30%. saxelovnebo saswavleblebi unda daubrundnen praqtikuli swavlebis upiratesobas. aucileblad unda aRdges ostat-Segirdis urTierToba. praqtikuli swavlebis samive safexuri seriozuli gansjis sagnad unda iqces. roca Cven SevZlebT saswavlo programebis mecnierul doneze damuSavebas, roca Cven SevZlebT axalgazrda musikoss, mxatvars, msaxiobs, reJisors sruli moculobiT mivawodoT informacia ama Tu im sagnis garSemo, amiT Cven SevinarCunebT TviTmyofadobas da SevqmniT qveyanaSi pasionarul birTvs, romelic mis ganumeoreblobas, srulyofas gansazRvravs. da kidev... vizualuri xelovnebis ganviTarebis gadamwyveti faqtori muzeumia. Tanamedrove qarTuli vizualuri xelovnebis muzeumis Seqmna qveynis upirvelesi amocana gaxlavT. dRes samuzeumo politika erovnuli memkvidreobis dacvisa da propagandis sakiTxebs aregulirebs, Tumca yuradRebis miRma rCeba Tanamedrove vizualuri xelovnebis ganviTarebis uaRresad saintereso istoria, romlis warmoCenac qveynis kulturis politikis marTebulad warmoCenisTvis aucilebelia. saSuria Seiqmnas kulturuli centri, romelic konkretulad Tanamedrove qarTuli xelovnebis nimuSebs warmoaCens da sazogadoebis winaSe gamoamzeurebs. axali muzeumi unda dainteresdes kerZo koleqciebiTac da maTi sazogadoebis samsjavroze gamotaniT. XX da XXI saukuneebis vizualuri xelovneba, faqtobrivad, Seufasebelia. ar aris klasificirebuli is

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is closely linked to religious upbringing – the harmonization of morality is achieved through the harmonization of faith. Regarding critical thinking and learning ability, one can only acquire them by systematically learning various subjects, and therefore, they should be taught quite intensively during both school and higher education. Today, the superficiality of “reformed” and “modernized” state standards and educational programs for art schools can only be surprising to amateurs in this field. It is obvious that with such superficial programs, students will not be able to comprehend any discipline in depth, and, most importantly, their reasoning ability will not develop enough. In the end, this will become a heavy burden for our country’s future. The tendencies at hand make it clear that the existing priorities in the artistic and educational system are oriented towards a middling education, which raises questions about the upbringing of people with fundamental knowledge and reasoning abilities. And these are precisely the people who form a passionate core in the country, determine its autonomy and wholesomeness. Naturally, people should be able to properly conduct competitive tasks, but not in opposition with the necessity of rearing people with complex knowledge and the ability to think critically. On the contrary, the two should complete each other. It has to be said that this orientation towards mediocre education will make the remaining spots of high artistic value and culture disappear. It is directed against Georgia’s autonomy – transforming its population into a faceless crowd well trained for serving global plans. In this case, the population may have some bread to eat, but we could not talk about an entity based on values, nor about a cultural nation. So what can we do about that? Firstly, we have to restore the three stages of art education (a first stage of eight years, a middle stage of four years, and a last stage of six years). This means that art education shouldn’t apply the Bologna system anymore, in which higher education privileges theoretical disciplines, with 70% of theory and 30% of practice. Art institutions should return to insisting on practical teaching, and the masterapprentice relationship should also definitely be reinstated. These three stages of practical education should be discussed thoroughly. When we can bring educational programs to a scientific level, when we can provide young musicians, painters, actors, or directors with complete information about their respective fields, we will be able to preserve our autonomy and create a passionate core that will determine the country’s uniqueness and wholesomeness. And also... Museums are decisive factors for the development of visual arts. The creation of a museum of contemporary Georgian visual arts is one of our country’s most important obligations. At present, our museum policy regulates the preservation and popularization of national heritage, but is not concerned with the utterly interesting history of the evolution of contemporary visual arts, the promotion of which is an imperative for the overall advancement of our country’s culture policy. It would be more than appropriate to create a culture center that


aRmafrena, 200X170.5, tilo, zeTi INSPIRATION, 200X170.5, CANVAS, OIL

urTulesi da saintereso ganviTarebis gza, rac bolo asi wlis manZilze gaviareT. XX saukunis bolo periodma mTeli rigi arasasurveli procesebi ganapiroba... sazRvargareT Calis fasad iqna gatanili uniWieres qarTvel mxatvarTa mravali saukeTeso namuSevari. ukanaskneli 25 wlis ganmavlobaSi Cven aRar viciT ra xdeba Tanamedrove xelovnebaSi, vin gamoCnda asparezze da ra tendenciebi sWarbobs. gavauqmeT „respublikuri“ sezonuri gamofenebi da xelovnurad SevqmeniT sicariele... sazogadoeba ganerida sagamofeno darbazebs... imitom, rom ver vawvdiT amomwurav informacias qarTuli

will promote contemporary Georgian artworks and present them to the general public. The new museum should also be interested in pieces from private collections and, again, making them public. Visual art from the 20th and 21st centuries is invaluable, but the both difficult and interesting path we have gone through during the last 100 years remains uncataloged. The end of the 20th century brought numerous undesirable processes, and many of the best artworks from talented Georgian artists have been sold abroad for practically nothing. Throughout the last 25 years, we have been unaware of what is happening in contemporary art, which artists have appeared on the

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kulturis Sesaxeb. ukve 30 welia vizualuri xelovneba ver muSaobs Cveni sazogadoebis cnobierebaze, aqedan ki momdinareobs gaunaTleblobis areali, kulturis deficiti, informaciuli vakuumi. es maSin, roca jer kidev gvaqvs yvela saSualeba... politikuri neba da mxolod politikuri neba SeZlebs kulturisa da ganaTlebis sakiTxebis prioritetad

efemera, 130X130, tilo, zeTi EPHEMERE, 130X130, CANVAS, OIL

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scene and what tendencies are at hand. We removed the seasonal “republican” exhibitions, creating an artificial void… Society turned its back on exhibition spaces because we cannot provide exhaustive information about Georgian culture. For 30 years now, visual arts have played no role in our society’s consciousness, which also leads to educational problems, a cultural deficit, and an informational vacuum. All this, while we have all the means to reverse the situation…


efemera, 130X130, tilo, zeTi EPHEMERE, 130X130, CANVAS, OIL

gamocxadebas. mxolod neba Seqmnis im atmosferos, roca yvelaferi zemoTqmuli Cadgeba eris samsaxurSi. arada es aucilebelia, radgan eria istoriis subieqti da mxolod am erTobas SeuZlia gauZlos yvela im gamowvevas, riTac ase mdidaria garsmortymuli realoba. gadarCena nebaSia...

Political will and political will alone can declare cultural and educational issues to be a priority. Only will can create this atmosphere when all that we have mentioned above gets put on our nation’s political agenda. And this is an imperative, as a nation contributes to history, and only this entity can overcome the numerous challenges facing our current reality. Salvation is a question of will...

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iakobi konstantine

petre

zubalaSvilebi The Zubalashvilis

stefane

levani

`...rac maT mowyaleba urigebiaT, yvela igi Cumad, ise, rom marjvena mklavis namoqmedari marcxenasac ar gaugia!” zaqaria WiWinaZe

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daviTi

“…They gave out charity so modestly that even their left hand was not aware of what the right hand had done!” Zakaria Chichinadze


dRes yvela ganviTarebuli qveynis ekonomikuri Zliereba `saqmis xalxis~ anu biznesmenebis warmatebas ukavSirdeba. ukanaskneli 400 wlis ganmavlobaSi zubalaSvilTa sxvadasxva Taobis saqmianobas Tu gadavxedavT, davrwmundebiT, rom am gvaris warmomadgenlebi niWiT da energiiT, saqmis codniTa da samSobloze zrunviT gamoirCeodnen. mesxi zubalaSvilebis Sesaxeb saistorio wyaroebSi cnobebs XVII saukunidan vxvdebiT da maTi genealogiuri xec 1640 wels dabadebuli zurab zubalaSviliT iwyeba... Semdgom, am gvaris warmomadgeneli, vaxtang VI-s karis mRvdeli da mwignobari, giorgi zubalaSvili, pirvel qarTul stambaSi saqmianobda da mefesTan erTad ruseTs gadaxvewila. kidev erT zubalaSvils, romanozs, imave saukunis miwuruls, gamorCeuli saqmianobisTvis mefe ereklesgan aznauroba miuRia. igi mogvianebiT imereTSi dasaxlebula, sadac misi saqme Svilebs gaugrZelebiaT. am gvaris warmomadgenlebs bedi vaWrobaSic ucdiaT da gamarTlebiaT. maT saqoneli sparseTSi, osmaleTsa da indoeTSi gautaniaT da iqidan CvenSi ucxo nawarmi SemoutaniaT. gakaTolikebul stefane zubalaSvils, savaWro saqme madrassa da kalkutaSi auwyvia, sadac daojaxebula kidec da qal-vaJic SesZenia... qarTvel vaWar-xelosanTa `gafrangeba~-gakaTolikeba, 1536 wels safrangeTsa da osmaleTs Soris dadebulma xelSekrulebam ganapiroba. am SeTanxmebiT levantis zRvebze, mxolod safrangeTisa da veneciis gemebs SeeZloT mimosvla. 1581 wels, ganaxlebuli xelSekrulebiT, TurqeTma safrangeTi aRiara osmaleTis imperiaSi mcxovrebi yvela qristianis

zubalaSvilebis sacxovrebeli saxli, amJamad Salva amiranaSvilis sax. xelovnebis muzeumi ZUBALASHVILI’S FAMILY HOUSE, CURRENTLY THE SHALVA AMIRANASHVILI ART MUSEUM

Today, the economic strength of any developed country has to do with the success of its businessmen. If we take a look at the activities of various generations from the Zubalashvili family during the last 400 years, we will be convinced that the representatives of this name have distinguished themselves by their talent, energy, professionalism, and care for their homeland. The first mention of the Meskhetian (historic Georgian region) family of Zubalashvilis in historical sources dates back to the 17th century – their family tree starts with Zurab Zubalashvili, who was born in 1640… Afterwards, Giorgi Zubalashvili, priest and scribe of King Vakhtang VI, worked in the first Georgian printing establishment and then accompanied the King to Russia. At the end of the century,

zubalaSvilebis qarxana ZUBALASHVILIS’ FACTORY

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upovarTa TavSesafari SHELTER FOR THE NEEDY

oficialur mfarvelad. genuelebs, ingliselebs, espanelebs, portugalielebsa Tu sicilielebs osmaleTis wylebSi mxolod franguli almiT SeeZloT curva. 1610 wels, safrangeTs levantis qveynebSi xuTi sakonsulo hqonda gaxsnili. frangebi, upirvelesad, kaTolikobis maRiarebelT mfarvelobdnen, amitomac gasagebia osmaleTis imperiaSi mcxovrebi qristianebis midrekileba kaTolicizmisken. am mizeziT gakaTolikebulan mesxeTis mkvidri qarTvelebi, zubalaSvilTa winaprebic... XIX saukunis dasawyisSi zubalaSvilTa erTi Sto mesxeTidan, gorsa da TbilisSi gadmosaxlebula. qarTlSi damkvidrebuli zubalaSvilebi `rusis jars~ sursaTiTa da aryiT amaragebdnen, agebdnen Senobebs, xidebs da qonebas imravlebdnen. 1837 wels, iakob ivanes Ze zubalaSvilma quTaisSi, aryis saxdeli, xolo 1838

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the title of Aznauri (a class of Georgian nobility) was bestowed on Romanoz Zubalashvili by King Erekle for his outstanding services. Later, he would settle in the region of Imereti, where his children carried on his undertakings. The members of this family tried their hand at trade, too, and became very successful, exporting goods to Iran, Turkey and India, and importing exotic products from the same countries. Stephane Zubalashvili, who became a Catholic, established a business in Madras and Calcutta, where he also married and had a son and a daughter… The “francization” and conversion to Catholicism of this Georgian family of businessmen and artists was conditioned by the 1536 treaty between the Ottoman Empire and France, according to which only French and Venetian boats could transit in Turkey. In 1581, Turkey declared France as the ruler of every Christian living on the territory of the Ottoman Empire. As a result, the Genoese, English, Spaniards, Portuguese and Sicilians could use Turkish


upovarTa TavSesafris saZinebeli oTaxi DORMITORY OF THE SHELTER

wels, TbilisSi, veraze, dRevandeli petriaSvilisa da meliqiSvilis quCebis kuTxeSi, `qarTuli Saqris~ qarxana gaxsna. 1827 wels, iakobma arqiteqtor bernardacis proeqtiT gviani klasicizmis stilis Senoba aago. Tbilisis sazogadoebam am sasaxleSi mouwyo wveuleba ruseTis imperator nikoloz I-s. 1840 wels, aq sasuliero seminaria gaixsna, dRes ki masSi saqarTvelos xelovnebis saxelmwifo muzeumia ganTavsebuli. 1858 wels, saqarTveloSi stumrad myofi aleqsandre diuma (mama) wignSi `kavkasia~ madlierebiTa da siamovnebiT ixsenebs TbilisSi iakob zubalovis saxlSi gatarebul Tvenaxevrian maspinZlobas. XIX saukunis bolos, iakobis vaJebma baqoSi, bibieibaTis kunZulze, inglisel mrewvel rotSildisgan TviTdinebiT momdinare navTobis sabadoebi SeiZines, romlebic nedleuls TiTqmis aRar iZleodnen. moqilikeni Zmebs zurgs ukan dascinodnen. am SenaZenidan mokle xanSi ufrosi Zma konstantine, meuRle elisabed TumaniSvilTan erTad, safrangeTSi samkurnalod balneologiur kurort lurdSi gamgzavrebula. gogirdovanma wyalma col-qmarzec sasikeTod imoqmeda da Rrmadmorwmune elisabeds ramdenime bidoni samkurnalo wyali Tan wamouRia. erT saRamos, qalbatons, baqoSi ojaxis kuTvnil sabadoebze momsaxure mazliSvil daviTisTvis ucnauri TxovniT miumarTavs: `gTxov, xval dilaadrian gamomyve, minda Cvens WaburRilebSi TiTo tolCa lurdis wyali CavasxaT~. axalgazrdas gahkvirvebia da cota gabrazebula kidec, magram bicolas uari ver Sehkadra... meore dRes aremare didma xmaurma moicva. WaburRilebi mijriT `afeTqda~ da navTobi niaRvrad wamovida. kompaniis qimiuri laboratoriis TanamSromlebma,

water only if they were under the French banner. In 1610, France had five consulates in the countries of the Levant. The French were primarily protecting people of Catholic faith, so the leaning of most Christians living in the Ottoman Empire towards Catholicism is understandable. And this is precisely why the ancestors of the Zubalashvilis, a family originating from the Meskheti region, converted to Catholicism. At the beginning of the 19th century, one branch of the Zubalashvili family moved from Meskheti to Gori and Tbilisi. The Zubalashvilis who settled in the region of Kartli supplied the Russian Army with food rations and vodka and constructed buildings and bridges, and in this way accumulated much wealth. In 1837, Jacob (son of Ivan) Zubalashvili opened a vodka distillery in Kutaisi, and then a factory of “Georgian Sugar” in Tbilisi in 1838, on the corner of the Petriashvili and Melikishvili streets. In 1827, Jacob built an edifice in late classicist style according to architect Bernardacci’s project, where Tbilisi society arranged a reception for the Emperor of Russia, Nicholas I. In 1840, a theological seminary opened there, and today it serves as the State Art Museum of Georgia. In his book “Voyage to the Caucasus,” Alexandre Dumas (senior), who visited Georgia in 1858, refers with much gratitude and contentment to the month and a half he spent in Jacob “Zubalov’s” house. By the end of the 19th century, Jacob’s sons had purchased an oil well from the English family of businessmen Rothschild on the Bibiheybet island in Baku, but these were providing almost no crude oil anymore. Gossipers mocked the brothers behind their backs. Shortly after this purchase, the elder brother Constantin (son of Jacob) traveled with his wife Elisabeth Tumanishvili to the French balneological resort of Lourdes. The sulfuric water had beneficial effects on the couple and the very religious Elisabeth brought several vessels of this healing liquid away with her. One evening, she addressed her nephew David, who was working at

upovarTa TavSesafris binadarni INHABITANTS OF THE SHELTER

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quTaisis kaTolikeTa laTinuri eklesia LATIN CATHOLIC CHURCH OF KUTAISI

the family refinery in Baku, with an unusual request: “Could you follow me tomorrow in the early morning, I want to pour one bowl of Lourdes water in each of our repositories.” The young man was surprised by this desire, and even a little bit angry about it, but he couldn’t say no to his aunt... The next day, there was a lot of agitation. The deposits “exploded” one after the other and oil flowed out of them. The chemists of the company’s laboratory explained this by the reaction provoked by the contact of Lourdes water with the gas stuck in the deposits... Mrs Tumanishvili had no doubt that this miracle had come from God. This was the beginning of the great philanthropy of the Zubalashvilis. The scale of the benefactions the Zubalashvilis would grant during many years is truly impressive: Catholic churches built in Gori, Batumi and Tbilisi; 100,000 Rubles for the construction of the Tbilisi University; 10,000 Rubles for the construction of the Music School (today’s Conservatory); 20,000 Rubles for the Society for the Spread of Literacy among Georgians; 10,000 Rubles for the equipment of the self-governing body; 350,000

momxdari lurdis wyalis WaburRilebSi gaWedil gazTan reaqciiT axsnes... qalbaton elisabeds ki eWvi ar epareboda _ saswauli RvTisgan modioda. es iyo dasabami zubalaSvilebis didi qonebis da qvelmoqmedebisa. zubalaSvilTa mier mravali wlis ganmavlobaSi gaweuli mecenatobis masStabi marTlac saocaria: gorSi, baTumsa da TbilisSi agebuli kaTolikuri eklesiebi; Tbilisis universitetis mSeneblobisTvis _ 100 000 maneTi; samusiko skolis (axlandeli konservatoriis) asaSeneblad _ 10 000 maneTi; qarTvelTa Soris wera-kiTxvis gamavrcelebel sazogadoebas _ 20 000 maneTi; TviTmmarTvelobas qalaqis keTilmowyobisTvis _ 10 000 maneTi; `saxalxo saxlis~ (dRevandeli marjaniSvilis saxelobis Teatri) agebisTvis da mowyobisTvis _ 350 000 maneTi; stipendiebisTvis _ 26 000 maneTi... maT mier dawesebuli stipendiebiT ganaTleba miiRes: aleqsandre janeliZem, sargis kakabaZem, aleqsandre faRavam, Salva amirejibma, geronti qiqoZem, qristefore raWveliSvilma, pavle ingoroyvam, leo qiaCelma, ana xaxutaSvilma da sxv. qvelmoqmedi Zmebis xelSewyobiT vatikanSi xangrZlivi droiT samuSaod gaemgzavra mixeil TamaraSvili, romelmac iq fundamenturi naSromebi _ `istoria

baTumis kaTolikeTa laTinuri eklesia LATIN CATHOLIC CHURCH OF BATUMI

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saxalxo saxli, dRevandeli marjaniSvilis sax. saxelmwifo dramatuli Teatri PUBLIC HOUSE, CURRENTLY THE MARJANISHVILI STATE DRAMA THEATER

kaTolikobisa qarTvelTa Soris~ da `saqarTvelos eklesiis istoria~ dawera. am gamokvlevas iliam `axali qarTlis cxovreba~ uwoda. garda amisa, zubalaSvilebi mravali wignis gamocemas afinansebdnen, exmarebodnen Jurnalebs `iveria~, `mogzauri~, `nakaduli~ da sxv. revoluciamdel TbilisSi `saxalxo saxli~ kulturul centrs warmoadgenda. mis scenaze, ramdenime dasi sxvadasxva enaze marTavda speqtaklebs; hqonda SesaniSnavi biblioTeka-samkiTxvelo, mkiTxvelTaTvis ufaso kafesasauzmiT. Tbilisis pirveli saavadmyofos teritoriaze pediatriuli korpusis agebas da evropidan Camotanili samedicino inventariT aRWurvas zubalaSvilebma 150 000 maneTi moaxmares. XX saukunis dasawyisSi, mTawmindaze aigo `upovarTa TavSesafari~, romlis mSeneblobisTvis 220 000 maneTi nikoloz zubalaSvilma gaiRo. samsarTuliani Senobis pirvel sarTulze samedicino punqti, sadalaqo,

Rubles for the construction and equipment of the “Public House” (currently the Marjanishvili Theater); 26,000 Rubles in scholarships… Many notable students were able to pursue their education thanks to the Zubalashvili grants, including Aleksandre Janelidze, Sargis Kakabadze, Aleksandre Paghava, Shalva Amirejibi, Geronti Kikodze, Christefore Rachvelishvili, Pavle Ingorokva, Leo Kiacheli, and Ana Khakhutashvili. With the help of the philanthropist brothers, Mikheil Tamarashvili traveled and stayed in the Vatican for a prolonged period of time, during which he wrote important works such as “History of Catholicism among Georgians” and “History of the Georgian Church”. Patriarch Ilia II described this research as the “New Georgian Chronicles”. Apart from that, the Zubalashvilis financed the publishing of many books, and helped the newspapers “Iveria”, “Mogzauri”, “Nakaduli”, and others. Until the Russian Revolution, Tbilisi’s Public House acted as a culture center. Several troupes performed in various languages on its stage, and it had a magnificent library and reading hall with a free café-restaurant available for readers.

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saxalxo saxlis mayurebelTa darbazi MAIN HALL OF THE PUBLIC HOUSE

saabazanoebi, afTiaqi, samrecxao da samzareulo iyo ganlagebuli, zeda sarTulebze ki _ saZinebeli da gasarTobi oTaxebi. tanisamossa da TeTreuls upovarTaTvis holandiidan iwerdnen. am saxlSi, sicocxlis bolo periodi cxovrobda niko marisa da ivane javaxiSvilis pedagogi, cnobili mecnieri aleqsandre cagareli. 1898 wels, qalaqis TviTmmarTvelobam, gardacvlil nikoloz zubalaSvils `upovarTa saxlis~ vestibiulSi mwvane marmarilos biusti daudga; levan, iakob da petre zubalaSvilebs ki 1913 wels Tbilisis sapatio moqalaqis tituli mianiWa. sololakSi, kojris gzis dasawyisSi, mecenatma Zmebma upovarTa sasadilo _ `samadlo~ gaxsnes, sadac yvela SeWirvebuls ufasod dapureba SeeZlo. 1921 wlis TebervalSi Tbiliss SemoWrili damSeuli wiTelarmielebi `samadloSi~ Sesulan. im dRes puris fqvili ar hqoniaT da yviTeli simindis fqviliT gamoucxviaT lobianebi. Мы голодаем: а Грузини жрут бисквиты с шоколадом _ aRSfoTebulan bolSevikebi. 1921 wels, daviTis vaJi, antoni, romelic general odiSeliZis adiutanti iyo, emigraciaSi safrangeTSi wasula da, meore msoflio omis dros daRupula, rogorc safrangeTis winaaRmdegobis monawile. 1937 wels, yazaxeTSi, gadasaxlebaSi gardaicvala daviTis Zma aleqsandre. daviTis biZaSvilma, parizSi mcxovrebma iakob konstantines Ze zubalaSvilma, 1922 wels, gasabWoebis Semdeg, safrangeTis moqalaqeoba miiRo, qoneba ki anderZiT saqarTvelos dautova. igi xelovnebis unikalur nimuSebs flobda. mis koleqciaSi iyo: degas, sezanis, matisis, mones, montiCelis, pikasos, maiolis, rodenisa da sxvaTa namuSevrebi. magram, erTma ubedurma SemTxvevam yvelaferi dagvakargvina. parizis policiis mier dakavebuli iakobis binis mZarcvelebi qarTvelebi

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The Zubalashvilis provided 150,000 Rubles for the construction of a pediatric department on the territory of Tbilisi’s Hospital #1 and equipped it with proper European medical devices. At the beginning of the 20th century, a ‘Refuge for the Needy’ was built on Mount Mtatsminda, for which Nikoloz Zubalashvili put aside 220,000 Rubles. The first floor of the three-story high building contained a medical center, a hairdresser, washing facilities, a pharmacy and a kitchen, while the upper floors offered sleeping rooms and entertainment halls. The clothes and sheets for the needy were imported from Holland. Famous scientist Aleksandre Tsagareli, who was the pedagogue of Niko Mari and Ivane Javakhishvili, lived the last years of his life in this place. In 1898, the city’s self-governing body put up a green marbled bust of deceased Nikoloz Zubalashvili in the entrance hall of the Refuge for the Needy, and in 1913, it also granted the title of honorable citizens to Levan, Jacob and Petre Zubalashvili. At the start of the Kodjori road in Tbilisi’s Sololaki district, the philanthropist brothers opened the lunchroom ‘Samadlo’, where all the needy of the city could eat free of charge. In February 1921, starving soldiers of the Red Army, who had invaded Tbilisi, entered Samadlo. On that day, the refectory did not have bread flour, so they made lobiani (bean bread) out of yellow corn flour. The Bolsheviks were very surprised: “We are starving while those Georgians are eating chocolate-filled biscuits!” In 1921, David’s son Anton, the adjutant of general Odishelidze, emigrated to France. He died during World War II as a member of the French Resistance. In 1937, David’s brother Aleksandre passed away while in deportation in Kazakhstan. David’s cousin Jacob Zubalashvili, who was living in Paris, received French nationality after Georgia’s sovietization in 1922, and donated all his belongings to Georgia in his will. He owned unique artworks: his collection included, among others, Degas, Cézanne, Maillol,

saxalxo saxlis samkiTxvelo darbazi READING HALL OF THE PUBLIC HOUSE


zubalaSvilebis sagvareulo sasaflao sololakSi ZUBALASHVILI’S FAMILY CEMETERY IN SOLOLAKI

aRmoCndnen. gacecxlebul iakobs anderZi eqvTime TayaiSvilisgan wamouRia da safrangeTis sasargeblod gadauweria. es ambavi saqarTveloSi dabrunebul eqvTime TayaiSvils Tavad uambnia aqauri zubalaSvilebisTvis... XX saukunis 20-ian wlebSi gaiZarcva zubalaSvilTa mier TbilisSi agebuli kaTolikuri taZaric. germaniidan Camotanili unikaluri orRani milebad dauSliaT, romlebic, ratomRac, meTevzeebs SeuZeniaT. Zvirfasi xisgan damzadebuli ambioni ki romeliRac duqnis daxlad `qceula~... sololakSi, dRevandeli WonqaZisa da gergeTis quCebis midamoebSi mdebare kaTolikuri sasaflao, sadac zubalaSvilebi ganisvenebdnen, samwuxarod, dRes aRar arsebobs. P. S. stefane zubalaSvili XX saukunis dasawyisSi werda: `...Cven rom RmerTi gvaZlevs, Cvenc xelgaSliT unda viyoT, rom xalxs sargebloba movutanoT, Torem, zed rom kruxebiviT davasxdeT, bevrs verafers gamovCekavT: CvenTvisac dakarguli iqneba da xalxisTvisac~. da kidev... `Cvens movaleobad migvaCnia gauwyoT, rom saqarTveloSi yoveli keTili saqmis wamowyebas mxars uWerdnen zemoT moxseniebuli Zmebi zubalaSvilebi... umagaliTo didsulovnebiT aRvsilni, mxsnelebad evlinebian yovel RvTismosav saqmes...~ mixeil TamaraSvili.

Matisse, Monet, Picasso, and Rodin. But an unfortunate event made us lose all of it: the thieves who burgled Jacob’s apartment were caught by the Parisian police and turned out to be Georgians. Furious, Jacob took his will back from Ekvtime Takaishvili and modified it in favor of France instead of Georgia. This account was told by Ekvtime Takaishvili himself to the Zubalashvilis upon his return to Georgia… During the 1920s, the Catholic Church constructed by the Zubalashvilis in Tbilisi also got broken into. The unique organ they had brought from Germany was disassembled and for some reason, its pipes were purchased by fishermen, while a lectern made out of precious wood was “transformed” into a restaurant counter… The Catholic cemetery where the Zubalashvilis were buried was located in the surroundings of Sololaki district’s current Chonkadze and Gergeti streets, but unfortunately, it no longer exists. P. S. At the beginning of the 20th century, Stephane Zubalashvili wrote: “…When God gives us something, we have to be generous, too, and be of service to people. Otherwise, nothing good will hatch from it: it will be a loss for both us and the rest.” And also… “The above-mentioned Zubalashvili brothers supported every noble undertaking in Georgia… These people of unprecedented virtue behaved like the saviors of every pious enterprise...” Mikheil Tamarashvili.

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Cangli maps.nekeri.net

Changli

Canglis eklesia qalaq yarsidan samxreT-dasavleTiT 80 km-is daSorebiT mdebareobs, istoriul valaSkertSi, iq sadac somex-qalkedonitTa saepiskoposo kaTedra iyo. maRalmTian sofelSi dRes qurTebi saxloben. taZari qarTveli episkoposis zaqaria valaSkertelis saxelTanaa dakavSirebuli, romlis dakveTiTac aTonis iverTa monasterSi, 1030 wliT daTariRebuli qarTuli tradiciis Sesabamisi brwyinvale miniaturebiT Semkuli svinaqsaric gadauweriaT. radgan Canglis kaTedra qarTvel eposkoposs ekava taZarSi msaxurebac qarTul enaze mimdinareobda. eqvTime TayaiSvilma Canglis eklesia 1907 wels moinaxula, azoma da aRwera... mogvianebiT akademikosi vaxtang beriZe taZars ase aRwers _ igi warmoadgens e.w. naxevrad Tavisufali jvris tipis gumbaTovan taZars. saSen masalad gamoyenebulia kargad Tlili Savi, vulkanuri warmoSobis qva, romelic taZars ganumeorebel medidurobas aniWebs. taZari soflis centrSi bunebriv SemaRlebaze dgas da sivrceze mTlianad dominirebs. masiuri gumbaTi garedan dekoratiuli Sewyvilebullilvebian naxevarsvetebze amoyvanili TaRediTaa Semkuli. gumbaTis zeda sartyeli grexili lilvisa da solisebri CuqurTmiT bolovdeba, mis qvemoT gumbaTis yelze singuriT Sesrulebulia wreebisgan

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The Changli Church is located 80 kilometers South-West of the Turkish city of Kars, in the historic region of Valashkert, where the Armenian-Chalcedonian episcopate was based. Today, this mountainous village is inhabited by Kurds. Its church is connected to the name of Georgian bishop Zakaria Valashkerteli, on the orders of whom a Synaxarium from the Mount Athos Monastery of Iveron, decorated with magnificent miniatures done according to Georgian traditions and dating back to the year 1030, was copied in Changli. Because the cathedra of Changli was held by a Georgian bishop, the service of the church was also given in Georgian. Ekvtime Takaishvili visited the Changli Church in 1907 and took the opportunity to measure and describe it. Afterwards, academician Vakhtang Beridze would write of it: “It represents a so-called ‘semiopen’ cross type domed Church. The construction material is wellcarved black volcanic rock, giving it a unique touch. The church is located on a natural hill in the center of the village, dominating the whole territory. The exterior side of the large dome is embellished with arches held up by semi-columns with decorative twin shafts. The upper belt of the dome finishes with a twisted shaft and a sphenoid carving. Below it, on the neck of the dome, one can see an ornament of circles made with “singuri” (golden paint). The smooth walls of the church are modestly adorned with windows. The arch of the large decorative door of the western side is particularly noteworthy.


Semdgari ornamenti, iseve rogorc iSxnis taZris gumbaTze. taZris gluvi kedlebi mokrZalebuladaa Semkuli sarkmlis sapireebiT, romlidanac aRsaniSnavia dasavleTi karis didi dekoraciuli TaRi. karis timpani ukavia vrcel asomTavrul warweras, romelic mogviTxrobs, rom Zegli XIV saukuneSi, im dros augiaT, roca valaSkerti qarTvelebis mflobelobaSi iyo. Tumca, Zeglis daTariRebaze gansxvavebuli mosazrebebic arsebobs. akademikosi vaxtang beriZe miiCnevs, rom Canglis monasteri XI saukunis I naxevarSia agebuli, xolo qarTuli xelovnebis mkvlevari frangi mecnieri Jan miSel tieri taZars X saukunes miakuTvnebs da aRniSnavs rom XI saukunis 30-ian wlebSi SesaZloa moxda Zeglis restavracia. saintereso da gansxvavebulia taZris interieric, xalvaTi sivrciT, naxevarwriuli formis Rrma sakurTxevliTa da kedlis Sverilebze amoyvanili gumbaTiT, romelic Tavisuflad mdgomi cilindruli formis svetebis kapitelebidan amozrdil lilvebian naxevarsvetebs uWiravT. gumbaTis uCveulo da metad saintereso konstruqcia da sxva arqiteqturuli detalebi qarTuli xuroTmoZRvrebis gardamavali xanis ZeglebisTvisaa damaxasiaTebeli. masSi aseve ikveTeba somxuri sakulto xuroTmoZRvrebis elementebic. taZris CuqurTma, ornamenti, dekoraciul-konstruqciuli detalebi maRalmxatvrul donezea Sesrulebuli. Tamamad SeiZleba iTqvas, rom Cangli Sua saukuneebis gamorCeuli arqiteqturuli Zeglia. taZris interierSi, CrdiloeTi mklavis aRmosavleT kamaris quslze, mocemulia uCveulo reliefi, romelzec gveli Wams vazis mtevans, aris kidev ramdenime SedarebiT tlanqad damuSavebuli

The door’s tympanum consists of a long inscription in Asomtavruli (ancient Georgian alphabet – translator’s note) informing that the monument was built during the 14th century, when Valashkert was under Georgian rule.” But there are other opinions about the date of its construction. Academician Vakhtang Beridze thinks that Changli was constructed in the early 11th century, while French scientist and specialist of Georgian art Jean-Michel Thierry dates the temple back to the 10th century, suggesting it could have undergone restoration in the 1030s. The interior of the church is also very interesting and singular, with its roomy space, deep semi-circular alter, and its dome held by semicolumns with shafts that protrude out of the capitals of free-standing cylindrical columns. This singular construction, as well as other architectural details of the dome, are characteristic of monuments from the transitional period of Georgian architecture, and also includes some elements of Armenian religious architecture. The carvings, ornaments, and other decorative details of the construction are highly artistic. We could say without exaggeration that Changli is a distinguished architectural monument among those of the Middle Ages. At the base of the eastern arch of the church’s northern side, one will find an unusual bas-relief depicting a snake eating a bunch of grapes; we can also see several quite roughlymade bas-reliefs – a saint with crossed arms and the representation of an eight-pointed star; an artist sculpting a face, the torso of a man with the stamp of king Solomon, the Virgin Mary- a man with a crutch beside her, and the figure of a man holding his hand on the head of a boy. Because of their damage and diverse themes, the reliefs do not offer the opportunity to understand their meanings completely.

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reliefebi _ wmindani gadajvaredinebuli xelebiT da rvaqimiani varskvlavis gamosaxulebiT. sadiakvneSi ostats weraqviT gamohyavs adamianis saxe; mamakacis welszeviTa gamosaxuleba solomonis beWdiT; RvTismSobeli da mis gverdiT yavarjniani mamakacis gamosaxuleba; mamakacis figura, romelsac xeli udevs ymawvilis Tavze. reliefebis dazianeba da maTi gansxvavebuli Tematika ar gvaZlevs saSualebas bolomde amovxsnaT TiToeulis Sinaarsi. taZrisken mimavali gza damRleli da erTferovani Canda... nisli, civi qari da wvima mgzavrobas damTrgunvels xdida. mixveul-moxveuli aRmarTis piras mindvrebze qva-RorRis gorakebi idga. Turme adgilobrivi mosaxleoba mindvrebs qvebisgan wmends, raTa saqonels ukeTesi saZovari hqondes an miwa xvna-TesvisTvis vargisi gaxdes. gza dausruleblad gaiwela... eqspediciis wevrTagan Cangli aravis gvenaxa da ar vicodiT ra

The road leading to the Changli Church looked very tiring and monotonous… Fog, cold wind and rain made the journey depressing. Small hills of stone and gravel stood in the fields on each side of the

dagvxvdeboda... daqanculebi mivediT adgilze, saidanac

meandering uphill road. I later learned that the local population cleans

gadaiSala sofelis panorama da didebuli taZris Savi

the road from the stones in order for their cattle to have better pastures

silueti... dRes roca eqspediciis wevrTa gadaRebul

or for the soil to become more suitable for agricultural purposes. The

fotoebs vaTvaliereb, Canglis (soflis da ara taZris)

road went on and on… None of the members of our expedition had

xedebi TiTqos arc ise damTrgunvelia, Tumca, am

seen Changli, so we didn’t know what to expect… We were exhausted

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Rataki adamianebiT dasaxlebul sofelSi TvalSisacemia gausaZlisi yofa, gaWirveba. sxvadasxva feris sqeli polieTileniT `gadaxurul~ qviT nageb erTsarTulian saxlebs, gamomwvar nakelis gorebs, sakvamurebidan amosuli kvamlSereuli nisli afermkrTalebs da am yvelaferze da yvelaferTan dgas taZari... adgilobrivi mosaxleobisTvis igi arafrismTqmelia, SigniT ZaRlic ki hyavT dabmuli da ezo nagavsayreladaa qceuli... garSemo nakelisa da talaxis gorebi dgas... taZris aRmosavleTi fasadi mTlianad gaWvartlulia... albaT, amitomaa rom taZari Soridan kidev ufro pirquSi Cans, xolo misi mkveTri formebi da Zunwi samkauli mkacri landSaftis ierTanaa Serwymuli. CanglSi rom SevediT mosaRamoebuli iyo da maleve daiwyo dabneleba, Tumca bindCamowolil soflis Tavze isev Canda taZris silueti, romelsac feri sul daekarga da wyvdiadSi Cafluls daemsgavsa. magram yvelas dagveufla gancda-miziduloba, samudamod rom gitovebs survils erTxel mainc mibrunde CanglSi... xaTuna kikvaZe

when we arrived to a place offering a view of the town and of the great black silhouette of the church… Today, when I see pictures taken by the members of our expedition, the views of Changli (the town, not the church) do not appear to be so depressing, though hardship can clearly be felt in this impoverished village. The one-floor stone houses “covered” with thick layers of varicolored polyethylene and the hills of burned manure are blurred by the smoky fog coming out of the chimneys, and the magnificent church stands in the middle of all this… For the local population, it doesn’t mean anything, they have even leashed a dog inside, and its yard is used as a garbage dump… It’s surrounded by hills of manure and mud… Its Eastern façade is smoke-blackened, which is probably why it appears even more shadowy from afar, while its sharp forms and miserable adornments are in harmony with the harsh surrounding landscape. It was already evening when we arrived in Changli, and soon the night began to fall, but one could still see the silhouette of the church at the top of the village. It had lost all color and looked as if it was buried in darkness. Even in these conditions, we all felt a strange pull of attraction, one that left us all with the wish to return to Changli. Khatuna Kikvadze

foto: irine abJandaZe Photo: Irine Abzhandadze

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`petrem moitana maketi. kote didxans aTvalierebda, aiRo Tavisi ganuyreli joxi da mTeli ZalRoniT daartya magidas... yvelas gvegona, es-es aris joxiT dagvereva, albaT, ar moswonso. am dros kotem Sehyvira: `genialuria, SesaniSnavia, yoCaR, petre!…sad aris is biWi? _ da dainaxa, rom petre scenis siRrmeSi TavCaqindruli da gawiTlebuli dgas.~ aleqsandre burTikaSvilis mogonebidan `petre ocxeli, upirveles yovlisa, moazrovne xelovania. igi Teatris mxatvaria, magram Zlieri saxovani azrovnebis wyalobiT bevri misi eskizi avtonomiuri dazguri grafikis nawarmoebs warmoadgens. am tipis namuSevrebs damoukidebeli esTetikuri Rirebuleba gaaCniaT. roca petre ocxelis grafikul nawarmoebebs vaTvalierebT, SeiZleba dagvebados kiTxva: ratom ar airCia man Tavisufali mxatvris kariera, ratom daukavSira Tavisi talanti maincdamainc Teatrs. pasuxi am kiTxvaze, albaT, ubraloa _ mas Teatri uyvarda, igi yofierebis erT-erT saxeobad miaCnda. Teatri misTvis dramaturgiuli iersaxeebis da mkveTri individualobis mqone msaxiob-talantebis sinamdvile iyo.~ Temo jafariZe, `petre ocxelis SemoqmedebiTi individualoba~

saqme #13085

CASE #13085 “Petre brought us the model. Kote Marjanishvili looked at it for a long time... He took his inseparable cane and slammed it on the table with all his strength. We all thought he didn’t like the model, and even that he was about to attack us with his cane. Then Kote shouted: “This is genius! This is brilliance! Well done, well done, Petre! Where is the boy?!” And he saw that Petre was standing in the farthest part of the stage, blushing with his head lowered.” From the memoirs of Aleksandre Burtikashvili. “Petre Otskheli’s most important characteristic is that he is a thoughtful artist. He is a set designer, but thanks to their strong visual aspect, many of his works can be regarded as individual graphic pieces, each of them with great and autonomous aesthetic value. When we take a look at his graphic compositions, a question comes to mind: why didn’t he choose a free artistic career, why did he associate his talent with theater and not with other fields of art? The answer to this question in easy: he simply loved theater, he considered it a representation of life. To him, theater embodied the reality of individual talents and the dramaturgical aspect of life itself.” Temo Japaridze, ‘Petre Otskheli’s Creative Individualism’

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qarTul (da ara mxolod) TeatrSi petre ocxelma mxolod cxra weli imuSava da scenografiaSi, zogadad kulturaSi, mTeli epoqa Seqmna. misma xelovnebam momavali Teatris mxatvrebs udidesi skola Seuqmna da Cvens Teatralur mxatvrobas, ganumeorebeli, TavisTavadi saxe umemkvidra. igi 1907 wlis 27 seqtembers daibada quTaisSi grigol ocxelisa da elene xojevaniSvilis ojaxSi. kaTolike ocxelebi warmoSobiT ocxedan (Semdeg abasTumani) yofilan da gvarad mananaSvilebs atarebdnen. osmaleTis imperiisa da maT rjulze gadasvlis SiSiT kaTolikobac miuRiaT da metic, Semdgom Seviwrebas saerTodac gamoridebian da quTaisSi, imereTis mefes Sexizvnian... swored am dRidan gamxdaran isini ocxelebi. grigoli warmatebuli, mdidari vaWari gaxldaT da am saqmes, saqarTveloSi vaWrobis ganviTarebas, wignic miuZRvna. 1913 wels, saqmis gafarToebis mizniT, ojaxTan erTad, sacxovreblad moskovSi gadavida, sadac kavkasiuri maudis fabrika gaxsna. grigols da elenes Svilebi, debi nataSa da nino da Zmebi _ petre da levani filipe neris saxelobis frangul kaTolikur gimnaziaSi miubarebiaT. moskovSi elenes Svilebi xSirad dahyavda TeatrSi, sadac Turme petre yovelTvis bloknotiTa da fanqriT midioda. Zmebi `Teatralur dekoraciebs~ Sinac amzadebdnen _ levani sxvadasxva figuras muyaosgan Wrida, petre ki aferadebda da `montirebis~ saSualebiT `acocxlebda~, moZravad gardaqmnida... am dros daidga ocxelebTan sabavSvo-saojaxo speqtaklebi `kurdRlis sacole~ da `Rame tyeSi~... 1920 wels ojaxi saqarTveloSi dabrunda da quTaisSi dasaxlda. petrem quTaisis realur saswavlebelSi daiwyo swavla da paralelurad saswavlebelTan arsebul mcire saxelosno-studiaSic mecadineobda. saswavleblis damTavrebis Semdeg Tbilisis samxatvro akademiaSi Cairicxa, sadac 1926 wlidan profesor Sarlemanis studenti gaxda. pirveli speqtakli, romelic ocxelma gaaforma da 1927 wels muSaTa TeatrSi daidga lunaCarskis `cecxlis gamCaReblebi~ iyo. swored am speqtaklis naxvis Semdeg miiwvia samuSaod axalgazrda mxatvari kote marjaniSvilma quTaisis qarTul dramatul TeatrSi. petre samxatvro akademiis mesame kursidan gamovida da quTaisSi gaaforma Salva dadianis `kakal gulSi~, guckovis `uriel akosta~, Selis `beatriCe CenCi~, karlo kalaZis `xatije~, pogodinis ,,foladis poema~, kirSonis `puri~, haSekis `guladi jariskaci Sveiki~ da sxv. kote marjaniSvilis gardacvalebis Semdeg (1933 w.) petre ocxeli sergo amaRlobelis (romelic mcire Teatris direqtori iyo) miwveviT, samuSaod moskovSi gadavida. 1936 wels man gaaforma Sileris piesa `veragoba da siyvaruli~, Semdeg gusevis `dideba”, stanislavskisa

Petre Otskheli worked in Georgian (and, to a lesser extent, foreign) theater for only nine years, but he managed to create a whole new period in scenography and in culture in general. His art provided future set designers with a strong school and gave Georgian theater design an inimitable, original quality. He was born in Kutaisi on September 27, 1907, to the family of Grigol Otskheli and Elene Khojevanishvili. The Catholic Otskheli family was originally from Otskhi (then Abastumani) and bore the name Mananashvili. They became Catholics because of their fear of the Ottoman Empire and of being forced to convert to Islam, and, afterwards, they avoided oppression completely by moving to Kutaisi and taking shelter at the court of the King of Imereti… And this is when they received the name Otskheli. Grigol was a successful, rich merchant, who even wrote a book about the development of commerce in Georgia. In 1913, in order to broaden his business, he moved to Moscow together with his family and opened a factory of Caucasian broadcloth. Grigol and Elene sent their children – sisters Natasha and Nino, and brothers Petre and Levan – to the Philippe Néri French Catholic Gymnasium.

aviatori, leo esakias filmisTvis `mfrinavi mRebavi~ 42X31.2, qaRaldi, akvareli AVIATOR FOR THE LEO ESAKIA MOVIE “FLYING DECORATOR”, 42X31.2, PAPER, WATERCOLOR

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da nemiroviC-danCenkos musikalur TeatrSi stepanovis opera `mesazRvreebi”; verdis opera `rigoletos” gaformebisTvis gamocxadebul konkursze mis eskizebs konstantine stanislavskim pirveli premia mianiWa, Tumca misi ganxorcieleba aRar dascalda... 1937 wlis 8 agvistos, petre ocxeli, giorgi Jordania da vaxtang abaSiZe absurduli braldebiT daapatimres... samive maTganis pirveli dakiTxva 11 agvistos Sedga. operrwmunebulma Cugunovma maT erTi kiTxviT mimarTa: „Tqven dagapatimres, rogorc kontrrevoluciur-teroristuli organizaciis wevrebi. aRiarebT Tu ara danaSauls?“ pasuxic calsaxa iyo: „ara, Cven Tavs damnaSaved ar vcnobT“. amis Semdeg isini TbilisSi Camoiyvanes da dapatimrebidan sami Tvis Tavze _ Jordania 22, abaSiZe da ocxeli 27 noembers dakiTxes... petre ocxelisa da vaxtang abaSiZis SemoqmedebiTi TanamSromloba 1926 wels TbilisSi daarsebul rusuli Tanamedrove dramis muSaTa Teatris speqtaklis lunaCarskis `cecxlis gamCaReblebis~ erToblivi dadgmiT daiwyo. SemdgomSi quTaisbaTomis TeatrSi erTad muSaobdnen speqtaklebze: `beatriCe CenCi~, `xatije~, `puri~. aseve dapatimrebuli, mcire Teatris direqtori, sergo amaRlobeli CvenebaSi wers: `...giorgi Jordania Cemi rekomendaciiT dainiSna mcire Teatris sakolmeurneo

kompozicia, `mSenebeli solnesi~, 20.7X29.4, qaRaldi, fanqari, akvareli, tuSi COMPOSITION, “THE MASTER BUILDER”, 20.7X29.4, PAPER, PENCIL, WATERCOLOR, INDIAN INK

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In Moscow, Elene often took her children to the theater, and Petre always brought along his sketchbook and pencil. The brothers made “theater sets” at home – Levan would cut various shapes out of cardboard, while Petre would “give them life” by coloring them, piecing them together and making them mobile… During that period, they performed the children’s family shows ‘The Rabbit’s Fiancée’ and ‘A Night in the Forest’ at home… In 1920, the family returned to Georgia and settled in Kutaisi. Petre started going to Kutaisi’s public school, simultaneously studying at a small atelier-studio next to it. After finishing school, he enrolled at the Tbilisi Academy of Arts, where he became professor Ioseb Sharleman’s student from 1926. The first set he designed was for Lunacharsky’s play ‘Fire Makers’ which was performed in 1927 at the Tbilisi Workers’ Theater. It is after seeing this play that Kote Marjanishvili invited the young artist to work with him at the Georgian Dramaturgy Theater of Kutaisi. Petre dropped out of the third course of the Academy of Arts and went on to design many sets, including Shalva Dadiani’s ‘Right in the Heart’, Gutzkow’s ‘Ariel Acosta’, Shelley’s ‘Beatrice Cenci’, Karlo Kaladze’s ‘Khatije’, Pogodin’s ‘Poem of the Axe’, Kirshon’s ‘Bread,’ and Hašek’s ‘The Good Soldier Švejk’. After Marjanishvili’s passing in 1933, Petre Otskheli moved to work in Moscow at the invitation of Sergo Amaghlobeli, director of the Maly Theatre. In 1936, he designed Schiller’s ‘Intrigue and Love’, then Gusev’s ‘Glory’, and Stepanov’s opera ‘Border Guards’ at the Stanislavsky and Nemirovich-Danchenko Moscow Academic Music Theater. Konstantin Stanislavsky awarded him the first prize at a contest for the set design of Verdi’s opera ‘Rigoletto’, but it could not be staged, and you will come to see why now… On the 8th of August 1937, Petre Otskheli, Giorgi Jordania and Vakhtang Abashidze were arrested on trumped up charges… The three of them had their first interrogation on the 11th of August. Operative Chugunov asked them one and the same question: “You were arrested as members of a counter-revolutionary-terrorist organization. Do you confess to this crime?” All three had the same answer: “No, we are not guilty”. They were then brought to Tbilisi and after three months of imprisonment, they were questioned again – Jordania on the 22nd, and Abashidze and Otskheli on the 27th of November… Petre Otskheli and Vakhtang Abashidze’s creative collaboration had started in 1926 with Lunacharsky’s ‘Fire Makers’, when they staged it together at the contemporary dramaturgy Workers’ Theater founded in Tbilisi. Subsequently, they worked together on ‘Beatrice Cenci’, ‘Khatije’ and ‘Bread’ at the Kutaisi and Batumi theaters. Director of the Maly Theater Sergo Amaghlobeli was also arrested; in his deposition,


dekoraciis eskizi leo esakias filmisTvis `mfrinavi mRebavi~, 37X42, qaRaldi, akvareli DECORATION FOR LEO ESAKIA MOVIE “FLYING DECORATOR”, 37X42, PAPER, WATERCOLOR

filialis direqtoris moadgiled, voroneJis raionis sofel zemetCinoSi, radgan am samuSaoze moskovel xelovnebis muSakTagan aravin midioda. amasTanave, giorgi Jordaniam SemomTavaza, speqtakl `cxvris wyaros~ dadgmaze petre ocxeli da vaxtang abaSiZe mimewvia~. imave CvenebaSi sergo amaRlobeli petre ocxelzec wers: `petre ocxels 1928 wlidan vicnob, rogorc marjanovis Teatris karg axalgazrda mxatvars. masTan kavSiri ar mqonda. mxolod Teatraluri saqmianobisas vxvdebodi.

he wrote: “…Giorgi Jordania was appointed at the Maly Theater as the director’s assistant of the Kolkhoz division in the Voronezh region’s village of Zemetchino, because nobody from the Muscovite artists wanted to go there. Giorgi Jordania then advised me to invite Petre Otskheli and Vakhtang Abashidze to work on the play ‘The Sheepwell.’ In the same deposition, Amaghlobeli writes of Petre Otskheli: “I have known him since 1928, as a talented young set designer from the Marjanov Theater. I wasn’t in contact with him. I only met him for professional theater purposes. He visited my apartment, I think it was

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in the years 1936 and 1937. We didn’t talk about politics, because I considered him to be unknowledgeable in this matter and apolitical in general...” Unfortunately, Amaghlobeli, Otskheli, Abashidze and Jordania’s arrest was conditioned by a very “real” testimony – “There is a counter-revolutionary group in Moscow’s Maly Theater, founded by the director of the theater, Trotskyist Sergo Amaghlobeli. Aside from him, this terrorist group includes: former legal adviser of the People’s Commisariat of Agriculture, Giorgi Jordania, former director of Tbilisi’s Marjanishvili Theater, Vakhtang Abashidze, and set designer Petre Otskheli. Each of them moved from Tbilisi to Moscow at different times and settled at the Maly Theater…”

kostiumis eskizi, `TeTrebi~, 27.8X18.4, qaRaldi, fanqari, akvareli COSTUME SKETCH, “THE WHITES”, 27.8X18.4, PAPER, PENCIL, WATERCOLOR

CemTan binaze daaxloebiT 1936 da 1937 wlebSi iyo. politikur Temaze saubari ar mqonia, vinaidan am sakiTxSi gauTviTcnobierebel da apolitikur adamianad vTvlidi...~ Tumca amaRlobelis, ocxelis, abaSiZisa da Jordanias dapatimreba samwuxarod `realurad arsebulma~ Cvenebam ganapiroba _ `moskovis mcire saxelmwifo TeatrSi arsebobs kontrrevoluciur-teroristuli jgufi, romelic Camoayaliba Teatris yofilma direqtorma, trockistma sergo amaRlobelma. amaRlobelis garda, am teroristul jgufSi Sediodnen: miwaTmqomedebis saxalxo komisariatis yofili iuriskonsulti giorgi Jordania, Tbilisis marjaniSvilis Teatris yofili reJisori abaSiZe da mxatvari ocxeli. yvela es piri sxvadasxva dros gadavida Tbilisidan moskovSi, sadac damkvidrdnen mcire TeatrSi...~

eskizi nato vaCnaZis kabisTvis, 22X16, qaRaldi, fanqari, akvareli SKETCH FOR NATO VACHNADZE’S DRESS, 22X16, PAPER, PENCIL, WATERCOLOR

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`mfrinavi mRebavi~, 43X30, qaRaldi, guaSi “FLYING DECORATOR”, 43X30, PAPER, GOUACHE


1937 wlis 27 noembriT daTariRebuli petre ocxelis dakiTxvis oqmi, romelic xelovnebis sasaxleSi inaxeba, farTo mkiTxvelisTvis ucnobia...

kiTxva: Tqven wargedginaT braldeba, rom iyaviT kontrrevoluciur organizaciaSi. mogveciT Cveneba am sakiTxze.

pasuxi: sazRvargareTuli warmomadgenlobebis TanamSromlebTan araviTari kavSiri ar mqonia.

pasuxi: kontrrevoluciur organizaciaSi ar vyofilvar.

kiTxva: 1931 wlis Semdeg daasaxeleT moskovSi Tqveni Camosvlis weli da Tve da ramden xans cxovrobdiT iq?

kiTxva: kontrrevoluciur organizaciaSi Tqveni monawileoba mxilebulia mowmeTa CvenebebiT. mogveciT Cveneba Tqveni kontrrevoluciuri muSaobis Sesaxeb.

pasuxi: 1931 wlis Semdeg moskovSi Cavedi 1934 wlis dekembris Sua ricxvebSi da erTi Tve davyavi, e.i. 1935 wlis ianvris Sua ricxvebamde.

pasuxi: kontrrevoluciur organizaciaSi ar vyofilvar da kontrrevoluciur muSaobas ar veweodi.

kiTxva: maSin sad da visTan cxovrobdiT?

kiTxva: mogviyeviT Tqveni kavSiris Sesaxeb sergo amaRlobelTan. pasuxi: sergo amaRlobeli gavicani 1930 wels marjaniSvilis Teatris moskovSi gastrolis dros. nacnobobis periodSi sul samjer Sevxvdi mas mis binaSi. erTxel - 1936 wels, da orjer - 1937 wels. kiTxva: amaRlobelTan ra politikur Temebze gqondaT saubari? pasuxi: amaRlobelTan politikur Temebze saubari ar mqonia; vsaubrobdiT Teatraluri warmodgenebisa da im piesebis Sesaxeb, romlebsac is gvikiTxavda. kiTxva: mogveciT Cveneba Tqveni kavSiris Sesaxeb giorgi yurulovTan. pasuxi: yurulovs vicnob jer kidev 1928 wlidan. is gavicani operis TeatrSi marjaniSvilis xelmZRvanelobiT quTaisis Teatris gastrolis dros. kiTxva: mogveciT Cveneba giorgi yurulovTan Tqveni Sexvedrebis Sesaxeb.

pasuxi: vcxovrobdi Cems ZmasTan, leon grigolis ZesTan, zacepkinis Sesaxvevis #5/11 saxlSi, bina 6-Si. Cemi Zma leoni im dros muSaobda `mospoligraftrestSi~ eleqtroteqnikosad. kiTxva: ZmasTan cxovrebisas Cawerili Tu iyaviT? pasuxi: zustad ver getyviT, magram mgoni Cawerili viyavi. kiTxva: Tbilisidan moskovSi visTan erTad gaemgzavreT? pasuxi: gamgzavrebis dRes gavige, rom moskovSi modioda marjanovis Teatris msaxiobi veriko anjafariZe. Cven sxvadasxva vagonSi viyaviT, magram gzaSi erT kupeSi movewyveT. moskovSi is Tavis dasTan gaCerda. kiTxva: moskovSi SexvdiT Tu ara veriko anjafariZes? mogveciT zusti Cveneba masTan erTad sad iyaviT? pasuxi: sam-oTxjer viyavi misi dis binaSi, liasnickis quCaze. erTxel TeatrSi viyaviT da amis Semdeg arsad vyofilvarT.

pasuxi: ramdenjerme piradad viyavi mis binaSi gamarTul saRamoze. 1937 wels Sevxvdi amaRlobelis binaSi, moskovSi, zogjer vxvdebodi marjaniSvilis TeatrSic.

kiTxva: anjafariZesTan erTad iyaviT Tu ara misuli romelime sastumroSi?

kiTxva: ra saubrebi gqondaT yurulovTan politikur Temebze?

kiTxva: 1934 wlis dekemberSi Tqven iyaviT sastumro `metropolSi~. mogveciT Cveneba vis SexvdiT iq?

pasuxi: yurulovTan politikur Temebze saubrebi ar mqonia.

pasuxi: axla magondeba, rom vaxldi veriko anjafariZes sastumro `metropolSi~ da viyavi saqarTvelos `gofileqtis~ direqtoris tarumovis nomerSi, oTaxSi 15 wuTi davyaviT da erTad gamovediT. sad davSordiT erTmaneTs ver vixseneb.

kiTxva: gamoZiebas moaxseneT Tqveni kavSiris Sesaxeb giorgi JordaniasTan da vaxtang abaSiZesTan. pasuxi: Jordania gavicani 1936 wels, zemetCinoSi rodesac Cavedi, iq ukve muSaobda abaSiZe, romelsac 1928 wlamde, marjanovis TeatrSi muSaobamdec vicnobdi. abaSiZesTan kargi urTierToba mqonda. abaSiZem samuSaod mimiwvia zemetCinoSi. kiTxva: mogviyeviT moskovSi ucxoelebTan Tqveni kavSirebis Sesaxeb. pasuxi: ucxoelebTan araviTari kavSiri ar mqonia. kiTxva: gamoZiebisTvis cnobilia, rom Tqven dakavSirebuli iyaviT erT sazRvargareTul warmomadgenlobasTan. mogveciT Cveneba am kavSiris Sesaxeb.

pasuxi: ar maxsovs.

kiTxva: gamoZiebas aqvs monacemebi, rom Tqven mixvediT sastumro `metropolSi~. mogveciT Cveneba iq vis SexvdiT? pasuxi: tarumovis nomris garda arsad vyofilvar. erTxel vivaxSme kinoreJisor WiaurelTan sastumro `metropolis~ restoranSi, sadac orni viyaviT da wasvlisas Cems Zmas, leonsa da mis megobars SevxvdiT, romlis gvaric ar maxsovs, magram vici, rom igi leonis Tanakurseli da TanamSromelia. wavikiTxe. Cawerilia Cemi sityvebiT. sworia: ocxeli. dakiTxes: me-3 ganyofilebis ufrosis moadgilem: osipovma; me-2 ganyofilebis rwmunebulis TanaSemwem, saxelmwifo uSiSroebis serJantma: ataSianma.

am TiTqosda `Cveulebrivma~ dakiTxvis oqmma, romelSic `damnaSave~ brals ar aRiarebs `troikas~ saSualeba da safuZveli misca gamoetana im droisTvis Cveuli ganaCeni:

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`mfrinavi mRebavi~, 43X31, qaRaldi, guaSi “FLYING DECORATOR”, 43X31, PAPER, GOUACHE


The act of Petre Otskheli’s interrogation from the 27th of November 1937 is kept at the Art Palace and has never been seen by the general public... Question: You are accused of being part of a counter-revolutionary organization. Give us your response to this issue. Answer: I wasn´t part of a counter-revolutionary organization. Question: Witness accounts exposed your involvement in a counterrevolutionary organization. Give us an account of your counterrevolutionary activities.

Question: What kind of political discussions did you have with Kurulov? Answer: I didn´t have any discussion about politics with Kurulov.

Answer: I wasn´t involved in a counter-revolutionary organization, and I didn´t carry out any counter-revolutionary activities.

Question: Give us an account of your relationship with Giorgi Jordania and Vakhtang Abashidze.

Question: Tell us about your relationship with Sergo Amaghlobeli.

Answer: I met Jordania in 1936 when I went to Zemetchino. Abashidze was already working there, who I had known before starting to work at the Marjanov Theater in 1928. I had a good relationship with Abashidze, so he invited me to work in Zemetchino.

Answer: I met Sergo Amaghlobeli in 1930, during a tour of the Marjanishvili Theater in Moscow. Since we first met, I have only seen him on three occasions in his apartment. Once in 1936 and twice in 1937. Question: What kind of political themes did you discuss with Amaghlobeli? Answer: I never had any kind of political conversation with Amaghlobeli. I talked about theater performances and the plays he was directing.

Question: Tell us about your relationship with foreigners in Moscow. Answer: I didn´t have any connection with foreigners. Question: We know that you were connected with a foreign delegation. Tell us more about this.

Question: Give us an account of your relationship with Giorgi Kurulov.

Answer: I didn´t have any connection with delegates from foreign nations.

Answer: I have known Kurulov since 1928. I got acquainted with him at the Opera Theater, in the context of a tour with the Kutaisi Theater, under the direction of Kote Marjanishvili.

Question: Identify the years and months of your visits to Moscow after 1931 and tell us how long you were living there.

Question: Give us an account of your encounters with Giorgi Kurulov.

`yaCaRebi~, 17,5X44, qaRaldi, fanqari, akvareli “THE ROBBERS”, 17.5X44, PAPER, PENCIL, WATERCOLOR

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Answer: I have personally attended several gatherings at his apartment. In 1937, I met him in Amaghlobeli´s apartment in Moscow, and I would sometimes see him at the Marjanishvili Theater too.

Answer: After 1931, I came to Moscow in 1934 in the middle of December, and I stayed for one month, until the middle of January of the year 1935.


`veragoba da siyvaruli~, 21X16, qaRaldi, akvareli “INTRIGUE AND LOVE”, 21X16, PAPER, WATERCOLOR

`beatriCe CenCi~, 29X20, qaRaldi, fanqari, akvareli “BEATRICE CENCI”, 29X20, PAPER, PENCIL, WATERCOLOR

Question: Where and with whom were you living then? Answer: I was living with my brother Leon Grigoritch in the 6th apartment of Zatsepin Turn #5/11. At that time, he was working at Mospoligraftrest as an electrician. Question: Were you registered as living there during that period? Answer: I can´t tell you for sure, but I think I was registered. Question: Who did you travel with on your way from Tbilisi to Moscow? Answer: On the day of the journey, I was told that Veriko Anjaparidze, an actress of the Marjanov Theater, was also going to Moscow. We were in different wagons, but we managed to get in one coupé during the journey. She stayed with her troupe in Moscow. Question: Did you encounter Veriko Anjaparidze in Moscow? Give us a detailed account of where you saw her. Answer: I visited her sister´s apartment on Liasnitsky Street three or four times. We went to the Theater once, and we went on our separate ways after the show. Question: Did you go to any hotel with Anjaparidze? Answer: I don´t remember.

Question: In December 1934, you were at the hotel Metropol. Who did you meet there? Answer: I now recall seeing Veriko Anjaparidze in hotel Metropol. We were in the room of Tarumov, the director of the Georgian ´Gofilekt´. We stayed in the room for 15 minutes and then left together. I cannot remember where we parted. Question: We have information about your visit to the hotel Metropol. Who did you meet there? Answer: I didn´t go anywhere other than Tarumov´s room. I once had dinner with film director Chiatureli in the restaurant of the Metropol hotel; there were just the two of us, and then we met my brother Leon and his friend on leaving. I don´t remember my brother´s friend´s name, but I know that he is a classmate and colleague of his. I have read the file. The words that are written are mine. It is correct: Otskheli. He was questioned by Osipov, Deputy Head of the Third Division, and Assistant of Second Division Representative and State Security, Sergeant Atashyan.

This seemingly “regular” interrogation protocol, in which the accused denies any criminal responsibility, was enough reason for the “Troika” to give the following verdict – a typical one for the time:

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oqmi #56 saq. ssr Sinagan saqmeTa saxalxo komisariatis sameulis sxdomisa, 2 dekemberi 1937 w. moismines: Sinsaxkomis saxelmwifo uSiSroebis sammarTvelos me-3 ganyofilebis sagamoZiebo saqme #13085. 1. Jordania giorgi Tedos Ze... 2. abaSiZe vaxtang iosebis Ze... 3. ocxeli petre grigolis Ze, dab. 1907 w. qarTveli. yofil vaWarTa wridan. dapatimrebamde Teatraluri muSaki. ssrk Sinsaxkomis monacemebiT ocxels kavSiri hqonda sazRvargareTis erT saelCosTan, romelic sabWoTa kavSirSi dazverviT kontrrevoluciur muSaobas awarmoebda. bralad edeba, rom Sedioda saqarTvelos nacionaluri centrisa da moskovis mcire Teatris direqtoris, sergo amaRlobelis davalebiT Seqmnil kontrrevoluciur-teroristul organizaciaSi. dadanaSaulebulia saq. sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsis 58/10, 58/11 muxlebiT. Tavi damnaSaved ar scno. mxilebulia mowmeTa CvenebebiT. momxsenebeli ataSiani. daadgines: Jordania giorgi Tedos Ze, dab. 1885 w. daixvritos, piradi qonebis konfiskaciiT. abaSiZe vaxtang iosebis Ze, dab. 1897 w. daixvritos, piradi qonebis konfiskaciiT. ocxeli petre grigolis Ze, dab. 1907 w. daixvritos, piradi

etiudi, 28.5X39, qaRaldi, akvareli STUDY, 28.5X39, PAPER, WATERCOLOR

qonebis konfiskaciiT.

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Minutes #56. 2nd of December 1937. ´Special Triad´ of the People´s Commissariat of Internal Affairs (Shinsakhkomi) of the Georgian SSR. Shinsakhkomi´s State Security Department, 3rd Division, Investigation Case #13085. 1. Jordania Giorgi, son of Tedo... 2. Abashidze Vakhtang, son of Ioseb... 3. Otskheli Petre, son of Grigol, born in 1907. Georgian. From a former merchant family. Worked in theater until his arrest. According to information from the Shinshakhcom, Otskheli was connected to a foreign embassy that was carrying out counterrevolutionary activities through intelligence operatives. He is accused of being part of a counter-revolutionary terrorist organization founded on the instructions of Sergo Amaghlobeli, director of the Georgian National Center and the Maly Theater. He is condemned according to articles 58/10, 58/11 of the Georgian criminal law. He denies the facts. He was exposed by witness accounts. Reported by Atashyan. Sentences: Jordania Giorgi, son of Tedo, born in 1885 − to be executed, private belongings to be confiscated. Abashidze Vakhtang, son of Ioseb, born in 1897 − to be executed, private belongings to be confiscated. Otskheli Petre, son of Grigol, born in 1907 − to be executed, private belongings to be confiscated.


kompozicia, `mSenebeli solnesi~, 26X34,2, qaRaldi, akvareli, tuSi COMPOSITION, “THE MASTER BUILDER”, 26X34.2, PAPER, WATECOLOR, INDIAN INK

P. S. grigol ocxeli, 1939 wlis 1 Tebervals ssrk genprokurors swerda Svilis gaurkveveli bedis Sesaxeb da cinikuri pasuxi miiRo _ mas auwyes rom mis Svils, Soreul aRmosavleTSi gadasaxlebuls, 10 weli aqvs misjili. am gaurkveveli da cru pasuxiT ukmayofilo mamam 1941 wlis 24 maiss stalinsac mimarTa, Tumca es werilic upasuxod darCa _ erT TveSi omi daiwyo da misTvis aRaravis ecala. ucnauri faqtia, magram 1933 wels, gardacvalebamde ramdenime dRiT adre, kote marjaniSvili axalgazrda mxatvars swerda: `Sen jer kidev Zalian axalgazrda xar da sikvdilze ar fiqrob. suleluri sityvaa sikvdili. igi ar arsebobs. is, rasac Sen Semdeg datoveb, erTgvari gamarjveba iqneba imaze, rasac sikvdili, anu sruli daviwyeba hqvia”.

P. S. On the 1st of February 1939, Grigol Otskheli wrote to the public prosecutor of the USSR about the unclear fate of his son. They told him that his son, who had been deported to the Far East, had received a sentence of 10 years. On the 24th of May 1941, Grigol even wrote to Stalin himself about this vague and fallacious letter, but it, too, was left unanswered – war erupted one month later, and nobody had time for the Otskhelis anymore. A few days before his death in 1933, Kote Marjanishvili wrote the following to the young artist: “You are still very young and you do not think about death. Death is a stupid word. It doesn’t exist. The things you will leave in this world will be a victory over what we call death, in other words, over complete oblivion…”

35


ra wigni SeiZine? What Book Did You Buy? `eqspo jorjias~ meTerTmete pavilioni; wignebi... wignebi... wignebi da maTiT savse abgebi, polieTilenis parkebi; dainteresebuli mkiTxveli... mkiTxveli... mkiTxveli da gamomcemelTa fusfusi, nerviuloba... nacnob-megobrebi da kiTxvebi, romlebic urTierTSexvedrisas yovelTvis msgavsia - ra wigni SeiZine? romeli avtori moiwvies? ra prezentaciebia da rogori fasdaklebebi?.. EXPO GEORGIA’S 11TH PAVILION: BOOKS… BOOKS, MORE BOOKS… A PLETHORA OF PLASTIC BAGS FULL OF BOOKS, INTERESTED READERS… READERS… THE EXCITEMENT AND AGITATION OF READERS AND PUBLISHERS… ACQUAINTANCES AND FRIENDS, AND ALWAYS THE SAME QUESTIONS WHEN MEETING THEM – WHAT BOOK DID YOU BUY? WHICH AUTHOR DID THEY INVITE? WHAT KIND OF PRESENTATIONS ARE THERE? DID YOU SEE THOSE DISCOUNTS?!

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es Tbilisis wignis saerTaSoriso festivalia. festivali, romelsac wignis moyvarulebi, avtorebi da gamomcemlebi wlidan wlamde sulmouTqmelad elian da romelic „wignis gamomcemelTa da gamavrcelebelTa“ asociaciis organizebiT 1997 wlidan tardeba. wlevandeli wignis festivalis mxardamWerebi saqarTvelos kulturisa da ZeglTa dacvis saministro, Tbilisis meriis kulturuli RonisZiebebis centri da saqarTvelos prezidentis administracia iyvnen. festivali 26 maiss, saqarTvelos damoukideblobis dRes gaixsna da oTxi dRis ganmavlobaSi maspinZlobda literaturis moyvarulebs. gaimarTa sxvadasxva viqtorina, avtorebTan Sexvedra da axali gamocemebis prezentacia. patara stumrebisTvis, specialurad sabavSvo gasarTobi RonisZiebebic moewyo. TinaTin beriaSvili (saqarTvelos wignis gamomcemelTa da gamavrcelebelTa asociaciis aRmasrulebeli direqtori): „vfiqrob, Tbilisis wignis meTvramete saerTaSoriso festivali gamoirCeoda, rogorc monawile organizaciebis simravliT, aseve damTvaliereblis gansakuTrebuli aqtivobiT. pavilionSi Zalian komfortuli da sasiamovno garemo iyo Seqmnili. miuxedavad imisa, rom gamomcemlobebis raodenobis gamo

This is Tbilisi’s International Book Festival, held since 1997 at the initiative of the Georgian Publishers and Booksellers Association (GPBA). A festival that book amateurs, authors and publishers await with much anticipation from one year to the next. This year, the partners of the festival are the Ministry of Culture and Monument Protection of Georgia, Tbilisi City Hall’s Center of Cultural Events, and the Administration of the President of Georgia.

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sivrce sakmaod datvirTuli iyo. festivalis programac gamorCeulad saintereso da mravalferovani gamovida, am oTxi dRis ganmavlobaSi 80-ze meti RonisZieba Catarda da TiToeuli maTgani gamorCeuli da mkiTxvelisTvis saintereso aRmoCnda. monawileni cdilobdnen ara mxolod fasdaklebebiT, aramed saintereso novaciiTa da axali wignebis prezentaciebiT Sexvedrodnen mkiTxvels. Cven miviCnevT, rom wlevandeli festivali win gadadgmuli nabijia da mas partniorTa, monawileTa da, rac mTavaria, mkiTxvelTa mxridan dadebiTi gamoxmaureba mohyva~. Tbilisis rigiT me-18 wignis saerTaSoriso festivalze samocamde gamomcemloba iyo warmodgenili, maT Soris ucxoenovani gamomcemlebic. saganmanaTleblo dawesebulebebsa da universitetebs specialurad mowyobili ramdenime kuTxec daeTmoT. regionuli centraluri biblioTekebi 500 lariani vauCeriT sargeblobdnen, romlis saSualebiTac maT SeeZloT SeeZinaT wignebi da biblioTeka axali gamocemebiT SeevsoT. festivalze, kulturisa da ZeglTa dacvis saministro, qarTuli wignis erovnul centrTan erTad, mkiTxvelis winaSe sakuTari stendiT pirvelad warsdga. maT stendze saministrosa da qarTuli wignis erovnuli centris xelSewyobiT dafinansebuli da gamocemuli wignebi gamoifina. mniSvnelovania, rom qarTuli wignis erovnuli centris iniciativiT wignis bazris kvlevis prezentaciac moewyo. wignis erovnul centrTan erTad kvleva organizacia „eisiTi-kvlevam“ Caatara. maT gamokiTxes gamomcemlobebi, distributorebi, wignisa da eleqtronuli wignis maRaziebi, kulturul-saganmanaTleblo centrebi, biblioTekebi da mkiTxveli. kvlevaSi 34 gamomcemeli da 700 mkiTxveli monawileobda... medea metreveli (qarTuli wignis erovnuli centris direqtori): „CvenTan wignis bazris kvleva 2012 wlis Semdeg srulfasovnad ar Catarebula. wels ki sakmaod

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The festival opened on May 26, Georgia’s Independence Day, and welcomed literature enthusiasts throughout four days. Various quizzes, meetings with authors, and presentations of new publications were held. Special entertainment events were also arranged for the younger ones. Tinatin Beriashvili, executive director of the Georgian Publishers and Booksellers Association: “I think that the 18th Tbilisi International Book Festival distinguished itself by the number of participating organizations, as well as by the level of involvement from the visitors. The atmosphere of the Pavilion was very comfortable, despite the fact that because of the large number of publishers, the space was quite packed. The festival’s program was also particularly interesting and diverse – more than 80 events were organized during the four days, and each of them was original and caught the readers’ interest. Participants were trying to attract readers not only with discounts, but also with innovations and by presenting new books. We think that this year’s festival is a step forward; it had very positive feedback from our partners, participants, and most importantly, from the readers themselves.” Up to 60 publishers were represented at the 18th edition of the Tbilisi International Book Festival, including foreign ones. Universities and other educational institutions were allocated several spaces prepared specially for them. Regional “Central Libraries” were given

dimitri gluxovski Dmitry Glukhovsky


safuZvliani kvleva CavatareT da gamomcemlobebis mxridan araerTgvarovan gamoxmaurebas wavawydiT _ zogs gauxarda kvlevis Catareba da masSi aqtiurad CaerTo, zogma ki monawileobaze uari ganacxada... imedia momavalSi es seqtori ufro gaaqtiurdeba, raTa realuri statistikuri suraTi kargad gamoikveTos. kvlevam uaryofiTi da dadebiTi mxareebi gvaCvena. kvlevis Sedegad aRmoCnda, rom CvenTan mkiTxvelTa unar-Cvevebi Cveni masStabis qveynebTan (latvia, litva, estoneTi) SedarebiT dabalia da minimumTanaa miaxloebuli. sagangaSo mdgomaroeba gvaqvs sabiblioTeko saqmeSic. dRes saqarTveloSi soflis Tu qalaqis patara biblioTekebTan erTad 70-mde centraluri biblioTekaa, romlebSic wignadi fondebis mdgomareoba savalaloa da rac mkiTxvelTa raodenobazec aisaxeba. dadebiTi ki aris is, rom sirTuleebis miuxedavad wignis bazari mainc viTardeba. wlidan wlamde gamocemebi da maTi tiraJi izrdeba. Sesabamisad seqtori mdgradia da am dinamikis SenarCuneba mniSvnelovania~.

vouchers worth 500 Lari, with which they could purchase books in order to complete their libraries with new publications. The Ministry of Culture and Monument Protection appeared at the festival with its own stand for the first time, and together with the Georgian National Book Center, it presented the books that were financed and published with their support. A study about the book market was also presented at the initiative of the Georgian National Book Center. The research was carried out by the company ACT Research in collaboration with the National Book Center. They surveyed publishers, distributors, book and electronic book stores, cultural and educational centers, libraries, and readers. 34 publishers and 700 readers took part in the study. Medea Metreveli, director of the Georgian National Book Center: “There hasn’t been any thorough research about the Georgian book market since 2012. This year, we carried out an in-depth study, and we encountered very different reactions from the publishers – some were very glad that we were doing this research and got actively involved in it, while others simply refused to take part in it… We hope that this sector will become more active in the future, so that we can see the real general picture. Each participant revealed both positive and negative aspects. The study showed that compared to countries of a similar size to Georgia (Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia), the skills of our readers are low – even close to the minimum. We also have an alarming situation regarding libraries. Apart from small libraries in Georgian villages or towns, there are up to 70 so-called “Central Libraries” with books in deplorable condition, and this also shows on their reader numbers. The positive aspect is that despite all the difficulties, the book market is still developing. Publication numbers and circulation increases by the year. Accordingly, the sector is sustainable; it is important to maintain this dynamic.”

28 maiss festivalis scenasTan gansakuTrebiT bevri xalxi Seikriba. fantastikis moyvarulebi TavianT sayvarel mwerals, trilogia „metros~ avtors dimitri gluxovskis elodnen, romelic gamomcemloba „wignebi baTumSi“ mowveviT Tbilisis wignis festivals estumra. festivalis `mTavari stumaric~ swored is gaxldaT. iqve trilogiis bolo wignis „metro 2015“ prezentaciac gaimarTa. axalgazrdebs erTi suli hqondaT sayvarel wignze mwerlis avtografi exilaT. mwerlis, romelic Tanamedrove msoflioSi Zalzed popularulia da romelmac aRiareba adreul asakSi moipova. ia vekua (gamomcemloba „wignebi baTumSi“ redaqtori): `dimitri gluxovskis „metro“ mesame msoflio omze mogviTxrobs, sadac birTvuli katastrofis Sedegad kacobrioba TiTqmis mTlianad nadgurdeba, gadarCenilebi ki moskovis metros afareben Tavs. gluxovskim romani

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Tavdapirvelad internetSi ganaTavsa. dRes ki Zalian bevr qveyanaSi naTargmni da gamocemulia. saqarTveloSi trilogia gamomcemloba „wignebi baTumSi“ gamosca. dimitri gluxovski mkiTxvelTan gaxsnili da uSualo urTierTobiTaa cnobili. erT-erTi pirveli, rac TbilisSi Camosvlis Semdeg gviTxra, gaxldaT is, rom misTvis ar hqonda mniSvneloba eCqareboda Tu aravidre ukanasknel mkiTxvelsac ar miscemda avtografs da fotos ar gadaiRebda, arsad wavidoda; asec moxda _ xuTi dRis ganmavlobaSi, albaT, xuTasamde avtografi gasca, Tan yvela saxelobiTi, rac niSnavs, rom vidre `Tayvanismcemels~ xels mouwerda, saxels ekiTxeboda, xels arTmevda da `selfis~ gadaRebasac ar izarebda. dimitri gluxovski saqarTveloSi meoTxed Camovida da es viziti misTvis aRmoCenebis viziti ar yofila. is kargad icnobs saqarTvelos, mis kuTxeebs, xalxs da politikuri viTarebac kargad moexseneba. antiputinuri ganwyobiT cnobili mwerali arasdros erideba ruseTis mier okupirebuli teritoriebis Sesaxeb saubars da mwared akritikebs kremlis politikas. aseTive ganwyoba aqvT mis mSoblebs, romlebic saqarTveloSi SvilTan erTad Camovidnen...

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There were many people in the audience near the festival stage on May 28. Sci-fi amateurs were waiting for their favorite writer, and guest of honor of the festival, Dmitry Glukhovsky, author of the trilogy Metro, who visited the festival at the invitation of publishing house Books in Batumi. He presented the last book of his trilogy, Metro 2015. Young readers were very excited about getting their favorite book signed by its author, who is extremely popular worldwide and found recognition at a very young age. Ia Vekua, Editor at Books in Batumi Publishing: “Dmitry Glukhovsky’s Metro tells a story happening during the third world war, in which humanity is almost entirely wiped out as a result of a nuclear catastrophe and the survivors find refuge in Moscow’s subway. Glukhovsky first published himself on his own website, and today, his works are translated and published in numerous countries. In Georgia, his trilogy was published by Books in Batumi Publishing.

Glukhovsky is known for his openness and directness with his readers. One of the first things he told us after arriving in Georgia was that he didn’t care whether he was in a hurry or not – he wouldn’t go anywhere until the last reader had received an autograph and taken a picture with him if they wanted to. And this is exactly how it happened: for five days, he gave around 500 autographs, and all of them were personalized ones, which means that before signing, he would ask for the name of the readers, shake their hands, and wasn’t lazy about taking a “selfie” with them, either. It was his fourth visit to Georgia, so this visit was not one of discoveries for him. He knows Georgia very well, with its regions, people, and political situation. Famously anti-Putin, the author is never shy to talk about the territories occupied by Russia and harshly criticizes the Kremlin’s policies. His parents, who followed their child to Georgia, share his views about the subject.


gluxovskim sami Sexvedra gamarTa. estumra Tbilisis wignis saerTaSoriso festivals, gaxldaT mweralTa saxlSi, sadac Tanamedrove qarTvel mwerlebs Sexvda, bolos ki orsaaTiani Sexvedra gamarTa mkiTxvelTan“. 29 maiss 8 saaTze me-11 pavilionSi TiTqmis yvelaferi alagebuli iyo, mxolod organizatorebi da gamomcemlebi arkvevdnen saorganizacio sakiTxebs.

Three meeting sessions with Glukhovsky were organized: one at the Tbilisi International Book Festival, another at the Writers’ house, where he met contemporary Georgian writers, and a third one that lasted two hours with his readers.” At eight o’clock on May 29, almost everything was taken away or put in order at the 11th pavilion, only the organizers and the publishers were left discussing organizational matters.

`eqspo jorjias~ meTerTmete pavilioni; wignebi... wignebi... wignebi da maTiT savse abgebi, polieTilenis parkebi; dainteresebuli mkiTxveli... mkiTxveli... mkiTxveli da gamomcemelTa fusfusi, nerviuloba... nacnob-megobrebi da kiTxvebi, romlebic urTierTSexvedrisas yovelTvis msgavsia _ ra wigni iyide? romeli avtori moiwvies? ra prezentaciebia da rogori fasdaklebebia?.. albaT, es ganwyoba momaval wlamde gagvyveba da am Cveul kiTxvebs 2017 welsac davsvamT an movismenT... qeTevan baraTaSvili

Expo Georgia’s 11th Pavilion: books… books, more books… a plethora of plastic bags full of books, interested readers… readers… the excitement and agitation of readers and publishers… acquaintances and friends, and always the same questions when meeting them – What book did you buy? Which author did they invite? What kind of presentations are there? Did you see those discounts…?! This spirit will probably remain until next year, and we’ll be asking or hearing those same old questions in 2017… Ketevan Baratashvili

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odesRac, princi konstantine oldenburgi quTaisSi dasaxlda da Tu ratom, aravin uwyoda. aSenebda sastumroebsa da skolebs. cxovrobda gagraSic. dauaxlovda qarTul sazogadoebas. maT Soris, giorgi SarvaSiZes. colad, didi siyvaruliT, moiyvana agrafina jafariZe, romelic ulamazes da wignier qalbatonad iTvleboda... magram vinaidan agrafina warCinebuli gvaris warmomadgeneli ar gaxldaT, princma sakuTari titulis tarebis ufleba dakarga... man tituls siyvaruli arCia... gagraSi rom cnobili sastumroa, `gagrifSi~, princ oldenburgis aSenebulia... princi oldenburgi Semdgom ara princis, aramed grafis tituls atarebda - graf zarnikau... graf konstantine oldenburgs, dadianebis gansakuTrebulad axlo megobars, gadawyvetili hqonda daearsebina e.w. `kavkasiuri riviera~. quTaisSi pirvelma gaiyvana rkinigzis xazi, SeakeTa foTis porti, daaarsa realuri saswavlebeli... rogorc amboben, agrafina jafariZisadmi siyvaruli misTvis didi stimuli iyo... TbilisSi, dRevandeli xelovnebis sasaxlec, maTma siyvarulma `dabada~... WHEN DUKE CONSTANTINE OF OLDENBURG DECIDED TO SETTLE IN KUTAISI, NOBODY REALLY UNDERSTOOD WHY. HE WAS CONSTRUCTING HOTELS AND SCHOOLS THERE, AND HAD ALSO LIVED IN GAGRA, WHERE HE CONSTRUCTED THE FAMOUS HOTEL “GAGRIPSH”. HE GOT CLOSE TO GEORGIAN HIGH SOCIETY, INCLUDING GIORGI SHARVASHIDZE, AND MARRIED AGRAPHINA JAPARIDZE, WITH WHOM HE WAS MADLY IN LOVE, AND WHO WAS KNOWN TO BE A RAVISHING AND WELL-READ WOMAN… BUT BECAUSE AGRAPHINA WAS NOT FROM A NOBLE FAMILY, THE DUKE LOST HIS TITLE – HE CHOSE LOVE OVER IT… AFTERWARDS, DUKE OLDENBURG NO LONGER CARRIED HIS PRINCELY TITLE, BUT THE TITLE OF A COUNT – COUNT VON ZARNEKAU… DUKE CONSTANTINE OLDENBURG WAS A VERY CLOSE FRIEND OF THE DADIANI FAMILY AND THOUGHT ABOUT CREATING A SO-CALLED “CAUCASIAN RIVIERA” IN WESTERN GEORGIA. HE SETTLED IN KUTAISI, WHERE HE SET UP THE CITY’S FIRST RAILWAY AND FOUNDED THE CITY’S MIDDLE SCHOOL; HE ALSO REFURBISHED THE PORT OF POTI… AS THEY SAY, HIS LOVE FOR AGRAPHINA JAPARIDZE WAS A GREAT MOTIVATION FOR HIM… TBILISI’S ART PALACE WAS ALSO “BORN” FROM THIS LOVE…

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arc ra aris warmavali

Nothing is Temporary Seisruli sarkmlebidan Suqi iRvreba. xalxi dgas kibis safexurebze, ezoSi, WiSkarTan, quCaSi da kudi kargareTelisa da aRmaSeneblis gamziris kuTxemde Cadis. Ramea da, Tu ara Cacmuloba, ifiqreb, rom mecxramete saukunis tfilisSi graf oldenburgis gamarTul mejlisze moxvdi. alayafis karTan misulT sasaxlis kedelze `moTamaSe~ personaJebi gegebebian. petre ocxelis gacocxlebuli saocari personaJebi... saqarTvelos Teatris, musikis, kinosa da qoreografiis muzeumi proeqts „Rame muzeumSi“ maspinZlobs. xalxis aseT raodenobas aravin eloda da miT umetes sxvadasxva ferad TmaSeRebil axalgazrdobas, romlebzec, vieWve kidec _ ucxoelebi xom ar arian _ Tumca qarTulad gadalaparakebis Semdgom mivxvdi, rom sruliad axali realobis mowme gavxdi, `momavlis generaciam~ smartfonebidan Tavi aswia da islamuri goTikis stilSi nageb sasaxles miaSura. kiTxvac gamiCnda _ ki magram, rogor `daaba~ xelovnebis sasaxlem kiberTaoba ise, rom muzeumis SesasvlelTan rigi dadga?

Arrow-shaped windows glow. A line of people stands on the steps; a line snaking through the yard, along the street, reaching even the corner of the Kargareteli and Aghmashenebeli streets. The costumes they wear will make you think that you are at a ball held by Count Oldenburg in 19th century Tbilisi. When you reach the gates, playful characters revived from Petre Otskheli’s sketches welcome you on the walls of the Palace… The Georgian State Museum of Theater, Music, Cinema and Choreography is hosting the project “Night at the Museum”. Nobody was expecting so many people, and especially not so many young people with multi-colored hair – I even thought they were foreigners, but when I heard them speaking in Georgian, I understood that I was looking at a completely new reality: the “generation of the future” raising their heads from their smartphones to visit a palace of gothic and Islamic architecture. I asked myself – how did the Georgian Art Palace manage to attract the cyber-generation and have such a long queue at the entrance?

saqarTvelos Teatris, musikis, kinosa da qoreografiis muzeumi `tradiciuli~ muzeumi ar aris. sivrce, sadac siZveleebs Tu xelovnebis Tundac uaxles nimuSebs icaven. iq misuls, mowiweba da aucilebeli aRtaceba gmarTebs,

The Georgian State Museum of Theater, Music, Cinema and Choreography (Art Palace) is not a “traditional” museum simply containing period pieces or even the most recent artworks. In such places, you should always be in reverence and awe, it’s something

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`gevaleba~, rac xandaxan mosawyenic kia. aq ki cocxali saxli gxvdeba, Wriala iatakiT, mZime fardebiT da Zveli sasiyvarulo ambebiT... Tu rogor gaumijnurda da augo ulamazes agrafina jafariZes, 1895 wels, princma oldenburgma es qongurebiani sasaxle. oldenburgis mejlisebis dro 1921 wels dasrulda; misi qonebac imave wels aRiwera. mogvianebiT es nageboba yrumunjTa saswavlebels gadaeca, mogvianebiT _ gonebrivad CamorCenilTa skolas, dabolos, profesiuli daxelovnebis centrad iqca.

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of an obligation to be so, and it can quickly become quite dull. But here, you have a lively house with a squeaking wooden floor, heavy curtains, and olden love stories – mainly the one of how Prince Oldenburg fell in love with the ravishing Agraphina Japaridze and constructed this beautiful palace for her in 1895. The time of Oldenburg’s balls ended in 1921. His possessions were indexed and confiscated the same year. Afterwards, the building would be handed to an educational center for the deaf and dumb, then become a school for children with learning disabilities, and finally a vocational school. The current museum was established here in 1989 at the end of a long journey. It was founded in 1927 by David Arsenishvili, in the basement of the “Beaumonde” hotel. At first, it was called the


dRevandeli muzeumi aq, xangrZlivi mogzaurobis Semdeg, 1989 wels gadmovida. is 1927 wels daviT arseniSvilma sastumro `bomondis~ sardafSi daaarsa. Tavdapirvelad mas `saqarTvelos ssr saTeatro muzeumi~ erqva. mudmivi adgilsamyofeli ver daimkvidra da unikalur eqsponatebTan erTad mudmivad TavSesafars eZebda _ xan noraSenis eklesiaSi, xanac giorgi meTormetes sasaxleSi da a.S. giorgi kalandia, muzeumis direqtori mogviTxrobs: `gasuli saukunis oTxmocdaaTianebis dasawyisSi sasaxle ganadgurebis safrTxis winaSe idga. sarestavracio samuSaoebi mxolod 2011 wels daiwyo. maRali profesionalizmiT Sesrulebulma samuSaom aRadgina Zveli sasaxlis suli da axali sicocxle misca mis darbazebs. Catarda saTanado konservacia _ alag-alag mkafiod Cans Zveli CuqurTmebi, kedlis moxatuloba, `art nuvos~ arabeskebi. 35 TanamSromlisgan Semdgari patara da mobiluri gundi uxilavi keTili jadoqrebiviT uvlis sacavebs, sadac sruliad warmoudgeneli nivTebia daculi~. xelnawerTa da saarqivo dokumentaciis fondSi stumrobisas, batonma giorgim TeTri xelTaTmanebi gaikeTa da sesilia TayaiSvilis anderZi CagvikiTxa _ „78 wlis var, _ wers qalbatoni sesilia, romelic Cemi TaobisTvis gamorCeuli bebiaa, _ CamacviT Savi kaba...

‘Theater Museum of the Georgian SSR.’ It wasn’t able to remain for long in any one location and was always looking for a permanent refuge for its unique exhibits – in the Norasheni Church, sometimes in the palace of Giorgi XII, and so on. Giorgi Kalandia, current director of the Museum, tells us more: “At the beginning of the 1990s, the Palace was on the verge of collapsing. Restoration works only began in 2011, carried out very professionally. They managed to bring back the soul of the Palace and to give a new life to its halls. Proper conservation works have also been executed – beautiful old carved ornaments, frescoes, and art nouveau arabesques can be seen here and there. Our small and motivated team of 35 staff members looks after the depositories with utmost care – as they should, because they contain wonderful objects.” While visiting the Depository of Manuscripts and Archive Documents, Kalandia puts on white gloves and reads us Cecilia Takaishvili’s will – “I am 78 years old”, wrote Mrs Takaishvili, who was a distinguished elder for my generation. “Clothe me in a black dress… Do not arrange a funerary ceremony at the theater under any circumstance… I don’t need that. Let me be comfortable at home… Don’t inter me in a pantheon… This matter has to be decided from above…” The Depository includes documents that would make the most famous museums in the world jealous. A member of staff takes a letter from the shelf: it is dated April 4th 1945, and contains the last message of Adolf Hitler for the German army…

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arafris didebiT TeatrSi an klubSi ar gadamasvenoT... ar aris saWiro. myudrod mamyofeT Cems saxlSi... panTeonSi ar damasaflaoT... es sakiTxi unda gadawydes zemoT...“ fondSi inaxeba iseTi dokumentebi, romlebsac msoflios wamyvani muzeumebi inatrebdnen. fondis TanamSromeli iRebs Tarodan werils, romelic 1945 wlis 4 apriliTaa daTariRebuli da adolf hitleris erTerTi bolo mimarTvaa germanuli armiisadmi... cnobili saopero momRerlis sandro inaSvilis Camotanili iohan Strausis sanoto Canaweri, romelic mas leningradis blokadis dros ulufa purSi gaucvlia... muzeumi XIV saukunis unikalur xelnawer sanoto

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Johann Strauss’ score, which famous opera singer Sandro Inashvili obtained for a ration of bread during the Leningrad Blockade and then brought back to his homeland… The museum also exhibits a unique manuscript score from the 14th century. This is the period when the world switched from neumes to the modern music notation system. Ilia Chavchavadze’s letters defending supporters of Georgian chanting, which was also backed by Grigol Orbeliani himself. The shelves of the Museum revive Georgia’s everyday cultural life – Akaki’s dedication letter to Mako Saparova, Vaja Pshavela’s letters, dedication “posts” – the most popular way of congratulating someone in newspapers in the 19th century, and so on. The reserve counts about 56,000 manuscripts. Count Oldenburg’s reading hall became the Depository of the


Canawersac inaxavs. es is periodia, rodesac msoflio nevmebidan sanoto sistemaze gadadis. ilia WavWavaZis werilebi qarTuli galobis qomagTa dasacavad, romelsac Tavad grigol orbelianic uWerda mxars. Taroebze saqarTvelos yofiTi, yoveldRiuri kultura cocxldeba _ akakis miZRvna mako safarovasadmi, vaJas werilebi, miZRvniTi „adresebi“ _ XIX saukunis sagazeTo milocvebis metad popularuli forma da sxv. fondSi sul 56 000 xelnawria. graf oldenburgis samkiTxvelo darbazSi dRes biblioTekaa. aq dgas vaJafSavelas magida, Salva dadianis skami. damcavi SuSis qveS franguli piesa „samSobloa“, romelic daviT erisTavs uTargmnia da ganmanTavis­ uflebeli moZraobis manifestad iqca. iqvea gagarinis kavkasiuri kostiumebis sruli albomic. saxviTi xelovnebis fondSi 13 000-ze meti

Library and Rare Editions. It contains Vaja Pshavela’s desk and Shalva Dadiani’s chair. Under protective glass is the book ‘Samshoblo’ (Homeland), which was translated by David Eristavi and became the manifesto of the independence movement. And next to it, a full album of Gagarin’s Caucasian costumes. The Depository of Fine Arts counts more than 13,000 exhibits. In the Depository of Posters, which includes 58,730 items, we learn that a screening of ‘The Knight in the Panther’s Skin’ took place in 1919, and therefore, that we were not walking far behind the footsteps of the Lumière Brothers. The Depository of Memorial Objects and Works of Art presents an antique Phoenician mask found during archaeological excavations in Vani,

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gigo gabaSvili, `samaryandeli piligrimebi~, 53X65.5, tilo, zeTi GIGO GABASHVILI, “PILIGRIMS FROM SAMARKAND”, 53X65.5, CANVAS, OIL

eqsponatia daculi. saafiSo fondSi, romelic 58 730 nimuSs itevs, pirvelad gavigeT, rom 1919 wels TbilisSi vefxistyaosnis sinematografika dadgmula da Zmeb lumierebis fexdafex mivyolilvarT. memorialuri nivTebis fondSi vanis gaTxrebis dros napovn, qristesSobamdel Zvelfinikiur niRbas, lidiur fuls da sxva unikalur artefaqtebs vxvdebiT.

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Lydian coins, and other unique artefacts. On the table of the restoration atelier, they are crafting Keto’s dress, from the movie Keto and Kote, in white fur. We see the dress of Tamar of Georgia, which Soliko Virsaladze created according to the Betania Monastery fresco. The dress was adorned with Andalusian pearls; at first the replica contained synthetic ones, but they are now going to be replaced by real, thick and long gems.


We are now moving from the depositories to the halls. In the Ballroom, your eyes will be attracted by the Indonesian shadow puppet theater mask, as well as by paintings of Léon Bakst and Alexandre Benois. The wallpaper of the Silk Hall was restored according to old sketches. There is a captivating fireplace that Nicholas II offered to Count Oldenburg – it is the only one of its kind in the world. The Blue Canaries Hall presents the history of Georgian opera. We arrive on the first floor via a spiral staircase. Another hall is about to open here – this unique wooden ceiling and its chandelier made of deer horn and decorated with porcelain figurines will soon be welcoming the public. Half a million exhibits are kept at the Art Palace. This year, it received a Europa Nostra Special Mention Award, the “Oscar” or most prestigious prize elene axvlediani, dekoracia speqtaklisTvis `mzis dabneleba saqarTveloSi~, 29X34, qaRaldi, guaSi ELENE AKHVLEDIANI, DECORATION FOR THE PLAY “ECLIPSE IN GEORGIA“, 29X34, PAPER, GOUACHE

sarestavracio saxelosnoSi magidaze qeTos (filmidan `qeTo da kote~) TeTri bewviT gawyobil kabas `akeTeben~. iqvea Tamar mefis kabac. soliko virsalaZes is beTaniis freskis mixedviT Seuqmnia. kaba andalusiuri margalitebiT yofila Semkuli, Semdeg xelovnurebiT SeucvliaT da axla, dedoflis samoss, Zveli dideba ubrundeba. msxvili da mogrZo margalitis Tvlebi Tavis rigs elian. fondebidan darbazebSi vinacvlebT. samejliso darbazSi Tvals ipyrobs Crdilebis Teatris indoneziuri niRabi, baqstis, benuas naxatebi. abreSumis darbazis Spaleri Zveli eskizebis mixedviTaa aRdgenili. mzeris damatyvevebeli buxari, romelic nikoloz meorem graf oldenburgs usaxsovra da erTaderTia msoflioSi. lurji iadonebis darbazSi qarTuli

lado gudiaSvili, `yeenis mtkvarSi gadagdeba~, 72X89, tilo, zeTi LADO GUDIASHVILI, “KEENOBA“ (a Georgian mass folk performance), 72X89, CANVAS, OIL

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operis istoriaa gadaSlili. „veragi“ xveuli kibiT pirvel sarTulze CavdivarT. aq gaxsnis rigs kidev erTi darbazi elodeba. xis unikaluri Weri, irmis rqisgan damzadebuli faifuris Tojinebiani WaRiT, male stumrebs miiRebs. xelovnebis sasaxleSi naxevari milioni eqsponatia daculi. wels man samuzeumo `oskari~, prestiJuli jildo _ `evropa nostra~ moipova. Jiurim mas specialuri prizi: gansakuTrebuli aRiareba konservaciis dargSi gadasca da amiT evropuli kulturuli memkvidreobis TanamegobrobaSi Seiyvana. kargareTelis #6-Si mdebare sasaxle evropis teritoriaze erT-erT yvelaze saukeTesod restavrirebul Zeglad aRiares. sasaxle cocxlobs. mis darbazebSi mudam xmauria. ubralod, farCebis Sriali telefonebisa da fotokamerebis aTinaTebma da Cxakunma Secvala. xmebi icvleba, ar icvleba mxolod sasaxlis suli. im RamiT qonguris ganaTebuli sarkmeli germaneli ufliswulis da qarTveli asulis siyvarulis ambavs Tavidan hyveboda.

for museums. The Jury decided to award the museum with a special mention in the conservation category, thus introducing it to the European cultural heritage community. The palace, located at #6 Kargareteli Street, was recognized as one of the monuments with the best conservation works on European territory. The Palace is lively. Its halls are always noisy. The hiss of brocades has been replaced by the tinkle and reflection of mobile phones and cameras. Sounds change, but the soul of the Palace remains the same. The other night, the moonlit window of the battlement once again recounted the love story between the German Count and the Georgian Lady.

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daviT kakabaZe, dekoraciis eskizi speqtaklisTvis `sadguris ufrosi~, 34.5X35.7, qaRaldi, guaSi DAVID KAKABADZE, DECORATION FOR THE PLAY “STATION MASTER“, 34.5X35.7, PAPER, GOUACHE

P. S. ase msurda Txrobis dasruleba, rodesac Sevityve, rom xelovnebis sasaxles marvelis samyaros kreatori, sakulto komiqsebis, deardevilis, jesika jonsis mxatvari david maki estumra. misi gamofena 23 ivniss gaixsna. samejliso darbazis kedlebidan Cagrulebis usinaTlo qomagi da `superZalis~ mqone sevdiani gogona gvimzerdnen. da Tu legendebi ar tyuian, aseT saxlebSi, rodesac Caqreba Suqi da daiketeba karebi, landebi gamodian. hoda, ra viciT? egeb jafariZis qali Sedges da gakvirvebiT SeaTvalieros tyavebSi gamowyobili amerikeli jesika, da mimarTos _ nu dardob, arc ra aris warmavali... irine WeliZe

P. S. This is how I wanted to end this narrative, when I was told that David Mack, the comic book artist of the cult Marvel series Daredevil and Jessica Jones, had visited the Art Palace. His exhibition opened on June 23. The blind defender of the weak and the super-strong sad girl were looking at us from the walls of the Ballroom. And if legends are true, when lights are off and doors are locked in these kinds of places, ghosts come out. So who knows? Maybe Mrs Japaridze appeared at night, and looking in surprise at the American Jessica and her leathery attire, she told her – Don’t worry, nothing is temporary… Irine Chelidze

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kinocentris roli... saqarTvelos kinematografiis erovnul kinocentrs axali direqtori hyavs. vakantur Tanamdebobaze kandidaturis konkursis wesiT SesarCevad saqarTvelos kulturisa da ZeglTa dacvis ministris sakonsultacio sabWo Seiqmna, romlis Semadgenloba saqarTvelos kinoakademiis mier ganisazRvra. Semovida cameti sakonkurso ganacxadi, Sedga rogorc gasaubreba, aseve oTxi samuSao Sexvedra. kandidatTa mier warmodgenili kinocentris ganviTarebis samwliani gegmisa da gasaubrebis safuZvelze gamarjvebulad zurab maRalaSvili gamocxadda. batono zurab, saqarTvelos kinematografiis erovnul centrs uaxloesi sami wlis ganmavlobaSi Tqven uxelmZRvanelebT... yovelive is, ris ganxorcielebasac Semdgomi sami wlis ganmavlobaSi vapirebT, konkursSi monawileobisas programaSi mqonda Camoyalibebuli. magram roca muSaobas iwyeb, aucilebelia realoba gaiTvaliswino, nabijebi saerTo xedvisa da gegmis Sesabamisad gadadga. pirvel etapze gvsurs saqarTveloSi kinomwarmoebeli kompaniebisTvis Sesabamisi klimati da pirobebi SevqmnaT, rac maT ufro meti filmis gadaRebis saSualebas miscems. erovnulma kinocentrma gamoacxada mcirebiujetiani filmebis konkursi, romelic SesaZleblobas mogvcems, mcire, Tumca arsebuli biuJetiT, sami srulmetraJiani filmi gadaviRoT. aseve gamocxadda meore alternatiuli konkursic, romelic dawyebuli filmebis damTavrebas daexmareba. arsobrivad es konkursebi gansxvavebuli tipisaa. vfiqrobT, aseTi midgoma gamoavlens profesionalebs _ aramarto reJisorebs, aramed operatorebs, xmis reJisorebs, gamnaTeblebs da sxv. saxelmwifos mxridan dafinansebis momateba ar igegmeba? Cveni samoqmedo gegmis erT-erTi ZiriTadi sazrunavi dafinansebis gazrdaa, ra Tqma unda, im SesaZleblobis farglebSi, rac sadReisod saxelmwifos aqvs. dameTanxmebiT, roca mTeli kinoseqtoris dafinanseba or milion naxevari dolaria, didad ver `moilxen~. Cveni muSaobis sazomi _ Sedegia, romelic gvqonda: SarSanwin `oskarze~ qarTuli filmi `finalSi~, xuT nominants Soris moxvda, magram dafinanseba mainc ver gaizarda; dRevandeli qarTuli filmebi araerT festivalze aRweven warmatebas... mavanT, viszec Cveni biujetis gazrdaa damokidebuli, unda dainaxon _ kinematografi mxolod dafinansebis momTxovni organo ar aris da qveynisTvis, misi Semosavlebis zrdisTvis, sasargebloa. qarTul kinoindustriaSi Tanxebis mozidvis erT-erT winapirobad e.w. cash rebate asaxeleben...

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Mission of the Film Center... The Georgian National Film Center (GNFC) has a new director. A consultation board for the Minister of Culture and Monument Protection, the members of which were selected by Tbilisi’s Theater and Film University, was set up in order to choose from the candidates for the vacant position. Thirteen applications were submitted, and interviews and four working meetings took place. On the basis of the three-year development plan for the Film Center and of the interviews, Zurab Magalashvili was named the new director of the GNFC. Mr Magalashvili, you will be heading the GNFC during the next three years… I had included everything that we plan on implementing during the three following years in the application of the competition, but when you actually start the working process, you need to face reality and adjust your steps according to a broader vision and master plan. At the first stage, we want to create a proper climate and better conditions for film producing companies in Georgia, which will allow for more movies to be shot. The National Film Center announced a competition for low-budget films which will permit the shooting of three full-length feature films with a low – but at least existing – budget. An alternative competition aimed at helping finalize films was also announced. These competitions differ in their essence. We think that this approach will bring many professionals to light – not only directors, but also cameramen, gaffers, sound engineers, and so on. Is the government planning on augmenting the GNFC’s budget? One of the most important concerns of our plan of action is to increase our finances – naturally, within the limits of what’s currently possible for the government. You’ll agree that when the whole budget of the cinema industry of the country is USD


sistema Cash rebate kinocenrtma ekonomikis saministrosTan erTad daiwyo. axla, samwuxarod, ekonomikis saministro nabijebs kinocentrTan SeuTanxmleblad dgams _ Cvens gareSe iyvnen indoeTSi, Camoiyvanes amerikelTa jgufi da a.S. magram ibadeba kiTxvebi _ Tu Camomsvlel prodiuserTa da reJisorTa ricxvi sagrZnoblad gaizrdeba, ramdenad momzadebuli daxvdeba maT Cveni kinoseqtori? garda amisa, Tu ucxoelTa gadaRebebis bumi daiwyeba, ra bedi elis kinocentris mier ukve dafinansebul filmebs? sainteresoa, ekonomikis saministros aqvs Tu ara amis xedva? yvela saxelmwifo struqturam kanoni unda daicvas da gaacnobieros, rom kinocentri aris kinematografiis saxelmwifo politikis ganmaxorcielebeli struqtura qveyanaSi; da problemuri sakiTxebi masTan koordinaciiT unda gadawydes. Cven winaswar unda ganvsazRvroT mosalodneli Sedegi _ gvyavs Tu ara Sesabamisi kadrebi, gvaqvs Tu ara Tanamedrove teqnikuri baza da a.S... yovelive es SesaZloa cudad aisaxos Cvens kinoindustriaze da ucxoelebi dafrTxnen. garda amisa, dasaxvewia `ribeiTis~ sistema, radgan CamosulT kiTxvebi aqvT ZiriTadad dabegvrasTan dakavSirebiT _ SeiZleba Camoitanon iseTi proeqti, romelic maT qveyanaSi ar ibegreba da CvenTan daibegros. albaT, cash rebate gamoavlens adgilobrivi kadrebis arasakmaris kvalifikacias... rogor unda mogvardes es problema? ganaTlebiT. dRes bevri niWieri studenti gvyavs, romelTac swori gezis micema sWirdebaT. damwyeb reJisors, operators Tu sxva kinospecialobis warmomadgenels filmis gadaRebis saSualeba ar miveciT, is rogor gaizrdeba? kinematografSi ganaTlebis miRebis, profesionalad Camoyalibebis ZiriTadi forma praqtikuli muSaobaa. amitom kinocentri am mimarTulebiT unda gaaqtiurdes; vfiqrob, es pasuxismgebloba CvenTan erTad Teatrisa da kinos universitetmac unda gainawilos. 2008 wels ganvaxorcieleT proeqti, romelSic 120 studenti monawileobda. ZiriTadad meore-mesame kurselebi. Seiqmna ramdenime moklemetraJiani filmi, romelTagan ramdenimem sxvadasxva kinofestivalze did warmatebas miaRwia: Tornike bziavas „aprilis susxi“, amiran doliZis „sangari“, giga liklikaZis „ucnobi jariskaci”, vako kirkitaZis „seqtemberi“. mniSvnelovania rom studentebma filmebi firze gadaiRes... am proeqtis saSualebiT vipoveT is profesionalebi _ reJisorebi, operatorebi, scenaristebi, xmis reJisorebi, gamnaTeblebi da sxva, romlebic dRes qarTul kinoSi aqtiurad muSaoben. dRes am axalgazrdebs SeZenil codnasTan erTad ukve aqvT imis ambicia, rom `didi kino akeTon~. filmis Seqmnas brZola sWirdeba _ es mTel msoflioSi asea.

2,500,000, it isn’t something local professionals would celebrate. Our work is measured by results, and results were achieved! Two years ago, a Georgian film was selected among the five nominees of the Oscars’ final round, and contemporary Georgian films are successful in many international festivals – but the budget still hasn’t increased. Those on whom the increase of our budget depends should understand that the film industry is not only an organ soliciting money, and that it has a positive effect for the country and the growth of incomes. Many say that one of the conditions for attracting funds into the Georgian film industry is the so-called Cash Rebate system… The Cash Rebate system was implemented by the GNFC in collaboration with the Ministry of Economy and Sustainable Development. Unfortunately, the Ministry of Economy is now taking steps independently from the GNFC – they traveled to India alone, invited an American group without us, and so on… Questions come to mind: if the number of incoming producers and directors increases substantially, how prepared will our film industry be to welcome them? Apart from that, if there is a boom in foreign movie projects in Georgia, what will happen with the ones already financed by the GNFC? It would be interesting to know if the Ministry of Economy has taken that into account. Every State structure should abide by the law and understand that the GNFC is the executive structure of state policy concerning cinematography in Georgia; and that problematic issues should be fixed in coordination with our institution. We need to determine the expected results in advance – do we have enough qualified professionals, modern equipment, and so on? All these issues may give a very bad image of our film industry and can scare away foreign investors. Apart from that, the Cash Rebate system needs to be finetuned, as foreign visitors have questions about taxation– they may be bringing a project that would not be taxed in their own country, but that would be taxed here. The Cash Rebate system will probably reveal the lack of qualified local professionals… How can this problem be solved? With education. We have many talented students today, who need only to be shown the right path. If we do not allow new directors, cameramen, or other film professionals to shoot movies, how are they going to develop? The main way to learn cinematography and become a professional in this field is to have practical experience. This is why the GNFC has to get more active in this direction; I think that the Theater and Film University should share this responsibility with us. In 2008, we carried out a project involving 120 students, mainly in their second or third year. Several short movies were created, some of which were very successful in various film festivals: Tornike Bziava’s ‘The April Chill,’ Amiran Dolidze’s ‘The Trench,’ Giga Liklikadze’s ‘Unknown Soldier,’ and Vako Kirkitadze’s “September”. The students shot their movies on film… With this project, we found professionals

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erovnuli kinocentris mier gamocxadebul konkursebsa da saeqsperto komisiis wevrTa SerCevaSic axleburi midgomebia... gadavwyviteT, rom komisiis wevrebis SerCevis procesi SemTxveviTobisTvis migvendo. SevadgineT komisiis wevrTa gafarToebuli sia, avirideT interesTa konfliqti da wilisyris principiT SevarCieT konkursebisa da saeqsperto komisiis wevrebi. ra siaxleebs gegmavT prodiusingis mimarTulebiT? saqarTveloSi uamravi reJisori da ramdenime aqtiuri prodiuseria, rac vfiqrob, anomaliaa. prodiuseris instituts bevrad meti pasuxismgebloba unda davakisroT; dauSvebelia gamoucdeli prodiuseri srulmetraJian films Caudges saTaveSi. dafinansebisas prodiuseris avtoriteti da gamocdileba erT-erT gadamwyvet faqtorad unda iqces. proeqtma „kino skolaSi“ axlaxan `SemoqmedebiTi evropis~ granti moipova. rogoria Tqveni damokidebuleba da Sefaseba am proeqtisadmi... `kino skolaSi~ Zalian kargi proeqtia. mimaCnia, rom am konkretuli proeqtis ganxorcielebaSi aqtiurad unda CaerTos ganaTlebis saministroc. kinematografi, mxolod sanaxaoba ar aris, is literaturacaa, mxatvrobac, mecnierebac... am proeqts kinocentri kulturis saministros daxmarebiT axorcielebs, mcire finansuri TanamonawileobiT uwevs menejments. sasixaruloa, rom proeqtma `SemoqmedebiTi evripisgan~ moipova granti, romelsac seqtembridan miiRebs... `kino skolaSi~ unda gadarCes da vfiqrob, zogadad kinocentris roli kinoganaTlebaSi unda gaizardos. kinocentri 2011 wlidan beWdavs Jurnal „film prints“. rogori iqneba am Jurnalis bedi da ra formiT gaagrZelebs is arsebobas? pirvel rigSi unda aRiniSnos, rom „film printSi“ kritikas mwirad eTmoboda adgili. zogadad nebismier gamocemas formas da mimarTulebas redaqtori aZlevs, romelTa nomridan nomerSi cvlam Jurnali daazarala... mniSvnelovania, kinocentris masmediasTan urTierToba. unda davamyaroT kontaqti seriozul gamocemebTan, telearxebTan, beWdur da eleqtronul mediasTan... kritikosebs, kinomcodneebs, analitikosebs SesaZlebloba unda mivceT dabeWdon recenzia-Sefasebebi. Cven gvWirdeba „film printi“, partniori gamocemebi da gadacemebi. kritikis gareSe kino ver iarsebebs... dabolos aqve davamateb, rom unda aRvadginoT qarTuli kinos dRe, romelsac yovelwliurad 15 maiss aRvniSnavdiT.

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– directors, cameramen, screenwriters, sound engineers, gaffers, and others – who are now actively working in the Georgian movie industry. Today, together with newly acquired knowledge, these young people have the ambition to make “great movies”. You need to struggle to make a movie – it’s the case all around the globe. There is also a new approach to the selection of members of the Competition and Experts Commissions at the GNFC… We decided to let chance choose the members of the Commission. We established a broad list of possible candidates, avoided conflicts of interest, and selected the members of the Competition Commission and the Experts Commission according to a random draw principle. What innovations should we expect in the production field? In Georgia, we have countless directors and only a handful of active producers, which I think is an anomaly. We need to impose much more responsibilities for the training of producers; it is unacceptable to have inexperienced producers heading full-length feature projects. When financing a project, the professionalism and experience of the producer should become one of the decisive factors. The project ‘Cinema at School’ recently won a ‘Creative Europe’ grant. How would you assess this project? Cinema at School is a very good project and I think that the Ministry of Education should get actively involved in its implementation. Cinematography is not only a show, it is also literature, painting, science… The GNFC carries out this project with the help of the Ministry of Culture, which manages it thanks to a small financial contribution. I’m very glad that the project won a grant from Creative Europe, which it will receive from September. Cinema at School needs to persist, and I think that, in general, the role of the GNFC in film education should grow. Since 2011, the GNFC has been printing the magazine ‘Film Print.’ What will happen with this magazine, in what form will it continue its existence? Firstly, I have to note that there was barely any criticism in Film Print. In general, the managing editor is the one who gives the orientation of a publication, and changing the managing editor from one issue to the next has had a very negative effect on the magazine. We need to focus on the relation of the GNFC with the mass media. We have to reach large publishers, TV channels, printed and electronic media. Critics, film specialists, and cinema analysts should be given the opportunity to publish critiques and reviews. We need Film Print, partner publishers and TV shows. And without critique, movies wouldn’t exist… And finally, I would add that I believe we should reinstate Georgian Movie Day, which was once celebrated each year on May 15.


kino movida Cinema Has Arrived saqarTvelos 40 skolaSi dawyebulma proeqtma, `kino skolaSi~, `SemoqmedebiTi evropis~ granti moipova! albaT, subieqturni ar viqnebiT Tu vityviT, rom saqarTvelos kinematografiis erovnuli centris proeqti „kino skolaSi“, qarTul kinosivrceSi (da ara mxolod) bolo wlebis erT-erTi yvelaze mniSvnelovani wamowyebaa. regionis monoqronul yofaSi, faqtobrivad, araferi xdeba, axalgazrdebi TbilisSi, kinoTeatrSi siaruls an ar an ver axerxeben. raionul centrebSi municipaluri kinoTeatrebis Senobebi gasxvisebul-gauqmebulia da mozardTa umravlesobas filmi did ekranze saerTod ar unaxavs... swored am dros mivida kino maTTan da... yovelkvireulad dedaqalaqidan Casul `kinomisionerebs~ soflebSi moswavleebi SeZaxiliT - „kino movida“ egebebian.

THE PROJECT ‘CINEMA AT SCHOOL,’ WHICH STARTED IN 40 GEORGIAN SCHOOLS, HAS WON A “CREATIVE EUROPE” GRANT. IT WOULDN’T BE EXAGGERATING TO SAY THAT THE GEORGIAN NATIONAL FILM CENTER’S (GNFC) PROJECT ‘CINEMA AT SCHOOL’ HAS BEEN ONE OF THESE LAST YEARS’ MOST IMPORTANT INITIATIVES IN THE FIELD OF GEORGIAN CINEMA (AND NOT ONLY CINEMA). PRACTICALLY NOTHING HAPPENS IN THE MONOTONOUS EVERYDAY LIFE OF THE REGIONS, AND TBILISI’S YOUTH CAN’T AFFORD TO GO TO THE CINEMA, OR JUST DON’T. MUNICIPAL CINEMA BUILDINGS IN REGIONAL CENTERS ARE INOPERATIVE, AND THE MAJORITY OF TEENAGERS HAVE NEVER EVEN SEEN A MOVIE ON A BIG SCREEN… FORTUNATELY, CINEMA HAS COME TO THEM: EVERY WEEK, “CINEMA MISSIONARIES” FROM THE CAPITAL ARE GREETED BY PUPILS WITH THIS EXCLAMATION: “THE CINEMA HAS ARRIVED!”

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saqarTvelos kinematografiis erovnulma centrma 2014 wels sapilote proeqti „kino skolaSi“ 4 regionis 40 skolaSi daiwyo; Sedga 280 kinoCveneba da daeswro 3269 aTasi moswavle. Tavdapirvelad proeqtSi 16 kinospecialisti iyo CarTuli. erTi wlis Semdeg naTeli gaxda, rom regionSi gakveTilebis Semdeg filmebis Cvenebam da Semdgom diskusiam gaamarTla. 2015 wels „kino skolam“ bevrad masStaburi saxe miiRo da 60-ma `kinomisionerma~ saqarTvelos regionis 207 skola aiTvisa. gaimarTa 4518 kinoCveneba, romlebsac 46130 moswavle daeswro. kino `Cavida~: samcxe-javaxeTSi (orlovka, gorelovka, adigeni, aspinZa), raWa-leCxumSi (Rebi, Sovi, uwera), aWaraSi (xelvaCauri, gegeliZeebi), qvemo qarTlSi (bogvi, golTeTi, walka), imereTSi (xevi, axali sayulia, ubisa), kaxeTSi (yarajala, lagodexi), pankisSi (duisi, dumasturi, joyolo, birkiani), mcxeTa-mTianeTSi (yazbegi, sno, Jebota, TianeTi, werovani), guriaSi (ureki, koxnari, Sua farcxma, qvabRi), Sida qarTlSi (surami, zemo xvedureTi, tezri), samegreloSi (ganmuxuri, koki, anaklia). es arasruli CamonaTvalia... saqarTvelos kinematografiis erovnuli centris regionuli proeqtebis departamentis xelmZRvaneli kote ClaiZe: `proeqts safuZveli nana janeliZem Cauyara da misi damsaxurebaa, is rom „kino skolaSi~ Sedga. Tavidan gveSinoda kidec _ vfiqrobdiT, rom mozardebi ar an ver miiRebdnen im filmebs, romelTac vTavazobdiT. sabednierod, SiSi ar gamarTlda. bavSvebs ara marto kino, aramed is adamianebic

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The GNFC started the pilot project ‘Cinema at School’ in 2014, at 40 schools in four regions of Georgia. 280 film screenings were held, attended by 3,269 students. In the beginning, 16 cinema specialists participated in the project. After one year, it became clear that screening films in the regions and discussing them after regular classes was a huge success. In 2015, ‘Cinema at School’ reached a much bigger scale, with 60 “cinema missionaries” screening films in 207 schools in various regions of Georgia. In total, 4,518 films have been screened, attended by 46,130 students. Cinema has “arrived” in Samtskhe-Javakheti (Orlovka, Gorelovka, Adigeni, Aspindza), Racha-Lechkhumi (Ghebi, Shovi, Utsera), Achara (Khelvachauri, Gegelidzeebi), Kvemo Kartli (Bogvi, Golteti, Tsalka), Imereti (Khevi, Akhali Sakulia, Ubisa), Kakheti (Karadjala, Lagodekhi), Pankisi (Duisi, Dumasturi, Jokolo, Birkiani), Mtskheta-Mtianeti (Kazbegi, Sno, Jebota, Tianeti, Tserovani), Guria (Ureki, Kokhnari, Shua Partskhma, Kvabrghi), Shida Kartli (Surami, Zemo Khvedureti, Tezri), Samegrelo


moswonT vinc maTTan Cadis. `kinomisionerebi~, rogorc maT qalbatonma nanam Searqva, misias profesiulad asruleben. moswavleebisgan da maTi pedagogebisgan Zalian karg gamoxmaurebas viRebT da Tamamad SegviZlia vTqvaT _ proeqti Sedga da warmatebiT grZeldeba“. `kino skolaSi~ araformaluri ganaTlebis tipis proeqtia, romelic gakveTilebis Semdeg filmis Cvenebas da diskusias iTvaliswinebs. kulturul-saganmanaTleblo funqciis garda, mas socialuri datvirTvac aqvs. qarTul da ucxour kinoklasikas, Tu Tanamedrove kinosuraTebs, bavSvebi `kinomisionerebTan~ erTad uyureben da filmSi asaxul Temebsa da problemebs sakuTari realobis magaliTze ganixilaven, afaseben, kamaToben, damoukidebel azrovnebas eCvevian, sajarod azris gamoTqmas swavloben.... Carli Caplini, fransua triufo, roberto roselini, roberto benini, Jak tati, miSa kobaxiZe, Tengiz abulaZe,

(Ganmukhuri, Koki, Anaklia)… And this is not an exhaustive list… Kote Chlaidze, head of the GNFC’s Regional Projects Department: “This project was initiated by Nana Janelidze, thanks to whom ‘Cinema at School’ was established. At first, we were nervous – we thought that teenagers wouldn’t receive the movies we were presenting them favorably. Fortunately, it turned out very differently. The children liked not only the movies, but also the people who were visiting them in this context. The ‘cinema missionaries,’ as Nana dubbed them, work very professionally. We have very good feedback from the students and their professors, so we can proudly say that the project was implemented and is being carried out successfully.” ‘Cinema at School’ is an informal education project that involves the screening of a movie after regular classes and a subsequent discussion. Apart from a cultural and educational purpose, it also has a social function. After watching Georgian or foreign cinema classics and modern movies, children discuss and assess the themes and issues presented by the films in relation to their own reality,

which gets them used to critical thinking and public discourse… Charlie Chaplin, François Truffaut, Roberto Rossellini, Roberto Benigni, Jacques Tati, Misha Kobakhidze, Tengiz Abuladze, Otar Ioseliani, Quentin Tarantino, Tom Tykwer… This is an incomplete list of the directors whose films are screened on a weekly basis in the framework of ‘Cinema at School’. Teenagers watch the movies in various conditions: if the electricity cuts out, the screening continues on a laptop, sometimes the “screen” can be a two-colored wall, sometimes the classroom isn’t dark enough… The stories of ‘Cinema at School’ themselves would be good material for a documentary or even a feature film. It is worth noting that this year, schools from non-Georgian speaking villages are also participating in the project, and that in the Karadjala village of the Kakheti region, students decided to write a script and shoot a movie themselves… Statistics show that screenings and attendances are increasing significantly by the year – the highest

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oTar ioseliani, kventin tarantino, tom tikveri... es im reJisorTa arasruli CamonaTvalia, romelTa filmebi yovelkvireulad stumroben `kino skolis~ monawileebs. filmebs ki mozardebi gansxvavebul pirobebSi uyureben _ Tu deni iTiSeba, Cveneba personalur kompiuterSi grZeldeba, zogjer ekranad orfrad SeRebil kedels iyeneben, zogjer saklaso oTaxi sakmarisad ver bneldeba... „kino skolis“ istoriebi, albaT, calke masalaa dokumenturi an sulac mxatvruli filmisTvis. mniSvnelovania, rom wels proeqtSi araqarTulenovani soflis skolebic CaerTvnen da kaxeTSi, sofel yarajalaSi, moswavleebma scenaris Seqmna da filmis gadaReba Tavadve gadawyvites... statistika gviCvenebs, rom wlidan wlamde kinoCvenebis da daswrebis raodenobam sagrZnoblad imata; am mxriv yvelaze maRali maCvenebeli raWa-leCxumsa da zemo imereTSia. garda amisa, „kino skolaSi“ smenadaqveiTebul moswavleebs, iusticiis saministros danaSaulis prevenciis centris ganridebis programis bavSvebs da samxedro liceumis moswavleebs stumrobs. bunebrivi pirobebis gamo, Znelad misadgom dasaxlebebSi e.w. `sazafxulo kino skola~ moqmedebs. kote ClaiZe: `sazafxulo kino skoliT~ Zalian kargi

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numbers being in Racha-Lechkumi and Zemo Imereti. ‘Cinema at School’ also visits children with hearing impairment, children from the Diversion Program of the Ministry of Justice’s Center for Crime Prevention, and students of the Cadets Military Lyceum. Due to natural circumstances, a so-called ‘Summer Cinema School’ is arranged in locations that are difficult to access at other times of


Sedegi miviReT, rac maT mier gadaRebul filmebsac etyoba. raRa Tqma unda yvela Tanabari mxatvruli Rirebulebis ar aris, magram aq mTavari procesia _ bavSvebi da maTi mSoblebi, mTeli sofeli `SemoqmedebiT procesSia~ CarTuli~. kinomcodne da imavdroulad mxatvarma „kinomisionerma“ daTo simoniam mozardebs nanax filmze azris gamoTqma naxatis saSualebiT SesTavaza _ ase daiwyo kinoafiSebis Seqmna. xatavdnen _ Caplinis, triufos, tarantinos, roselinis filmebis posterebs. `produqcia~ kinomxatvrebma Seafases da gamarjvebulebi daajildoves. `kinomisionerTa~ azriT kino uamravi detalisgan Sedgeba da swored es mravalferovneba exmarebaT bavSvebTan urTierTobaSi. viRacas teqnikuri mxare ainteresebs, viRacas Sinaarsobrivi an fsiqologiuri... da amitom, Cvenebis Semdeg filmze saubari, ganxilva-kamaTi sainteresoa. rogorc zemoT vTqviT „kino skolaSi“ saqarTvelodan erT-erTi pirveli proeqtia, romelmac `SemoqmedebiTi evropis~ dafinanseba moipova.

evrokomisia kino ganaTlebis mimarTulebiT kvlevebs aqtiurad atarebs. maTi daskvniT skolaSi kinoganaTleba prioritetulad iTvleba. msgavsi tipis proeqtebSi, yvelaze efeqturi diskusia da analizia, vinaidan es yovelive mozardis cnobierebis ganviTarebaze axdens dadebiT gavlenas. `SemoqmedebiTi evropis~ aucilebeli moTxovnaa ipovo sami partniori qveyana da proeqti maTTan erTad ganaxorcielo. `kino skolaSi~ organizatorebma moiZies inglisuri organizacia _ Film Literacy Europe, romelsac `SemoqmedebiTi evropisgan~ granti 2014 wels hqonda miRebuli. britanelebi gaecnen Cvens proeqts, moewonaT da dainteresdnen. regionuli proeqtebis departamentis proeqtebis menejeri Tea gabiZaSvili: `SemoqmedebiTi evropis~ farglebSi proeqti daiwyeba 2016 wlis oqtomberSi da dasruldeba 2018 wlis ianvarSi. `SemoqmedebiTi evropa~

the year. Kote Chlaidze: “We had very good results with the ‘Summer Cinema School,’ which we can also see in the films that the students shot there. Of course, not all of them have the same artistic value, but the most important thing is the process itself, and that the children, their parents, the whole village, is involved in a creative process.” “Cinema missionary” Dato Simonia, a cinema specialist and painter, offered his students the chance to express their views about the films that he projects in drawings – and this is how the creation of film posters began. Children drew posters for the films of Chaplin, Truffaut, Tarantino, Rossellini… The drawings were assessed by set designers, and the authors of the best posters were given a reward. According to the “cinema missionaries,” a movie is made up of countless details, and this diversity helps them a lot in their relationship with children. Some of them are interested in the technical aspect of the film, others by the narrative or the psychological aspect… And, therefore, the discussions and debates following the screenings are always interesting. As we mentioned above, ‘Cinema at School’ is one of the first Georgian projects to have won a grant from ‘Creative Europe.’

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proeqts „kino skolaSi~ araerT siaxles pirdeba: Seiqmneba veb-gverdi da qarTul-ucxouri filmebis katalogi, asakobrivi kategoriebis mixedviT. TiToeul films daerTveba saswavlo masala, axsna imisa Tu rogor unda warmarTo diskusia. SesaZloa swored es gaxdes bavSvebisTvis damatebiTi stimuli da inspiracia. ingliseli partniorebi Camovlen saqarTveloSi da Cveni specialistebisTvis Caatareben treningebs. britanelebs Svidi aTasi filmisgan Semdgari katalogi aqvT, romelsac Cven qarTuli filmebiT SevuvsebT. es garkveulwilad qarTuli kinos popularizaciasac gulisxmobs. mniSvnelovania, rom ucxoeli partniorebi SegviZenen filmebis Cvenebis saavtoro uflebebs, rac Zalzed mniSvnelovania. Tumca, mTavari, albaT Tavad proeqtis monawileebis Sefasebebia; kiTxvaze, ra aris SenTvis „kino skolaSi~ _ maT ase gvipasuxes: `CemTvis `kino skolaSi~, pirvel rigSi filmis siyvarulia, masze msjeloba, ganxilva da sakuTari azris gamoxatva. aseve im detalebis danaxva da dafiqreba, rasac adre yuradRebas ar vaqcevdi. is aucileblad unda gagrZeldes CvenTanac da sxva maRalmTian soflebSi, raTa bavSvebma SevZloT imis swavla da gageba rac ase gvaklia~ (mariami, 16 wlis, mcxeTa-mTianeTi). `am proeqtma bevr rameze damafiqra da Semcvala~ (salome, 12 wlis, imereTi). bevri iseTi filmi vnaxe, romelsac verasdros vnaxavdi, araferi vicodi maT Sesaxeb~ (nika, 13 wlis, SidaqarTli). yvela filmi sainteresoa da ara aqvs mniSvneloba Zvelia Tu axali, mTavaria rogor vuyurebT da rogor gvixsnian maT maswavleblebi (nino, 15 wlis, pankisi).

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The European Commission has carried out many studies about cinema education, and they reported that cinema education in schools should be a priority. In such projects, the most effective part is the discussion and analysis, as they have a positive influence on the development of children’s awareness. A necessary condition to win a grant from ‘Creative Europe’ was to find three partner countries and carry out the project with them. The organizers of ‘Cinema at School’ found the English Organization ‘Film Literacy Europe,’ which had received a grant from ‘Creative Europe’ in 2014. The Britons got acquainted with the Georgian project, liked it, and expressed their interest. Tea Gabizashvili, manager of the Regional Projects Department at the GNFC: “The project in the framework of ‘Creative Europe’ will start in October 2016 and end in January 2018. ‘Creative Europe’ will offer many innovations for ‘Cinema at School:’ a webpage and a catalog of Georgian and foreign films will be created, in which the movies will be arranged according to age categories. Each film will be accompanied by learning material explaining how one should conduct the discussion, which may become an additional motivation and source of inspiration for children. Our English partners will visit Georgia and organize trainings for our cinema specialists. They have a catalog of 7000 films that we will enrich with Georgian movies. To some extent, this also means more popularity for Georgian cinema. Our foreign partners will cover the costs of the copyright of the movies, which is a great relief for us.” The most important thing is probably the reviews from the children participating in the project; to the question of what


`kino skolaSi~ CemTvis saSualebaa axlos gavicno is, rasac msurs davukavSiro Cemi cxovreba, nanaxi filmi mexmareba swavlaSi, urTierTobaSi da... siyvarulSic; CemTvis kino ar aris mxolod kino, is gacilebiT metia (Sorena, 14 wlis, qvemo-qarTli). „kino skolaSi“ grZelvadiani proeqtia, swori proeqti! saWiroa misi gagrZeleba, ganviTareba, rasac imeds gamovTqvamT, `SemoqmedebiTi evropis~ mier gacemuli granti erTiorad Seuwyobs xels. neno qavTaraZe

‘Cinema at School’ meant for them, they answered the following: “To me, ‘Cinema at School’ is first of all the love of movies, discussing, debating them and expressing one’s thoughts. Also, noticing details that I wouldn’t have noticed before, and thinking about them. It definitely needs to continue here, but also in other mountainous villages, so that we children can learn and understand other things than what we are taught in regular classes.” (Mariam, 16, Mtskheta-Mtianeti) “This project made me think about a lot of things and it has changed me.” (Salome, 12, Imereti) “I watched many movies that I would never have watched, I didn’t know anything about them.” (Nika, 13, Shida Kartli) “Every film is interesting and it doesn’t matter if they are old or new, the most important is how you watch them and how teachers explain them to us”. (Nino, 15, Pankisi) “To me, ‘Cinema at School’ is the opportunity to get to better know what I need in my own life – films I watch help me in studying, relationships… and in love, too. I think that cinema is much more than we think.” (Shorena, 14, Kvemo Kartli) ‘Cinema at School’ is a long-term project, and a great one, too! It needs to be continued and developed, and we hope that thanks to the grant provided by ‘Creative Europe,’ we will achieve both. Neno Kavtaradze

statiaSi gamoyenebulia moswavleebis: ana nozaZis, ani metrevelis, ekaterine burZeniZis, levan TediaSvilis, mariam kezevaZis, mariam manjaviZis, mariam rexviaSvilis, saba seTuriZis da salome saRiraSvilis Sesrulebuli kinoafiSebi. Film posters created by pupils Ana Nozadze, Ani Metreveli, Ekaterine Burdzenidze, Levan Tediashvili, Mariam Kezevadze, Mariam Manjavidze, Mariam Rekhviashvili, Saba Seturidze and Salome Saghirashvili were used in this article.

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qaravan art forumi 2016 Caravan Art Forum 2016 wels, maisSi quTaisi im sadgurad iqca, sadac `qaravan art forumi 2016“ - Tanamedrove xelovnebis festivali - SeCerda da oTxi dRiT daido bina. am xnis ganmavlobaSi qalaqis sagamofeno sivrceebsa Tu quCebSi warsuli awmyos Sexvda, tradicia - novacias, gadaikveTnen qalaqebi, sxvadasxva erovnebis adamianebi, Tanamedrove xelovnebis gansxvavebuli Janrebi da koncefciebi. „qaravan art forumi“, Tanamedrove xelovnebis festivali, 2002 wlidn sxvadasxva qalaqSi mogzaurobs. oTxi wlis ganmavlobaSi is TbilisSi imarTeboda, Semdeg geografia gaizarda da saerTaSoriso masStabi miiRo. 2016 wels quTaisis meriis organizebiTa da saqarTvelos kulturisa da ZeglTa dacvis saministros partniorobiT Tanamedrove xelovnebis festivalis gadakveTis adgilad quTaisi iqca. IN MAY THIS YEAR, KUTAISI TRANSFORMED INTO A STATION WHERE THE CONTEMPORARY ART FESTIVAL CARAVAN ART FORUM (CARAVANSARAÏ) 2016 TOOK A BREAK AND SETTLED FOR FOUR DAYS. DURING THIS TIME, IN KUTAISI’S STREETS AND EXHIBITION SPACES, THE PAST MET THE PRESENT, TRADITION MET INNOVATION, AND PEOPLE OF DIFFERENT ORIGINS, AND VARIOUS GENRES AND CONCEPTIONS OF CONTEMPORARY ART INTERMINGLED. THE CARAVAN ART FORUM IS A CONTEMPORARY ART FESTIVAL THAT HAS BEEN TRAVELING THROUGH VARIOUS TOWNS AND CITIES SINCE 2002. FOR FOUR YEARS, IT HAS BEEN TAKING PLACE REGULARLY IN TBILISI, THEN IT GOT BIGGER AND ACQUIRED AN INTERNATIONAL LEVEL. IN 2016, KUTAISI WAS THE CITY TO WELCOME THE ART FESTIVAL, WITH THE PARTNERSHIP OF THE GEORGIAN MINISTRY OF CULTURE AND MONUMENT PROTECTION AND KUTAISI’S CITY HALL.

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„qaravan art forumi“ quTaisSi mdidari programiT Camovida. Camoitana ramdenime gamofena, romelic sam sxvadasxva sagamofeno sivrceSi moewyo. gaimarTa ori konferencia, performansebi, masterklasi. yovelive amas SemouerTda proeqti Cross Over the World, romelic festivalis damasrulebel akordad iqca. festivalis quTaisSi gamarTvas, garda kulturuli motivisa, politikuri safuZvelic hqonda da decentralizaciis princips exmaureboda. `ar SeiZleba yvela RonisZieba mxolod dedaqalaqSi imarTebodes, quTaiss didi istoria aqvs, aq tradiciulad ganaTlebuli sazogadoeba cxovrobs da gansakuTrebuli wvlili Seaqvs qarTul kulturaSi. es argumenti sakmarisi aRmoCnda imisTvis, rom Tanamedrove xelovnebas, rogorc kulturis ganviTarebis Semadgenel nawils, quTaisis sivrce daTmoboda. es qalaqi Tavisi gamorCeuli atributikiTa da kulturuli cxovrebiT, unda Caeweros msoflio _ evropul Tanamedrove xelovnebis qselSi”, _ fiqrobs festivalis erT-erTi damfuZnebeli da organizatori, parizSi mcxovrebi xelovani Salva xaxanaSvili.

The Caravan Art Forum came to Kutaisi with a rich program, bringing a number of exhibitions that were then arranged in three different spaces. Two conferences, performances, and masterclasses were also held. In addition, the project ‘Cross over the World’ was incorporated into the festival to give it a final touch.

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periferiuli qalaqebis Tanamedrove kulturul dinebaSi CarTvis mniSvnelobaze miuTiTa saqarTvelos prezidentma giorgi margvelaSvilmac, romelmac festivali gaxsna _ `bunebrivi procesia, rom Tanamedrove xelovnebis festivali quTaisSi tardeba. es qalaqi aswleulebis ganmavlobaSi iyo qarTuli sulierebis, kulturisa da xelovnebis mTavari adgili. aqedan modioda is emocia, rac mniSvnelovani xdeboda mTeli qveynisTvis. mivesalmebi regionebis aseT xatovan SemoqmedebiT CarTvas erTian qarTul kulturul procesSi~. „xatovani SemoqmedebiTi procesi“ pirvelive dRidan daiwyo. „qaravanma“ quTaisSi mxatvrebTan erTad maTi qalaqebi „istumra“ _ megapolisebi, provinciuli qalaqebi, quCebi, ubnebi, prospeqtebi maTSi Sezrdili Tu gaucxoebuli adamianebi. qalaqebi mxatvrebsa da maT namuSevrebs „Camohyvnen“ safrangeTidan, saberZneTidan, litvidan, ruseTidan da a.S. urbanistuli peizaJebi mxatvrul kompoziciebSi gacocxldnen, aisaxnen adamianTa saxeebsa da figurebSi... anet turilos, pedro moralesis, egle ganda bogdanienesa da sxva artistebis mier Seqmnili namuSevrebis gacocxleba, damTvaliereblisTvis xedvis wertilis povniT daiwyo. es wertilebi daviT kakabaZis saxelobis saxviTi xelovnebis galereaSi, istoriul muzeumSi, sagamofeno darbazSi „varla“ da qalaqis istoriul ubanSi, „mon-pleziris“ teritoriaze, moiniSna. am sivrceebma TavianTi konteqsti Seqmnes. warsulisa da awmyos Serwymisa da gadakveTis adgilad iqcnen. klasikosebi Tanamedrove artistebs „Sexvdnen“ da erTmaneTisTvis bevri saTqmeli ipoves. „CvenTvis yovelTvis cxadi iyo, rom mxatvari da Semoqmedeba ver iarsebebs mis garSemo myofi konteqstis gareSe. Tavad konteqstis metnaklebad iolad gasagebi

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Aside from cultural motives, the decision to hold the festival in Kutaisi had political reasons – namely the principle of decentralization. “You cannot hold every event in the capital city; Kutaisi has a long history, its society has always been a very educated one, and it contributes greatly to Georgian culture. This argument was all that the organizers needed to hear and so Kutaisi’s streets and spaces were entrusted with holding the festival as part of cultural development. With its particular attributes and cultural life, this city should be included in Europe and the world’s contemporary art network,” – says Paris-based Shalva Khakhanashvili, one of the founders and organizers of the festival. The President of Georgia, Giorgi Margvelashvili, launched the festival by insisting on the importance of involving peripheral cities in the stream of contemporary culture: “The fact that this contemporary art festival is taking place in Kutaisi is a natural process. For centuries, this city was the principal site for the spiritual, cultural, and artistic life of Georgia. National viewpoints and emotions used to originate precisely from here. I would like to welcome such artistic, creative involvement of our regions in the cultural processes of our country.” This “artistic, creative involvement” started from the very first day of the festival. Together with the artists, Caravan Art Forum “invited” their towns in Kutaisi – megalopolises, provincial towns, streets, neighborhoods, avenues, and people who grew up or had passed through there. The cities “followed” their artists and their artworks from France, Greece, Lithuania, Russia, and more. Urban landscapes gained a new life in art compositions, and were displayed on people’s faces and silhouettes… The “revival” of works made by Annette Turrillo, Pedro Morales, Egle Ganda Bogdaniene and other artists began with the audience searching for vantage points. These points were marked in the David Kakabadze Fine Art Gallery, the History Museum, exhibition space Varla and in the city’s old town, on the territory of the Mon-plaisir building. These locations have created their own context – becoming crossroads for the unification and intersection points of past and present. Classicists “met” contemporary artists, and they had many things to discuss.


saSualebaa qalaqis wiaRi. yoveli mxatvari aris nawili im qalaqisa, sadac cxovrobs“, _ aRniSna forumis monawile Apollonia evropuli mxatvruli programebis direqtorma dimitri konstantinidisma.

“To us, the fact that artists and creativity cannot exist without the context that surrounds them was always a given. The heart of the city is a way to understand this context more or less easily. Each artist is part of the city where they reside,” – said Dimitri Konstantinidis, participant of the Forum and director of the association Apollonia – European Art Exchanges. The festival gave birth to an alternative rhythm, agenda, and new tendencies, which first manifested in a full and clear acceptance of the present. Yet before this stage of acknowledgement, some of the audience experienced a kind of “cultural shock.” Indeed, the adaptation of contemporary art in this academic environment surprised many. But the festival’s initiators and organizers do not consider this cultural shock to be an unusual phenomenon. “We’re not surprised the audience were shocked, because the first large exhibition we arranged in Tbilisi also shocked many people. The current tendencies in contemporary art as well as new technologies have astounded the audience, but this is precisely what we wanted to show them. Tradition is all well and good, but

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festivalma sxva ritmi da dRis wesrigi, sxva tendencia gaaCina, rac, pirvel rigSi, awmyos mTeli sicxadiT miRebaSi gamoixata. Tumca, sanam gaCnda mimRebloba manamde iyo erTgvari kulturuli Soki, romelic mnaxvelTa nawilma miiRo. am akademiur garemosTan adaptirebulma Tanamedrove xelovnebam gaocebis sababi Seqmna. Tumca, festivalis iniciatorebi da organizatorebi Soks uCveulo movlenad ar miiCneven. „Soki gasakviri ar aris, imitom rom TbilisSic, Tavis droze, pirvelma didma gamofenam damTvalierebelSi Soki gamoiwvia. Contemporary art-is Tanamedrove tendenciebma, sxva teqnologiebma gaaoca mnaxveli, magram Cven gvindoda, gveCvenebina swored es axali. tradiciuli yvelaferi Zalian kargia, magram siaxlis gacnoba, xelovnebaSi dRevandelobis SegrZneba umniSvnelovanesia“, _ aRniSna „qaravansarais“ erT-erTma damfuZnebelma nino metrevelma. festivalis meore dRes rusma artistma katia kandorma dRevandeli dRis miReba da mocemuli momentiT tkboba performansiT „axla da am wuTSi“ gamoxata. `Cemi xelovnebis koncefcia aris siyvarulis, sixarulisa da bednierebis propaganda. performansis procesSi me vgulisxmob da warmovadgen imas, rom cxovreba midis, grZeldeba da

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getting to know new things and feeling contemporaneity in art is of utmost importance,” – Nino Metreveli, one of Caravansaraï’s founders, told us. On the second day of the festival, Russian artist Katia Candor expressed the acceptation of the present and appreciation of the moment with her performance ‘Now, in this Minute’. “My conception of art is that it’s a propaganda of love, joy and happiness. In performances, I mean and represent the fact that life goes by, flows, and that nothing is permanent. One should not lock oneself in a cycle of what one liked or disliked. You have to be here and now, in this precise moment, and try to be happy in it,” – she says. French and Georgian street artists presented their own conceptions of happiness publicly. For this, they transferred their thoughts of the interior of the building onto the walls themselves, decorating two walls in Kutaisi. French artists Vinie Graffiti & Alex Perret, and Moscow-based Zura Arabidze, left their marks on the walls of the territory around the so-called “Mon-plaisir” through the use of a girl character and a message in the form of a declaration of love. “I always use this character, but I chose particular colors and tonalities for Kutaisi. I created her several years ago, and she follows me wherever I go. It’s the first time she’s been to Kutaisi,” – Vinie Graffiti told us.


araferia mudmivi. ar unda Caiciklo imaSi rac Zalian mogewona da an ar mogewona. unda iyo aq da axla, am mocemul momentSi da ecado iyo bednieri“, _ gviTxra man. bednierebis sakuTari koncefcia sajarod warmoadgines strit-artis frangma da qarTvelma avtorebma. saamisod maT TavianTi naazrevi kedlebis wiaRidan uSualod kedlebze gadmoitanes. artistebma quTaisSi ori kedeli moxates. frangebma vini grafitim, aleqs perem da moskovelma zura arabiZem e.w. `mon-pleziris“ mimdebare kedlebze TavianTi kvali datoves personaJi gogonas saxiT da saTqmeliT, romelic siyvarulis axsnaSi gamoixata. „yovelTvis am personaJs viyeneb, magram quTaisisTvis specialurad SevarCie ferebi da tonebi. es is personaJia, romelic ramdenime wlis win Sevqmeni da is damyveba yvelgan sadac unda wavide. personaJi quTaisSi samogzaurod pirvelad Camoviyvane“, _ aRniSna vini grafitim. pirvelad Camovida quTaisSi frangi mxatvari anri maWavarianic. igi istoriul samSobloSi dabrunda, rogorc art-forumis monawile. 1924 wlis sabWoTa okupantebis winaaRmdeg ajanyebis monawilis eristo maWavarianis STamomavals quTaisTan gaucxoeba ar ugrZvnia. „quTaisi gasaocari qalaqia. aq TiTqos saxlSi

It was also the first time in Georgia for French painter Henri Matchavariani, who returned to his historic homeland as a participant in the Caravan Art Forum. A descendant of Eristo Matchavariani, who took part in the 1924 uprising against soviet occupants, he didn’t feel like a stranger in Kutaisi. “Kutaisi is a wonderful city. I feel at home here. I feel I know it, despite the fact that it’s a new city for me. It must

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var. TiTqos yvelaferi vici. miuxedavad imisa, rom CemTvis axali qalaqia. man saxe icvala, sxva cxovrebaa, magram me amas viReb, rogorc Cemsas“, _ aRniSna 70 wlis mxatvarma. momavlis xedvebsa da warsulis gamocdilebis gaziarebas, gacnobas da TanamSromlobis SesaZleblobebis Ziebas daeTmo konferenciebi; maTSi monawile momxseneblebma _ salonikis Tanamedrove xelovnebis saxelmwifo muzeumis generalurma direqtorma maria cancanoRlum da anatoli zverevis centris direqtorma aleqsei sosnam TavianTi muzeumebis saqmianobaze isaubres. gaixsenes Tanamedrove xelovnebis, kerZod, rusuli avangardis yvelaze didi koleqcioneri george kostaki da mxatvari anatoli zverevi. adamianebi, romelTac TavianTi epoqa yvelaze ukeT SeigrZnes, ufro metic Seqmnes. drois, sivrcis, samyaros SegrZneba mogzaurobiT iwyeba. imaves iziareben forumis monawileebi. „Cveni saqmianobis arsi mdgomareobs imaSi, rom Cven mxatvrebs varCevT ara internetiTa da katalogiT, aramed mivemgzavrebiT qveynebsa da qalaqebSi, romlebic xvdebian Cveni kvlevis zonaSi, imitom, rom ar arsebobs ukeTesi SesaZlebloba da ukeTesi meTodi SeigrZno im qveynis kulturuli

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have changed a lot, it’s a new life now, but I feel I’m still a part of it,” – the 70-year-old painter said. Conferences were held on the subjects of discovering and sharing visions of the future and experiences of the past, as well as on possible ways of collaboration. Maria Tsantsanoglou, director of the Thessaloniki State Museum of Contemporary Art, and Alexey Sosna, founding director of the Anatoly Zverev Center of Contemporary Art, discussed their respective museums’ recent activities. They talked about George Costakis, the greatest collector of modern Russian avant-garde, and about the artist Anatoly Zverev, two individuals who felt their epoch very intensely, and who were therefore prolific in terms of creation. The perception of time, space, and our world in general starts with traveling, and all the participants of the Forum agree with that. “The essence of our endeavor lies in the fact that we don’t choose artists from the Internet or catalogues, but we travel through countries and cities involved in the scope of our research, because there is no better method to feel local cultural life than to visit the place itself and meet local artists and critics, taste authentic cuisine, and experience


cxovreba, garda imisa, rom Caxvide, Sexvde mxatvrebs, kritikosebs, gemo gausinjo adgilobriv samzareulos, Seexo adgilobriv tradiciebs, warsulsa da awmyos“, _ miaCnia dimitri konstantinidiss. „Sexebis da gadakveTis“ ideaze aewyo proeqti Cross Over the World _ mogzauroba msoflio musikis samyaroSi. igi niu iorkSi daiwyo da beiruTis gavliT quTaisSi gagrZelda. saqarTvelos erovnuli simfoniuri orkestris diriJoris nikoloz raWvelisa da saopero Semsruleblis anita raWveliSvilis proeqtis Cross Over the World-is farglebSi momzadebuli koncerti festivalis meoTxe, damasrulebel dRes, quTaisis lado mesxiSvilis TeatrSi gaimarTa. qalaqebis, Janrebis, adamianuri vnebebis Sexeba ukve musikaSi ganxorcielda. qaravanma bgerebis samyaroc gadakveTa da mogzauroba gaagrZela. Tan gaiyola Tavisi wili quTaisi. romelic festivalis monawile romelime artistis xazSi, ferSi, bgeraSi aisaxeba, raRac formiT msoflio kulturis didi palitris nawili gaxdeba. eka kuxalaSvili

the traditions, the past and the present while there,” – Dimitri Konstantinidis explains. The project Cross over the World – a journey into the realm of world music, was based on the idea of connection and crossing. It started in New-York and is continuing in Kutaisi, after passing through Beirut. In the context of the project Cross over the World, Nikoloz Rachveli, Principal Conductor of the Georgian National Symphony Orchestra, and opera soloist Anita Rachvelishvili, performed the closing concert of the festival on its fourth and final day in Kutaisi’s Lado Meskhishvili Theater. The connection of cities, genres, and human passions were represented through music – Caravan crossed the world of sounds, too, and continued on its journey. It took a part of Kutaisi on its way, and others will see it in the vision, color, or sound of an artist participating in the festival somewhere else. And in this way, Kutaisi will become part of the large palette that is world culture. Eka Kukhalashvili

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saqarTveloSi saojaxo Tojinuri Teatrebis istoriis Sesaxeb araferi viciT... SesaZloa, evropuli tradiciis gavleniT XIX saukunis qarTul salonur yofaSi aseT Teatrebs earseba kidec. arc is viciT, pirvelad rodis gaCdnen CvenTan Zafebze gamobmuli patara moZravi Tojinebi - marionetebi. maTi istoria dRes ukve oTx aTaswleuls iTvlis - egvipturi da antikuri kulturebidan, qristianuli kulturis gavliT vidre dRevandelobamde. `marionetis~ etimologias, erTi versiiT RvTismSobel mariamis saxels ukavSireben, Tumca sxva versiiT is italieli ostatis, marionis saxelidan modis. SedarebiT axalgazrdaa marionetebis opera XVIII saukuneSi jer kidev patara mocarts itacebda misi cqera. dRes, mocartis mSobliur qalaq zalcburgSi, ukve saukuneze metia legendad qceul marionetebis TeatrSi misi operebis sruli versiebi idgmeba. CvenTan, saojaxo saopero dadgmebs axlo warsulSi, gasuli saukunis 70-ian wlebSi cnobili mecnier-biologis, mecnierebaTa akademiis wevr-korespondentis, givi TumaniSvilis ojaxSi Caeyara safuZveli, rodesac Zveli saSinao Teatris tradicia aRadgines da marionetebiT warmodgenebi dadges. Tumca, TumaniSvilebis ojaxSi es ar iyo pirveli Teatri...

WE KNOW NOTHING ABOUT THE HISTORY OF FAMILIAL PUPPET THEATERS IN GEORGIA… THEY MAY EVEN HAVE EXISTED IN THE 19TH CENTURY IN GEORGIA’S SALONS, WHICH WERE UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF EUROPEAN TRADITIONS. WE DON’T EVEN KNOW WHEN THE FIRST MARIONETTES, OR LITTLE PUPPETS HANGING ON STRINGS, APPEARED IN OUR COUNTRY. THEIR HISTORY ALREADY COUNTS MORE THAN 4000 YEARS – COMING FROM EGYPTIAN AND ANTIQUE CULTURES AND ARRIVING TO THIS VERY DAY THROUGH CHRISTIAN CULTURE. ONE OF THE VERSIONS FOR THE ETYMOLOGY OF THE WORD “MARIONETTE” IS CONNECTED TO THE VIRGIN MARY, THOUGH ANOTHER VERSION STATES THAT IT COMES FROM THE NAME OF MARIONI, AN ITALIAN MASTER. MARIONETTE OPERAS ARE RELATIVELY NEW – YOUNG MOZART LIKED WATCHING THEM BACK IN THE 18TH CENTURY. TODAY, FULL VERSIONS OF HIS OPERAS ARE STAGED IN THE LEGENDARY MARIONETTE THEATER OF SALZBURG, HIS CITY OF ORIGIN. HERE IN GEORGIA, FAMILIAL OPERA PERFORMANCES WERE ESTABLISHED MORE RECENTLY, IN THE 1970S, IN THE FAMILY OF RENOWNED SCIENTIST AND BIOLOGIST GIVI TUMANISHVILI, WHEN THEY REINTRODUCED THE OLD TRADITION OF HOME THEATERS AND BEGAN ARRANGING MARIONETTE PERFORMANCES. BUT THIS WASN’T THE FIRST THEATER IN THE TUMANISHVILI FAMILY…

mogviTxroben dimitri da Teimuraz TumaniSvilebi Dimitri and Teimuraz Tumanishvili share their story

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pirveli `Teatris~ istoria Cven ar gvaxsovs, es albaT 1933 an 34 weli iyo... gadmocemiT viciT, rom Cvenma papam, dimitri TumaniSvilma, SvilebTan erTad `daaarsa~ saojaxo Tojinebis Teatri, sadac dgamdnen da TamaSobdnen zRaprebs. maSin operas verc dadgamdnen, radgan firsakravi da Canawerebi arc arsebobda. erT-erTi pirveli speqtakli `aladinis lampari~ iyo. samwuxarod im Tojina-personaJebs dRemde ar mouRweviaT... TojinebSi marionetebs gulisxmobT? dimitri TumaniSvili: es muyaosgan gamoWrili brtyeli Tojinebi yofila, romlebsac CxirebiT aTamaSebdnen. marionetebi mogvianebiT, ukve CvenTvis gaCnda. pirveli speqtakli, romelic mamam CvenTvis dadga `lurjwveras zRapari~ iyo. is cocxlad sruldeboda da masSi `msaxiobebi~ Tavadve aTamaSebdnen da axmovanebdnen personaJebs. ramdenime wlis Semdeg ukve gaCnda teqstis audioCanaweri, ramac SesaZlebloba mogvca, gmiri eTamaSebina erTs da gaexmovanebina meores. repertuari gaxsovT? Teimuraz TumaniSvili: gvaxsovs. iyo qarTuli da rusuli warmodgenebi... maT Soris ori literaturuli teqsti _ Cukovskis `barmalei~ da iaponuri piesa `weros nakrteni~. danarCeni _ `lurjwveras zRapari~, `mogzauroba mTvareze~, `tutanxamoni~, `mefis asuli da muxudos marcvali~ (romelic Zalian komikuri da ironiuli gamovida) mamam dawera. ase grZeldeboda Svidi wlis ganmavlobaSi. Semdeg, roca wamovizardeT, albaT `Teatrisadmi~ interesi davkargeT, gavcivdiT... yovel SemTxvevaSi, bolos davdgiT `iaponuri zRapari~ da Semdeg, axali Canafiqrebis miuxedavad, es yovelive Sewyda. d.T. 1973 wels, rogorc CanawerSi amovikiTxeT, Sin gvisaubria miviwyebuli saqmis aRdgenaze. imisTvis, rom `TeatrisTvis~ SegveZina garTobaze meti mniSvneloba, gadagviwyvetia _ Tojinebis daxmarebiT dagvedga da gagvecocxlebina is operebi, romlebic im dros Cvens saopero scenaze ar idgmeboda... mama fiqrobda, rom 60-iani wlebis dasawyisidan CvenSi sazogadoebam funqcia dakarga, gaqra _ rom arsebobs eri da sazogadoeba ara! mas hqonda aseTi Teoria (mgoni sworic) _ erT adamians `gazafxulis moyvana ar SeuZlia~, amitom saWiroa Seiqmnas patara `sakristalizacio

“We don’t remember the story of the first family theater, perhaps it was the year 1933 or 1934… We were told that together with his sons, our grandfather Dimitri Tumanishvili “founded” the familial marionette theater because gramophones and records were hard to find back then. One of the first shows was ‘Aladdin and the Magic Lamp.’ Unfortunately, the puppets from those times have not survived… By puppets, you mean marionettes? Dimitri Tumanishvili: These were flat cardboard puppets moved by wooden sticks. Father made marionettes later, specifically for our entertainment. The first show my father arranged for us was ‘The Tale of Bluebeard’. It was performed live, and the “actors” were both moving the characters and doing their voices. After a few years, audio recordings appeared, which made it possible to assign those tasks to two separate individuals. Do you remember the repertoire? Teimuraz Tumanishvili: Yes, we do. There were Georgian and Russian plays, including two literary texts – Chukovsky’s ‘Barmaley’ and the Japanese play ‘Twilight Crane’. The rest – ‘The Tale of Bluebeard’, ‘Voyage to the Moon’, ‘Tutankhamon’, ‘Princess and the Chickpea’ (which turned out very comical) were written by father. This went on for seven years. Then, when we got older, we probably lost interest in our “theater”, we grew a little distant from it… In any case, after staging ‘Japanese Tale’, despite new ideas, everything stopped. D.T. In 1973, as we read in our notes, we had a discussion at home about giving a new life to our neglected tradition. To offer more entertainment at our “theater”, we decided to use marionettes in order to revive operas that were not performed in Georgia anymore… Father thought that since the 1960s, our society had lost its function, that it had disappeared – that we were a nation without a society! He had the following theory (and I think he was right

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centrebi~, romelTa garSemoc individebi gaerTiandebodnen. imedovnebda, rom es wre gafarTovdeboda da did kristalad gadaiqceoda. samwuxarod, am Teoriam is Sedegi, rasac vnatrobdiT ar an ver moitana, Tumca gamoCndnen adamianebi, romlebic miuxedavad samsaxurisa, daRlilobisa da sxva safiqral-sazrunavisa `TeatrSi~ modiodnen da CvenTan erTad speqtaklebze muSaobdnen. es im realobaSi garkveuli winaaRmdegobis formac iyo. Cven ar viyaviT disidentebi, Tumca vfiqrobdiT rom am saqmiT, kulturuli Semoqmedebis SenarCunebiT, mcirericxovan mayurebelTan erTad, garkveul sikeTes, sulier sazrdos movipovebdiT. T.T. daviwyeT 1975 wels. mosamzadebeli periodi ar iyo martivi, unda mogveZebna opera, romelic TojinebisTvis Sesaferisi iqneboda. vTqvaT, vagners TojiniT ver dadgam, patara marionetis piris aparatis amoZraveba rTulia da amitom iluzias imisa, rom is mReris, ver Seqmni. arc speqtaklis xangrZlivoba unda yofiliyo Zalian didi, radgan msaxiobebis TejirTan moxrilad dgomisTvis ori saaTi absoluturi zRvaria da arc Zalian tragikuli _ uxerxulia moiyvano mayurebeli Tojinebis sayureblad da Sin atirebuli gauSva. d.T. garda amisa, speqtaklSi bevri moqmedi piri ar unda yofiliyo, radgan `msaxiobebi~ scenis ukan ver daeteodnen. problema iyo Canawerebis mopovebac, maSin sxva dro iyo da kargi Canaweri rTulad iSoveboda. maxsovs, mamam miagno koleqcioners, romelsac ucxoeTidan Camohqodna firfitebi, maT Soris operebic. swored is gvaZlevda vinilis diskebs, romlebsac Cven firze viwerdiT. TviTon nawarmoebi raime alegoriulobis niSniT xom ar irCeoda? d.T. operis dadgmisas _ ara, es iyo wminda esTetika. ra Tqma unda, SerCevaSi garkveuli logikac ido, aSkara revoluciur-memarcxene ideologiuri Tema TeatrSi ver moxvdeboda, Cven es ar mogvwonda. Tumca, Cveni bavSvobis speqtaklebSi iyo raRac miniSnebebi, garkveuli alegoria, Tundac `barmaleiSi~...

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about this): one person “cannot bring the spring by oneself”, so it is necessary to create small “crystallization centers” through which individuals will be able to unite. He hoped that those circles would broaden and transform into one large “crystal”. Unfortunately, this theory didn’t or couldn’t bring the results we were expecting, though some people started coming to our “theater” and working with us on our plays regardless of their work, tiredness, and personal issues. At that time, this also represented a form of resistance. We were not dissidents, but we thought that with this, the preservation of cultural activity, together with our small audience, we were sowing something good and finding spiritual growth. T.T. We started in 1975. The preparation period wasn’t easy, we had to find an opera that would be suitable for our marionettes. For instance, you cannot adapt Wagner with marionettes; it is difficult to move the mouths of the small puppets, so you cannot create the illusion that they are singing. Also, the duration of the play couldn’t be very long, because standing near the screen for two hours is the absolute maximum for the puppeteers, and the show shouldn’t have been very tragic either, because it is embarrassing to bring someone to a marionette theater and to see them leave in tears. D.T. In addition to that, there couldn’t be many characters in the show because of the lack of space for the puppeteers behind the stage. Finding recordings was also a problem – it was another time back then, recordings of good quality were very scarce. I remember that father found a collector who used to import vinyl discs from abroad, including some operas. He is the one who provided us with recordings which we would then transfer onto film. Were the pieces chosen according to allegoric meanings? D.T. Not while staging opera plays – it was all about aesthetics. Naturally, there was some logic in our selection, we wouldn’t choose any clear revolutionary leftist ideological themes in our theater, as we were opposed to it. But one could find some allegories in our childhood spectacles, for instance in ‘Barmaley’… How much time did it usually take you to prepare a spectacle? T.T. We worked on each show for a prolonged period of time. We were preparing Carl Orff’s


ra dro sWirdeboda speqtaklis momzadebas? T.T. TiToeul speqtaklze xangrZlivad vmuSaobdiT. karl orfis operis Die Klüge (Zmebi grimebis zRapris `glexis gonieri qaliSvilis~ mixedviT) momzadebas sam weliwadze meti movandomeT. garda amisa, Cveni saxli bevr adamians ver itevda, amitom yoveli speqtakli aTjer mainc unda gveTamaSa raTa mayureblis interesi dagvekmayofilebina. gvqonia `gastrolic~, gasvliTi warmodgena Cveni megobris did sardafSi. rogor keTdeboda Tojinebi da ra masalisgan? T.T. Tojinebi keTdeboda sxvadasxva masalisgan _ iyo plastilini, romelic SeRebvis mere magrdeboda, tani ZiriTadad xisa iyo, kidurebi muyaosi da Tavebi xan penoplastis, xanac papiemaSesi. Tojinebs yvela vakeTebdiT. specialur literaturaSi vpoulobdiT da vswavlobdiT maTi amoZravebis meTodebs, Tumca marionetebis `gacocxlebis~ principi mainc erTia. Tu hyavdaT Tojinebs prototipebi axloblebSi? d.T. ara... Tumca, isini xandaxan mainc emsgavsebodnen Cvens axloblebs. magaliTad, `florinas sizmris~ urCxuli Zalin hgavda erT Cvens megobars... `Teatrs~ hqonda scena? T.T. diax, Tavidan iyo scena Tavisi portaliT, ori fardiT da ganaTebis sistemiT, romelic pultiT imarTeboda. is daamzades fizikis institutis axalgazrda TanamSromlebma, romlebic Tavadac monawileobdnen warmodgenebSi. Tumca ki, scenam Semdeg sakmao cvlilebebi ganicada da zomaSic gaizarda, da Tu Tavidan msaxiobebi skamebze Semdgarni TamaSobdnen, SemdgomSi ukve specialuri magidebi gvqonda scenisa da msaxiobebisTvis. mxatvari Tu hyavda speqtaklebs? d.T. Tavidan mxatvari mama iyo, Semdega mas nino yanCeli da levan WoRoSvili exmarebodnen. levans saocari pasuxismgeblobis grZnoba hqonda, movidoda, romelime Tojinas SeRebavda, saxes dauseravda, da ityoda rogori kostumi SeekeraT.

opera ‘Die Klüge’ (The Wise Woman) for more than three years. Apart from that, our house couldn’t accommodate many people, so each show had to be performed at least ten times in order to satisfy the interest of our audience. We also had a “tour” – a show in the large cellar of one of our friends. How did you make your marionettes, and with which materials? T.T. The marionettes were made out of various materials – there was plasticine, which we used to add after the painting process; the body was mainly of wood, the limbs of cardboard, and the heads either polystyrene or papier-mâché. We all created them together. We found and learned the methods of moving them in specialized literature, but the principle of “giving them life” has always remained the same. Did the inspiration for your marionettes come from some of your friends? D.T. No… Although they would sometimes resemble people we knew. For instance, the monster in ‘Florina’s Dream’ looked very much like one of our friends… Did your “theater” have a stage? T.T. Yes, it did. At first, there was a stage with two curtains and a lighting system that was controlled by a remote panel. It was prepared by young students from the Faculty of Physics, and they took part in some of our performances, too. And did you have a set designer? D.T. At first, father acted as the set designer, then he was assisted by Nino Kancheli and Levan Choghoshvili. Levan felt very responsible: whenever he came, he would paint a marionette, carve its face, and say what its costume should look like. Did your style change over time? D.T. It changed from one performance to the other, depending on the set designer who was working on it. Naturally, nobody would have rendered Purcell’s ‘Dido and Aeneas’ as Levan did – with very expressive, deformed faces. The style was also determined by the music, for example, Mozart’s operas would look more like “porcelain”… Can artistry be conveyed through marionettes? T.T. That’s a very interesting subject – how the “actors” become their characters, live and move with them. By the way, we did think about other kinds of puppets, but we agreed on the fact that marionettes were the best solution, probably because you can see them in full and also move all their limbs.

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Tu icvleboda ama Tu im speqtaklis stili? d.T. icvleboda speqtaklidan speqtaklamde, gamomdinare mxatvridan, romelic mas akeTebda. bunebrivia, perselis `didonas~ sxva ise ar gaakeTebda, rogorc levanma gaakeTa _ eqspresiuli da deformirebuli saxeebiT. ra Tqma unda, stils gansazRvravda musikac, magaliTad, mocartisa ufro `faifurs~ waagavda... Tu SeiZleba artistuloba iyos gamoxatuli TojinebTan? T.T. es Zalian sainteresoa, Tu rogor gadadian „msaxiobebi“ perosnaJebSi, maTTan erTad cocxloben da moZraoben. sxvaTa Soris, Tojinebis sxva formebzec gvifiqria, magram ratomRac CavTvaleT, rom marioneti saukeTeso iqneboda, albaT imitom, rom is mTliand Cans da kidurebsac amoZravebs.

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Did you ever have marionettes that you would use in two separate plays? D.T. No, they are characters, not actors. On the contrary, we sometimes had several marionettes for one actor in some plays – depending on their costumes. And what about the audience..? T.T. They were mainly our friends and acquaintances, and there were also small children and elderly people attending. Nobody could surprise Soliko Virsaladze with theater, but he was sitting and watching so attentively that you could have thought it was the first time he was near a stage. There is an episode in Gogi LevashovTumanishvili’s film ‘It Was Snowing on Winter Gardens’ where one can see our performance and its audience. How did your uncle Mikheil Tumanishvili see your “theater”? D.T. The reaction of our uncle was very interesting but also unexplainable to us. Despite the fact that anything that wasn’t professional was unacceptable for him, our


Tu iyvnen Tojinebi, romlebic speqtaklidan speqtaklSi gadadiodnen? d.T. ara, isini personaJebi arian da ara msaxiobebi. piriqiT, ama Tu im speqtaklSi erTi personaJis ramdenime Tojinac SeiZleba yofiliyo _ imis mixedviT, Tu ra ecva. mayureblebi... T.T. es iyo Cveni sanacnobo wre, modiodnen patara bavSvebi da asakovani adamianebic. soliko virsalaZes gaakvirvebdi TeatriT? magram ise ijda da ucqerda, gegonebodaT pirvelad moxvda scenasTan, operaSi. gogi levaSovTumaniSvilis filmSi `aTovda zamTris baRebs~ aris epizodi, sadac Cveni speqtaklic Cans da misi mayurebelic. ra damokidebuleba hqonda `Teatris~ mimarT biZaTqvens, mixeil TumaniSvils? d.T. biZaCvenis, mixeil TumaniSvilis, reaqcia CvenTvis Zalian saintereso da auxsneli iyo. miuxedavad imisa, rom mas yovelive araprofesiuli miuRebelad miaCnda, Cveni `TamaSi~ ar aRizianebda. erT-erT ukanasknel speqtakls, perselis `didona da eneass~, tragikuli dasasruli hqonda da Tan sul raRac 40 wuTi grZeldeboda; gadavwviteT, meore ganyofileba ravelis sabaleto siuitiT `florinas sizmriT~ gagvegrZelebina. Cven baletis libretos sagangebod ar gavecaniT da Sinaarsi saTauridan gamomdinare, Tavad movugoneT. warmodgenas ar hqonda teqsti, scenaze Cndebodnen nair-nairi arsebebi, sasacilo urCxuli, xtodnen burTebi, xolo, mTavari personaJi _ balerina asociaciiT cekvavda. swored am speqtaklis Semdeg SevTavazeT biZaCvens, CarTuliyo Cveni `Teatris~ cxovrebaSi da daedga rame. man gvipasuxa _ ratomac ara _ Tumca, speqtaklis dadgma ar isurva, radgan fiqrobda, rom reJisura mis gareSec gakeTdeboda, man mxatvroba moindoma... magram, es ukve 80-iani wlebis bolo iyo da uSuqo da gaciebul qalaqSi veraviTari Tojinuri Teatri iarsebebda. rodis iTamaSeT bolo speqtakli? T.T. 1987 wels, filmisTvis `aTovda zamTris baRebs~. Semdeg, 1999 wels, pirvelma arxma moindoma Cveni `Teatrisa~ da warmodgenis, mocartis `seralidan motacebis~ filmad gadaReba; gadaiRes kidec srulad, magram filmSi mxolod fragmentebi moxvda. am dros ukve aRar `vmoRvaweobdiT~, amitom specialurad daviwyeT ori speqtaklis aRdgena... zamTarSi, raTa zafxulSi gveTamaSa, Tumca cota naCqarevi gamogvivida. romelime Teatri Tu dainteresebula TqveniT, an piriqiT, konkurentad xom ar aRgiqvamdnen? d.T. ara, arasdros, ra konkurencia, Cvens „Teatrs“ funqciac sxva hqonda da datvirTvac.

‘acting’ did not irritate him. The ending of one of our last spectacles, Purcell’s ‘Dido and Aeneas’, was tragic, and the full performance lasted for only 40 minutes. We decided to continue with Ravel’s ballet suite ‘Florina’s Dream’. We deliberately did no research into the ballet’s libretto, and we invented the story ourselves, based solely on the title. Our performance had no text, various creatures, funny-looking monsters, and balls appeared on the stage, while the main character, a Ballerina, was dancing in relation to this agitation. It is precisely after this performance that we offered our uncle the chance to collaborate in our “theater” and stage something there. He answered “Why not?” but he didn’t want to direct a play, because he thought that someone else could also do it, so he chose to be a set designer… But all this happened at the end of the 1980s, and there was no way for a marionette theater to continue working in a cold city without lights. When did you have your last show? T.T. In 1987, for the movie ‘It Was Raining on Winter Gardens’. Then in 1999, the Public Broadcaster decided to shoot a movie about our “theater” and its representations; they filmed two in full, but only fragments appear in the montage. We weren’t really “active” anymore during that time, so we started to revive the two plays specifically for this film… We started preparing them in winter in order to perform in summer, and it was too fast. Has any theater shown interest in you,? Did any of them see you as a competitor? D.T. No, never, as our “theater” had a completely different function and purpose. Were the relevant authorities interested in what you were doing? D.T. Yes, sir, they were! But fortunately for us, it turned out to be our own neighbor, who pretended to be coming on some business and saw what we were doing. It appears that he became suspicious after seeing a crowd on the balcony. Father is the one who understood all this – we didn’t at that time. Did you ever think about a possible future for the theater? D.T. I don’t know, I really couldn’t say… Today, we don’t understand what our modern society is like, what makes it tick, and so on – our “theater” was a family tradition… If it reappears in the future, it will definitely be in a different form –

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Sesabamisi organoebi Tu dainteresebulan, ras akeTebdiT? d.T. ki, batono. magram bedad igi Cvenive mezobeli aRmoCnda, viTom raRac saqmeze amovida da naxa ras vakeTebdiT. rogorc Cans, aivanze adamianTa simravlem daaeWva. amas mama mixvda _ Cven ver.

and in a larger hall. With God’s will, it will be something positive and lively.

Teatris momavalze Tu gifiqriaT? d.T. ar vici, namdvilad ar vici... dRes Cven ver vxvdebiT rogoria Tanamedrove sazogadoeba, raze aqvs mas reaqcia, Cvens `Teatrs~ saojaxo tradicia hqonda... momavalSi Tu iqna, namdvilad raRac sxva iqneba _ ufro did darbazSi. RmerTma inebos, rom kargi da sicocxlisunariani aRmoCndes. Tqveni bavSvobis Tojinebi Tua SemorCenili? T.T. 30-iani wlebisa mTlianad dakargulia, arc fotoebi arsebobs. 50-ianebisa ki aris `barmalei~ da `mTvareze gafrena~. maSin xom ar iyo fotomania, rogorc axlaa. didad arc eqneboda azri, gadaviRebdiT SavTeTri firiT ferad speqtakls. gvaqvs ramdenime foto `seralidan motacebis~, magram verafers ver gaigeb, sruliad utyvia. vfiqrob, gadaReba kargi ara aris TojinebisTvis, isini fotoze sxvanairad Cndebian, aRar arian iseTi cocxlebi rogorc scenaze. arsebul Tojinebs ra bedi ewevaT momavalSi? d.T. Tu axali Teatris idea ganxorcielda, romelzec vfiqrobT Cvens mamidaSvilTan, gogi levaSov-TumaniSvilTan da mis vaJTan, dudasTan erTad, iq gadavitanT da gamovfenT. saxlSi Zalian

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Are the puppets from your childhood still in good condition? T.T. The ones from the 1930s are completely lost – we don’t even have pictures of them. From those of the 1950s, we still have the ones from ‘Barmaley’ and ‘Voyage to the Moon’. Naturally, it was not a period of “photomania” like the one we are experiencing today. It wouldn’t have been very useful to take many pictures anyway, because they would have been black and white, while our plays were in color. We have some pictures from ‘The Abduction from the Seraglio’, but you can’t really see anything on them. I think that taking pictures of marionettes isn’t a particularly good thing. They look different in pictures – they aren’t as alive as on the stage. What is going to happen with the existing marionettes in the future? D.T. If the idea of a new “theater”, which we have been thinking about with our cousin Gogi LevishovTumanishvili, comes into being, we will take them there to be exhibited, because they are getting damaged at home. We may also hand


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ziandeba. SeiZleba Teatrisa da kinos muzeumsac gadavceT, sadac Seinaxaven da mouvlian da rac sarestavracioa aRadgenen. aseve SeiZleba Tojinebis muzeumsac mivceT, romlis damaarsebelic Cveni werakiTxvis maswavlebeli, genialuri pedagogi TinaTin (Tiko) TumaniSvili iyo. mas, Cemi azriT, Tanamedroveebma ubralod ver gauges. deida Tikos sul sxva ram surda, misi ideis mixedviT am muzeums ori funqcia unda hqonoda: erTi, bavSvebisTvis qceuliyo sixarulis samyarod, da meore _ muzeumSi Seqmnili Tojinebi warmoebisTvis nimuSebad unda gamoeyenebinaT, magram muzeumSi daculi TojinebiT aravin dainteresebula... P. S. statia ukve mzad iyo, rodesac SevityveT, rom TumaniSvilebis axali Teatris aRdgenis sakiTxi ukve gadawyvetiliyo, romlis erT-erT damfuZnebels, duda (dimitri) levaSov-TumaniSvils vakis parkSi vestumreT: `mito da Temiko TumaniSvilebTan erTad movifiqreT TumaniSvilebis Tojinebis saojaxo Teatris ganaxleba, vakis parkSi `britanuli kuTxis~ teritoriaze mzaddeba kameruli saTeatro sivrce _ scena da darbazi. vfiqrobT, pirvel speqtakls mayurebels seqtember-oqtomberSi warvudgenT. Zveli repertuaris aRdgenasTan erTad davdgamT axal speqtaklebs (maT Soris sabavSvos) da Cvens scenas monaTesave tipis qarTul da evropul dasebsac davuTmobT. garda amisa, davafuZnebT TeatrTan arsebul skola-saxelosnos, sadac yvela dainteresebul pirs SevaswavliT marionetebis keTebas, Semosvas, marTva-tarebas. am rTul saqmeSi Cveni didi ojaxis, TumaniSvilTa axalgazrda Taobis Tanadgomis imedi gvaqvs, raTa gagrZeldes es `saTeatro~ tradicia. is mokle Tu grZeli periodi, roca Cveni `Teatri~ mizezTa da mizezTa gamo ver muSaobda, CvenTvis erTgvar sicarieled iqca. gveCveneba, rom am `gaCerebiT~ raRac didi davakeliT Cvens Svilebs, SviliSvilebs, momaval Taobas... da kidev, mniSvnelovani _ Teatris aRdgeniT madlobas gadavuxdiT yvela im adamians, visac am saqmeSi mciredi wvlili mainc Seutania. esaubra Salva cxovrebaZe

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them to the Museum of Theater and Film, where they will be kept and taken care of, and restored as needs be. We could also give them to the Animated Puppet Museum, the founder of which was the person who taught us to read and write, the brilliant pedagog Tinatin (Tiko) Tumanishvili. I don’t think she understood. Aunt Tiko wanted something completely different; according to her idea, the Museum had to encompass two functions: firstly, to become a world of joy for children, and secondly to use exhibited marionettes as prototypes to create new ones – but nobody really showed interest in the marionettes kept at the Museum… P. S. We had already finished our article when we were told that the fate of the new Tumanishvili Theater had been decided. We visited one of its founders, Dimitri “Duda” Levashov-Tumanishvili, at the Vake Park: “Together with Mito and Temo Tumanishvili, we decided to restore our familial Tumanishvili Marionette Theater. A “chamber” theater space – a stage and hall – is being prepared on the territory of the British Corner in Vake Park, and we will probably present our first show in September or October. Apart from reviving our former repertoire, we will stage new plays (including plays for children) and invite similar theater troupes from Georgia and Europe to perform on our stage. We will also set up a school-atelier in the theater, where anyone who’s interested will have the opportunity to learn how to craft marionettes, their costumes, and how to manipulate them. I hope that the new generation of Tumanishvilis will help us in this difficult task, so that our “theater” tradition can survive. The time during which our “theater”, for various reasons, was inexistent, became a kind of vacuum in our lives. It’s as if we had taken something away from our children, grandchildren, and future generations with this “pause”… And finally, an important thing: with the restoration of our “theater”, we will be expressing our gratitude to all the people who were involved, in whatever capacity, in our endeavor and in this field.” Interlocutor: Shalva Tskhovrebadze


vefxistyaosnis xelnawerTa koleqcia msoflio kulturuli memkvidreobis iuneskos nusxaSi Manuscript Collection of ‘The Knight in the Panther’s Skin’ Listed in UNESCO’s Cultural Heritage List

msoflios dokumentirebuli saganZuris iuneskos nusxaSi saqarTveloSi daculi nimuSebidan oTxi erTeulia Sesuli: 1. xelnawerTa erovnul centrSi daculi uZveles qarTul xelnawerTa koleqcia; 2. xelnawerTa erovnul centrSi daculi berZnulenovani kulturisTvis umniSvnelovanesi xelnaweri memkvidreoba; 3. vaxuSti bagrationis saqarTvelos geografiuli atlasi; 4. vefxistyaosnis uZveles xelnawerTa koleqcia.

FOUR ENTRIES FROM THE PROTECTED HERITAGE OF GEORGIA HAVE ENTERED UNESCO’S WORLD DOCUMENTARY HERITAGE LIST: 1. THE COLLECTION OF ANCIENT GEORGIAN MANUSCRIPTS OF THE NATIONAL CENTER OF MANUSCRIPTS; 2. THE MANUSCRIPT HERITAGE IN GREEK LANGUAGE OF THE NATIONAL CENTER OF MANUSCRIPTS; 3. VAKHUSHTI BAGRATIONI’S GEOGRAPHICAL ATLAS; 4. THE ANCIENT MANUSCRIPT COLLECTION OF ‘THE KNIGHT IN THE PANTHER’S SKIN’.

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oliver uordropi / OLIVER WARDROP

CamonaTvalSi sagangebodaa miTiTebuli, rom ganacxadi vefxistyaosnis xelnawerTa msoflio kulturuli memkvidreobis iuneskos nusxaSi Sesatanad saqarTvelosTan erTad didma britaneTmac gaakeTa da, ramdenadac CvenTvis cnobilia, es is gamonaklisi SemTxvevaa, roca erT Temaze saTanado ganacxadiT iuneskos wevrma orma qveyanam (saqarTvelos xelnawerTa erovnuli centrisa da oqsfordis universitetis iniciativiT) mimarTa. oqsfordis universitetis bodlis biblioTekas internetgverdze _ www.bodleian. ox.ac.uk/bodley _ ganTavsebuli aqvs informacia, rom mis sacavebSi inaxeba vefxistyaosnis ori uZvelesi xelnaweri da qarTuli kulturuli memkvidreobis warmomCeni mdidari dokumenturi masala, romelsac Tavi da-Zma marjori da oliver uordropebma mouyares. aRniSnulia, rom vefxistyaosnis TargmniTa da komentirebuli gamocemisTvis gaweuli RvawliT, maT yvelaze meti gaakeTes saimisod, rom inglisurenovani mkiTxvelisTvis XII saukunis Sedevri gaecnoT. 1887 wlis aprilSi ser oliver uordropi saqarTveloSi, `oqros sawmisis qveynis~ Sesaswavlad, zRviT Semovida. 23 wlis axalgazrdam mogzaurobis STabeWdilebebi ukve 1888 wels, samyaros amcno, londonSi, inglisur enaze gamocemuli SesaniSnavi wigniT _ „saqarTvelos samefo, mogzauroba banovanTa, Rvinisa da simReris qveyanaSi“. Zmis gavleniT umal aenTo da saqarTveloTi dainteresda misi umcrosi dac _ 18 wlis marjori. britanelma qaliSvilma mari broses qarTuli enis TviTmaswavleblisa

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The list clearly states that the United Kingdom joined forces with Georgia for submitting the application to list the manuscripts of ‘The Knight in the Panther’s Skin’ as UNESCO’s World Documentary Heritage, and as far as we know, this is the first time that two UNESCO member countries submit an application together – in this case, this happened on the initiative of the National Center of Manuscripts of Georgia and the Oxford University. On the website of Oxford University’s Bodleian Library (www.bodleian.ox.ac.uk/bodley), one can find out that two of the most ancient manuscripts of ‘The Knight in the Panther’s Skin’ as well as a rich collection of documents from the Georgian cultural heritage are kept in its reserve. They were brought there by siblings Marjory and Oliver Wardrop, and the site underlines that with their contribution to the translated and commented edition, they have undertaken the greatest attempt to introduce the English speaking communities to the 12th century masterpiece that is ‘The Knight in the Panther’s Skin’. In April 1887, Sir Oliver Wardrop arrived in Georgia by sea in order to get acquainted with the “Land of the Golden Fleece”. In 1888, the 23-year-old publicized his impressions in London, in a wonderful book in English language: ‘The Kingdom of Georgia, a Journey in the Country of Ladies, Wine and Song’. Under his influence, his younger sister, 18-year-old Marjory, quickly became interested in Georgia too. Thanks to Marie Brosset’s self-study book of Georgian and a Bible in Georgian language, the Briton girl started learning Georgian by herself, and she got so good at it that in 1891, she already started translating ‘The Knight in the Panther’s Skin’ in English. As she wrote herself, she finished the first version of the translation in the

marjori uordropi / MARJORY WARDROP


beginning of November 1898 in Kerch. She then devoted the rest of her life to fine-tune her composition, before passing in 1909. After the early death of Marjory Wardrop, Oliver completed the work of his beloved sister with an introductory commentary and helpful scientific material, and then published the book in 1912. With this, as he puts it himself, they “have enriched the English speaking society and readers with a book mirroring the soul of a cultured people with a great past.” With the support of the Bodleian Library, we were fortunate enough to visit the depository of the Marjory Wardrop Fund and to see its collection. One of the boxes contains a small book, a version of ‘The Knight in the Panther’s Skin’ published by Grigol Charkviani in 1887 that Marjory Wardrop disassembled and then rebound in 1891, with a clean sheet between each sheet of the poem. On these clean sheets, one can find many remarks written in either English or Georgian; some contain samples of translations, the poem’s stanzas are numbered by Marjory, and more than a hundred aphorisms are underlined with a pencil. The book is full of field flowers picked up by Marjory in various regions and countries – distinct dried flowers or bouquets bound by a beautiful little white ribbon are placed between almost every third page and the next. Oliver’s handwritten commentary on the front page explains that Marjory always kept this book on her, wherever she went, as a “confident”.

marjori uordropi / MARJORY WARDROP

da qarTulenovani bibliis daxmarebiT, damoukideblad daiwyo qarTuli enis Seswavla da 1891 wlisTvis ukve ise gaiwafa, rom vefxistyaosnis inglisurad Targmnas Seudga. Targmanis pirveli varianti, rogorc Tavad wers, 1898 wlis noembris pirvel ricxvebSi qerCSi daasrula, mTeli momdevno dro ki, 1909 wlamde, anu sicocxlis bolomde, am Sromas dauTmo. marjori uordropis udroo gardacvalebis Semdeg, sayvareli dis 18 wlis naRvawi oliverma winasityvaobiTa da damxmare samecniero masaliT aRWurva da 1912 wels wignad gamosca. amiT, rogorc Tavad aRniSnavs, maT, oliver da marjori uordropebma „inglisurenovani sazogadoeba da mkiTxveli gaamdidres wigniT, romelic aris didi warsulis mqone kulturuli xalxis sulis sarke“. bodlis biblioTekis TanamSromlebis TanxlebiT, wilad gvxvda bedniereba, uordropebis fondis sacavi da iq Tavmoyrili saganZuri gvenaxa. erT-erT yuTSi saTuTad inaxeba mcire formatis wigni, 1887 wels grigol Carkvianis mier dastambuli vefxistyaosani, romelic 1891 wels marjori uordrops jer dauSlia da Semdeg wignadve aukinZavs ise, rom poemis teqstis yovel furcels sufTa furceli mosdevs. maTze, marjoris xeliT, qarTul Tu

marjori da oliver uordropebi megobrebTan saCxereSi MARJORY AND OLIVER WARDROP WITH FRIENDS IN SACHKHERE

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inglisur enaze datanilia araerTi SeniSvna, zogierT gverdze Targmanis nimuSebicaa, poemis strofebic marjoris xeliTaa gadanomrili da sagangebod, asze meti aforizmi fanqriT gaxazuli. wigni savsea, rogorc Cans, marjoris mier sxvadasxva qveyanasa Tu mxareSi dakrefili mindvris yvavilebiT _ TiTqmis yovel mesame da momdevno furcels Soris moTavsebulia sruliad gansxvavebuli gamxmari yvavili, an Zalze patara, TeTri, lamazi bafTiT Sekruli Taiguli. oliveris xeliT satitulo furcelze gakeTebuli ganmartebac adasturebs, rom es wigni mudam da yvelgan Tan axlda marjoris, rogorc misi `gulis mesaidumle~. poeturi bunebis qalbatons, SesaZloa, Cvevad hqonda misTvis sayvareli wignis, Tu sxva Zvirfasi teqstis Semcvel furclebs Soris, ama Tu im sulieri gancdis saxsovrad, yvavilebi moeTavsebina, magram ar gamovricxavT imasac, rom aseTi Cvevisken mas vefxistyaosnis im xelnawerma ubiZga, romelic axla uordropebis fondSi inaxeba. es gamocema marjorim 1890-ian wlebSi wereTlebTan stumrobisas saCxereSi naxa da, SesaZloa gaaoca da moxibla kidec, am uZvelesi nusxis dasuraTebebSi, xSirad araproporciulad didma, sagangebod Tamamad aqcentirebulma, zogan mwerebTan erTad daxatulma mindvris yvavilebma... vfiqrobT, es aris axla uordropebis fondSi daculi xelnaweri nusxa W-17, romelic aramarto didi mokrZalebiT davaTvaliereT, aramed SeZlebisdagvarad SeviswavleT kidec. xelnaweris yda tyavgadakruli xisganaa gakeTebuli, tyavi ki dawnexviT aris moCuqurTmebuli. furclebis zomebia 27,5 sm/20 sm, naweris CarCos zomebi ki 24,5 sm/17 sm.

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Perhaps the poetic woman already had the habit of placing flowers between the pages of her favorite books or texts in order to remember this or that spiritual feeling, but it’s not inconceivable that she was inspired to do so by this manuscript version of ‘The Knight in the Panther’s Skin’, which is now kept at the Wardrop Fund. Marjory saw this edition in the 1890s, when she was visiting the Tsereteli family in Sachkhere, and was probably impressed and charmed by the unproportionally large and exaggerated illustrations of field flowers, sometimes with some insects, in this ancient book… We think that it must be the Wardrop Fund’s manuscript W-17, which we not only browsed through carefully, but also, to the extent possible, studied. The cover of the book is made out of leathered wood, and the leather itself is finely carved. The size of the pages is 27.5/20 cm, and that of the text frame is 24.5/17 cm. 52 more or less damaged miniatures have survived. The manuscript contains a relatively recent miniature, probably done in the 18th-19th centuries, representing Rostevan and Avtandil hunting. All the other miniatures were done in the same period as the manuscript itself, and on paper of the same quality. The commentaries on the miniatures were rewritten by a copyist. The miniature pages between pages 119 and 120, 174 and 175, and 180 and 181 were lost, as were two pages of miniatures between pages 235 and 236. The thing that catches the eye when having a first look at the manuscript is the quality of its paper – the text and miniatures are done on thin, well polished paper. We know that since the 1630s, great quantities of Persian paper were transported in Georgia, and this paper is very thin but polished, it doesn’t absorb much ink, and is the most suitable one for the Mkhedruli alphabet. At first sight, the paper of the W-17 manuscript also looks like it comes from Persia, but if we put it under light, we can distinctly see a pattern of tight fibers, and on many of them, a complex contour disturbing this pattern. By studying them closely, we understand that what we are looking


met-naklebad dazianebuli saxiT SemorCenilia 52 miniatura. xelnawerSi moTavsebulia erTi, SedarebiT axali, albaT, XVIII-XIX saukuneebSi Sesrulebuli miniaturac, romelzec rostevanisa da avTandilis nadirobaa asaxuli. yvela danarCeni miniatura Sesrulebulia xelnaweri teqstis Tanadroulad, imave xarisxis qaRaldze. ganmmartavi minawerebi miniaturebze gakeTebulia gadamweris xeliT. aSkaraa, rom dakargulia miniaturebis Semcveli furclebi 119 da 120, 174 da 175, 180 da 181 furclebs Soris, 235 da 236 furclebs Soris ki dakargulia ori miniaturis Semcveli furceli. nusxis pirveli, zedapiruli daTvalierebis dros TvalSisacemia qaRaldis xarisxi _ teqstic da miniaturebic Sesrulebulia Txel, kargad gaprialebul qaRaldze. cnobilia rom XVII saukunis 30-iani wlebidan saqarTveloSi didi raodenobiT Semodis sparsuli qaRaldi, romelic Zalian Txelia, magram `mwve~ galesilia, melans ar atarebs da mxedruli damwerlobisTvis saukeTesoa. erTi SexedviT W-17 nusxis qaRaldic sparsuli warmomavlobisad aRiqmeba, magram, Tu ki xelnaweris furclebs sinaTlis Suqze gaxedavT dainaxavT verJerebis mkafio da mWidro fons, bevr maTganze, ki am fonis damrRvev raRac rTuli formis kontursac. detaluri SeswavliT irkveva, rom saqme gvaqvs qaRaldis mwarmoeblis sawarmo damRasTan, anu e.w. WvirniSanTan. am bolo mizezis gamo, cxadia, saqme gvaqvs evropuli da ara sparsuli warmomavlobis qaRaldTan. „XVII saukunis meore naxevridan saqarTveloSi gaCnda Txeli italiuri qaRaldi, romelic, sparsuli qaRaldis msgavsad `mwve~ galesilia. es qaRaldi arafriT Camouvardeba sparsul qaRalds da sparsul qaRalds cvlis, aseTi Txeli `mwve~ galesili qaRaldi XVII saukunis saqarTveloSi SedarebiT cotaa. es qaRaldi bergamuli warmoSobisaa~ _ wers ramaz patariZe. vefxistyaosnis ramdenime nusxa, swored aseT italiur furclebzea gadawerili, magaliTad S-4499, S-4988, K-205, H-461 nusxebi, maT msgavsi WvirniSnebi aqvT, gvirgvinis, mtevnisa da masris sxvadasxva variaciiT, da amdenad maTi Seqmnis TariRic jgufdeba da, qaRaldis warmoebisa da Semotanis TariRTan, 1690 wlis maxloblobaSi iyris Tavs. W-17 nusxis WvirniSnebi miesadageba amave WvirniSnebis tips da bunebrivia am TariRis siaxloves unda vigulisxmoT mzexaTuniseuli xelnaweris Seqmnis TariRic, radgan qveyanaSi Semosuli qaRaldis odenobis realizeba, aTviseba, Tu gamoyeneba, Semosvlis dRidan, maqsimum xuTi-aTi wlis manZilze xdeboda. rogorc Cans, es is nusxaa

at the seals of the paper manufacturer, or so-called watermarks. Because of this, it is clear that the paper originated from Europe and not from Persia. “From the second half of the 17th century, thin Italian paper appeared in Georgia, which was polished like Persian paper. This paper has nothing to envy to Persian paper and replaced it. This kind of thin polished paper is relatively scarce in 17th century Georgia, and it originates from the city of Bergamo.” – writes Ramaz Pataridze. Several manuscripts of ‘The Knight in the Panther’s Skin’ are written on this kind of Italian paper; for instance manuscripts S-4499, S-4988, K-205, H-461 have similar watermarks (variations of a crown, a bunch of grapes, and a cartouche), so they were created during the same period of time, around 1690, coinciding with the production and import of this kind of paper. The watermarks of manuscript W-17 are similar to those we just mentioned, so naturally, we should date the creation of the “Mzekhatuni” manuscript around the same period, as the production, acquisition or use of this quantity of paper in Georgia happened for a period of maximum five to ten years since its first introduction in the country. It seems that it is the manuscript that the Georgian researchers have been looking for without success since the end of the 19th century. Guram Sharadze’s “archeographic searches” came the closest to the truth – after discussing many facts and materials, he wrote the following: “We have to determine who this T. A. Tsereteli (who used to own an even older and more valuable manuscript than the S-5006 manuscript of ‘The Knight in the Panther’s Skin’ 90

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venera beriZe-wereTlisa / VENERA BERIDZE-TSERETELI

romlis kvali, XIX saukunis miwurulidan moyolebuli, mravali qarTveli mkvlevarisTvis mouxelTebeli gamodga. guram SaraZis `arqeografiuli Ziebani~ yvelaze axlos mivida sinamdvilesTan _ vrceli faqtobrivi masalis ganxilvis Semdeg is win aseT sakiTxs wamoswevs: `unda davadginoT, vin iyo es T. a. daviTis Ze wereTeli (romelsac am 90 wlis winaT vefxistyaosnis S-5006 nusxaze Zveli da meti Rirsebis mqone xelnaweri hqonia) da ra naTesauri kavSiri hqonda grigol wereTlis ojaxTan. xom ar aris igi grigol wereTlis ZmisSvilis, daviT simonis Ze wereTlis (gard. 1872 w.) vaJi?~. swori iyo guram SaraZis Ziebis mimarTuleba _ didi interesis aRmZvreli, magram mouxelTebeli. dasuraTebuli vefxistyaosani marTlac inaxeboda grigol wereTlis ZmiSvilis daviT simonis Ze wereTlis vaJis simonis ojaxSi. simonis vaJma, giga simonis Ze wereTelma ki, venera beriZis TxovniT, gadadga SeiZleba sadavo, magram, Cveni azriT, gamarTlebuli da mniSvnelovani nabiji _ erTi mxriv, Zvirfas xelnawers mouZebna ukeTesi ganZTsacavi, oqsfordis universitetis bodlis biblioTekis saxiT, da, meore mxriv, amave qmedebiT, Rirseulad gamoxata uordropebisadmi qarTveli xalxis madliereba. asea Tu ise, swored es nusxa Tavadma giorgi wereTelma, misi biZaSvilis, rostom wereTlis colis, xidisTaveli Sio (simon) beriZis asulis, venera beriZis didi RvawliT, bodlis biblioTekas uZRvna 1911 wlis 8 oqtombers. venera beriZe uordropebisTvis gansakuTrebiT saTno da axlobeli adamiani yofila, imdenad, rom marjori masze daqorwinebasac ki urCevda olivers; uordropebis arqivSi swored venerasTan mimoweris pirad werilebs ukavia yvelaze meti adgili. 1911 wlis 20 aprils oliverisadmi miweril werilSi vkiTxulobT: `vefxistyaosnis dabeWdva rom gangizraxavs, didad vixariT da moveliT mouTmenlad

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years ago) and what kind of relative he was to the family of Grigol Tsereteli. Could he be the son of David Tsereteli (who passed in 1872), nephew of Grigol Tsereteli?” Guram Sharadze was looking in the right direction, but he wouldn’t get his hands on the book. The illustrated edition of ‘The Knight in the Panther’s Skin’ was indeed kept at the family house of Simon, the son of David Tsereteli, Grigol Tsereteli’s nephew. At the request of Venera Beridze, Simon’s son Giga Tsereteli took a perhaps unconventional, but important step – on the one hand, he found a better depository for the precious manuscript at the Bodleian Library of the Oxford University, and on the other hand, with this decision, he expressed the gratitude of Georgian people towards the Wardrops in a dignified way. Either way, this manuscript was donated to the Bodleian Library on October 8th 1911 by prince Giorgi Tsereteli, at the request of Venera Beridze, wife of his cousin Rostom Tsereteli and daughter of Simon “Sio” Beridze from Khidistavi. Venera Beridze was particularly dear and close to the Wardrops, so much so that Marjory even wanted her to marry her brother Oliver, and the private correspondence with Venera holds the major part of the Wardrops’ archive. In a letter written to Oliver and dated April 20th 1911, we can read: “We are very glad that


gavigoT Tqveni sja am Cveni didebis you decided to print ‘The Knight in the Panther’s Skin’. Which Sesaxeb. romel xelnawers Txoulob manuscript are you asking for, Oliver, our family’s ‘The Knight in oliver, vefxistyaosans Cveni ojaxisas the Panther’s Skin’ or something else? If you are asking me for our Tu rame sxvas. Tu im vefxistyaosanze version of ‘The Knight in the Panther’s Skin’, I will definitely try mwer, danamdvilebiT vecdebi, to send it to you but only so you can take a look at it, because it gamogigzavno mxolod sanaxavad, was donated to the Society for the Spreading of Literacy or the Torem is Sewiruli aqvT wera-kiTxvis Museum, I don’t know (she’s referring to the S-5006 “Tsereteli” gamavrcelebel sazogadoebas Tu muzeums manuscript – P. M.). If you really want a manuscript of ‘The Knight ar vici (saubaria S-5006 wereTliseuli in the Panther’s Skin’ to be there, then I will try to find another one; nusxis Sesaxeb _ p.m.). Tu suliT ginda rom mand iyos, tell me clearly, so that I can understand, and I will do everything I vefxistyaosani xeliT-naweri, can to find what you need…”. maSin vecdebi sxva viSovo, In a letter dated September momwere kargaT, rom mivxvde da 3rd 1911, the story continues: yovel Rones vixmar rom viSovo...~ “…Concerning what you 1911 wlis 3 seqtembris weriliT wrote me about the ancient ki vgebulobT: `...rac Seexeba imas, manuscripts, we are of course, rom mwer Zveli nawerebis Sesaxeb, myself and other conscious rasakvirvelia, mec da sxva people, trying to keep them Segnebuli vinc aris, vcdilobT safe. We are looking for them, rom ar daibnes. veZebT, magram but many get lost, and even mainc bevri ikargeba, da ufro more are falling into the hands bevri rusebs uvardeba xelSi. of Russians. Oliver, Rostom’s oliver, rostomas biZaSvils, cousin who lives next to us – if romelic gverdiT cxovrobs, you recall, we almost share our Tu gaxsovT TiTqmis erT ezoSi courtyards and their house is vdgavarT, Cveni saxlidan maTi very close to ours – the one Zlier axlosaa, romelsac Cven we call Giga but whose name gigas veZaxiT da ise ki saxelad is Grigol Tsereteli, well he grigol simonis Ze wereTelia, wants to send and donate the surs gamogigzavnos oqsfordSi illustrated manuscript of ‘The marjoris biblioTekas Seswiros Knight in the Panther’s Skin’ xeliT naweri suraTebiani to Marjory’s library in Oxford, vefxistyaosani da ar vici Tu and I don’t know how to send rogor gamovagzavno, gTxov it to you, please write me how kargaT momwero, ra rigaT I should do it so it doesn’t get gamovagzavno, rom ar daikargos~. lost.” saqarTvelosadmi uordropebis The special affection the gansakuTrebulma siyvarulma Wardrops had for Georgia da saqarTvelosTvis gaweulma and the things they’ve done samsaxurma ganapiroba is, rom im for our country have resulted drois qarTvel mkvlevarTaTvis in the fact that a manuscript marjori da oliver uordropebis Zegli TbilisSi MARJORY AND OLIVER WARDROP’S STATUE IN TBILISI ucnobi nusxa, suraTebiani that was unknown to Georgian vefxistyaosani pirdapir londonSi aRmoCnda, axla ki researchers back then, an illustrated manuscript of ‘The Knight in is Setanilia msoflios dokumentirebuli saganZuris the Panther’s Skin’, ended up in London, and that it is now part of iuneskos nusxaSi. madlierma qarTvelma xalxma TbilisSi, UNESCO’s World Documentary Heritage list. The grateful Georgian damoukidebeli saqarTvelos parlamentis mimdebare people have once more expressed their loyalty to Rustaveli’s skverSi, da-Zma uordropebis brinjaoSi Camosxmuli system of values by placing a sculptural composition of the skulpturuli kompoziciiT kidev erTxel ganacxada Wardrop siblings in the square next to the Parliament of Georgia rusTvelis RirebulebiTi sistemisadmi erTguleba. in Tbilisi. parmen margvelaSvili

Parmen Margvelashvili

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nika maCaiZe amas musikis `keTebas~ veZaxiT

Nika Machaidze We call this “making” music Teatralur institutSi vswavlobdi, animaciaze, gela kandelakis studiaSi... mere gadavedi sareJisoroze da paralelurad gakveTilebs dimitri TayaiSvilisgan kinomxatvrobaSic viRebdi. 1994 wels sadiplomo filmze muSaobisas mivxvdi, rom kinosTvis sakmaod zarmaci var da arc bevr xalxTan urTierToba mexaliseba. musikas im filmisTvis gogi ZoZuaSvili mikeTebda da swored Caweris procesSi moxda eleqtronul musikasTan Cemi pirveli Sexeba. am dros jer isev susti kompiuterebi iyo da amitom verc warmogvedgina, rom maTze musikis keTeba SeiZleboda, amitom viyenebdiT sekvenserebs. filmi ori wlis Semdeg davamTavre, swored am droisTvis, tusia beriZem londonidan Aphex Twin-is albomi …I Care Because You Do Camoitana. es iyo pirveli eleqtronuli musika, romelic CemTvis mTavar inspiraciad iqca. amas mohyva mcdeloba da eqsperimentebi _ mindoda `menaxa~, Tu ra gamomividoda _ Windows Recorder-iT viwerdi xmebs da martivi funqciebiT vamuSavebdi. droTa ganmavlobaSi eqsperimentebic rTuldeboda. paralelurad gogi akeTebda alboms, me vexmarebodi, vukravdi da mere, roca albomi davasruleT, gadavwyviteT gogis simRerebs Soris Cemi mokle eqsperimentuli trekebi, interludiebi Cagvesva. im dros eleqtronul musikas sxvebic akeTebdnen, magaliTad dima da dada dadianebi, Tumca, dadas musika ufro sinTezuri iyo. kompiuteruli musika, wminda saxiT, pirvelma me daviwye. mere amerikidan axaldabrunebuli gogi amyva _ iyida kompiuteri da daiwyo eleqtronuli musikis keTeba. 2001 wels sami TviT wavedi berlinSi, sadac Cemi albomi gamovida, TbilisSi dabrunebuls kompiuterSi damxvda ucnobi musika, romelic Semdeg tusiasi aRmoCnda...

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I studied animation in Gela Kandelaki’s studio at the Theater and Film University… Then I switched to film directing, and in parallel, I took courses in set design with Dimitri Takaishvili. When working on my graduation film in 1994, I realized that I was quite lazy about cinema, and also that I didn’t really enjoy working with many people. Gogi Dzodzuashvili was composing the music for that movie, and my first contact with electronic music happened during this recording process. At that time, computers were still very “weak”, so I couldn’t imagine that it would be possible to make music on them, and we were using sequencers. I finished the movie after two years, precisely when Tusia Beridze brought Aphex Twin’s Album ‘I Care Because You Do’ from London. It was the first electronic music to become an inspiration for me. This was followed by my first musical undertakings and experiments – I wanted to “see” what would happen – I would record voices with Windows Recorder and transform them with basic functions. Little by little, these “experiments” got more and more complex. Simultaneously, Gogi was working on his album, and I would help him- I played some music for him and then, when we finished the album, we decided to insert a few of my experimental tracks as interludes in-between Gogi’s songs. Other people were also creating electronic music at that time, for example Dima and Dada Dadiani, but Dada’s music was more synthetic. I was the first to create “pure” computer music in Georgia. Then Gogi, arriving back from a trip to America, followed in my footsteps – he bought a computer and started creating electronic music, too. In 2001, I moved to Berlin for three months, where I released my album, and when I came back to Tbilisi, I found unknown music on my computer, which turned out to be Tusia’s… Back then we were still in an informational vacuum, though there had already been a number of breakthroughs. Everybody around us was captivated by techno music, but the main source of inspiration


maSin jer isev informaciul vakuumSi viyaviT. Tumca, ukve iyo garRvevebi. Tuki garSemo yvelas teqno itacebda, Cemi mTavari inspiraciis wyaro Warp-is produqcia iyo, radgan teqnoze ver `vkaifobdi~ da ufro `mosasmeni~ musika momwonda. vfiqrob, Cemze gavlena moaxdina yovelive iman, rasac vusmendi, da vusmendi Zalian bevrs, maT Soris eleqtronulsac. axlac maxsovs bavSvobis STabeWdileba, romelic tarkovskis `stalkeris~ musikam momca _ es, ra Tqma unda bevrad adre moxda, vidre eduard artemievs, rogorc kompozitors gavicnobdi. Cemi gamorCeuli favoritebi amerikeli minimalistebi arian. gansakuTrebiT, stiv raixi, romelsac SemiZlia yoveldRe vusmino, miuxedavad imisa, rom eleqtronul musikas ar wers. XX saukunis klasikosebidan musikis ganviTarebaSi Zalian mniSvnelovani roli stravinskim, prokofievma da SostakoviCma Seasrules. SeiZleba iTqvas, rom isini da ufro adreuli kopozitorebic kolosaluri xidis sayrdenebiviT arian... xidisa, romelic usasrulod Sendeba da axal da axal sayrdenebs saWiroebs. ar vici ratom, magram, ar vusmen venur `axal skolas~: Sonbergs, veberns da bergs. keiji ki CemTvis is tipia, vinc erTgvarad gansazRvra musikis momavali _ nebismieri xmauris musikad aRqmis SesaZlebloba. Cvens sinamdvileSi pirvelma mixeil SuRlaiSvilma gamoiyena kompiuteri musikaSi maTematikuri gamoTvlebisTvis. versad mivageni naTela svaniZis eleqtronul musikas, romelic Zalian mainteresebs. axlac miWirs zustad ganvsazRvro Janri, romelSic vmuSaob, radgan dRes Janrobrivi sazRvrebi TiTqmis

for me were productions from WARP Records, because I didn’t enjoying techno and liked “listenable” music much more. I think that everything I used to listen to had an influence on me, and I used to listen to a lot of different things, including electronic music. I still remember the impression I had as a child when listening to the music of Tarkovsky’s ‘Stalker’ – naturally, this happened long before I got acquainted with Eduard Artemyev as a composer. My personal favorites are American minimalists, and Steve Reich in particular – I can listen to him every single day, even though he doesn’t make electronic music. Stravinsky, Prokofiev and Shostakovich have played an important role in the development of 20th century classical music. One could say that, together with earlier composers, they are the foundations of a colossal bridge… one that is being constructed indefinitely and needs more and more foundations. I don’t know why, but I don’t listen to the so-called “Second Viennese School”- to Schoenberg, Webern and Berg. To me, Cage is the person who determined the future of music – the possibility to look at any sound as music. In Georgia, Mikheil Shughliashvili is the first person to have used a computer in music, for mathematical calculations. I am very interested in Natela Svanidze’s electronic music, but I could never get to grips with it. Even today, it is difficult for me to say in exactly which genre I am working, because the boundaries between genres have now practically disappeared. It is probably still electro-acoustic music, as apart from computer sounds, I record various acoustic noises, rearrange them and transform them into sounds. In electronic music, the sound structure is more important than harmony or melody – you can build your whole musical architectonics on a single sound.

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waSlilia. albaT, es mainc eleqtroakustikuri musikaa, me xom, garda kompiuteruli xmebisa viwer sxvadasxva akustikur xmaurs, vamuSaveb da gardavsaxav bgerebad _ eleqtronul musikaSi harmoniasa da melodiaze mniSvnelovani swored bgeris struqturaa _ bgeraze SeiZleba aago mTeli musikaluri arqiteqtonika. Tu ra gamodis amis Sedegad, es ukve sxva sakiTxia, is SeiZleba damokidebuli iyos ganwyobaze. ganwyoba ki diliT garedan Semosulma xmebmac SeiZleba gansazRvron, iman Tu rogori bgerebi `modian~. musikis keTebisas Teorias ar vuRrmavdebi, ufro intuitiuri var _ warmoidgineT `legos~ konstruqtori,

As for what happens next, this is another question. It can depend on your mood, which in turn can be determined, for instance, by sounds coming from the outside in the morning, by what kind of sounds “reach” you. When creating music, I don’t dwell on theory, I follow intuition – imagine a “Lego” constructor that can create all the details of its bricks himself, and construct something spontaneously instead of according to a plan – you start from the foundation and little by little, you construct a structure, or you could start with the windows, then do the roof, and then the rest. This process is closer to architecture than to playing music, which is why those who work in electronic music in Georgia call it “making” music.

oRond detalebsac rom TviTon qmnide da ise awyobdeT ara winaswarganzraxulad, aramed spontanurad _ iwyeb saZirkvlidan da nel-nela garkveul struqturaSi mogyavs, an SeiZleba sulac fanjrebiT daiwyo, Semdeg saxuravze gadaxvide da mere yvelaferi danarCeni. es procesi ufro axlos arqiteqturasTanaa, vidre dakvrasTan, amitom, vinc eleqtronul musikaSi vmuSaobT, amas `musikis keTebas~ veZaxiT. musikas pirvel rigSi CemTvis vakeTeb, radgan yvelaze saintereso da sasiamovno swored keTebis procesia. amis Semdeg ki Tu vinme dainteresdeba da moismens, ra Tqma unda, uars ar veubnebi. imaves vityodi diskebis gamoSvebazec _ or `leiblTan~ mqonda urTierToba da SemoTavazeba orjerve maTgan modioda. Cemi musika ar aris saklubo, Tumca iqac ukraven, ufro metad

I make music mostly for myself, because the most interesting and enjoyable moment is precisely the process of creating it. Afterwards, if someone is interested in it and wants to listen to it, I won’t refuse, naturally. I would say the same about releasing discs – I worked with two labels, and both times, the proposition came from their side. I don’t do club music, even though they play it there too, particularly in Japan. By the way, Japan is the country where the highest number of my discs were bought. I write acoustic music mainly for fortepiano – for Tamar Kordzaia’s festival Close Encounters, which is held in Switzerland and Georgia. I’ve just finished a soundtrack for Nikoloz Shengelaia’s film ‘Eliso’, which will be screened in Switzerland in the framework of this festival, and we are now trying to arrange a screening in Tbilisi in November. I rarely go to clubs, usually only when I’m mixing, and then only to have a picture of what kind of music they play there. Unlike European clubs, they choose one label and only invite their artists in Georgia,

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iaponiaSi. sxvaTa Soris, iqve gaiyida Cemi diskebis yvelaze didi raodenobac. akustikur musikas, ZiriTadad, fortepianosTvis vwer _ Tamro korZaias festivalisTvis Close Encounters, romelic Sveicariasa da saqarTveloSi imarTeba. swored axlaxans gavakeTe saundtreki nikoloz Sengelaias filmisTvis `eliso~, romlis Cvenebac SveicariaSi am festivalis farglebSi moewyo, axla vcdilobT Cveneba noembrisTvis TbilisSi gavimeoroT. klubebSi iSviaTad davdivar, ufro maSin, roca TviTon vukrav da es sruliad sakmarisia imisTvis, rom warmodgena Semeqmnas Tu ra musikas ukraven iq. evropuli klubebisgan gansxvavebiT, CvenTan irCeven erT romelime `leibls~ da mxolod maTi musikosebi CamohyavT, es erTferovneba grZeldeba usasrulod, vidre yelSi ar amouvaT. es didi xania mombezrda... principSi, gansxvavebuli musika

this monotony becomes tedious, and they only change it when they can’t take it anymore. I’m tired of this… In principle, this year, I listened to original music for the first time at the SOU Festival. I think these festivals and their guest musicians can have a positive influence on local electronic music, but we need to reach a larger scale and have a better cultural policy for that. Festivals are a country-wide phenomena, and aren’t held for a small circle of people exclusively. Therefore, I think that the State should be financing them, though festivals also need to have a clear and proper vision. It’s absurd to fill stadiums with this kind of music; why should State funds be spent on an average or less than average DJ such as Armin van Buuren (this is my subjective opinion) when we could bring twenty musicians who are much better in Georgia for the same price? We need to offer different kinds of music to our audience, so that they have more freedom of choice. We already have much fewer and much less experienced listeners than in the West. Because of the soviet regime, we skipped the whole evolution period of electronic music.

pirvelad wels SOU festivalze movismine. Cemi azriT, aseT festivalebs da Camosul musikosebs SeuZliaT dadebiTi zegavlena moaxdinon aqaur eleqtronul musikaze, oRond amisTvis meti masStabi da ukeTesi kulturis politikaa saWiro. nebismieri festivali keTdeba qveynisTvis da ara romelime viwro wrisTvis. amitom, vfiqrob, misi raRac nawili saxelmwifomac unda daafinansos, Tumca mas unda hqondes sworad Camoyalibebuli xedva. absurdia, roca aseTi tipis musika stadions avsebs, ratom unda daixarjos saxelmwifo saxsrebi saSualo an saSualoze dabali rangis armin van biurenze (es Cemi subieqturi azria), roca SeiZleba igive

Despite the fact that one of the main impulses of contemporary art was provided by Russian avant-garde, constructivist and futurist artists, we missed the process that subsequently developed in the West and gave us contemporary music, and we are now dealing with an organism that is already fully fledged, without having seen its evolution. Where earlier music had borders, it is currently losing them little by little, and this is a positive thing. Naturally, we feel Russian roots in Rachmaninoff and Shostakovich, but more importantly, they convey the universal musical language. Music is also ageless, the words old or new mean nothing in music; Bach is an old composer in terms of chronology, but his music is for the future! Even more so if we are dealing with earlier music, repetitive rhythms, including oriental

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fasad oci bevrad ukeTesi musikosi Camoiyvano. msmenels mravalferovani musika unda SesTavazo, rom arCevanis Tavisufleba hqodnes. aq xom isedac bevrad naklebi da moumzadebeli msmenelia, vidre dasavleTSi. sabWoTa reJimis gamo Cven eleqtronuli musikis mTel evolucias gadavaxtiT. miuxedavad imisa, rom Tanamedrove xelovnebas erT-erTi mTavari biZgi maSin rusma avangardistebma, konstruqtivistebma da futuristebma misces. procesi, romelic Semdeg ukve dasavleTSi ganviTarda da dRevandel musikamde movida, Cven gamovtoveT da axla Sexeba ukve ganviTarebul, mza organizmTan gvaqvs. Tuki adre musikas hqonda geografia, dRes TandaTan kargavs da es asec unda iyos. ra Tqma unda, raxmaninovTan da SostakoviCTan, igrZnoba rusuli fesvebi, magram pirvelyovlisa es musikis universaluri enaa. musikas arc asaki aqvs, ras niSnavs Zveli an axali, baxi qronologiurad Zveli kompozitoria, magram misi musika momavlisaa! miT umetes asea, Tu es ufro adrindel musikas exeba, imas rac ganmeorebadia, maT Soris, aRmosavlurs, mantrebs _ yvelafers, rac Semdeg ukve minimalistebma gamoiyenes. ramdenjerme mqonda qarTuli folkloris gamoyenebis mcdeloba, magram es SekveTa iyo. ar miyvars folklorTan Sexeba, is dasrulebuli, savsea da me verafers davamateb. Tumca, struqturul an ritmul naxazs viyeneb xolme. eleqtronul musikaSi revolucia moaxdina kompiuteris gaCenam; manamde eleqtronuli musikis Seqmnas sWirdeboda specialurad aRWurvili laboratoria da zusti mecnierebebis codna. kompiuterma es saqme gaaiola, am `manqanam~ uamrav musikoss musikis keTebis saSualeba misca. `leiblebis~ mflobelebisgan vici, rom dRes kargi musikis povna gaWirda... maTTan Sesuli zRva masalidan SesaZloa maT raRac Rirebuli gamorCeT, gamoeparoT _ yvelafers ver

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music, mantras – everything that would later be used by minimalists. I tried to use Georgian folklore in my compositions a few times, but only on request. I don’t like using folklore as it’s already complete, accomplished, and I can’t add anything to it. But I sometimes use its structural or rhythmic lines. The emergence of computers has revolutionized electronic music. Before them, making electronic music required a specially equipped laboratory and knowledge in exact sciences. Computers have made everything much easier, and allowed countless musicians to create music. I know from label owners that finding good music has become a difficult thing in our times… They may fail to notice something decent from the sea of material they receive – they cannot listen to


moismen. eleqtronulma musikam dRes piks miaRwia da wreze trialebs. axla, albaT, erTi didi aqciaa saWiro _ ai, iseTi, keijma rom gaakeTa `4,33~-iT. mixaria rom magari axali Taoba modis. isini individualurad viTardebian. arsebobs eleqtronuli musikis saswavlo centrebic, sadac ramdenime leqcia wavikiTxe, maT Soris konservatoriis studentebisTvisac. miuxedavad imisa, rom yvelas vurCev eleqtroakustikuri musikis sxvadasxva mimarTulebiT scados bedi, Cemi dakvirvebiT umetesoba mainc teqnos `akeTebs~. filip glasi erT-erT interviuSi ambobs: `Aphex Twin-s araferSi sWirdeboda ganaTleba, radgan is Tavisi gziT mivida ganviTarebis garkveul wertilamde~. vfiqrob, musikosma gza Tavad unda gaikvlios, ver vityvi, rom aucilebelia swavlebis raime sistemas mihyve, verc imas vityvi, rom romelime sistema usargebloa _ is SeiZleba xelis Semwyobic iyos da xelis SemSlelic. me aqtiuri artisti var da garda musikisa sxvadasxva mimarTulebiTac vmuSaob. vxatav, vwer, vmonawileob gamofenebSi, vakeTeb videoinstalaciebs, viReb filmebs. wels niu iorkSi organizaciis Art in General da vato wereTlis erTobliv proeqtSi, sxva qarTveli artistebis namuSevrebTan erTad Cemi videoinstalaciac iyo warmodgenili. 2009 wels veneciis bienaleze koka ramiSvilis videonamuSevari Cemi `saundiT~ midioda. dawyebuli maqvs filmis gadaReba, romelic kompiuteruli grafikis saSualebiT animaciad unda iqces da romelsac `ulaia saba~ hqvia. filmis dasrulebas didi fuli sWirdeba, amitom... axla vfiqrob, gadaRebuli masaliT komiqsebi gavakeTo. musika reklamisTvisac damiweria, roca SekveTas viReb `tvins vTiSav~ da ise vakeTeb, Tavidan Zalian miWirda, Semdeg miveCvie. speqtaklebisa da kinomusikis Seqmnisas Tavisufali var da emociuradac CarTuli _ am saqmis keTeba miyvars... dawerili maqvs musika speqtaklebisTvis: `parki~, `qaquca ColoyaSvili~, `Tolia~, `arabeTis surnelovani yvavilebi~ da filmebisTvis: `knut hamsunis kavkasiuri misteriebi~, `pirveli sityva dakargulia~, `komendantis saaTi~, „subordinacia~, `koma~ da sxv. radganac Cemi erT-erTi profesia reJisuracaa, kinomusikaze muSaoba miadvildeba. nikoloz Sengelaias `elisosTvis~ musikis Seqmna gia yanCelis iniciativiT mandes. Tavdapirvelad xmebiTa da akustikur-embienturi stiliT msurda gamekeTebina, Tumca sabolood, eldar Sengelaias rCeviT safortepiano versia Sevqmeni. miuxedavad sirTuleebisa, vfiqrob rom CvenTan eleqtronuli musika viTardeba. arian axalgazrdebi, romlebic am saqmes kargad akeTeben da msmenelic hyavT.

everything. Today, electronic music has reached a peak and is turning in circles. It would be good to have a dramatic change – like the one Cage achieved with his 4’33”. I’m very glad that a great new generation is coming. They are evolving individually. There are also electronic music centers, where I have given a number of lectures, including for students of the Conservatory. Despite the fact that I advise everyone to give electro-acoustic music a try with various approaches, as I gather, most are still making techno. In one of his interviews, Philip Glass said the following: “Aphex Twin didn’t need any education; he reached a great level of development all by himself.” I think that musicians should go their own way, and I wouldn’t say that it is absolutely necessary to follow any educational system, or that any of those systems is useless – they can both help and hinder. I’m an active artist and I work in various directions aside from my music. I draw, write, take part in exhibitions, make video installations, shoot movies... This year, together with works of other Georgian artists, my video installation was presented in New York in the context of a collaborative project between the organization Art in General, and Vato Tsereteli. In the 2009 edition of the Venice Biennale, my sound was playing alongside Koka Ramishvili’s video art. I started shooting a movie that will be transformed into an animation through the use of computer graphics, called ‘Ulaia Saba’. I need a lot of money in order to finish the movie, so I’m thinking of making a comic book out of the material I already have. I have also written music for advertisements. When I receive an order for an ad, I “shut down” my brain to do it; at first, it was very difficult, but I’m now accustomed to it. While creating music for spectacles or cinema, I am freer, and I also involve myself emotionally – I like this process very much… I have written music for the spectacles ‘Park’, ‘Kakutsa Cholokashvili’, ‘Seagull’, ‘Fragrant Flowers of Arabia’ and for the films ‘Knut Hamsun’s Caucasian Mysteries’, ‘The First Word Is Missing’, ‘Curfew’, ‘Coma’, and others. Because one of my professions is film directing, it is easier for me to make music for cinema. I was entrusted the soundtrack composition of Nikoloz Shengelaia’s ‘Eliso’ at the initiative of Giya Kancheli. At first, I wanted to do it with voices and an acoustic-ambient style, but in the end, following the advice of Eldar Shengelaia, I created a fortepiano version. Despite the difficulties, I think that electronic music in Georgia is developing. There are plenty of young people making good music and they have their attentive audiences.

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iberielTa gamofena

Exhibition of the Two Iberias

ama wlis 10 maiss, madridSi, santa barbaras sasaxlis sagamofeno sivrceSi gaimarTa Tbilisis samxatvro akademiisa da xelovnebis sasaxlis proeqtis _ „amonaridebi iberiis xalxTa istoriidan“ prezentacia. qarTul delegacias saqarTvelos kulturisa da ZeglTa dacvis ministris moadgile manana berikaSvili xelmZRvanelobda, SemoqmedebiT gunds ki mxatvari giorgi gegeWkori waradgenda. momwvevi mxare espaneTis diplomatiis akademia da cnobili espaneli batalisti fermweri gustao ferer dalmau gaxldaT. On May 10, 2016, the exhibition space of Madrid’s Santa Barbara Palace hosted the presentation of ‘Fragments from the History of Iberian Peoples,’ a project of the Academy of Arts and the Art Palace of Tbilisi. The Georgian delegation was headed by Manana Berikashvili, Deputy Minister of Culture and Monument Protection, while the artists’ group was represented by painter Giorgi Gegechkori. The hosts were the Spanish Diplomacy Academy and famous Spanish painter Augusto Ferrer-Dalmau.

eqspoziciis centraluri idea ori iberiis istoriulad dadasturebuli mxedruli sulis mxatvrulad warmoCena iyo; rac Tavad augusto ferer dalmaum ase gamoxata: `CvenTvis yvelaze mniSvnelovani is saerTo ramaa, rac iberiel xalxebs gvakavSirebs. gansakuTrebiT ki erT epoqaSi arsebuli msgavsi samxedro aRWurviloba. dRevandeli gamofenis mizanic isaa, rom daganaxoT msgavseba Cvens Soris“. espaneli fermweri samxedroistoriuli TematikiTaa gatacebuli, xatavs rogorc gardasul droTa meomrebs, aseve Tanamedrove jariskacebsac. avRaneTSi yofnisas Seqmnili aqvs qarTvel samxedroTa 24 ferweruli namuSevari, romelic dRes TbilisSi, xelovnebis sasaxleSi inaxeba. 2015 wels, dalmaus TbilisSi stumrobisas Caisaxa megobruli TanamSromloba istoriuli TematikiT aseve dainteresebul qarTvel fermwerTan giorgi gegeWkorTan;

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The exhibition’s central idea was to present the historical martial soul of the two Iberias in a creative, artistic way. As Augusto Ferrer-Dalmau explains himself: “We think that the most important thing is the common aspects that connect us Iberian peoples. In particular, the similar military equipment shared by the two countries in the same period of history. The goal of this exhibition is precisely to show the similarities between our two peoples.” The Spanish painter is very fond of military-historical themes, and paints both warriors from the past and modern soldiers. While in Afghanistan, he created 24 paintings of the military that are currently kept in Tbilisi’s Art Palace. In 2015, Dalmau visited Tbilisi and started a friendly collaboration with Giorgi Gegechkori, a Georgian painter who shares his interest in history. They came up with the idea of creating a large panel about the Battle of Didgori, but…


gaCnda Canafiqri didgoris vrceli panos Seqmnisa, Tumca... didgoris proeqti muSaobis xangrZliv periods da sakmao Zalisxmevas moiTxovs, amdenad, ori xelovani, dasawyisisaTvis, triptiqis Sesrulebaze SeTanxmda _ espaneli mxatvari jvarosan meomars daxatavda, qarTveli ki _ daviT aRmaSenebelsa da laSa giorgis. rogorc giorgi gegeWkorma aRniSna, SesaZlebeli gaxda gustavo ferer dalmaus personalur gamofenas Serwymoda „qarTuli iberiis“ msgavsi Tematikis mravalkomponentiani eqspozicia. Tbilisis samxatvro akademiis saxviTi xelovnebis fakultetis studentTa jgufma, samxedro

This project about Didgori requires prolonged work and quite a lot of involvement, which is why the two artists decided to start modestly, with a triptych – Dalmau painted a Knight Templar, while Gegechkori painted Georgian Kings David the Builder and Lasha Giorgi. As Gegechkori explained us, it became possible to merge a multifarious exhibition about Georgian Iberia to the personal exhibition of Augusto Ferrer-Dalmau. A group of fine arts students from Tbilisi’s Academy of Arts painted pieces around the military theme with the help of Tinatin Kldiashvili, Dean of the Faculty of Design, and modern technology devices. Two students transferred ‘Excerpts from the Psalms’ according to 12th-13th century compositions, and copies of famous 17th century calligrapher Tavakalashvili’s miniatures on silk. A catalog of Gegechkori’s works, ‘Gallery of Georgian Kings’ was also published for the occasion, and costume replicas made by Grigory Gagarin from the Art Palace collection were exhibited.

Tematikaze Seasrula namuSevrebi; dizainis fakultetis dekanis qalbaton TinaTin kldiaSvilis daxmarebiT orma studentma axleburi teqnologiiT, abreSumze gadaitana 12-13 saukuneebis namuSevrebis mixedviT „amonaridebi fsalmunidan“ da TavaqalaSviliseuli aslebis miniaturebi. sul warmodgenili iyo 8 studenturi namuSevari. gamofenisTvis gamoica giorgi gegeWkoris namuSevarTa katalogi „qarTvel mefeTa galerea“. aseve, xelovnebis sasaxlis koleqciidan gamoifina grigol gagarinis mier Sesrulebuli kostiumebis aslebi.

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gamofenaze didi warmateba daimsaxura studentTa namuSevrebma. cnobilma espanelma istorikosma, lukas molinam, romelic general kvinitaZis ordenis kavaleria, Tornike tyemalaZis mier Sesrulebuli qarTveli mxedarTmTavris portreti gamofenazeve SeiZina. damTvalierebelTa yuradReba miiqcies TamTa jaxuas givi amilaxvaris portretma, salome TeTruaSvilis da ekaterine geguCaZis abreSumze gadatanilma miniaturebma. qarTul delegacias warmoadgendnen: xelovnebis sasaxlis direqtori giorgi kalandia da Tavisufali universitetis espanuri ganyofilebis studentebi qalbaton ia kargareTelis xelmZRvanelobiT. dabolos, qarTuli mxaris warmateba didad ganapiroba espaneTis diplomatiis akademiis wevris, qarTul saqmeTa moamagis, qalbaton nino ioselianis Zalisxmevam.

P. S. calke aRniSvnis Rirsia is faqti, rom gamofena espaneTis Sss ministrma gaxsna da igi mniSvnelovan movlenad Seafasa. ori iberiis „gaerTianeba“ farTod gaaSuqa espaneTis televiziam da sainformacio saSualebebma.

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The students’ artworks were very successfully received. Well-known Spanish historian, Lukas Molina, who is a Knight of the General Kvinitadze Order, purchased Tornike Tkemaladze’s portrait of a Georgian army commander during the exhibition. Tamta Jakhua’s portrait of Givi Amilakvari and Salome Tetruashvili and Ekaterine Geguchadze’s silken miniatures drew much attention from the visitors. The members of the Georgian delegation were Giorgi Kalandia, Director of the Art Palace, and students from the Spanish section of Tbilisi’s Free University, who were led by Ia Kargareteli. The efforts of Nino Ioseliani, a member of the Diplomatic School of Spain, committed to the Georgian cause, played a great role in the success of the Georgian side. P. S. The exhibition was inaugurated by the Spanish Minister of Internal Affairs, who declared it a very important occasion. The “unification” of the two Iberias was broadcasted by many Spanish TV channels and media outlets.


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