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s a g a n m a n a T l e b l o - s a z o g a d o e b r i v i

J u r n a l i

sarCevi / Contents Zveli axali samxatvro akademia

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OLD NEW ACADEMY OF ARTS

mravalxmiani

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IN POLYPHONY

uCveulo koncerti

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AN UNUSUAL CONCERT

afxazTa muhajiroba

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ABKHAZ MUHAJIRISM

Crdili da usasruloba

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SHADOW AND INFINITY

ara mgonia, formani bednieri iyos

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I DON’T THINK THAT FORMAN IS HAPPY

mziTvis tradicia

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THE DOWRY TRADITION

vidre arsebobs wminda kedlebi

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WHILE THERE ARE SACRED WALLS

mTavari redaqtori EDITOR-IN-CHIEF revaz iukuriZe REVAZ IUKURIDZE saredaqcio jgufi ramaz Wilaia xaTuna kereseliZe aleqsandre ServaSiZe qeiTi ruTi deivisi

EDITORIAL STAFF RAMAZ CHILAIA KHATUNA KERESELIDZE ALEKSANDRE SHERVASHIDZE KATIE RUTH DAVIES

dizaineri DESIGNER nikoloz bagrationi NIKOLOZ BAGRATIONI

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gamodis kvartalSi erTxel JurnalSi ganTavsebuli masalis gamoyeneba SeiZleba mxolod redaqciis TanxmobiT

Issued quarterly The material published in this magazine cannot be used without the authorization of the editorial staff

ISSN 2346-8165 beWdva: Sps „favoriti“ / Print: LTD Favorite

garekanze: merab survilaZe, seriidan `Crdilebi~ / Cover: Merab Surviladze, from the series "Shadows"

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Zveli axali samxatvro akademia Old New Academy of Arts

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Zvel TbilisSi Camosul mogzaurebs, vaWrebsa Tu ubralod stumrebs xSirad uTqvamT, rom qalaqi orsaxovan ianuss hgavs, radgan masaviT ori buneba aqvs: misi erTi saxe dasavleTisken aris mimarTuli, xolo meore mudam aRmosavleTs umzerso. Tbilisi marTlac aRmosavleTisa da dasavleTis Sesayarze dgas da orive kulturis tradiciebis Tanaziaria. XIX saukuneSi evropidan Camosulebs am qalaqSi gogirdis abano da meqiseebi, qarvaslebi, bazari, aqlemebis qaravanTan erTad mogzauri vaWrebi, aRmosavluri tkbileuli da yavis oxSivari xiblavdaT, aRmosavleTidan Camosulebs _ evropul yaidaze gawyobili sastumroebi da roialis xma aristokratTa salonebSi. Tbiliss yvelasTvis hqonda xibli da misi es `orbunebovneba~ yvelaze ukeT qalaqis istoriul centrSi, mTawmindis ferdobze mdgar erT SenobaSi iCens Tavs... Travelers, merchants or simple guests visiting Tbilisi have often compared this city to the two-faced Janus, because, like him, it has two natures: one of its faces looks westwards, the second is always facing East. Tbilisi is indeed located at the crossroad of East and West, and carries the traditions of both cultures. In the 19th century, European travelers were attracted by this city’s sulfur baths and their masseurs, its caravanserais, bazaar, merchants traveling with their camels and caravans, oriental sweets and coffee steam, while Eastern visitors were more about the hotels arranged in the European style and the sound of grand pianos coming from aristocratic salons. Tbilisi appealed to all, and this dual nature can best be felt in the historic center of the city, in one of the buildings standing on the Mtatsminda hill‌

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XIX saukunis 50-ian wlebSi Tbiliselma didvaWarma, gvarad arSakunim, arqiteqtor grigori ivanovs mdidruli saxlis ageba daukveTa. saxlis patronis Sesaxeb istoriam Zunwad Semoinaxa cnobebi. im droisTvis sakmaod mdidari, axalgazrdobaSi ki xelmokle movaWre, axali saxlis agebiT, rogorc Cans, didi xnis ocnebis axdenas lamobda da am erT nagebobaSi yvelaferi imis Tavmoyra undoda, razec adre xeli ar miuwvdeboda. misi moTxovniT saxli sacxovreblad moxerxebuli, mdidruli da TvalismomWrelad lamazi unda yofiliyo, mteric da moyvarec moexibla. adgilic Sesaferisi iyo, qalaqis centrSi myudro da SemaRlebul quCaze. arqiteqtorma dakveTa zustad Seasrula da aago saxli, romlis dinji, zomierad dekorirebuli fasadi dasavluri arqiteqturis klasikur nimuSs warmoadgenda. nagebobas gegmad berZnuli aso П udevs safuZvlad. misi fasadebi mTel sigrZeze gauyveba griboedovis quCas, xolo myudro Sida ezosken xis gadaxuruli, rikulebiani aivnebiT aris gaxsnili.

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In the 1850s, a successful Tbilisian merchant named Arshakuni ordered the construction of a sumptuous house from architect Grigori Ivanov. There aren’t many historical notes to be found about the owner of this house. He was quite a wealthy merchant at that time, which was not the case during his youth, and by constructing this new house, it seems he was making a longtime dream come true – he put everything he couldn’t previously afford into the building. He asked for the house to be comfortable to live in, pompous and vividly beautiful: he wanted his friends and foes alike to be astonished. He had chosen a perfect place for that endeavor: a pleasant and elevated street in the center of the city. The architect fulfilled the merchant’s wishes perfectly, and erected a house with a dignified, moderately decorated façade that could have been a perfect example of classic western architecture. The structure of the building is based on the Greek letter Π. The length of its facade runs along Griboedov Street, while alongside the cozy yard, the walls breathe through roofed wooden balconies with balustrades. From the entrance hall, a marble staircase lead guests to a vestibule blazing with light, though the


sadarbazodan marmariloTi mopirkeTebul maRal kibes WaRebiT gaCaxCaxebul da aseve marmariloTi Semkul vestibulSi ahyavda stumari, magram saxlis mTavari Tavisebureba meore sarTulze asvlis Semdgom iCenda Tavs. am interierSi moxvedris Semdeg, mnaxvels namdvili siurprizi eloda _ mis Tvalwin, aRmosavluri sasaxlis msgavsad, mdidrulad dekorirebuli darbazebis anfilada iSleboda. erTmaneTze mijriT miwyobili didi da patara darbazebis kedlebi da Weri erTianad iyo dafaruli sarkis ostaturad gaTlili namsxvrevebiT; sxvadasxva zomis niSebi da TaxCebi vazis mtevnebiviT asxmul sarkis namtvrevebs daefara da erTi sanTlis alic ki aTasobiT aTinaTad airekleboda maT zedapirze, elavda da TvalismomWrel sinaTled iRvreboda. rogorc Cans, saxlis damkveT vaWars odesRac nanaxi aRmosavluri

building’s main character really started unfolding when one reached the second floor. A real surprise awaited those who entered this interior – an enfilade of rooms richly decorated in the style of Eastern palaces opened up in front of their eyes. The walls and ceilings of these end-to-end large and small halls were covered with mirror fragments; numerous niches and open cupboards of various sizes were also built into the walls; the flame of a single candle would be reflected thousands of times, flashing and spreading dazzlingly. The owner of the house must have been very impressed by an Eastern palace that he had visited, and he must have considered it to be the ideal of wealth and luxury, because he invited Iranian, and more precisely, renowned Qajar artisans. And the latter put all their heart and knowledge into their work, embellishing the halls with mirrors, ornaments in plaster, floral patterns and beautiful frescoes. To make the impression even stronger, stucco ornaments overlapped

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sasaxlis mogoneba ar aZlevda mosvenebas, simdidris da fufunebis idealad esaxeboda da amitomac sakuTari saxlis interieris Sesamkobad iraneli, kerZod ki, saxelganTqmuli yajari ostatebi moiwvia. maT ki mTeli Tavisi ostatoba Caaqsoves am SekveTaSi, sarkeebiT, TabaSiris ornamentuli wnuliT, mcenareuli saxis naySebiT da ulamazesi mxatvrobiT daamSvenes saxlis darbazebi. STabeWdilebis gasaZliereblad stukos ornamenti adgil-adgil sarkeebzea gadatarebuli, stalaqtituri frizi kedlidan kedelze gadadis da gars uvlis darbazebs. kedlebSi aqa-iq viwro da maRali buxrebia Catanebuli. mxatvroba aRmosavluri miniaturebis ornamentuli yaidisaa. marmarilos imitacia, sarkeebiT mooWvili kedlebi da fanjrebis wirTxli, ornamentis naqargi bade erT mtkavel adgilsac ki ar tovebda mdidruli dekoris gareSe, Warbi feradovnebiT, uxvi elvarebiT, ornamentuli wnulebis sinatifiT avsebda sivrces da aTasobiT sarkeSi areklili eniT uTqmeli simdidris STabeWdilebas aRuZravda mnaxvels.

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mirrors here and there, stalactitic friezes passed from one wall to the other, circling the halls. There were also high and narrow fireplaces, frescoes done in the manner of Eastern miniatures, marble imitations, ornamented window frames‌ the net of ornaments did not leave an inch without decoration, filling the space with exuberant colors, lustre and refinement, all mirrored in the small pieces of glass, creating an ineffable impression of wealth. Arshakuni wanted his house to be more than just a majestic residence, and to become a sort of cultural center and gathering place for the society of that time. Therefore, together with the residential area, he asked the architect to plan rooms with various functions, though he could never settle on exactly what he wanted. One can notice that the project was modified several times – he sometimes wanted to have a billiard room and a cabinet remindful of English clubs, and at other times, something completely different. Anyhow, the construction of the house took longer than expected, and, as we understand, the owner of the house died at a time the workers were laying marbled stairs imported from Italy and the house was almost finished. Although Arshakuni couldn’t manage to


arSakunis surda, rom misi saxli mxolod mdidruli sacxovrebeli ki ara, erTgvari kulturuli centri, maSindeli sazogadoebis TavSeyris adgili gamxdariyo. amitom sacxovrebel farTTan erTad, sxvadasxva daniSnulebis darbazebic daaproeqtebina arqiteqtors, Tumca bolomde ver gadawyvita, konkretulad ra surda. proeqts ramdenjerme gadakeTebis kvali etyoba, xan sabiliardos da inglisuri klubis yaidaze gawyobili kabinetis aSeneba surda, xan sxva azri mosdioda TavSi. asea Tu ise, saxlis mSenebloba, rogorc Cans, gaWianurda da, rogorc gadmocemiT viciT, saxlis patroni maSin gardaicvala, rodesac TiTqmis dasrulebul nagebobaSi italiidan Camotanil marmarilos kibeebs agebdnen. arSakunim ver moaswro ase naloliavebi ocnebis asruleba da sakuTari sasaxliT tkboba, magram misi mTavari survili mainc asrulda da ager ukve saukunenaxevaria es sasaxle yvela momsvlels aocebs dasavluri da aRmosavluri arqiteqturisa da unatifesi dekoris uCveulo sinTeziT.

accomplish his cherished dream and enjoy his own palace, another of his wishes is fulfilled: for a century and a half, this palace has been astonishing every visitor with its unusual synthesis of western and eastern architecture, and exquisite décor. After the death of the merchant, the palace went from one owner to another; it was sometimes used as a private residence, and sometimes its halls hosted private educational institutions or ateliers. In 1902, when the house belonged to the Kobulashvilis, they entrusted Georgian architect Svimon Kldiashvili with its renovation. He left the open space between the buildings intact, but adorned the facades with barocco architectural elements. This is how molds of shells and portrayals of women’s heads, masks, refined garlands and suspended corbels appeared. In 1922, the Tbilisi State Academy of Arts was founded in this building – the first higher education institution in Georgia and the South Caucasus – and a new function appeared for the beautiful halls and salons. Several private and public initiatives paved the way for the foundation of the Acadamy. In 1874, Artistic Society established the first primary art school of the country in Tbilisi.

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damkveTis da saxlis mepatronis gardacvalebis Semdeg Senoba xelidan xelSi gadadioda, xan kerZo sacxovrebeli gaxldaT, xanac mis darbazebSi kerZo saswavleblebi da studiebi idebda binas. 1902 wels, rodesac saxli qobulaSvilebis kuTvnileba iyo, misi gadakeTeba qarTvel arqiteqtors svimon kldiaSvils daevala. man xeluxleblad datova RiobTa forma, Tumca fasadebi barokos arqiteqturis ramdenime elementiT Seamko; ase gaCnda saxlis fasadze naZerwi niJarebi da qalis Tavis gamosaxulebebi, niRbebi, natifi girlandebi da Sekiduli kronStainebi. 1922 wels am SenobaSi daarsda saqarTvelos samxatvro akademia _ pirveli umaRlesi samxatvro saswavlebeli saqarTvelosa da mTel amierkavkasiaSi, da ulamazes darbazebsa da salonebs axali funqcia gauCnda. akademiis daarsebas araerTi kerZo Tu sazogadoebrivi iniciativa uZRoda win. 1874 wels `samxatvro sazogadoebam~ TbilisSi daafuZna saqarTveloSi pirveli dawyebiTi samxatvro skola; 1901 wels TbilisSi gaixsna saSualo samxatvro saswavlebeli _ ferwerisa da qandakebis

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In 1901, a secondary school of painting and sculpture was opened under the patronage of the Imperial School of Arts of St. Petersburg. Until 1921, private art schools existed in Tbilisi and other cities of Georgia. At the end of 1921, the so-called ‘Higher Art Studios’ were founded, and at the beginning of 1922, Mose Toidze founded The People’s Studio. Georgian society was well aware that all this was not enough to provide an ideal artistic education in Georgia: it was necessary to establish an art institution of higher education where talented young people would continue their studies. Active work was conducted by the Association of Georgian Artists founded by Dimitri Shevardnadze in 1916, and eventually it yielded results in 1922. On the 8th of March 1922, by a Resolution of the People’s Commissariat of Education, the Georgian Academy of Arts (as it was initially called) was finally founded. It was the first art institution of higher education in Georgia and in the whole Caucasus, and one of the three Academies (with Leningrad and Riga) that functioned in the Soviet Union. The Resolution of the People’s Commissariat stated: “The Academy, built on the principles of studying live nature, is being founded in order to promote all fields of plastic arts in Georgia.”


skola, romelsac patronaJs peterburgis saimperatoro samxatvro saswavlebeli uwevda; 1921 wlamde Tbilissa da saqarTvelos sxva qalaqebSi arsebobda kerZo samxatvro skolebi; 1921 wlis bolos Seiqmna e.w. umaRlesi samxatvro saxelosnoebi, 1922 wlis dasawyisSi ki mose ToiZem daaarsa saxalxo studia. qarTul sazogadoebas kargad hqonda gacnobierebuli, rom saqarTveloSi samxatvro ganaTlebis srulyofisTvis es yovelive sakmarisi ar iqneboda da aucileblobas warmoadgenda umaRlesi samxatvro saganmanaTleblo instituciis dafuZneba, romelSic niWieri axalgazrdebi gaagrZelebdnen swavlas. am periodSi Zalian aqtiurad moRvaweobda dimitri SevardnaZis mier 1916 wels daarsebuli `qarTvel xelovanTa sazogadoeba~, romlis Zalisxmevamac sabolood 1922 wels gamoiRo Sedegi. 1922 wlis 8 marts, ganaTlebis saxalxo komisariatis dadgenilebiT, daarsda saqarTvelos samxatvro akademia (aseve erqva mas Tavdapirvelad) _ pirveli umaRlesi samxatvro saswavlebeli saqarTvelosa da mTel kavkasiaSi, da erT-erTi im sam akademiaTa Soris (leningradis, rigisa da Tbilisis akademiebi), romlebic sabWoTa kavSirSi funqcionirebda. saxalxo komisariatis teqstSi ewera: „akademia agebuli cocxali bunebis Seswavlis principebze arsdeba im mizniT, rom xeli Seuwyos plastikuri yvela dargis Seswavlas saqarTveloSi“.

Initially, four faculties were established: the Faculties of Painting, Sculpture, Graphic Arts and Architecture. In 1925, a Ceramics Studio was opened, and in the autumn of 1927, the Department of Ceramics was established in the Faculty of Sculpture. Practically all artists and scientists who were active in Georgia at that time took part in administrating the Academy. From April 22nd, 1922, the Academy was managed by a Professors’ Council consisting of Gigo Gabashvili, Iakob Nikoladze, Eugene Lanceray, Mose Toidze, Iosif Charlemagne, Egishe Tatevosyan, Henryk Hryniewski, Anatoli Kalgin, and Nikolay Severov. On the 14th of May 1922, the Professors’ Council elected the first Rector of the Academy, Professor Giorgi Chubinashvili, the founder of the Georgian School of Art History. Many generations of famous Georgian artists received their education precisely here, in the walls of the State Academy of Arts. The old walls of ateliers are impregnated with the smell of famous painters’ oils, the printing machines have preserved the traces of masterful Georgian graphic artists to this day, and the museum’s reserves hold the masterpieces of many a renowned Georgian artist, including those of Gigo Gabashvili, Elene Akhvlediani, Lado Gudiashvili, and Apolon Kutateladze.

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From the very first year of the Academy’s creation, its rector, professor Giorgi Chubinashvili, adressed the government of the time in a letter, asking for assistance in consolidating the construction of the building. The letter didn’t bring any results, and problems accumulated over the decades. The foundations of the building on Mtastminda hill were being washed away by water, walls cracked, rainwater attacked the mirrored halls, and fragments of ornaments fell from the ceiling and walls one after the other. The Academy’s administration would periodically address all instances for help in rehabilitating the building, but despite clearly visible damage, it remained under threat of total destruction. The situation demanded urgent action. The Academy started preparing a large rehabilitation/ conservation project, in which professors and master students of several faculties were involved. The existing situation was studied, and plans for consolidating the construction as well as for the complete, stage-by-stage rehabilitation of the whole building were put forward. In 2015, rehabilitation works supported by the Ministry of Culture and Monument Protection started at the historic building, involving professors, teachers and students of the Academy of Arts. The building gradually retrieved its original appearance: a formerly sealed, beautiful range of lancet arches was uncovered; after cleaning the walls, orignal frescoes illuminated the rooms with their bright colors once more, and a narrow staircase leading to the attic appeared inside a massive wall. Very soon, the palace will return to its former magnificence, and will reveal its treasures in specially arranged exhibition halls. The doors of the mirror halls will be open to all, and this pearl of Tbilisi’s historical neighborhood will once again become a pirvel etapze akademiaSi, evropuli akademiebis msgavsad, oTxi fakulteti Camoyalibda: ferweris, qandakebis, grafikis da xuroTmoZRvrebis. mogvianebiT, 1925 wels, akademiis keramikuli skolis bazaze gaixsna keramikuli saxelosno, xolo ukve 1927 wlis Semodgomaze qandakebis fakultetTan daarsda keramikis ganyofileba. akademiis mmarTvelobaSi monawileobas iRebda praqtikulad yvela xelovani, Tu mecnieri, vinc imxnad saqarTveloSi moRvaweobda. 1922 wlis 22 aprilidan akademias marTavda profesorTa sabWo Semdegi SemadgenlobiT: gigo gabaSvili, iakob nikolaZe, evgeni lansere, mose ToiZe, ioseb Sarlemani, eRiSe TaTevosiani, henrix hrinevski, anatoli kalgini, nikoloz severovi. 1922 wlis 14 maiss akademiis profesorTa sabWos sxdomaze airCies akademiis pirveli reqtori _ qarTuli saxelovnebaTmcodneo skolis fuZemdebeli, profesori giorgi CubinaSvili. cnobil qarTvel xelovanTa araerTi Taoba swored aq, Tbilisis saxelmwifo samxatvro akademiis kedlebSi aRizarda. Zveli saxelosnoebis kedlebi cnobil

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source of inspiration for many a talented artist. Nino Ghaghanidze


fermwerTa zeTis saRebavebis suniTaa gaJRenTili, sabeWd dazgebs TiTqos dRemde SemounaxavT qarTuli grafikis didostatTa kvali, muzeumis fondebSi ki qarTuli xelovnebis araerTi saxelganTqmuli warmomadgenlis Sedevrebi inaxeba; maT Sorisaa gigo gabaSvilis, elene axvledianis, lado gudiaSvilis, apolon quTaTelaZis da sxvaTa namuSevrebi. akademiis daarsebis pirvelive wels, akademiis reqtorma, profesorma giorgi CubinaSvilma weriliT mimarTa maSindel xelisuflebas da daxmareba sTxova Senobis konstruqciuli gamagrebisTvis. werils raime saxis qmediTi daxmareba ar mohyolia, aTeulobiT wlis ganmavlobaSi problemas problema emateboda. mTawmindis ferdze mdgar Senobas miwisqveSa wylebi saZirkvels urecxavda, kedlebi ibzareboda, sarkeebian darbazebSi wvimis wyali atanda da ornamentis fragmentebi erTmaneTis miyolebiT cvioda kedlebidan. akademiis administracia periodulad mimarTavda yvela instancias daxmarebisTvis, Senobis reabilitaciis TxovniT, magram aSkara dazianebebis miuxedavad, avariuli Senoba kvlav dangrevis safrTxis winaSe idga. mdgomareoba saswrafo Carevas da gadaudebel daxmarebas saWiroebda. akademiam daiwyo reabilitacia/

konservaciis didi proeqtis damuSaveba, romelSic akademiis ramdenime fakultetis profesorebi da magistrebi iyvnen CarTulni. Catarda arsebuli mdgomareobis kvleva, gakeTda konstruqciuli gamagrebis proeqti, SemuSavda mTlianad Senobis reabilitaciis etapobrivi gegma. 2015 wels, saqarTvelos kulturisa da ZeglTa dacvis saministros mxardaWeriT, daiwyo akademiis istoriuli Senobis reabilitacia, romelSic akademiis profesormaswavleblebi da studentebic iRebdnen monawileobas. istoriulma Senobam TandaTan miiRo pirvandeli ieri _ gaixsna odesRac amoSenebuli ulamazesi Seisruli TaRebis rigi, gadaxatuli kedlebis gawmendis Semdeg, xasxasa ferebiT Sesrulebulma mxatvrobam amoanaTa, masiur kedelSi ki sxvenze mimavali viwro kibe aRmoCnda Camaluli. sasaxle sul male daibrunebs Tavis brwyinvalebas da sagangebod mowyobil sagamofeno darbazebSi gamoamzeurebs saganZurs; sarkeebiani darbazebis kari yvelasTvis iqneba Ria da istoriuli Tbilisis es namdvili margaliti STagonebis wyarod iqceva kidev araerTi niWieri xelovanisTvis. nino RaRaniZe

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mravalxmiani... Merab Kokochashvili

In Polyphony...

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Zveli welTaRricxvis mexuTe saukunis miwuruli iyo, rodesac berZen meomarTa razmi, romelsac qsenofonte meTaurobda, daupirispirda SavizRvispireTSi mcxovreb tibarenebsa da mosinikebs, qarTvel tomebs. qsenofonte wers, rom maT simRera da cekva bednierebad miaCndaT, mosinikebs ferxuli iseTi aqvT, rogorc Cven qoroebio, magram hangi sruliad gansxvavebuli. ra iyo es gansxvavebuli hangi? riTi gansxvavdebodnen qoroebi? Cven kargad vicnobT da bevrjer aRvfrTovanebulvarT berZnuli antikuri tragediebiT da viciT, rom maTi qoroebi erTxmiania. berZnebs arasdros hqoniaT mravalxmianoba. axla qarTuli uZvelesi, warmarTuli ferxulebi da simRerebi gavixsenoT, Tundac svanuri `lileo~. is mravalxmiania. cekvebic gavixsenoT _ yvela monawile gansxvavebul ileTs asrulebs, ise rogorc momRerali gansxvavebul, Tavis xmas da es uwyveti Widili bolos da bolos erTian harmoniaSi iyris Tavs. ai, es aris qarTvelis principi da es TviT qarTvelis bunebidan, xasiaTidan modis. Cveni istoriac amis magaliTia. es buneba verc erTma epoqam, verc erTi eris zewolam ver waSala da rasac eri mudmivad inaxavs, albaT, aris is, rac TviT ers inaxavs.

In the 5th century BC, a detachment of Greek soldiers headed by Xenophon battled with the Tibareni and the Mossynoeci, two Georgian tribes living on the coast of the Black Sea. Xenophon later wrote that their singing and dancing was a joy, and that the Mossynoeci had “perkhuli,” a traditional ritual song comparable to Greek choruses, though the tune they used was completely different. What did this different tune sound like? What was the difference between their chorus and ours? We know antique Greek tragedies very well, we have often been amazed and inspired by them, and we know that their choruses are monophonic. The Greeks never had polyphony. Now, let us recall the most ancient, pagan “perkhulis” and songs, for instance the Svanetian ‘Lileo’. It is polyphonic. Let us recall the dances – each dancer performs different moves, just as the singers do with their voices, and this continuous struggle finally forms one unified harmony. This is the principle of Georgians, and it comes directly from the Georgian nature and character. Our history can attest to this. This nature could not be transformed by any epoch, could not be taken away by any pressure from any nation – and what a nation keeps forever is probably what actually maintains the nation itself.

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isev qsenofontes davubrundeT... igi gvamcnobs, rom mamakacebma bolomde ibrZoles, Seakvdnen mosul mters da maTma colebma ar isurves sxvis monobaSi yofna _ jer Svilebi gadayares kldidan, Semdeg ki TviTonac gadaeSvnen ufskrulSio. maTTvis miuRebeli iyo sxvisi wesiT cxovreba da sxvisi batonoba sakuTar miwaze. veraviTarma Zalam, veraviTarma zewolam, uZlieresma qristianulma sagaloblis da locvis tradiciamac ki, romelic Tavdapirvelad erTxmiani iyo, ver Seacvlevina qarTvels es mravalxmiani, Tavisufali, individualuri midgoma, rac mis bunebasa da kulturaSia dafuZnebuli. maSasadame eris mudmivobis Semnaxveli erT-erTi uZlieresi Zala kultura yofila. Let us return to Xenophon… He informs us that the men fought till the end, died by the sword of the enemy, and that their wives didn’t want to become anyone’s slaves – they started by throwing their children off a cliff, then jumped off it themselves. To them, it was unthinkable to live under someone else’s rule in their own land. No force, pressure, or even the very strong Christian tradition of chanting and praying, which was monophonic at first, could make Georgians transform this polyphonic, free, individual approach established in their nature and culture. One of the strongest forces preserving the identity of a nation is its culture.

axla, Tu nebas momcemT, kinos mivxedoT. marTalia qarTuli kino XX saukunis `Svilia~, magram aqac qsenofonteseuli ferxulebis Sefaseba SeiZleba gamoviyenoT _ qarTuli filmebi romlebic dRemde uyvars da axsovs mayurebels (e.i. klasikuri qarTuli filmebi) erTis mxriv imave kanonebze dafuZnebiT aris gadaRebuli, rogorc saerTod filmebi (gavixsenoT qsenofonteqoroebiviT) da sruliad gansxvavebuli `hangiT~ (e.i. Sinagani SegrZnebiT, erovnuli xasiaTiT). amitomac Searqves evropelma kinematografistebma qarTul filmebs `kinos qarTuli fenomeni~. aqac individTa uwyvet urTierTbrZolasTan gvaqvs saqme, romlebic Tavisas ar Tmoben harmoniis misaRwevad. da es kinos gariJraJzeve Caisaxa, jer kidev `munji kinos~ periodSi. msoflios bevr kinoskolaSi ritmul montaJs dResac nikolz Sengelaias `elisos~ mixedviT swavloben, lokaciebis Seqmnisas magaliTs kote miqaberiZis `Cemi bebiasgan~ iReben, filmis poeturi saxis Sesaswavlad mixeil kalatoziSvilis `marili svaneTs~ (jim SvanTe) iyeneben. XX saukunis 60-70-iani

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Now, if you allow me, let’s take a look at cinema. Georgian cinema is a child of the 20th century, but here too, we can use Xenophon’s description of the “perkhuli” – Georgian films that are still remembered and loved by the public (meaning classic Georgian films) were, on the one hand, filmed on the same principles as films in general (let us think about Xenophon and the choruses), but with completely different “tunes” (meaning national character and distinctive feelings). That is precisely why European cinematographers have named Georgian cinema “the phenomenon of Georgian cinema”. Here too, we are dealing with a continuous struggle of individuals who don’t concede their uniqueness, but still manage to form a harmony.


wlebis reJisorebis Semoqmedebas rom gadaavloT Tvali, gaocdebiT _ yvela maTgans pirovnebis Tavisuflebis problema stkiva da, saocaria, rogor gansxvavdeba maT filmebSi es tkivili. gaixseneT oTar ioselianis iumoriT savse sarkazmi da ironia, romelic absoluturad gansxvavdeba eldar Sengelaias igavuri formisgan; miSa kobaxiZis sruliad gansxvavebuli stilistika, pirobiTi formebi, romlebic, amave dros `Tav-fexianad~ qarTuli xasiaTis matarebelia; giorgi Sengelaias siRrmiseuli fsiqologizmi xelovanTa samyaros gaxsnisas, nana mWedliZisa da soso CxaiZis saocrad erovnuli, qarTuli nacionaluri koloritiT savse xasiaTebi... rezo CxeiZis, Tengiz abulaZis, lana RoRoberiZisa da kidev bevri sxva Semoqmedis filmi im kulturiTaa gaJRenTili razedac Cven dRes vsaubrobT da vagrZelebT saubars. kinos qarTuli fenomeni mravalsaukunovan qarTul kulturazea dafuZnebuli da amitomac Searqves mas `qarTuli fenomeni~.

And this has been the case since the very beginnings of cinema, even in the period of silent films. To date, in many cinema schools around the world, they still teach rhythmic montage according to Nikoloz Shengelaia’s ‘Eliso’, use Kote Mikaberidze’s ‘My Grandmother’ as an example of set decoration, and Mikheil Kalatozishvili’s ‘Salt for Svaneti’ (Jim Shvante) to transmit cinema’s poetic side. If you take a look at Georgian directors’ films created during the 1960-70s, you are sure to be amazed – each of them tackles the issue of the lack of individual freedom, but the diversity of the ways in which it is conveyed is truly amazing. Just think about Otar Ioseliani’s humoristic sarcasm and irony, which is completely different from Eldar Shengelaia’s “parable” form; the unique style of Misha Kobakhidze and his forms, which are simultaneously quite vague and of Georgian character from head to toe; Giorgi Shengelaia’s deep psychological approach of artists’ lives, Nana Mchedlidze and Soso Chkhaidze’s picturesque, typically Georgian characters… The films of Rezo Chkheidze, Tengiz Abuladze, Lana Ghoghoberidze and many other directors is full of the culture we are talking about right now.

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axla warmovidginoT, rom, vTqvaT, `vefxistyaosnis~ an `SuSanikis wamebis~ pirveli xelnawerebi, dednebi saqarTveloSi ki ara, sadRac sxva qveyanaSi inaxeba. is qveyana dabejiTebiT irwmuneba, rom es qmnilebebi Cvenia, qarTvelebis, TviT is ki mxolod Semnaxvelia da es xelnaweri samuzeumo eqsponatia, ar SeiZleba gatanil iqnas qveynidan, es kanonia. marTalia is qveyana mzad aris am eqsponatebis aslebi daamzados da amaSi Cven, Semqmnelebma fuli unda gadavuxadoT, sakmaod didi fuli.

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The phenomenon of Georgian cinema is based on a Georgian culture that counts centuries, if not millennia, and that’s precisely why it was called the “Georgian phenomenon”. Now, let us imagine, for instance, that the first manuscripts of ‘The Knight in the Panther’s Skin’ and ‘The Martyrdom of the Holy Queen Shushanik’, the originals ones, are kept in a country other than Georgia. This country claims, convincingly enough, that these creations are ours, Georgians’, that they are only its keepers, and that these manuscripts are museum exhibits and cannot be taken out of the country, because of the law. The country in question is ready to


ai, zustad aseTi viTarebaa klasikuri qarTuli filmebis SemTxvevaSi, romelTa dednebi da sawyisi masalebi ruseTis filmsacavSi inaxeba. Zalian kargad inaxeba, Tumca wvdoma maTze saqarTveloSi ara gvaqvs. ramdenime wlis win saqarTvelos kulturis ministrma da ruseTis saxelmwifi filmsacavis (`gosfilmfondi~) xelmZRvanelma xeli moaweres memorandums, romlis mixedviTac saqarTvelos gadmoecemoda iq daculi qarTuli filmebis ara dednebi, aramed maTi Sesatyvisi pozitivi (am saxiT firze gadmotanil pozitivs lavanda hqvia), romelic saSualebas iZleva sabolood miviRoT Zalze maRali xarisxis cifruli versia. es lavanda

prepare copies of these exhibits, and we, their creators, have to pay them money, quite a lot of money. Well, this is exactly the case with classic Georgian films: the original negatives as well as their positives (from which one can make copies) are kept in the Russian Film Foundation. They are very well kept and preserved, but we don’t have access to them in Georgia. Several years ago, the Georgian Minister of Culture and the head of the Russian State Film Foundation (Gosfilmofond) signed a memorandum, according to which Georgia, instead of the original

da cifruli versiac kinomemkvidreobis saxiT iqneba Senaxuli. igive lavanda SesaZleblobas iZleva gamravldes qarTuli kinoklasikis cifruli aslebi. safuZveli Caeyara saSviliSvilo saqmes, radgan kinomemkvidreobis saqarTveloSi dabrunebis garda, Cveni mayureblisTvis SesaZlebeli gaxdeba gaecnos qarTul filmebs im xarisxiT, im saxiT, rogorc is TviT kinoxelovanebma Seqmnes. dRes mayurebeli amas moklebulia (Tu ar CavTvliT sul ramdenime films), radgan filmebis aslebi daZvelebulia da iseT mdgomareobaSia, rom gamosaxuleba TiTqmis ar Cans da qarTuli xma ar ismis. memorandumis xelmoweridan TiTqmis sam welze meti gavida. Tqveni Jurnalis 2016 wlis 3(5) nomerSi statiaa imis Sesaxeb, rom memorandumis xelmoweris Semdeg moskovidan oTxi Sav-TeTri munji kinos periodis filmia miRebuli lavandisa da misi Sesatyvisi pozitivis, e.i. sawyisi masalis saxiT. Tu am tempiT gavagrZeleT procesi, CaTvaleT, rom Svidasi qarTuli filmis sawyisi masalis miRebas orasamde weli dasWirdeba! ra saxisa iqneba im dros kino RmerTma uwyis. iseTi tempiT viTardeba dRes kinoindustria, rom ar aris gamoricxuli im droisTvis is saxe miiRos, rogorc es SesaniSnav mweral-fantasts,

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rei bredberisa aqvs Tavis moTxrobaSi, sadac patara biWi, romelic eleqtronuli TamaSebiTaa gatacebuli (iseve, rogorc dRes Cveni SviliSvilebi), xolo mSoblebi xels uSlian mas am survilis ganxorcielebaSi da msxverplni xdebian bavSvis interesebisa _ moZalade mSoblebs bavSvi mis mierve realobad qceul nadirs daaglejinebs da SeaWmevs. Cvenc nu moviqceviT ise, rom Zveli qarTuli kulturis (maT Soris kinokulturisac) moyvarulma Cvenma STamomavlebma, eleqtronul arsebebs daarbevinon Cveni saflavebi. magram Tavi gavaneboT lirikas. daaxloebiT aTiTormeti wlis win daiwva `qarTuli filmis~ sakmaod primitiuli filmsacavi, saWiro gaxda gadarCenili filmebis da sawyisi masalebis xelaxali inventarizacia da gamoirkva, rom dReisaTvis CvenTan inaxeba samasamde firze gadaRebuli qarTuli filmis sawyisebi. es sawyisebi im donis ar aris, rac moskovis sacavSia (iq negativebia, pirveladi sawyisi masala, CvenTan ZiriTadad maTi aslebia), magram erT faqts mogiyvebiT da bevri ram imedis momcemi gaxdeba. wels, gazafxulze germaniidan, kinoTeatr `arsenalidan~ miviReT werili, sadac gvwerdnen, rom maT survili aqvT

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films kept there, would be handed its positives (or so-called “lavender prints”), which would in turn allow us to get a digital version of very high quality. These lavender prints and digital versions would be preserved as cinema heritage. The same lavenders also give the possibility to multiply the digital copies of Georgian film classics. This laid the foundations of a very important undertaking, as, without returning our cinema heritage to Georgia, our audience will be able to get acquainted with Georgian films in the condition they were indeed created by cinematographers. And this is not the case today (if we don’t count a very small number of films), because the copies of the films have aged, and are in such a bad condition that we see almost nothing, and cannot hear the Georgian voices. Three years have now passed since the signing of the memorandum. In the 3(5) issue of this magazine, published in 2016, there is an article in which we can read that after the signing of this memorandum, we received the lavenders and positives, or in other words, the “source” material, of four silent black and white films. If we continue this process at this pace, we can estimate that getting the “source” material from 700 Georgian films would take about 200 years! And God knows in what condition these films will be at that time. The film industry is developing so fast nowadays that we shouldn’t be surprised if in two centuries, cinema transforms into what the


ramdenime qarTuli filmis distribucia ganaxorcielon evropul sivrceSi. imave dros gvatyobinebdnen, rom vinaidan filmebis sawyisi masalebi ruseTSi inaxeba, maT iqaur xelmZRvanelobas mimarTes, raTa Sesabamisi anazRaurebiT qarTuli filmebis sawyisi masalis gamoyenebis ufleba miecaT. ruseTma iseTi maRali fasi daasaxela, rom germanelebi iZulebulni gaxdnen uari eTqvaT da Cven, `qarTul films~ mogvmarTes, _ iqneb Tqvenca gaqvT raime sawyisi masalebio. `qarTulma filmma~ gaugzavna saqarTveloSi arsebuli sawyisebi da germanelebmma, italiuri firmis meSveobiT, romelic qalaq boloniaSia, daamzades umaRlesi donis cifruli aslebi, romelTa distribucia nebismier qveyanaSia SesaZlebeli. maSasadame im Svidasi aslidan, romlebic ruseTis sacavSi inaxeba, Cven, qarTvelebs samasi aslis cifruli versiis damzadeba, sxvisTvis fulis gadauxdelad, aqve, `qarTul filmSi~ SegviZlia. miT umetes skaneri, marTalia cota moZvelebuli danadgari, romelic dResdReobiT msoflio gaqiravebis Sesabamis cifrul formats 2K-s iZleva, mxolod `qarTul filmSia~. amis magaliTad isic SeiZleba gamodges, rom moskovidan am ori wlis

remarkable fantasy author Ray Bradbury predicted in one of his stories, where there is a little boy who is passionate about electronic games (just like our grandchildren today), and whose parents prevent him from fulfilling his passion and become the victims of their child’s interests – the kid will make a beast of his creation and tear apart and eat his oppressing parents. Let us not behave in a way that will make those of our descendants who like Georgian culture (including cinema culture) ravage our graves with electronic creatures. But let us move away from lyricism. About ten to twelve years ago, the relatively primitive film reserve of ‘Georgian Film’ caught fire, and it became necessary to make a new inventory of the films and source materials that could be saved. It was discovered that today we have the source materials of about 300 Georgian movies shot on film. These source materials do not offer the same quality of those in Moscow (they have the negatives, the original source material, while we mainly have copies), but I will tell you one fact, one that fills me with hope. In spring of this year, I received a letter from the German cinema theater ‘Arsenal’, in which they wrote us that they had a desire to distribute a number of Georgian films in Europe. They also wrote that because the original source materials of the films were in Russia, they had written to the Russian film reserve’s administration in order to

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ganmavlobaSi miRebuli munji periodis Sav-TeTri filmis `bubas~ (reJ. nuca RoRoberiZe) lavanda `qarTul filmSi~ gaicifra da ukve ramdenime saerTaSoriso kinoCvenebaze gaigzavna kidec. postproduqciis cifruli sistemis amuSaveba saqarTveloSi imdenad erovnuli da perspeqtiuli saqmea, rom Cven moviwvieT boloniaSi arsebuli msoflioSi erT-erTi saukeTeso firmis L’Immagine Ritrovata-s specialistebi, romlis filialebi singapursa da parizSia, xolo skolebi buenos-airesSi, mumbaiSi da TviT boloniaSi da maTgan miviReT saintereso konsultacia. isini mzad arian gagviwion daxmareba yvela mimarTulebiT rac saWiro iqneba aq gacifvris regionuli masStabis organizaciis Sesaqmnelad, `qarTul filmSi~. regionis cnebaSi vgulisxmobT ara mxolod kavkasias, aramed mTel Sua aziasac, radgan aseTi SemoqmedebiTi sawarmo, romelsac kinofiri Tanamedrove formatSi gadaaqvs, aqeT jer ar arsebobs. firis gacifvra sistemaa, romelic moiTxovs mTeli rigi danadgarebis amuSavebas da specialistebis momzadebas. es danadgarebia: firze sawyisi masalis gawmendisa da restavraciis mowyobiloba, skaneri, romelsac firidan eleqtronuli versiis Seqmna SeuZlia, ferisa da xmis koreqtirebis sisitemebi, Sesabamisi samontaJoebi da specialistebis momzadeba. Sedegad saqarTvelos eqneba sakuTari kinomemkvidreoba, xolo qarTvel da ara marto qarTvel mayurebels SesaZlebloba naxos qarTuli filmebi saukeTeso saxiT. bunebrivia, gasacifr masalad vgulisxmob rogorc saqarTveloSi arsebul sawyis masalebs, ise ruseTis arqivebSi dacul sawyisebs, radgan garda `gosfilmfondSi~ daculi Svidasi mxatvruli, animaciuri da dokumenturi filmis sawyisebisa, ruseTisve teleradiocentris fondSi aseve inaxeba

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get the right to use the source material of Georgian films, in return for money of course. Russia told them such a high price that the Germans had to refuse, and wrote to us, at ‘Georgian Film’ – “perhaps you also have some source materials”. ‘Georgian Film’ sent them the source materials that were in Georgia, and with the help of an Italian company based in Bologna, they prepared digital copies of the highest quality, and which can be distributed in any country. Therefore, from the 700 copies that are kept in Russia, we Georgians can make digital versions of about 300, here, at ‘Georgian Film’, without paying any other party. What’s more, the only scanner (even though it is a little bit old) in Georgia that gives the 2K digital format of international standards is here, at ‘Georgian Film’. As a precedent, Nutsa Ghoghoberidze’s ‘Buba’, the black and white silent film that was sent by Russia, was digitalized at ‘Georgian Film’, and was even sent to several international screenings. The development of the digital system in post-production is such a promising endeavor of national importance that we have invited specialists from ‘L’Immagine Ritrovata’, a company based in Bologna that is one of the best in the world, and has branches in Singapore and Paris, and schools in Buenos Aires, Mumbay, and in Bologna itself. We had very interesting consultations with them: they are ready to help us any way we need to create an organized system of digitalization on a regional scale here, at ‘Georgian Film’. By regional, we mean not only the Caucasus, but also Central Asia, as, at present, there is no company in the region that converts films into modern formats. The digitalization of films is a system that demands the acquisition of many machines: a machine that cleans the source material on the film and restores it, a scanner that can create electronic versions from films, color and sound correction systems, and proper editing equipment. And of course, the training of specialists is needed. As a result, Georgia will own its own cinema heritage, and the Georgian as well as the foreign audience will be able to watch Georgian films in the highest quality. Naturally, the material that needs to be digitalized includes not only the source materials we have in Georgia, but also the ones that are preserved


qarTuli satelevizio filmebis sawyisebi. sworad ganxorcielebuli distribucia ki qveyanas Sesabamis Semosavals moutans, radgan interesi qarTuli kinos mimarT didia rogorc saqarTveloSi, ise mis sazRvrebs gareT. garda amisa, bevr qveyanaSi dRes mravalricxovani qarTuli diaspora arsebobs. arc is unda dagvaviwydes, rom Seiqmneba specialistTa jgufi da dasaqmdeba aTeulobiT adamiani. aseTi saamqros Seqmnis proeqti wardgenilia kinocentrSi, kulturis saministroSi, ekonomikis saministroSi da saerTod, mTavrobaSi. mis gansaxorcieleblad saWiro iqneba erTi milioni dolari. me Rrmad var darwmunebuli, rom gamgebi gaigebs am Cvens gulistkivils, magram minda, rom gamRebma gaiRos, imoqmedos da imedi maqvs, rom es moqmedeba iqneba saxelisufloc, sazogadoebrivic da individualuric, ai, swored iseTi, rogorc TviT qarTuli kultura da qarTuli bunebaa _ mravalxmiani. oqtomberi 2017 weli

in the Russian archives, because, apart from source materials from the 700 feature, animation and documentary films kept at the ‘Gosfilmofond’, the source materials of Georgian TV films are also kept in Russia, in the TV and Radio Center’s fund. The right distribution strategy would bring reasonable income to Georgia, as interest towards Georgian cinema is high both in Georgia and abroad. Apart from that, there are now quite large Georgian diasporas in many countries. And let us not forget that a group of specialists will be created, as will dozens of jobs. This project is submitted to the Georgian National Film Center, to the Ministry of Culture and Monument Protection, to the Ministry of Economy and Sustainable Development, an in general, to the government. It needs one million dollars to be implemented. I am deeply convinced that our grief will be understood, but I want all those who need to understand it to open up, to take action, and I hope that this will be done not only on the governmental level but also on the social, and individual level, just like the Georgian culture and Georgian nature itself – in polyphony. October 2017

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uCveulo koncerti saukune-naxevris win ingliselma jon reskinma veneciis qvebis aRweriT wyalze gaSenebuli qalaqisa da arqiteqturis istoria mouTxro viqtorianul samyaros _ qvebisa, romelic veneciuri musikiT iyo gaJRenTili. winandlis WavWavaZianT sasaxlis qvebsac Tavisi istoria aqvs da im dRes Telavis festivalis farglebSi maTi uZvelesi nawili mcirericxovan msmenelTan erTad Tanamedroveobis virtuozis, boris berezovskis brwyinvale koncertis mowmeni gaxdnen. koncerts salonuri xasiaTi hqonda, rac erTgvari gamoZaxili iyo im warsulis salonuri koncertebis tradiciisa, romelic aleqsandre WavWavaZis ojaxSi damkvidrda _ pirveli roialic xom man Camoitana saqarTveloSi. boris berezovskis koncertis kulminaciad raxmaninovis pirveli sonata iqca, romlis neli nawilis Sesrulebisas dro TiTqos waiSala da qvebis maradiulobas Seerwya...

AN UNUSUAL CONCERT A century and a half ago, when Englishman John Ruskin was telling the Victorian world about the history and architecture of Venice, he described Venetian stones as being impregnated with the “City of Water’s” music. The stones of the Chavchavadze Palace in Tsinandali also have their history, and recently, in the framework of the Telavi Music Festival, together with a small audience, they witnessed a brilliant concert by virtuoso pianist Boris Berezovsky. The concert’s atmosphere was remindful of those old salons, and reflected the past tradition of salon concerts that was established in Aleksandre Chavchavadze’s family – let’s remember that he was the one who imported the first grand piano to Georgia. The culmination of Berezovsky’s concert was Rachmaninoff’s First Sonata: And when the pianist played the slower part, time seemed to stop and merge with those eternal stones.

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saubari repertuariT daviwyoT. roca saqarTveloSi CamodixarT yovelTvis raRac axals ukravT, xandaxan notebidan. axlac, TelavSi, grigi daukariT, rac arasdros Semxvedria Tqvens repertuarSi? ara, adre arasdros damikravs. daaxloebiT ori wlis win Semiyvarda misi musika. ratomRac es saviolonCelo da saviolino sonatebiT daiwyo. grigs aqvs warmoudgenli silamazis saorkestro piesa _ `ukanaskneli gazafxuli~, romelmac imdenad momxibla, rom gadavwyvite `bevri grigi~ damekra. raxmaninovsac ki norvegielis safortepiano koncerti, yvelaze srulyofil koncertad miaCnda. grigis sonatas Tu ukravT? an mocartis sonatis miseul transkripcias ori roialisTvis? diax, orives vukrav. mocartis grigiseuli transkripcia mSvenieria _ mocartis musikas grigi misTvis damaxasiaTebel intonaciebs amatebs rac Zalian axalisebs mas. rom ara Caikovksis konkursze gamarjveba, iqnebodiT Tu ara am masStabis artisti? SesaZloa gavmxdariyavi kidec. axla Znelia amis Tqma da Cemi cxovrebidan Caikovskis konkursis amogdeba/ gamoricxva. miuxedavad imisa, rom am konkurss bevri kritikosi hyavs, mainc Zalian miyvars. ra Tqma unda, is srulyofili ar aris, Tumca ukve tradiciaa. momwons, roca adamianebi kamaToben da xSirad Cxubamdec midian _ am dros saqme maT favorit konkursants exeba da es sasiamovno aJiotaJia. xSirad ambobT, rom Caikovskis konkursze imitom gaimarjveT, rom Tqvens pedagogs eliso virsalaZes daujereT. rom ara virsalaZis gakveTilebi, gaimarjvebdiT? veWvob. albaT, am konkurs misi daxmarebis gareSe ver movigebdi. qalbatonma elisom kargad momamzada da... vbrwyinavdi (icinis). usazRvrod madlieri var misi da davalebuli, Cemi warmatebis udidesi wili virsalaZis damsaxurebaa.

Let’s start our discussion with your repertoire. Each time you visit Georgia, you play something new, sometimes with partitions. This time too, in Telavi, you played Grieg, which I didn’t know was in your repertoire. It wasn’t, I’d never played it before. I fell in love with his music about two years ago. For some reason, it started with his sonatas for cello and violin. Grieg has an unbelievably beautiful orchestra piece – ‘The Last Spring’, which I liked so much that I decided to play a lot of Grieg. Even Rachmaninoff considered the Norwegian’s ‘Piano Concerto’ to be the most accomplished concert. Do you play any of Grieg’s sonatas? Or his transcription of Mozart’s sonata for two pianos? Yes, I play both. Grieg’s transcription of Mozart’s music is wonderful – Grieg adds his characteristic intonations to Mozart’s music, and in this way refreshes the opus in a very pleasant manner.

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Semdeg, metneriT dainteresdiT da aleqsandr sacs mimarTeT... diax, bunebrivia maSin virsalaZis CrdilqveS viyavi _ es CemTvis krizisi iyo da daaxloebiT xuT-aT wels gagrZelda. am dros konservatoria davamTavre da elisosac raRa unda eqna, man xom SesaZleblobis maqsimumi gaakeTa... meCveneboda, rom sakuTari Tavis rwmena davkarge da swored amis gadasalaxad mivakiTxe aleqsand sacs. vfiqrob, saWiroa ramdenime Zlieri gavlena, avtoritetTan mecadineoba, rom musikis Seneul gagebamde mixvide. arian iseTi kompozitorebi, romlebic didebis miRma dganan da xSirad esa Tu is pianisti irCevs, uRrmavdeba romelime maTgans. CemTvis aseTi wlebis ganmavlobaSi metneri iyo. Tuki adre, metners metwilad sabWoTa pianistebi ukravdnen, maT Soris emil gilelsi, dRes ukve bevri ukravs, magaliTad, kanadel mak-andre hemlins misi yvela sonata aqvs Cawerili. diax, Zalian kargad Cawera. me yvela ar damikravs, vukravdi fa-minoruls, `romantikuls~, `Ramis qars~ da

Do you think you would be an artist of this importance if you hadn’t won the Tchaikovsky Competition? Maybe. It’s difficult to say now, and, naturally, I cannot neglect the role of the Tchaikovsky Competition in my life. Although this competition has many critics, I still love it very much. Maybe it isn’t the most prestigious in the world, but it has already become a very important tradition in the music world. I like it when people quarrel with each other and often even fight – at that time, they are talking about their favorite participants, and it is positive, agreeable agitation. You often say that you won the Tchaikovsky competition because you followed your professor, Eliso Virsaladze’s, advice. Would you have won if it weren’t for Virsaladze’s lessons? I doubt it. I would probably not have won without her help. Mrs Eliso prepared me very well and… I was brilliant (laughs). I feel utterly grateful and obliged for what she did, as she played a great role in that success, and more generally, in my career. Afterwards, you got interested in Medtner, and you addressed Alexander Satz… Yes. At that time, naturally, I was in Virsaladze’s shadow – it was a crisis for me, one that lasted about five to ten years. I finished the

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mTel rig `zRaprebs~, aseve romansebs. dRes ufro mcire formebs virCev, radgan, farTo auditoriisTvis metneris didi sonatebi rTuli mosasmenia, maTTvis kameruli darbazi, momzadebuli msmenelia saWiro. vinc Caikovskis SarSanwindel konkurs adevnebda Tvals, emaxsovreba rom misi erT-erTi monawile urkavda metners. frang luka debargs gulsixmobT? diax, es sakmaod uCveulo iyo am konkursisTvis da swored es gaxda am pianistis warmatebis erT-erTi winapiroba. Tqven Tavad iyaviT Caikovskis im konkursis Jiuris wevri, sadac luka debargs, romelic msmenelis aSkara favoriti iyo, mxolod meoTxe premia mianiWes... Jiuris wevrebs konkursantebze gansxvavebuli azri CamouyalibdaT, erTs erTi moswonda, meores meore da Tanamoazris povna SeuZlebeli aRmoCnda, es Zalian ucnauria da Zalian individualuric. leqso ToraZec Jiuris wevri iyo, xom? diax, erTad visxediT. xom ar dagikravT erTad? ara, margam erTad bevrs vsvamdiT (icinis).

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Conservatoire during that period, and what more could Eliso do? She had already done the maximum… I had the feeling that I had lost confidence, and that’s the reason I contacted Alexander Satz. I think that it’s necessary to have a number of strong people influence you, to study with authorities in the field, in order to attain your own understanding of music. Some composers have surpassed greatness, and this or that pianist often chooses one of them and studies him in great depth. For me, one such composer was Medtner. If, earlier, Medtner was mainly played by soviet pianists, including Emil Gilels, nowadays many are playing his compositions, for instance, Canadian Marc-André Hamelin has recorded all of Medtner’s sonatas. Yes, and they are really good recordings. I haven’t played all of them. I used to play his Sonata in F minor, ‘Romantica’, ‘Night Wind’, and many of his ‘Tales’ and romances. Today, I choose smaller pieces, as it is difficult for larger audiences to listen to Medtner’s long sonatas, which need small halls and an experienced audience. Those who were following last year’s Tchaikovsky Competition will remember that one of the contestants played Medtner. You mean French pianist Lucas Debargue? Yes. It was quite unusual for this competition, and it was one of the reasons for the young pianist’s success.


faqtobrivad, bavSvoba obrazcovis Tojinebis TeatrSi gaatareT, sadac mamaTqveni ukravda. aman ganapiroba Tqveni musikiT gataceba? diax, am TeatrSi bavSvobidan raRac gansakuTrebuli, uCveulo gancda meufleboda... Tu gaxsovT erT-erT yvelaze cnobil warmodgenas asec erqva _ `uCveulo koncerti~. es gancda axla moskovSi sacxovreblad dabrunebuls, dResac maqvs. ratom dabrundiT? pirvel rigSi mombezrda emigrantoba. vinc ucxoeTSi ixveweba, maTi mesmis da ar ganvikiTxav. magram amas kargi cxovreba ar ganapirobebs. me dRes moskovSi SesaniSnavad vcxovrob, yvelaferi maqvs _ koncertebic, aRiarebac da fulic, amitom iq cxovreba CemTvis nacnobi, ioli da sasiamovnoa. Tqven dagikravT monografiuli koncertebi. erT saRamos beThovenis xuTive safortepiano koncerti SeasruleT. es sportuli interesi iyo? rogor giTxraT, albaT 20-25 wlis winandel axalgazrdul eqsperimentis ufro hgavda. axla aseT rames, rac ar unda

You were one of the jury members of the Tchaikovsky Competition in which Lucas Debargue, who was clearly the audience’s favorite, only got fourth prize… The jury had very different opinions about the competitors, one member liked a certain pianist, the second another, and it was impossible to really settle on someone, because it is a matter of individual opinion. Lexo Toradze was also a member of the jury, wasn’t he? Yes, we were sitting side by side. Have you ever performed together? No, but we have drunk together a lot (laughs). You practically spent your whole childhood in Obraztsov’s puppet theater, where your father used to play. Was this the reason behind your passion for music? Yes, since my childhood, I have felt very special emotions at this theater… If you remember, one of the most famous performances was also called “An Unusual Concert”. I still carry these emotions today, since returning to live in Moscow.

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moxdes, aRar gavimeoreb. roca axalgazrda xar, SeiZleba ase `iTamaSo~ da publiksac, raoden gasakviric unda iyos, es moswons. im dRes msmenelic daiRala, Tumca maTac sprotuli Jini hqondaT, ainteresebdaT, CavamTavrebdi Tu ver... CavamTavre, magram amis mere amgvari Canafiqrebi uarvyavi. godovskis Sopenis etiudebic aseTi gataceba iyo? ho, da axla aRarc maT vukrav. es Zalin saintereso iyo, teqnikurad urTulesi Sesasrulebelia, Tan maT Sopenis etiudebTan monacvleobiT, erT koncertSi vukravdi. sruli cikli arc iyo da rac davukari, maszec samwliani momzadeba damWirda. beThovenis sonatebi... axlaxan davukari 29-e, Hammerklavier, da davukari mxolod imitom, rom meTqva, esec Sesrulebuli maqvs.

Why did you go back? In the first place, I got bored with being an emigrant. I understand people who choose to develop abroad, and I don’t question their choice. But this doesn’t mean that they are living a good life. Today, I have a wonderful life in Moscow, I have everything – concerts, recognition, and money, so living there is familiar, easy and pleasant for me. You’ve played monographic concerts. One evening, you performed all five piano concerts by Beethoven. Did you do it for the sake of it? It was probably more like a youthful experimental concert that I would have done 20 or 25 years ago. Today, there is no way that I would do such thing. When you are young, you can “play games” like that, and the public, as surprising as it may seem, likes it. On that day, the public got tired, but they were quite excited, too; they were interested in whether I would finish it or not… I finished it, but after that, I decided I would never do it again!

amgvar nawarmoebebs, Cveulebriv, mxolod orjer vukrav da Semdeg viviwyeb. beThovenis sonatebidan bevri damikravs, magram srul ciklamde Sors var.

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You were also passionate about Godowsky’s arrangements of Chopin’s etudes.


beThovenis sonatebSi romelime redaqcias Tu irCevT? ara, absoluturad sulerTia, mTavaria notebi mqondes. mocartis koncertebi Tu dagikravT da maTTvis kadenciebi SegiqmniaT? zogierTi ki. magram araTu kadenciebi, erTi notic ki ar damiweria. baxs..? cotas. male meqneba 24 preludiis da fugis Zalian saintereso proeqti, romelic baxis, mendelsonis, hindemitis, glazunovis, SostakoviCis da zaderackis calkeul preludiebsa da fugebs gaaerTianebs. gerSvinsa da bolkomis regtaimebsac asrulebT... bunebrivia. vukrav yvelafers, rac momwons, an ki rogor unda iyos sxvagvarad. improvizaciebs ukravT? cudad, Tumca improvizaciis principebi vici. magram improvizirebT dakvris dros... es sxva saqmea. koncertze arturo benedeti mikelanjeliviT kargad momzadebuli nawarmoebi gagaqvT, Tu scenac SemoqmedebiTi procesis nawilia TqvenTvis? ara, mikelanjeli Cemi tipi swored rom ar aris. scenas, Cveulebriv mosaTeladac viyeneb. imisTvis, rom ama Tu im nawarmoebSi Tavisuflad vigrZno Tavi, daaxloebiT xuTi-aTi koncerti mWirdeba. Tumca, eqsperimentebs aqac vuSveb.

Yes, and now, I don’t play them anymore either. It was very interesting, very difficult to perform technically speaking, even more so because I was playing them in-between actual Chopin’s etudes, in one and the same concert. It wasn’t even a full cycle, but it took me three years of preparation. What about Beethoven’s sonatas? I recently played the 29th, ‘Hammerklavier’, and I played it only to be able to say that I did it. Usually, I only play this kind of piece twice, and then I forget it. I’ve played many of Beethoven’s sonatas, but I am far from the full cycle. Do you prefer a particular edition of Beethoven’s sonatas? No, it doesn’t matter at all, I just need the notes. Did you ever play Mozart concerts, and did you create cadences for them? Some of them, yes. But I haven’t written any note for them, let alone cadences. Do you play Bach? A little bit. I will soon be taking part in a very interesting project with 24 preludes and fugues, which will unite compositions by Bach, Mendelssohn, Glazunov, Shostakovich and Zaderatsky. You also perform Gershwin and Bolcom’s ragtimes… Of course. I play everything I like, and that’s exactly how it should be. Do you play improvisations? Badly, though I know the principles of improvisation.

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But you sometimes improvise while performing… That’s another thing. Do you go on stage with well-prepared pieces, like Arturo Benedetti Michelangeli, or is the stage part of the creative process for you? No, Michelangeli and I are clearly different types of pianists. I use the stage as a place for further practice. In order to feel comfortable with this or that composition, I need about five to ten concerts. But I carry out experiments afterwards too.

Tqvens repertuarSi did adgili ukavia rusul musikas, xSirad miviwyebul nawarmoebebsac ki. maxsovs, TbilisSi Sesrulebuli Caikovskis fa-maJoruli variaciebi... diax, aseT musikas iSviaTad ukraven, radgan safortepiano repertuari isedac farToa. Tundac mili balakirevs bevri kargi nawarmoebi aqvs, magram ratomRac yvela `islameis~ asrulebs. maSin roca, misi skercoebi erTgvari parodiaa Sopenis skercoebze, tonalobac ki igivea. Sin balakirevis nawarmoebebis sami mozrdili tomi maqvs... (icinis) odesme albaT samives daukravT? SesaZloa, sxvaTa Soris kargi idea... rusuli pianisturi skolidan yvelaze xSirad maria iudinas da vladimer sofronickis axsenebT, sxvebs naklebad, magaliTad neihauzs an rixters... axalgazrdobisas avtoritetebs xSirad da swrafad icvli _ erT kults enacvleba meore, mesame, meoTxe da a.S. Semdeg xvdebi, rom yoveli maTgani SesaniSnavia da SegiZlia TiToeulisgan raRac iswavlo. Tumca `axalgazrduli kultebi~ garkveulwilad xelsac giSlian, roca maT mimarT brma siyvaruls avlen. dRes Tuki vinme mainteresebs, es radikalurad ganwyobili axalgazrda pianistebi arian. rixterze giTqvamT, rom arasrulyofili teqnika hqonda... simTvraleSi ras ar ityvis kaci (icinis). ise, axlac vfiqrob rom rixters srulyofili teqnika ar hqonda, mas xom bavSvobaSi ar uswavlia. zogjer igrZnoba, rom misTvis dakvra mouxerxebelia, aklia moqniloba. ar ifiqroT, rom rixteri ar miyvars, piriqiT... ubralod mgonia rom es obieqturi WeSmaritebaa. pianistebze saubari arc ise sainteresoa, isini bevrni arian da iSviaTad davdivar sxvaTa koncertebze. maT ufro maSin vusmen, roca Cems festivalze ukraven.

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Russian music holds an important place in your repertoire, and you sometimes even play forgotten or neglected compositions. I recall you performing Tchaikovsky’s ‘Variations in F Major’ in Tbilisi… Yes, these kinds of pieces are rarely played, because the piano repertoire is very broad. For instance, there are a lot of compositions by Mily Balakirev, but for some reason, everybody always plays ‘Islamey’, while his sherzos are kinds of parodies of Chopin’s – even the tonalities are the same. I have three large volumes of Balakirev’s compositions at home… (laughs) So one day, you might play the three of them? That’s possible. It’s a good idea, actually.


menejerebTan rogori damokidebuleba gaqvT? aucileblobis SemTxvevaSi miwevs, radgan xmisCamwer studiebTan vTanamSromlob, axla axali diski gamoveciT _ bramsis pirveli safortepiano koncerti da stravinskis koncerti fortepianosa da Casaberi instrumentebisTvis. diriJorTan erTad? diriJoris gareSe. swored am Temas SevexoT. rogorc gvpirdebodiT, Tqven ukve daukariT bramsis pirveli koncerti diriJoris gareSe... axlac fiqrobT, rom Tqveni damokidebuleba diriJorebisadmi marTebulia? diax, mSvenivrad da diax, absoluturad. CemTvis es didi siamovneba iyo. swored guSin vuTxari uari erT SemoTavazebas diriJorTan dakvraze _ axla SemiZlia uari vTqva! Tanamedrove kompozitorebi Tu weren specialurad TqvenTvis musikas? diax, aleqsandr Caikovski, kuzma bodrovi. Tqveni repertuari Zalian didia. yvelaferi gaxsovT Tu momzadeba gWirdebaT? magaliTad klaudio araus mudmivad mzad hqodna oTxmocsaaTiani programa. es individualuria, visac ramdeni sWirdeba, imdeni axsovs. me, albaT, ufro swrafad vswavlob, vidre nela.

From the Russian school of piano, the artists you mention most are Maria Yudina and Vladimir Sofronitsky, and we don’t hear a lot from you about, for instance, Neuhaus or Richter... When you are young, you change influential figures rather quickly and often – one cult is replaced by a second, a third, a fourth, and so on. Then you understand that they are all great, and that you can learn something from all of them. But in a way, the “cults of your youth” also hinder you when you are in blind admiration towards them. Nowadays, the people in whom I am most interested are young pianists with a radical approach. I heard you say of Richter that he didn’t have an accomplished technique… Drunk people will say every kind of stupid thing (laughs). More seriously, I still think that Richter didn’t have an accomplished technique – you know, he didn’t even learn piano as a child. Sometimes, you can feel that he is not comfortable while playing, he lacks dexterity. But don’t go thinking that I don’t like Richter, I really do… I just think it is the objective truth. It’s not that interesting to speak about pianists, there are many of them, and I rarely go to others’ concerts. I mainly listen to them when we play at the same festivals. What kind of relationship do you have with managers? I work with them when I really need to, for instance when I'm working with recording studios. We recently released a new disc – Brahms’ first concert for piano and Stravinsky’s concert for piano and wind instruments.

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With a conductor? No, without a conductor. Let’s speak about this subject. As promised, you played Brahms’ first concert for piano without a conductor… Do you still think your approach to conductors is the right one? Yes, absolutely. It was a real pleasure for me. I refused a proposition just yesterday to play with a conductor. Nowadays, I can refuse this kind of thing! Do contemporary composers create music especially for you? Yes, Alexander Tchaikovsky, Kuzma Bodrov. Your repertoire is very large. Do you remember all of it, or do you need to prepare before performing? For instance, Claudio Arrau always had an 80-hour program ready. This is an individual thing: people remember the quantity they need to remember. I guess I learn relatively faster. Do you often play in America? Rarely. For some reason it doesn’t work out often. Because of the public? I think it’s more because of the managers. But this is old news. It doesn’t matter to me anymore. Which are your favorite concert halls? Budapest, Moscow, Saint Petersburg Philharmonia… I am also fond of the Tbilisi Conservatoire’s Grand Hall: it has a cosy and warm atmosphere. xSirad ukravT amerikaSi? iSviaTad, raRac ar gamomdis. publikis gamo? ufro menejerebis, es Zveli istoriebia, axla amas CemTvis didi mniSvneloba aRarc aqvs. romeli darbazebi mogwonT yvelaze metad? budapeStis, moskovis, sanqt-peterburgis filarmoniis, Tbilisis konservatoriis didi darbazic momwons, myudro da Tbili atmosferoa. roiali? stenvei! iamahac, sxvebze arc miwevs da naklebadac momwons. folklori yovelTvis gainteresebdaT? ara, es axali gatacebaa, sruliad moulodnelad aRmovaCine rom xalxuri musika sul sxva ramaa, vidre aqamde warmomedigna, piatnickis ansamblis tipis. wminda auTentikuri folklori namdvili saswaulia, iqneba es

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Which grand piano is your favorite? Steinway! And Yamaha too. I don’t really need to play on others, and I don’t like to, either.


rusuli Tu sxva. pirvelad saqarTveloSi rom Camovedi, elisos meuRlis saxlSi vcxovrobdi da qarTuli xalxuri simRerac pirvelad iq movismine. magram, samwuxarod im dros folklori ar mainteresebda. Tavad Tu gicdiaT folkloris Sesruleba? ara. amis saswavleblad afrikaSi unda waxvide, iq skolebia. indoeTSic, iaponiaSic, saerTod vTvli rom folklori musikis yvelaze wminda saxeobaa, wminda im gagebiT, rom imTaviTve bunebrivad iqmneboda, ara fulisTvis, didebisTvis, an ukvdavebisTvis. amitom gavakeTe festivali moskovSi, ver vityvi rom bevri davainterese, Zalian Znelia im kliSeebis daZleva, folklors axlac qedmaRlurad uyureben, Tumca dainteresebulebi mainc arian da kmayofili var, amas CemTvis vakeTeb. axla iaponiiT xarT gatacebuli... diax, iaponelebSi momwons Zlieri nacionaluri xasiaTi. es sagrZnobi, lamazia da amasTan Tanamedroveobis da tradiciebis saocari Tanxvedraa. vocnebob, ruseTSic ase iyos. esaubra Salva cxovrebaZe

Were you always interested in folklore? No, this is my new passion. I discovered by chance that folk music is something completely different than what I had in mind – like the Pyatnitsky Choir. Pure, authentic folk music is a real miracle, be it Russian or from other countries. When I first visited Georgia, I was living in Eliso Virsaladze’s husband’s house, and this is where I listened to Georgian folk songs for the first time. But, unfortunately, I wasn’t interested by folk music at that time. Did you ever try to perform folk music yourself? No. To learn this, you have to go to Africa, where there are folk schools. In India and Japan too… In general, I think that folklore is the purest form of music, in the sense that it was created naturally, not for money, for glory, or for immortality. That is precisely why I created a festival in Moscow. I cannot say that I managed to attract a lot of people, it is very difficult to overcome clichés about folklore; people often look at folklore with arrogance, but still, there are some people who are passionate about it, and I am satisfied, because I’m doing it for myself. Nowadays, you are passionate about Japan… Yes. I like the strong national character of Japanese people. You can feel it, it is beautiful, and together with that, there is a wonderful convergence of modernity and traditions in this country. I dream of this for Russia. Interview by Shalva Tskhovrebadze

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''Разделить все сии кавказские народы на два разряда — мирные и буйные. Первых оставить в их жилищах и дать им российское правление и устройство, а вторых силою переселить во внутренность России, раздробив их малыми количествами по всем русским волостям". dekabristi p. i. pesteli, 1824 weli

“Divide all the Caucasian people into two categories – obedient and violent. Let the obedient remain in their dwellings and benefit from Russian rule while moving the violent by force into the depth of Russia, splitting them up into small numbers and scattering them throughout different Volosts of Russia”. Dekabrist P. I. Pestel, 1824

"Слушай меня и помни хорошо то, что я буду говорить. Не судите о Кавказском крае, как об отдельном государстве. Я желаю и должен стараться сливать его всеми возможными мерами с Россиею, чтобы все составляло одно целое". ruseTis imperatori nikoloz I mefisnacval m. s. voroncovs, 1846 wlis 26 seqtemberi

“Listen to me and remember well what I will tell you. Don’t speak of the Caucasian region as an individual state. I wish and must do all in my power to merge this region into Russia so that they form an indivisible whole”. Russian Emperor Nicholas I to Governor-General Vorontsov, September 26, 1846

"В Абхазии следует... поощрять развитие абхазской интеллигенции и внушить ей сознание необходимости борьбы с грузинизацией". enaTmecnieri, Tavadi n. s. trubeckoi, 1925 weli, emigraciidan

“It is necessary to recognize Abkhazian as Abkhazia’s official language, promote development of the Abkhazian intelligentsia and sensitize them to the necessity of declaring war against any kind of Georgianization”. Prince N.S. Trubetskoy, a linguist, 1925

afxazTa muhajiroba ABKHAZ MUHAJIRISM

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afxazTa istoriaSi XIX saukunis 60-70-ian wlebSi tragikuli furceli gadaiSala. 1864, 1867 da 1877 wlebSi aTasobiT afxazi aiZules samSoblo daetovebina da osmaleTSi gadaxvewiliyo. es procesi istoriaSi muhajirobis saxeliTaa cnobili. muhajiroba saerTokavkasiuri procesi iyo, romelic ara marto afxazebs, aramed qarTvelebs da Crdilo-kavkasiis xalxebs _ daRestnelebs, osebs, CeCnebs, Cerqezebs, abazebs, ubixebs, jiqebs, _ Seexo. arabulad `muhajereT~ gadasaxlebas niSnavs, Tumca kavkasiis xalxTa enebSi man ZiriTadad ZaldatanebiT gadasaxlebulis, samSoblodan devnilis mniSvneloba SeiZina. es ki mefis ruseTis mier XVIII-XIX saukuneebSi warmoebulma kavkasiurma omebma ganapiroba. kavkasiis ama Tu im regionSi ruseTis mmarTvelobis damyarebas Tan sdevda, ZiriTadad, mahmadiani mosaxleobis iZulebiT gasaxleba. kavkasielTa muhajiroba Rrma socialur-ekonomikuri, politikuri da religiuri mizezebiT iyo gamowveuli. erTi SexedviT, TiTqos religiuri momenti dominirebda, Tumca ZiriTadi mainc politikuri faqtori _ ruseTis dampyrobluri politika iyo. ruseTis saxelmwifos mizani, tradiciulad, dapyrobili qveynis kolonizacia da mosaxleobis asimilacia iyo. cnobili istorikosi vasili kliuCevski kolonizacias `ruseTis istoriis ZiriTad faqtorad~ miiCnevda. amis naTeli magaliTi ruseTis istoriaa _ XVI saukunidan moyolebuli. pirvelad swored am saukunidan aRmoCnda ruseTis saxelmwifos SemadgenlobaSi ararusuli miwebi: karelia, komi, volgispireTi, uralispireTi; XVII saukuneSi ruseTma miierTa cimbiri, ukraina, belorusia; koloniur dapyrobaTa procesi ufro intensiuri XVIII saukuneSi gaxda, roca ruseTma baltiispireTi, poloneTi, yirimi da Savi zRvis mTeli Crdilo sanapiro daipyro; XIX saukuneSi imperiis SemadgenlobaSi kavkasiac aRmoCnda. mefis xelisuflebas surda kavkasia `samoqalaqo da politikuri TvalsazrisiT mWidrod Seekra ruseTTan da mis ganuyofel nawilad eqcia~, xolo adgilobrivi mosaxleoba `eniT, gonebiT, grZnobiT rusi gaexada~. 1864 wlis gazafxulze ruseT-kavkasiis omi (1863-1864) dasasruls uaxlovdeboda. Savi zRvis sanapiro, tamanis naxevar kunZulidan adleramde savse iyo muhajirebiT, romlebic osmaleTisken mimaval gemebs elodnen. maisSi, ruseTi jaris nawilebma dasavleT kavkasiis mTielTa winaaRmdegobis ukanaskneli kera ahWifsi, _ mTis Temi

The 1860-70s represent a haunting black mark in Abkhazian history. In 1864, 1867 and 1877, thousands of Abkhazians were forced to leave their lands and settle in the Ottoman Empire. This process is known in history as Muhajirism. The process of Muhajirism took place throughout Caucasus, and thus concerned not only Abkhazians, but also Georgians and NorthCaucasian peoples – Dagestanis, Ossetians, Chechens, Circassians, Abazians, Ubykhs, and Dzikhs. In Arabic, “muhajeret” means exile, but in the various languages of the Caucasian peoples, this word took on the connotation of forced exile and of being a refugee that had to flee one’s country. This connotation appeared because of the so-called “Caucasian Wars” orchestrated by the Russian Empire in the 18th-19th centuries. The implementation of Russian rule in this or that region of the Caucasus was most often accompanied by the forced emigration of their Muslim populations. The Muhajirism of Caucasians was instigated for socioeconomic, political and religious reasons. At a glance, one might think that the religious aspect was dominant, but in reality, the most important issue was a political one – Russia’s imperialism. The traditional goal of the Russian state was to colonize conquered countries and to assimilate their inhabitants. Famous historian Vasily Klyuchevsky considered colonization as “the most important factor in Russian history”. Looking back at Russia’s history since the 16th century, one can hardly argue with that. Indeed, all the following non-Russian lands have been annexed by Russia since then: Karelia, Komi, the Volga and Ural regions were seized in the early 16th century; in the 17th century, Russia annexed Siberia, Ukraine and Belarus; the colonization process became more severe in the 18th century, when Russia occupied the Baltic region, Poland, Crimea and the entirety of the north coast of the Black Sea. The Caucasus became part of the Russian Empire in the 19th century. The authorities of the Russian Empire wanted to “merge the Caucasus with Russia from a civil and political point of view, and make it an indivisible part of the Empire,” and to “make the local populations become Russians in language, thought, and emotion.” In the spring of 1864, the Russo-Caucasian war (1763-1864) was nearing an end. The Black Sea coast from the Taman Peninsula up to Adler was jammed with Caucasian highlanders waiting to board ships bound for the Ottoman Empire. In May, Russian troops seized the last bastion of western Caucasian warriors – Akhchipsou, located at the upper reaches of the Mzymta River. On the 21st of May, Russian troops celebrated the end of the Russo-Caucasian war in Akhchipsou’s center, in a place called Aul Gubaadva (“Kbaada” in Russian, now known as “Krasnaya Polyana”). A large part of Adygeans and Abazians living across the northeast coast of the Black Sea and in the northwest part of the Caucasus, including Ubykh and Dzikh people, fled to the Ottoman Empire. The Turkish sailing ships were quite old. Greedy ship-owners tried to cram as many Muhajirs as possible on board. During their long and wearisome journey, passengers suffered badly from sea sickness and shortage of food and water. Many of them, especially children,

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mdinare mzimTas zemo welSi, _ daikaves. 21 maiss, ahWifsis centrSi, aul gubaadvSi (rus. kbaada, amJamad krasnaia poliana) kavkasiis omi damTavrebulad gamocxadda. Savi zRvis Crdilo-aRmosavleT sanapiroze da CrdilodasavleT kavkasiaSi mcxovrebi Cerqezebi, abazebi, ubixebi, jiqebi osmaleTSi gadasaxldnen, maT Soris, jiqebi da ubixebi mTlianad. Turquli afriani gemebi moZvelebuli iyo. fuls daxarbebuli xomaldebis mepatroneebi cdilobdnen, rac SeiZleba meti muhajiri waeyvanaT. amitom, Sor da Znel gzaze, mgzavrebs zRvis avadmyofoba awamebda, rasac sanovagisa da wylis ukmarobac emateboda. am mZime pirobebs bevri ver uZlebda da iRupeboda, gansakuTrebiT, bavSvebi. erT qals ZuZuTa bavSvi mokvdomoda, Turqebs zRvaSi rom ar gadaegdoT, dedas mkerdze miekra, TiTqos ZuZus awovebda da iavnanas umReroda. cas swvdeboda gamwarebuli dedis gulis kvnesa. ase daibada afxazuri simRera `SiS-nani~ _ muhajirTa iavnana. Turqebi micvalebulebs zRvaSi yridnen, xSirad, cocxal moxucebsac, rogorc usargeblo da gamousadegar tvirTs. sikvdils gadarCenilni, osmaleTis sanapiroze gadmohyavdaT, maT aravin `eloda~ da... arsad Canda Sepirebuli samoTxe. Semdeg osmaleTis xelisufleba maT ukacriel, unayofo, gamofitul miwebze asaxlebda. erTaderTi xsna, Tavis gadarCenis saSualeba mamaci kavkasielebisTvis osmaleTis armia iyo. bevri SimSilisa da avadmyofobis msxverpli gaxda, vinc gadarCa, TandaTan adgilobriv mosaxleobaSi gaiTqvifa, mxolod mcire nawilma SeinarCuna eTnikuri TavisTavadoba, sakuTari ena. ase gaqrnen istoriidan qarTvelebis uaxloesi mezobeli ubixebi. afxazi mwerlis bagrat Sinqubas

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could not survive the ravages of such a trying voyage and died. A young woman whose baby had died during the journey pretended to breast-feed it and sang lullabies in an effort to save her baby from being discarded into the sea by Turkish soldiers. The distraught mother’s doleful lullaby seemed to melt into the sky. This is how the Abkhazian song Siş Nani (Lament of the Exile) was born. Turkish soldiers threw the bodies of the dead, and often even live old people, into the sea as useless “cargo”. The surviving Muhajirs who arrived on the Ottoman coast were met and helped by no-one… The paradise they were promised was nowhere to be seen. Turkish rulers settled them on dry, barren and desolate stretches of land. The only arena where brave-hearted Muhajirs could excel and sustain themselves was the Ottoman army. Many died of hunger and disease, and of the survivors who managed to mingle with the local population, only few retained their ethnic identity and native language. This is how the Ubykhs, close neighbors of Georgians, disappeared from Earth. Abkhaz author Bagrat Shinkuba describes the tragedy of this tribe in ‘The Last of the Departed’. Actually, the last Ubykh, Tevfik Esenç, passed in 1992, taking the Ubykh language to his grave. In Turkey, an epitaph in the village Haciosman of the Balikesir province reads: “This is the grave of Tevfik Esenç. He was the last speaker of the Ubykh language.” This is a harsh warning from history – as an Abkhaz saying teaches us, “When a person loses one’s homeland, they lose everything”. After conquering the Caucasus, the Tsarist regime established itself firmly in the region. There was no necessity to preserve the principality status of Abkhazia anymore, so it was abolished in June of 1864, and the Russian Empire introduced its own rule there. In July of the same year, Russian troops conducted an armed incursion into Abkhazia’s most rebellious community of Pskhu, on the middle reaches of Bzipi River… The decisive battle took place on the banks of River Gribza, a tributary of River Bzipi. Pskhuans fought till the end, but were defeated. A large group of over 3,500 of them boarded ships in Gudauta and headed for the Ottoman Empire. Only a small portion of Pskhuans, 105 families (862 souls) agreed to move and settle in Kuban. As a result, the middle reaches of River Bzipi became completely uninhabited.


romanSi `ukanaskneli ubixi~ am xalxis tragediaa asaxuli. realurad, ukanaskneli ubixi Tevfiq esenCi 1992 wels gardaicvala. mis sikvdilTan erTad gaqra ubixuri enac. TurqeTSi, baliqesiris provinciis sofel haji osmanSi, erT saflavs aseTi epitafia aqvs: `es Tevfiq esenCis saflavia. is ubixur enaze mosaubre ukanaskneli adamiani iyo~. es istoriis mkacri gafrTxilebaa, radgan rogorc afxazuri andaza gvaswavlis, `vinc samSoblos kargavs, is yvelafers kargavs~. dasavleT kavkasiis dapyrobis Semdeg carizmma kavkasiaSi Tavi myarad igrZno. aRar arsebobda afxazeTis samTavros SenarCunebis aucilebloba da 1864 wlis ivnisSi carizmma afxazeTis samTavro gaauqma, uSualo rusuli mmarTveloba SemoiRo. imavdroulad, ivlisSi, afxazeTis daumorCilebel mTis TemSi fsxuSi, mdinare bzifis Sua welSi, ruseTis jaris nawilebi SeiWrnen... gadamwyveti brZola bzifis Senakadis gribzas napirze gaimarTa. fsxuelebi TavganwirviT ibrZodnen, magram damarcxdnen. maTi didi nawili, 3500 adamianze meti zRvisken gaemarTa, gudauTaSi gemebSi Casxda da osmaleTSi gadaixvewa; mxolod mcire nawili, 105 ojaxi (862 suli) daTanxmda yubanis olqSi gadasaxlebas. amis Sedegad, bzifis Sua weli mTlianad gaukacurda.

A witness of these events, Russian army officer Taras Anchabadze, wrote how his regiment progressed from Sokhumi in the direction of Pskhu. They advanced by laying roads, constructing temporary bridges on rivers and cutting down trees. After passing the left, hilly bank of River Gumisti, they had to explode several cliffs to fortify roads along the valleys with large trees, poles and wattle. The regiment reached Pskhu after a month. Leading Pskhuan figures asked Russian commanders for permission to emigrate to the Ottoman Empire, to which the latter “agreed”. The Pskhuans were leaving their lands forever. Men were imploring their ancestor’s graves in sorrow and women were weeping in silence. Observing an old custom, they sacrificed sheep and chickens; prepared “basturma” (marinated meat) and cheese, baked pastries, and poured wine in wineskin. They took their precious horses to the woods and abridged their lives by shooting a bullet under their ears. The Muhajirs started proceeding to the seashore, the sobs and cries of women punctuating the journey. They had put fire to their homes before leaving them. Only cats and dogs were left in the burnt-out villages. Pskhu was empty. The abolition of the Principality of Abkhazia, the colonialism of the Russian Empire, the brutal bureaucratic intrusion into everyday life, and the fact that the Abkhazian social order and customs were not taken into account, resulted in a massive feeling of discontent that

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grew into a popular uprising. The uprising started on July 26, 1866 in the village of Likhni and soon spilled over almost the entire territory of Abkhazia. The Tsarist regime was quick to unleash its troops to the region and quell the revolt. After taking control, the Tsarist government decided it needed to get rid of Abkhazians who nurtured particularly strong anti-Russian sentiments – Muslims and pagans who were mainly concentrated in the middle and upper parts of the Kodori Valley. The Russians believed that exiling the Muslims would help them to gain political order, and therefore strengthen the Tsarist rule. They succeeded in clenching a deal with the rulers of the Ottoman Empire, who agreed not to let Muhajirs settle in the immediate vicinity of Russia’s borders or return to the places of their origin. The vice-regent and commander-in-chief in the Caucasus, Grand Duke Mikhail Romanov, ordered the start of the process and thus began the exile of Abkhazians in late April of 1867. He also deployed additional troops in Abkhazia in order to prevent any riot. Abkhazians were mainly pressed into emigration by force. Keeping track of the Muhajirism process, newspaper ‘Droeba’ wrote (in June 1867): “Abkhazians feel weighed down… Tsebeldians, Dalelians and Gupulians have already left… Chiloians and Jgerdians have been

am ambebis TviTmxilveli, ruseTis armiis oficeri taras anCabaZe Semdeg igonebda, Tu rogor gaemarTa maTi polki soxumidan fsxusken. polks Tan gza gahyavda: mdinareebze droebiT xidebs agebdnen, tyes Cexdnen da ase miiwevdnen win. gumisTis marcxena, kldovani napiris gaswvriv saWiro gaxda kldeebis afeTqeba, xevebis pirebSi gzis gamagreba didi xeebiT, sarebiTa da wnulebiT. erTi Tvis Semdeg polki fsxuSi Sevida. fsxuelebis Tavkacebma ruseTis sardlobas sTxoves maTTvis osmaleTSi gadasaxlebis neba daerToT, razec `Tanxmoba~ miiRes. fsxuelebi samudamod tovebdnen TavianT samkvidros. kacebi pirquSad eTxovebodnen winaparTa saflavebs, qalebi Cumad qviTinebdnen. Zveli Cveulebis Tanaxmad, msxverpls swiravdnen, klavdnen cxvrebs, qaTmebs; samgzavrod amzadebdnen basturmas, yvels, acxobdnen qadebs, tikebSi asxamdnen Rvinos. bedaurebi, romlebsac gasayidad ver imetebdnen, tyeSi mihyavdaT da yurisZirSi tyviis daxliT, sicocxles uswrafebdnen. rodesac muhajirebi zRvis sanapirosken daiZrnen, qalebis moTqmam SeZra are-mare. wasvlis win fsxuelebma cecxls misces saxlebi. gadamwvar soflebSi mxolod mitovebuli ZaRlebi da katebi darCnen. fsxuc dacarielda.

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afxazeTis samTavros gauqmebam, carizmis kolonizatorulma politikam, Cinovnikuri aparatis uxeSma Carevam afxazTa cxovrebis wesSi, afxazeTis socialur-sazogadoebrivi wyobis Taviseburebebis gauTvaliswineblobam, ekonomikurma siduxWirem, afxazTa masobrivi ukmayofileba gamoiwvia, romelic saxalxo ajanyebaSi gadaizarda. ajanyeba 1866 wlis 26 ivliss daiwyo sofel lixnSi da male TiTqmis mTeli afxazeTi moicva. imperiam, afxazeTSi, saswrafod gadmoisrola jaris nawilebi da agvistoSi ajanyeba CaaxSo. CaxSobis Semdeg xelisuflebam gadawyvita Tavidan moeSorebina gansakuTrebiT mtrulad ganwyobili afxazebi _ muslimanebi da warmarTebi, ZiriTadad, kodoris Sua da zemo welis mosaxleoba. rusTa rwmeniT, maTi osmaleTSi gasaxleba xels Seuwyobda politikuri simSvidis uzrunvelyofas da, Sesabamisad, mefis xelisuflebis ganmtkicebas mxareSi. afxazTa gadasaxlebaze imperia brwyinvale portas gaurigda _ osmaleTi daTanxmda muhajirebi ruseTis sazRvrispira adgilebSi ar

driven out of their homes. They feel unutterably depressed about leaving. Abkhazians speak very well of Dimitri Chavchavadze, Chief of the Bzipi precinct. He gave them fatherly advice to prefer Russian rule to living in exile in the Ottoman Empire.” According to His Holiness and Beatitude Ambrosius (Khelaia), Catholicos-Patriarch of All Georgia in the years 1921-1927, a Muslim Abkhaz Muhajir-to-be named Urisi visited Bishop Alexander Okropiridze, who was highly respected and revered in Abkhazia, with his 12-year-old son. He explained the reason of his visit to the bishop – “I came to you, good shepherd, I am going to the Ottoman Empire, leaving my homeland forever, and I want to entrust my son to you. I lost my wife and other children, and I don’t know what will become of me in that foreign land, but still, I am leaving. I don’t want to share my condition with my son, and I brought him to you. I know that you will accept him, that you will raise him as a Christian, and that he will lead a happy life.” The weeping father said goodbye to his son and left. Bishop Alexander raised the young Abkhazian, who became a priest and did good services to Christianity in Abkhazia.

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daesaxlebina da gadasaxlebulTa ukan, samSobloSi dabruneba aekrZala. kavkasiis armiis mTavarsardalma da kavkasiis mefisnacvalma, didma mTavarma mixeil romanovma gankarguleba gasca da afxazTa gadasaxlebis procesi 1867 wlis aprilis bolos dawyo. SesaZlo areulobis aRsakveTad, afxazeTSi jaris damatebiTi nawilebic Sevida. afxazTa gadasaxleba, ZiriTadad, ZaldatanebiT xasiaTs atarebda. muhajirobis cxel kvalze, 1867 wlis ivnisSi, gazeTi `droeba~ werda: `afxazebi Zlier dajavrianebulni arian... webelelebi, dalelebi da gufuelebi wavidnen... Wilouelebi da jgerdelebi gamorekes TavianTi binidan. maT saSineli guliT ar undaT wasvla. afxazebi didad aqeben bzifis mazris ufross dimitri WavWavaZes. man mamobrivi mzrunvelobiT auxsna maT, rom rusis mmarTvelobis qveS yofna sjobs osmaleTSi gadasaxlebas~. 1921-1927 wlebSi saqarTvelos kaTolikospatriarqis uwmidesisa da unetaresis ambrosis (xelaia) cnobiT, muhajirobis dros afxazeTis episkoposTan, yovladsamRvdelo aleqsandresTan (oqropiriZe), romelic afxazebSi didi siyvaruliT da pativiscemiT sargeblobda,

soxumi / SOKHUMI

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The newspaper ‘Droeba’ describes the forced emigration of Abkhazians as such: “In the heavily policed harbor, one could see ropes hanging in parallel to keep passengers and their kinsfolk apart. The sound of a drumbeat announced the time for passengers to go aboard amid farewell music filling the air. As the ships set off, the band struck up joyful music and soldiers kept firing in the air.” In June of 1867, the emigration process of Abkhazians came to an end. Subject to the previous agreements with the Tsarist government, Ottoman rulers set up compact communities of Abkhazian Muhajirs far from the borders of the Russian Empire – part in Anatolia, and the rest in the Balkan Peninsula. Muhajirs gave these communities the names of their original villages, and this is how the following villages appeared in the Ottoman Empire: Aatsi, Akapa, Guma, Eshera, Dal, Tsabal, Chlou, Varche, Jgreda… The massive concentration of Abkhazians created many problems and held up the Turkification of Muhajirs, leading the Turkish authorities to break up the communities. During the emigration process, lists of Muhajirs per village were created, showing the numbers of families, the names of the heads of the families, and the numbers of family members (men, women, and children) who had to leave for Turkey. According to these lists, 51 families (210 souls) were exiled from village Psirtskha, 10 from village


misula mahmadiani afxazi, saxelad urisi, 12 wlis SvilTan erTad. man mRvdelmTavars auxsna misvlis mizezi _ `SenTan movedi keTilo mwyemso, me osmaleTSi mivdivar, samSoblos samudamod veTxovebi da Cemi vaJi minda davtovo SenTan. coli da sxva Svilebi adre davkarge, ar vici ra momelis ucxo mxareSi, magram mainc vtoveb samSoblos. ar minda Cemi ubedureba erTaderT Svils gavuziaro da SenTan moviyvane. vici miiReb, aRzrdi qristianulad da bednieri iqnebao~. Tvalcremliani mama daemSvidoba Svils da wavida. afxazi ymawvili episkoposma aleqsandrem aRzarda, mRvdeli gaxda da didi sargebloba moutana qristianobas afxazeTSi. gazeTi `droeba~ afxazTa gadasaxlebis process ase aRwers: `navsadgurSi, romelsac jaris nawilebi icavdnen, ori mxriT Tokebi iyo gabmuli, rom wamsvlelebi da gamcileblebi erTmaneTs ar Sereodnen. dolis cemiT wamsvlelebs mouxmobdnen da gamosaTxovar musikas ukravdnen. rodesac gemi daiZvroda, mxiarul musikas daukravdnen, Semdeg ki mTeli batalioni Tofebs daclida~. 1857 wlis ivnisSi afxazTa gadasaxlebis procesi dasrulda. osmaleTis xelisuflebam, SeTanxmebisamebr, muhajirebi Tavdapirvelad kompaqturad, ruseTis imperiis sazRvrebidan Sors daasaxla _ nawili anatoliaSi, nawili balkaneTSi. gadasaxlebulebma TavianT dasaxlebebs is saxelebi Searqves, saidanac warmoSobiT iyvnen. ase gaCnda osmaleTSi soflebi: aac, akafa, guma, eSera, dal, wabal, Wlou, varCe, jgerda da sxv. afxazTa kompaqturi dasaxleba osmaleTis xelisuflebas mraval problemas uqmnida da muhajirTa gaTurqebis process xels uSlida, amitom portam Semdeg isini gafanta. afxazTa gadasaxlebis procesSi dgeboda muhajirTa siebi soflebis mixedviT, ojaxebis raodenobis, ojaxis Tavkacebis saxelisa da gvaris miTiTebiT, ojaxis wevrTa (kacebi, qalebi, bavSvebi) raodenobis CvenebiT. am siebis mixedviT, sofel fsircxadan gadasaxlda 51 ojaxi (210 suli), sofel foqveSidan 10 (69 suli, 9 ojaxi faCulia _ 65 suli, 1 ojaxi jinjia _ 4 suli), sofel Wloudan _ 125 (539 suli), sofel aTaridan _ 7 (43 suli) da a.S. biWvinTis olqidan gadasaxlda 226 ojaxi (1357 suli), drandis olqidan _ 629 ojaxi (3245 suli), webeldis olqidan _ 2503 ojaxi (14 740 suli). amdenad, afxazeTidan 3358 ojaxi, 19 342 suli gadasaxlda. mTlianad `gaiwminda~ kodoris Sua da zemo weli, webeldis olqi _ webelisa da dalis Temebi. am Temebis TiTqmis 15 aTasiani mosaxleoba ucxoeTSi gadaixvewa. 1874 wels kavkasiaSi ingliseli mogzauri filip grouvi Camovida. igi yaraCaidan gadmovida kodoris xeobaSi, romelmac Zalian moxibla: `Znelia naxo ufro didebuli da mSvenieri adgili, vidre mdeloTi dafaruli velebi da tyeebi, romelzec kodori miedineba~, _ aRfrTovanebiT wers is. magram mogzaurs sevda da naRveli

Pokveshi (69 souls, nine Pachulia families – 65 souls, one Jinjia family – 4 souls), 125 from village Chlou (539 souls), 7 from village Atari (43 souls), and so on. 226 families (1,357) were exiled from the Bichvinta district, 629 (3,245) from the Drandi district, and 2503 (14,740) from the Tsebeldi district. In total, 3,358 families, or 19,342 souls were forcefully emigrated from Abkhazia. The middle and upper Kodori Valley were totally “cleaned”, as was the Tsebeldi district, consisting of the Tsebeli and Dali communities. This almost 15,000-strong community was sent abroad. In 1874, English traveler Philip Grove visited the Caucasus. He arrived in the Kodori Valley from Karachay, and was astonished by the place: “It’s difficult to imagine a richer and more wonderful place than the fields of meadow and forests of Kodori,” – he wrote. But once he sees that there is no trace of anybody living there, the traveler is quickly filled with grief and sorrow: “The upper part of the valley was completely desolate,” he noted. In April of 1877, the new Russo-Turkish war broke out, involving the Caucasus region. The situation in Abkhazia escalated quickly. The dissatisfaction with the colonial regime of the Russian Empire reached

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giorgi SarvaSiZe / GIORGI SHARVASHIDZE

ipyrobs, roca xedavs, rom aq adamianis yofnis araviTari kvali ar Cans, _ `xeobis zemo weli sruliad ukacrieli iyo~, _ aRniSnavda igi. 1877 wlis aprilSi ruseT-osmaleTis axali omi daiwyo, romlis asparezi kavkasiac gaxda. omis dasawyisidanve rTuli viTareba Seiqmna afxazeTSi. carizmis koloniuri reJimiT gamowveulma ukmayofilebam am droisTvis kulminacias miaRwia da antirusulma, antikoloniurma ajanyebam ifeTqa. aseT viTarebaSi, 29 aprils, gudauTasTan Turquli desanti gadmosxda, romelic ZiriTadad afxazi muhajirebisgan Sedgeboda. soxumis garnizonis ufrosma, general-maiorma pavle kravCenkom, romelic imavdroulad soxumis samxedro ganyofilebis ufrosic iyo, ver gabeda SedarebiT Zlier mterTan Sebma, soxumi datova da md. kodorisken daixia. maisSi Turqebma TiTqmis mTeli afxazeTi daikaves. imavdroulad, ajanyebuli afxazebi TurqTa desants SeuerTdnen. antirusuli ajanyeba daiwyo CeCneTsa da daRestanSic. brwyinvale portas imedi mieca, rom ruseTis winaaRmdeg kavkasiis mTel mahmadianur mosaxleobas aamxedrebda, magram ruseTis jarebis warmatebebma kavkasiis frontze da gansakuTrebiT balkaneTSi, imedebi gaucrua. ivlisSi ruseTis jaris nawilebi Setevaze gadavidnen afxazeTSi da ukve agvistoSi mTeli mxare gawmindes Turqebisgan. afxazeTidan gaqcevisas Turqebs afxazTa nawilic gahyva;

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its peak and sparked an anti-Russian and anticolonial insurgency. It was in this environment that on April 29, Turkish troops comprised largely of Abkhazian Muhajirs, executed a landing near Gudauta. General Pavle Kravchenko, head of the Sokhumi garrison and of the military section in Sokhumi, did not dare to clash with a relatively stronger enemy, so he left Sokhumi and retreated near the River Kodori. In May, the Turks took control of almost the whole territory of Abkhazia. Abkhazian insurgents joined the Turkish landing troops. An anti-Russian insurgency also started in Chechnya and Dagestan. The Ottoman Empire hoped that the whole Muslim population of the Caucasus would rebel against the Russians, but the successes of the Russian army on the Caucasian front, and especially in the Balkan Peninsula, crushed these hopes. In July, Russian forces carried out a counter-offensive in Abkhazia, and in August, they had already fought back the Turks. On the run, the Turks were joined by part of the Abkhazians. They took most of them, including a small number of Christian Georgians (Megrelians) and Greeks, by force. The retreating Muslims employed a scorched earth policy, destroying and burning the villages, driving the unarmed population to the seacoast and loading them aboard vessels bound for the Ottoman Empire. According to a Droeba correspondent: “Abkhazians aboard the vessels made a sorry sight… In floods of tears, with arms outstretched towards the coast; they were leaving their homeland behind them forever”. Turk emissaries went to villages and


didi nawili, maT Soris, mcire raodenobiT qristiani qarTvelebi (megrelebi) da berZnebi ZaliT waiyvanes. ukan daxeuli Turqebi soflebs aoxrebdnen da uiaraRo mosaxleobas zRvis napirisken ZaliT mierekebodnen, iqidan ki gemebiT osmaleTSi mihyavdaT. gazeT `droebis~ korespondentis cnobiT, `sacodaoba iyo xomaldze gadayvanili afxazebis naxva... isini cxare cremliT stirodnen, zRvis napirisaken xelebs iSverdnen da amnairad eTxovebodnen Tavis samSoblo qveyanas~. TurqTa emisrebi soflebSi daZrwodnen da afxazebs aqezebdnen osmaleTSi gadasaxlebuliyvnen, sadac miwier samoTxes hpirdebodnen. ucxoeTSi gadasaxlebas bevri samSobloSi sikvdils arCevda da mters winaaRmdegobas uwevda. osmalebi maT ar indobdnen da xocavdnen. gazeT `kavkazis~ cnobiT, zRvis sanapiroze eyara xelSeborkil da yelgamoRadrul afxazTa gvamebi. maT, Turme ukanasknel momentSi, gemebSi Casxdomis win scades winaaRmdegobis gaweva. 1877 wels muhajirobaSi TiTqmis 32 aTasi suli wavida. gumisTis ubnis 8 sasoflo Temi, sadac 2221 ojaxi (9985 suli) cxovrobda, mTlianad gadasaxlda; gudauTis ubnidan (17 sasoflo Temi), sadac adre 5293 ojaxi (23545 suli) cxovrobda _ 3775 ojaxi (17160 suli); kodoris ubnis 9 sasoflo Temidan ki, sadac 3935 ojaxi cxovrobda, 1071 ojaxi aiyara. Tuki adre mTlianad daicala afxazeTis mTis Temebi fsxu, webeli, dali, axla TiTqmis mTlianad dacarielda afxazeTis sanapiro zoli. aRsaniSnavia, rom am dros aTasobiT afxazis monaTla. imereTis episkoposisa da afxazeTis eparqiis mmarTvelis episkopos gabrielis (qiqoZe) garjiT 19 aTasamde afxazi monaTla da masobrivi gadasaxlebisgan ixsna. gaukacurebuli afxazeTi damTrgunveli sanaxavi iyo. rogorc didi mecnieri niko mari aRniSnavda `afxazeTis centraluri eTnografiuli nawilic ki gaukacurda... darCa mxolod gavelurebuli ezoebi xexiliT, ar iyo arc erTi afxazi da arc afxazuri sityva gaismoda~. gazeT `golosis~ korespondenti giorgi wereTeli maSin gulistkiviliT werda: `bunebidan dawyebuli irgvliv yvelaferi damwuxrebulia. ukacriel, veeberTela sivrceze, romelic jer kidev arc Tu didi xnis win dasaxlebuli da sicocxliT savse iyo, axla mxolod nangrevebi gvxvdeba da sicocxlis niSan-wyali ar igrZnoba~. mas mxars `iveriis~ korespondenti ubamda: `soxumidan or-sam verszed kargad damuSavebuli mamulebi gvxvdeba, magram pataras rom gascdebiT, siCume, ukacuroba da udaburobaa... gaivliT kidev TxuTmets, ocs verss Tvaluwvdenel tyeSi da versad SexvdebiT niSans adamianis mosaxleobisas. natrobT, neta an Robe mainc davinaxo, an ZaRlis yefa gavigono, rom qveyana ise carieli ar meCvenos, rogorc adamianis gaCenis winaT iyoo. ra gasakviria, rom afxazeTis umTavres qalaqis axlo-maxlo aseTi siCume iyos, rodesac afxazeTSi afxazebi aRar arian~.

episkoposi gabriel qiqoZe / BISHOP GABRIEL KIKODZE

incited Abkhazians to move to the Ottoman Empire, where they were promised an earthly paradise. Many chose death over life in exile and put up stiff resistance against the enemy. The Ottomans showed no mercy and slaughtered anyone who got in their way. The newspaper ‘Kavkaz’ lamented the sight of the seacoast littered with the handcuffed and throat-slit bodies of Abkhazians. At the last moment, right before boarding the ships, they had tried to oppose the Turks… In 1877, a total of 32 thousand people joined the ranks of Muhajirs. Eight communities from the village Gumisti, populated by 2,221 families (9,985 souls) were exiled; 3,375 families (17,160 souls) from the Gudauta area (17 communities), where there used to be 5,293 families (23,545 souls); and 1,071 families from the nine communities of the Kodori area, where there were once 3,935 families. Where at first the mountainous villages of Pskhu, Tsebeli and Dali emptied, now, it was almost the whole length of the Abkhazian coastline that had become desolate. It is worth noting that thousands of Abkhazians were baptized during that period. Thanks to the hard work of Gabriel (Kikodze), bishop of Imereti and head of Abkhazia’s diocese, up to 19,000 Abkhazians were baptized, and were able to escape exile.

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rodesac osmaleTis miwieri samoTxis miTi daimsxvra, bevri muhajiri samSobloSi dabrunebas Seecada, magram ruseTis xelisuflebas maTi miReba ar surda. ruseTsa da osmaleTs Soris dadebuli SeTanxmebiTac muhajirebs samSobloSi dabrunebis ufleba ar hqondaT. miuxedavad amisa, muhajirebi jiutad cdilobdnen, zogi zRviT, zogi xmeleTiT, gamoeRwiaT osmalTa da rusTa saguSagoebisTvis da mSobliur keras dabruneboda. samSobloSi malulad dabrunebulTa Soris iyo SemdgomSi afxazuri mwerlobis fuZemdeblis dimitri gulias mamac mTeli Tavisi ojaxiT. 1878 wels uris (ioseb) gulia, romelmac ucxoobaSi ori bavSvi damarxa, lazi meTevzis felukiT ojaxTan erTad baTumSi Camovida, iqidan ki afxazeTSi CaaRwia. uris gulias mdinare kodoris marjvena napirze, sofel varCeSi, mSobliur keraze dabrunebis neba ar darTes, amitom is iZulebuli gaxda kodoris marcxena napirze, sofel aZubJaSi dasaxlebuliyo. rogorc dimitri gulia igonebda, maTi saxli aZubJaSi im adgilis mopirdapired idga, sadac mdinaris meore napirze maTi yofili saxli mosCanda da mudam gulistkiviliT gascqerodnen mas.

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Abkhazia looked heartbreakingly bleak. As the great scientist Niko Marr put it, “even the central ethnographic part of Abkhazia is emptied… The only things left are wild yards with fruit trees; there is no single Abkhazian, and no Abkhazian word to be heard.” Correspondent of newspaper Golos, Giorgi Tsereteli, wrote in sorrow: “There is a terrible sense of anguish everywhere, even in nature. A vast desolate area that quite recently pulsed with life now lies in ruins utterly bereft of human life”. In the newspaper Iveria, one could read: “Country estates two-three versts away from Sokhumi are alternated by a wretched scene of desolation, ruin and silence… You may walk fifteen or twenty versts farther into the wood without coming across any trace of life. Eyes look desperately for a glimpse of some man-made fence, ears strain to hear a dog barking just to make sure that the world is not as empty as before the origin of life on earth. But this silence in the vicinity of Abkhazia’s major city, is not unexplained. Its explanation lies in the fact that Abkhazians no longer live in Abkhazia.” After the myth that the Ottoman Empire looked like an earthly paradise was dispelled, many Muhajirs attempted to return home, but the Russian government refused to let them in. According to the agreement between the Russian and Ottoman empires, Muhajirs didn’t have


the right to return home. Regardless, many Muhajirs attempted the return, whether by sea or by land, sneaking through Turkish and Russian checkpoints. Among the ones who managed to return to their homeland, was the father and family of Dimitri Gulia, who would become the founder of Abkhazian literature. In 1878, Uris (Ioseb) Gulia, who buried two of his children abroad, arrived in Batumi on a felucca together with his family, and from there, he went to Abkhazia. They didn’t allow him to return to his native village of Varche, on the right shore of River Kodori, so he was forced to settle on the left bank of the river, in the village Adzubzha. As Gulia recalled, their house in Adzubzha was right ruseTsa da osmaleTs Soris san-stefanos zavis dadebis Semdeg, muhajirebi pirvel rigSi baTumisken gaemarTnen, romelic jer isev osmaleTis SemadgenlobaSi Sedioda da afxazeTSi dabrunebas iqidan cdilobdnen. qarTveli sazogadoebriobis daxmarebiT afxazTa erTi nawili baTumsa da mis SemogarenSi damkvidrda, sadac afxazi muhajirebi 1864 wlidan cxovrobdnen. muhajirTa STamomavlebi dResac iq cxovroben, maT didwilad SeinarCunes TviTmyofadoba, sakuTari ena. baTumelma afxazma aslan smirbam erTxel aseTi ram dawera: `Cveni winaprebi iZulebulni iyvnen afxazeTidan ruseTis imperias gamoqceodnen. aWaraSi damkvidrebul afxazebs musrs avlebda SimSili da tifi. maSin aWarlebma da gurulebma daaweses `gadarCenis xarki~ _ Cveni winaprebisTvis saWmelsa da tansacmels urmebiT ezidebodnen. amis daviwyeba ar SeiZleba. es Cemi Taobis afxazebmac ki ician~. qarTveli sazogadoebrioba didi TanagrZnobiT Sexvda afxazTa muhajirobas, tragedias, ramac afxazi xalxi, faqtobrivad, fizikuri ganadgurebis safrTxis winaSe daayena. gamoCenilma qarTvelma mwerlebma da sazogado moRvaweebma: grigol orbelianma, ilia WavWavaZem, iakob gogebaSvilma, sergi mesxma, giorgi wereTelma, zaqaria WiWinaZem, petre Waraiam, niko janaSiam, iona meunargiam, Tedo saxokiam da sxvebma gulwrfeli TanagrZnoba gamoxates afxazTa mSobliuri mxaridan iZulebiT gasaxlebis gamo. bolos afxazTa mozRvavebam ruseTis mTavroba aiZula 1879 wlis 27 ianvars konstantinopolSi xeli moewera osmaleTTan xelSekrulebisTvis, romlis Tanaxmadac ruseTis xelisuflebam dauSva afxazebis nawilobrivi repatriacia xelSekrulebis xelmoweridan sami wlis ganmavlobaSi. amis Sedegad, 1882 wlis ianvrisTvis afxazeTSi 15 aTasamde muhajiri dabrunda. afxaz muhajirTa STamomavlebi amJamad cxovroben TurqeTSi, siriaSi, iordaniaSi da balkaneTis qveynebSi. muhajirobam afxazi xalxi, faqtobrivad, fizikuri ganadgurebis safrTxis winaSe daayena. muhajirTa STamomavlebi dResac unaxavi samSoblos siyvaruliT da dardiT cocxloben, romelic Taobidan Taobas locvasaviT gadaecema. beJan xorava

in front of their former house, and they could see the latter on the other side of the river, and would always feel sad when looking in its direction. After Russia and the Ottoman Empire signed the Preliminary Treaty of San Stefano, Muhajirs first headed to Batumi, which was still under Ottoman rule, and tried to reach Abkhazia from there. With the help of Georgian society, a number of Abkhazians settled in Batumi and its surroundings, where other Abkhazian Muhajirs had been living since 1864. Descendants of Muhajirs still live there to this day, and many of them have maintained their autonomy and speak Abkhazian. Batumian Abkhazian Aslan Smirba once wrote the following words: “Our ancestors were forced to flee from Abkhazia because of the Russian Empire. Abkhazians who settled in Adjara were massacred by famine and typhus. That is when Adjarians and Gurians established the “survival tribute” – providing our ancestors with food and clothes in carts. We cannot forget this. Even Abkhazians of my generation know this.” Georgian society met the Abkhazian Muhajirs and their tragedy with great empathy. Renowned Georgian authors and public figures Grigol Orbeliani, Ilia Chavchavadze, Iakob Gogebashvili, Sergi Meskhi, Giorgi Tsereteli, Zakaria Chichinadze, Petre Charaia, Niko Janashia, Iona Meunargia, Tedo Sakhokia and others expressed their sincere compassion for the Abkhazians, who had been forcefully exiled from their land. In the end, the continuous influx of Abkhazians made the Russian government repeal the law that denied Muhajirs the right to return to their homeland for three years, by signing an agreement with the Ottoman Empire in Constantinople on the 27th of January 1879. Up to 15,000 Muhajirs managed to return to Abkhazia until 1882. The descendants of Abkhazian Muhajirs now live in Turkey, Syria, Jordan, and the Balkans. Muhajirism practically put the Abkhaz people under threat of physical disappearance from this earth. Descendants of Muhajirs still feel a surge of love and sharp pain at the thought of their neverseen homeland. These feelings are handed down from generation to generation as something as cherished as a prayer. Bezhan Khorava

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Crdili da usasruloba merab survilaZis abstraqciebSi Shadow and infinity in Merab Surviladze’s abstractions

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merab survilaZe wlebia belgiaSi cxovrobs da samSobloSi Camosvlisas, periodulad, warudgens xolme Tavis namuSevrebs qarTul auditorias. 2017 wlis aprilSi xelovnebis sasaxleSi gamofenili misi abstraqciebis

`Crdilebi~, zeTi, tilo, 50X100 sm; 2016

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Merab Surviladze has been living in Belgium for years, and he periodically presents his art to Georgian audiences during his short visits to his homeland. The collection of abstract paintings he displayed at the Art Palace (in the exhibition “Shadows�) are radically


koleqcia („Crdilebi“) radikalurad gansxvavdeboda im mxatvrobisgan, romelsac qarTveli damTvalierebeli aqamde merab survilaZis stilad Tvlida. es stili figuratiuli eqspresionizmis erTgvarad naivur versias

different from the style the Georgian audience usually expected from him: a somewhat naïve version of figurative expressionism with surrealist elements, while the art Surviladze creates today is characterized by completely different scales and dynamics. His

"SHADOWS", OIL ON CANVAS, 50X100 CM; 2016

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`Crdilebi~, akrili, tilo, 62X35 sm; 2016

warmoadgenda siurrealisturi elementebiT, xolo im xelovnebas, rasac dRes merab survilaZe qmnis, sruliad sxva masStabi da dinamika axasiaTebs. misi abstraqciebi Soridan wertilebad aRqmuli anonimuri reliefuri

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abstractions are based on the relationship between anonymous objects in relief seen as dots from above and their shadows. This radical change in style is the result of a conscious decision of the artist, and combines the expansion of his artistic interests and his


"SHADOWS", ACRYLIC ON CANVAS, 62X35 CM; 2016

obieqtebisa da maTi Crdilebis urTierTobebzea agebuli. stilis radikaluri Secvla mxatvris gacnobierebuli gadawyvetilebis Sedegia, sadac misi mxatvruli interesebis gafarToeba da dagrovili egzistencialuri

accumulated existential experience, bringing about a totally new vision. In painting theory and history, shadow is considered to be a fundamental element. It was also very important in mythology, in which it is directly related to the origin of painting: Pliny the Elder

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gamocdileba erTad iyris Tavs da axali xedvis prezentaciad iqceva. Tu ferweris Teoriasa da istorias gavixsenebT, iq Crdili sabaziso elementebad moiazreba da miTologiur ganzomilebaSic aqvs Tavisi adgili, uSualod ukavSirdeba mxatvrobis istoriis sawyiss: plinius ufrosis cnobil naSromSi aRwerilia legenda mxatvrobis istoriis Sesaxeb, describes a legend about the history of painting, where a mythological character lays the foundations of the art by tracing lines around a human shadow. More generally, shadow is one of the richest existential symbols, and is always considered in opposition or in combination to light, or as the everfollowing and inseparable counterpart of persons, things or concepts. At first, “sculptures” of small sizes and various colors appeared on Surviladze’s paintings as silhouettes of anonymous people. Little by little, these silhouettes transformed into more abstract plastic forms, even though the idea of the anonymous mass is still there. The main effect created by his paintings is that they are remindful of particles scattered by natural disasters, as if they were being disseminated in outer space.

`Crdilebi~, akrili, tilo, 40X55 sm; 2016 "SHADOWS", ACRYLIC ON CANVAS, 40X55 CM; 2016

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`Crdilebi~, zeTi, tilo, 140X180 sm; 2016 / "SHADOWS", OIL ON CANVAS, 140X180 CM; 2016

sadac miTologiuri personaJi Crdilis siluetis grafikuli SemoxazviT safuZvels uyris xelovnebis am saxeobas. zogadad, Crdili sxvadasxva mniSvnelobiT erTerTi yvelaze datvirTuli egzistencialuri simboloa, mudmivad ganxiluli sinaTlesTan dapirispirebasa Tu masTan kombinaciaSi, an rogorc obieqtis mudmivad Tanamdevi da ganuyofeli opozicia. merab survilaZis tiloebze sxvadasxva feris saRebavis mcire zomis „skulpturebi“ Tavdapirvelad anonimuri kacunebis siluetebad gamoCnda. Semdeg ki es siluetebi ufro abstragirebul mcire plastikur formebad iqca, Tumca anonimuri masis suraTi SenarCunda. ZiriTadi efeqti ki, romelsac misi tiloebi qmnis, TiTqos stiqiuri dinebebis

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The contrast created by the numerous abstract objects and their shadows are the main conceptual foundation of Merab Surviladze’s artworks. The tension created as a result of this contrast, in this case, between the material substance of the small shapes constructed in paint and the ephemeral dimension of the shadows, provides the emotional impact. Onlookers can easily find a symbolic analogy with the epoch they are living in, with the feeling of chaos and disorientation. The background of this massive movement is constantly changing, developing the monochrome abstraction aspect. The painter mainly works with gray, creating architectural associations, although he also uses other colors: red, blue, clay, khaki... The angle also varies, as the artist experiments, playing with the main motifs from different


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`Crdilebi~, zeTi, tilo, 140X150 sm; 2016 / "SHADOWS", OIL ON CANVAS, 140X150 CM; 2016

ZaliT gafantuli nawilakebis kadrebia, romlebic kosmosuri sistemebis amsaxveli suraTebis vizualur esTetikas eqvemdebareba. kontrasti, romelsac mravalricxovani pirobiTi abstraqtuli obieqtebi da maTi Crdilebi qmnian, namuSevrebis konceptualuri safuZvelia. kontrastis Sedegad Seqmnili daZabuloba obieqtebis, am SemTxvevaSi, saRebaviT agebuli mcire zomis formebis materialur faqturasa da Crdilebis efemerul ganzomilebas Soris merab survilaZis namuSevrebs emociuri zemoqmedebis

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focal points with the diligence of a constructivist. Together with providing a feeling of chaos, he plays with symmetry, or more generally, with geometrical themes; underlining the relation between the sculptural and the pictorial – everything reveals the wish to depict in the most laconic, yet most meaningful possible way. In some works, the sculptural part is so important that the painting becomes a three-dimensional object, and needs to be observed in a horizontal position. A number of works present some allusions to Alexander Rodchenko’s famous photographs, where the accent is put on finding an original point of view and


Zalas aZlevs. mayurebeli advilad poulobs simbolur analogias im drosTan, romelSic cxovrobs, qaosisa da dezorientaciis SegrZnebasTan. foni, romelzec es stiqiuri „masobrivi gadaadgilebebi“ mimdinareobs, mudmivad icvleba da paralelurad monoqromuli abstraqciis Temas aviTarebs. ufro metad mxatvari faqturul nacrisfers mimarTavs arqiteqturuli asociaciebiT, Tumca sxva ferebic iyenebs: wiTeli, lurji, Tixisferi, Waobisferi. mudmivad icvleba rakursi; mxatvari konstruqtivistebisTvis saxasiaTo

the arrangement of human masses in space. Concerning the theme of the masses, and more generally the idea of quantity, it is one of the central concepts in Merab Surviladze’s works, and it is depicted in relation to space too, in a world where there are no borders, and where life takes place in an eternal dynamic. Playing with shadows and “massive movements” is an experiment that Surviladze only started recently; it is still in a process of development, so there will be much more to come. Khatuna Khabuliani

`Crdilebi~, zeTi, tilo, 140X150 sm; 2015 / "SHADOWS", OIL ON CANVAS, 140X150 CM; 2015

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`Crdilebi~, akrili, tilo, 70X90 sm; 2017 "SHADOWS", ACRYLIC ON CANVAS, 70X90 CM; 2017

interesiT ikvlevs sxvadasxva fokusidan gamosaxul ZiriTad motivs, sadac qaosis ganwyobasTan erTad simetria, an zogadad, geometriuli Temebi Cndeba, gamokveTilia skulpturuli da suraTobrivi maxasiaTeblebis urTierToba; yvelaferSi Cans miswrafeba maqsimalurad lakoniuri da mravlismetyveli gamosaxulebisken. zogan skulpturuli nawili imdenad izrdeba, rom tilo obieqtad gardaiqmneba da misi wakiTxva horizontalurad „dadgmuli“ tilodan xdeba. ramdenime namuSevari aleqsandre rodCenkos cnobili fotoebis erTgvar aluziebs warmoadgens, sadac mniSvneloba xedvis originalur kuTxes da adamianTa masebis sivrceSi ganlagebas eTmoba. rac Seexeba masebis Temas, zogadad, raodenobis fenomens, es merab survilaZis namuSevrebis erT-erTi centraluri sakiTxia da isev sivrcesTan urTierTobaSi mJRavndeba, rogorc samyaro, sadac ar aris sazRvrebi da sadac sicocxle maradiul dinamikaSi avlens Tavs. Crdilebisa da „masobrivi gadaadgilebebis“ motivebi Semoqmedis axlandel eqsperiments gansazRvravs, romelic jer ganviTarebis procesSia da ar dasrulebula. xaTuna xabuliani

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ara mgonia, formani bednieri iyos

I DON'T THINK THAT FORMAN IS HAPPY… erTxel, erT-erT Tbilisur wveulebaze, sadac bevri ucnobi iyo, vTqvi, rom miloS formanis Cexuri filmebi originalSi mqonda nanaxi. orma Zalian lamazma gogonam erTmaneTs siciliT gadaulaparaka, TiTqos normalur adamians hgavs, miloS formani ki Cexi hgoniao. gogonebi marTlac lamazebi iyvnen, magram ratomRac arc erTi ar dafiqrebula, ratom iwereba formanis saxeli ase _ Milos da ratom ar iwereba, vTqvaT, ase _ Milosh. miloS formani daibada 1932 wlis 18 Tebervals patara Cexur qalaq CaslavSi. CexoslovakiaSi ori moklemetraJiani da sami srulmetraJiani filmi gadaiRo. metic, klement gotvaldis _ Cexoslovakiis komunisti lideris saxelobis premiis laureatic iyo. axali Taoba Znelad warmoidgens rom, arcTu Soreul warsulSi, ara marto mobiluri kavSiri, aramed satelituri televizia da internetic ar arsebobda. videomagnitofoni ki iyo, magram sasurveli Canaweris

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Once, at an occasion in Tbilisi where there were many people that I didn’t know, I said that I had seen Miloš Forman’s Czech films in their original format. Two very beautiful girls started talking laughingly to each other, saying – he seemed like a normal guy, but he thinks that Milos Forman is Czech. The girls were truly beautiful, but for some reason, neither thought about why Forman’s first name is spelled Miloš, and not, for instance, Milosh. Miloš Forman was born on the 18th of February 1932 in the small Czech city of Čáslav. He made two short films and three feature films in Czechoslovakia. What’s more, he was a laureate of the state prize of Klement Gottwald, communist leader of Czechoslovakia. It might be hard for the new generation to imagine that not so long ago, there were no mobile phones, no satellite TVs, and no internet. There were video cassette players, but it was difficult to find the cassettes you were looking for. Some Georgians managed to watch Forman’s American films, but none had ever heard about his Czech ones (it is still the case today: only a handful know about


moZieba Wirda. zogierT qarTvels miuwvdeboda xeli formanis amerikul suraTebze, misi Cexuri filmebi ki gagonilic aravis hqonda (axlac erTeulebma ician). Cemi Cexi megobari, rok-jguf Toyen-is lideri da drameri, irJi SimeCeki damexmara. unda iTqvas, rom im dros, saWiro videoCanaweris Sovna CexeTSic rTuli iyo. magram, rodesac praRaSi vestumre, irJim yvela Rone ixmara, rom formanis da CemTvis saintereso da CvenSi ucnobi zogierTi sxva Cexi reJisoris filmebi menaxa. Tanac, Cemi megobari, formanis tyupis _ petris da mateis skolelic aRmoCnda da ramdenime saintereso faqti momiTxro Tanaskolelebis mamis Sesaxeb. 1963 wels formanma gadaiRo moklemetraJiani filmebi „rom ar yofiliyo musika“ da „konkursi“, romlebic erT almanaxSi gaerTianda saerTo saxelwodebiT „konkursi“. imave wels gamovida formanis SesaniSnavi ironiuli drama „Savi petri“, 1965 wels ki filmi _ „qera gogonas sasiyvarulo Tavgadasavlebi“. mTavari roli am filmSi, formanis im droisTvis ukve yofili

them). My Czech friend Jiří Šimeček, leader and drummer of the rock band Toyen, helped me in this endeavor. It has to be said that at that time, it was even difficult to find the tapes in Czechoslovakia. But when I visited him in Prague, Jiří did everything to show me films by Forman and other Czech film directors who were unknown to me and in whom I might be interested. What’s more, my friend happened to have been a schoolmate of Forman’s twin sons Petr and Matěj, and he told me a number of interesting facts about their father. In 1963, Forman made the short films ‘If there was no music’ and ‘Audition’, which were united in one bundle under the name ‘Audition’. Forman’s remarkable drama ‘Black Peter’ was released that same year, and in 1965, ‘Loves of a Blonde’. The main role of the latter film was played by Hana Brejchová, the younger sister of movie star Jana Brejchová, who was already Forman’s ex-wife at the time of the shooting. Forman knew that the 18-year-old Hana had two advantages over his ex-wife: she wasn’t an actress, and she wasn’t as beautiful as her. In the film ‘Loves of a Blonde’, the main male role is also performed by an amateur actor, musician Vladimir Pucholt, who had always dreamed of becoming a doctor, but couldn’t, like many

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colis, Cexi kinovarskvlavis, iana breixovas umcrosma dam, hana breixovam Seasrula. Tvrameti wlis hanas, formanis azriT, mis yofil meuRlesTan SedarebiT, ori upiratesoba hqonda: is arc msaxiobi iyo da arc ufrosi dasaviT lamazi. filmSi, „qera gogonas sasiyvarulo Tavgadasavlebi“, mamakacis mTavari roli aseve araprofesionalma msaxiobma, musikosma vladimir puxoltma Seasrula. puxolti yovelTvis eqimobaze ocnebobda, magram komunistur CexoslovakiaSi, araproletaruli warmomavlobis gamo, zogierT profesiaze xeli ar miuwvdebodaT. ocdaxuTi wlis puxoltma 1967 wels miatova msaxiobis warmatebuli karierac da Cexoslovakiac. erTi xanoba is britaneTSi cxovrobda ingliseli reJisoris lindsei andersonis saxlSi da londonur vitrinebs recxavda. Semdeg kanadaSi gadabargda da dRes pativcemuli da dafasebuli pediatria torontoSi. saTauri, „qera gogonas sasiyvarulo Tavgadasavlebi“, an ufro zustad _ „qera gogonas siyvarulebi“, Cexurad gacilebiT ufro lamazad JRers _ „Lasky jedne plavovlasky”. „qera gogona“ Zalian originaluri da mimzidveli filmia, 1966 wels „oskarzec“ iyo wardgenili. uyureb am Tbil, lirikul komedias da icini. mxolod bolo wuTze aRmoaCen, rom saaTnaxevari tragediaze gicinia... roca Cems megobars vuTxari rom, Cemi azriT, „qera gogona“ formanis saukeTeso nawarmoebia mis SemoqmedebaSi, irJis Zalian gauxarda da miTxra _ es filmi Cvenzea, Cexebze! samwuxarod, Cexebs imdenad kargad ar vicnobdi, rom mivmxvdariyavi ras gulisxmobda. dRemde ar vici, ra hqonda mxedvelobaSi. irJis SeniSvnis fonze, miT ufro gasakviria, rom „qera gogona“ CexeTis sazRvrebs gareTac Zalze popularuli iyo. am filmiT moxiblulma gavlenianma italielma prodiuserma, karlo pontim, Cexoslovakiur mxares da miloS formans erToblivi proeqti SesTavaza.

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others who didn’t have access to certain professions in communist Czechoslovakia, because of his non-proletarian origins. At 25 years of age, Pucholt left both his successful acting career and Czechoslovakia. For a period, he was living in London, in English film director Lindsay Anderson’s house, and worked cleaning windows in the city. Then he moved to Canada, and, today, he is an acknowledged and respected pediatrician in Toronto. The title ‘Loves of a Blonde’ sounds much better in Czech – ‘Lásky jedné plavovlásky’. It is a very original and attractive film, and was even presented at the Oscars in 1966. When you watch this warm, lyrical comedy, you laugh. And you will only discover at the very last minute that you were actually laughing about a tragedy… When I told my friend that I thought that ‘Loves of a Blonde’ was the best film Forman had done in his career, Jiří was very happy and told me – “This film is about us, about Czechs!” Unfortunately, I didn’t know Czech people well enough to understand what he meant by that. Even today, I still don’t know what he had in mind when he said this. And because of his words, it’s even more surprising that ‘Loves of a Blonde’ became very popular beyond Czech borders too. The influential Italian producer Carlo Ponti, who was very impressed with the film, offered to co-produce a film with the Czech side and Forman. Forman finished ‘The Firemen’s Ball’ in 1967. The film crew was entirely Czech, while the finances came from Italy. Italian finances meant high-class equipment and high-quality camera film. At the


filmze _ „iwvis, Cemo qalbatono“ _ muSaoba formanma 1967 wels daasrula. SemoqmedebiTi jgufi mTlianad Cexuri iyo, dafinanseba ki italiurma mxarem iTava. italiuri dafinanseba maRali klasis aparaturas da maRali xarisxis firs niSnavda. Cveni saukunis daswyisSi, formani ixsenebda, rogor aixdina maSin ocneba da rogor uxaroda, cxovrebaSi pirvelad, ferad firze gadaReba. filmis operatori miroslav ondrJiCeki iyo. ondrJiCekma or inglisur filmze imuSava lindsei andersonTan. maTgan erTia, saqarTveloSi erT dros Zalian popularuli _ „o, iRbliano!“ miroslav ondrJiCekis gadaRebulia formanis Cexuri da misi amerikuli suraTebis umetesoba. tragikomedia „iwvis, Cemo qalbatono“, romelSic arc erTi profesionali msaxiobi monawileobs, formanis erT-erTi saukeTeso namuSevaria. amis miuxedavad, karlo pontis is ar moewona. Semdgom, elvis uswrafesad ganviTarebul movlenebs, deteqtiuri elferi dahkravs.

beginning of this century, Forman recollected how he made his dream come true with this film, by shooting on color film for the first time. The film’s director of photography was Miroslav Ondříček, who had previously worked on two English films with Lindsay Anderson, one of which is ‘O Lucky Man!’, a film that used to be very popular in Georgia. Ondříček was the cameraman on most of Forman’s Czech and American films. The tragicomedy ‘The Firemen’s Ball’, in which there is not a single professional actor, is undoubtedly one of Forman’s best works. But despite that, Ponti didn’t like it. The events that would unfold afterwards have a somewhat detective feel to them. Carlo Ponti’s lawyers requested that the Czech side repay them the full production money. ‘Barrandov Studios’ and the administration of Czech company ‘Filmexport’ pulled out and put the responsibility of paying the USD 80,000 on the director. For an American director with millions in revenue, USD 80,000 might be pocket money. But at that time, in 1967, for a 35-year-old director

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karlo pontis advokatebma Cexur mxares mTeli sadadgmo Tanxis anazRaureba mosTxoves. kinostudia „barandovis“ da Cexoslovakiuri „filmeqsportis“ maSindelma xelmZRvanelobam usindisod daibana xeli da oTxmoci aTasi amerikuli dolaris dabruneba reJisors daakisra. amerikeli kinematografistisTvis, milioniani SemosavlebiT, oTxmoci aTasi dolari, dRes, SesaZloa, jibis fulia. magram, Soreul 1967 wels, ocdaTxuTmeti wlis reJisorisTvis komunisturi Cexoslovakiidan, oTxmoci aTasi dolari astronomiuli Tanxa iyo. rogor gaukvirdeboda im or lamaz gogos, rom gaego am finansuri gawamawiis mizezi: formanma, im periodSi, inglisuri ena ar icoda da inglisurad Sedgenil kontraqts brmad moawera xeli. kontraqti, danarCenis garda, Seicavda erT punqts: filmis xangrZlivoba minimum oTxmoci wuTi unda yofiliyo. reJisors aravin ganumarta sabediswero punqtis Sinaarsi da formanma Tavisi saxelovnebo miznebidan da saWiroebebidan gamomdinare mxolod samocdaTormetwuTiani filmi gadaiRo. karlo ponti rvawuTian sxvaobas CaeWida da Cexi reJisori patimrobis realuri safrTxis winaSe aRmoCnda.

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from communist Czechoslovakia, it was an astronomical sum. The two beautiful girls would have been very surprised to hear the reasons behind this financial fuss: at that time, Forman didn’t know English, and he signed the contract, which was written in English, without reading it. And among other things, the contract contained the following element: the length of the film should have been of at least 80 minutes. Nobody explained this to the director, and Forman, acting out of his artistic vision and the film’s requirements, edited a 72-minute film. Because of eight minutes, Carlo Ponti put the Czech director at serious risk of going to prison. Forman went to Rome to see Ponti, and he literally begged him on his knees. Ponti wasn’t moved, and ordered his subordinates to put him in jail. If we consider the widespread belief according to which artists were only oppressed in communist countries, it is quite paradoxical that a film director from the socialist Czechoslovakia became the victim of a Bourgeois system. Because of these legal and financial issues, the heads of the Czech film distribution system didn’t dare to release the film, and put ‘The Firemen’s Ball’ to rest on a shelf. Vojtěch Jasný, an interesting director known by too few Georgians, who was traveling to Munich at that time, simply stole the film from the Barrandov fund, and transported it to West Germany. French director François Truffaut then took ‘The Firemen’s Ball’ from Munich to Paris in his Citroën. Like other “cursed” films, this work by Forman spread from France to Europe and the USA, where it got its English name (the original title translates in English as ‘It’s burning, milady’). Unlike Carlo Ponti, everybody liked ‘The Firemen’s Ball’, to the point that it was presented at the Oscars. But even that didn’t help the least bit with the Czech director’s legal and financial problems. Then, suddenly, directors from the French ‘New Wave’ stood by Forman. Unexpectedly, but very actively. The French started collecting that USD 80,000. People helped the


formani romSi gaemgzavra, eaxla pontis da sityvis pirdapiri mniSvnelobiT, fexebSi Cauvarda. karlo pontis arc aman moulbo guli da Tavis xelqveiTebs ubrZana, cixeSi CasviTo. gavrcelebuli stereotipis mixedviT, xelovanebs mxolod komunistur qveynebSi aviwroebdnen. paradoqsia, rom reJisori socialisturi Cexoslovakiidan swored burJuaziuli sistemis msxverpli gaxda. Cexoslovakiuri kinogaqiravebis maRalCinosnebma, iuridiuli da finansuri problemebis fonze, ver gariskes filmis ekranebze gaSveba da „iwvis, Cemo qalbatono“ Taroze Semodes. qarTveli mayureblisTvis ucnobma, magram saintereso Cexma reJisorma voitex iasnim, romelic im xanebSi miemgzavreboda miunxenSi, uxeSad rom vTqvaT, moipara formanis filmi „barandovis“ sacavidan da firebi xels gaayola dasavleT germaniaSi. „iwvis, Cemo qalbatono“, frangma reJisorma fransua triufom Caitana

Czech director however they could. Everybody: Alain Resnais, Claude Chabrol, Éric Rohmer, Jacques Rivette, and many more. François Truffaut sold his abovementioned Citroën. They discovered that the parents of Jean-Luc Godard, who was a Swiss of Jewish origins, were both bankers. Godard went to Switzerland, and grabbed as much money as he could from his parents. Finally, the French directors managed to collect the required amount and pull Forman from the claws of Carlo Ponti. During the Soviet intervention in Czechoslovakia in August 1968, Forman was still in France. He decided he would not return to his occupied homeland, and, without any particular goal or hopes, he departed for the USA. Forman made his first American film in 1971. At that time, he wasn’t a US citizen, and spoke English with an accent. The title ‘Taking Off’ reflects a rebellion against one’s family, the living of an unruly life, and the euphoria provided by drugs. Forman himself calls this

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film his “last Czech film”, as it is still done in the style and aesthetics of the Czech New Wave, in a half-documentary manner, with nonprofessional actors and very refined editing. The American premiere of the film was attended by only eight people. Despite the fact that ‘Taking Off’ would later be awarded a Palme d’or at the Cannes Film Festival, it was still a fiasco. After a catastrophic American debut, Forman became convinced that nobody needed non-commercial films in America, especially from a new immigrant from a communist country. Forman is a high-class cinematographer. He graduated from the cinema faculty of one of Europe’s most reckoned institutions – the FAMU (Academy of Performing Arts). Among other great figures, one of his professors was the famous-to-be bilingual writer Milan Kundera. For a specialist of Forman’s level, it is easy to manipulate the viewer. It is much more difficult to do so with experienced experts, or juries from festivals or from the Oscars, but Forman can do that too. He set himself a goal, one that he would achieve with his next film. ‘One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest’ was released in 1975. This film adaptation of Ken Kesey’s best-selling novel is well known in Georgia

miunxenidan parizSi Tavisi „sitroeniT“. iseve, rogorc zogierTi sxva Serisxuli filmi, formanis es namuSevaric safrangeTidan gavrcelda evropasa da SeerTebul StatebSi, sadac saTauri Seucvales da „mexanZreTa mejlisi“ uwodes. karlo pontisgan gansxvavebiT, „iwvis, Cemo qalbatono“, Tu „mexanZreTa mejlisi“, yvelas moewona, „oskarzec“ ki waradgines. Tumca, Cexi reJisoris kriminalur-finansur problemebs, es garemoeba odnavadac ver amsubuqebda. moulodnelad, formans franguli „axali talRis“ reJisorebi amoudgnen mxarSi. moulodnelad, magram aqtiurad. frangebma oTxmoci aTasi dolaris Segroveba daiwyes. yvela daexmara Cexs, visac ramdeniT SeeZlo. yvela, alen rene, klod Sabroli, erik romeri, Jak riveti, sxvebi da sxvebi. fransua triufom zemoxsenebuli „sitroeni“ gayida. gairkva, rom warmoSobiT Sveicariel ebraels, Jan-liuk godars, dedac bankiri hyolia da mamac. godarma Sveicarias miaSura da ramdenic moaxerxa, imdeni fuli dascincla mSoblebs. rogorc iqna, frangma reJisorebma saWiro Tanxa Seagroves da daixsnes formani karlo pontis klanWebidan.

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CexoslovakiaSi sabWoTa intervenciisas, 1968 wlis agvistoSi, formani jer kidev safrangeTSi imyofeboda. man gadawyvita okupirebul samSobloSi aRar dabrunebuliyo da gansakuTrebuli imedebis gareSe, SeerTebul StatebSi gaemgzavra. Tavisi pirveli amerikuli filmi reJisorma 1971 wels gadaiRo. im dros, igi amerikis moqalaqe ar iyo da inglisurad aqcentiT laparakobda. filmis saTauris Targmna rTulia. albaT, yvelaze miaxloebuli Targmani iqneba „mowyveta“, Tanac igulisxmeba ojaxidan gandgomac, TavaSvebuli drostarebac da narkotikuli eiforiac. Tavad formani, am namuSevars, Tavis ukanasknel Cexur films uwodebs, radgan is, jer kidev „axali Cexuri talRis“ stilistikiT da esTetikiTaa dadgmuli, naxevraddokumentur maneraSi, araprofesionali msaxiobebiT da uaRresad daxvewili montaJiT. filmis amerikul premieras mxolod rva mayurebeli daeswro. miuxedavad imisa, rom filmma „mowyveta“, mogvianebiT kanSi oqros „palmis rto“ daimsaxura, es mainc kraxi iyo. katastrofuli amerikuli debiutis Semdeg, formani

too. The film’s subject is schematic, and its meaning pathetic and banal. We have to say that the excessive success of this film cannot be attributed to the public. Forman left no choice to the public or the critics: the film’s visual and cine-technologic culture is flawless and unmistakable. Additionally, he had the ideal type of actor, who performed brilliantly. Forman always worked better than others with actors, be they professionals or amateurs. The results came fast: the film made USD 112 million in America, and 255 million in the rest of the world. ‘One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest’ was nominated in 53 award categories around the world, from which it won 40, including five Oscars in various categories – one, of course, being the award for the Best Directing. Forman had taken a fierce revenge on the failure of his first American, or last Czech, film. That is precisely when he said the scandalous sentence: “Everybody has two homelands. One where they are born, and another – America!” According to the contract, the director would get a certain percentage of the film’s winnings. History (and Forman himself ) are silent about what the absurdly enriched director gave to his French colleagues to repay them for their help. And there is every chance the Americanized director had already forgotten about their good deed.

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darwmunda, rom amerikaSi arakomerciuli xelovneba aravis sWirdeboda, gansakuTrebiT komunisturi qveynidan axalCasuli emigrantisgan. formani eqstra klasis kinematografistia. man evropis erT-erTi angariSgasawevi umaRlesi saswavleblis _ praRis FAMU-s (natif xelovnebaTa akademia) kinofakulteti daamTavra. yvela danarCenis garda, misi pedagogi, mogvianebiT ganTqmuli orenovani mwerali milan kundera iyo. formanis donisa da rangis specialistisTvis iolia mayurebliT manipulireba. bevrad ufro rTulia mravlismnaxveli eqspertebis, safestivalo anda saoskaro Jiuris gadabireba, magram formans esec SeuZlia. man mizani daisaxa, romelsac ukve momdevno filmiT miaRwia. „gugulis budeze gadafrena“ 1975 wels gamovida. qen qizis bestseleris am kinoadaptacias kargad icnoben CvenSic. filmis siuJeti sqematuria, Sinaarsi _ paTetikuri da banaluri. meore mxriv, primitiuli antitotalitaruli alegoria yvelasTvis gasagebia. unda iTqvas, rom am filmis gadaWarbebul warmatebaSi mayurebels brali ar miuZRvis. mayurebels da Semfasebels formanma Sansi ar dautova: filmis

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After this sensational success, which was a result of Forman’s well-thought cinematographic strategy and a little bit of political speculation, he continued winning a lot of money and awards. It would even be difficult to say the exact number of awards won by Forman’s American films. He chose only one, and what’s more, a secondary plotline from Edgar Lawrence Doctorow’s multilayered novel ‘Ragtime’ for his next film, which would be released in 1981. As a result, his ‘Ragtime’ came out as a somewhat lifeless, onedimensional, but politically correct, anti-racist, and ultimately profitable film. Among other things, his adaptation of Peter Shaffer’s play happened in 1984. In the rich, pompous, almost realistic film ‘Amadeus’, there is one inaccuracy: Mozart, who is conducting the orchestra, is facing the musicians and showing his back to the audience. The first conductor who turned his back to the audience was Richard Wagner, almost a century after Mozart. And the interesting thing is that well-learned Forman knew this. Those who don’t know are the large majority of the American, and even non-American audience. Forman chose not to confuse or irritate the public. And he was right: ‘Amadeus’ was awarded eight Oscars in 1985.


vizualuri da kinoteqnologiuri kultura uzado da udavoa. amas emateba idealuri tipaJi da brwyinvale aqtioruli ostatoba. formans yovelTvis bevr sxvaze ukeT exerxeboda msaxiobebTan _ profesionalebTan Tu araprofesionalebTan muSaoba. Sedegma ar daayovna: filmma amerikaSi 112 milioni dolari, danarCen msoflioSi ki, 255 milioni dolari moagrova. „gugulis budeze gadafrena“ msoflios sxvadasxva premiis ormocdacamet nominaciaze iyo wardgenili, aqedan moipova ormoci, maT Soris xuTi „oskari“ sxvadasxva kategoriaSi, erTi _ saukeTeso reJisuraSi. formanma sastikad iZia Suri misi pirveli amerikuli, Tu ukanaskneli Cexuri filmis marcxisTvis. swored maSin warmoTqva skandaluri fraza: „yvelas ori samSoblo aqvs. is, sadac daibada da _ amerika!“ reJisors, kontraqtis mixedviT, filmis Semosavlidan garkveuli procenti ekuTvnoda. istoria (Tavad formanic) dums imis Sesaxeb, Tu riT gadauxada sikeTe frang kolegebs saarakod gamdidrebulma formanma. didi albaTobiT, gaamerikelebulma reJisorma sikeTe daiviwya. sensaciuri warmatebis Semdeg, romelic formanis kargad gaTvlili kinematografiuli strategiis da cotaTi politikuri spekulaciis Sedegi iyo, man fulis da prizebis moxveWas mihyo xeli. formanis amerikuli filmebis mier msoflioSi mopovebuli premiebis sruli raodenobis dazustebac ki Znelia. 1981 wels, man, edgar lourens doqtorous moculobiTi da mravalplaniani romanis _ „regTaimis“ mxolod

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erTi, isic meoradi siuJeturi xazi SearCia Tavisi morigi filmisTvis. Sedegad, miseuli „regTaimi“, uRimRamo, erTganzomilebiani, magram politkoreqtuli, antirasistuli da Semosavliani gamovida. piter Seferis piesis ekranizacia ki 1984 wels ganaxorciela. mdidrul, pompezur, TiTqos realistur filmSi „amadeusi“, yvelafris garda, aris erTi uzustobac: mocarti, romelic orkestrs diriJorobs, darbazisken zurgiT da musikosebisken saxiTaa Sebrunebuli. pirveli diriJori, vinc msmenels zurgi Seaqcia, rixard vagneri

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iyo, mocartis Semdeg, TiTqmis asi wliT gvian. nakiTxma da ganswavlulma formanma es kargad icis. samagierod, es ar icis amerikeli, gindac araamerikeli mayureblis umravlesobam. formani publikis dabnevas da gaRizianebas moerida. arc Semcdara: „amadeuss“ 1985 wels rva „oskari“ mianiWes. formanis amerikuli suraTebis umravlesoba ekranizaciaa: romanis, piesis, brodveis miuziklis... maTi didi nawili damoukidebel, auTentikur saxelovnebo faseulobas ar warmoadgens, gansxvavebiT misi Cexuri


nawarmoebebisgan. reJisoris amerikuli filmebi veRar aRZravs emociebs, romlebiTac damuxtuli iyo Cexuri namuSevrebi. gaqra formaniseuli Tbili ironia da sevdanarevi lirizmi. mis amerikul produqciaSi filigranuli ostatobis miRma aRaraferia. ramdenime aTeuli welia, erT dros mowinave da ukompromiso reJisori akeTebs ara imas, rasac xelovneba moiTxovs, aramed imas, rasac misgan elian. novatori Semoqmedi, „Cexuri axali talRis“ erT-erTi fuZemdebeli, karga xania, ordinarul, Tumca warmatebul biznesmenad iqca. es, misTvis damaxasiaTebeli qaragmulobiT da eleganturobiT SeniSna didma ungrelma reJisorma mikloS ianCom: „1972 wels _ ixsenebs ianCo _ los anjelesidan damireka formanma. maSin is erTdolarian sastumroSi cxovrobda rwyilebTan da tarakanebTan erTad. mikloS, _ mkiTxa man, _ Sen mand miloSs aravin ar geZaxis? imitom rom, me aq yvela mikloSs meZaxis! dRes, _ agrZelebs ungreli reJisori, _ mTelma msofliom absoluturad zustad icis ra hqvia formans, oRond, ara mgonia is amiT ufro bednieri iyos...“ zurab nacvliSvili

Most of Forman’s American films are adaptations: novels, plays, Broadway musicals… Unlike his Czech works, a large number of them do not carry an independent, authentic artistic value. The director’s American films do not convey the emotions that were ever-present in his Czech films. Forman’s warm irony and sad lyricism has disappeared. There is nothing beyond cinematic prowess in his American productions. For several decades, a formerly inventive and uncompromised director has not been doing what art demands, but what people expect from him. The innovative artist, who was one of the founders of the Czech “New Wave”, became an ordinary businessman, though a successful one, a long time ago. The great Hungarian director Miklós Jancsó noted this, in his usual allegorical and elegant manner: “In 1972” – Jancsó recalls – “Forman called me from Los Angeles. At that time, he was living in a one-dollar hotel with fleas and cockroaches. ‘Miklós,’ he told me, ‘do some people call you Miloš there? Because everybody is calling me Miklós here!’ Today” – the Hungarian director adds – “the whole world knows what his name is, but I’m not sure he’s happier for it…” Zurab Natsvlishvili

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mziTvis tradicia The Dowry Tradition

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mziTvis tradicia qarTuli istoriisa da eTnokulturis ganuyofeli nawilia da asaxavs Cvens qveyanaSi civilizaciis, yofiTi kulturis ZiriTad aspeqtebs, naTlad gviCvenebs Tanadroul istoriul processa da sxvadasxva kulturis zegavlenas. uZveles istoriuli wyaroebSi dasturdeba, rom gamorCeuli mziTvi, ZiriTadad, maRali socialuri fenis qaliSvilebisTvis yofila xelmisawvdomi. SemorCenil mziTvis nusxebSi sxvadasxva daniSnulebis nivTebia CamoTvlili _ samosi, qsovili, samkauli, wignebi, xatebi, jvrebi Tu sxv. XVIII saukuneSi istoriul processa da sxvadasxva kulturis zegavlenas vaxuSti batoniSvili gvidasturebs; igi gadmogvcems Tu rogor ikiTxeboda qalis samkaulze sparsulis gavlena, rac im dros bunebrivi iyo. Semdgom periodSi sparsulis adgili evropul-rusulma daikava, rasac CrdiloeTidan Semotanili mravali ucxo nivTi mowmobs. mziTevSi gasatan aucilebel nivTTa Soris did adgils xatebi,

The tradition of dowry is an inseparable part of Georgian history and ethno-culture: apart from reflecting the principal aspects of our civilization and lifestyle, it shows the processes at hand in history and points to the influence of other cultures. Ancient historical sources attest to the fact that exceptional dowries were mainly a privilege for brides of families with high social status. Objects of various purpose can be found in dowry lists that have reached our time – clothing, textile, jewelry, books, icons, crosses‌ Vakhushti Bagrationi points out the processes that took place in the 18th century, as well

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as the influence of various cultures, noting how one could detect a Persian influence on women’s jewelry, very understandable for the time. Afterwards, the influence of Persia would be replaced by that of Europe and Russia, which can be seen in the many objects imported from the north. Among the must-have items of a bride’s dowry, we can find icons, crosses, and other such goods. Icons and jewelry were often made of precious metals and incrusted with precious stones. Apart from that, religious literature also used to hold an important place: The Book of Hours, Psalms of David, The Gospels, and so on. At that time, books were luxury items in Georgia, and brides were also often given manuscript books from Georgian literature. The book ‘The Knight in the Panther’s Skin’ printed by Vakhtang VI in 1712 became one of the most sought-after dowry gifts for brides’ families, as did board games such as chess, ganjifa, and backgammon. In dowry books, we find adornments for the head, hair, ear, hand, breast, and waist. These accessories were quite valuable, and came in the forms of hats, headbands, and bracelets… In Anuka Batonishvili’s dowry book, jewelry bore pearls, ruby, sapphire and other precious stones.

jvrebi da sxva saxmari nivTebic iWerda. xat-samkauli ZiriTadad Zvirfasi TvlebiT iyo moWedili da Zvirfasi liTonisa iyo. garda amisa, didi adgili sasuliero xasiaTis literaturasac eWira: Jamni, daviTni, saxareba Tu sxv. imdroindel saqarTveloSi wigni fufunebis sagani iyo da qaliSvilebs xSirad mziTvad saero literaturasac, xelnawer wignebs atandnen. 1712 wels vaxtang VI mier dastambulma `vefxistyaosnma“ qarTveli patarZlebis ojaxebisTvis mziTvis CamonaTvalSi Tavmosawoni mniSvneloba SeiZina. amgvar nusxebSi vxvdebiT saTamaSoebad moxseniebul _ Wadraks, ganjafas, nards da sxv. mziTvis wignebSi Tavis, Tmis, yuris, xelis, mkerdis, welis mosarTav samSvenisebs vxvdebiT. es aqsesuarebi sakmaod mdidrulia. maTSi igulisxmeba _ qudi, ialqani, Tmisatani, yolbaRi da sxv. anuka batoniSvilis mziTvis wignSi samkaulebi morTulia margalitiT, laliT, iagundiT, firuziT da sxv.

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Documents attest to the fact that the culture of taking care of oneself was quite developed in ancient Georgia, and that our ancestors paid great attention to hygienic means. Toiletries had a dedicated place in dowries. Objects of various function and purpose were carefully chosen and were mainly prepared from metal: nacre, makeup tools, chests to put them in, antimony sticks, combs, soap saucers, toiletry bowls, cotton wool holders, and more. In Georgia, clothing has conveyed signs of various lifestyles, traditions, and cultures since ancient times. This could be seen in numerous elements and accessories: clothing adorned with precious ruby, sewn in precious textiles, and often adorned with fur. Apart from

dasturdeba, rom Zvel saqarTveloSi Tavis movlis kultura saTanadod iyo ganviTarebuli da Cveni winaprebi higienur saSualebebs did yuradRebas aqcevdnen. mziTevSi kuTvnil adgils sapirfareSo nivTebsa uTmobdnen. sxvadasxva funqciisa da daniSnulebis nivTi yuradRebiT iyo SerCeuli, romlebic ZiriTadad Zvirfasi liTonisagan mzaddeboda: sadafi, fer-umarilis salesavi, boxCa umarilis salesavis Sesanaxad, surmis Cxiri, savarcxeli, Tmis sayofi, sapnis nalbaqi, saabanove jamTasi, makrateli kavisa, sabambe da sxv. samosi saqarTveloSi ZvelTaganve yofis, tradiciis, kulturaTa gansxvavebuli niSnebis matarebeli iyo. is uamravi atributiTa da aqsesuariT gamoirCeoda: iyo Zvirfasi RilebiT Semkuli da aRmosavluri sxvadasxva Zvirfasi qsovilisagan Sekerili. xSir SemTxvevaSi bewviTac amkobdnen. kabebs, Rilebis garda, arSiebiT, qaTibis oqros xrikebiT rTavdnen. aucilebeli atributi

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iyo e.w. xelsaxocebi anu cxvirsaxoci _ rogorc tanisamosis erT-erTi TandarTuli nawili. mziTvis CamonaTvalSi vxvdebiT tanisamosis sxvadasxva nawilsac, e.w. perangebs, axaluxs, saguleebs, sartyels, qamars da ra Tqma unda, kabebs, romelTa gasawyobad Rilebis garda xSirad Cafrastebs, qaTibebs, xrikebs, tyavs, qurTubaRebs, zonarebs iyenebdnen. rasakvirvelia, samosi aucileblad Sesatyvis fexsacmelsa da fexsamoss moiTxovda. imdroindel fexsacmels wuRebi, maSiebi, Ceqmebi da jorabebi warmoadgenda. rac ufro met wyvil fexsacmels waiRebda qali mziTvSi, miT ufro metyvelebda es mis SeZlebasa da mdidrul warmomavlobaze. fexsacmeli foCebiT iyo Semkuli, tanisamosis da fexsacmlis Sesanaxad ki _ boxCas iyenebdnen. mziTvis wignSi gansakuTebiT xazgasmulia sufris iaraRi anu WurWeli; sura, Tasi, iala, sirCa, kula, mina, sanaJure TefSi, jami, nalbaqi da sxva. sufris WurWeli mrvalfunqciuri datvirTviTa da garegnuli formiTaa warmodgenili: sayinule, windasafeni, xaliCa, uCi, gidela...

buttons, dresses were often ornamented with ribbons and golden adornments. An obligatory attribute was the handkerchief, which acted as one of the accessories that came with the garment. In the dowry books, we find various parts of clothes, such as shirts, tunics, belts, girdles, and of course, dresses, which, aside from buttons, could be adorned by silver clasps, fur jackets, leather, and laces. Naturally, the garments had to be accompanied by suitable shoes and hosiery.

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The shoes of that time were “tsughi” (soft ankle-high shoes), “mashia” (summer shoes), boots, and stockings. The more pairs of shoes a bride took from her home, the more it showed her wealth and high origins. Shoes were adorned with fringed edges, and stored in a special container. Kitchenware was also an important constituent of dowry books: jugs, bowls, mugs, flasks, glassware, plates, saucers, and more. Dowry tableware were of various functions and form: ice containers, small tablecloths, rugs, baskets… Other, everyday tools and items are also present in dowry books, for instance, fireplace utensils, curtain lambrequins, chests, bed linens, pillows, bed sheets and covers. The tradition of offering articles related to the bed is still alive in today’s Georgia. Various, more surprising, items can also be found on dowry lists: silver and copper articles, bread-baking equipment, stable tools and horse harnesses.

mziTvis nusxebSi saojaxo-saxmari nivTebicaa moxseniebuli. mag: buxris iaraRebi, sawolis mofeniloba, fardebi TulufTani, skivrebi, queSagebi, rac baliSs, zewars, sabansa da gadasafarebels gulisxmobs. es ukanaskneli qarTul realobas da mziTvis tradicias dRevandel dRemde SemorCa. raoden gasakviric ar unda iyos, naxsenebia Sinameurneobis sxvadasxva nivTebic. aqaa vercxlisa da spilenZis nivTebi, puris sacxobi, sajinibos iaraRi da cxenis aRkazmuloba. dRemde SemorCenili mziTvis wignebi naTlad metyvelebs saqarTveloSi yofiTi kulturis warsulze, tradiciaze, qorwinebis socialur datvirTvaze, qarTveli qalis maRal esTetikasa da inteleqtualuri ganviTarebis doneze. es yovelive cxadyofs Tu ra mniSvnelobas aniWebda qarTveli qali sakuTar garegnobas, Cacmulobas, inteleqts... mziTvis wignebi ki SesaZloa ganvixiloT rogorc kanonieri datvirTvis mqone iuridiuli sabuTi, romelic dRevandeli iuridiuli mniSvnelobiT qonebriv deklaracias warmoadgens, meore mxriv ki memkvidreobas, romelic qals qorwinebaSi mihyveboda. irina saganeliZe

The dowry books that have reached our time tell us many interesting things about daily life in Georgia of the past: the country’s traditions, the social meaning of marriage, and the refined aesthetics and level of intellectual development of Georgian women. All this shows how much importance Georgian women attributed to their appearance, clothing, and intellect… As for the dowry books, we can consider them not only as legal documents with the force of law, the equivalent of today’s asset declaration, but a heritage that would go with the bride on her marriage. Irina Saganelidze

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vidre arsebobs wminda kedlebi While there are sacred walls

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adamiani Tavis beds Tavad qmnis, risi dasturic marina janaSias cxovreba da Semoqmedebaa; Semoqmedeba, romelic yovelTvis sargeblobda sazogadoebis didi siyvaruliT. asea grZeldeba dResac. uaxloesi warsulis mZime gamocdis miuxedavad, maSin, roca amas aravin eloda, msaxiobi scenas daubrunda...

sicocxle scenaze da scenis miRma _ sad gadis zRvari realursa da gamogonil samyaros Soris? „vidre arseboben wminda kedlebi _ Sevewirebi“, es amonaridia im ficidan, romelic Teatraluri institutis damTavrebisas gamosaSveb saRamoze Cemma jgufma dado da TiToeuli Cvengani am fics SeZlebisdagvarad vasrulebT. Zalian gagvimarTla, radgan aRmzrdelad udidesi maestro, batoni miSa TumaniSvili gvyavda da romelic Cveni gzis manaTobelia dRemde. is gveubneboda, rom Teatri taZaria. maSin samwuxarod bolomde ver vxvdebodiT am Sedarebis mniSvnelobas. mxolod mogvianebiT aRviqvi, rom profesiidan gamomdinare Cvenc ambionze vdgavarT da vuqadagebT xalxs _ sad aris sikeTe da sad boroteba, sad simarTle an tyuili. ramdenime `kargi~ reJisorisagan msmenia _ `taZari ara, maZari, Teatria bardagiao~ (mapatieT es gamoTqma). diax, Cvens profesiaSi saTqmelia mTavari da Tu saTqmeli gaqvs _ taZaria, Tu ara... Teatri CemTvis didi saswaulia, sadac ver gaavleb zRvars realursa da Seqmnil samyaros Soris; rodesac rame konkretul nawarmoebze muSaob, miT umetes, didi avtorisa, Senc am ambis monawile da Tanaziari xdebi. iseve gixaria, rogorc Sens gmirs da isev gtkiva, rogorc mas. Zieba! _ es aris yvelaze saintereso procesi, romlis Tanmdevi kiTxvaa _ ratom? Tu Ziebis procesSi, ama Tu im epizodSi, am kiTxvas pasuxi gaeci, ese igi axlos xar WeSmaritebasTan. me fardiani speqtaklebi miyvars... farda gyofs realuri cxovrebisgan da Sehyavxar irealurSi. bolos ki, roca speqtakli mTavrdeba da farda eSveba, mTavrdeba Seni sceniuri sicocxle da iwyeba yofa, romelSi gadasvlac Zalian Znelia da xSirad amis survilic ar gaqvs. swored amitom miyvars Cems sagrimioroSi ganmartoeba da adamianis gonebis ganuyrel da yvelaze erTgul megobarTan _ fiqrTan darCena...

People create their own fate, and Marina Janashia’s life and oeuvre attest to this. Her creations were always very popular in society as a whole, and it is still the case today. And then, despite a very difficult recent past, when nobody was expecting it, she returned to the stage… Life on stage and beyond the stage – where is the line between the real and imagined worlds? “While there are sacred walls, I will sacrifice my life for them” – this is an excerpt from the oath that we students took during our graduation evening at the Theater Institute, and each of us is trying to stand by it as much as possible. We were very lucky to have the great master Misha Tumanishvili, whose vision still lights our path today, as a professor. He used to tell us that the Theater is a temple. Unfortunately, we couldn’t fully grasp the significance of these words back then. It was only later I realized that in our profession, we are also standing behind a pulpit, and preaching to people about good and evil, truth and deception. I’ve heard from some “good” directors – “What do you mean temple? Theater is a mess!” Yes, the most

miuxedavad mayureblis didi da gansakuTrebuli siyvarulisa, iyo wlebi, roca marina janaSias scenaze fexi ar Seudgams. rogor gadalaxeT es? msaxiobisTvis yvelaze rTulad gadasatani SemoqmedebiTi procesisgan mowyvetaa. martivad rom

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vTqvaT, umuSevroba. roca grZnob, rom ar xar saWiro da Tanac maSin, roca ggonia, rom formaSi xar da SegiZlia bevri akeTo, obiqturi Tu subieqturi mizeziT gaCereba, gardacvalebis tolfasia. xSirad amas ver uZleb da sulierad tydebi, magram umjobesia swored am dros gamonaxo Sens TavSi Zala da ar daimsxvre, rogorc faifuris Tojina. es cidan motanili fraza ar gaxlavT. bevri ram Tavad gamovcade sakuTar Tavze da mxolod amitom vbedav amis Tqmas. zogjer iseT `samuSaozec~ Tanxmdebi, rom ggonia, _ wlobiT Sekowiwebul da nagroveb mayureblis simpatias rogorc peSvidan gaparul wyals, ise dakargav. magram Tu saqme giyvars, cdilob yvelaferi ise akeTo, rom es mogiwonon da Segiqon. rodesac am profesias irCev yvelaferi cisartyelis ferebad mosCans, magram roca realobas ejaxebi, Turme yvelafrisTvis mzad unda iyo... mTavaria giyvardes Seni profesia da iyo Zlieri.

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important thing in our profession is what we have to say, and if you have to say something, then it is a temple, if not… To me, theater is a great miracle where you cannot draw a clear line between the real and imaginary worlds. When you’re working on a specific play, especially those of great authors, you become a participant in the story, and you are influenced by it. When your character is happy, you are happy too, and when he is grieving, you grieve. Research! This is the most interesting process, and its correlate question is – why? If in your research process, in this or that episode, you answer this question, it means you are close to the actual truth of the play. I like theater plays that use the curtain… The curtain separates you from real life, and brings you into the unreal one. And at the end, when the show is over and the curtain is closed, your scenic life is over, and the other one starts anew, in which it is very difficult to relocate, and you often don’t even actually want to. That is why I like to isolate myself in my dressing room, and to stay alone with the inseparable and most faithful friend of human conscience – thought…


romeli ufro axlosaa Tqvens Sinagan samyarosTan: Teatri Tu kino? Teatri rom artistisTvis umTavresia, amas yvela msaxiobi damidasturebs, magram kinoSi muSaobac Zalian miyvars. CvenTan ufro `reJisoris~ kinoa, sadac naklebad ainteresebT msaxiobi. gamorCeul reJisorTagan ramdenimes Tu CamovTvli, romelmac icis msaxiobis fasi da uyvars igi. amitomac araerTi marTlac didi msaxiobi wasula am qveynidan guldawyvetili da, samwuxarod, axalgazrda Taobam mxolod ambad icis, rom isini kargi artistebi iyvnen. yvela es tkivili CemTvisac nacnobia, radgan filmidan filmamde imdenwliani intervali mqonia, rom roca gadaRebaze miwvevdnen, kamerasTan SeSinebuli, damfrTxali, damwyebi msaxiobiviT videqi. unda vaRiaro, rom Zalian miyvars kinoSi muSaoba, miyvars msxvil xedze gmiris Sefaseba, sadac bagis kuTxis Tu Tvalis odnavi moZraobiT SegiZlia mayurebels gadasce Seni Sinagani mdgomareoba. es `WuWrutanas Teatris~ principia. amasac batoni miSa gvaswavlida _ `ise unda muSaobdeT, rom SemTxveviT gasaRebis WuWrutanaSi rom Semovixedo,

Despite the remarkable success and popularity you enjoyed, there were times, and even years, in which you weren’t on stage at all. How did you get over this? The most difficult thing for an actor is to leave the creative process. In other words, unemployment. When you feel that you are not needed, and when it happens to be at a time when you feel that you are in good shape and you can do many things, being held back, whether it is for objective or subjective reasons, equals your demise. Many people cannot bear that and are spiritually broken, but this is precisely the best time to gather strength and not shatter like a porcelain puppet. I’m not saying this from nothing. I’ve experienced many things myself, and this is why I allow myself to say it. Sometimes, you even accept “jobs” that you think might make you lose the sympathy of your audience, which you had accumulated for years, like fresh water pouring out of your hands, between your fingers. But if you love what you do, you try to do everything in order for them to like it and praise you. When you chose this profession, everything seemed as colorful as a rainbow, but when you have to face reality, you realize that you should have been prepared for a lot of things... The most important is to love what you do and to be strong.

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unda megonos, rom yovelive sinamdvileSi xdebao~. roca gadaReba mTavrdeba, kamera imdenad `Cemi xdeba~, rom minatria _ gadaRebebi axla dawyebuliyo. gansakuTrebiT sainteresoa marina janaSias azri Tanamedrove qarTuli Teatris Sesaxeb. ra gamowvevebis winaSe dgas dRes is? meCveneba, rom dRes prioritetebi Seicvala. axla xelovnebam da, gansakuTrebiT Teatrma, ukana planze gadainacvla. ufro mniSvnelovani sxva, iolad gasagebi da mosasmeni sferoebi gaxda. rasakvirvelia, esec aucilebelia, magram Zneli sacqeria, roca Sens Tvalwin kotrdeba xelovneba, Sens Tvalwin nadgurdeba ena da, samwuxarod erTeulebis garda, es aravis aRelvebs.

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Which one is closer to your inner world: theater or cinema? Every actor will agree with me that theater is more important for us as artists, but I love playing in movies too. In Georgia, we have more “director” films, which means that they are less focused on actors. From our great directors, I can only think of a few who know the value of actors and appreciate them accordingly. That is why many great actors have left this country brokenhearted, and unfortunately, the younger generation only knows that they were good artists because they’ve heard it. I know all this very well, because I had intervals of several years between films myself, to the point that when I was invited to shootings, I stood in fear in front of the camera, petrified, like a new actor. I have to admit that I love working on films, I love playing with characters in close shots, where you can transmit your inner state to the public with a slight movement of the lips or eye.


saqarTvelo swored rom rom kulturis, mwerlobis, mecnierebis gamo iyo saamayo. axla am dargebis mimarT yuradReba minavlebulia. erT magaliTs moviyvan, romelic piradad Zalian momwons: rodesac CerCils uTxres omis gamo kulturis biujeti unda SevamciroTo, man ikiTxa, maSin risTvis vomobTo? albaT, gasagebia es magaliTi risTvisac moviyvane. CvenSi xelovnebis aseTi gulSematkivari Tu gamoCnda, misgan aucileblad mtris xats vqmniT _ diax, es Zalian samwuxaro faqtia. arc Tu Soreul warsulSi erTi kulturis ministri gvyavda. rodesac wamyvanma pirdapir eTerSi hkiTxa _ bolos ra speqtakli naxeTo, upasuxa: sulac ar aris aucilebeli speqtaklebs daveswro, mTavaria viyo kargi menejeri, rom kargi speqtaklebi dadgano. ras izam, „bevri ram xdeba Cemo horacio...“ kidev erTi ram mawuxebs. oriode aTeuli wlis win Teatralur institutSi magaliTisTvis samsaxiobo fakultetze iRebdnen ocdaaTamde bavSvs. Teatraluris damTavrebis Semdeg ikribebodnen

This is the principle of the ‘keyhole Theater’. This was also taught to us by Mr. Tumanishvili – “You have to work in such a way that if I happen to look in the keyhole by chance, you make me think that everything I see is actually happening in real life.” When shootings are over, I feel so close to the camera that I often wish for the shooting to start again. Your thoughts about contemporary Georgian theater are particularly interesting. What challenges is it currently facing? I have the feeling that the priorities have changed. Today, art, and especially theater, are considered less important. Other, more easily understandable, fields have become more important. Naturally, they are necessary too, but it is difficult to watch when an art, a language, is vanishing in front of you, and that, unfortunately, apart from a handful of people, nobody really minds. If we are proud of Georgia, it is precisely because of its culture, literature, and scientists, but today, attention towards these fields has shrunk. I will give an example that I think is very revealing: when they told Churchill that they had to cut down the financing of culture because of the war, he asked – “Then what are we fighting for?” You probably understand why I am referring to that. If there is someone as passionate as that in our

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country, we always make them look like enemies, which is regrettable. Not so long ago, when asked on live TV about the last show he had seen, one of our former Ministers of Culture answered: “It isn’t necessary for me to attend shows, the most important thing is for me to be a good manager, so that people can stage good shows. ‘What can we do? There are more things in Heaven and Earth, Horatio...’ There is another thing that bothers me. About twenty years ago, at the Theater Institute, they were receiving, for instance at the Faculty of Drama, around 30 students. When the latter were graduating, dramaturgs and heads of theaters from Tbilisi and various regions were gathering and choosing actors for their theaters. As a result, no young actor was left without a job. Years ago, charging faculties appeared. The number of students has increased, which has very much hindered the educational process and quality. Students often come out of the Theatre Institute without knowing anything about their own abilities. Most disconcerting is the fact that nobody invites them to work after they have graduated, because it is impossible to find enough place for so many new actors in this small country, and they have to forget about those four years, and search for another profession. For me personally, this is really tragic, because I know the passion of the young people who go to the Theater Institute because of their love of this field, and who are interested precisely in the magical world called theater.

ara mxolod Tbilisis, aramed sxvadasxva raionis Teatrebis reJisorebi da xelmZRvanelebi, romlebic TavianTi TeatrebisTvis irCevdnen msaxiobebs. ase, rom arc erTi axalgazrda umuSevari ar rCeboda. wlebis win gaCnda fasiani fakultetebi. jgufebSi gaizarda studentTa raodenoba, ramac Zalian Seaferxa swavlebis procesi da xarisxic. xSirad axalgazrda ise amTavrebs Teatralur universitets, rom man sakuTari SesaZleblobebis Sesaxeb araferi icis. yvelaze savalalo ki is faqtia, rom swavlebis dasrulebis Semdeg maT samuSaod aravin iwvevs, radgan am patara qveyanaSi SeuZlebelia amdeni damwyebi msaxiobis adgili gamoiZebnos da isinic iZulebuli arian es oTxi weli wyalSi gadayaron, sxvadasxva profesiaSi eZion Tavi. piradad CemTvis es didi tkivilia, radgan kargad mesmis im gulanTebuli bavSvebis, romlebic am profesiis siyvarulis gamo midian TeatralurSi, romlebsac swored is jadosnuri samyaro ainteresebT, rasac Teatri hqvia.

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dabolos, ras urCevdiT axalgazrda msaxiobebs? scena rentgeniviTaa. aSiSvlebs Sens Sinagan samyaros, Sens bunebas, Sens wignierebasac ki. amitom, SeiZleba Zalian kargad iTamaSo roli da mayureblis mowonebac daimsaxuro, magram ver moipoveb mis siyvaruls, rac aseTi aucilebelia artistisTvis. WeSmarit msaxiobs gaCerebis ufleba ar aqvs. sul unda eZebo _ Tu ra xdeba axali Teatris samyaroSi, musikaSi, mxatvrobaSi... unda icnobde literaturas (Zvelsac da axalsac), ra icvleba Sens irgvliv, radgan am profesiaSi erT adgilze gaCerebis ufleba ar gaqvs. dros ar unda CamorCe... mec ase minda vicxovro bolomde, ar minda umoqmedod davrCe da velodo... „moZraoba da marto moZraoba Cemo Tergo“... manamde ki _ „vidre arseboben wminda kedlebi _ Sevewirebi“... esaubra Teo jayeli

What advice would you give young actors? The stage is like an x-ray. It uncovers your inner world, your nature, even your knowledge. Therefore, you may play a role very well and merit praise from the public, but if you are not sincere, you won’t earn their sincere love either, which is so essential for artists. A true actor doesn’t have the right to stop. You have to be in a constant process of research– about what is happening in the theater world, in music, in art in general… You need to know literature (old and new), to pay attention to what is changing around you, because in this profession, you don’t have the right to freeze; you can’t fall behind your epoch. I want to live like that till the end; I don’t want to be inactive and in expectation… “Movement, and movement alone, my Tergo”… And of course – while there are sacred walls, I will sacrifice my life for them… Interview by Teo Jakeli

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saavtoro kino _ nacnobi avtorebiT saavtoro kinos baTumis saerTaSoriso festivali kinomoyvarulebs, tradiciulad yovel seqtembers maspinZlobs; sadac yovelTvis naxavT karg kinos, aRmoaCenT axal avtors, `daagemovnebT“ didostatTa filmebs, SexvdebiT ucxoel da qarTvel kinomoRvaweebs, moismenT maT naazrevs da... daelodebiT Semdeg BIAFF-s. wlevandel BIAFF-ze 30-ze meti qveynis 40 srulmetraJiani mxatvruli, dokumenturi da amdenive moklemetraJiani filmi iyo warmodgenili, rogorc sakonkurso, ise ara sakonkurso seqciebSi. kinoCvenebebis ZiriTadi nawili kinoTeatr „apoloSi“, xolo moklemetraJiani programis Cveneba sastumro „vindhem baTumSi“ gaimarTa. aRsaniSnavia, rom gansakuTrebul kolorits saRamoobiT, eras moedanze, Ria cis qveS gamarTuli kinoCvenebebi qmnida. festivalis sapatio stumari gamoCenili qarTveli kompozitori gia yanCeli gaxldaT. mas kinematografSi Setanili wvlilisTvis baTumis kinofestivalis sapatio prizi gadaeca; kompozitoris cxovrebisa da Semoqmedebis Sesaxeb festivalze uCvenes Teona jorbenaZis filmi „sevdis angelozebi“.mayurebelTan Sexvedrisas gia yanCelma sainteresod isaubra musikaluri gavlenebis, araqarTul sivrceSi profesiuli gamocdilebis, arvo piartis, alfred Snitkes da 60-ianelTa musikis Sesaxeb... wlevandeli festivali giorgi ovaSvilis filmiT

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gaixsna. „xibula“ avtoris trilogiis („gaRma napiri“ 2009, „simindis kunZuli“ 2014) mesame filmia da msoflio premiera karlovi varis saerTaSoriso kinofestivalze Sedga. tradiciul safestivalo Sexvedraze, reJisorma ganacxada, rom mas filmis Seqmna Zalaufleba dakargul adamianze surda, misi mizani saqarTvelos uaxlesi istoriis dokumenturi sizustiT asaxva ar yofila. xibula, is adgilia, sadac damoukidebeli saqarTvelos pirvelma prezidentma zviad gamsaxurdiam sicocxlis ukanaskneli dReebi gaatara. mTavari rolis Semsrulebeli iraneli hosein mahjubi garegnulad Zalian ki hgavs pirvel prezidents, magram misi metyveleba (mas axmovanebs qarTveli msaxiobi SoTa qristesaSvili) araefeqturad yalbad ismis da msaxiobis TamaSis stilic manerulia. pozitiuri precedentia, rom filmSi regionaluri Teatrebis msaxiobebs, qarTuli kinosTvis axal saxeebs vxvdebiT. gmiris gardatexa, ganviTareba an Tundac misi „dasasruli“ filmSi ar Cans da fraza, romelsac prezidentis dacvis wevrebi warmoTqvamen: „unda wavideT, batono prezidento!“ lamis refrenad gasdevs mTel films. giorgi ovaSvili, samwuxarod ver axerxebs, rom lokaluri ambavi, globalur konteqsti dagvanaxos, mTavari gmiri ganazogados, romelic xSir SemTxvevaSi groteskuli da karikaturulicaa. ekranuli realoba


sul sxvaa da ekranuli simarTle sxva. dasanania, rom filmis operatoris da mxatvris SesaSuri vizuali, mxolod efeqtur warmodgenad rCeba da harmoniul filmis naratiul nawilTan TanxvedraSi ver aris. arasakonkurso seqciaSi „qarTuli panorama“ warmodgenili iyvnen rogorc axalgazrda qarTveli reJisorebi: anuna bukia („me gadavcure enguri“ 2016), cira gvasalia („oTaxebi“ 2016), giorgi varsimaSvili („Zmebi qalaqSi“ 2017); ise qarTveli klasikosebi: aleqsandre rexviaSvili („rusuli palestina“ 1999) rezo esaZe („Tve, rogorc erTi dRe“ 2016) eldar Sengelaia („savarZeli“ 2017). yuradRebas am ukanasknelze SevaCerebT: „savarZeli“, vizualuri TvalsazrisiT ar hgavs eldar Sengelaias arc erT films. scenari, msaxiobebi, aqcentebi, personaJebi da avtoris damokidebuleba kinogmirebTan anu is komponentebi, romliTac eldar Sengelaia Sedevrebs qmnida, axali filmis SemTxvevaSi TiTqos sadRac qreba da ikargeba. qarTveli klasikosis axali filmis sinofsisSi amoikiTxavT: „eldar Sengelaia, „savarZels“ mxolod

misTvis damaxasiaTebeli, Zveli maneriTa da axleburi xedviT iRebs“, sinamdvileSi ki, xedvac da manerac _ orive `novaciaa~. mayureblisTvis, TavisTavad sainteresoa is faqti, rom ramdenimewliani `dumilis~ Semdeg qarTuli kinos erT-erTi gamorCeuli figura Tanamedroveobis problemebiT interesdeba. Tu „grenlandia“ _ „cisfer mTebSi“ gayinuli drois, sazogadoebis erT wreze brunvis simboloa, „savarZeli“ Zalauflebis ganzogadebuli saxe-xatia, romelsac politikosebi hyvaroben xolme. orive filmi absurdis komediaa, oRond im gansxvavebiT, rom „cisferi mTebi“ zustad asaxavs sabWoTa epoqis yvela „sidiades“ da „sikarges“ da ewereba igavuri kinos gamomsaxvelobiT konteqstSi. maSin, roca ametyvelebuli, personificirebuli „savarZeli“ ubralo avejis da nivTis funqcias ver scdeba. absurds da absurdis komedias, romelsac ase efeqturad iyenebda eldar Sengelaia, axla kiCi anacvlebs, sevdanarevi iumori, romelic 60-ianelTaTvis lamis savizito baraTad iqca, eldar Sengelaias axal filmSi groteskamde dadis, romelic raRac konkretul kulminaciamde sasaciloc kia, magram Semdeg ukve azrs moklebuli da gaumarTlebeli.

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mxatvruli filmebis saerTaSoriso konkursi mxatvruli filmebis konkursi festivalis yvelaze daZabuli da dramatuli nawilia xolme. wels am seqciaSi Tavi moiyares rogorc gamocdilma, ise damwyebma reJisorebma. Tumca, am yovelivem kidev ufro sainteresod warmarTa safestivalo procesi, Jiuris gadawyvetilebis molodinSi `moulodnelobis molodini~ meti iyo. iranuli kinos klasikosi, festivalis sapatio stumari mohsen maxmalbafi wlevandeli Jiuris Tavmjdomare gaxldaT; festivalis daxurvis ceremonialze mas gadaeca baTumis kinofestivalis yovelwliuri sapatio prizi kinematografSi Setanili wvlilisTvis. festivalis msvlelobisas gamarTul masterklasze, reJisorma isaubra rogorc sakuTar Semoqmedebasa da gamocdilebaze, ise Zvel da Tanamedrove iranul kinos specifikaze. maxmalbafis garda wlevandel Jiuris wevrebi iyvnen: yazaxi prodiuseri diana aSimova, avRaneli reJisori sidiq barmaki, ukraineli prodiuseri boris Sulmani, qarTveli reJisori nuca aleqsi-mesxiSvili. wlevandel konkursSi ori iranuli filmi vixileT _ mohamed rasulofis „patiosani kaci“ _ socialuri drama,

Crdilo iranul sofelSi mcxovreb axalgazrda kacze, romlis pastoralur yofas adgilobrivi korufciuli dajgufebebi arRveven... rasulofis filmi wlevandeli kanis kinofestivalis seqcia Un Certain Regard-is mTavari prizis mflobeli gaxda, Tumca baTumSi Jiuris rCeuli ver gaxda, iseve rogorc misi Tanamemamule ehsan abdipuris „afrena“. sakonkurso seqciis erT-erTi gamorCeuli filmi iyo Turqi qali reJisoris ieSim ustaoRlus „SuqCrdili“. gansxvavebuli asakisa da socialuri warmomavlobis qalbatonebis Sexvedrisas _ ori msoflmxedveloba, piradi istoria, piradi tragizmi ejaxeba erTmaneTs. es uaRresad faqizi formiT gadmocemuli realuri samyaroa, sinamdvilis avTentikuri asaxva, romelSic gmirebis poeturi, saxe-xatebi organulad ewereba. ieSim ustaoRlu Tanamedrove Turqul kinoSi erT-erTi wamyvani figuraa da mis filmografiaSi, „SuqCrdilis“ msgavsad, araerTi filmia, romelSic avtori qalebis bediT interesdeba („Rrublebis molodinSi“ 2003, „pandoras yuTi“ 2008). ustaoRlus Tanamemamulis, axalgazrda Turqi msaxiobis onur sailaqis sadebiuto filmi

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„meti“ _ Tanamedroveobis mtkivneul Temas, migracias _ saintereso formiT exmianeba. sakonkurso programaSi kidev erTi debiuti vixileT, mariam xaWvanis „dede“. filmSi moqmedeba svaneTSi, uSgulSi, 90-iani wlebSi viTardeba. mTavari gmiri, axalgazrda qalia, romelic cxovrebiseuli gamowvevis winaSe dgeba _ daemorCilos patriarqalur sazogadoebaSi gabatonebul wesebsa da normebs, Tu airCios sakuTari gza da ibrZolos piradi bednierebisTvis. svaneTi, misi kultura da tradiciebi reJisoris Semoqmedebis mTavari inspiraciaa, is am yvelafriT jer kidev moklemetraJian filmSi („dinola“ 2013) dainteresda. `dedeSi~ svaneTis buneba STambeWdavia, magram kino, mxolod „lamazi suraTebis“ efeqturi kompilacia ar aris, xSir SemTxvevaSi bunebis xedebi dramaturgiuli Cavardnebis dasabalanseblad gamoiyeneba da „efeqturi“ montaJis rolsac asrulebs xolme. roca avtorma ar icis, dramaturgiuli peripetiebi rogor warmarTos, eTnografiuli peizaJebis xSiri gamoyeneba gaumarTleblad migvaCnia. festivalis sakonkurso programis erT-erT yvelaze mniSvnelovani filmi ukraineli reJisoris sergei loznicas „nazi arseba“ iyo; suraTi wels kanSi mTavari sakonkurso programis farglebSi uCvenes. avtoris

TqmiT filmis inspiracia fiodor dostoevskis amave saxelwodebis Txzuleba gaxda. axalgazrda qali, romelic qmris sapovnelad ruseTis Soreul cixeSi miemgzavreba, TiTqos metafora Tu saxe-simboloa yvela im adamianisa, vinc biurokratiasTan da zogjer, kanonis saxeliT mosaubre usamarTlobasTan martodmarto cdilobs gamklavebas. loznicas Tanamedrove ruseTis groteskuli portreti, romelSic moqmedeba 2016 wels xdeba, garemo da yofa 90-ianebs mogagonebT, gazviadebuli gmirebi ki ruseTis periferiul realobas gviCveneben. rumineli operatori oleg mutu kameris miseul flobas arc loznicas filmSi Ralatobs, is zedmiwevniT zustad asaxavs ierarqiebis da kliSeebis mTel maskarads... filmis finalSi, mTavari gmiri, sadguris mosacdeli oTaxidan sibneleSi, gaurkveveli mimarTulebiT gahyavT, ise rom mayurebelTan erTad, mTavarma gmirmac ar icis, misi Semdgomi bedi. finaluri kadri, reJisoris saTqmelis, mTeli filmis simboluri gamoxatulebaa: mZinare xalxi, an Tu gnebavT `mZinare saxelmwifo~ da Tavad sistema, romelsac ar anaRvlebs rac xdeba, an icis simarTle da mainc `Zils~ amjobinebs.

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sakonkurso programaSi warmodgenili iyo axalgazrda rusi reJisoris, aleqsander hantis sadebiuto namuSevari „rogor waiyvana viqtor „niorma“ aleqsei „kunci“ moxucTa TavSesafarSi“, filmSi mamisa da Svilis urTierTobaa asaxuli, romelic ruseTSi, moxucTa Soreul TavSesafarSi mimaval gzaze viTardeba. uCveuli mogzaurobisas mama-Svili aRmoaCens rom maT imaze meti saerTo aqvT, vidre Tavad egonaT. filmSi mTavar rolebs Tanamedrove rusuli kinos nacnobi saxeebi _ aleqsei serebriakovi da andrei smirnovi asruleben, maT mayurebeli rusi reJisoris andrei zviagincevis filmebidan icnobs „leviaTani“ (2014) da „elena“(2011). sergei loznicas msgavsad, korneli mundrucos filmi „iupiteris mTvarec“, kanis mTavar konkursSi iRebda monawileobas. wlevandel kinofestivalze ungreli reJisoris filmi, qarTveli mayureblisTvis ormagad saintereso aRmoCnda _ mTavar rols merab niniZe asrulebs. ebraeli eqimis, gabor Sternis, niniZiseuli TamaSi samsaxiobo ostatobis namdvili masterklasia. msaxiobi rwmenadakarguli, nihilisti da altruisti

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adamianis ekranul saxes qmnis, romelic, centralur evropaSi saswaulis momswre xdeba _ mis Tvalwin sirieli ltolvili ymawvili levitaciis unars iZens. devnilisa da eqimis urTierToba filmis centraluri istoriaa, rogorc dramaturgiuli ise Janrul-stilisturi TvalsazrisiT. Trileri, melodrama, saTavgadasavlo arthausi, blokbasteri _ Janrobriv ekleqtikas avtori ganzrax mimarTavs, mas dRevandeloba ase warmoudgenia, is stilisa da Janrebis aRreviT sazogadod miRebul normebsa da dogmebs Soris sazRvrebs Slis, polarul sawyisebs aerTianebs da erTgvar post-modernistul suraTs gvTavazobs. aRsaniSnavia, filmis operatoris marsel revis Sroma, is megapolisis STambeWdav zedxedebs saocari ostatobiT qmnis. reJisori ki ukiduresad surealisturi paTosiT asaxavs evropis erT-erT yvelaze mwvave problemas, romelic dRemde gadauWrelia. mundrucos TqmiT, mas surda kinoenis saSualebiT im qaosis, daZabulobis da wnexis asaxva romelsac, mis mSobliur budapeStSi yoveldRiurad grZnobs. BIAFF 2017-is sakonkurso programis sxva filmebisgan mkveTrad gansxvavdeboda, sali poteris filmi „wveuleba“. britaneli reJisori msoflio kinematografSi, cnobilia msaxiobebTan muSaobis gansakuTrebuli meTodiT. 2014 wels man wigni gamosca saxelwodebiT „SiSveli kinematografia _ msaxiobebTan muSaoba“. kristen skot tomasi (mas mayurebeli ralf fainsTan „ingliseli pacientidan~ icnobs), romlis garSemoc viTardeba mTeli siuJeti karieruli warmatebis pikzea, Tumca moulodnelad is saSinel simarTles igebs da yvelaferi icvleba. „wveuleba“ samsaxiobo SesrulebiT unaklo filmia, amas emateba operatoris ostaturi namuSevari da reJisoris ironiuli damokidebuleba gmirebis, maTi cxovrebis wesis, politikuri Tu moqalaqeobrivi poziciebis mimarT.


BIAFF DOCUMENTARIES wlevandeli festivalis sakonkurso dokumenturi filmebi, stilisturi TvalsazisiT mkveTrad gansxvavebuli iyo, magram socialur-politikuri Temebze fokusireba sxvadasxva qveynis avtorebis filmebSi erTmniSvnelovnad prioritetuli gaxldaT. dokumenturi filmebis saerTaSoriso konkursis Jiuri ase gamoiyureboda: qarTveli reJisori aleqsandre rexviaSvili (Jiuris Tavmjdomare), britaneli dokumentalisti Son makalisteri, Turqi reJisori mehmeT ali arslani, germaneli prodiuseri volker kufali, iraneli reJisori seifola samadiani. ukraineli avtori sergei loznica, romelic wlevandel BIAFF-ze mxatvruli filmebis saerTaSoriso konkursis garda, dokumenturSic iyo warmodgenili, kinoSi dokumentalistikidan movida. sayovelTao aRiareba moipoves misma filmebma „maidani“ (2014) da „SemTxveva“ (2015.). igi axal filmSi „austerlici“ warsulis mtkivneul Temebs uRrmavdeba, raTa ufro naTlad aCvenos awmyos Sinaarsi. minimalisturi Txrobis stili, aqcenti saerTo xedebze, statikuri kamera... loznicasTvis damaxasiaTebeli kinoenaa. loznicasgan gansxvavebiT Cexi dokumentalisti petr lomi ukiduresad poeturi paTosis, kreatiul dokumentur films gvTavazobs. „burmuli zRaprebi“ poeziis saSualebiT diqtaturis qveS myofi qveynis istorias gadmogvcems, moqmedeba Tanamedrove burmeli disidenti poetis garSemo viTardeba. amerikeli reJisori meTiu heimanis obieqtivSi siriis konfliqti moxvda. `aCrdilTa qalaqi“ JurnalistTa jgufis istoriaa, romlebic sicocxlis riskis fasad realobis Cvenebas cdiloben danarCeni samyarosTvis. Tanamedroveobis mtkivneul Temas asaxavs sirieli reJisori ziad kalTumis filmi „cementis gemo“, reJisorma filmis gadaReba jer kidev 2013 wels daiwyo beiruTSi. ltolvili muSebi, romelTac warsuli da momavali dakarges, inerciiT miyvebian awmyos, es filmi e.w. dokumenturi essea adamianebze, romelTa saxlebic siriaSi ibombeba, isini ki samoqalaqo omis nangrevebze axal caTambjenebs aSeneben beiruTSi. ziad kalTumis msgavsad msgavsad, personaJebis saSualebiT ucnobi realobisken kars gvixsnis Turqi reJisori iunus ozan qorquTi. misi sadebiuto, fsevdodokumenturi filmi „Cemi gareubnis istoriebi“ jeihanis socio-kulturuli fonis araordinaluri asaxvaa. aRniSnuli avtorebis msgavsad, CvenTvis TiTqosda kargad nacnobi, magram sinamdvileSi ucnobi realobas gvacnobs, qarTveli reJisori rati oneli filmiT „mzis qalaqi“, romlis msoflio premierac berlinis 67-e kinofestivalze Sedga. filmis moqmedeba WiaTuraSi xdeba, erT dros warmatebuli „sabWoTa qalaqi“, romelic manganums awarmoebda, axla post-

apokalipturi narCenebis sivrced gvevlineba, romlis mcxovrebnic erTgvar surealistur garemoSi arseboben. aq, `msaxiob-maRaroels~ arCevanis gakeTeba uwevs, sayvarel saqmianibasa da saarsebo minimums Soris, musikis maswavlebeli, im ojaxisTvis Sromobs, romelsac TveobiT ver xedavs, ori sportsmeni gogona usasrulo wreebs uvlis sportul moedans, finiSis xazi ki arsad Cans. personaJTa istoriebi, naxevrad daclil post-sabWoTa qalaqSi, sabWoTa arqiteqturuli da teqnologiuri miRwevebis nangrevebis fonze viTardeba. gansakuTrebiT sainteresoa, is Tu ra formiT gadmoscems qarTveli avtori saTqmels. garemo da atmosfero zedmiwevniT zustad asaxavs, gmirebis tragizms da zogad fons. WiaTura, ganzogadebuli krebsiTi saxea yvela im qalaqisa, sadac TiTqos dro gaCerda, gaiyina, uimedobam da uZraobam daisadgura. es avtoris ukiduresad subieqturi damokidebulebaa gmirebis, problemebis, garemos mimarT, romlis kontrapunqts somexi operatoris arsen xaCaturianis kamera mistiuri garemoTi qmnis.

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msaxiobi nineli WankvetaZe) rTuli gamowvevis winaSe dadga. konkursSi warmodgenili 25 filmidan maT saukeTeso unda gamoevlinaT. Jiuris gadawyvetilebiT gamarjvebuli Cineli reJisoris qiu iangis „naze Rame“ gaxda, wlevandeli kanis kinofestivalis moklemetraJiani filmebis konkursis, oqros palmis rtos mflobeli filmi. wlevandel festivalze xuTi axali qarTuli moklemetraJiani filmis premiera Sedga. margo zubaSvilis „ana“ („iZinebs mze“) 45 wlis qalis istorias asaxavs, romelic dedasTan marto cxovrobs, misi erTi SexedviT dalagebuli da mSvidi cxovreba, moulodneli Sexvedris Semdeg ucabedad ireva... miuxedavad axalgazrda avtoris mier Seqmnili SesaSuri vizualisa, dramaturgiuli Cavardna, araefeqturi finalis sawindari xdeba. mTavar gmiri filmis dasawyiSi, sakuTar ZalebSi darwmunebuli qalia, bolos ki lamis, egzistencialur krizisSi myofi pirovneba, romelic garegnuladac ki icvleba, es gardamtexi momenti filmSi ar Cans, rac aradamajereblobis efeqts qmnis, mayurebeli ki- personaJis mimarT empaTiurobas kargavs. dramaturgiis problemas vawydebiT soso bliaZis

sakonkurso filmebidan, unda aRiniSnos „ganTavisuflebis dRe“, romelSic asaxulia CrdiloeT koreaSi sloveniuri bendis „laibaxis“ viziti, am istoriul dRes slavoi JiJekma „21- e saukunis yvelaze gasaocari, kulturuli, ideologiuri, politikuri RonisZieba“ uwoda. filmis avtorebi gaxlavT norvegieli morten traaviki da ugis olte. am ukanasknelema, 2015 wels saqarTveloSi, samcxe-javaxeTSi dokumenturi filmi „ormagi ucxoebi“ gadaiRo. arno hagersi, erik lishuti, ranier van brumeleni filmSi „cocxlad gadarCenis meTodi“ frangi mwerlis miSel uelbekis portrets qmnian, sadac mTxrobelad igi popi gvevlineba. ukraineli reJisori roman bondarCuki filmiT „diqsi lendi“, cdilobs mayurebeli egzistencialur sakiTxebze daafiqros, amisTvis is sabavSvo musikaluri bendis da misi wevrebis Tu pedagogebis personalur istoriebs iyenebs.

moklemetraJiani kino / SHORTS wlevandel festivalze moklemetraJiani konkursis Jiuri (tajiki scenaristi da prodiuseri safar haqdodovi, iraneli reJisori hana maxmalbafi, qarTveli

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filmSi „sami safexuri“. mamasTan erTad mcxovrebi Tineijeri gogona, TavisTavad saintereso personaJia, is sakuTari seqsualuri identobis TviTgamorkvevis procesSia, garemoc kolorituli da arastandartulia, magram reJisori ver axerxebs saTqmelis ganviTarebas, iseve rogorc wina filmSi, aqac Zalian calsaxaa finalis problema. efeqturi finaliT gamoirCeva giorgi gogiCaiSvilisa da daTo abramiSvilis filmi „8 wuTi“, romelSic erTmaneTs Tanabarzomierad erwymis kinogamosaxuleba da satelevizio e.w. klipuri esTetika. miuxedavad sqematuri da zedapiruli personaJebisa, Tematur-stilisturi TvalsazrisiT sainteresoa ana saruxanovas filmi „srulyofili SekveTa“. adamianuri urTierTobebisgan daclil sazogadoebaSi, gmirebi ucnaur adgilas iyrian Tavs, sadac Cais da yavasTan erTad SesaZloa im „adamianTa SekveTa“ vis deficitsac ganicdian. konkursSi, aseve monawileobda nini sardliSvilis filmi „dasasruli“. marTalia, zemoTxsenebuli namuSevrebi Tematurstilisturi Tu Janruli TvalsazrisiT xSir SemTxvevaSi gansxvavdeba erTmaneTisgan da es TavisTavad misasalmebeli faqtia, magram TiTqmis yvela maTganSi gmirebi ver axdenen ganviTarebas, ambavi iwyeba, ar viTardeba da finalamde ise mivdivarT, rom verc ki vxvdebiT ra iyo reJisoris mTavari saTqmeli da TviTmizani. finalSi ki vxedavT ukve cvlileba-gancdil personaJebs da am cvlilebis procesi ekranze arsad Cans.

didostatTa koleqcia es seqcia, mayurebels gansakuTrebulad uyvars. aq Tavs iyrian msoflios wamyvani reJisorebi da cocxali klasikosebi, filmebi romlebic mimdinare wlis ganmavlobaSi kinoprocesebs warmarTaven xolme. „didostatTa koleqciaSi“ vixileT wlevandeli kanis kinofestivalis erT-erTi gamorCeuli suraTi, Jiuris prizis mflobeli, andrei zviagincevis „usiyvarulo“. rus avtors kritikosebi xSrad mis Tanamemamule andrei tarkovskis, daniel reJisor karl Teodor draiers, italiel roberto roselinis adareben... zviagincevis, marTlac rom gamorCeuli namuSevari, Tanamedrove ruseTis ganzogadebul suraTs gvTavazobs, garemos sadac, usiyvarulod darCenili gmirebi, gamosavlis povnas amaod cdiloben. amave seqciaSi iyo warmodgenili samxreT koreeli avtoris kim ki-dukis axali filmi „qseli“ _ ambavi Crdilo koreel meTevzeze, romelsac navis Zrava ufuWdeba da dinebas samxreT koreaSi mihyavs. mTavari gmiri saxlSi dabrunebis Semdeg, gaxleCili qveynis or ideologias Soris arsebul CixSi eqceva. aRsaniSnavia, „germanuli axali talRis“ warmomadgenlis volker Sliondorfis filmi „montokSi dabruneba“. am seqciis, gamorCeuli suraTi iyo, fineli reJisoris

aki kaurismiakis „imedis meore mxares“. am filmiT kaurismiaki, wlevandeli berlinis 67-e kinofestivalze saukeTeso reJisorad dasaxelda. es is avtoria, romelic gamorCeulia Tavis TviTmyofadi stiliT, mas verc erT sxva avtors ver SeadarebT, TumcaRa mis mier Seqmnili kinoena araerTxel gamxdara sxva avtorebis inspiraciis sagani. fineli reJisori ltolvilebis TemiT jer kidev 2011 wels dainteresda filmSi „havri“, axal namuSevarSi ki alJirel biWunas sirieli ltolvili anacvlebs, amjerad moqmedeba ki, safrangeTis nacvlad fineTSi viTardeba. kiTxvaze: ra unda moimoqmedos dRevandelma evropam da rogor ebrZolos axlo aRmosavleTidan dawyebul migracias kaurismiaks martivi pasuxi aqvs: „SesaZlebeli da aucilebelic kia, rom samyaro, yvela CvenganisTvis ukeTesi adgili gaxdes“ da misi ukanaskneli filmi, romelic keTil zRapars mogagonebT, amis naTeli dadasturebaa. wlevandeli festivali dasrulda poloneli klasikosis anjei vaidas ukanaskneli filmiT „anarekli“, romelic „saukeTeso ucxoenovani filmis“ nominaciaSi oskarzec iyo wardgenili. filmSi XX saukuneSi moRvawe poloneli

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mxatvris vladislav strJeminskis cxovrebis bolo periodia asaxuli. komunisturma reJimma misi koleqtiuri mexsierebidan amoSla scada, „Tanamedrove mxatvrobis mesia“, rogorc mas uwodebdnen xolme, sabWoTa sistemis winaaRmdeg ilaSqrebs, Semoqmedi, romelic avangardistul, eqsperimentul xelovnebas qmnis ukidures gaWirvebaSi, erT-erT fabrikaSi leninis plakatebis xatviT asrulebs cxovrebas, Tumca bolomde sakuTari principebis erTguli rCeba. festivalis farglebSi, seqciaSi „specialuri Cvenebebi“ erT-erTi mniSvnelovani RonisZieba iyo cnobili iraneli kinoreJisoris abas kiarostamis xsovnisadmi miZRvnili kinoCveneba _ seifola samadianis filmi „76 wuTi da 15 wami abas kiarostamTan“ da foto-gamofena _ „kiarostami baTumSi“ _ 2010 w., romelic baTumis Tanamedrove xelovnebis sivrceSi moewyo. amave seqciaSi vixileT Tavad abas kiarostamis ukanaskneli suraTi „wamiyvan saxlSi“ (2016) da Jiuris sxva wevrTa filmebi: hana maxmalbafis „sigiJis sixaruli“ da mohsen maxmalbafi „umankoebis momenti“, romelic iranelma reJisorma axalgazrdobaSi gadamxdar realur movlenas miuZRvna.

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BIAFF 2017-ze tradiciulad warmodgenili iyo evropis kinoakademiis moklemetraJiani filmebis koleqcia, moewyo masterklasebi da Sexvedrebi Jiuris wevrebTan, festivalis sapatio stumrebTan. festivalze gaimarTa saqarTvelos sazogadoebrivi mauwyeblis „dokumenturi filmebis ideebis sivrce web-portfelis prezentacia“. xeli moewera BIAFF-is da germaniaSi, Sverinis (Schwerin) saerTaSoriso kinofestivalis Soris TanamSromlobis memorandums, romlis farglebSic 2018 wels organizebuli iqneba specialuri seqcia „fokusi qarTul kinoze“, romelsac baTumis kinofestivali waradgens. 2011 wels baTumis saavtoro kinos festivalze daarsebuli e.w. „industriuli Sexvedrebi“ dRes ukve saintereso da mniSvnelovan platforma „alternatiul talRad“ iqca, romlis fokuss warmoadgens inovaciuri da mcirebiujetiani kinoproeqtebis ganviTareba da xelSewyoba. wels SerCeuli iyo rva qarTuli proeqti, axalgazrda avtorebs saSualeba hqondaT Sexvedrodnen dargis eqspertebs, rogorc skript doqtorebs _ nikos panaiatopoloss (MFI-eqsperti) da kler daunss (EAVE-s eqpserti), ise _ koproduqciis platformebis warmomadgenlebs _ tobias pauzingers da giulin ustuns. mniSvnelovani faqtia, rom festivalis farglebSi gaimarTa programis „SemoqmedebiTi evropa“ prezentacia. Sexvedras uZRvebodnen SemoqmedebiTi evropis e.w. `deskis~ warmomadgenlebi saqarTveloSi: qeTevan Sengelia, dinara maRlakeliZe, levan lomjaria. evrokavSiris programa „SemoqmedebiTi evropa“ evropuli kulturis, SemoqmedebiTi da audiovizualuri seqtorebis mxardasaWerad Seiqmna. programa, romelic miznad isaxavs evropuli kulturis popularizacias da internacionalizacias 2014-2020 wlebzea gaTvlili, misi biujeti 1, 46 miliard evros Seadgens. saqarTveloSi is ori qveprogramiTaa warmodgenili: media qveprograma (audiovizualuri seqtoris gaZliereba) da kulturis qveprograma (kulturis da SemoqmedebiTi seqtoris mxardaWera). e.w. erovnuli `deskis~ mTavar funqcias SemoqmedebiTi evropis calkeuli programebis erovnul doneze ganxorcieleba warmoadgens. zemoT aRniSnulma warmomadgenlebma ki swored im SesaZleblobebsa da dafinansebis gzebze isaubrebs, romelsac programa qarTvel xelovanebs sTavazobs. rogorc dasawyisSi aRvniSneT, saavtoro kinos baTumis saerTaSoriso festivalze Cvenebebi kinoTeatr `apolosa~ da eras moedanze mimdinareobda. apolo, kameruli kinoTeatria, romelic xSir SemTxvevaSi ar aris sakmarisi sakonkurso Tu arasakonkurso Cvenebaze mosuli mayureblisTvis. aucilebelia adgilobriv doneze festivalis am mimarTulebiT ganviTareba da alternatiuli kino darbazebis Seqmna, is rom BIAFF-i, aWaris regionSi (da ara mxolod) upirobod mniSvnelovani kinomovlenaa es araerTxel damtkicda neno qavTaraZe


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