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Issue 9

July 2013

Dental Cavities………… 4 Black Rhino……… 7 Project Loon……. 11 Seven Wonders of Nature ……. 14 Give rest to Your Thumb……. 20 Global Competitions……. 22 Bugs Bunny……. 26 Top Venomous animals……. 29 Cloudburst……. 32

Credit: Vyas Vandana


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Editor’s Page Hello readers, I hope you are liking our work and you want us to continue provide this magazine to you every month. The Month of June gave us two major shocks. The first one is Indian rupees turns 60 against US dollar. The price hikes in case of electronic devices and gadgets, Oil, Automobiles etc. It was the record downfall of Rupees against Dollar. There are several reasons behind the weakening of Indian Rupees. BRIC countries like India have emerging economy, so a huge percentage of investment in India is from outside the country, especially from US but due to recession in US, big institutions are collapsing and many of them are on the verge of breakdown. They are suffering huge losses in their country. They have to maintain their balance sheets and look strong on all statements, so to recover losses in their country, they are pulling out their investments from India. Due to this pulling out of investment by these big companies from India or in other terms disinvestment, demand of dollar is raising up and rupee is depreciating. There was a huge interest rate differential between India and US. Now RBI is reducing all kind of rates to increase money supply in market, so deposit rates will also move downwards. It will reduce the rate differential between two countries and affect the fixed investment in India in a negative manner. India needs a strong growth rate to sustain high spending and boost exports. However, the global outlook for exports is not positive. Most analysts expect India to grow at less than 6 per cent in 2012-13. At the same time, a weak monsoon could push up food prices. RBI needs to cut borrowing rates rapidly to stimulate economic growth. However, it will not be able to do so as it battles to control inflation. The fall in rupee can be largely attributed to the speculations prevailing in the markets. Due to a sharp increase in the dollar rates, importers suddenly started gasping for dollars in order to hedge their position, which led to an increased demand for dollars. On the other hand exporters kept on holding their dollar reserves, speculating that the rupee will fall further in future. This interplay between the two forces further fuelled the demand for dollars while sequestering its supply from the market. This further led to the fall in rupee.


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The second shock was cloudburst in Uttarakhand. It caused lot of damage in Uttarakhand. Here are some figures which shows the death value and damage. Landslides, due to the floods, damaged several houses and structures, killing those who were trapped. The heavy rains resulted in large flashfloods and massive landslides. Entire villages and settlements such as Gaurikund and the market town of Ram Bada, a transition point to Kedarnath, have been obliterated, while the market town of Sonprayag suffered heavy damage and loss of lives. Over 70,000 people were stuck in various regions because of damaged or blocked roads. People in other important locations like the Valley of flowers, Roopkund and the Sikh pilgrimage centre Hemkund were stranded for more than three days. National Highway 58, an important artery connecting the region was also washed away near Jyotirmath and in many other places. Because summers have more number of tourists, the number of people impacted is substantial. For more than three days, stranded pilgrims and tourists were without rations or survived on little food. The roads were seriously damaged at more than 450 places, resulting in huge traffic jams, and the floods caused many cars and other vehicles to be washed away. On June 18, more than 12,000 pilgrims were stuck at Badrinath, the popular pilgrimage center located on the banks of the Alaknanda River. As of 29 June 2013, the official death toll in Uttarakhand, based on the collected bodies of the victims, had crossed 850. Rescuers at the Hindu pilgrimage town of Haridwar on the river Ganga have been reported to have recovered bodies of 40 victims washed down by the flooded rivers as of June 21 2013. Bodies of people washed away in Uttarakhand were found in distant places like Bijor and Bulandshahr in Uttar Pradesh. By 23 June 2013, some sources claimed that the death toll could even rise to 5000.

Editor Kuldeep K Sarvaiya Protyle magazine


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Dental Cavities Dental cavities are holes or structural damage in the teeth. Its alternate names are: Caries, Tooth decay, Cavities - tooth

Causes Tooth decay is a common disorder, second only to the common cold. It usually occurs in children and young adults but can affect any person. Tooth decay is a common cause of tooth loss in younger people. Bacteria are normally found in your mouth. These bacteria change foods -especially sugar and starch -- into acids. Bacteria, acid, food pieces, and saliva combine in the mouth to form a sticky substance called plaque. Plaque sticks to the teeth. It is most common on the back molars, just above the gum line on all teeth, and at the edges of fillings. Plaque that is not removed from the teeth turns into a substance called tartar. Plaque and tartar irritate the gums, resulting in gingivitis and periodontitis. Plaque begins to build up on teeth within 20 minutes after eating. If it is not removed, tooth decay will begin. The acids in plaque damage the enamel covering your teeth, and create holes in the tooth (cavities). Cavities usually do not hurt, unless they grow very large and affect nerves or cause a tooth fracture. An untreated cavity can lead to a tooth abscess. Untreated tooth decay also destroys the inside of the tooth (pulp), which leads to tooth loss. Carbohydrates (sugars and starches) increase the risk of tooth decay. Sticky foods are more harmful than non-sticky foods because they remain on the teeth. Frequent snacking increases the time that acids are in contact with the surface of the tooth.


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Symptoms There may be no symptoms. If symptoms occur, they may include: • Tooth pain or achy feeling, particularly after sweet, hot, or cold foods and drinks • Visible pits or holes in the teeth

Diagnosis • • •

Most cavities are discovered in the early stages during routine dental checkups. A dental exam may show that the surface of the tooth is soft. Dental x-rays may show some cavities before they are visible to the eye.

Treatment Treatment can help prevent tooth damage from leading to cavities. Treatment may involve: Fillings Dentists fill teeth by removing the decayed tooth material with a drill and replacing it with a material such as silver alloy, gold, porcelain, or composite resin. Porcelain and composite resin more closely match the natural tooth appearance, and may be preferred for front teeth. Many dentists consider silver amalgam (alloy) and gold to be stronger, and these materials are often used on back teeth. There is a trend to use high strength composite resin in the back teeth as well. •

Crowns Crowns or "caps" are used if tooth decay is extensive and there is limited tooth structure, which may cause weakened teeth. Large fillings and weak teeth increase the risk of the tooth breaking. The decayed or weakened area is removed and repaired. A crown is fitted over the remainder of the tooth. Crowns are often made of gold, porcelain, or porcelain attached to metal. •

Root canals A root canal is recommended if the nerve in a tooth dies from decay or injury. The center of the tooth, including the nerve and blood vessel tissue (pulp), is removed along with decayed portions of the tooth. The roots are filled with a sealing material. The tooth is filled, and a crown is usually needed. •


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Root Canal treatment

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Fills

Complications • • • • •

Discomfort or pain Fractured tooth Inability to bite down on tooth Tooth abscess Tooth sensitivity

Medication Oral hygiene is necessary to prevent cavities. This consists of regular professional cleaning (every 6 months), brushing at least twice a day, and flossing at least daily. X-rays may be taken yearly to detect possible cavity development in high risk areas of the mouth. Chewy, sticky foods (such as dried fruit or candy) are best if eaten as part of a meal rather than as a snack. If possible, brush the teeth or rinse the mouth with water after eating these foods. Minimize snacking, which creates a constant supply of acid in the mouth. Avoid constant sipping of sugary drinks or frequent sucking on candy and mints. Dental sealants can prevent some cavities. Sealants are thin plastic-like coatings applied to the chewing surfaces of the molars. This coating prevents the accumulation of plaque in the deep grooves on these vulnerable surfaces. Sealants are usually applied on the teeth of children, shortly after the molars erupt. Older people may also benefit from the use of tooth sealants. Fluoride is often recommended to protect against dental caries. It has been demonstrated that people who ingest fluoride in their drinking water or by fluoride supplements have fewer dental caries. Fluoride ingested when the teeth are developing is incorporated into the structure of the enamel and protects it against the action of acids. Topical fluoride is also recommended to protect the surface of the teeth. This may include a fluoride toothpaste or mouthwash. Many dentists include application of topical fluoride solutions (applied to a localized area of the teeth) as part of routine visits.


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BlacK Rhino Status :Critically Endangered The black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis) is the Population : Around 5000 most well known of the five living rhinoceros Individuals species, with its aggressive reputation and Scientific Name : highly publicised international conservation Diceros bicornis drive. Black rhinoceros are in fact grey in colour Weight : 800 — 1400 kg and are distinguished from the other African species (which is also grey) the white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum), by its pointed, prehensile upper lip; white rhinoceros have square lips. Both African rhinoceros species possess two horns, made from clumped fibres rather than bone, and the taller front horn may be 60 centimetres or longer.

Characteristics Black rhinoceros are mainly solitary creatures, occupying overlapping home ranges. In this long-lived species females reach sexual maturity at around five to seven years old and give birth to a single calf every two to four years. Births can occur throughout the year and each calf tends to remain with its mother until the birth of her next offspring. Rhinoceros have poor eyesight but a keen sense of smell and hearing. They are inquisitive and often aggressive towards humans and other animals. Using their prehensile lip, black rhinoceros feed on the leaves and twigs of a variety of woody plants and herbs. Foraging often occurs in the cool of dawn and dusk; they spend much of the rest of the day resting in the shade or wallowing in shallow water holes, coating their skin in mud to protect it from the harsh sun and to deter biting flies.

Black Rhino With Cut horn‌‌.


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Distribution Once found throughout much of sub-Saharan Africa with the exception of the Congo Basin and other equatorial forest areas of West Africa. The recent decimation of the black rhinoceros has restricted the range to fragmented populations, predominately existing in reserves in Kenya, Tanzania, Namibia, Zimbabwe, South Africa, Cameroon, Malawi and Swaziland. Four subspecies are recognised in different areas of the species range: the southwestern (Diceros bicornis bicornis), western (D. b. longipes), eastern (D. b. michaeli) and south-central black rhinoceros (D. b. minor) respectively.

Habitat The black rhinoceros inhabits a variety of habitats, ranging from the deserts of Namibia through wooded grasslands to broadleaved woodlands and acacia savannahs.

Threats Black rhinoceros have been poached to the brink of extinction due to the demand for their horn, both for use in Chinese traditional medicine and for traditional dagger handles in Yemen, the demand for which exploded in the 1970s due to the increased income of oil-rich Gulf States. It is estimated that between 1970 and 1992, around 96 percent of the black rhinoceros population was lost.


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Conservation The population crash in the latter half of the 20th Century saw rhinoceros numbers plummet to a low of about 2,400 individuals. A variety of conservation approaches have been adopted, which have resulted in the stabilisation and partial recovery of populations in a number of countries. The most successful have involved the rigorous protection of rhinoceros in fenced sanctuaries, often in partnerships between the State and private sectors, or in intensely protected unfenced zones within larger areas. Dehorning has also been used in some countries to reduce the incentives to poach. In 1997, Yemen became a signatory of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES), thus greatly reducing the demand for rhinoceros horn in the Middle East. By 2001, the continental black rhinoceros population had increased to 3,100, with populations in six of the eight range states increasing. Most individuals are conserved in heavily protected areas. The African Rhino Specialist Group of the World Conservation Union (IUCN) provides advice on the conservation of African rhinoceros, and has developed a detailed Action Plan, which provides extensive information and strategic direction for their conservation.


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July 2013

Project Loon Google has an audacious plan to connect the world to the Internet using balloons. It sounds crazy, but it just might work. work The balloons are made of polyethylene plastic. They are approximately 15 meters in diameter and the entire apparatus is about 12 meters tall. Each balloon is powered via solar panels. The balloons will float along the winds in the stratosphere, approximately 20km above the surface. At such a distance, they cannot be seen with the naked eye. Each balloon is equipped with transceivers to communicate with nearby balloons and with a regional ground station and the specialized antenna Google developed to receive the signal. While only 30 test balloons were used at launch, Google expects far more floating in the sky should this project prove viable. Google says the balloons will provide mobile data connectivity equivalent to today's 3G speeds, or possibly greater.

How does it work? Each balloon is networked to one another with a radio transceiver as in a mesh, designed to ensure signal reliability. A second transceiver keeps the balloon in contact with a network station on the ground and beams an Internet signal to specialized antennas that can be placed on homes, much like a very small satellite TV receiver. There is also a back-up transceiver and a GPS on each balloon, so Google can monitor a balloon's location. And each balloon will carry weather instruments, too.


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Its use According to Google, for 2 out of every 3 people on Earth, "a fast, affordable Internet connection is still out of reach." Project Loon is an early, inspiring attempt to deliver reliable connectivity to those areas where it does not exist or is prohibitively expensive - the Southern Hemisphere, in particular. Google also mentions the ability to deliver communications using its balloons following natural disasters. Disasters such as Hurricane Sandy, which devastated Haiti last year before striking the U.S. East Coast, can cripple a region's communications infrastructure for an extended period. Loon could potentially serve as a helpful backup grid.

How to Handle Balloons? Yes! Only not much as you might suspect. Google claims to have "figured out" how to control the balloons by moving them up or down into the desired band of wind in the stratosphere, though it didn't specify how, exactly. The stratospheric winds and temperatures should presumably not present a hazard problem for the balloons or equipment.


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Should Google really ramp up this project to the point where it involves hundreds or even thousands of balloons, controlling the entire system will pose some pretty complex challenges. Do not be surprised to one day read a story about a Loon balloon landing on some farm in South America, for example.

Where is it tested? Yes. Google ran its first public test last weekend, in New Zealand, sending 30 balloons into the sky and offering 60 lucky volunteers 15 minutes of balloonbased Internet access. Smaller, private tests were conducted in California and possibly elsewhere. The company says that "over time" it intends to set up similar pilots in countries with the same latitude as New Zealand (40th parallel south). It hasn't provided any timeline for these pilots.

Article By Vivek Parekh vivekparekh8@gmail.com


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Seven Wonders Of Nature Here we present to you the new 7 wonders of nature. These are selected on the basis of votes by people around the world. The survey was done by site: Nature.new7wonders.com

Puerto Princesa Subterranean River National The Puerto Princesa Subterranean River National is located about 50 Km north of the city centre of Puerto Princesa, Palawan, Philippines. The river is called Puerto Princesa Underground River or St. Paul Underground River. River The national park is located in the Saint Paul Mountain Range on the northern coast of the island. It is bordered by St. Paul Bay to the north and the Babuyan River to the east. The City Government of Puerto Princesa has managed the National Park since 1992. The entrance to the subterranean river is a short hike from the town Sabang.

Jeju Province Jeju Province is one of the nine provinces of South Korea. The province is situated on and coterminous with the nation's largest island, formerly transliterated as Cheju or known as Quelpart to Europeans. Jeju Province lies in the Korea Strait, southwest of South Jeolla Province, of which it was a part before it became a separate province in 1946. Its capital is Jeju City. The island contains the natural World Heritage Site Jeju Volcanic Island and Lava Tubes.


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Ha long Bay Ha Long Bay is a UNESCO World Heritage Site, and a popular travel destination, located in Quang Ninh province, Vietnam. Administratively, the bay belongs to Hạ Long City, Cẩm Phả town, and part of Van Don District. The bay features thousands of limestone karsts and isles in various sizes and shapes. Ha Long Bay is a centre of a larger zone which includes Bái Tử Long bay to the northeast, and Cát Bà islands to the southwest. These larger zones share similar geological, geographical, geomorphologic, climate, and cultural characters.

Bye-Bye Lalit Modi Iguazu Falls are waterfalls of the Iguazu River on the border of the Brazilian state of Paraná and the Argentinean province of Misiones. The falls divide the river into the upper and lower Iguazu. The Iguazu River rises near the city of Curitiba. It flows through Brazil for most of its course. Below its confluence with the San Antonio River, the Iguazu River forms the boundary between Argentina and Brazil.


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Amazon River and Forest The Amazon River in South America is the second longest river in the world and is by far the largest by water flow with an average discharge greater than the next seven largest rivers combined (not including Madeira and Rio Negro, which are tributaries of the Amazon). The Amazon, which has the largest drainage basin in the world, about 7,050,000 square kilometers, accounts for approximately one-fifth of the worlds total river flow. In fact, the river becomes biggest in the world even just entering Brazil, at only 1/5 of its final discharge into the Atlantic. The Amazon rainforest, rainforest also known in English as Amazonia or the Amazon Jungle, Jungle is a moist broadleaf forest that covers most of the Amazon Basin of South America. This basin encompasses 7,000,000 square kilometers, of which 5,500,000 square kilometers are covered by the rainforest.

Komodo Island Komodo is one of the 17,508 islands that make up the Republic of Indonesia. The island is particularly notable as the natural habitat of the Komodo dragon, the largest lizard on earth and consequently named after the island. Komodo Island has a surface area of 390 km² and a permanent population of over 2,000.


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The inhabitants of the island are descendants of former convicts who were exiled to the island and who have mixed with Bugis from Sulawesi. The population are primarily adherents of Islam but there are also Christian and Hindu congregations.

Table Mountain Table Mountain is a flat-topped mountain forming a prominent landmark overlooking the city of Cape Town in South Africa, and is featured in the Flag of Cape Town and other local government insignia. It is a significant tourist attraction, with many visitors using the cableway or hiking to the top. The mountain forms part of the Table Mountain National Park. The view from the top of Table Mountain has been described as one of the most epic views in Africa.

Article By Vyas Vandana vyas28.vs@gmail.com


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July 2013


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Pict-o-graph

These terrifying photographs terrified us too. This disaster was one the worst scenario for Indian History. Thousands of people died and Thousands are still missing. Protyle team is praying for those who are still missing that they will be safe wherever they are and will be rescued soon.


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Give rest to your Thumb What is that thing which keeps your thumb busy all along the day?Writing?! Nope! The credit goes to the most affectionate device-Cell Phone or Mobile! More than 90% of the college students & working people are using cell phone even the school students are also crazy for it. Just look around, on roads, college campus, bus stands, malls & in most of the crowed areas, people are either busy in call or (majority in) texting! Of course texting is the easiest way of sending the same message to the large number of people as it save your time & is cheap also. But people also use this tiny device for surfing social networking sites, for e-banking, e- purchase &what not. Smart phones are in demand in current scenario & the one who have experienced won’t deny that it’s really an awesome felling to play any game in smart phones. In other words mobile serves as the “constant companion”. You won’t feel alone if you have this tiny device with you. As such if you see, mobile connects us with the world very easily as we don’t need PC or don’t have to wait for the internet to connect. But every coin has two sides. There is no doubt that cell phone electronically attachés you with social media but what about one’s personal life? People, especially college students remain so busy with mobile that are getting detached with their parents & relatives. They don’t even have time to sit with their parents just to discuss the normal tasks. They have made their own world with mobile & this behavior is the reason of in coordination between parents & children. This creates the so called ‘Generation Gap’. Besides this, the working concentration of the people seems to have decreased due to continuous use of cell phone. When you do your work while talking with your friend on mobile, it’s obvious that the result won’t be up to the mark. The same is the case with driving. So many cases of accidents have been reported when people drive the vehicles while talking on the mobile.


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If we see scientifically, the extended intensive use of mobile phones can expose the thumb & fingers to the operational stress & musculoskeletal disorders in the thumbs and the associated joints. Apart from this, the electromagnetic waves are emitted by mobile phones which do harmful effects on our body. Dramatic rise in the severe & chronic diseases like blood pressure, heart attack, stroke & brain diseases have been seen with increased use of mobile phone. These waves are also harmful to the birds & small insects like honey bees. The wavy interaction of the bees gets altered due to the electromagnetic rays of the mobile. The human tendencies such that he always remains eager to opt for the things where he finds the minimum load with maximum relaxation & that is not at all wrong. But excess of everything is harmful. So use your mobile phone when you really need it & for remaining time give rest to your thumb!

Article By Ruchi Pathak ruchipathak22@gmail.com


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Global Competitions

Dr Ambedkar Foundation National Essay Competition Prize: 1st 1 lakh rupees, 2nd 50,000 rupees, 3rd 25,000 rupees Category: Arts & Design, Other Region: India Eligibility: Undergraduate level, High-school Student Deadline: 15-07-2013 Description: Social Justice and Empowerment Department of the Government of India has invited entries from students to participate in the Dr. Ambedkar Foundation National Essay Competition. Students of government recognized schools, colleges, universities and institutions can participate in the competition. There are two categories in the competition. In the first category, the topic of the essay is ' Dr Ambedkar- A Social Reformer' of about 2000 words. The topic of the second category will be 'Dr Ambedkar and Women Empowerment' of about 3,500 words. For More Details Visit “http://www.prada.com/en/journal/terms?cc=GB”

24 Green App Contest Prize: 1st €2500, 2nd €1000, 3rd €500, 4th to 10th a new 7 inch tablet Category: Tech & Engineering, Natural Sciences & Math, Idea, Computer Sciences, Biology, Mathematics Region: Global Eligibility: Postgraduate level, Non-students, MBA Student, High School Students, Undergraduate level, Graduate level Deadline: 15-07-2013 Description: Are you a developer? Great in creating, designing and building Smartphone Apps? Do you have a feel for what growers need for their daily work in the greenhouse or open field? Now you can help them by entering in this App Contest. On May 15th we will open our 24green App Contest for (App) developers to create the best horticultural or agricultural App. The contest will end on July 15th, 2013 and the winner will be announced on the 1st of August.


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In a few simple steps you can enter this contest. Register, add and submit. Horticulture, agriculture Registering your application to the app contest requires three easy steps: 1. Register your developer account with 24green. 2. Add one or more applications to your developer account. 3. Submit one or more registered applications into the app contest. For More Details Visit “http://24green.com/appcontest/registration/ ”

The Third UNCCD Photo Contest Prize: The total prize fund for the winners is EUR3000, plus certificates. The first prize winner will receive sponsorship to attend the award ceremony in Windhoek, Namibia. Category: Awards, Social Sciences, Photo/Digital arts Region: Global Eligibility: Postgraduate level, Non-students, MBA Student, Undergraduate level, Graduate level Deadline: 26-07-2013 Description: For the third time, the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) is holding a photography contest in the lead up to the 11th session of the Conference of the Parties to the UNCCD (COP11). The contest is organized in cooperation with the Ministry of Environment, Namibia, and ENTICO Corporation. The application period runs from 3 June 2013 through 26 July 2013. Winners will be notified by 27 August 2013. Photographers, both amateur and professional from any country can submit up to five pictures electronically. An international jury of renown professional photographers and experts on the issues of sustainable land management will judge the images and pick the winning photos. The winner of the picture voted by the public – My Choice Award - and the best photograph submitted from each of the regions will receive honorable mention. The total prize fund for the winners is EUR3000, plus certificates. The first prize winner will receive sponsorship to attend the award ceremony in Windhoek, Namibia.


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Winning pictures, including those receiving special mention, will be displayed at COP 11 to be held from 16-27 September 2013 in Windhoek and disseminated globally in the lead up to and during the Conference. For More Details Visit “http://www.ideasbrewery.com/AgeGate/#Challenge”

CCEMC Grand Challenge Prize: One team in the final phase will be funded with a CAD$10 million grant to fund technology commercialization Category: Tech & Engineering, Case. Natural Sciences & Math , Other events, Idea, Chemistry, Physics, Earth Sciences Region: Global Eligibility: Postgraduate level, Non-students, MBA Student, Undergraduate level, Graduate level Deadline: 31-07-2013 Description: The solution to the world’s carbon challenge seems daunting; as the world grows, so does the demand for fossil fuels. The time for creative solutions is now. This Alberta initiative supports bold ideas from around the world that will make significant and verifiable GHG reductions. We’re committing CAD$35 million in funding for the most innovative technologies that will convert CO2 emissions into new carbon-based products and markets. Specific focus areas for this challenge include, but are not limited to: Technologies or processes that produce high value goods from GHGs Technologies that fix captured carbon into solid or readily transportable starting materials High-value materials with high carbon content that could be produced from GHGs Biological processes that capture/consume carbon and convert it into a new viable product (e.g., oils from algae) For More Details Visit “http://linkedup-challenge.org/”

For more such Global events and Award News Visit http://xbii.proboards.com


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Bugs Bunny Bugs Bunny is a funny animal cartoon character, best known for his starring roles in the Looney Tunes and Merrie Melodies series of theatrical short films produced by Warner Bros. during the Golden age of American animation. His popularity during this era led to his becoming a cultural icon, as well as a corporate mascot of Warner Bros. Entertainment. Bugs is an anthropomorphic gray hare or rabbit who is famous for his flippant, insouciant personality, a pronounced New York accent, his portrayal as a trickster, and his catch phrase "Eh... What's up, doc?" (Usually said while chewing a carrot). Bugs have appeared in more films (both short and feature-length) than any other cartoon character and are the ninth most-portrayed film personality in the world.

Bugs’ Precursors

Official Debut A Wild Hare, directed by Tex Avery and released on July 27, 1940, is widely considered to be the first official Bugs Bunny cartoon. It is the first film where both Elmer Fudd and Bugs are shown in their fully developed forms as hunter and tormentor, respectively; the first in which Mel Blanc uses what would become Bugs' standard voice; and the first in which Bugs uses his catchphrase, "What's up, Doc?" The film was a huge success in theaters and received an Academy Award nomination for Best Animated Short Film.


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Bugs' first appearance in A Wild Hare (1940).

Personality and Catchphrases

“ Some people call me cocky and brash, but actually I am just self-assured. I'm nonchalant, imperturbable, and contemplative. I play it cool, but I can get hot under the collar. And above all I'm a very 'aware' character. I'm well aware that I am appearing in an animated cartoon....And sometimes I chomp on my carrot for the same reason that a stand-up comic chomps on his cigar. It saves me from rushing from the last joke to the next one too fast. And I sometimes don't act, I react. And I always treat the contest with my pursuers as 'fun and games.' When momentarily I appear to be cornered or in dire danger and I scream, don't be consoined [sic] – it's actually a big put-on. Let's face it, Doc. I've read the script and I already know how it turns out.


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Bugs Bunny is characterized as being clever and capable of outsmarting anyone who antagonizes him, including Elmer Fudd, Yosemite Sam, Willoughby the Dog, Marvin the Martian, Beaky Buzzard, Daffy Duck, Porky Pig, Tasmanian Devil, Cecil Turtle, Witch Hazel, Rocky and Mugsy, Wile E. Coyote, the Crusher, Gremlin, Count Blood Count and a host of others. Bugs almost always win these conflicts, a plot pattern which recurs in Looney Tunes films directed by Chuck Jones. Concerned that viewers would lose sympathy for an aggressive protagonist who always won, Jones arranged for Bugs to be bullied, cheated, or threatened by the antagonists while minding his own business, justifying his subsequent antics as retaliation or self-defense. He's also been known to break the fourth wall by "communicating" with the audience, either by explaining the situation (e.g. "Be with you in a minute, folks!"), describing someone to the audience (e.g. "Feisty, ain't they?"), clueing in on the story (e.g. "That happens to him all during the picture, folks."), explaining that one of his antagonists' actions have pushed him to the breaking point ("Of course you know, this means war."), admitting his own deviousness toward his antagonists ("Gee, ain't I a stinker?"), etc.

Reception and Legacy Like Mickey Mouse for Disney, Bugs Bunny has served as the mascot for Warner Bros. and its various divisions. On December 10, 1985, Bugs became the second fictional character (after Mickey) to receive a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame. In 2002, TV Guide compiled a list of the 50 greatest cartoon characters of all time as part of the magazine's 50th anniversary. Bugs Bunny was given the honour of number 1. In a CNN broadcast on July 31, 2002, a TV Guide editor talked about the group that created the list. The editor also explained why Bugs pulled top billing: "His stock...has never gone down...Bugs is the best example...of the smart-aleck American comic. He not only is a great cartoon character, he's a great comedian. He was written well. He was drawn beautifully. He has thrilled and made many generations laugh. He is tops."

Bugs' star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame.


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Top Venomous animals In World Checkout from whom you can get killed..!!!

Box Jellyfish Their venom is the most deadly in the world. Once a tentacle of the box jellyfish adheres to skin, it pumps nematocysts with venom into the skin, causing the sting and agonizing pain. Domestic vinegars have been confirmed as an effective treatment as they disable the sea wasp's nematocysts not yet discharged into the bloodstream. Their distribution is largely restricted to the tropical Indo-Pacific.

King Kobra The king cobra (Ophiophagus hannah) is the world's longest venomous snake, with a length up to 18.5 to 18.8 ft. Its venom is not toxic as other snake but it is capable of injecting 5 times more venom then black mamba and have capacity to kill 5 times faster then black mamba. Mainly its venom contains neurotoxins and a little amount of cardiotoxins. They are distributed across the Indian Subcontinent, Southeast Asia, and the southern areas of East Asia.

Marbled Cone Snail It looks beautiful but don’t dare to pick it up when you see because a single drop of its venom can kill dozens of human. Very few deaths have been recorded because of this snail but still it’s very fatal.


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Blue Ringed Octopus They are found in tide pools and coral reefs in the Pacific and Indian Ocean. Can be easily be characterized by the blue and black ring and the yellow ring. Its anti venom is still not available.

Death Stalker Scorpion As orthodox quote’s most scorpions are harmless to human as they only produce local effects but this is lethal to humans. They are spread in Middle East and North Africa.

Stone Fish It is one of the most venomous fish currently known in the world. Distributed in coastal regions of Indo-Pacific oceans. Spines all over the body have glands that secrete neurotoxins. It gets the name as it has the ability to camouflage with the colour of the stone. Though they are fatal to human beings some part of consume it as food.

Brazilian Wandering Spider The Brazilian wandering spiders appear in Guinness World Records from 2010 as the world’s most venomous spider. They are named so because they wander rather then staying into their webs. Their venom causes priapism (Erection, which can last for many hours and cause impotence) in human.

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Inland Taipan Inland Taipan or Fierce snake is regarded as the most venomous land snake in the world. It’s native to Australia. They adapt to season by changing the colour of the skin- lighter in summer and darker in winter. Its venom is atleast 200-400 times more toxic than a king cobra but the amount of venom is less.

Poison dart Frog Don’t get on their beautiful bright colour, they are even fatal to touch as they secrete poison from their skin. Lipophilic alkaloids are secreted from their skin. A small frog has enough venom to kill dozen humans.

Puffer Fish Pufferfish are generally believed to be the second most poisonous vertebrates in the world, after the golden poison frog. They inflate by filling in water in their stomach when attacked by some predator. Pufferfish tetrodotoxin deadens the tongue and lips, and induces dizziness and vomiting, followed by numbness and prickling over the body, rapid heart rate, decreased blood pressure, and muscle paralysis. Article By Ranjeet Taak gmee04@gmail.com


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CloudBurst

Introduction A cloudburst is an extreme amount of precipitation, sometimes with hail and thunder, which normally lasts no longer than a few minutes but is capable of creating flood conditions. Colloquially, the term cloudburst may be used to describe any sudden heavy, brief, and usually unforecast rainfall.

Properties Meteorologists say the rain fall rate equal to or greater than 100 mm (3.94 inches) per hour is a cloudburst. The associated convective cloud, can extend up to a height of 15 km above the ground. During a cloudburst, more than 20 mm of rain may fall in a few minutes. When there are instances of cloudbursts, the results can be disastrous. Cloudburst is also responsible for Flash flood creation. Rapid precipitation from cumulonimbus clouds is possible due to so called Langmuir precipitation process in which large droplets can grow rapidly by coagulating with smaller droplets which fall down slowly.

Records Duration

Rainfall

Location

Date

1 minute

1.5 inches

Basse-Terre, Guadeloupe

26 November 1970

5.5 minutes

2.43 inches

Port Bells, Panama

29 November 1911

15 minutes

7.8 inches

Plumb Point, Jamaica

12 May 1916

20 minutes

8.1 inches

Curtea-de-Arges, Romania 7 July 1947

40 minutes

9.25 inches

Guinea, Virginia, USA

24 August 1906

1 hour

9.84 inches

Leh, Ladakh, India

August 5, 2010

1 hour

5.67 inches

NDA, Pune, India

September 29, 2010

1.5 hours

7.15 inches

Pashan, Pune, India

October 4, 2010

10 hours

57.00 inches

Mumbai, India

July 26, 2005

13 hours

45.03 inches

Foc-Foc, La RĂŠunion

January 8, 1966

20 hours

91.69 inches

Ganges Delta, India

January 8, 1966


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Some Cloudbursts in India In the Indian subcontinent, a cloudburst usually occurs when a pregnant monsoon cloud drifts northwards, from the Bay of Bengal or Arabian Sea across the plains, then onto the Himalaya and bursts, bringing rainfall as high as 75 millimeters per hour. On September 28, 1908 - A Cloudburst resulted in a flood where the Musi River was swollen up to 38–45 m. About 15,000 people were killed and around 80,000 houses were destroyed along the banks of this river. • In July, 1970 — Cloudburst in the upper catchment area led to a 15 metre rise in the Alaknanda river in Uttarakhand. Entire river basin, from Hanumanchatti near the pilgrimage town of Badrinath to Haridwar was affected. An entire village was swept away. • On August 15, 1997, 1500 people were killed when a cloud burst came bustling and trail of death are all that is left behind in Chirgaon in Shimla district, Himachal Pradesh. • On August 17, 1998 — A massive landslide following heavy rain and a cloudburst at Malpa village killed 250 people including 60 Kailash Mansarovar pilgrims in Kali valley of the Kumaon division, Uttarakhand. • On July 16, 2003, About 40 persons were killed in flash floods caused by a cloudburst at Shilagarh in Gursa area of Kullu, Himachal Pradesh. • On July 6, 2004, At least 17 people were killed and 28 injured when three vehicles were swept into the Alaknanda river by heavy landslides triggered by a cloudburst that left nearly 5,000 pilgrims stranded near Badrinath shrine area in Chamoli district, Uttarakhand. • On 26 July 2005, a cloudburst caused approximately 950 millimetres (37 in) of rainfall in Mumbai. Over a span of eight to ten hours; the deluge completely paralysed India's largest city and financial centre leaving over 5000 dead. • On August 16, 2007, 52 people were confirmed dead when a severe cloud burst occurred in Bhavi village in Ghanvi, Himachal Pradesh. • On August 7, 2009, 38 people were killed in a landslide resulting from a cloudburst in Nachni area near Munsiyari in Pithoragarh district of Uttarakhand. • On August 6, 2010, in Leh, a series of cloudbursts left over 1000 persons dead and over 400 injured in the frontier Leh town of Ladakh region in Jammu and Kashmir. • On September 15, 2010 cloud burst in Almora in Uttrakhand has drowned away two villages one of them being Balta, leaving a few people alive and rest entire village dead and drowned. Almora has been declared as a town suffering from the brunt of cloudburst by authorities of Uttrakhand. Had there been a bit more swaying of clouds, town of Ranikhet must have drowned also. •


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On September 29, 2010, a cloudburst in NDA (National Defence Academy), Khadakwasla, Pune, in Maharashtra state left many injured, hundreds of vehicles and buildings damaged due to this flash flood. • Again on October 4, 2010, a cloudburst in Pashan, Pune, in Maharashtra state left 4 dead; many injured hundreds of vehicles and buildings damaged. The record books as the historical highest rainfall in intensity and quantity of the Pune city recorded since 118 years old (record of 149.1 mm in 24 hours) of October 24, 1892. In the history of IT (Information Technology) hub Pune, first time this flash flood also unable Pune people to for overnight stay (sleep) in their vehicle, offices and whatever available shelter in the traffic jam. October 4, 2010, a cloudburst in Pashan, Pune may be the world’s first predicted cloudburst, in well advanced. Since 2.30 pm in the afternoon of the day, a young weather scientist Kirankumar Johare, in the city was frantically sending out SMSes to the higher authorities warning of an impending cloudburst over the Pashan area. After taking the necessary precautions still 4 persons were dead including one young scientist. • On June 9, 2011, near Jammu, a cloudburst left 4 persons dead and over several injured in Doda-Batote highway, 135 km from Jammu. Two restaurants and many shops were washed away. • On 20 July 2011, a cloudburst in upper Manali, 18 km away from Manali town in Himachal Pradesh state left 2 dead and 22 missing. • On September 15, 2011 a cloudburst was reported in the Palam area of the National Capital Territory of Delhi. The Indira Gandhi International Airport's Terminal-3 was flooded with water at the Arrival due to the immense downpour. Even though no lives were lost in the rain that lasted an hour was enough to enter the record books as the highest rainfall in the city recorded since 1959. • On September 14, 2012 in Rudraprayag district there was a cloudburst and 39 people died. •

On June 15, 2013 a cloudburst was reported in Kedarnath and Rambada region of Uttarakhand State. Over 1000 killed to date, it is feared that the death toll may rise to 5000 during cleaning of debris to thousands as still a large number of people are missing. It left approximately 84000 people stranded for several days. Indian Army and NORTHEN Command launched one of the largest and most extensive human rescue missions that had ever been launched in the history. It spread over 40,000 square kilometres. 45 choppers are deployed to rescue the stranded people. We Hope Government will soon take some actions in order to prevent these kind of events in future.


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Facts and Figures •

The first known transfusion of blood was performed as early as 1667, when Jean-Baptiste, transfused two pints of blood from a sheep to a young man.

Most dust particles in your house are made from dead skin!

The present population of 5 billion plus people of the world is predicted to become 15 billion by 2080.

Adolf Hitler was a vegetarian, and had only ONE testicle.

Months that begin on a Sunday will always have a "Friday the 13th."

The placement of a donkey’s eyes in its’ heads enables it to see all four feet at all times!

Earth is the only planet not named after a god.

Owls are the only birds who can see the colour blue.

The human heart! creates enough pressure when it pumps out to the body to squirt blood 30 feet.

Banging your head against a wall uses 150 calories a hour.

The flea can jump 350 times its body length. It's like a human jumping the length of a football field.

A cat's urine glows under a black light.

The worlds oldest piece of chewing gum is 9000 years old!

The longest recorded flight of a chicken is 13 seconds

More people are allergic to cow’s milk than any other food.

Coca-Cola would be green if coloring weren’t added to it.



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