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Introduction to Quality Control

Kobkit Issarachevawat DEPARTMENT OF INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING CMU 1


INPUT

PROCESS

Quality System • ISO 9000 • TQM

OUTPUT

•PRODUCT (, ) •SERVICE ( ,) 2




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Evolution

Quality Control Control Quality Evolution Evolution TQM TQC SQC

Inspection

1920

1940

1960

1980 4


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 Quality Control  QC  ภ ! ".$. 1931 ()*

Dr. W.A. Schewhart 345 Bell Laboratories :;<)=>?@ABCภ "D3"E (Control Chart)()*H=DIภ5;JK  "$.1950 5;>INภD5*$KN @OP D$Dภ@ Q; P5$R ES (JUSE) <)=HR Dr. W.E. Deming AC=H*DHRHDภ; SQC   ="DC=; QC @ภQAC=3 P)3C;;345EK ภ RQY; R ES  ".$.1957 Dr. A.V. Feigenbaum 345 General Electric * ; ; Total Quality Control  _P335 P5IB>ภ>? ภ4 @OP 3 E;"E`B> ()*ภOEQ"B*;"Nภ Q;aPQ;AO =J AOK"=@OP3ภ5=;"D>;>a@ภQOCภ"=)=D*K=5E5Kb @OP*b DQ QC aPK=;)bภ35EภQD*; ()*AC=H*DHR)= QC 5Q 5


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What is quality? ISO 8402:1994 â&#x20AC;&#x153; Quality is the totality of features and characteristics of a product or service that bear upon its ability to satisfy stated and implied needsâ&#x20AC;?

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What is quality?  Fitness for purpose or use. (Juran)  The total composite product and service

characteristics of marketing, engineering, manufacture and maintenance through which the product and service in use will meet the expectation by the customer. (Feigenbaum)  Conformance to requirements. (Crosby) 8


What is quality?      /  ภภ The goodness of product/service as perceived by the customer 9


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Quality by Inspection ISO 8402 &'#"#2  ก%5+( 6+ Inspection &#  “Inspection is activities such as measuring, examining, testing, gauging one or more characteristics of a product or service and comparing these with specified requirements to determine conformity” 13


K. ishikawa "Quality must be built in to the process, not by inspection"

Reject I/P - Man - M/C - Material - Method - Maintenance

Process Accept Inspection

(a) Inspection 14


Quality Control ISO 8402: 1994 â&#x20AC;&#x153;Quality Control is the operational techniques and activities that are used to fulfil requirements for qualityâ&#x20AC;?

15


Compare to Spec

Adjust

I/P

Process

O/P

Feed back to regulate process

(b) Quality Control 16


ภ()ภ Quality Assurance: QA ISO 8402 "#2 &# â&#x20AC;&#x153;Quality Assurance is all those planned and systematic actions necessary to provide adequate confidence that a product or service will satisfy given requirements for qualityâ&#x20AC;? ภ.ภ01 6+ (' ภภ)*    ภ  +" &# #,.&   ) 52 %#+  6+"# "5&'# " $,- 6+  ภ 5. 4%+(+ $ ภ &'#% &'#%ภภ ภ.ภ01ภ# "5"#ภ(*ภ#5.&'#(,% #,.(ภ  01   17


ก$% &ก$'$&ก Quality Control

Quality Assurance

Correction

Prevention

Fire-Fighting

Fire protection

Cost-Ineffective

Cost effective

More expensive

Less expensive

Cannot ensure delivery

Can ensure delivery

Cannot customer

Can fully satisfy customer

fully

satisfy

18


ภ . (Quality Management) â&#x20AC;&#x153;Quality Management is all activities of the overall management function that determine the Quality Policy, objectives and responsibilities, and implement them by means such as quality planning, quality control, quality assurance, and quality improvement within the quality systemâ&#x20AC;? ภ(01 6+ ภ.(ภ5'ภ   1".(( 01 ภ2' (01 %4.;'#01 ,. ($'+( ,#2&<(% '!ภ%-  ภ,$'#01, ภ( 01, ภ.ภ01 ,.ภ01 19


) (Quality System) â&#x20AC;&#x153;The organizational structure, responsibilities, procedures, process and resources for implementing quality managementâ&#x20AC;?   ภ    ภ  ภ ภ ภ ภ        !"#$ ภ ภภ    %ภ %#&'ภ %!   / ! ) *!'!  +$  ภภ  ภ', -   % .  % /  %/&   0 ภ !  % .1 ' '2   20


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Area responsible for Quality Customer Service Packaging & Storage

Market Quality of Product /

Design

service Inspect/Test

Procurement

Production Process design

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ภ  

(TQC)  Total Quality Control QCC

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TQM : ก   : ก   : ก    : ก   : ก  ! ก :    (# ) [ TQM

~

TQC

~

CWQC ] 38


Meaning of of TQM TQM Meaning  Wilkinson and witcher : â&#x20AC;˘ Total - ภภ   -ภ(!#% ภ+)"  ) â&#x20AC;˘ Quality - ภ*/$ $$ ภ  ภ  +! â&#x20AC;˘ Management - " .)  %"ภ  ! !  ISO 8402-1

TQM - + ภ .   -ภ  

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Definition of TQM An effective system for integrating the quality development, quality maintenance, and quality improvement efforts of the various groups in an organization so as to enable production and service at the most economical levels which allow for full customer satisfaction. 40


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The Objective of TQM  Bringing people together for discussion and

exchange of ideas  Developing an alert, open-minded, questioning attitude on the part of all employees  Uncovering and eliminating wasteful and time consuming - methods, thereby leaving more time for the development of effective procedures  Eliminating fear in all levels of the organization 42


6 Pillars of TQM

TOTAL QUALITY

Continuous Improvement

Measurement Supplier Partnership

Customer Focus Top Commitment Total Involvement

43

Beliefs and Values


6 Pillars of TQM  Management must participate in the quality program. They must be established to develop a clear vision, quality policy, long-term goals, and direct and control the program.

 Customer focus. An excellent place to start is by satisfying internal customers. Voice of customer External relation

customer

44


6 Pillars of TQM  TQM

is an  Continuous organization-wide improvement challenge that is  There must be a everyoneâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s continual striving to responsibility. improve all business  Employee enhancement and production processes. and empowerment  Team Work such as QCC. 45


6 Pillars of TQM A

supplier partnering relationship rather than an adversarial one must be developed.  The focus should be on quality and life cycle costs rather than price.  Suppliers should be few in No. so that true partnering can occur.

 Performance measures

such as uptime, % NC, absenteeism, customer complain should be determined for each functional area.  Measurement should be posted for everyone to see. 46


' ภ"X" ! TQM   PRODUCTIVITY PRODUCTIVITY

â&#x20AC;˘ Quality (Q) â&#x20AC;˘ Cost (C) â&#x20AC;˘ Delivery (D)

TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT

â&#x20AC;˘ Safety (S) â&#x20AC;˘ Morale (M) â&#x20AC;˘ Ethics (E) â&#x20AC;˘ Environment (E)

" Scope of TQM activity

47


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Obstacles  Many organizations, especially small ones

with a niche, are comfortable with their current state. Firms with this culture will see little need for TQM until they begin to lose market share.  There will be a resistance to change.

49


Paradigm Shifts (ภ(ภ):-ภ * )  Product Oriented /(  Customer Oriented Tradition "" $/" . ภ

 " 

Conventional " /$ $ ภ/  "" $

 One way /(  two way communication (;) Modern Management

( Top down

Bottom up ) 50


LEADERSHIP  The power of the companyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s leaders

(CEO) have to change the entire system by making quality improvement a cultural attribute  Leadership holds the key to the door of continuous improvement

51


LEADERSHIP The Quality leaders seek to identify the

words and actions :-

- What can we do as senior executives to personally lead the quality improvement process? - What are our companyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s quality values? - How can we communicate those values to our customers, employees, suppliers and other group? - How can we improve as quality leader? 52


LEADING THE TRANSITION  Step One : Commit to Quality  Step Two : Know Your Company’s

System and Values  Step Three : Participate in your Company’s Quality Processes  Step Four : Integrate Quality into the Company’s Management Model 53


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CUSTOMER FOCUS To answer these questions :- Who are our customers? - How do we determine their requirements? - How do we use customer satisfaction to drive our business? - What are our customer feedbacks? The customerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s view Admin., Marketing/ Sales,Technical Solution, Delivery, Maintenance/ Service Support, and Image etc. ----> Customer Solution

55


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Employee Involvement Tell me, Iâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;ll forget Show me, I may remember Involve me, and Iâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;ll understand Education and Training QCC, 5S, Suggestion System HRM 57


THE IMPROVEMENT PROCESS MODEL KAIZEN, QCC, 5S, TPM Suggestion System, POKA-YOKE Small Group Activities, etc.

Quality

P

A Quality Assurance

Continuous Improvement

C

D

58


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SMART 59


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Management by Fact 1. Collection of all the facts possible 2. Analyzing the facts at hand as a basis for judgment 3. Making decisions based upon that judgment of the facts 4. Acting on those decisions and checking for improvement confirmation through a systematic follow-up 62


Supplier Partnership Activities  Define the product and program requirements  Evaluate potential suppliers and select the best  Conduct joint quality planning and execution  Require statistical evidence of quality  Certify suppliers or require ISO9000  Conduct joint quality improvement programs  Create and utilize supplier ratings.  Supplier Selection Criteria  Supplier Certification and Ratings 63


PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENT  Management must establish a baseline measure

with customers and develop the appropriate process and results measure  Statistical Quality Control (SQC)  INPUT and OUTPUT criteria

(Variation) INPUT Data and Information

PROCESS Analysis

OUTPUT Decision

64


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IntrotoQC