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The Perpetual Tourist Collaborative Crossroads for Unexpected Connections Justin Konicek Department of Architecture The Pennsylvania State University Bachelor of Architecture Thesis Jawaid Haider, Advisor

“We will reap dollars, but will we own our town?�


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Table of Contents


1. Abstract

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2. Thesis Statement

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3. Research and Documentation for Area of Focus 3.1 Area of Focus Summary 3.2 Literature Review 3.3 Questions/Theoretical Issues Raised 3.4 Architectural Issues 3.5 Architectural Precedents

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4. Site and Context Information 4.1 Aerial photos and/or maps of site 4.2 Site Documentation 4.3 Site Analysis 4.4 Site Parameters

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5. Program 5.1 Program Type and Description 5.2 Programmatic Elements 5.3 Graphic Representation of Program

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6. Fall Semester Design Project 35 6.1. Project parameters 35 6.1.1. Accessibility and other ADA requirements 35 6.1.2. Sustainable Design Features Assessment 35 6.1.3. Code Analysis 35 6.2. Studies or devices revealing architectonic Ideas 37 6.3. Site 39 6.3.1. Site Plan 39 6.3.2. Site section(s) 39 6.3.3. Site model 39 6.4. Building plans 41 6.5. Elevations and faรงade studies 43 6.6. Building sections 44 6.7. Wall sections 45 6.8. Representation of Structural Systems 45 6.9. Other project images 45 6.10. Design Assessment 49 7. Conclusions 8. Bibliography 8.1 Written Sources 8.2 Project References

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Abstract

>> As a result of the globalization of connectedness through digital space, the world’s internet-enabled population now stands together in one conference room. This room’s wall continuously moving outward as the chairs become benches, then stadium seating to accommodate the billions of people trying to give, take, and spectate the networking phenomenon. While the digitally connected masses readily take advantage of their common interests for collaboration, this network has become a crutch for maintaining existing relationships. To innovate, we must break this behavioral boundary and reach out to the unknown people, ideas, and knowledge. To innovate, we must embrace the fact that the modern man is a perpetual tourist. While the increasingly limitless quantity of users and knowledge grows, users are faced with the necessary task of navigating the “information superhighway.” With a conviction that the knowledge is there, that someone with that knowledge precedes you (and has the capability to share their data,) the search becomes an exercise in networking. Gradually, we build social-cognitive maps of interaction waypoints that point—more or less—in the direction of that piece of knowledge. With the creation of new ideas resting on the shoulders of the former, networking is the strongest means to a result of progression. How, then, does the contemporary innovator build his venture from history? This thesis takes into consideration the urban type of the ‘college town’, defined by the dictating presence of a highereducation institution. This specialized urban system is typically a powerful network node, being a hub for information logistics. While not all college campuses are located within socially diverse cities, even non-urban colleges maintain the ability to expand local and distant information networks. The capability to do so is linked to the unique presence of a ‘constant-transient’ population. True epicenters of information logistics are sites of manpower (physical,) information access (cognitive,) and innovation (physical+cognitive.) Williamsburg embodies an ideal site for such events to occur within a historically, albeit selective information-receptive environment of tourism. This site acts as a single, replicable example of how tourism serves to spark innovation. Through architectural intervention on a non-urban college town, this thesis seeks to emphasize the significance of these power-nodes by intervening on historical event spaces. This connection of people, the connection of ideas, and the connection of people and ideas are what drive the present into the future. <<

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s: 1. Corner, James, “The Agency of Mapping: Speculation, Critique and Invention,” 1999, 222.


[...] “pending evaporation of information triggers a complex institutional game to maintain its value” [...] —Jordan Crandall, “The Life of Information”

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Thesis Statement 2

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>> Through architectural intervention in a town of competing intentions, this thesis seeks to emphasize the significance of physical meeting places as a catalyst for the creation of social networks. By creating spaces of customization, congregation, and collaboration, the millions of temporary inhabitants passing through the city will engage Williamsburgâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s local population to develop a contemporary network-place.


[...] “We will reap dollars, but will we own our town?” [...] —Major S.D. Freeman Williamsburg Town Meeting, 1926

Tourist Student

(

=

=

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Local COMMUNITY ASSIMILATION:

THE MULTIFACETED CITIZEN: 04


Research for Area of Focus 3

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3.1 Area of Focus Summary: Knowledge & Networks >> While the phenomenon of space remains significant for inhabitation and our need for tangibility, the placement of information—and more personally knowledge—in space remains undetermined. However, the necessity to create, share, and use information of our own and others places the to-be-informed human in a difficult condition. Between the understanding of past (history,) present (knowledge,) and future (speculation,) only two of these worlds can exist in concrete form, one of which is based around the inevitable consumption of its novelty. Perhaps, then, we must perceive our existence as one of being in a network-space. The fabric of this space is only justified by the creation of information at nodes that—through symbiosis—exist only because of data logistics. In essence, the network- and real-space layers exits in duality, with the creation and deposition of information occurring in a physical, face-to-face reality. Programmatically, this thesis aims to develop a building typology that can react to the changing influence of a permanently instable population. Assigning the scope of this project to a suburban college town, the phenomenon of community is challenged by the presence of a fluctuating population. Despite the Census’ records of just over 14,000 residents, Williamsburg’s constant influx of visitors to the school and to the Colonial town push the (under-recorded) population to over 4,000,000 people annually. The critical regional contextual focus of this thesis will be based around an analysis of the gradual development of the area’s historical preservation as compared to an urban system’s progressive tendencies. From a community point of view, Williamsburg is a unique crossroads of existing in a state of visitor’s memory and requiring the necessary progressive state to remain contemporary. >>


Transient and Stable Populations of Williamsburg, VA

Age Distribution of Williamsburg, VA (2010)

Total: 14,068 Density: 1,649 / sq.mi.

Data approximated

5,000,000

100

S T

80

4,000,000 3,000,000

60

S

40

2,000,000 1,000,000

20 0%

00 - 188

199 - 24

255 - 44

5 - 64 6 45

664 +

S L Transient

Stable

0

Williamsburgtransient = ( [ tourist + student ] + local ) Williamsburgstable = ( tourist + [ student + local ] )

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3.2 Discussion of Findings From Media: Knowledge & Networks >> In a self-referential manner, the research materials contemplated to develop this thesis are nodes along a timeline of knowledge-centered knowledge. The act of research in this case is, itself, a method of research. To understand the complexity of various media, a further analysis of each agency provides insight into the function of each medium. Critical to every finding is the also self-referential metadata of themes and ideas encapsulated in the texts, interviews, and thematic sources. >>

Unlikely Amalgamation: Like a college-town relationship, this case study of the Curleyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Cafe parking lot in Signal Hill, California by Robert Sherman examines the socioeconomic exchanges required to allow such an odd urban system to exist. These studies of mixed land use provide a model of how unusual (and poetic) relationships can emerge for the amelioration of all involved parties.

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s: http://freeassociationdesign.wordpress.com/category/urban-voids/page/2/


OpenStreetMap ‘The Free Wiki World Map’: or, “Learning from a distance from distant locals”

Geographic knowledge commons: Relying on the presence of locals (or passers-by) to populate and verify the location of places. The placement of each node or designation of an area tells the story of a semi-professional geographer, student, parent, coffee-drinker, or tourist.

s: openstreetmap.com

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“Netscape: Cities and Global Corporate Networks” Ronald Wall

Trade Routes: Advancing from intracity and naval commerce, the expansion of businesses through urban colonization has exploded into a globalized game of aterritorial occupancy.

Geographic Cognizance: Despite emphasis that networks are redefining our understanding of local and global association, Wall’s graphics suggest a persistent need for structuring networks around their actual locations. Top 100 Global Businesses & Offices

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Primary & Secondary City Connections

Primary, Secondary, and Tertiary Powers


“Soft Urbanism: Neighbors Network City (NNC) in the Ruhr Region” Elizabeth Sikiaridi, Frans Vogelaar (invOFFICE. Amsterdam)

(sub) Urban Games: As a proposal for the Cultural Capital of Europe, invOFFICE created a set of collaborative networked games that could be used to create a situational network between towns within a post-industrial, fragmented region. Under the schematic approach of ‘Soft Urbanism,’ the establishment of a capital will encompass the entire region in order to strengthen the public space that all locals and visitors inhabit. Located throughout public space, the SubCity game (left) allows people to engage in a digital exploratory event of navigating the coal fractures underneath the community.

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3.3 Questions/Theoretical Issues Raised: Knowledge & Networks >> Without progress we are stuck in the present. While the present is constantly stuck between the past (history) and future (progress,) the future of the present cannot be attained without an understanding of the past an a drive for the future. In the (now) modern age of information, with a seemingly infinite quantity of published ideas, it is increasingly important to drive progress through the understanding of historical works. In this sense, a conscious network of relevant subjects must be maintained in order to remain ‘contemporary.’ Due to the overwhelming databases of information, one must understand the information behind the information, or the network nodes, in order to attain any goals. The recently devised “actor-network theory” attributes this notion of information access to a material and semiotic relationship between physical and aphysical things. While idea-based relationships help to advance our understanding or life, culture, or built environment, how does this relationship reciprocate? The physical environment’s role on the development of ideas and information must be equally significant. >> The modern city of Williamsburg is typical in the sense of having the basic transportation and civic infrastructure required to support a small urban population. Within Williamsburg’s territory is the College of William & Mary which, as a college contains a significant resource base in addition to ongoing research. Finally, the historic city of Colonial Williamsburg attracts millions of tourists every year, fueling the modern city’s small commercial sector and economy with tourism. Attached to each relatively anachronistic node of the city is an extended network of cities, colleges, and historic sites of varying significance. Does nodal proximity have an effect on the connection of networks? Can dissimilar physical or cognitive networks be connected through the phenomenon of proximity? >> A location’s vibrancy, be it lasting or fleeting, is defined by the events that occur throughout the space. Additionally, it is the presence of these events that transforms a space into a place. As a merge of material and semiotic, the events are both nodes and connectors creating a flexible network to merge with other specific networks. Within the city’s fabric, events occur at various scales—the majority of which go unnoticed. Can these small, routine events that are engrained into the history of a place become resources to amplify the quality and recognition of place? Further, do spaces that require inter-demographic negotiations support the development of nonexistent relationships?

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Unclaimed Territory: Williamsburgâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s current social scheme has built off the preconception that the city is compartmentalized into a college sector and a tourism sector, with the city itself mediating business for both. However, the central community core should be seen as a bridge between the two sectors in order to facilitate the unclaimed network connection potential of both sides.

REQUIRES NEGOTIATION

REQUIRES NEGOTIATION

RELATED RESEARCH

DISTANT COLLEGES

RELATED DESTINATIONS

COLLEGE

C O M M U N I T Y

ASSOCIATED FIELDS

TOURISM

DISTANT DESTINATIONS

NEARBY ATTRACTIONS REQUIRES NETWORKED COMMUNITY

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3.4 Architectural Issues: Knowledge & Networks >> As previously stated, while our physical existence maintains its linearity the growth of networks will increase exponentially. This requires a coming-to-terms with the rift between Material-Space and Network-Space. The main question that has arisen as a result of this division is; How do we negotiate the accessibility of various network scales simultaneously? Furthermore, as contextuality become less significant in the physical sense due to immaterial representations of existence in a cognitive sense, a new issue (opportunity) emerges; At what point(s) in time can we ignore the phenomenon of proximity to take advantage of forgotten or repressed materiality? With a new understanding of physical proximity and social accessibility—two terms which may be interchanged— architecture assumes a substantial responsibility for social and intellectual participation within and outside of the urbanized (physical) environment. Having decreased the significance of contextuality, events performed throughout the day become more significant as they truly define our dérive-like routine of spatial exploration. These nodes that define our events—interactions with things, people, or ourselves—are significant statements of identity. However, to progress (read, change) we must accept a variety of new and old events. In this case, is it possible to merge events, force an unexpected meeting of actors in order to break down their respective border and build new networks?

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Within the city of perpetual tourists: How will architecture create an interface to benefit the student, local, and tourist?

By creating spaces of negotiation within and between stakeholders...

By acknowledging the historical deficiencies in developing the suburban core...

By reinventing the community center to become an external (in)cubator for a broader community connectivity...

local idea sourcing

global idea sourcing

proximate venture expansion

distant venture expansion

startup expansion

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3.4 Architectural Precedents: Knowledge & Networks >> Historical models will serve two purposes on the grounds of understanding how architecture and network theories can merge. In addition to contemporary models of interpretations of society through architectural systems, precedents will also include theoretical works of social criticism. This, paired with the compilation of literature provides a critical analysis of the role of architecture in modern urban networking.

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Macquarie Bank Sydney, Australia 330,000 ft2 2009 Clive Wilkinson Architects

“Don’t see a lot of this... cash.” - Airport cashier, 12 Monkeys

Useful Space vs. Usable Space: Like the evolution of a museum, banks are beginning to see a move towards post-historical-functional design in use of space. As money (and our interactions with money) shifts from tangibility to ephemerality, banks are experiencing this with a shift from protective vaults to public openness with security geared towards protecting 1’s and 0’s instead of 20’s and 100’s. s: http://www.archdaily.com/54544/macquarie-bank-clive-wilkinson-architects/

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Dickinson Energy Plant 2009 Spillman Farmer

The New Brick Facade: The aesthetic of the Dickinson Central Energy Plant is derived from a consideration of the existing and ubiquitous use of brick on most buildings around the campus. Rather than continue this trend of closing-off the interior from the exterior, Spillman Farmer Architects decided to devise a â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;veilâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; that would resemble the modularity of

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s: http://www.archdaily.com/107225/central-energy-plant-spillman-farmer-


S達o Paulo Museum of Art, Brazil 1968 Lina Bo Bardi

Public Space as Attractor: By raising the main programmatic element (museum) to a floor height above the ground plane, the bustling sidewalk around the site is allowed to merge with entry points to the building. This negotiation of surroundingunder-inside spaces is an excellent example of how a minimally intervened space (essentially a roof placed over a paved plane) can provide significantly vibrant extentions of the city life, while maintaining an identity through architectural association.

s: http://www.casaclub.com.br/tour_en.html http://ny2rio.com/?p=2284

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Site & Context Information 4

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4.1 Aerial Photos & Maps: Williamsburg, VA

Tourist - Student - Local Network Expansion Model

>> While the phenomenon of space remains significant for inhabitation and our need for tangibility, the placement of information—and more personally knowledge—in space remains undetermined. However, the necessity to create, share, and use information of our own and others places the to-be-informed human in a difficult condition. Between the understanding of past (history,) present (knowledge,) and future (speculation,) only two of these worlds can exist in concrete form, one of which is based around the inevitable consumption of its novelty. Perhaps, then, we must perceive our existence as one of being in a network-space. The fabric of this space is only justified by the creation of information at nodes that—through symbiosis—exist only because of data logistics. In essence, the network- and real-space layers exits in duality, with the creation and deposition of information occurring in a physical and aphysical aspects of society. <<


Richmond 205,000

Williamsburg 014,000

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* Newport News 180,700 Hampton 137,400

Phenomenon of Adjacency: Despite the modern advent of the Internet as a space-less method of interaction, the sustained presence of humans suggests the necessity of spatial analysis. However, the intertwined material-semiotic world that we inhabit further suggests a better understanding of the threads with which we move from place to place rather than a cognizance of the actual places that are connected in many other ways.

Norfolk 242,800

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Colonial-Veil Architecture Downtown Williamsburg

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Modern & Preservationist Colonization: With territorial boundaries to define the campus and old-town enclaves of Williamsburg, gradual expansion for the sake of growth or preservation have occurred over time. New colleges, parking lots, visitor centers, and thematic hotels are strewn about the physical frontier. Their facades still reflect the city’s dedication to the tourism industry.

250’

500’

1000’

Boundary Street, No More: Colonial Williamsburg, the city’s namesake was built and preserved from 1699. The College of William & Mary was established in 1693. Between the historic and collegiate institutions is one block of contested land, currently used to define “New” Williamsburg.


Local Scale: The function of New Williamsburg is driven by civic business. Primarily, transportation acts to define the territorial boundaries of the townâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s future infrastructural and architectural development.

Urban Support Structure: Driven by a shifting population of +/- one million visitors to the historic town and thousands of students temporary residing near the college, New Williamsburg is a historically necessary surrogate for a city center.

New Williamsburg

Entrepreneurial Integration Center Colonial Williamsburg

College of William & Mary

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4.2 Site Documentation: Williamsburg, VA >> The duality of local relevance / irrelevance, the proposed architectural site will act as a type for the expandable model of development. Regardless, it is important to recognize the townâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s zoning ordinances to create a plausible scenario for itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s integration into the area. While the economy of Williamsburg currently rests on the existence of Colonial Williamsburg and the surrounding historic sites, it is important to recognize this objectively as a major destination that provides the area with a diversity of visitors. <<

Tourist Destination

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s: maps.google.com


Knowledge Sourcing

Knowledge Creation

Existing Connections: Because the programâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s main intention is to provide a campus extension conducive to innovation and collaboration, initial design moves were made while focusing on using the Colonial Williamsburg ticket booth as an active case study. Living proof of a successful industry, this ticket booth is a gateway into a district of foreign (Colonial) information within Williamsburg. The ongoing work performed by this tourism business represents the potential of using local businesses to benefit the entrepreneurs of Williamsburg.

West Site Entrance

North Site Entrance

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4.3 Site Analysis: Williamsburg, VA The Unrecorded Locals: The census does not account for the tourist population. This recurring wave of outside people drive the economy, effectually allowing the town to run—or at least funding Colonial Williamsburg’s preservation. With an annual attendance of approximately 1,400,000 people, the City of Williamsburg sees 175 times the student population pass through the city every year. Furthermore, the infrastructure of Colonial Williamsburg is supported by two additional actors, Jamestown and Yorkstown on either side. Inaccurately described as a triangle, this historical tourism network hinges around (Colonial) Williamsburg.

Small Scale College Town: Williamsburg’s permanent population is around 14,000 people, up 17% from a population of 12,000 twelve years ago. Despite the city’s size being around four time that of the College of William and Mary campus, the student (19-24 year old) population account for almost half of the city’s demographics.

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Collaborative Open-Campus

Existing Connection

Colonial Veil

Social Attractor

Social Attractor

Crossroads

Social Attractor

Social Attractor

Social Attractor

Social Attractor

Social Attractor

Active Case Study

Modern History of Business: The city is a well constructed machine for escorting visitors into the town, through the attractions, into the stores, then outâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;all within the same day. This makes the task of building personal relationships with individuals difficultâ&#x20AC;&#x201D; and unnecessary. Instead, to gather ideas and interests, relationships between the Social Attractors and the campus should be built to benefit the entire campus.

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Protect the Colony: As alluded to in the Architectural Preservation section of the cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s zoning ordinance, one key constituent in defining Williamsburg is the insistence of conformity. Not only does this suggest a Disneyland-like image of cohesion, but the question arises; How is the land outside of these preservationist boundaries intended to be perceived?

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1699 - 1790

1790 - 1905

Established as capitol of Virginia after successful colonial management. Former town of Middle Plantation renamed Williamsburg. Remained seat of political activity until relocation of capitol building to Richmond...

After the relocation of all political activity, and therefore all social liveliness, Williamsburgâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s population diminished significantly over a 125 year quietude. Local Reverend Dr. Goodwin proposes the reconstruction of the colonialera church, followed by the remainder of the deteriorated old-town...


Distant Relatives: Segregated by the land that is zoned to meet architectural aesthetic standards, patches of land around downtown Williamsburg are active exceptions to the rule. However, these spaces consist mostly of housing developments, barrier wooded campus land, light industrial and a mall; all non-places that prevent the town from embodying a museum or scholastic enclave. However, these bodies are seen as separate yet connected, possibly more homogeneous than the connected city.

1905 With the support of the Rockefeller family, around half of the townâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s land was converted into preserved land for the perpetuation of a colonial town. The attraction of mass tourist groups eventually forced local business and cultural events to tailor to this tourism as well...

Phase IV The contemporary revival of Williamsburg must address the continuing presence of tourism as a result of the national historical city of Williamsburg. Further urban interventions should address negotiations between the cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s diverse and transient inhabitants as connected by the touristic infrastructure.

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4.4 Site Parameters: Williamsburg, VA >> Zoning ordinances for B-1 regions are as follows: Sec. 21-294. - [B-1] Uses permitted with special use permit: (abridged)

Sec. 21-295. - Lot area/density:

(6) Banks and financial institutions. (12) Libraries. (13) Museums and art galleries. (14) Offices in buildings with a gross floor area not exceeding 50,000 square feet. (16) Playgrounds, parks and unlighted athletic fields owned and/or operated by the City of Williamsburg. (18.1) Public buildings owned and/or operated by the City of Williamsburg. (20) Retail sales establishments in buildings with a gross floor area not exceeding 50,000 square feet. (22) Theaters and assembly halls, but excluding drive-in theaters. (25) Signs in accordance with article VI.

(1) (2)

Sec. 21-294. - [B-1] Uses permitted with special use permit: (abridged)

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(2) Bus and railroad stations. (4) Farmersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; markets, subject to the provisions of chapter 9, article II, of this Code. (5.1) Lighted athletic fields owned and/or operated by the City of Williamsburg. (6.1) Offices in buildings with a gross floor area exceeding 50,000 square feet. (9) Public or private elementary, middle and high schools, colleges and universities; and including temporary classroom facilities when accessory to and on the same lot as a school located in a permanent building. (10) Radio communications towers and antennae, provided that no such tower or antenna is visible from the Colonial Williamsburg historic area, and provided that the height of the tower shall not exceed 50 feet. (10.1) Retail sales establishments in buildings with a gross floor area exceeding 50,000 square feet. (12) Tourist or visitor information centers.

... [Dwelling area requirements] ... Other uses: For all other uses, there shall be no minimum lot area required

Sec. 21-298. - Height: (1)

Buildings may be erected up to 35 feet from grade except that: a. A public or semipublic building such as a school, church or library may be erected up to 45 feet from grade. b. Stair towers, equipment penthouses, mechanical equipment and screening walls are exempt from the height limitations, provided that they shall not cover more than 30 percent of the total roof area and shall not exceed the building height by more than ten feet. Equipment penthouses, mechanical equipment and screening walls shall be set back from the front wall of the building one foot for each foot of height above the roof level. c. Parapet walls shall not exceed the building height by more than four feet. d. Cupolas, spires and steeples may be erected to a height of 90 feet above grade, and may extend higher if a special exception is approved by the board of zoning appeals in accordance with section 21-97(f). The board shall not approve the special exception unless it finds that the cupola, spire or steeple is in proper proportion to the building. Sec. 21-412. - Permitted uses. (Colonial Williamsburg Zones)

No permitted uses are listed for the Colonial Williamsburg historic area CW. s: http://library.municode.com/index.aspx?clientId=11284


“ This district is established to promote harmonious development and redevelopment in the downtown business areas adjacent to the Colonial Williamsburg district and the College of William and Mary. The regulations are designed to maintain and encourage the existing small scale pedestrian character of this area, and to encourage a harmonious mixture of commercial, residential, office and institutional uses. ” — D8 Downtown Business District

Zoning Districts: Due to the expansible nature of the design, each zone should be considered for its unique parameters as subsidies to the fabric of the town. The prescribed zoning for the site is B-1.

Architectural Preservation: In addition to the requirements set by the city’s zoning board, architecture in Williamsburg must be proven to conform to certain design standards. While the site is in AP-2, it is important to note the Corridor Protection District, which are in place to impart a regulated aesthetic on people traveling through the area.

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Program

5.1 Program Type & Description: Entrepreneurial Integration Center >> As an entrepreneurial studio, this architecture typology is concerned primarily with the design of both classroom spaces and the external meeting spaces. Initial studies of incubator models provide groundwork for an architecture of networking. The downside to traditional incubator models is the inward work model they typically sustain as potential businesses. Their major asset is versatility in use of resources. However, the major asset proposed by the EIC is the ability to connect to people of any background and with any level of relevant experience. With an emphasis on faceto-face interaction, desk count will be superseded by neighbor count. This architectural intervention within the city’s core will be based around a prototypical model for social connectivity in similar towns that cater to perpetual tourists. Rather than a hub-based model like the typical expandable business model, the Interface network will be treated as multiple non-hierarchical entities that associate bi-directionally, rather than top-down. While the design of nodes does not require contextual specifics, the EIC will strive to connect to nodes of varying proximity through physical and aphysical means.

>> Existing Program:

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College of William & Mary / Mason School of Business Alan B. Miller Entrepreneurship Center

- Housed within the college’s business college, the Entrepreneurship Center is a small program that supplements the existing undergraduate and graduate business coursework. - Despite the significant sprawl of businesses in nearby cities—and the tourist driven transportation infrastructure providing access to resources—Williamsburg is laden with potential for real-time business support. However, there is little apparent outreach to experienced local businesses for student and community interaction.


5.2 Programmatic Elements: Entrepreneurial Integration Center >> As a community center-turned-business incubator, the Collaborative Crossroads Center will act primarily as an extension of the William & Mary business schoolâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Entrepreneur Center. Building off existing program development events (competitions, conventions, local internships, distant field trips,) the architectural program for the C3 will reframe the needs of the students in a manner that coincides with potential programmatic elements used by tourists and locals. >> Collaborative Crossroads Center: F1: - Existing Ticket Booth - Pitch Stage - Exterior event space - Modern Williamsburg Exhibit - Test Business - Administration / (Information) Receiving - Cafe F2: - Event Reception Foyer - Collaborative Corridor - Shared Start-Up Offices - Mock-Up Presentation Room - Public Lecture Hall - Short-Stay Rooms - Community Event Space

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5.3 Graphic Representation of Program: Collaborative Crossroads Center >> Initial Program Adjacencies: As mentioned previously, the program’s main ties to Williamsburg lie in the C3’s connection to the existing ticket booth. This association allows for students to witness first-hand the diverse influx of visitors and how the business of Colonial Williamsburg interfaces with the unknowns of tourism.

SOCIAL ADJACENCIES: RENTERS STUDENTS

TOWN (PUBLIC) COMMUNITY

TEACHERS

1. Research

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2. Close Connections

CONNECTIONS TOURISTS

3. Collaboration

s: http://freeassociationdesign.wordpress.com/category/urban-voids/page/2/

4. Presentation/ Execution

5. Extrapolation


“Emphasize change-based thinking. Embrace risk. Understand successional dynamics and settle upon an equilibrium enforced by each player’s self interest. Stage and creatively work out the causal relationships that comprise the city as ecosystem. Use design as a means of ‘setting a trap’ to capture potential change — change that is waiting to be sprung or unleashed. Exploit the quid pro quo.” - Roger Sherman, The Infrastructural City

PHYSICAL ADJACENCIES: STUDIO

STUDIO

STUDY

LIBRARY

BUS STOP

BUSINESS

SHARED EVENTS OFFICE OFFICE OFFICE

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Design Project 6

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6.1 Project Parameters: 6.1.1 Accessibility & ADA Requirements All floors and sets of bathrooms therein feature wheelchair turning zones with required 5’ diameter. All rooms and event spaces within the site are accessible by ramp with slope under 1:12. All floors are accessible by elevator, and interstitial elevation changes are accessible by ramp if necessary. Egress diagrams are shown on all floor plans. 6.1.2 Sustainability Design Features The site will feature minimal excavation and will not require the removal of an existing brick structure. Ground floor accessibility encourages the use of existing public transportation or pedestrian access. The removal of a short-stay parking lot (the site’s current use) will result in less exhaust from the previously short turnover of cars on the site. This will also mitigate the exhaust from cars on site that would otherwise permeate the downtown pedestrian corridor. The central event core of the building is glazed on the South- and North-facing sides, while North-South oriented corridors to the East and West wings allow natural daylighting to extend from the event core into secondary spaces. 6.1.3 Code Analysis Code requires a maximum building height of 35’, except when designing a mixed-use building, which can be built to 45’. Additional historic requirements suggest that the building adhere to local Colonial architecture standards in order to maintain a cohesive, aesthetically stagnant region around the center of the town.


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6.2 Studies / Devices Revealing Architectonic Ideas: >> To counter the retrogressive history of Williamsburg after the relocation of Virginiaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s capital to Richmond, the extended program of the Entrepreneurial Integration Center will develop according to the following phases: I: II: III: IV: V:

Integrate & connect program to local businesses and organizations. Host events that overlap interests of associated parties. Introduce model business student project for integration into community. Accumulate stakeholders for building & student business through events. Establish and expand distant connections to draw visitors (users) and investors.

Driven by internal motivation to use external inspiration, the buildingâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s users are required to extend their outreach into their local community while using existing outreach programs to learn from businesses in (but not limited to) Richmond and Washington.

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Dynamic Collection & Dispersion

Event Overlaps & Negotiation Spaces

Interaction Testing Site: To emphasize the temporal nature of Williamsburg (which is hidden by the “preserved history” of the Colonial area,) the EIC’s role will attempt to redefine the community center. Key to this place of negotiation is the notion that ideas that occur as a result of the building will be transported and reused elsewhere— just as visitors transport ideas to the site that will be treated as resources within the studio environment.

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6.3 Site: 6.3.1 Site Plan & Massing

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6.3.2 Site Section & Massing 6.3.3 Site Model & Massing

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6.4 Building Plans:

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First Floor


The origins of this college annex are derived from the unique non-community that is present in Williamsburg. An artifact of the re-colonization, this phenomenon hosts an unintentional advantage for the townâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s population. As each inhabitantâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s character changes subjectively throughout his stay, the city has a unique potential to exploit this diverse demographic by expanding on its negotiable space.

As an incubator-turned-community center, the Entrepreneurial Integration Center aims to create a complete community by interfacing students with locals and visitors; developing on the experiences of both. The building consists of spaces that both enclose and are enclosed by potential event territory, at the same time blending the definition of student, local, and tourist as visitors traverse the city.

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6.5 Elevations & Facade Studies:

Existing Building Connection

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Student Test Business Study


6.6 Building Sections:

Section Pitch Stage Entrance & Existing

Section Collaborative Bridge & Test Business

Section Lecture Hall & Short Stay

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6.7 Wall Section: 6.8 Representation of Structural System: 6.9 Perspectives:

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Contemporary Williamsburg Border At Second Floor Datum

Colonial Williamsburg Border At Ground Level Datum

Internal Collaboration

External Collaboration Extension Roofline Datum 28’ - 0”

jection

Event Pro

Roofline Datum 28’ - 0”

Street Entrance Foyer

ud

y

Collaborative Corridor Extension

Ac

tiv

e

C as e

St

Second Floor Datum 12’ - 6”

Open-Format Class / Presentation Room

Public Balcony Second Floor Datum 12’ - 6”

Existing Ticket Booth / Business Operations

Contemporary Williamsburg Exhibit

Ground Level Datum 0’ - 0” Event Yard Datum -2’ - 0”

Event Yard Entrance (From Bus Stop) Ground Level Datum 0’ - 0”

1’ 5’

10’

25’

1’

5’

10’

Event Yard Datum -2’ - 0”

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Collaborative Corridor

Public Classroom

Information Interface Distant Events for Williamsburgâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Locals

Student Exhibit

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Information Acquisition & Storage

Information Interfaces

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6.10 Design Assessment >> Through research, interviews, and attending discussions regarding the future of ‘entrepreneurial space,’ it is clear that there is a strong need for an integration of work space and social space. This scenario proposed for Williamsburg Virginia serves to demonstrate how the innovation industry must embrace the world industry of tourism by acknowledging it’s infrastructural capacity. Explorations into adaptable and customizable architecture are strongly connected to and sensitive of context. Taking the site of (Colonial) Williamsburg into consideration forces a critical approach to a counter-preservation that must also be embrace for the iterative process of innovation. While many of the processes and interactions proposed by this thesis rely on the breaking of social boundaries, this new architecture is inserted into a site of complete disassociation between reality, as well as permanence. Looking primarily at the role of bulletin boards to connect knowledge communities, entrepreneurial programs, innovators, and architecture in general stands to gain much insight from an embrace of chance encounters rather than forced interaction between users. As a city of 14,000 regulars and 4,000,000 new faces (ideas, interests, backgrounds...) annually, Williamsburg is a prime example of how to harness the risk and reward of architecture that capitalizes on interactions of coincidence. Further than Williamsburg, the integration of campus and town is a topic that is difficult to solve, although continually addressed. Architecture of business is facing a difficult transition; technology is allowing the departure from a need for square-footage, while simultaneously creating a demand for social interactions. This undoubtedly requires a change in thinking and, while many businesses are well established in large offices with cubicles, the exercise of looking at the transitory phases of start-ups is important for understanding the future of the business’ success. Like the biological/ psychological development of a human, this success is, in part, dependent on environment. Therefore, the connection between a university campus and a bustling town should provide a nurturing environment for a multiplicity of reasons.

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Overall, this thesis has uncovered some key topics for exploration of ‘entrepreneurial space’: - Materiality and association to context are key considerations for interfacing transient and permament users. - Unexpected interactions may be a more viable form of knowledge-sourcing than compartmentalizing within campuses or closed networks. - Physical space is a necessity for sparking these unexpected collaborations that are key in the formation of start-ups and knowledge networks.>>


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Conclusions 7

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7 Conclusion >> Through architectural intervention in a town of competing intentions, this thesis seeks to emphasize the significance of physical meeting places as a catalyst for the creation of social networks. By creating spaces of customization, congregation, and collaboration, the millions of temporary inhabitants passing through the city will engage Williamsburgâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s local population to develop a contemporary network-place. >> This project is as much an exploration into the role of architecture as a meeting place as it is research into how people meet and share information. Discussions during the final reviews elaborated on both the modern-historical context of Williamsurg and the potential role of tourism for the knowledge industry. Potential for contnuing research can be found in explorations of expansive tourism systems as well as physically interactive architecture through materiality and spatial configurations.


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Bibliography & Other Resources

7.1.1 Written Sources: Corner, James, “The Agency of Mapping: Speculation, Critique and Invention,” in Mappings, ed Denis Cosgrove. (London: Reakton Books, 1999), 214-252. >> modern_geography / objectivity / Dymaxion_map / relative_existence / reality_vs_representation / >> subjective_surveying / classification / abstract_organization / social_vs_informational_systems / Coyne, Richard. “Thinking Places: Non-Place and Situated Cognition.” Thesis. University of Edinburgh, 2005. Space, Place & Experience. INTERACT 2005, Rome, 13 Sept. 2005. Web. 27 Sept. 2012. <http://www.infosci.cornell.edu/place/5_coyneromeinteract.pdf>. >> place_functions / cognitive_mobility / non-place / environmental_thresholds / locational_prescription >> displacement / work_environments / situational-relinquishment Crandall, Jordan. “Movement, Agency, and Sensing: A Performative Theory of the Event” Cognitive Architecture: From Biopolitics to Noopolitics. Architecture & Mind in the Age of Communication and Information. 3 Jan. 2011. 402-429. >> actor_network_theory / information_novelty / information_dialogue / historical_progression >> contextual_relevance / logistic_events / standardization / network_correlations / consumption Groys, Boris. “Comrades of Time.” E-flux Journal 11 (2009): n. pag. Comrades of Time | E-flux. E-flux, 20 Dec. 2010. Web. 5 Sept. 2012. <http://www.e-flux.com/journal/comrades-of-time/>. >> contemporaneity / information_relativity / novelty / consumption / temporal_relativity / stuck_in_the_present >> time_sensitivity / self-documentation / artistic_self_defeat / contemplative_state Gissen, David. “Architecture’s Geographic Turns.” LOG 12 (2008): 59-67. >> architectural_mapping / aphysical_maps / modern_geography / reality_vs_representation / >> data_architecture / objective_representation / territorialization / information_dialogue Sikiaridi, Elizabeth, Frans Vogelaar. “Soft Urbanism: Neighbors Network City (NNC) in the Ruhr Region” Open 2006, No. 11 (Hybrid Space) 82-95 >> communal_activity / scale_variation / modern_geography / reality_vs_representation / contextual_relevance >> mass_media / fragmentation / public_space / social_drivers / non-urban_life / unrelated_interconnections Wall, Ronald. “Netscape: Cities and Global Corporate Networks.” Diss. Erasmus Institute of Rotterdam, 2009. ERIM Electronic Series Portal. Erasmus University of Rotterdam, 05 June 2009. Web. 29 Sept. 2012. <http://repub.eur.nl/res/pub/16013/ EPS2009169ORG9058922076Wall.pdf>. >> global_networks / relative_adjacency / network_intervention / global_local_connection >> locational_significance / network_borders / global_dependency / global_urban_association

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>>


7.1.2 Other Sources: Marshall, Spud. Personal Interview. 18 Sept. 2012. >> community_networking / integrated_collaboration / aspatial_association / transformative_catalysts 12 Monkeys. Atlas Entertainment, 1995. DVD. >> temporal_perception / information_possession / subjective_memory / cooperative_cognition Milligan, Brett. â&#x20AC;&#x153;Games and Spaces of Negotiation.â&#x20AC;? Free Association Design (F.A.D.). N.p., 21 July 2010. Web. 29 Sept. 2012. <http:// freeassociationdesign.wordpress.com/2010/07/21/games-and-spaces-of-negotiation/>. >> spatial_negotiation / programmatic_diversity / informal_urbanism / consumption / cooperation / modification

7.2 Project References: Clive Wilkinson Architects. Macquarie Bank, Sydney Australia. 2009. >> civic_transformation / transparency / paradigm_shift MVRDV. Metacity Datatown. 1995. http://www.mlcstudio.co.uk/blog/tag/meta-city-data-town >> information_dependency / global_contextualism / omniregionalism WorkShop Architects, Spillman Farmer, et al. 2011. http://2011exhibit.usitt.org/home.php >> global_connectivity / physical_dispersal_of_ideas / transportability >>

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Innovation >>


Konicek thesisbook