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The Voice of Military Communications and Computing

Signal Changer Maj. Gen. LaWarren V. Patterson Commanding General Army Signal Center of Excellence and Fort Gordon

Airborne Networks O Multiband Antennas O LTE Evolution Big Data Analysis O Mobile Forensics


September 2012 Volume 16, Issue 8

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© 2012 Harris CapRock Communications, Inc. All rights reserved. (U.S. Army photo by Spc. De’Yonte Mosley/Released)(100429-A-6285M-020)

ReLiAbiLiT y NeveR ReACHed SO FAR ™

Military Information Technology

September 2012 Volume 16 • Issue 8


Cover / Q&A Big-Data Tool

A system called Hadoop has emerged as go-to technology for dealing with big data problems, both inside and outside the military and intelligence communities. By Peter Buxbaum


Airborne Network of Networks

The Joint Aerial Layer Network, a key joint network that would seek to integrate aerial, ground and space tiers, is facing bandwidth limitations, security and affordability challenges. By William Murray


Multi-Band SATCOM at the Edge

Antennas able to receive multiple frequencies offer flexible communications for tactical operations. By Adam Baddeley


As mobile devices increasingly outpace desktop units as the computing platform of choice for many, security experts within the government and the military are turning to network forensics technology designed specifically for wireless. By Karen E. Thuermer

Leveling the Playing Field

Increasingly, the advanced secure mobile communications capabilities that government users require are available via COTS solutions such as Long Term Evolution-based technology. By Douglas C. Smith


Major General LaWarren V. Patterson Commanding General Army Signal Center of Excellence and Fort Gordon

Departments Network Forensics for the Mobile Age




Editor’s Perspective


Program Notes




Data Bytes




Resource Center

Industry Interview

28 Lisa N. Wolford Founder, President and Chief Executive Officer CSSS.NET

Military Information Technology Volume 16, Issue 8 • September 2012

The Voice of Military Communications and Computing Editorial Managing Editor Harrison Donnelly Online Editorial Manager Laura Davis Copy Editor Laural Hobbes Correspondents Adam Baddeley • Peter Buxbaum Cheryl Gerber • Karen E. Thuermer William Murray

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EDITOR’S PERSPECTIVE While we at Military Information Technology like to think of ourselves as having a good working relationship with the Defense Information Systems Agency (DISA), of course we are completely independent, and I’m sure the good people now headquartered at Fort Meade, Md., would never dream of telling us what topics to cover. Still, some guidance and suggestions are always appreciated, so I was glad recently to see a new DISA report that, in effect, lays out an overall editorial agenda for a magazine dedicated to military computers and communications to follow in the next few years. The “to do” list is contained in the recently released “DISA Strategic Harrison Donnelly Plan, 2013-18.” Along with an outline of the agency’s goals and tactics Editor over the next five years, it includes a “strategic technology watchlist” of key capability areas that DISA needs to develop, acquire and deploy to meet future warfighter needs. Given DISA’s unrivaled knowledge of its market, I’d say these technologies are the ones that everyone in the C4 world needs to spend a lot of time thinking about (and covering): • High performance optical networking allowing network backbones to achieve capacity of 100 Gbps or greater. • Disruption tolerant networking capable of continued operation in the face of disruptions such as cyber-attacks and SATCOM-interrupting weather. • Cloud computing to provide on-demand resources to third-party consumers. • Big data capabilities for searching, storing and analyzing massive data sets. • Enterprise management for monitoring, managing and protecting networks. • Mobile devices and applications. • Identity and access management for identifying and managing users of defense networks. • Cross domain systems for enabling the transfer information between security levels.

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PROGRAM NOTES Army Satellite Terminals Don Microwave Cloak One of the Army’s tactical satellite terminals has donned a new cloak, giving it the power to shoot microwaves instead of satellite radio frequencies, reducing the Army’s reliance on expensive commercial and military satellites. Now instead of shooting into a satellite transponder for beyondline-of-sight (BLOS) communications, these terminals can project a microwave signal that bypasses the satellite altogether. “The link is completely unencumbered by the cost of satellite leasing and satellite time,” said Lieutenant Colonel Greg Coile, product manager for satellite communications, which is assigned to Project Manager Warfighter Information Network-Tactical (PM WIN-T). “So it becomes very efficient, scoring the Army cost savings and avoidance as an alternate output to push large volumes of data at a very quick rate with low latency.” At the root of this transformation are SIPR/NIPR Access Point (SNAP) satellite terminals. They were originally designed to provide satellite communications to small units in austere locations that are unable to use line-of-sight communication due to distance or signal obstructions such as mountains. However, during last fall’s Network Integration Evaluation 12.1, SNAPs successfully assumed a new role as tropospheric scatter terminals, and they are already being fielded to select Army units to provide that capability. The SNAP Tactical Transportable Tropo (3T) solution is set up the same way as a SNAP satellite terminal, but the terminal’s Ku/Ka/X-band frequency feed, which is used for SATCOM, is exchanged with a C-band feed, used for microwave communication. Instead of shooting into a satellite for BLOS communications, it shoots a microwave shot up at the tropopause—a thin buffer zone located just above the troposphere, the lowest layer of the earth’s atmosphere. The microwave shot bounces off the tropopause and is then collected on the ground by a second SNAP 3T.

4 | MIT 16.8

This method allows for secure, high speed transfer of large volumes of data, up and over terrestrial obstructions between sites. So far PdM SATCOM has fielded 28 SNAP 3Ts to augment the Army’s BLOS communications architecture. “Normally line-of-sight communication is used between forward operating bases if they are located close enough to each other, but in mountainous regions that is not an option,” said John Lundy, PM WIN-T’s SNAP project lead. “Tropo works best shooting over mountains because soldiers can use the troposphere to bounce that shot back down and extend the network. It also works at high speeds—tremendously fast for a tactical environment.”

Easy Transport The SNAP 3T has the potential for a wide variety of uses in multiple regions. It can easily be transported in five transit cases and operated by just one soldier. “The SNAP 3T has a very small logistical and overall footprint, which increases mobility,” Lundy said. “Certain units have to be able to get up and go at a moment’s notice, and the SNAP 3T can be fully operational in just half a day.” Both commercial and military satellite resources are always in very high demand, so the Army makes a conscious effort to limit and prioritize their use as much

as possible. The SNAP 3T significantly enhances the architecture of the network by allowing the tropo link to alleviate some of the pressure caused by limited satellite resources, enabling those resources to be used in other areas, Coile said. “The tropo is a small modification to a product line that we already have that gives the Army signal commander, our senior signal officer, a capability to reduce the stress on their network,” Coile said. The SNAP 3T also provides significant cost avoidance at very low risk by utilizing and repurposing two current Army products that have already been proven successful. The SNAP 3T utilizes most of the tried-and-true SNAP elements along with a troposcannic modem, which also has a proven Army track record. “So as far as sustainability, most of the parts are already being sustained by the current product line and now we’re just adding some additional components to give it a unique and more efficient capability,” Coile said. “Basically we are taking two very low-risk components and integrating them together. The reliability and performance risk is very low.” This article is by Amy Walker, a staff writer for Symbolic Systems supporting PM WIN-T, which is assigned to the Army Program Executive Office for Command, Control and Communications-Tactical.

Compiled by KMI Media Group staff

Army Enterprise Email Transition Marks Milestone Marking a major milestone toward transitioning all Army email users to a joint enterprise service, the Defense Information Systems Agency (DISA) and the Army have established accounts for 500,000 Army users of Department of Defense Enterprise Email. Overall, approximately 520,000 people in DoD, including the Joint Staff, U.S. European Lt. Gen. Ronnie D. Hawkins Jr. Command and DISA, have migrated to the enterprise service. “This is an incredible milestone and one for which every member of the team can be proud,” said Michael Kreiger, Army deputy chief information officer/G-6, in a recent blog post, thanking DISA, the Army’s Network Enterprise Technology Command and other partners. “When you consider that [another half million] Army Knowledge Online-only users will be migrated in February 2013, we are well on our way to completing Army migration to DoD Enterprise Email by the end of March 2013,” he said.

“The DISA-Army partnership has been outstanding. The Army has been a dedicated partner in demonstrating the operational enhancements and efficiencies of DoD Enterprise Email,” said Air Force Lieutenant General Ronnie D. Hawkins Jr., DISA director. According to a report submitted to Congress by the Army in February 2012, the Army expects to save nearly $380 million through fiscal year 2017 on this enterprise email effort. “Working with our mission partners, DISA provides the enterprise-level capabilities and services to connect users from wherever information is produced to wherever it is consumed,” said Hawkins. “Enterprise email lays the foundation for implementation of other enterprise services, and it brings us a step closer to a true defense enterprise information infrastructure that enables warfighters to connect, identify themselves, discover and share information, and collaborate throughout the full spectrum of military operations,” Hawkins said. DISA is also actively coordinating with several other DoD organizations to facilitate migration to DoD Enterprise Email.

PEOPLE William Keely has been appointed to the Senior Executive Service and assigned as deputy chief technology officer for mission assurance, Defense Information Systems Agency (DISA), Fort Meade, Md. Keely previously served as director, field security operations, DISA, Chambersburg, Pa. Navy Captain John P. Neagley, who has been selected for the rank of rear admiral (lower half), will be assigned as deputy commander, Space and Naval Warfare Systems Command, San Diego, Calif. Neagley is currently serving as program manager, Naval Sea Systems Command. Luanne Overstreet has been appointed to the

Compiled by KMI Media Group staff

Senior Executive Service and is assigned as test and evaluation executive, Defense Information Systems Agency. Overstreet previously served as deputy test and evaluation executive. STG has announced that Chief Operating Officer Paul Fernandes has been named president of the company. Simon Lee, who previously held the title of president and chief executive officer (CEO), will assume the role of chairman and CEO and focus on global growth strategies and philanthropic endeavors for the company. LGS Innovations, an independent subsidiary of Alcatel-Lucent, has appointed Kevin Kelly as chief executive officer, replacing Air Force

Lieutenant General Ronald W. Iverson (Ret.), who is retiring. Kelly most recently served as chief operating officer and vice president of corporate strategy.

award of major new business opportunities.

Lt. Gen. Carroll Pollett (Ret.)

Kristen Murphy

American Systems, a government IT solutions provider, has appointed Kristen Murphy to the post of vice president, capture management, where she will oversee the company’s processes, personnel and procedures related to the successful identification and

L-3 Stratis has appointed Army Lieutenant General Carroll Pollett (Ret.) as senior vice president of strategic development, where he will focus on enhancing the company’s position in its core markets and identifying new markets for strategic growth. Pollett’s 37-year career in the Army included serving as director of the Defense Information Systems Agency.

MIT 16.8 | 5

6 | MIT 16.8

Hadoop has emerged as the go-to technology for dealing with massive amounts of data, both inside and outside the military and intelligence communities. As the Department of Defense, along with other large organizations, works to mine and analyze oceans of data to spot trends and make better decisions, a system called Hadoop has emerged as go-to technology for dealing with big data problems, both inside and outside the military and intelligence communities. Hadoop is a distributed file system that manages the splitting up and storage of large files of data across many commodity servers to facilitate the inexpensive parallel processing of chunks of data, which are then reassembled into a complete answer to a specific problem. That is proving to be an excellent fit for DoD’s big data challenge, especially for unstructured data—such as text,

sensor data, images, video footage and voice communications—that does not fit well into relational databases. DoD has invested billions of dollars in systems that gather and store vast quantities of imagery and other data from the battlefield. But sifting through all of this to generate actionable information has become impractical. The department also faces the challenge of sharing information across different mission areas. “If a grain of sand represents one byte of data,” said Nick Combs, chief technology officer of EMC Corp.’s federal division, “then a petabyte equals all the grains of sand on a beach a mile long and 100 yards wide. Prior to 1997 there was no call for peta-scale systems. Today we are talking about exabytes.”

By Peter Buxbaum MIT Correspondent

(One exabyte is equal to 1 billion gigabytes.) The Hadoop approach was pioneered by Google as it searched for ways to “index the Internet.” The company published its work in this area, allowing a developer named Doug Cutting to write what is today known as Hadoop. The technology is now freely available to interested users. In addition, a number of vendors have emerged in this area, providing maintenance and support as well as adding value to this open source software. Although Hadoop is not alone as a big data solution and is not without its limitations, it has taken its place at the centerpiece of the big data constellation and is likely to remain in that position for some time to come. MIT 16.8 | 7

De Facto Standard Hadoop’s preeminence is evidenced by the fact that it is now being combined with other systems to form solutions that address Hadoop’s shortcomings. It has also recently been adapted to the world of virtualized computing and has spawned a growing number of application developers who are writing software to run on top of Hadoop. “Hadoop is becoming the de facto standard for dealing with big data,” said Fausto Ybarra, senior director of product management, data and analytics at VMware. “What this means is that Hadoop is the framework that gives organizations the computing capacity to process large amounts of data.” “One of the driving factors behind Hadoop is that users confronted with massive volumes of data have to decide to drop the data to the floor or throw it into an inaccessible archive,” said Bobby Caudill, director of federal solutions at Cleversafe, a provider of storage solutions. “By building active archives in conjunction with Hadoop, they don’t have to decide today what data will be important tomorrow.” Hadoop is less expensive than its alternatives because it is written in the Java programming language and is licensed for free as an open-source initiative of the Apache Foundation. It also reduces hardware costs by operating on clusters of commodity servers, in which each server is referred to as a node. “For us, Hadoop is the way we scale,” said Dave Danielson, vice president for marketing, at Digital Reasoning, which provides systems and services to the intelligence community that organize and analyze unstructured data. “If we need to add more computers, Hadoop makes them all behave like an integrated fabric. The effect is that of a supercomputer but the nodes are made up of individual lowcost computers.” “Many of the functions behind big data, like data warehousing, mining and analytics, are not new,” said Bob Palmer, senior director for solution marketing at SAP National Security Services (NS2). “But they have been out of reach of many organizations due to the prohibitive storage and processing costs. Obviously, a lower-cost approach will always prove most favorable for adoption.” Companies such as Cloudera and Hortonworks sell support for Hadoop, maintaining their own versions and performing support and maintenance for an annual fee. 8 | MIT 16.8

They also sell licensed software utilities to manage and enhance the Hadoop freeware. “These companies work to optimize the performance of the generic Apache version of Hadoop,” said Danielson. “Other vendors like Zettaset are trying to make Hadoop better by making it easier to manage. Several major IT companies, such as EMC, IBM and Oracle, also support Hadoop.” “Almost every intelligence agency as well as the intelligence arms of the armed services use Hadoop,” said Bob Gourley, a former chief technology officer (CTO) of the Defense Intelligence Agency who currently serves as CTO at CTOvision. “At least four agencies have bought the enterprise version of Hadoop from Cloudera.”

Business Logic

who,” said Michael Sick, president and principal architect at Serene Software. “Much of the data being collected today is very raw and come in the form of documents, voice recordings and images. They also come from unstructured text, including text from social networking sites. If you tried to analyze that on a relational database, it would break it.” “Hadoop is good for asking novel questions of raw data that you never even knew you would need as you collected it,” said Palmer. “It is less useful when you know the types of questions that will be asked on wellstructured data sets. Hadoop will not return query results in the sub-second response times that business intelligence users are accustomed to.” For support of war fighting operations, Hadoop can be used to analyze new information as it arrives. “It can correlate with the old information and update that on a map so that analysts can get a better understanding of what is going on,” said Gourley. “The challenge in this case is to cross reference old data with new data quickly. To do that requires something like Hadoop.”

Hadoop manages the distribution of scripts that perform business logic on the data files that are split up on many nodes. “This splitting up of the business logic is what makes Hadoop work well on very large data files,” said Palmer. “Analysis logic is performed in parallel on all of the server nodes at once.” Performance Limitations Analysis of the data in the Hadoop file system is done through a software process Hadoop has its limitations, however, and called MapReduce. “The MapReduce engine cannot effectively address big data by itself. breaks up jobs into many small tasks, run “Hadoop utilizes a single server for metadata in parallel and launched on all nodes that operations,” said Russ Kennedy, Cleversafe’s have a part of the file,” Palmer explained. vice president of product strategy. “If this “The map function of the MapReduce engine server fails, data could be inaccessible or distributes the logic that the developer wants result in permanent loss of data. Hadoop also to execute to each of the nodes. The reduce maintains three copies of data for protection. function takes the raw results That’s not a big deal in the of the mapping function and terabyte range, but scaling up performs the business logic to petabyte and exabyte levels computations, such as aggreleads to skyrocketing overgation, sums, word counts or head and management costs.” averages, against them.” “Hadoop’s performance Intelligence agencies use is optimized for physical Hadoop to perform some of deployment,” noted Ybarra. their most challenging tasks, That means that the softaccording to Gourley. “The ware must be tweaked if it first is the classic needle-inis to be deployed in a virtual Russ Kennedy a-haystack problem,” he said. environment. “How do you find the one piece Hadoop is often used on of information that you really need? The connection with other big data utilities, said other is the connect-the-dots problem. How Sick. “On top of Hadoop there is a database do you find information that relates to other engine called H-base. It is similar to older information?” relational database systems and provides Intelligence agencies often want to anamore structure than Hadoop.” lyze social interactions called friend-of-friend Cassandra is sometimes used as an alteranalyses. “They want to map the networks of native to H-base. Elastic Search, like Hadoop persons of interest to see who touches who, an Apache open source initiative, delivers who is talking to who, who is influencing big data search and analytics capabilities.

There are also proprietary systems that are trying to make a move on Hadoop. “These systems are combined all the time,” said Sick, who consults on big data problems for governmental and commercial organizations. “I’ve never seen a big data ecosystem where just one was used. The trouble becomes synchronizing the various data sources and making sure they share a common view of the data.” As Hadoop continues to gain ground in the big data universe, companies are developing capabilities that enhance and augment what Hadoop offers. Cleversafe has announced plans to build a dispersed compute storage solution by combining Hadoop MapReduce with Cleversafe’s scalable dispersed storage system. This solution is meant to decrease infrastructure costs for separate servers dedicated to analytical processes and reducing required storage capacity. The company’s solution will bring together computation and storage at any scale. “Hadoop’s distributed compute environment and our distributed storage environment are very synergistic,” said Kennedy. “We are leveraging our dispersed data architecture and adding computing capacity and analytics on top of that.” One of the benefits is to move computing capacity to where the data resides. That way, networks are not tied up moving large data sets to the computing servers. The project is being conducted at the behest of Lockheed Martin, Kennedy indicated. “Lockheed’s large federal customers they are asking them to deliver large scale computing and storage as one. Lockheed is feeding us the requirements so that we can design a system to meet the needs of its customers.”

Extract, Transform and Load SAP NS2 is trying to tackle the problem of how to use the big data capabilities of Hadoop together with tools that allow organization to identify data relevant to take action on in real time. The proposed solution would use Hadoop as an “extract, transform and load” engine in conjunction with data analytics and business intelligence tools. The thrust of the NS2 solution is to allow data end-users to develop queries of data and receive answers in a more self-service manner. This eliminates the “middle man”—the data scientists who must otherwise formulate complex programs by which to extract actionable intelligence from big data.

“Rather than asking data scientists to write detailed analyses using MapReduce to perform analytical processes on entire data files, an innovative approach would be to use the MapReduce code to deliver an ETL of a large data domain to an in-memory, columnar data warehouse,” Palmer said. Thanks to its acquisition of Sybase, SAP offers a columnar database and computation engine that is totally in-memory. “The MapReduce process would sort and process the unstructured data, and then the data would be loaded into the in-memory data warehouse,” said Palmer. “The in-memory data warehouse performs slicing and dicing and predictive analysis in the same memory space with the data. At this point, the large data domain needed for fast, realtime analysis will be on hand in a structured data warehouse, in columnar format, with metadata context.” In this scenario, Hadoop could be considered a catch-all collection point for continuously generated data, while mission-useful data could then be extracted for further analysis using business logic in Hadoop MapReduce jobs. The output of the MapReduce jobs would be used to load Sybase and business intelligence tools, which in turn would then be used to analyze and graphically display that result to make it actionable for a mission. “This would empower analysts to get different analytical views of the data without the need to go back to the IT shop for a revision to a Reduce job, or a new Java report,” said Palmer. “Combining the in-memory data warehouse with business intelligence tools provides a platform for extremely fast response times for very complex query and analysis on very large data sets that were originally stored in a distributed file system like Hadoop.” This type of analytical solution could be used to analyze logistics, order of battle, readiness, force generation, human resources and financial data, he added.

Virtualized Environments Much of IT is moving to virtualized environments to take advantage of the cost savings and flexibility that virtualization has to offer. VMware has recently taken steps that allow Hadoop to operate in a virtualized environment as well. “In the classical deployment of Hadoop, you are creating physical computing clusters,” said Ybarra. “If you want a cluster of 50

nodes you have to start by getting 50 servers. It can take weeks or months to get a cluster in place.” Migrating Hadoop to a virtual environment allows users access to pools of computing capacity, memory, and storage. “You then use Hadoop to coordinate the workloads. We can dynamically provision new Hadoop clusters and to enlarge them when needed,” Ybarra explained. VMware recently initiated an open source project called Serengeti to facilitate the deployment of Hadoop on a virtual infrastructure. “With Serengeti, Hadoop understands where all the elements are placed within the infrastructure, and it can then send the right jobs to the right nodes,” said Ybarra. “The processing is the same as on a physical infrastructure but it is much faster to get started.” Serengeti has been incorporated into VMware’s latest release. VMware coordinated the Serengeti effort with all the major Hadoop vendors. “We believe this will accelerate the acceptance of Hadoop,” said Ybarra. “Customers are concerned that Hadoop is expensive, so they take only small steps. Virtualization will allow them to get more involved with Hadoop. It will also make it easier for developers to experiment with Hadoop.” This in turn will allow for the proliferation of applications that ride atop Hadoop. “The biggest development of the last six months is that more and more application writers are building apps to run on top of Hadoop,” said Gourley. “The big challenge is how to provide analytics for all that information,” said Combs. “Analytics is going to be the big growth area for Hadoop.” All indications point to Hadoop becoming easier and more useful for those tackling big data problems. “I think Hadoop is here for the long term,” said Sick. “The people behind the Hadoop platform are not going anywhere.” “Hadoop will remain the centerpiece of the big data world,” said Danielson. “When EMC, IBM, and Oracle all support Hadoop, you have think Hadoop will be central to big data for some time to come.” O

For more information, contact MIT Editor Harrison Donnelly at or search our online archives for related stories at

MIT 16.8 | 9

Airborne Network of Networks

Long-term development of Joint Aerial Layer Network seeks aerial, ground and space network integration.

By William Murray MIT Correspondent

A high density of Air Force, Army, Marine Corps, Navy and A key joint network that would seek to integrate aerial, even the Coast Guard assets are involved in JALN, which Genaground and space tiers is facing bandwidth limitations, security tempo described as “platform independent.” and affordability challenges. JALN’s goal is not to be a network that would be operational The platform-independent, three-tiered Joint Aerial Layer 24 hours a day and seven days a week, but one that could easily Network (JALN) integrated network is not intended to replace meet emerging needs. “We might not need it available all the ground or space networks already in place, according to Colonel time,” Genatempo said. Anthony Genatempo, Airborne Network Division To effectively operate a joint network, the secusenior materiel leader at Hanscom Air Base, Mass. rity challenge is to make sure that the networks The best way to conceive of JALN is as a network of can’t be easily breached. “How do I make this netnetworks or a system of systems that is not neceswork secure, while still operational” is a key issue, sarily mandated, he explained. he said. Since the program was formally launched in 2008 by the Joint Chiefs of Staff, Genatempo and his team have conducted an analysis of alternaNetwork Traffic Cop tives, but they determined that it was not feasible to replace the infrastructure that JALN will rely on. Under its initial capabilities document, which “How do I leverage what I have?” has emerged was approved in April 2009, JALN’s architects have Col. Anthony Genatempo as a key question for JALN, rather than the wholealso had to evaluate whether the program would sale replacement of the infrastructure for JALN’s far-flung netrequire a network box that would perform tasks akin to “a traffic works, he said. cop at an intersection,” Genatempo said. Ideally, Genatempo would like to “wipe out” the current band“How do I manage this network?” is a question Genatempo width, routing and switching infrastructure in place and replace repeatedly faced. The initial capabilities document had to evaluit with 2012 technology. To make the system more affordable, ate materiel solutions, in addition to non-materiel ones such as however, Genatempo and his colleagues have had to learn how to software development. tie legacy equipment into JALN, rather than replace it wholesale. “How do we move information around more efficiently” was “Bandwidth limitations and spectrum limitations are becomultimately a guiding principle, Genatempo said, adding that JALN ing a challenge,” said Genatempo. “We cannot just add a new data architects have wanted to use spectrum management more effilink for the military since we need to understand the impacts to ciently to “push information around.” the commercial and international spectrum. Spectrum is becomMarine Corps General James Cartwright, then-vice chairing a precious quantity, and we need to understand, implement man of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, identified four capability gaps and manage this resource very delicately.” that JALN should tackle. Cartwright, who is now retired, was 10 | MIT 16.8

widely considered an expert in applying advanced technologies in national defense matters. The connectivity gap, for example, allows joint forces to only engage in two-way connectivity. The capacity gap, meanwhile, means that JALN’s users—present and future—are something like the PC user who is saddled with an outdated hard drive. “Having a still photo sent on an aerial network is different than sending a full motion video over an aerial network,” Genatempo said. Genatempo wants JALN to be scalable enough that if an operator only wants two square mile coverage in an area, he can get this information on his display, rather than 250 square miles. “Flexibility is absolutely going to be the key,” Genatempo said. Avoiding mutual interference, or deconfliction, will be an important measure of JALN’s success, Genatempo said. “There’s a lot that goes on in there,” he said of efforts by the Air Force Electronic Systems Center (ESC) at Hanscom to ensure that JALN users don’t clog the electromagnetic spectrum. “Today you can look at the space and surface networks as two independent networks,” Genatempo said. “Some of our aircraft have SATCOM for voice/data communication to various ground sites. Then we have at the same time connectivity to ground/ surface site on different radio/networks. “What the JALN will do is help augment the space and ground networks when they are over-subscribed or jammed with linking air-air or air-ground network together, and also bridge ground networks. In addition, the JALN will become a critical hub in ensuring the right information gets to the appropriate people/networks,” he explained. Anti-access and area denial issues are important for stealth aircraft, since U.S. adversaries can use area-denial weapons to restrict, slow down and endanger their adversaries. “How do I get back command and control in a permissionbased environment?” said Genatempo.

Battlefield Communications Although JALN’s target date for full operational capability is 2024, the program is already yielding benefits for airmen, among other military personnel, according to Genatempo. Since 2009, for example, through two Battlefield Airborne Communications Node (BACN) contracts worth $313 million total, ESC fielded and deployed an airborne communications system that can provide real-time battlefield information to warfighters on two business jets and four Block 20 RQ-4 Global Hawk unmanned aerial vehicles. BACN allows troops on the ground, even when beyond line-of-sight radio range, to share information with jet pilots overhead. Before BACN, ground-based personnel had to call in coordinates for air strikes through joint tactical air controllers and through air operations centers, which would then provide the coordinates to the pilots. The problem with this approach, according to Genatempo, is that it would usually take at least 12 minutes from the time the ground based operator called in the coordinates to when the ground strike would occur. “BACN allows the guy on the ground to talk with the guy on the plane,” Genatempo said. “It gives them access they didn’t have before.” High-altitude jets equipped with BACN hover over

war zones such as Afghanistan using BACN to translate IP-based communications between ground troops and attack jets. JALN has also shown its benefits to airmen and other military personnel through a system that operators can redirect cargo airdrops in flight. Developed under a contract with Northrop Grumman, the Dynamic Retasking Capability (DRC) urgent operational need system allows C-17 and C-130J aircraft to have threat awareness, text messaging capabilities and weather information to increase mission success by enabling the cargo crew to find alternate airdrop sites and reduce loss of life through real time retasking and a fully interactive display. DRC “gives C-130 and C17 pilots a tactical picture of what’s going on on the ground,” as opposed to verbally passing information, Genatempo said. DRC allows the Air Force to do close air support and resupply together, increasing mission success. The Air Force fielded DRC in Afghanistan in April, its first mission in an area of operations. Before DRC, if an air crew got to a drop zone and there were unexpected circumstances, they would have to return home. Since Northrop Grumman does not make the aircraft that uses DRC, company officials worked closely with Boeing and Lockheed Martin to successfully field DRC. Within three months of the May 2011 DRC contract award, the design phase was complete and ready for testing, so DRC and Air Force officials worked on a short schedule.

Command Pod With BACN deployed, ESC officials let a contract with Ultra Electronics Advanced Tactical Systems to deploy the Tactical Airborne Command Pod (TACPOD), according to Raymond Munoz, vice president of airborne projects at Ultra Electronics Advanced Tactical Systems, which has worked on JALN for several years. Through a joint Army Network Integrated Evaluation and Program Manager Aviation Systems test at White Sands Missile Range, N.M., a pair of IP-based Ultra Electronics Advanced Tactical Systems’ rack mount TACPODs successfully flew on the back of a C-12, even though they were developed in about 100 days on a shoestring budget, according to Munoz. The TACPOD can enable operators to view full motion video and connect with voice networks such as UHF and VHF and engage in texting, chat, file sharing and automated information systems. The 130-pound TACPOD is a 5-foot-long system that is 14 inches in diameter. TACPOD offers excellent endurance and is capable of operating at high altitudes. According to Ultra Electronics, the military would like to be able to put a TACPOD on each wing of a UAV. Ultra Electronics is in the midst of producing 14 TACPOD units for the Air Force by early 2013, according to Munoz. Regardless of the 2024 deadline for JALN, the program is reaping benefits, according to Genatempo, who is entrusted with implementing the JALN vision. “The work we have already done is beginning to pay off by influencing budget decisions at the Pentagon,” he said. O

For more information, contact MIT Editor Harrison Donnelly at or search our online archives for related stories at

MIT 16.8 | 11

Multi-Band SATCOM

at the Edge

Antennas able to receive multiple frequencies offer flexible communications for tactical operations. By Adam Baddeley, MIT Correspondent

The case for multi-band SATCOM or MILSATCOM capabilities at the terminal level is that users need to be able to operate in any region across the globe, and to have an assured communications capability using a single architecture in their terminals. As military and other users transition from or add to their standard Ku-band systems today, a multi-band capability ensures either increased access to frequency or an alternative source of bandwidths if a particular frequency band is overcrowded or inadequate to support the link. In most satellite communications programs, however, users rarely procure antennas that can operate on multiple frequency bands simultaneously. The primary reason for this is the added size and cost to implement. Also, combining frequency bands in a SATCOM antenna results in a performance degradation on any particular frequency band over what would be expected from an antenna of the same size optimized for a single frequency band. Thus, in the satellite communications world, high performance systems are almost always optimized to use a single frequency band. But it is in the area of tactical terminals, where the reduction in weight and multi-band operation is a vital mission advantage, that multi-band operation is being pursued.

Flexibility and Capability “We see a lot of requirements for multiband systems,” said Keith Gammon, Rockwell Collins product manager. “Customers want the flexibility and capability to support the different types of mission needs and applications that we see out there. Even ones today that want to have the Ka-band capability, want to make sure that they have both Ka- and Ku-band capability because Ka today is not ubiquitous across the globe.” 12 | MIT 16.8

To address the need for multi-band architectures, Rockwell Collins has built an offering at the flyaway level using their CommuniCase Technology (CCT) range of terminals. “It gives us capability that you don’t find with other systems solutions that are out there, because it was designed to have truly interchangeable modules,” Gammon said. “We can change transceivers, antenna modules and modems so you don’t have customers carrying separate system solutions to support different mission applications. With a CCT product, a customer can for example carry a X-band transceiver and a Ku transceiver as part of that mission and simply swap transceivers: Disconnect a couple of screws, pull out one transceiver, slide another one back in, put the screws back, and away you go. It is that simple a capability.” The modularity allows the overall size to be much smaller, and offers greater commonality from a logistics perspective. In a terminal’s life, users can move from Ku- to X- and Ka-band simply by procuring a transceiver rather than buying entire system. Delivering a multi-band capability in this way allows users to retain the size and weight envelope of single-band systems, Gammon noted, describing multi-band systems as “pretty onerous in comparison to what you can profile with a single band.” The CCT family uses a Gregorian dual offset antenna to maximize efficiency and relies on carbon fiber as the reflector material because it provides good wind support and a high surface tolerance. “That allows us to support all the frequencies all the way up to Ka-band, and as opposed to a prime focus offset feed system, it allows us to have very compact design, so we get the smallest size and weight. It also allows us to increase our overall antenna gain efficiency, which helps support the end mission. That is really what we have focused on in terms of antenna

desirables to make sure we get the most gain in the smallest package,” he continued. As part of the Network Integration Evaluation 12.1 last fall, the Army evaluated the CCT120 in support of the Company Command Post program, in which the terminal was able to operate effectively in high wind speeds. The CCT terminals go as small as 90 cm in aperture, although Rockwell Collins is also expanding the size of terminals upwards to 2 m, creating the CCT200. This would use the same modular electronics as with any CCT system, but the larger aperture would enable greater data rates, giving lower tactical echelons a headquarters capability or alternatively reducing the size of terminals currently used at a headquarters. For larger, hub SATCOM systems, Gammon reports, users want the ability to swap between bands, with a requirement for roughly two-hour transition times. For these larger systems, this would see the feed system, transceiver and high power amplifier and the low noise amplifier equipment, supplied as an integrated package, swapped out. “There are some capabilities, if you wanted to operate simultaneously on a both X- and Ka-band with the WGS satellite, that type of capability is certainly larger and more expensive. It just depends on what the customer is looking for,” he added. “The AN/TSC-167F satellite transportable terminal is Wideband Global Satellite (WGS) Ka-band certified, and represents the backbone of the Army’s infrastructure. That is where we have our palletized, easily swappable transceivers that can, in a relatively short period of time, be changed to support mission needs. As you move up the chain, we expand from there to our larger truckbased systems, to the larger Deployable Kuband Earth Terminal (DKET) hubs or gateways. These are the Army’s and Marine Corps’

strategic infrastructure, where bulk communications requirements need to be managed. That is where we get into those two-to-fourhour transition times,” Gammon said. Rockwell Collins recently delivered the 100th DKET.

Performance Issues One key issue in this area is when best to implement a multi-band SATCOM capability over a dedicated solution. “Our experience has been that there are really very few SATCOM users who truly need to operate on multiple frequency bands simultaneously. Much more frequently they need options to operate on different frequency bands to have flexibility in using different satellites in different locations,” said Tim Shroyer, chief technology officer for General Dynamics SATCOM Technologies. The exception to this is in the tactical SATCOM community, where there is a potential desire to operate on different satellite frequency bands. This is often achieved in tactical terminals, where low weight is one of the community’s biggest concerns, using replaceable antenna feeds and RF equipment suites. The desire to have a lightweight multiband system places greater emphasis on the elegance and physical strength of a design to ensure that reduced performance doesn’t negate any benefits from reduced size and weight. No design can outrun the laws of physics. “Probably the big issue with SATCOM terminals that affects combining multiple frequency bands is that combining additional frequency bands, or making the operating frequency cover a broader range, results in degraded performance in any particular band,” Shroyer explained. “SATCOM operates on very low signal-to-noise ratios, and signals are separated both in frequency and through very precise polarization control, so this degradation becomes very important.” There are antenna architectures that offer potential multi-band operation. General Dynamics SATCOM Technologies builds high performance multi-band SATCOM antennas that combine prime focus operation on one frequency band with Cassegrain reflector operation on a different frequency band, using technologies such as frequency-selective sub-reflectors. Another approach to satisfy multi-band operation makes use of phased-array antennas, with elements for multiple frequency bands. Those phased-array architectures also

have some disadvantages, however, such as degraded RF performance at low look angles and gain that is always less than that available with a parabolic reflector antenna of the same size. General Dynamics SATCOM Technologies has produced high performance SATCOM antennas supporting as many as six separate frequency bands simultaneously. This has been achieved by combining multiple frequency bands in waveguide horns, where possible combined with frequency-selective sub-reflectors for combining other frequency bands. But that is not a one-size-fits-all solution. “This is an excellent approach for large high-performance SATCOM uplink antennas such as those we built for direct broadcast audio satellites like SiriusXM Radio,” Shroyer said, while adding that it is not very well suited to small tactical terminals.

Anchor Stations ViaSat splits its business between tactical and strategic echelons. Tactical terminals would be used toward the frontline at battalion level using a trailerized or towed version of an antenna typically 4 m in diameter or less. At the headquarters level are larger, more strategic terminals, often referred to as anchor stations, carrying a lot more capacity. They are anywhere from a 5-7 m aperture up to 18 m, and are implemented in either multi-band or single apertures. Today, multi-band means WGS, with ViaSat supplying both X-band, low pulse interval modulation (PIM) anchor stations and Ka-band anchor stations for the constellation. “From my experience in talking with potential customers, there is quite an interest in full X- and Ka-band feeds and apertures,” said Kent Leka, ViaSat director of operations. “The reason is that it offers flexibility in exploiting both of these frequency bands on one satellite. The perception in the marketplace is that it is actually more economically beneficial to have both frequencies on one single aperture because of the lower cost of infrastructure upfront and hardware.” The reality, however, is that a dual-band single aperture antenna gives up a certain degree of availability. “If you properly size the antenna to get the maximum efficiency of the X-band antenna, you will find that it will be larger, maybe in the order of a 16 m aperture size, than what is required for Ka-band. So, if you were to do dual-band antenna, you may give up some efficiencies, as some sub-optimization at X-band and over-optimization at

Ka-band, by having larger aperture than Kaband needs and a smaller aperture antenna that X-band needs. Essentially you have suboptimized solutions in order to have both bands on a single aperture,” Leka said. Along with the technical shortcomings imposed by multi-band options, that approach also removes a potential backup or reversionary mode. “The availability part is that where you are in a situation with a rainstorm, massive hurricane or something of that nature, when you have two apertures and one of them gets damaged, you retain the availability of the use of the other satellite constellation. “We have been an early adopter of multiband feeds where they seem to be economically viable,” Leka said. “We are more about funding the optimal solution for our customers, more so than pushing the latest and greatest technologies that are available.” Keith Dishman, an antenna systems engineer at ViaSat who primarily focuses on satellite gateway antennas, outlined some of the issues with implementing a dual-band architecture. “The traditional military dualband approach is more for tactical applications, where they have interchangeable feeds and maybe some wideband amplifiers and electronics so that the field user can take advantage of whatever bandwidth he could see in his theater. “On the anchor station side, the majority of solutions ViaSat has provided have been dedicated single band,” Dishman continued. “The only true dual band I have heard of is X- and Ka-band, where the government is bringing those assets in line with some of the WGS satellites. There is, however, a large technology hurdle to cross there to develop a dualband feed that can simultaneously work at Ka-band and meet the X-band low-PIM issue because of the X-band frequency spacing.” ViaSat has done more with multi-band systems in remote sensing applications. In those cases, where there could be two separate feeds with a transparent sub-reflector, one feed could be the prime focus, with the other that being a Cassegrain solution in which the sub-reflector is reflective at that frequency. This approach has been deployed, but the number of deployed true Ka/X dual-band systems is very limited, and they are just entering the market. O

For more information, contact MIT Editor Harrison Donnelly at or search our online archives for related stories at

MIT 16.8 | 13

DATA BYTES High Speed Encryptor Offers Flexible Configuration Options

3e Technologies International (3eTI), an Ultra Electronics company and provider of highly secure network solutions, plans this fall to release its next version of the EtherGuard HSE, EtherGuard L3. The new EtherGuard L3 will continue to provide high-speed data encryption for enhanced performance, while using Layer 3 FIPS 140-2 certified encryption to securely transmit data over large open networks. With the EtherGuard L3, 3eTI will offer network operators more flexible configuration options using TCP/IP routing for securing critical data links. EtherGuard L3 will provide impenetrable point-to-point or point to-multipoint data security in the network layer, which is responsible for packet forwarding and transferring data sequences—effectively protecting against external malicious attacks from worms, spyware, or malware. Using proprietary DarkNode technology, the EtherGuard L3 will expand cyber-secure protection over TCP/IP networks, providing a more scalable network for end device high-speed, highgrade encryption.

DISA Picks Seven for Test and Evaluation Support The Defense Information Systems Agency (DISA) Test and Evaluation Executive Office and the DISA Joint Interoperability Test Command have issued awarded multiple-award, indefinite-delivery/indefinite-quantity contracts for test and evaluation support to the following companies: Alion Science and Technology Corp., TASC, Science Applications International Corp., ManTech Telecommunications and Information Systems Corp./Technical Services Group, Oberon Associates, American Systems Corp., and Lockheed Martin. The contracts are funded by

Virtual Desktop Improves Security VMware’s Desktop Virtualization improves security by enabling better isolation and controls over the environment in which the operating system exists. This technology greatly reduces the risk of a wholesale release of sensitive data, as it eliminates any “moving parts.” A user can’t take information off the desktop, since the data is secure at the data center. This also enables IT to put in place several additional security safeguards at the data center, to further protect the data. This is particularly valuable for SIPRNet users, and is being explored by many different organizations across DoD. The virtual desktop supports DoD’s Cloud First initiative being implemented across all the service branches. Virtualization increases speed to deployment and delivers cost savings, both in equipment costs and in IT support costs.

fiscal 2012 appropriations, with a minimum guarantee face value of $100,000 and a total program ceiling value of $871.4 million. The awardees will support tasks to perform a wide range of non-personal services encompassing testing, scientific, engineering, logistic, administrative, purchasing and ancillary support of the DISA testing and evaluation mission. The services will include all support aspects, including the operation and maintenance of the test tools, labs, networks and infrastructure, and administrative support cells.

Six Win Agile CyberTechnology Contracts The Air Force Research Laboratory has awarded Agile Cyber-Technology indefinitedelivery/indefinite-quantity contracts, with a total value of $300 million, to three large companies—ITT Exelis, CACI and L-3 Services, and three smaller firms—Assured Information Security, Global Info Tek and Radiance Technologies. The contract will support rapid research, development, prototyping, demonstration, evaluation and transition of cybersolutions for military program offices and the Department of Defense operational community. The work includes a broad spectrum of services covering the development and fielding of cybersolutions to support customer requirements. Areas to be covered include threat avoidance and cyber-defense; full spectrum cyber-operations; network exploitation; situation and mission awareness; command and control; modeling, simulation and war-gaming; cyberinfrastructure; and mission assurance.

DoD Orders Reusable Secure Operations Center MTN Government Services (MTNGS), a subsidiary of MTN Satellite Communications, a global provider of communications, connectivity and content services to remote locations, has been awarded a contract supporting the Department of Defense to provide a re-deployable secure

14 | MIT 16.8

operations center (RSOC). The MTNGS RSOC will be used by DoD as a sensitive compartmented information facility (SCIF). The RSOC is the industry’s most secure, self-standing rapidly deployable and re-deployable SCIF facility that can be drop-shipped into any environment

and assembled within a few days. Under terms of the contract, MTNGS will work closely with its client to provide a turnkey, fully configured SCIF, to include all power, low-voltage and security infrastructure, requiring minimal integration by the customer.

Compiled by KMI Media Group staff

Small Terminal Expands Link 16 Networking Capability The Naval Research Lab has awarded a contract to Rockwell Collins to provide its TacNet Tactical Radio (TTR), a small form factor terminal that will bring Link 16 networking capability to a broader range of military platforms. Deliveries will begin by February 2013. TTR, with its small size, high power output, and adaptability to the naval warfare environment, is integral to protecting the force by virtue of providing warfighters with a common operating picture through Link 16 networked communications. Platforms and users that can benefit from the radio include unmanned aerial systems, rotary wing aircraft, forward air controllers, military vehicles, mobile and transportable ground stations and small maritime assets that have not previously had access to Link 16 capability.  As the primary joint data link for U.S. and coalition forces, Link 16 provides near real-time, jam-resistant data communications. Link 16 also integrates command and control data including the sharing of targeting and situational awareness data among joint and coalition partners. The TTR features selectable output power with 1-, 50- and 90-watt transmission modes; free air convection cooling; volume of less than 185 cubic inches; weight of less than 10 pounds; and data, imagery and Link 16 digital voice capability.

TacSat Nano Offers Multiple Comms Capabilities PacStar, a developer of advanced communications solutions for the Department of Defense, has been awarded the TacSat Nano contract by 6th Contracting Squadron, MacDill AFB, Fla., for immediate delivery to the Joint Enabling Capabilities Command’s Joint Communications Support Element ( JCSE). The JCSE TacSat Nano is a lightweight, compact and flexible package that provides multiband voice (high performance waveform, SINCGARS, VHF/UHF and so on), ViaSat messaging services, and Radio-over-IP (RoIP) in a single case, easy-to-use solution. JCSE selected the PacStar 3700 to meet this mission requirement, based on its high level of integration, small size, weight and power, and ease of use. The TacSat Nano provides three distinct use scenarios: SATCOM-based UHF radio using the AN/ PRC-152 handsets with external amplifiers and antennas; RoIP and radio interoperability (providing IP access and interoperability for up to six RF networks); and an AN/PRC-152 “grab and go” tactical radio with quick release and mobile accessories, providing soldier handset service.

Site Offers Guidance on Federal Cloud Computing

SATCOM Companies Selected for Custom Solutions Eight major satellite communications companies have won contracts under the Custom SATCOM Solutions (CS2) program, which is managed by the Defense Information Systems Agency and the General Services Administration. The CS2 awardees are: Americom Government Services, ARTEL, DRS Technical Services, Hughes Network Systems, Intelsat General, Segovia, Telecommunication Systems and Vizada. These awards expand the common marketplace for commercial satellite communications services under the Future COMSATCOM Services Acquisition program, by adding additional sources for end-toend solutions to currently available offerings in transponded capacity, and pre-defined subscription services. The CS2 contracts have a five-year contract period (three base years with two oneyear options) and ceiling of $2.6 billion.

A new website, fedplatform. org, offers federal employees a free, unbiased resource to help them learn about and more effectively leverage new cloud based environments. The site is unique in that there is no requirement for federal employee users to sign in to access the site’s content. Visitors can roam through a vetted and ever-growing reposi-

tory of pertinent, cloud-centric information where all the articles can be viewed without the need to provide any personal information for document access. Should a particular item be of interest, users can selectively ask for more information from the respective vendor(s), as opposed to potentially being inundated with follow-up emails.

MIT 16.8 | 15

Signal Changer

Q& A

Keeping the Flame on the Technology Front Major General LaWarren V. Patterson Commanding General Army Signal Center of Excellence and Fort Gordon Major General LaWarren V. Patterson assumed command of the Army Signal Center of Excellence and Fort Gordon, Ga., in July 2012. He most recently served as commanding general, 7th Signal Command (Theater). Patterson graduated from Norfolk State University in 1982, receiving his commission as a second lieutenant in the Signal Corps and earning a Bachelor of Science degree in mass communications. He holds a Master of Science degree in general administration from Central Michigan University, and a Masters in Strategic Studies from the Army War College. His first assignment was with the 1st Cavalry Division, Fort Hood, Texas, where he served as the battalion signal officer for 2/5th Cavalry (Armor), and later as a platoon leader in 13th Signal Battalion. In 1986, Patterson was assigned to Germany and the 87th Maintenance Battalion, where he served as communications-electronic maintenance officer, Battalion S-2/3, and commander, 85th Light Equipment Maintenance Company. He was later assigned to the 3rd Infantry Division staff as the division radio officer. Returning from Germany in 1990, he was assigned to the Pentagon and the Joint Chiefs of Staff intern program. After six months, he deployed to Saudi Arabia to support Operation Desert Storm, serving as the signal officer for 4/7th Cavalry, 3rd AD. After returning to Washington, D.C., Patterson was assigned to Personnel Services Command and performed duties as the Signal Branch lieutenants and captains assignment officer. In 1995, he was assigned to South Korea, where he served as battalion S-3/XO, 304th Signal Battalion, 1st Signal Brigade. In 1997, he was reassigned to the Pentagon where he served on the Joint Staff Year 2000 Task Force. In 1999, Patterson returned to Germany to command 440th Signal Battalion. Following command, he attended the Army War College, and was subsequently assigned to the Department of the Army CIO/G-6 staff, as the C4 systems, space and networks division chief. In June 2004, General Patterson assumed duties as brigade commander, 1st Signal Brigade, regional chief information officer, and G-6, Eighth U.S. Army, South Korea. In July 2006, he assumed duties as the special assistant to the commander, U.N. Command/Combined Forces Command/United States Forces Korea. In 2007 he served as the chief, Portfolio Management Division, Governance Acquisition and Chief Knowledge 16 | MIT 16.8

Office Directorate, Office of the Army CIO/G-6, and in 2008, as deputy commanding general, 9th Signal Command (Army), Fort Huachuca, Ariz. Patterson was interviewed by MIT Editor Harrison Donnelly. Q: How would you describe your mission as commander of the Army Signal Center of Excellence? A: I view my role as an agent of change in a critically important and exciting point in our history. We are on the front edge of the second decade of the 21st century, and it has already proven to be an unparalleled period of change for the Army and our nation. Technology is a driving force in the life of everyone regardless of what you do as a livelihood. The Signal Regiment is tasked to be the keeper of the flame on the technology front—to meet or stay a step ahead of where the chief of staff, secretary of the Army, commanding general of TRADOC and Army CIO/G-6 require our Army our Army to be in order to realize their vision for the Army of 2020. My job is to be the drum major and the leader of this effort, working in collaboration with my counterparts, Lieutenant General Susan Lawrence, CIO/G-6; Major General Alan Lynn, commanding general, NETCOM; Major General Robert Ferrell, commanding general, CECOM/LCMC; and our sister services. We are joint here at the Signal Center of Excellence.

Q: What are your top priorities for 2012? A: I’m still working through what we will set as priorities. I have been on the job a little less than 60 days and there are a few things that we are circling the wagons around and looking at carefully so that I gain a clear perspective. Even in this orientation phase, I know that my top priorities will be nested with the priorities set by the TRADOC commander and the chief of staff. Foremost among those priorities are the mandates to stay on the cutting edge of technology; stay one step ahead of our adversaries; and ensure that we keep striving to ensure our Army is a professional force, firmly steeped from top to bottom in the profession of arms. At the Signal Center of Excellence we are focused on making sure our training is aligned with things we have done in the past with BRAC, and ensuring that our education is aligned with the core competencies, visions and priorities of the TRADOC commander and chief of staff. Our priorities also will place focus on our civilian, National Guard and reserve forces that have to move along with training and education on the new technologies and systems that are constantly evolving. It is a total Army fight, including both the active and reserve components. My job is to help marshal the forces, keep them focused and keep our eyes on the prize and the objectives. Both the TRADOC commander and the chief of staff champion the call to professionalism. So I think professionalism of the force is a significant priority and a critical element in all that we do. Getting back to basics may sound trite, and it can mean a lot of different things to different people, but it makes a tremendous amount of sense. We have to get the basic values of our profession so deeply ingrained into everyone who wears the uniform or stands behind or alongside the servicemember, that everyone feels an obligation to live out our values, and feels comfortable enforcing the high standards we hold as a professional body. When we have a force tempered in high professional standards, the missions are far easier to engage because we have that solid foundation held together by trust. Q: What do you see as the most pressing issues facing the Signal Corps? A: The most pressing issue facing the Signal Corps is probably the same as for any center of excellence commander or any senior commander in the Army, and that is the drawdown of forces and the reduction in budget. We are concerned about how that will impact the forces, and how we will move forward in our ability to carry out the missions and our ability to move forward at light speed further into the 21st century, and continue to make this a quality force. We are concerned with how we make it apparent that it is a good choice for people to join the Army. It will be a challenging issue to keep the energy and passion going while at the same time facing the realities in strength drawdown and reductions in resources. Q: How would you assess the performance of the Signal Corps in supporting operations in Afghanistan? A: I assess the performance of the Signal Corps in Afghanistan the same as I would for our performance in Iraq, Germany and

CONUS: simply phenomenal. I think Signal soldiers have shown time and time again throughout the decades of our history that we are adaptable, flexible and somehow we make it work. The performance of all our soldiers in combat environments such as Iraq and Afghanistan has been nothing short of spectacular. Our performance is something that we should be proud of. A lot of lessons learned have come out of our experiences and those lessons learned will helped us make adjustments to our plans of instruction and our classroom training as we move forward with General Cone’s ‘Army Learning Model 2015.’ We are moving assertively to ensure that we are not shooting behind the target, if you will. We are shooting in front of the target to make sure we are teaching our officers, warrant officers and NCOs lessons that are relevant and not bogged down in yesterday’s news and yesterday’s technology. A great deal of what has come out of Iraq and Afghanistan is helping us prepare for the next hot spots. Q: What have been the most important lessons learned in that conflict so far for signal soldiers? A: One of the top lessons learned is that the need for information awareness and information sharing has to flow to a wider range and to lower echelons. Previously we focused on assuring information flow through the division and brigade levels. Clearly now we need to have rapid flow down to the platoon, squad and even individual soldier. The flow of information has to be both ways and secure. Assuring an acceptable speed of information is critical so that decisions can be made by commanders who have an accurate picture of the situation and then issue orders that stay ahead of our adversaries’ thought processes. The issue of how far up and down the echelon information has to pass has changed dramatically. The speed and accuracy and delegation authority further down the chain of command is all expanding. So much is happening now with satellites that they have become the backbone of virtually everything we do. Global communications from the foxhole to the White House depend on satellites. Q: What role has the Signal Corps played in the Army’s recent series of Network Integration Evaluations (NIE), and how will the knowledge gained there be incorporated in what you do in the future? A: Our director of concept development, Colonel Michelle Fraley, and our regimental chief warrant officer, CW5 Todd Boudreau, have worked closely with many other warrant officers and NCOs on the ground with the folks involved in the NIE for months. They have been integral in bringing back great ideas, working with the Brigade Modernization Command [BMC] to incorporate doctrine, and tying in the Signal Battle Lab to make sure we successfully incorporate evolving systems with current doctrine. We are working hand in hand with the BMC managers to make sure we help them work through the technical complexities of systems under evaluation. We want to be honest brokers, making sure that doctrine and POI for our students perfectly sync when we roll out new capability sets for fielding for BCTs going into zones of conflict. Representatives from the Signal Regiment and CDID have been on the ground working hand in hand with all of the MIT 16.8 | 17

entities—ASA(ALT)SOSI and G-3/5/7 LandWarNet Battle Command—to get through the intricacies of realistically evaluating new capabilities to get the best technologies out of NIE, get them fielded into the appropriate program of record and ultimately get them into the hands of soldiers in the units. Q: How do you see the boom in mobile communications technology changing Army communications? A: The current boom in mobile communications technology has already changed us dramatically. We anticipate that this trend is going to continue. The Signal Regiment has taken the lead in developing applications that can be used on personal devices. Now our soldiers depend on having information in hand, either to look up current training or regulations. Not so far in the future, we will have mission type information in the soldiers’ hands. We are talking about placing mission-essential call-forfire and friend-or-foe identification devices in the soldiers’ hands. The devices that are already proliferating in our civilian and commercial lives fall into a reasonable progression to be effectively used in our military operations and applications. I have a BlackBerry, and many of my colleagues have military-issued personal communications devices. The environment that we live and work in is filled with IPbased communications tools. Everything is IP-based now. There is not much you do that IP is not involved—whether appliances

in your home or your ability to pay bills. All these things rely on IP-based networks. That is one of the reasons that we are going to IP version 6. IP and IP-based devices are so prevalent, it’s like breathing. We don’t even notice it anymore. We just expect it. Q: What is the Signal Regiment doing to implement the Warfighter Information Network-Tactical (WIN-T) Increment 2? A: Our director of CDID is all over WIN-T 1and 2, and soon to be Increment 3. We have learned a great deal from past increments and information coming from the field. We’re working with NIE to make sure that Increment 2 and Increment 3 as we roll them out in the future are geared toward the needs and requirements of the warfighters. Leaders in the battle lab and the CDID are all over this, and are continually evaluating and working to make sure that WIN-T is relevant. Of course, when you put something on the design board three years ago, it may have been a bright idea at that time, but 18 months later technology has changed so dramatically that the formerly great solution is irrelevant. Our job is to stay ahead of the game and understand how technology is changing so that we can implement changes cost efficiently and effectively to enhance operations. We are always growing and always learning. When we think we have it solved we have to circle around again and consider, is there something that we missed or has some new technology changed so as to make the solution we had untenable and no longer relevant. Q: What are some of the other most promising communications technologies that you see on the horizon?

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A: This is a tough question because there are so many great devices in development by our Army, our sister services and commercial vendors and industry partners. Not a day goes by that we don’t read about capabilities in research that are incredibly revolutionary. It is more than a cliché to suggest that we are changing technology at the speed of light. We are on the right path because we understand the tremendous power that the computer and cyber bring to us. What is on the horizon is going to be dictated by our adversaries and changes in the global environment. Someone said that the enemy has a vote in everything we do. Much of our activity will be dictated by what our adversaries do. The cyber-domain is an important environment that we have to protect. Our actions will be based on what we need to do to safeguard the cyber-domain and stay well ahead of our adversaries. Some say technology drives strategy, but I think the converse is the case, strategy drives technology. We have to base our strategies on what our adversaries are doing and what we perceive they will do in the future. We will follow the warfighters’ lead on what they need to counter present and future threats and in many cases give them ideas of where they need to go proactively. It all depends on how we view the cyber-world and the cyber-domain. That vantage point will be one of the key indicators for where we go in the future. We will continue to improve and upgrade the network so that we stay relevant in the cyber-domain. One of the things that we place a great premium on is the needs of warfighters on the ground. We listen to the warfighters every day and use that feedback from the commander in the field as a benchmark. I believe that we are doing a pretty good job.

What we have to get better at is listening to those young officers—captains, lieutenants and NCOs that are coming out of the box. They have seen operations at critical decision points. They know what works and where improvements can be made. As on of our senior generals said in a recent email, “Mentorship goes both ways.” I am looking for mentorship from our young soldiers to share with us what does work and where we can do a better job. Many of my future decisions will come from what our soldiers in advanced training programs in the Signal Center of Excellence share with us. One of my web developers made a presentation about why our adversaries should fear us. The gist of his presentation is that when we take the lessons we learn on the ground and rapidly adapt them into plans of instruction and upgraded doctrine we continually evolve into a force that is unbeatable. That is the way that it should work. I would be wrong not to listen to these great soldiers who gain frontline experience. Q: Where do you see Signal training going in the future? A: Signal training will require that we bring a lot of the MOSs together. The demand on Signal soldiers will grow. The expectation on soldiers walking out of the Signal Center of Excellence will be much higher. They will have to be very broad horizontally and very deep vertically. The challenge will be to always keep

our POIs timely while at the same time knowing that there is only so much we can add to POI and how much we can change it at any given time. We have a challenge to make our Signal soldiers relevant. At the end of the day, just like every soldier is an infantryman at heart, every soldier must be a cyber-warrior at heart. This is part of the challenge. The network has to be a key topic in every house of instruction. At every center of excellence—at ILE, at the war college—signal has to be a core part of the curriculum. We will train to support future signal operations that will see communications go to smaller, more compact miniaturization devices to make it easier for the platform, including the individual soldier to carry more complex capabilities. Signal will be lighter, faster and more powerful. Q: Is there anything that you would like to add? A: I am thrilled to be the 36th chief of signal. As a young lieutenant and captain, and then going through PCC course as an incoming battalion and brigade commander, I never fathomed something like this happening. It never dawned on me that I would achieve this. Of course, I never said never. It is amazing to me because I can think of at least 10 others who could easily have been in this position. I feel very blessed and honored to be the 36th chief of signal. I am going to work very hard not to let the Army team and the Army family down. O


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MIT 16.8 | 19

Network Forensics for the Mobile Age The unique aspects of wireless technology offer significant challenges and opportunities for investigators.

20 | MIT 16.8

By Karen E. Thuermer MIT Correspondent

As mobile devices increasingly outpace desktop units as the computing platform of choice for many, security experts within the government and the military are turning to network forensics technology designed specifically for wireless. A specialty within the field of computer forensics, mobile device forensics (MDF) is becoming the forensics of the future. By definition, forensics is the use of science and technology to investigate and establish facts in criminal or civil courts of law. When wireless devices are used for simple telephony acts like voice and text, however, that usage is minimal. “Further, it is important to clarify that any voice communications or texting would have to be intercepted at the telecommunications company’s gateways and that scenario would involve having a court order,” reported Jason Mical, director of network forensics, AccessData Group. Rather, the focus of MDF in a military and intelligence context is on gathering information for both offensive and defensive purposes. Given the unique aspects of wireless technology, it offers significant challenges and opportunities for investigators. “Information is power, and if we are able to acquire information from an enemy or a threat, Jason Mical we are able to see to see that person’s contacts and communications, as well as what they are sending,” said Michael Hanson, marketing director of H-11 Digital Forensics. “For example, if they are coordinating a potential attack, be it assailants in Afghanistan who are using roadside bombs and are triggering those with their cellphones, then we are able to gather that information.” While MDF originally referred to mobile phones only, currently it has expanded to tablets, smartphones and GPS systems. With so many of today’s military and security personnel equipped with some sort of mobile device, experts see MDF as a must. For example, consider the scenario of a special operations unit on the ground at an active target. The main suspect is not on the scene, but the unit locates several others who are on mobile devices. Quickly a trained examiner attaches the mobile device to a laptop and begins to capture valuable intel from the devices.   The intel is quickly rendered in a graphical interface to display timeline information and contact information. Intel units then immediately use the data, real-time, to capture the intended target at a location nearby. “If military or security personnel are not equipped to immediately respond to these devices, there is a very good possibility the data that was compromised or the application utilized to compromise the target will be lost,” remarked Lee Reiber, director of mobile forensics at AccessData Group. “By bringing forensic tools into the realm of mobile device collections, we can even the playing field and uncover the data these users thought could not be uncovered, not only saving valuable data but possibly saving lives,” he said. “Since cellphones and other wireless devices may be used in both criminal Lee Reiber and offensive military or terrorist actions, the capture and analysis of this data is useful in telligence work and criminal investigations.” An excellent example is the capture of mobile devices during the raid on the compound of Osama bin Laden by U.S. forces, which provided concrete leads for further counterterrorist activities.

MIT 16.8 | 21

Widening Proliferation

Shady RAT, Flame and Other Threats

Companies are increasingly developing Organized crime groups and terrorists are increasingly using training and network forensics technology mobile devices for clandestine purposes because of their proliferadesigned especially for wireless devices. tion, low cost and anonymity. Many are cleverly employing malicious WetStone Technology, for one, centers codes on these devices. its efforts on three fundamental areas. Take Operation Shady RAT (remote access tool). Shady RAT is Its flagship technology, called StegoHunt, regarded as one of the most significant and potentially damaging focuses on steganography—the art and acts of cyber-espionage yet made public. Its series of cyber-attacks science of hiding of information within infiltrated more than 72 victims in 14 countries, including the computer images, audio files, video files and netsystems of national governments, defense contractors, global corpowork protocols—and the ability to discover rations, the United Nations and the International Olympic Committee. images and the software used to create hid“It’s an interesting event because it lasted so long,” stated Chet den messages and content in audio, video Hosmer, chief scientist at WetStone Technologies, a provider of cyberor multimedia files. security solutions. “Once it was detected, people realized that they “We have technologies that will assist had lost significant amounts of information.” investigators either forensically (postmorOf particular concern is the espionage techniques used by Shady tem) or in detecting the use of steganRAT conspirators to collect information. One is a method called stegography so that they are able to steal or anography, which concealed ongoing Shady RAT cyber-attacks. delete or use technologies to block its use,” “Shady RAT utilized a Trojan that had a ULR that would go to and reported Hosmer. pull photographs from that web address,” Hosmer explained. “It was Wetstone’s second area of concentrasuccessful because the normal network consensus did not stop photion is general malware discovery, which also works from a forensic (postmortem) tographs from going back and forth across their network. It looks like perspective, or one that actively scans normal network traffic.” environments that are running or blocking The Trojan also communicated back to its herders to get new malicious code. instructions and to convey information that it was leaking out. “Our definition of malicious is more This year another modular computer malware threat has been broad than most,” Hosmer explained. “We uncovered. Called Flame, Flamer, sKyWIper or Skywiper, it attacks include things like password cracking, computers running Windows. encryption, wireless snipers and hacking. Regarded as the most sophisticated malware so far encountered, We can detect those and report them either Flame utilizes steganography, which is the art and science of hidpostmortem or live.” ing of information within images, audio files, video files and network The third area is live investigation, protocols. Steganography works in such a way that no one, apart which employs a very specialized technolfrom the sender and intended recipient, suspects the existence of the ogy that is inserted like a USB device into message. any running computer. “When you look at the image or video, or listen to the audio file, “It collects live evidence—memory, it seems normal, but hidden inside is information that is being conrunning processes, network boards, and veyed,” stated Hosmer. security events—before the system is Flame can also spread to other systems over a local network or via shut down,” he said. “It also collects off USB stick. It can record audio, screenshots, keyboard activity and netencrypted information because those volwork traffic. The program also records Skype conversations and can umes are mounted and running while they turn infected computers into Bluetooth beacons that attempt to downare there.” load contact information from nearby Bluetooth-enabled devices. AccessData offers Mobile Phone ExamThis data, along with locally stored documents, is sent on to one of iner+, which is used by government several command and control servers that are scattered around the agencies, corporate investigators and law world. The program then awaits further instructions from these servers. enforcement investigators around the world to acquire, preserve and analyze the data on the actual cellphone, smartphone, tablet or iPod device. MPE+ supports more than 3,500 mobile devices, including “MPE+ allows for on scene triage of mobile devices, exporting iPad, other tablets and iPod. of the collected data to a forensic container so the collected data In addition, Dell and AccessData recently launched their new can be immediately transmitted to another examiner who may be Dell Digital Forensics Platform and Forensic Toolkit 4.0, which in another part of the world,” Reiber explained. “The examiner provides a turnkey solution for a wide range of investigative can then import the data and view the collected data as if the operations, including processing of forensic images and email device was there.”

22 | MIT 16.8

archives; registry analysis; file decryption, password cracking, image creation and report building. AccessData offers two expansion modules with the new version. Cerberus is a malware triage technology that provides threat scores and disassembly analysis to determine both the behavior and intent of suspect binaries. Virtualization offers relationship analysis in multiple display formats, including timelines, cluster graphs, pie charts and more. On the wireless analysis side, AccessData’s SilentRunner is able to capture analyze and even graphically visualize communications being sent from or received by mobile devices used by employees on their organization’s network. “This would include websites being visited, chats being sent and emails,” remarked Mical. Training and support are a big part of MDF. H-11 Digital Forensics, for example, offers digital forensics training in the United States as well as a number of other countries. “We use the Cellebrite universal forensic extraction device,” Hanson revealed. “We give trainees hands-on experience and help them gain knowledge so that when a real case scenario arises, or there’s a terrorist interrogation where he or she has a hard drive that has information on it containing plans and locations of future attacks, our students will be able to access that information and apply it.” Sumuri also provides Cellebrite certification and mobile forensic training as well as other courses, which it teaches worldwide. Whalen warned against any “pushbutton” forensic tools. “Investigators have to have an understanding of what they and their tools are doing in order to qualify themselves in a court of law,” he said. “Additionally, investigators must be able to learn proper procedures in order not to destroy evidence and/or overcome obstacles.”

Jumping the Hurdles As with any forensics, MDF has obstacles. For one, data is continually changing, particularly on mobile devices designed to be constantly on and always connected. “As a result, the file system is always changing and never at rest,” Whalen explained. “Consequently, traditional computer forensic practices and procedures are sometimes not possible.” Another hurdle facing MDF is the fact most mobile devices utilize proprietary file systems, thereby making it difficult to develop forensic solutions in a timely fashion. “There’s a huge and ever-growing number of mobile device models out there and each company has its own proprietary technology and operating systems, such as Android, Windows and iOS,” Reiber warned. “Since it’s a challenge to keep up with all the different models, it’s important for investigators to have forensic technology that will analyze uncommon models, the newest models, or the many types of cheap phones that criminals and terrorists use with the intention of throwing away to avoid being caught.” Larger storage and removable storage also present an obstacle, since many solutions for mobile devices were designed when mobile phones contained only small amounts of data.

“Current mobile devices can contain upwards of 64GB of storage,” said Whalen. “Removable storage is also an issue requiring the application of traditional computer forensic procedures.” Other challenges include manual and remote kill commands, whereby users have the ability to manually and remotely permanently erase or encrypt mobile device data; encryption, particularly since better methods of encryption for both software and hardware are being implemented in mobile devices; and cloud storage and sync. “With data connections becoming standard, mobile devices are syncing or storing data in the cloud, thereby requiring investigators to expand their crime scene to virtually anywhere in the world,” Whalen reported. The fact that more than a million sanctioned mobile apps are available for all of the most common mobile device platforms is also forcing examiners and investigators to obtain more knowledge and training. Last, but not least, malware is becoming more common in platforms that security experts describe as less secure, such as Android.

Future Perspective So where is MDF technology headed in the future? Hosmer predicts that the biggest change will result from the gradual replacement of the traditional desktop computer by servers and systems running in the cloud. Hanson concurred, adding that with Apple iOS and Google Android, mobile devices will capture and carry more information than computers ever did. “There are already 100 million smartphone users in the United States alone,” he said. “These people have technology at their fingertips at all hours of the day.” This includes the ability to share times, places and locations. Going forward, more and more technology will be incorporated in other devices. “Automobiles, for example, are already coming with their own wireless hot spots,” said Hosmer. The technology container will also continue to shrink in size, but, as Reiber pointed out, the data and technological backend will continue to grow exponentially Mical observed that encryption, spoofing and anti-forensics techniques are becoming more common, and advocated that mobile forensics vendors need to provide ways to combat this. Meanwhile, criminals and terrorists will increasingly become more mobile. “Where it becomes really dicey is the attacks we will see in the future will be on private infrastructures that governments rely on—not necessarily on government infrastructures that may be better protected,” added Hosmer. “If the government relies on certain portions of the energy grid, communications grids, financial systems and so on, then those are the ones that will likely be attacked and will cause disruption.” O

For more information, contact MIT Editor Harrison Donnelly at or search our online archives for related stories at

MIT 16.8 | 23

Leveling the Playing Field There is power in leveraging proven commercial mobile communications technology for the government sector.

By Douglas C. Smith

As the widely accepted worldwide standard for Just as consumers are experiencing a wireless 4G technology, LTE-based solutions provide a costbroadband revolution driven by mobile data apps effective, technologically advanced path forward to and services, military users have seen the same shift give national security and federal public safety users toward growing bandwidth-intensive requirements access to similar advances in wireless broadband for wireless data. For warfighters, high-speed data solutions as their commercial counterparts. must be provided around the world, on the move and The large-scale embrace of wireless broadband through secure, ruggedized solutions, including in apps and services has led to increased pressure hostile environments or remote areas. on the finite resource of spectrum. As the FCC’s Increasingly, the advanced secure mobile communational broadband plan noted, mobile broadband nications capabilities that government users require marks the convergence “of the last two great disrupare available via COTS solutions such as Long Term Douglas C. Smith tive technologies—Internet computing and mobile Evolution-based (LTE) technology. communications.” Similarly to how COTS computing technology provided signifiGovernment agencies, including national security and federal cant technical and cost advantages to agencies when the conversion public safety users, have assignments in federal government specfrom custom to COTS government computing solutions occurred in trum bands to operate government run and managed networks, the 1980s and 1990s, government now can achieve similar advanwhich support advanced communications devices and applicatages with commercially available, proven mobile communications tions. These government networks carry voice, video and data solutions. Through the use of COTS technology, public sector users communications. can leverage the billions of dollars of industry R&D investment and During times of disaster, federal government networks may be take advantage of the highly competitive, much faster commercial available where advanced commercial broadband networks do not industry innovation cycles to quickly bring greater mobile comexist or have been damaged. This is the intent of the new nationwide munications capabilities at a lower cost to government employees, broadband network for first responders, FirstNet, which Congress including warfighters. authorized earlier this year. For military users, COTS was integral to successfully leveraging advances in computing technology, and will be equally if not more important to harnessing the transformative power of mobile broadSpectrum Crunch band. However, what’s different between the former computing revolution and the current broadband communications revolution is the Recent federal spectrum policy changes have been driven by reliance on spectrum, which is the “fuel” that drives these advanced projected trends in demand for consumer wireless broadband. As high-speed wireless networks. Cisco’s latest Visual Networking Index points out, Internet traffic 24 | MIT 16.8

from wireless devices is expected to exceed traffic from wired devices by 2016. Simply put, spectrum is the “great enabler”—for both technology innovation and economic growth—in this mobile broadband age. This is a centerpiece of the current federal government effort to identify 500 MHz of additional spectrum for broadband by 2020. The broadband revolution is not just a commercial phenomenon. DoD and other federal users increasingly contend with significant new requirements for bandwidth-intensive applications to meet their missions, which require spectrum. For example, the number of UAVs in use by the military grew from 50 in 2000 to about 7,000 by 2010. Because spectrum is a finite resource, growing requirements on all sides for bandwidth-intensive applications and services create policy challenges about how to make more spectrum available for broadband. This has meant increased scrutiny for federal government spectrum as a source of capacity for commercial broadband. At the same time, the Department of Defense is finding ways to work “smarter” in this evolving information technology environment, by using more efficiently the limited spectrum to which it has access. This has led to both technology improvements and policy changes. The Defense Mobile Device Strategy, unveiled by the Pentagon in June, lays out DoD’s vision for capitalizing on the full potential of mobile devices. The strategy states that “DoD must rapidly evolve the management of spectrum, which includes businesses, processes and associated spectrum data and capabilities to accommodate new demand within the limitations of DoD’s continued reductions in spectrum allocation.” The strategy calls for DoD to research methods and technologies to maximize the use of available spectrum, such as dynamic spectrum access and spectrum sharing technologies. While commercial and government spectrum user needs are both on the upswing, there are important differentiators in how and why government users need spectrum. National security users, for example, have important requirements for security, redundancy and hardening of wireless networks, which commercial wireless users do not face. For DoD, spectrum use is mission-specific, so an interruption in wireless communications has far greater ramifications than simply a dropped call or missed email. Warfighters also need assured access to spectrum for worldwide applications that can be standardized with U.S. military allies throughout the world for interoperability. For certain operations, LTE-based technology is a viable solution for warfighters to have wireless broadband access at broadband speeds as part of field operations and enterprise networks on bases. The nationwide, public safety wireless broadband network that Congress authorized earlier this year is an example of how cost-effective and innovative commercial technologies are being leveraged for government users. The Middle Class Tax Relief Act directed $7 billion from future FCC auction proceeds to fund this nationwide interoperability network for first responders, which will be based on LTE. The so-called FirstNet network will provide much needed broadband capabilities to first responders, including federal users.

the same secure capabilities that commercial users have come to expect from wireless broadband networks. In addition, commercial industry’s faster innovation timelines, versus the longer lead times often required to develop stovepiped proprietary government communications systems, can continue to provide to the government user the latest advanced capabilities as they are introduced in the commercial markets. Overall, there are growing opportunities for commercial wireless technology—including the globally harmonized LTE standard for 4G networks—to bring the considerable R&D investments of the private sector to bear for federal customers, including DoD. The mobility device strategy is one example of DoD’s effort to manage the growing use of commercial wireless technology. Private sector technology developers also have an important role to play in partnership with national security and federal public safety users. Oceus Networks, for example, is engaged in a NAVAIR trial to provide communications systems using its 4G LTE-based Xiphos solution, which is the first operational deployment of 4G LTE for DoD. The 4G LTE base stations, using Android devices, will support communications for up to 3,500 marines and sailors deployed with the USS Kearsarge ready group. Demand for greater capabilities continues to drive technology innovation. COTS-based systems, with LTE technology as a prime example, are particularly relevant today, not only with regard to the rapidly evolving requirements of today’s warfighters for secure, high-speed wireless data, but also because increasingly these requirements must be met in a constrained budgetary environment. Regardless of how the current debate over budget sequestration is resolved, the reality is that going forward, today’s warfighters face constrained resources, in terms of both funding and spectrum access. With regard to funding limits, COTS-based LTE solutions help national security users and federal public safety operators do more with the resources that they have by putting them on the same roadmap to technology upgrades as commercial users. This was, for example, a key factor for the FirstNet public safety network relying on LTE, instead of a proprietary solution for first responders. The legacy of specialized public safety users has meant that often they are left with outdated, expensive equipment that cannot be easily or frequently upgraded—unlike the frequent and simple updates of iPhone and Android operating systems. LTE-based solutions also facilitate efficient and mission-effective use of finite spectrum resources by providing advanced technology capabilities that meet the unique requirements of DoD and other federal users, including access in remote areas on a secure, ruggedized basis. The government can and should be leveraging today the emerging capabilities of LTE and benefit from its technology advances and cost savings. But help is needed to level an increasingly unlevel playing field for spectrum access for national security and federal public safety users. O Douglas C. Smith is president and chief executive officer of Oceus Networks.

Leveraging R&D Investments Spectrum-based COTS technologies, including 4G LTE broadband systems, can level the playing field to bring government users

For more information, contact MIT Editor Harrison Donnelly at or search our online archives for related stories at

MIT 16.8 | 25


Commercial Off - the - Shelf Technology

Solution Enables Mobile Capabilities in Secure Environment HandySoft has released a new version of its dynamic business process management solution. BizFlow Plus Version 12 offers new mobile, business intelligence, cloud action tracking and tasking capabilities. This nimble, agile technology delivers powerful advantages to organizations, as it accelerates the pace of military field operations. For example, the BizFlow app for iPad provides quick access to tasks and assignments, also allowing users to collaborate using FaceTime.

Compiled by KMI Media Group staff

Mobility Partnership Enhances Security Through Biometrics LGS Innovations, a provider of research, applied communications, and advanced mobility and networking solutions to the federal government, has announced a joint partnership with Daon, whose identity assurance and verification software and services help bring a broader set of 4G mobility solutions to the marketplace. LGS Innovations combines its deep knowledge of government programs and mission-critical needs with world-class 4G LTE technologies from Alcatel-Lucent to provide next-generation mobile broadband solutions. As a result of the partnership with Daon, federal agencies will be

able to enhance network performance and security through leading-edge biometric identification solutions, such as Daon’s IdentityX, to ensure that only appropriate individuals are authenticated and authorized on federal IT systems. Daon’s authentication solution, IdentityX, will be a major component of the mobility offering developed through the partnership agreement. IdentityX is part of a new class of cybersecurity solutions that uses the end-user’s mobile phone or tablet and different combinations of security options to provide unprecedented levels of identity assurance.

Cabling Products Support Data Center Integration

Platform Integrates Network Monitoring Technologies Cyber Intelligence and Response Technology Version 2 (CIRT 2) from AccessData is the first platform to integrate network and computer forensics, malware analysis, large-scale data auditing and remediation. The solution is an integration of four of AccessData’s proprietary technologies: the AD Enterprise networkenabled computer forensics solution, SilentRunner network forensics product, data auditing capabilities of AD eDiscovery and new Cerberus malware analysis technology. By allowing users to correlate computer, network and malware data, as well as audit tens of thousands of machines, CIRT gives organizations the ability to identify and address all types of threats, including zero-day events, hacking, data spillage and advanced persistent threats. Using CIRT, organizations can continuously monitor network traffic, computers and removable media to detect threats and more quickly acquire actionable intelligence in the event of a cyber incident. In addition, with CIRT’s “check in” feature, CIRT users can monitor the laptops of traveling employees, even when they are not logged on to the organization’s network.

26 | MIT 16.8

Optical Cable Corp., a manufacturer of a broad range of fiber-optic and copper data communications cabling and connectivity solutions, has introduced Procyon, a new family of structured cabling products that represents a complete system approach to data center design and connectivity. Procyon

offers unprecedented integration of essential accessibility and cable management features along with the highest density per rack unit on the market. The Procyon family of products includes data center cabinets, copper and fiber panels with integrated cable management systems and high-density fiber cassettes.

The advertisers index is provided as a service to our readers. KMI cannot be held responsible for discrepancies due to last-minute changes or alterations.

MIT RESOURCE CENTER Advertisers Index CSSS.Net. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Harris CapRock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C2 Intelsat General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C4

Calendar September 25-27, 2012 Modern Day Marine Quantico, Va.

October 29-November 1, 2012 MILCOM Orlando, Fla.

October 22-24, 2012 AUSA Annual Meeting and Exhibition Washington, D.C.

November 13-15, 2012 TechNet Asia-Pacific Honolulu, Hawaii

ITT Exelis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 LGS Innovations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 University of Maryland University College . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C3


October 2012 Volume 16, Issue 9

Cover and In-Depth Interview with:

Colonel Michelle Nassar Chief, COMSATCOM Center DISA

Features • Cloud Computing A recently issued DoD policy offers important guidelines for the development of cloud computing, according to industry analysts.

• Security Certification The issue of information security certification for IT professionals raises challenges and opportunities for the military and industry.

• Ka-Band SATCOM Planned deployments by major satellite communications companies are highlighting the growing importance and potential of Ka-band SATCOM for military and intelligence users.

• Cyber-Law The legal issues surrounding cyberspace and cybersecurity have major implications for those protecting military networks.

Insertion Order Deadline: September 28, 2012 Ad Materials Deadline: October 5, 2012

MIT 16.8 | 27


Military Information Technology

Lisa N. Wolford Founder, President and Chief Executive Officer CSSS.NET thousands’ to solve a problem. In addition, we’re doing some outstanding cybersecurity work, including policy and computer network defense, for organizations such as the Department of Defense and the Internal Revenue Service. I’d also mention our work with geospatial information services, where we’ve led some technology transfers, and were awarded the Nunn-Perry Award for that in 2009.

A Marine Corps veteran, Lisa N. Wolford in 1997 founded CSSS.NET, which specializes in providing high quality IT services and solutions to federal, state and commercial customers. Q: What types of services does your company offer to military and other government customers? A: What we offer is top-notch information technology and subject matter expert services for expertise across various domains. Everything we do is services. We’re product- and vendor-agnostic, so when we go to recommend a solution for a customer, we’re not focusing them on one vendor product alone, but instead we are looking at what is best for this customer, considering both the solution and the price-tag. That’s critically important in today’s budget environment. When we talk domain expertise, the domains that we typically operate in include systems and software engineering, where we’re a CMMI Maturity Level 3 company, as well as geospatial information systems. A big area of work for us is cybersecurity and information assurance. I believe that the greatest threat to our nation’s security in the coming years is the cyber-threat. Q: What unique benefits does your company provide its customers in comparison with other companies in your field? A: We work very closely with our customers. I meet with my customers directly— not extremely frequently, but as often as feasible, and I send my executive staff to meet with them as well. We bring in the right people who have the best expertise to serve their needs. The majority of our employees are veterans, so they understand the domain. They may represent about 50 percent to 75 percent of our employees, depending on the location. Some are reservists, some are retired, and some are former military. I’m a Marine Corps veteran. The advantage is that our folks have a mission-minded focus. They understand the end-users, whether someone is in a combat 28 | MIT 16.8

Q: Where do you see your company going in the future? role or their families. Being veterans and reservists as well as taxpayers, we’re not only producers of services and capabilities, but also consumers of those. We work to provide outstanding service because we or our friends or family may be the ones using those services. Q: What are some of the most significant programs your company is currently working on with the military? A: One interesting thing that we’re doing now is serving the Marine Corps in addressing Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) for deployable systems. A government mandate made by the former federal chief information officer is for all agencies to address IPv6. We’re doing that at the Marine Corps, and it’s a real success story in the way we’re addressing technology infusion. Applications include deployable systems, which are critically important. We’re also leading the way in the policy and integration of global technologies. The work we’re doing there supports warfighters around the globe. It’s outstanding, leading-edge work, and it’s ahead of the rest of the federal government. Although the federal government has that IPv6 mandate, it hasn’t really been addressing it. The fact that we’re doing that in an innovative, cost-effective manner for the Marine Corps is good. It’s unusual that a small company would have that opportunity. But often the larger companies are not as cost effective because they want to bring in a ‘cast of

A: Cybersecurity, information assurance and cyber-warfare are all going to be strong growth areas for our company. They will also be critical for our national security. We’re also going to continue working with customers in helping them achieve efficiencies in their budget whileaddressing their current needs. The operations and maintenance budgets are overtaking the overall budgets and squeezing out their ability to innovate and add functionality. This makes it critical to do things in a cost effective manner. Another growth area for the company is continuing to grow our work and position the firm both in CONUS and OCONUS especially in the information security domain. Q: Is there anything else you’d like to add? A: Because I’m a veteran, I hire a lot of veterans, and our employees and I do a lot of things for veterans. I’m on a couple of boards, including the At Ease program in Nebraska, which provides post -traumatic stress disorder treatment for veterans and their families. It’s a non-profit organization outside the VA. The VA has a limited capacity to meet our veterans’ needs. I would strongly encourage everyone to get involved in doing whatever they can, in time or money, for veterans’ causes, whether for PTSD or to stop the homelessness that is predicted to grow at a more rapid rate among veterans of the current conflicts. O

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IS YOUR MOBILITY NETWORK UP TO SPEED? Others make the claim, but here’s the truth: Intelsat General is the only provider that owns and operates their own global network and delivers broadband mobile everywhere at speeds that dwarf legacy MSS solutions. We support the full range of en-route communications at broadband speeds, including mission-critical Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance applications. And we offer unlimited data for an affordable, fixed monthly fee. All this plus customized, end-to-end communications solutions leveraging the largest satellite communications network in the world. Whether you’re maneuvering on land, sea or air, our C-, Ku- and X-band mobility solutions provide capacity, coverage and connectivity for converged voice, data and video applications. And, Intelsat General offers a real-time network visibility tool so you have complete situational awareness. • Five scheduled launches in 2012 providing additional Ku-band mobility beams for key mobile transport routes worldwide • Always-on broadband at committed information rates and fixed costs • Assured access • Automatic Beam Switching (ABS) for seamless connectivity • Antenna sizes as small as 30 cm Step up to best-in-class mobility at Intelsat General.

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MIT 16-8 (Sept. 2012)  
MIT 16-8 (Sept. 2012)  

Military Information Technology, Volume 16 Issue 8, September 2012