Page 1

Dedicated to Those Who Are Always Ready

Special section

Arctic Strategy

Chief Engineer Rear Adm. Ronald J. Rรกbago Assistant Commandant for Engineering & Logistics

March 2012

Volume 4, Issue 1

Sustainability O Deployable Fitness O Coast Guard Foundation Operation Fall Retrieve O Public Safety & Emergency Management Degrees


U.S. Coast Guard Forum

March 2012 Volume 4 • Issue 1


Cover / Q&A Operation Fall Retrieve On the Great Lakes, the coming of winter is routine, but the preparation for extreme weather is not. This requires a herculean effort in the form of Operation Fall Retrieve, where nearly 1,300 aids to navigation must be either removed before they are damaged by ice or replaced with mostly unlighted ice buoys. By Commander Kevin Dunn

4 Special section:

Arctic Strategy Protecting the Last Frontier


Managing the safety and security of the evolving maritime environment in the Arctic and protecting U.S. interests and resources in this region is the responsibility of the 17th District. As the world’s premier maritime service, the Coast Guard will continue to adapt to the changing operational environment created by a growth in Arctic shipping, natural resource development and tourism. By Rear Admiral Thomas P. Ostebo

16 Rear Admiral Ronald J. Rábago Assistant Commandant for Engineering & Logistics

Charting a New Course How can a degree in public safety or emergency management equip Coast Guardsmen with the education needed to complement their experience, advance in rank, or transition to a civilian career?

12 Building the Coast Guard of the Future Undertaking an ambitious and creative energy management program, the Coast Guard of today is working to leave the service of tomorrow better positioned to meet energy and budget demands. By Maura McCarthy

Departments 2

Editor’s Perspective


Nav Notes


On the Horizon


Calendar, Directory

21 Fitness Afloat A training plan, much like a navigation plan or flight brief, provides you with a road to fitness success. A plan you and your shipmates can stick to will help any unit maintain operation success. By Lieutenant Commander Dan Leary


Industry Interview

Coast Guard Foundation’s 8th Annual Tribute to the Coast Guard in Our Nation’s Capital


For the past seven years, the Coast Guard Foundation has made its mark in the Washington, D.C. area with its annual event, the Tribute to the Coast Guard in Our Nation’s Capital. This year’s 8th Annual Tribute to will be held on June 12, 2012 at the National Building Museum in Washington, D.C. By Matthew Clark

28 Jeff Sherman Director of Federal Energy Solutions Schneider Electric

U.S. Coast Guard Forum Volume 4, Issue 1 March 2012

Dedicated to Those Who Are Always Ready Editorial Editor Maura McCarthy Managing Editor Harrison Donnelly Online Editorial Manager Laura Davis Copy Editor Laural Hobbes Correspondents Adam Baddeley • J.B. Bissell • Peter Buxbaum Henry Canaday • Erin Flynn Jay • Kenya McCullum Art & Design Art Director Jennifer Owers Senior Graphic Designer Jittima Saiwongnuan Graphic Designers Amanda Kirsch Scott Morris Kailey Waring Advertising Account Executive Shireen D’Souza

KMI Media Group Publisher Kirk Brown Chief Executive Officer Jack Kerrigan Chief Financial Officer Constance Kerrigan Executive Vice President David Leaf Editor-In-Chief Jeff McKaughan Controller Gigi Castro Administrative Assistant Casandra Jones Trade Show Coordinator Holly Foster Operations, Circulation & Production Circulation & Marketing Administrator Duane Ebanks Data Specialists Rebecca Hunter Tuesday Johnson Raymer Villanueva Summer Walker Donisha Winston

EDITOR’S PERSPECTIVE By traveling outside the beltway to deliver the 2012 State of the Coast Guard Address in Alameda, Calif., against the backdrop of the national security cutter Bertholf, Admiral Papp not so subtly underscored the pressing need for continued funding of a recapitalized fleet. The President’s FY 2013 budget requests $879.5 million for new vessels, including NSC 6 and FRCs 19-20, the continued initial acquisition and design of the OPC, and pre-acquisition work on a polar icebreaker. Although eight NSCs were expected, the budget does not include longlead funding for the last two NSCs—nor does the service’s five-year capital investment plan. The resulting break in production will only serve to increase costs and further delay the acquisition of these mission Maura McCarthy Editor critical cutters. Worse yet would be the end of production at NSC 6. As Admiral Papp emphasized in his address, the Coast Guard is navigating uncertain and stormy seas, in both budgetary and operational terms. These operating conditions are nothing new for the service, as Coasties have always ventured out into dangerous waters. In 1952, Bernie Webber, the namesake of the first FRC, charged the Chatham Bar in a 36-foot motor lifeboat to come to the aid of the tanker Pendleton that had split in two off the coast of Cape Cod. Having lost the lifeboat’s compass to the rage of 60-foot seas and 70-knot winds, it was through sheer determination, excellent seamanship and downright luck not only that the Coast Guard crew themselves survived the search, but also that they were able to rescue 32 men from the downed tanker. In his book on the historic rescue, Two Tankers Down: The Greatest Small-Boat Rescue in U.S. Coast Guard History, Robert Frump often cites the Surfman’s motto that guided Webber, his crew and the service: “You have to go out, but you don’t have to come back.” When the Coast Guard does go out, it should not be with obsolete assets. Aging assets pose risk and the service’s response will inevitably be constrained by this equipment. For example, in response to the Haitian earthquake in January 2010, the Coast Guard dedicated about a quarter of their major cutter fleet; 10 of the 12 major cutters suffered mission degrading failures and three were forced to return to port for propeller shaft problems. We ask much of all our services, yet expecting the Coast Guard to execute critical national security missions on cutters that are upwards of 40 years old is simply asking too much.

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On January 30, 2012, Rear Admiral William Baumgartner and Rear Admiral Cari Thomas testified before the House Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure, Subcommittee on Coast Guard and Maritime Transportation regarding offshore drilling in Cuba and the Bahamas and the Coast Guard’s oil spill readiness and response planning. This is an excerpt from their written testimony.

The Coast Guard is committed to protecting U.S. interests, particularly U.S. coastlines and natural resources, from potential discharges from deepwater drilling in waters of nations adjacent to the United States. The Coast Guard is the pre-designated Federal On-Scene Coordinator under the National Contingency Plan (NCP) for the coastal zone, and has the authority under the Federal Water Pollution Control Act of 1972 and the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 to oversee and direct removal actions for spills within U.S. waters or threatening U.S. waters and adjoining shorelines, or that may affect U.S. natural resources. The NCP provides a coordinated, efficient and effective whole-ofgovernment response to marine pollution discharges to protect the waters, shorelines, natural resources and welfare of the U.S. Since March 2011, the Coast Guard has been actively engaged with Repsol-YPF S.A., a publicly traded Spanish company, which plans to drill in the Cuban EEZ starting in early 2012. We have engaged with Repsol to gain their cooperation and to study their response strategies, resources and capabilities in order to protect U.S. interests in the event of an oil spill incident. The Coast Guard attended a spill response exercise hosted by Repsol in July 2011, and Repsol attended a Coast Guard response exercise in November 2011. Repsol also provided Coast Guard response personnel with access to key documents, including its Oil Spill Response Plan. Additionally, Repsol offered, and the Coast Guard and Bureau of Safety and Environmental Enforcement (BSEE) accepted, the opportunity to embark the rig during its port call in Trinidad and Tobago earlier this month to review equipment and relevant documentation as well as improve our awareness of the rig’s safety and emergency systems. Such actions are consistent with our ongoing efforts to minimize the possibility of a major oil spill that could potentially endanger or damage U.S. interests. Because the rig is foreign flagged, owned by a foreign corporation, and will be drilling on another country’s continental shelf, it is not subject to U.S. inspections. The purpose of the review was to provide information concerning Repsol’s adherence to its voluntary commitment to conform to all international and U.S. offshore drilling safety standards. The Coast Guard will continue to discuss any areas of concern with the company, the master and, as appropriate, the flag state (the Bahamas) to further minimize risk and ensure response preparedness. Repsol has made clear that it intends to abide by U.S. standards for safety, oil spill prevention and response.

To ensure that we are prepared to respond to a discharge, the Coast Guard develops and maintains contingency plans that will be activated if an oil spill occurs in the waters of a neighboring nation, yet threatens to impact U.S. waters, adjoining shorelines, or our natural resources. As a result of the proposed North Cuba Basin oil exploration, the Coast Guard updated its plans to ensure we are ready to respond to any spill from drilling activities off the coast of Cuba that could impact the U.S. Our engagement in this preparedness effort is far-reaching and includes collaboration with a host of federal, state, local and private entities. As the Coast Guard focuses on the near-term drilling that is to occur off Cuba, we are mindful of the potential for future offshore oil exploration in Bahamian waters. Lessons learned from the 2010 BP Deepwater Horizon oil spill have been incorporated into Coast Guard planning efforts, including forging partnerships with other federal agencies, and state and local government officials, to ensure a united approach to readiness. The NCP is the nation’s blueprint for preparedness and response to an oil spill incident that threatens to impact U.S. waters, adjoining shorelines, or natural resources. The NCP calls for a tiered planning approach that builds on efforts at the regional and local levels. For oil spills that occur within Cuban waters, oil rig operators and Cuba have the responsibility to conduct cleanup operations and prevent damage to the United States. In accordance with the NCP, if a spill occurs within Cuban waters that threatens to impact U.S. waters, shorelines or natural resources, the Coast Guard would mount an immediate response, in partnership with other federal, state and local agencies. Such response would focus on combating the spill as far offshore and as close to the source as possible, using all viable response tactics in a manner consistent with domestic and international law. The Coast Guard has obtained licenses from the Department of the Treasury’s Office of Foreign Asset Control and the Department of Commerce’s Bureau of Industry and Security, which allow us to broadly engage in preparedness and response activities, and positions us to direct an immediate response in the event of a catastrophic oil spill. Holding parties responsible for damages to U.S. interests arising from extraterritorial activities involves complex legal questions. Because of these challenges, the Coast Guard must be prepared to direct and fund most or all of the response actions and mitigation efforts using the Oil Spill Liability Trust Fund (OSLTF). The OSLTF is available to fund the removal actions that

Crewmembers assigned to the Coast Guard Cutter Oak, place the Weir Skimmer into the apex of the boom during oil skimming operations. The Oak assisted with the Deepwater Horizon oil spill response. [Photo courtesy of U.S. Coast Guard]

are consistent with the NCP. Nevertheless, we anticipate that in a catastrophic spill, the expenses associated with the response would quickly exceed the current statutory limits on expenditures by the OSLTF. Timely legislative action could be required to access additional funds for spill response activities. A multilateral approach is essential to ensure common understanding and effective implementation of international obligations and standards for oil spill preparedness, prevention and response. The Coast Guard is working with BSEE to lead the effort to conduct a series of multilateral seminars focused on regional prevention, preparedness and response for a potential worst case oil discharges in the Caribbean. As was highlighted by the BP Deepwater Horizon oil spill, any major spill, regardless of its source, will require unity of effort across all levels of government, industry and the private sector. A spill originating in the Caribbean, in another nation’s waters, adjacent to the United States, undoubtedly will require international cooperation. The Coast Guard will participate in upcoming IMO-sponsored multilateral discussions to ensure coordinated prevention programs, contingency planning efforts and development of robust response strategies. The Coast Guard will continue outreach and coordination of federal, state and local efforts for potential oil spills originating in foreign waters adjacent to the U.S. O ­CGF  4.1 | 3

The Coast Guard’s Great Lakes Maritime Strategy gives an old mission a new direction. By Commander Kevin Dunn

The Great Lakes are national treasures, shared by the U.S. and Canada and characterized by fresh water, diverse communities, historic marine trade and an immense recreational boating population. Over the last 200 years, navigation improvements have resulted in a deep draft navigation system that extends from the Atlantic Ocean 2,300 miles into the North American heartland. A recent study found that in 2010, more than 300 metric tons of cargo was handled by all U.S. and Canadian ports, generating nearly 227,000 jobs resulting in more than $14 billion in wages and salaries and $4 billion in tax revenue. The Great Lakes are governed by two nations, eight states, three provinces, several tribal nations and hundreds of local communities. It is equally represented by historical industrial interests as well as by growing environmental interests, and cherished by the millions of people who enjoy the Lakes for personal recreation throughout the year, including the winter months with its extreme weather and hard water. Released in 2011 by Rear Admiral Michael Parks, the 9th District commander, the Great Lakes Maritime Strategy describes a five-year vision, guiding principles and strategic objectives amounting to a call to action that has already had a profound impact on how we are executing our missions today. As Parks often reminds us, the strategy is enduring and intended to guide not only our current efforts but that of our successors. The strategy is based on six core objectives: 4 | CGF 4.1

• • • • • •

Excel at mission execution Inspire and serve our people Enhance bi-national cooperation and governance Optimize force allocation and resources Strengthen strategic partnerships Share our story

Excel at Mission Execution Our primary responsibility is safe and effective mission execution in the maritime domain. Doing this requires growing and sustaining the best watchstanders, cuttermen, aircrews, boat crews and marine inspectors in the entire service. In the end, if we’re not safely, effectively and efficiently accomplishing our operational missions, then little else matters. The nation expects, and the Great Lakes region relies on, our ability to accomplish our missions. Inspire and Serve Our People Mission execution depends on command and organizational climates that encourage excellence from every member of the Coast Guard family—active, reserve, auxiliary and civilian. We must foster a mutual respect of our shipmates; champion diversity of background and thought; reward innovation; and ensure transparent communications. The 9th District and subordinate command elements will strive to inspire and serve our people, and thereby achieve organizational and individual excellence.

Enhance Bi-national Cooperation and Governance The 9th Coast Guard District enjoys a unique view and responsibility within the Great Lakes system that has helped build and sustain a diverse set of relationships, formal and informal, with our Canadian peers. It is only through combined and interagency effort that daily and contingency mission requirements can be met. Optimize Force Allocation and Resources Resources are scarce and finite. We must be diligent in ensuring resources are applied based on data-driven mission requirements and not just historical legacy. While we may not always be able to control our ability to relocate resources, we can ensure that mission requirements we place on our people are appropriate and sustainable. Strengthen Strategic Partnerships We cannot meet every mission priority alone. The public expects, and our missions demand, that we seek out sustainable partnerships at every level of maritime interest. The complexity and strategic importance of the Great Lakes region has spurred many longstanding regional partnerships. These must be leveraged and strengthened to promote harmony amongst mutually reinforced goals. With more than 40 federally recognized tribal nations in the region, specific effort on tribal partnerships merit increased attention. Share Our Story The Great Lakes maritime environment is complex and often misunderstood by

those outside it. In some cases, even those within it underestimate the operational complexity and challenges. Few organizations enjoy a broader vantage point of the Great Lakes maritime system than the Coast Guard. It’s incumbent on us to proactively share our story, internally and externally. We must orient ourselves to the issues that regional and national leadership care about and ensure they understand the tremendous relevance and value the Coast Guard brings to the effort.

Operation Fall Retrieve As one of the 11 statutory missions of the Coast Guard, the Aids to Navigation (AtoN) mission traces its roots back to before the forming of our Republic and is an integral part of the Coast Guard’s DNA. As a major component of the newly combined Maritime Transportation System Management program, it contributes to ensuring the essential flow of goods and commerce vital to the economic security of the United States. On the Great Lakes, the coming of winter is routine, but the preparation for extreme weather is not. This requires a herculean effort in the form of Operation Fall Retrieve, where nearly 1,300 aids to navigation must be either removed before they are damaged by ice or replaced with mostly unlighted ice buoys. Fall Retrieve provides an example of the superior mission execution envisioned in the Great Lakes Maritime Strategy. The overall goal of Fall Retrieve is to leave the AtoN system in place as long as possible without risking damage to the aids or their being dragged off station and potentially blocking a channel. Each seasonal aid on the Great Lakes is assigned a date

by which mariners can expect the aid to be removed or replaced with a winter mark. These dates are published in the Light List and represent the sequence that the AtoN system is transitioned to its winter status. The first aids transitioned are those primarily used by recreational users and aids in harbors with little historical traffic once the cold weather arrives. This task is mainly carried out by the 9th District’s Aids to Navigation and Station-Aids to Navigation Teams (ANTs/STANTs). Operating aboard small boats and carefully working around steadily intensifying weather fronts, crews complete their work before boat basins and launch ramps fill with ice and small boats must be taken out of service for the season. The main shipping channels are also left intact for as long as possible, including the critical connecting channels of the St. Marys River, St. Clair/Detroit Rivers and the St. Lawrence Seaway. This facilitates the departure of the last saltwater ships (Salties) headed to the Atlantic with various cargoes, including grain, before the Seaway closes in late December. Leaving the aids in later postpones the expensive “Two Pilot” rule, which is implemented on Salties when certain portions of the system are removed. This task is mainly carried out by the six AtoN cutters including the new multi-mission Mackinaw, two 225-foot seagoing buoy tenders (Alder and Hollyhock), two 140-foot ice breaking tugs (Bristol Bay and Mobile Bay) with AtoN barges that have the largest buoy decks in the Coast Guard, and the Buckthorn, which is responsible for the largest numbers of aids of any cutter. Aids left in place for too long greatly increase the risk for those working on the buoy decks because of frozen lifting bales, icy decks and buoys trapped under

flowing ice. These factors can triple the time that it takes to work each aid, putting the cutter further and further behind schedule and challenging the endurance of the crews. Today, Fall Retrieve represents some of the best attributes of mission execution envisioned in the Great Lakes maritime strategy. Clear guidance and expectations are in place, and the operation is led by masters of their craft, who safely and effectively achieve results while training the next generation. It is a bi-national effort with efficiencies gained through an established memorandum of understanding delineating which aids each country will work for the other. For example, the Canadian Coast Guard works all large U.S. buoys in Lake Ontario, relieving the U.S. of having to send a cutter there, saving time and the costs of transiting the Welland Canal. In exchange, the U.S. works the Canadian buoys in the St. Marys River. This operation also poses an excellent example of strong international partnerships with an excellent the level of cooperation. Last year, Mackinaw suffered an engineering casualty and missed the operation because of an emergency drydock availability. Expressing his thanks to the units who picked up the extra work, Commander Michael Davanzo, Mackinaw’s commanding officer, wrote: “Under normal conditions working buoys on the Great Lakes in December can be as challenging as anywhere in the Coast Guard. The days are short, it is cold, the wind often blows, and the buoys begin to ice over. I recognize that even a small addition to your work list makes a difference when you are racing Mother Nature. Because of your hard work and professionalism, you were able to over­CGF  4.1 | 5

come this extra burden. What is most inspiring is how easily everyone came together to take on the additional work and cooperate to figure out the most efficient way to get the job done. Whether you directly serviced our buoys or completed other work to free Alder, Hollyhock, or Mobile Bay, you made a difference. I think the way you all work together embodies the essence of teamwork and team Coast Guard. Bravo Zulu.”

New Direction The Great Lakes Maritime Strategy challenges 9th District leaders to constantly work through the events and external influences of the day to overcome the “tyranny of the present,” look to the future and act with strategic intent. Although Fall Retrieve and the follow-on Spring Restore are longstanding and mature operations, there are current initiatives that could make these even more efficient and effective. In the short term, the cutter commanding officers recently met, and based on several years of lessons learned, reallocated the AtoN

workload, which promises to improve the efficiency of each cutter’s fall and spring buoy runs. The 9th District, in cooperation with Purdue University, is currently modeling years of small boat mission data. When this study is complete, it has the potential to chart a course that will optimize the force allocation of the Great Lakes small boat stations and may support the consolidation of the District’s 10 ANT/STANTs to a smaller number of mission-focused units. Long term, the district is embarking on a complete review of future cutter operational and homeport requirements, which promise additional efficiencies. Each of those initiatives under evaluation is important, but there is a potential “game changer” in the works. In cooperation with Coast Guard Headquarters, 9th District Units are in the final stages of prototyping a year-round lighted ice buoy. Until recently, options for lighting an ice buoy were limited. Traditional solar panels are not an option on a buoy that frequently gets dragged under the ice, so we were reliant on expensive batteries that could hold a

charge long enough to last the winter. This has changed with the advent of light emitting diode (LED) technology powered by primary lithium batteries. Mounted on the proven lighted ice buoy design and modified with radar reflectors, these buoys have the potential to stretch required visits from every six months to three years. The potential impact of the deployment of hundreds of these buoys on the amount of resources needed to execute both Fall Retrieve and its counterpart Spring Restore are profound­—a potential game changer that would give an old mission a new direction. O Commander Kevin Dunn is currently assigned as the 9th District chief of waterways management. He is a permanent cutterman and proud “Black Hull Sailor.”

For more information, contact CGF Editor Maura McCarthy at or search our online archives for related stories at

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6 | CGF 4.1

Special section:

Arctic Strategy

Rear Admiral Thomas P. Ostebo Commander, 17th Coast Guard District There is a growing consensus within the scientific community that in 25 years, the Arctic Ocean could be completely ice-free during the summer months. Accordingly, I expect that activity in the region will continue to increase as commercial vessels take advantage of the newly opened waters and technological advancements that will make the region more accessible than ever before. These advancements include not only the likelihood of a substantial increase in the maritime industry utilization of these newlycreated transit routes, but also the prospect of untapped opportunities for the energy, shipping, fishing and tourism industries previously restricted by technological and environmental barriers. Managing the safety and security of this evolving maritime environment and protecting U.S. interests and resources in this region is the responsibility of the 17th District. The seriousness of this charge is buoyed by

the enormous potential for oil and natural gas reserves above the Arctic Circle; the unique challenges associated with natural resource exploration in a harsh and unforgiving environment; the rising concerns about the prevention of a pollution incident and the ability to respond; protection of fisheries that remain a critical resource; the accessibility and safe navigation of the Northern Sea Route above Russia, which brings more traffic into our area of responsibility; and the prospect that tourism to the Arctic frontier is expected to increase as cruise ships are more easily able to make the trip. To add perspective to the challenge, the 17th District is responsible for more than 3,853,500 square miles of water and 44,000 miles of coastline. Concerns and hazards that exist elsewhere in the lower 48 are magnified here. The amount of time it takes to respond to emergencies in remote locations is a critical factor to survival and made

especially challenging in this environment. Expertise and proficiency are required of the Coast Guard personnel who patrol the waters surrounding Alaska, but our limited historical experience in the Arctic means we must devote the time and resources necessary to increase our operational readiness in this region. I anticipate problems and hazards deploying my people here, both operating and maintaining equipment in the extreme environment, and establishing bases and infrastructure to provide for more immediate response capabilities. Air Station Kodiak is the closest Coast Guard multi-aircraft base to the Arctic region. Even during the most favorable weather conditions, helicopters require at least eight to nine hours of transit time, including two to three refueling stops, to travel to the north coast of Alaska. For a C-130 airplane, the travel time is reduced to four hours, but the rescue capabilities of a fixed wing aircraft ­CGF  4.1 | 7

Special section:

Arctic Strategy

do not provide the same flexibility as that of a helicopter. With no established units near the Arctic, maintaining our standard of readiness for search and rescue response is a challenge. The 17th District is the service’s only “Arctic district” and must be prepared and poised to identify and respond to the associated challenges in the support of operations and meaningful contributions to the development of long-term solutions. Coast Guard operations in the Arctic in the summer of 2012 will be a vanguard test of our surface, air and maritime domain awareness, as well as our command, control and communications capabilities over a prolonged period within this unforgiving environment. These operations will succeed only if we can continue to strengthen and develop partnerships with those who share our affinity for the region and build mutually beneficial relationships with the people and communities that make this place the treasure it is. With this picture of our situation clearly painted, I’d like to add a little more granularity to what I’ve already touched on. With regards to Arctic oil exploration and drilling, corporations such as Royal Dutch Shell and ConocoPhillips have invested billions of dollars into research and exploration. Shell has already received conditional approval by the Department of the Interior to begin exploratory drilling in the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas in the summer of 2012, and ConocoPhillips has expressed similar plans for the near future. Russia has also granted drilling privileges to two corporations for research and exploration in their Arctic territory, which could begin as early as 2015. With a predicted 15 percent of the world’s undiscovered oil and 30 percent of the world’s natural gas in the region, energy possibilities in the Arctic have the attention of the global energy market. The unique challenges associated with natural resource exploration in this harsh and unforgiving environment raise valid concerns regarding both the prevention of a pollution incident and the ability to provide a swift and effective response. To address these concerns, corporations conducting Arctic drilling operations have been actively working with stakeholders 8 | CGF 4.1

A rescue swimmer from Coast Guard Air Station Kodiak stands on ice while conducting training in the Arctic Ocean near Barrow, Alaska. [Photo courtesy of U.S. Coast Guard]

and governmental organizations to ensure every conceivable challenge is identified and addressed during the planning phase of the operation. Further, stakeholders have taken the necessary precautionary steps to ensure that any response equipment that would be used to immediately respond to and mitigate any potential damage is prepositioned on location and ready to be utilized if an incident were to occur. The extensive planning process includes conducting numerous exercises and positioning Coast Guard assets in the region to provide a continuous presence during the period where heightened commercial activity is anticipated. The Coast Guard will carry out its traditional missions such as law enforcement and search and rescue, which also includes providing for an immediate response with equipment and assets to minimize the impact of any potential incident. This year, we will test our own spill response capabilities using a ship-based Coast Guard Spilled Oil Recovery System. Further, the Coast Guard is a participant on the Arctic Council’s Oil Spill Response Task Force to identify measures for oil spill preparedness and response throughout the entire Arctic region. As the face of the Arctic continues to change, fisheries remain a critical resource

to manage. Alaska’s sub-Arctic fishing industry hauls in approximately 11 million pounds of catch per day, accounting for more than 50 percent of the U.S. living marine resource production. As the reduction of ice has the practical effect of enlarging fishing areas, it could also lead to a northern migration of some species as water temperatures change, potentially forcing commercial fisherman to venture further into the Arctic. Fish are a priority; the global food chain could be negatively impacted by continued climate changes and increased human activity. Currently, there is a moratorium on commercial fish harvests in the U.S. Arctic region until sufficient information is available to support the sustainable management of commercial fishing in the region. The Coast Guard’s presence in the Arctic also serves as an important deterrent to those who may wish to violate this moratorium and unlawfully exploit this untapped resource, a threat that is made altogether more likely given the reduction or removal of the natural environmental barriers which have prevented fishing in these areas in the past. Another new development in the Arctic is the accessibility of the Northern Sea Route above Russia. Transiting above Russia during the ice-free season will save the commercial shipping industry a significant amount

Special section:

Arctic Strategy

of money, not only because the distance between traditional “megaports” located in Europe and Asia is significantly reduced, but because the costs and taxes associated with transiting through canals are eliminated and regions of social and regional unrest can be avoided. Shipping in the Northern Sea Route will continue due to increased demands in mineral, cargo and oil and gas shipping to a booming Asia. This route will be a viable alternative in the future if the Arctic sea-ice continues to recede as expected. Regardless of the route taken by Arctic trans-shippers, all must pass through the Bering Strait. As an international strait, the Bering Strait is open and available to all nations under the established principles of freedom of navigation. Considering the unique nature and challenges present in the region, the Coast Guard has a vital interest in ensuring the safe transit of traffic

through the strait in a manner consistent with international law. With respect to the Bering Strait, this includes implementing a bi-lateral traffic separation scheme with Russia and implementing other maritime safety measures to ensure any marine transportation system is safe and secure. Coast Guard District 17 is already undertaking appropriate measures to ensure these interests are achieved through initiating a Port Access Route Study specific to the region. Icebreakers have been and will continue to be an issue of great focus as more nations realize the benefit of Arctic exploration and build new icebreakers to expand operations into the Arctic region. At present, the United States has three polar icebreakers; one is currently operational, one is in the process of being decommissioned, and one is scheduled to return to operations in 2013, pending approved appropriations.

Icebreaking capability is vital to meet the Coast Guard’s statutory duties in the Arctic; our nation must plan for ice-capable assets in the future that can effectively carry out yearround search and rescue, environmental response, scientific research and other Arctic operations. Of course, the allure of navigable waters extends beyond freight vessels to those carrying a more precious cargo—people. Tourism to the Arctic frontier is expected to increase as trips further north become possible for cruise ships, eco-tourism and adventure tourism industries. The state of Alaska and the Army Corps of Engineers are working with federal and state agencies on the development of a deep draft Arctic Port study to accommodate larger vessels operating in the area. In 2011, the Alaska Legislature created the Northern Waters Task Force, an 11-member panel dedicated to identifying

A Tip of The (ice) cAp in OregOn: POrtland/Swan iSland in waShingtOn: Seattle/harbOr iSland tacOma everett bremertOn POrt angeleS

U.S. Coast Guard photo by Petty Officer Eric J. Chandler.

Vigor Industrial salutes the crew of the USCGC HEALY for clearing the way for urgent fuel deliveries to the people of Nome, Alaska.

Vigor Shipyards is proud to work with the U.S. Coast Guard to maintain medium breaker HEALY and to restore American heavy icebreaker service to the polar regions. Vigor Shipyards. Helping to keep the Coast Guard ready to break some ice. VIGORINDUSTRIAL.COM

A V I G O R I N D U S T R I A L C O M pA N y

­CGF  4.1 | 9

Special section:

Arctic Strategy

The Coast Guard Cutter Healy breaks ice around the Russian-flagged tanker vessel Renda 250 miles south of Nome, Alaska, Jan. 6, 2012. The Healy is the Coast Guard’s only current operating polar icebreaker. [Photo courtesy of U.S. Coast Guard]

issues faced by the changing Arctic and to proposing ideas to manage Alaska’s northern waters. The Coast Guard participates in this panel as an advisory member. The general consensus is that a public-private partnership is likely the only method of obtaining the necessary funding for a port and associated infrastructure; however, as of this date, no single industry or location has been identified as a potential candidate. The benefits of Arctic accessibility are not without challenges. The harsh environment and lack of infrastructure north of the Arctic Circle present problems that must be solved in order to effectively protect both people and natural resources, and plans must be in place to respond to all threats and all hazards in the region. While much of our current focus lies with increased Arctic activity, the Coast Guard is required to focus on and develop sufficient capabilities to respond to a mass search and rescue incident in the Arctic. To prepare for such an event, the Coast Guard has conducted a number of exercises to test existing response mechanisms and to identify areas for improvement. These exercises included collaborative planning and efforts with the Alaska National Guard, several State of Alaska departments and 10 | CGF 4.1

agencies, and the marine industry, which included a test in 2011 of an emergency towing system in Arctic conditions. The Coast Guard also assisted in developing a new international agreement with the Arctic Council to coordinate a life-saving international maritime and aeronautical search and rescue response across the 13 million square miles spanning the entire Arctic region. Further, the Coast Guard will host the Arctic Council’s oil pollution sub-committee in Alaska this spring. While prevention and response measures are still in development, the efforts to adequately meet these challenges are continuous and ongoing. The Coast Guard has been operating in the Arctic for many decades conducting polar icebreaking research operations. However, due to the changing climate, the service has been testing a variety of assets for the feasibility of operating in this environment since 2008. For instance, between 2008 and 2010, the Coast Guard deployed assets and crews to remote regions within northern Alaska for brief periods to determine their ability to function in extreme conditions. Unfortunately, the Coast Guard cannot draw on historical data since traditionally

Coast Guard experience and expertise in this region has been limited. In order to strengthen the Coast Guard’s level of Arctic knowledge and expertise, District 17 has spent a significant amount of time, energy and resources into developing partnerships with tribal and civil governments to learn more about operating in this region. Medical and veterinary care units were also deployed to remote communities in Alaska during Operation Arctic Crossroads to increase the Coast Guard’s presence and to provide needed humanitarian services. These deployments laid the groundwork for the current missions of Operation Arctic Shield. Coast Guard missions for 2012 will include an array of vessels, aircraft and support elements, which will be deployed to test capabilities and to conduct Alaska Native outreach activities. Although the Arctic Shield operational timeframe is set to conclude in fall 2012, the Coast Guard’s coordination efforts with other federal, state, local and tribal partners and the marine industry will continue. The current operation will be invaluable in identifying both areas where Coast Guard responsibility is sufficient, and areas where addition personnel, resources and infrastructure may be necessary to

Special section:

Arctic Strategy

Breaking Ice

By Steve Hirsh

In the Arctic this winter, America’s one and only active polar icebreaker, USCGC Healy, was clearing a path for a Russian tanker to deliver fuel to Nome, Alaska. Meanwhile in the Antarctic, just the opposite was taking place: Russian icebreakers were making way for the U.S. Military Sealift Command to deliver millions of gallons of fuel to the American research base at McMurdo Station. International cooperation is terrific, but it’s not always available and not always ready. America should be able to protect and serve its own interests: America needs more than one polar icebreaker. This isn’t news to the U.S. Coast Guard, which is seeking to balance competing Congressional and administration mandates. While USCGC Polar Star is undergoing final back-to-service renovations at the Vigor Shipyard in Seattle, USCGC Polar Sea is docked a few thousand feet away, awaiting an uncertain fate of possible decommissioning. Returning Polar Star to active service is a good start.

But as we’ve seen in recent weeks, America increasingly needs multiple icebreaking capabilities: Heavy breakers to crack through to McMurdo; heavy and medium classes to protect our interests in the Northwest Passage and to ensure safe deployment and response for developing American oil interests in the Bering and Chukchi Seas; medium vessels like Healy to provide emergency response and enable timely deployment of scientific missions; and more. A new class of Coast Guard icebreaker is welcome but is estimated to be a decade and a billion dollars away. Until Congress and the administration can provide such funding and the replacements are actually in the water, we must have the capability to complete the vital missions our polar icebreakers have performed for decades. The hulls and frames of both the Polar Star and Polar Sea are perfectly sound and capable of continuing to perform icebreaking while new vessels are designed, constructed and commissioned.

As Alaska’s Lieutenant Governor Mead Treadwell told Congress even before the Healy escorted the Russian tanker-load of fuel to Nome, “The changes in the Arctic are presenting tremendous game-changing opportunities. Other Arctic and non-Arctic nations are seeing this potential, but America is missing the boat.” There are near-term and longer-term solutions to restore American capacity while still minding the cost. Polar Star will be ready to go by the end of this year. Polar Sea could be rolling a year or so later. Both can serve a decade or so while our nation carefully moves ahead towards the next generation of U.S. icebreakers. We can and must continue to support the Coast Guard’s mission to safeguard our nation’s interests in ports, at sea and around the world so that the service and the nation are always ready.

provide adequate response. The Coast Guard puts great value on our relationship with our Alaska Native partners. Their expertise, gathered from generations of experience, is an essential component of the Coast Guard’s ability to effectively complete its missions. We honor their traditions and can learn much from their experiences through direct interaction, dialogue, communication and cooperation. Oil spill response exercises will be conducted with the United States Northern Command and the United States Navy to test capabilities and strengthen our combined readiness. Talks are also underway between the Coast Guard, the state of Alaska and the Alaska Air National Guard regarding the possibility of constructing a joint use hangar in the Arctic. This hangar would serve as a forward operating base for air assets in the Arctic and would be extraordinarily beneficial in meeting our mission mandates.

As the world’s premier maritime service, the Coast Guard will continue to adapt to the changing operational environment created by a growth in Arctic shipping, natural resource development and tourism. Our service’s role as a military service, maritime regulatory agency and law enforcement agency place us in a very important position in terms of evolving U.S. Arctic policy. We must make certain that all Coast Guard activities are undertaken effectively and in concert with our partners with a focus on building capability and expertise in the Arctic in a responsible way. Only as a united front can we ensure the nation is ready to meet tomorrow’s challenges in this new region of operations. O

ations throughout Alaska, which include protecting life and property, enforcing federal laws and treaties, preserving the living marine resources and promoting national security. Headquartered in Juneau, Alaska, the 17th District includes portions of the North Pacific Ocean, Arctic Ocean and Bering Sea. As the commander, U.S. Naval Forces Alaska, he provides operationally ready maritime forces to both Coast Guard and Department of Defense commanders for Coast Guard, joint, and interagency operations both domestically and internationally. His military decorations include three Legions of Merit, the Distinguished Flying Cross, three Meritorious Service Medals, two CG Commendation Medals and the CG Achievement Medal.

Rear Admiral Thomas P. Ostebo assumed the duties as the commander, 17th Coast Guard District, in May 2011. He is responsible for all Coast Guard oper-

For more information, contact CGF Editor Maura McCarthy at or search our online archives for related stories at

Steve Hirsh is director of communications at Vigor Industrial.

­CGF  4.1 | 11

Charting a New Course Always striving to equip Coast Guardsmen with information needed to remain semper paratus, Coast Guard Forum’s focus on education will help Coast Guardsmen navigate the next phase of their career.

Coast Guard Forum editor Maura McCarthy posed the following question to SUNY Empire State College, Grand Canyon University and Florida State University: From their work responding to environmental and natural disasters and executing maritime homeland security missions, Coast Guardsmen possess valuable experience ensuring public safety and managing emergencies. How can a degree in public safety or emergency management equip Coast Guardsmen with the education needed to complement their experience and advance in rank or transition to a civilian career?

Jim Savitt Mentor/Coordinator for Emergency Management and Fire Services Administration Center for Distance Learning SUNY Empire State College Semper Paratus: Always Ready. Always ready for all hazards and all threats … This motto has defined the United States Coast Guard for nearly 180 years. It means that U.S. Coast Guard personnel stand at the ready to protect their country and its citizens from the effects of natural and human-caused disasters, whether the latter are accidental or deliberate. The Coast Guard has 11 missions, ranging from law enforcement to environmental protection to the security of ports, waterways and the coast. Education in public safety or emergency management is the perfect complement to the training that Coast Guard personnel undergo because such education is perfectly consistent with the multiple missions of the U.S. Coast Guard. A degree combines discipline-specific studies and a critical examination of the broader environment in which the discipline—public safety or emergency management—is applied. A well-designed degree integrates training (how to accomplish the mission), subject-matter education (how to manage the accomplishment of the mission), and the broader perspective in which the mission is undertaken (what are the costs, benefits, risks and consequences of carrying out the mission). As is the Coast Guard, the fields of public safety and emergency management are mission-driven. People in those fields must also be always ready to protect their fellow citizens from hazards and threats. Those who wish to advance in rank can utilize their degree to demonstrate their readiness to undertake the wider responsibilities within the wider perspective that accompanies promotion, whether to senior noncommissioned officer status or to a position as a commissioned officer. Those who plan to transition to

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civilian careers use the degree as recognition of their accomplishments in maintaining a high level of readiness and ability to respond appropriately to hazards and threats. There are two unique aspects to a degree at SUNY Empire State College that resonate with those in public safety and emergency management and would be of particular importance to Coast Guard personnel interested in those fields. First, students design their degrees to meet their goals. That means that each degree is as unique as the student who pursues it. At the same time, common core components of the degree ensure that graduates in emergency management, for example, have certain competencies in common. Those with whom you will work know what to expect of you, even as you also bring specific and unique knowledge, skills and abilities. Second, and just as important, a degree from Empire State College recognizes what you have learned beyond the traditional classroom. That means that there is recognition that your Coast Guard training is a valid component of your overall education; indeed, that training will help to inform your education at Empire State College. Just as your training is part of your record of accomplishment in the Coast Guard and is the basis of promotion, that training is the basis for advanced standing in your pursuit of a degree. Through its recognition of prior learning in the training arena and in the field, a degree in public safety or emergency management prepares students to manage the response to threats and hazards. Graduates’ experience in responding to those threats and hazards helps to make them better managers and leaders of the response to the threats and hazards. Graduates are indeed always ready. O

Dan Cutrara, MBA/TM Director of Military Affairs Grand Canyon University

Pursuing an education in the fields of public safety and emergency management and public safety administration serves as a useful educational addition to the knowledge, expertise and hands-on experience a member of the Coast Guard has received. Obtaining such a degree provides the Coast Guard and civilian workforce the credentials to show the dedication and commitment to excelling in this chosen field by obtaining additional knowledge and abilities that set the graduate apart from others. Individuals earning degrees, along with their proven experience in the field, are highly sought in light of the current operational tempo of the Department of Homeland Security and the threat level of terrorism across the United States. The hands-on, real-life experience Coast Guardsmen possess, with an added benefit of a foundation of education in the industry, enables them to truly stand out in today’s highly competitive job market and makes them more attractive for consideration in hiring and in promotions. Grand Canyon University offers a Bachelor of Science in public safety and emergency management that provides a theoretical and applied approach to the professional education, while ensuring relevance to the

homeland security and public safety industries. The program focuses on the fundamentals, skills and practices of emergency management, as well as improving personal and public communication skills. Coast Guardsmen can leverage their military training and experience to reach a higher level of educational proficiency in public safety and emergency management. The university also offers a Bachelor of Science in public safety administration, which focuses on application of research methodologies and development of professional skills and knowledge in the field of public safety. The combination of personal, professional and public communication skills, along with education, military training and experience in the Coast Guard, will allow members to pursue and excel in public safety administration careers. Some of the rewarding career opportunities that are available to individuals with this education and previous Coast Guard experience include first-line supervisors/managers of police and detectives, occupational health and safety specialists, medical and health services managers, sheriffs and deputy sheriffs, police and sheriff’s patrol officers, and fire prevention and protection engineers. O

Dr. Audrey Heffron Casserleigh Director, Emergency Management and Homeland Security Program Florida State University

More than anything, education should be interesting and engaging—often the highest praise professors hear is a student saying they learned something new in a course. That praise can be returned—I am taught something new in every course by my students, which is why the field of higher learning is so much fun. Find a program that loves and respects what you bring to it, just as much as you love what you’re learning, and education will never be work! Whether you are career military and looking for your next adventure or you are in service and looking to build your credentials, make sure that you find an educational program that motivates you! Going back to school can be a significant commitment and the extra work and effort should be interesting and fun, not just drudgery to get you to the next step in life. If you are interested in emergency management and homeland security programs there are a multitude to choose from and finding one that is right for you can be exciting. First remember you are the customer—you have choices where you study and what will benefit you. Education is a commodity and institutions should be competing for your business and meeting your professional needs and expectations. Like all products and services, where to get your education can be analyzed with the golden triangle of time-quality-cost. The golden triangle only allows you to prioritize two of these aspects, so you must choose what fits your lifestyle and needs. Time is often the most important and when choosing a program you should ask how long it takes to complete, how often core courses are offered and if any of the classes, or the entire program, can be

taken online. Quality can often be linked to name recognition of the institution you are choosing to study with, and that degree will appear on all your future resumes. Well known major universities have a brand that employers and colleagues will recognize, and likewise most employers are not fooled by credentials from online “degree mills.” Cost is always a consideration, and most public universities will offer the most competitive price point. While you may be utilizing the GI Bill or educational support from your employer, keep in mind that both have limited funds and lower tuition rates make limited resources go further. After you have identified educational institutions that fit your needs, take a deeper look at their programs and course offerings. After the events of 9/11 colleges and universities tried to respond to the growing need for emergency management and homeland security programs. To respond quickly to market demands, many institutions just reworked existing courses and cobbled together homeland security programs made up of courses from various departments. Often these courses are taught by professors with no background or experience in homeland defense, security and intelligence, or disaster management. Make sure that you are going to be part of a program that is led by credentialed academics with either experience or relevant research in emergency management and homeland security. Finding a good program is like going on a date; make sure you ask lots of questions, take a good look at how information is presented, and trust your instincts. Your relationship with an academic program will have a finite length; just make sure you can both keep each other happy! O ­CGF  4.1 | 13

ON THE HORIZON Boost for Alaskan Shipbuilding Shipbuilding in Alaska has an even brighter future as Alaska Ship and Drydock Inc. (ASD) and Vigor Industrial jointly announced their intent to make ASD a Vigor company. ASD intends to transition its business and assets to Vigor pending approval of the transfer of ownership by the Alaska Industrial Development and Export Authority (AIDEA), the owner of the Ketchikan Shipyard where ASD is based. ASD would operate the Ketchikan Shipyard (KSY) as the Alaska Ship & Drydock LLC subsidiary, in continuation of its 30-year AIDEA operating agreements. “The purchase of ASD by Vigor will increase the capacity and competitiveness of the Ketchikan Shipyard in many ways, positioning Ketchikan and the state of Alaska to not only continue our high level of service to existing customers, but to significantly participate in exciting new markets emerging in the North Pacific and Arctic Oceans,” Johnson said. Vigor Industrial currently owns and operates leading maritime services in the Pacific Northwest at facilities from Portland through Puget Sound. “We see a tremendous opportunity here to work with Alaska residents to grow maritime jobs and industry from Oregon to the Arctic,” said Frank Foti, Vigor Industrial owner and CEO. Vigor owns the 60-acre Swan Island shipyard in Portland, Oreg., the historic Harbor Island yard in Seattle and operations in Tacoma, Everett, Bremerton and Port Angeles Wash. Vigor customers include commercial fishing and cargo fleets, barge and workboat owners, oil transportation companies, Washington State Ferries, the Alaska Marine Highway System and alternative energy developers. Vigor, which purchased the Todd Pacific Shipyards in February 2011, also maintains and renovates U.S. Navy aircraft carriers and other vessels and U.S. Coast Guard assets including the icebreakers USCGC Healy, Polar Star and Polar Sea. The combined companies would offer a full range of ship building, repair and modernization services in seven facilities in Alaska, Washington and Oregon with 10 drydocks, more than 17,000 feet of pier space as well as large-scale fabrication facilities, specialty coatings and other industrial services. Upon approval, the companies will employ close to 2,000 workers across the Pacific Northwest.

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GIS Framework Timmons Group, a leader in geospatial consulting and applications development, was recently selected by the USCG to design a Common Geospatial Information System (GIS) Framework. The intent is to develop a highly scalable GIS enterprise architecture framework that will satisfy the Coast Guard’s functional and geospatial needs in support of a common operational GIS framework. The framework is intended to leverage the Microsoft Silverlight Applications Programming Interface (API) within the Esri ArcGIS platform environment. The project will involve extensive strategic planning services and analysis for the GIS framework. Tasks involve determining current and future business driven spatial information requirements,

research and identification of best practices, and developing recommendations for spatial information focused on processes, policies, procedures, access, security, maintenance and archiving. The tasks will ultimately document gaps and leverage best practices in developing a roadmap for future framework capabilities. Following the Strategic Plan, Timmons Group will develop an Implementation Guide, which will document all aspects of the architecture including data formats, network design considerations, framework and application performance factors, development methodology and testing strategies. This guide will provide tactical plans for the enterprise GIS program that will accompany the higher level strategic plan.

Lead FRC Delivered The Bernard C. Webber, the lead vessel in the Coast Guard’s Sentinel-class fast response cutter (FRC) recapitalization project, was officially delivered to the Coast Guard February 10, 2012, after arriving in its homeport of Miami following its transit from Lockport, La. “The fast response cutter is a game-changer for the Coast Guard,” said Rear Admiral Jake Korn, assistant commandant for Acquisition and chief acquisition officer. “It updates our patrol boat fleet with superior speed and sea-keeping capabilities that are critical to executing today’s missions and missions we might encounter in the future. Its capabilities will provide significant flexibility in how we conduct patrol boat operations for many years to come.” Webber will be commissioned into service in Miami on April 14, 2012. The Coast Guard plans to acquire 58 FRCs to replace the service’s 110-foot Island-class fleet. The cutters of the Island-class fleet range in age from 20 to 27 years old. The Coast Guard currently expects to take delivery of one cutter per quarter. The first six FRCs will be stationed in Miami to support operations in the 7th Coast Guard District, an area ranging from the South Carolina coast to the Caribbean, consisting of 1.8 million square nautical miles of ocean. The Sentinel-class FRC project is representative of the Coast Guard’s disciplined approach to rebuild its surface fleet. The FRC uses a proven, in-service parent craft design based on the Damen Stan Patrol Boat 4708. It has a flank speed of 28 knots and a 2,500 hours per

year operational employment target. It uses stateof-the-market command, control, communications and computer technology interoperable with the Coast Guard’s existing and future assets, as well as Department of Homeland Security and Department of Defense assets. The cutter also meets American Bureau of Shipping design, build and classification standards. Each FRC will be named for an enlisted Coast Guard hero who distinguished him or herself in the line of duty. The lead cutter is named for Bernard C. Webber, a motor lifeboat coxswain from Station Chatham, Mass. Webber and his crew of three rescued 33 of 34 crew members from the stricken tanker Pendleton during a horrific storm off the coast of Massachusetts on February 18, 1952. Webber and his crew were awarded the Coast Guard’s Gold Lifesaving Medal for their efforts.

Compiled by KMI Media Group staff

Coast Guard Plans 40 More RB-Ms The Coast Guard awarded a delivery order valued at approximately $89 million on February 9 to Marinette Marine Corporation (MMC) for the production of 40 additional response boatsmedium (RB-M). This delivery order enables MMC to continue at full-rate production; the contractor is delivering at least 30 boats per year, which is more than one boat every two weeks. Production is currently underway at two facilities in Green Bay, Wis., and Kent, Wash.

Since March 2008, 81 RB-Ms have been delivered to Coast Guard stations around the country. The RB-Ms are designed to meet Coast Guard mission requirements for search and rescue; ports, waterways and coastal security; drug interdiction; and migrant interdiction. The RB-Ms replace the Coast Guard’s aging class of 41-foot Utility Boats and other large nonstandard boats with standardized assets more capable of meeting the Coast Guard’s multimission operational requirements.

13th HC-144A Delivered On-Time and On-Budget Prime contractor EADS North America has delivered the 13th HC-144A Ocean Sentry maritime patrol aircraft to the U.S. Coast Guard, two months ahead of the contractual delivery date. The HC-144A is based on the Airbus Military CN235 tactical airlifter, more than 250 of which are currently in operation by 27 countries. The HC-144A is replacing the Coast Guard’s aging fleet of HU-25 Guardian jets and some older HC-130H aircraft, and has seen service in a wide variety of missions since achieving initial operational capability with the Coast Guard in 2008. In addition to search and rescue, the Coast Guard is utilizing the Ocean Sentry’s superior endurance and flexibility for missions including maritime patrol, cargo and personnel transport, intelligence/surveillance/reconnaissance and disaster relief. “The Coast Guard must perform a demanding and varied set of missions over enormous distances, so it is absolutely critical that they have a full fleet of aircraft with the range and versatility that the Ocean Sentry provides,” said Sean O’Keefe, EADS North America Chairman and CEO. “We’re proud that

the HC-144A is playing such a vital role in protecting Americans every day.” This is the second Ocean Sentry delivery under a contract awarded in 2010, which calls for a 14th HC-144A in 2012 and includes remaining options for up to five additional aircraft. The Coast Guard exercised an option for a 15th HC-144A in August 2011. Coast Guard plans call for acquiring a total of 36 HC-144As. The turboprop HC-144A can remain airborne for more than nine hours, compared to just four hours for the legacy HU-25 jet that it is replacing. EADS North America delivers the HC-144A equipped with a search radar, electro-optical and infrared cameras, an Automatic Identification System for data collection from vessels at sea and a communications suite. The Ocean Sentry’s rear cargo ramp enables easy loading and unloading of the Coast Guard’s palletized mission system. During airlift, cargo and medevac missions, the mission system is removed, freeing up the large cabin for additional transport capacity. The rear ramp also can be opened in flight to deploy searchand-rescue equipment.

Virtual Engine Maintenance Training Ngrain announced the U.S. Coast Guard has chosen the company’s industry-leading solutions to provide cost-effective and compelling 3-D simulation-based maintenance training. The Ngrain Virtual Task Trainer (VTT) solutions will help to standardize the Coast Guard’s teaching methods for maintenance training of the Honda BF225 Outboard Engine. “We continue to work with Ngrain because the results speak for themselves,” said Commander Aaron Waters, Force Readiness Command Performance, Training & Education Branch Advanced Distributed Learning Section (FC-515), Coast Guard. “Ngrain’s approach to training—which combines advanced 3-D simulations with effective learning methodologies—has helped the Coast Guard to improve the proficiency with which our students complete maintenance and troubleshooting procedures. Our ability to effectively provide training means that our people can safely perform tasks, there is less wear-and-tear on equipment, and ultimately we can keep equipment in-service longer.” To standardize teaching methods for the maintenance of the Honda BF225 Outboard Engines, the Coast Guard chose Ngrain’s Virtual Task Trainer solution to accelerate learning, minimize the need for equipment to be taken out of service for the purpose of training, and to support training in a variety of learning environments. Standard to the Ngrain VTT, the training solution will enable personnel to interact with the virtual equipment in real time, including practicing installation, maintenance and repair procedures. Leveraging Ngrain’s established learning methodology, maintainers will receive real-time remediation through automated feedback to improve performance and give instructors the opportunity to work with students requiring additional support. “For the past decade Ngrain has led the creation and growth of the virtual maintenance training market,” said Gabe Batstone, chief executive officer, Ngrain. “We are driven to deliver the most true-tolife virtual hands-on experience, while ensuring our customers receive value each time. Our customers continue to work with us because they have the confidence that we will deliver a high value, high impact solution that generates results.”

Gabe Batstone;

­CGF  4.1 | 15

Chief Engineer

Q& A

Sustaining and Supporting the Fleet

Rear Admiral Ronald J. Rábago Assistant Commandant for Engineering & Logistics

Rear Admiral Ronald J. Rábago currently serves as the Coast Guard’s assistant commandant for Engineering and Logistics (CG4). As the Coast Guard’s chief engineer, he is responsible for all naval, civil, aeronautical and industrial engineering, logistics and environmental and energy management programs for the Coast Guard’s $22 billion capital plant, which includes 23,000 facilities, 250 ships, 1,800 boats and 200 aircraft. Responsible for executing an annual budget of $1 billion, he also leads over 5,000 personnel at Coast Guard Headquarters and the three Coast Guard logistics centers: the Aviation Logistics Center in Elizabeth City, N.C.; the Shore Infrastructure Logistics Center in Norfolk, Va.; and the Surface Forces Logistics Center in Baltimore, Md. In his previous assignment as the assistant commandant for Acquisition and chief acquisition officer (CG-9), Rábago directed efforts across all Coast Guard acquisition programs and related procurement management, contracting and research and development activities to execute the service’s current $30 billion acquisition investment portfolio. Rábago’s other previous assignments include: The Coast Guard’s Program Executive Officer (PEO) at Coast Guard Headquarters in Washington, D.C.; director of Personnel Management at Coast Guard Headquarters in Washington, D.C.; deputy commander of the Maintenance and Logistics Command Atlantic in Norfolk, Va.; industrial manager and then the commanding officer of the Coast Guard Yard in Baltimore, Md.; chief of the Fifth District Law Enforcement Branch; commanding officer of the Coast Guard Cutter (CGC) Tampa, Portsmouth, Va.; executive officer of the CGC Boutwell, in Alameda, Calif.; type desk manager in the Vessel Repair Division of the Maintenance and Logistics Command Atlantic on Governors Island, N.Y.; executive officer of the Naval Engineering Support Unit at Portsmouth, Va.; port engineer at the Ship Repair Detachment in Portsmouth, Va.; engineer officer on board the CGC Tampa; and engineering and deck Marine Inspector at the Marine Safety Office Port Arthur, Texas. His first assignment was aboard the Honolulu-based CGC Mellon as a student engineer. Rábago is a 1978 graduate of the U.S. Coast Guard Academy, earning a Bachelor of Science degree in ocean engineering. In 1983, he attended the University of Michigan and earned Master of Science degrees in naval architecture and marine engineering and mechanical engineering. In 1995, he was named the Coast Guard’s “Engineer of the Year.” In 1996, he attended the Naval War College, 16 | CGF 4.1

where he earned a master’s degree in national security and strategic studies. Rábago is a licensed Professional Engineer and has earned a Program Manager Level III Certification. Rear Admiral Rábago was interviewed by CGF editor Maura McCarthy. Q: Could you offer a brief sketch of your experience in the service and how your past commands have prepared you to be assistant commandant for Engineering and Logistics? A: As assistant commandant for Engineering and Logistics, my working title is the Coast Guard’s chief engineer. I began my career as an engineer aboard a ship and I’ve had multiple assignments, ashore and afloat, involving shipboard naval engineering, which is where I learned my trade. I was a naval engineer for the first part of my career but also served in marine safety and worked on the regulatory side. I enjoyed doing that, especially the part where I was onboard commercial ships or drill rigs doing technical assessment and compliance. I got back into Coast Guard naval engineering for a while before I made the jump into operations, where I was privileged to command a ship as well as oversee Coast Guard law enforcement operations from shoreside. At the Coast Guard Yard,

I returned to naval engineering where I oversaw, over the span of four years, about 85 ship repair availabilities of various sizes as well as numerous other projects. I have been involved with commercial and Coast Guard ship repair throughout much of my career. When I entered acquisitions in 2007, I learned the new construction part of naval engineering as well as C4ISR, aviation engineering and shore infrastructure for our new assets. For me, my current assignment as chief engineer is a natural fit because it involves not only disciplines I’m familiar with, but also a chance to use what I’ve learned from my entire career, both from engineering as well as my experience in operations; I’m able to drive much of this into my decision-making and daily interactions with our teams of support professionals that are sustaining and supporting our fleet. The other three parts of my current job besides caring for ships, boats, aircraft, buildings and structures are our energy program, our environmental program and our logistics systems. In the Navy these are executed by separate entities, but we’re a smaller organization and we can fit it under one, although it still does encompass broad responsibilities. By being under the same roof, it offers us opportunities to think holistically; for example, ships tie up at our shore stations and we can approach problems of support as a system, where naval and civil engineering technical solutions can be complemented by energy and environmental considerations. From a sustainment perspective, there’s an opportunity to look at all of those domains together and provide efficient solutions that consider the broad mission requirements and make decisions that have the ability to look beyond just fixing a ship; it may involve shore support, or even the engineers who do the work. Having the collectiveness of those responsibilities in my directorate and great people provide me the opportunity to create synergies between these support functions. Personally, as an engineer that loves to do engineering, I still get to learn about new systems and equipment. Even though I grew up on ships, I have the chance to work with aviation engineers, civil engineers, energy experts, logisticians and environmental engineers, as well as many other supporting members that conduct the important work to sustain our systems. I think I’m in exactly the right place and I’m very grateful that the commandant had the confidence in me to serve in this assignment. When I first took this assignment in June, I made it a point to go out and see what all of our engineers and mission support professionals were doing. I met with numerous shore operational commands, air stations and cutters. I talked with leadership out in the field; I wanted to hear their issues firsthand. Sometimes here in Washington it’s difficult to get good information because by the time it gets to my level, it’s filtered quite a bit. Our mission support professionals and operators are doing tremendous things; it makes me want to work all the harder to give them the resources they need because they’re working very hard to take good care of our buildings, our fleet and each other. I got a lot of feedback on specific help they need—there is no substitute for going out and laying eyes on issues, understanding the geographic differences, and where headquarters can assist the field commands in getting the work done. I’ve continued to be incredibly impressed; our people work long hours and are doing great things for our Coast Guard. It was a privilege to go out and meet these professionals. I spent my entire career outside of Washington, D.C., until I was promoted to Flag rank, so I wanted to make sure that I didn’t lose touch. I assumed my current responsibilities with a philosophy that I review regularly. In summary, my team’s job is to sustain

efficiently and effectively what we have, and ensure that it all continues to serve the Coast Guard and our nation until it can be recapitalized. We’re working really hard to do that. Q: In Admiral Papp’s 2011 State of the Coast Guard Address, he outlined four pillars to help guide the Coast Guard in its work, which included sustaining mission excellence, recapitalizing and building capacity, enhancing crisis response and management, and preparing for the future. How as assistant commandant for Engineering and Logistics can you implement this guidance? A: All four of those really resonate with me. Three of them in particular are things I do every single day. Mission excellence means that our people must have the tools and clear policy to go out and do the job. If they have old, difficult-to-support ships or equipment that is not reliable, then it is really difficult to achieve excellence, although many times because of the outstanding quality of our people they somehow manage to. I want to make it easier for them to achieve mission excellence and put the tools and resources in their hands so that they can do the job well. This is really one of my biggest priorities. Recapitalizing and building capacity was much more at the center of my day when I was in acquisitions, but I still have a key role to play as the technical authority for engineering and logistics for the Coast Guard—it’s one thing to build a new ship, aircraft, or building that is going to support our operational or mission support requirements, but after you get it, you have to know how you are going to sustain it. The time to ask how you are going to support it is when you’re designing it and setting the requirements. The larger costs—even though some of our new assets are not inexpensive—are their life cycle costs, which usually eclipse their actual acquisition cost. Reducing operational costs, through direct involvement during the acquisition process, is an important role I certainly appreciate having. Making sure it meets technical requirements so we can sustain it efficiently and also making sure that things like obsolescence and other factors that increase costs later are considered will reduce costs in the long term. My team and I feel this is an important responsibility as we recapitalize capacity, because a new asset doesn’t necessarily come with additional people and money to take care of it; usually it’s replacing something. It is an imperative that we’re good stewards of the money we do get and that we are able to properly care for our assets throughout their planned life. The Coast Guard certainly has a reputation of keeping its assets for a long time. Preparing for the future is another directive that resonates with me. We’re always ready to respond to crises; that is just part of our day to day. Our daily work strengthens our knowledge base and core competencies and thereby prepares our team of professionals to respond when something happens. It’s part of our Coast Guard culture. Preparing for the future is something where I think the Coast Guard—in particular, mission support—has really made significant changes. Large, east and west support organizations are no longer here; new national ones have replaced them and are now organized along functional lines like our Surface Forces Logistical Center, which takes care of all of our surface assets. Our Aviation Logistics Center supports our aircraft and our Shore Infrastructure Logistics Center cares for all of our shore property. These organizations are designed to take us efficiently and effectively into the future. They are organized around the concept ­CGF  4.1 | 17

of product line management, which means a single entity—a person or team—oversees a product, in this case a cutter class. In the past we would have a supply entity, a maintenance entity and a field entity completing maintenance and involved in supply and parts ordering. We now have coalesced that into a single “product line” that owns both maintenance and supply chain, which is a very powerful tool we are starting to get great value out of. For example, if you have a piece of equipment on a ship that requires maintenance, it probably also requires spare parts. When you make changes to one or the other, you need to synchronize both. Now, under the product line concept, we are able to do that much more efficiently—plus, we have one logistics center for the entire country; we no (Left to right) Capt. Patrick McMillin, Capt. Mark Lebeau, Capt. Keith Turro, Rear Adm. Ronald Rabago and Cmdr. Thomas Remmers cut a ribbon during a ceremony held to open up a new office facility on Coast Guard Island. The new facility houses longer have the east and west component that we 24 new engineers and technicians from the Surface Forces Logistics Center’s Long Range Enforcer product line and the Naval used to have. That allows single decisions to be Engineering Support Unit Alameda’s Maintenance and Weapons Augmentation. [Photo courtesy of U.S. Coast Guard] made for the entire class, regardless of where that vessel, aircraft or shore infrastructure is. We are I can ensure it is going to exactly the right thing that will achieve able to make decisions that look holistically at the whole enterprise the effect that the commandant has directed. and there is real efficiency and effectiveness in that. It has also allowed us to look at our systems as enterprises. When you take Q: Regarding the OPC, how does the design process differ from an enterprise view you can think longer term. You can also think other cutter acquisition projects? about upgrades and improvements in a much more organized way. We are preparing for the future in the sense that we’ve created an A: We’re actually borrowing some elements that the Navy uses to organization that is learning and improving the way we do things. design a ship, but we’ve tailored it for the Coast Guard. We’ve taken That prepares our mission support organizations to be ready for the best parts that fit us and tailored it to meet our needs. For the challenges, be efficient with our dollars, and be effective so example, I talk to our chief acquisition officer, Rear Admiral Korn, that every dollar goes to the right place and we enable operational frequently on the OPC acquisition. We’ve adapted a concept called commanders to perform their missions. the ship design team; it is a group that works for me directly but works as a subgroup under the whole OPC project that falls under Q: In constrained budget times, how do you balance the portfoRear Admiral Korn. The ship design team also has reach back into lios Engineering and Logistics handles? What are the competing the rest of our engineering and logistics organization and to other demands you must weigh when considering upgrades and modtechnical authorities. It allows us to take the sponsor’s requireernization against new asset acquisitions? ments and create an “indicative design” that is proof that those requirements collectively are doable and can be met cost effectively. A: I think that is certainly one of the Coast Guard’s toughest chalIt also assists us to build a good government estimate. We want to lenges and there are always going to be trade-offs since there is know what the ship will cost and where the cost drivers are, allownever going to be enough money to do it all. Our service priorities ing us to bring cost down by being smart about how we implement are set by the commandant and also guide our mission support requirements in order to achieve the operational requirements set priorities. That is good guidance for me, as it helps prioritize my by the sponsor. activities to be supportive of the commandant’s direction. The good That ship design team works very closely with the acquisition news in terms of our new mission support model is that we’re able project, and it also brings in the sustainment piece that I mento take those priorities and make decisions across the whole entertioned earlier. They are already thinking about how we are going prise more efficiently than ever. to take care of the ship. They are driving decisions into the model The second imperative for me is that we have to know what it as they develop the RFP, build the statement of work and specificacosts to do the things we do. Every federal agency has to be able to tions, working with technical standards in the naval vessel rules specifically articulate the costs of the services they provide to the [ABS], working with all of the stakeholders. It’s a feasibility assessAmerican people. One of the things our new organization allows us ment as well as a cost estimate. This process makes us smart and to do is to better allocate real costs and predict future needs. We’ve informed when it comes time to interface with industry. We have also had some successes with our audit position—complying with put out a draft spec already and my team has been reviewing all of the CFO act—which has helped us allocate costs to our activities the great comments we got back from industry. in standardized ways that meet accounting standards. Once you By having this kind of informed discussion, building an experhave clear and executable processes and you know what it costs, tise within the Coast Guard to make sure that we get exactly what you can better choose activities that meet the priorities set by the we want, solidifying the cost estimates and ensuring technical president, our secretary, or the commandant. This helps me make feasibility, we are enhancing our ability to provide proper oversight good decisions and when I get a dollar from the American taxpayer, 18 | CGF 4.1

for the acquisition. We now have a group of Coast Guard people in the various elements—tech authority, project management, sponsor—all informed, educated and ready to manage the project to make sure we stay within budget and that we get the exact ship the Coast Guard needs. Q: Could you discuss the decision to classify the OPC using ABS-NVR and the implications for engineering robustness and cost savings? A: ABS construction classification is a statutory requirement that was put in our most recent authorization act; we like the ABS naval vessel rules. We work closely with the Navy because many of the standards apply both to the Navy and Coast Guard. We have a Coast Guard addendum to the NVR because there are differences between a Navy combatant and a Coast Guard cutter. We meet regularly with ABS; I was actually at a session in December reviewing the latest revisions. It’s a dynamic and living document that reflects advances in technology, computer modeling, technical standards, and it also reflects ABS’ past experience with commercial ships.

with the contract, the Coast Guard gets the longer-term benefit of the changes that were made to our systems. An example of that is in Puerto Rico where we installed photovoltaic panels on some of our buildings; we estimate getting about $1.3 million returned back to us in terms of savings. There are lots of those opportunities out there and we’re looking at all of them to reduce our energy costs. Q: How can the Coast Guard better manage its energy expenditure? Where do you hope to see the energy management program in five years?

Q: When can industry expect the RFP?

A: What I would like to do first is complete our audit, so we know all the opportunities out there, and then continue in a deliberate and focused way to go after the areas that will produce the greatest savings. I want this program to be sustainable and I expect it to pay for itself several times over. I want this to be the way the Coast Guard does business: when we build a building we expect it to be very efficient; when we build a ship we expect it to have certain energy-conserving features as part of its design; we need to choose equipment and systems that can operate with alternative energy sources. These are things that we must do, whether we are managing a fleet of ships and aircraft or shore infrastructure.

A: I’m told we hope to have a draft RFP out by the end of the summer and by fall we expect to put out the actual RFP.

Q: What do you see as the most pressing tasks for the Coast Guard in the year ahead?

Q: Coast Guard seems to be leading the way in DHS in terms of environmental and energy management. What initiatives do you find most promising?

A: I think the biggest task in front of us is our transition from our old and difficult and expensive to maintain assets into newer, more capable and more cost-effective systems and assets. Nowhere is this more visible than in our surface fleet. Some ship classes are averaging 40 or 50 service years—the oldest ship, not counting Eagle, is 67 years old, the Smilax, affectionately called the queen of the fleet. The nation needs these ships; they are performing their missions, our crews out sailing them are protecting our country our economy, and our citizens. But I must tell you, our crews are working really hard to make every deployment. Our older ships like our 378s are being replaced by the national security cutter (NSC), which is more than a replacement; it really reduces the sometimes overwhelming maintenance burden on our crews and enables operational capabilities and effectiveness that is quite remarkable. Back when I sailed on a 378’ a long time ago as an ensign, when you pulled into port at the end of a patrol you could balance maintenance, training and other in-port activities in a fairly predictable way. You go aboard a 378’ today and the crew—from the moment the ship arrives in port to the day they leave for the next deployment—are working long, long hours because of the age of the ships and their systems. They know the work is important for the country and our Coast Guard and they do the work with great spirit. It’s time to get the new assets online. In the meantime, we have the fleet that we have, and I’m looking for ways to reduce our sustainer’s workload. One of the things that we’re doing is systems replacement, where we take a difficult-to-support system that breaks frequently or that’s causing significant challenges for the crews or operational commanders, and replace that system with a more cost-effective, modern system. That’s a good bridging strategy to get us to the point where we can replace the entire asset. We’re using that strategy very effectively in our Mission Effectiveness Program that’s being executed in our Coast Guard Yard for our 110’, 210’ and 270’ cutters. I’m also faced

A: There are a number of things we are very proud of. We are managing our energy programs as a broader enterprise now. We are addressing it systematically and recognize first that you need to know what you have. That involves audits, looking to see what kind of buildings we have and how energy is used by our ships and aircraft—I note there are a lot of opportunities in our shore infrastructure. We also just completed an audit on one of our ships at the pier and looked at its shore tie operating costs—what systems are running, do they all need to be running when the ship is at the pier. We think there are opportunities there as well. There are a number of great tools available that allow us to manage our energy more effectively. We’re continuing to strengthen our relationship with the Defense Logistics Agency, who of course can buy bulk fuel very efficiently; they are a great partner of ours because of their buying power. Additionally, they have a distribution system and contracts with vendors so there are real opportunities for efficiencies, cost reductions and improved availability. We are aggressively looking for ways to reduce our energy costs. We can create smarter buildings; just as you could install a programmable thermostat in your home or install energy-efficient lighting, we can do those things in our federal buildings as well. The second area we are exploring is lower cost forms of energy, which can be alternative fuels, alternative systems like photovoltaic or wind power, biofuels, things that have a real potential to lower costs. ESPCs [energy savings performance contracts] are a great vehicle to recapitalize our systems because they allow us to partner with a commercial entity that does the upfront investment making the infrastructure changes needed and they get their payback through the savings that we both enjoy over time. When we’re done

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with the reality that the cost to operate those ships continues to climb; it’s climbing well beyond what inflation would indicate because the age of the ship adds additional burdens and expenses. We’re spending a lot of money and working the crews hard to take care of those ships. The crew is going to go out and do the mission, but our job here in Washington is to give them the tools and resources they need to do the job. I’m committed to doing that. Our technical and support people are really some of the best; they’re taking care of equipment and systems whose instruction books in many cases were written before their parents were born. In other cases, they’re dealing with some of the most sophisticated, technologically capable platforms that are available today. I am really proud of our people and their broad range of knowledge. They are really doing a fantastic job. Q: As the service continues the acquisition of NSCs, how will Surface Forces Logistics Center support their operations? A: We have a “product line” that supports the national security cutter. Right out of the starting gate we’re able to think of that NSC as a system with supply chain and maintenance chain linked together; I think we’re better positioned than ever to take care of these new assets. We’re capturing the actual costs of operating, maintenance and supply activities so that we can be smart about where we need to make investments early in the life of the ship versus allowing things to happen and then reacting. We’re better able to project things that we’ll have to do in the future to take care of the platform; we have this single point of responsibility at the product line level that can look at it as a system and make good decisions even at the earliest point in the life cycle of the ships, when everything is still new. Q: What are some of the most significant lessons you’ve learned since assuming your current position? A: There are three things that stand out. I would probably say that my faith and confidence in our Coast Guard men and women who are taking care of our assets is stronger than ever. I couldn’t be more impressed with what they are doing. They are being really good stewards with the money given, they aren’t wasting a penny. They are achieving operational results that we are all proud of. That is not just the support team, but the operators as well, there is a great partnership. The second thing that I’ve learned, or been reminded of, especially when I was visiting our yard, is that our fleet is old. Some of those systems and equipment are just really difficult to support. It is truly time to recapitalize. The mission set hasn’t decreased. Our need to have a Coast Guard out there hasn’t decreased; in fact, we’ve been given some additional responsibilities over the last 10 or 15 years with a fleet that is projected to get smaller. The last point that I’d make is that our people are tremendous problem solvers; they are faced with everything from a Deepwater Horizon to a catastrophic failure of a piece of equipment or system and they figure out how to solve it and continue to do great things. That makes me all the more motivated to do more for them. It was a great energy boost for me to see how our men and women are working hard to take care of our fleet and infrastructure. It certainly energizes me to work even harder for them. 20 | CGF 4.1

Q: Do you have any closing thoughts? A: When I first took this job, I developed a three-part plan on what I thought I needed to focus on. The first is our people. We’ve gone through a lot of change in our mission support organization, especially with the stand-up of new organizations as well as the ending of others—for very good purposes and the changes are yielding great results. But as part of that structural change, our people have also endured a lot of change; in some cases they had one job title and the next week they had a new but related job title. It affected both our military and civilian employees. I agree wholeheartedly with the commandant, who has emphasized “steadying our service.” We have gone through a good deal of change—all for good reasons—but as we settle into the new organizations, I am also focusing on our people. We’re asking all of our people, ‘Do you know what your responsibilities are? Do you know how you can be successful in your current job? Where are you going to go next? How are you going to get there and how are you going to compete for those new positions? How do you grow in our Coast Guard?’ We’ve changed a lot and we are also looking at relationships among our organizations and other agencies. I want to ensure every member of our team can answer the questions, ‘How am I contributing? Am I in the right spot? Where am I going next?’ We’re putting out updated guidance and instruction and policy to help everyone understand where they fit in the organization. Vice Admiral Currier, my boss, has put out clear guidance on how the mission support organization works together; this is all very important because it allows people to see how they fit, how they can be successful, and most importantly how they can contribute to the larger enterprise. The second area of focus for me is resources. My initial goal is to make sure our folks are the smartest people in the room when it comes to understanding how the resources come in, how they are going to be allocated, and how they are going to assign cost to our activities so that we can be good decision-makers. The other piece is to prioritize to achieve the operational goals set for the Coast Guard. Because of the centralization of our functions and the stand up of our logistics centers, I understand how our resources affect our effectiveness. I can better say that if you add a dollar to my enterprise, this is the operational impact, and if you take a dollar, this is the operational impact. I think that is incredibly important to decision-makers, especially our operational commanders. This involves understanding what it takes to operate these ships, aircraft and buildings. That is in the steady state, but we also have to assign costs to our surge responsibilities; when the Coast Guard is called upon to do something, we need to know what those costs are as well. Finally, I am working to update all of our policy and guidance. Publications that were current four years ago no longer apply. I need to provide updated, clear and actionable policy to the field. This is especially important as we comply with the CFO Act—our audit process. Good updated policy also provides us an opportunity to look for efficiencies and eliminate redundancies. Those three areas, people, resources and policy, will be my focus for the immediate future. Again, I am thrilled to have this assignment, not just for the work but because of the people I am privileged to serve with. Semper Paratus. O

Undertaking an ambitious and creative energy management program, the Coast Guard of today is working to leave the service of tomorrow better positioned to meet energy and budget demands. The Coast Guard continues to chart a course toward greater sustainability, a path exemplified in the service’s Energy Strategy signed by the commandant in early 2010. “The strategic vision espoused by that document is to become the model federal agency for sustainable and reliable energy management. I think we’re getting there; the Coast Guard is doing well,” reflected Danny Gore, energy program manager for the service. The strategy identified three priorities for the service to pursue: energy efficiency and renewable energy, energy reliability, and energy accountability. In the past few years since Gore became energy manager, the Coast Guard has made significant strides tracking their energy consumption and where energy dollars are spent. “We realized Danny Gore that we needed to improve how we monitor our energy consumption; we’re getting better and better. You can’t improve until you can measure. Good measurement identifies best locations for effective conservation projects.” In terms of energy usage, what the Coast Guard is measuring indicates great progress and promise. Recent reporting shows the service has reduced facility energy intensity (btus/building square feet) by 20.3 percent compared to a 2003 baseline. Overall, 7.1 percent of the service’s electricity is attributed to renewable energy, whether that is energy the Coast Guard generates or the renewable

By Maura McCarthy CGF Editor

energy credits (RECs) they buy. “The current target is 5 percent. In the beginning we had to buy inexpensive RECs to meet the target, which help generate renewable energy in the open market. Now we’re weaning off of that with our own renewable energy installations. Soon, we should meet the target completely on our own,” Gore said. The Coast Guard also reports that all new buildings designed since 2006 are 30 percent more energy-efficient than applicable standards, and more recently, all new buildings are being certified LEED silver. The service is installing advanced electricity meters nationwide and has successfully reduced water consumption by 15.2 percent from the baseline year. The reductions in shore energy consumption also help the service combat rising energy prices. Since 2003, CG energy expenditures are rising at an average rate of 10 percent per year and are roughly paralleling the price of oil. “In my opinion, that rate of increase is unsustainable and will soon impact CG operations,” Gore predicted. “The reduction in shore energy usage helps our bottom line. However, next we will need to address our biggest fuel consumers—ships and aircraft. We’ll need to think about how we buy and manage fuel, and if energy efficiency concepts can be applied to these assets.” True to its motto, the Coast Guard is always ready to rise to a challenge: thinking outside the contracting box, and even venturing outside of job descriptions to navigate its way toward greater sustainability. This mentality and can-do culture is demonstrated in three specific projects the service has undertaken: the installation of photovoltaic solar panels in Petaluma, Calif.; the renewable energy center in Baltimore, Md.; and the photovoltaic solar panel project on Puerto Rico.

Thinking Outside the Box The largest renewable energy project in the Coast Guard, the Coast Guard Yard Energy Center, is fueled by landfill gas (LFG) that not only generates electricity and steam for the yard’s operations but also prevents LFG (methane) from entering

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Energy Innovation

the atmosphere. Financed through an energy savings performance contract (ESPC), the project captures methane gas produced in Baltimore’s Quarantine Road Landfill. The center began producing electricity in 2009 and in fiscal year 2010 produced 9,700,000 kWh of renewable energy. Under an ESPC, a federal facility enters into agreement with an energy services company where the company designs an energy efficiency project and installs necessary equipment—at no increased cost to the federal agency. The agency, in this case the Coast 22 | CGF 4.1

Guard, pays the company out of the calculated savings as a result of the efficiency improvements. According to Gore, the Coast Guard has awarded eight ESPCs and two UESCs (similar, but awarded to the local utility) since FY 2007, many of which are no-money-down contracts. “We have been accomplishing about $44 million per year in these types of contracts. Roughly half of the savings pays for capital improvements and half pays off the amortized financing—the interest. So that’s roughly $22 million a year in capital improvements

that we’re paying for out of energy savings. A lot of the work that we do needs to be done anyway. If the heating and cooling systems are getting old and we need to change them out, we’re going to do so with more energyefficient unit and we’re using the savings to pay for it,” explained Gore. At the Training Center in Petaluma, Calif., the Coast Guard used an alternatively financed power purchase agreement (PPA) to install an 875kW photovoltaic array (PV); comprising 5,232 panels, this is the service’s first PPA and largest ground-mounted PV project. It is expected to prevent more than 2 million pounds of greenhouse gas emissions annually. Legally, the Coast Guard only has the authority to enter into an agreement with a utility for one year; in the case of Petaluma, the Coast Guard issued the contract for one year with 24 option years. “We were able to The service recently installed solar panels at Air Station Borinquen. [Photo courtesy of U.S. Coast Guard] make that work,” explained Gore. Perhaps the most innovative contract the Coast Guard has negotiated was executed in Puerto Rico for roof regulations. “We received a memo from the White House directing renovation and PV panel installation at Coast Guard housing faciliall federal agencies to execute $2 billion in efficiency projects in the tates on the island. The project combined an ESPC and energy sernext 24 months, and we have submitted our plan to DHS indicating vice agreement (ESA) to fund the largest solar project DHS history. how the Coast Guard plans to do its share,” Captain John Hickey, “What we were able to do was use the ESPC and its 25-year authority commanding officer of the Shore Maintenance Command said. and embed a PPA into it. We also did a traditional ESPC as well, but the portion for renewable energy was the equivalent of a PPA embedA Bright Future ded into an ESPC. We call it an ESA as opposed to a PPA in order to keep the ideas separate,” explained Gore. “This was the first time Gore concluded that “the Coast Guard is rife with opportunities such a contract was executed in the government and it may become to save energy and we’re still just scratching the surface. There’s a lot a model for us and other agencies to use in the future. In Puerto Rico we can do to reduce consumption and offset the continuous rise in we will be generating almost 3 megawatts of renewable power. When energy prices.” With the rising price of oil posing challenges for all we place that on top of the 4.8 percent of electricity we are already sectors of the government, the Coast Guard is actively considering getting from self-generating renewables sources, it is going to put us alternatives. “We have been studying the possibility of implementnearer to 7.5 percent Coast Guard-wide. When the statutory mandate ing biomass heating solutions for our facilities in Alaska due to the goes up to 7.5 percent in 2013, we’ll be close to the target,” he added. alarming escalation rates that we have seen in the cost of heating oil. Our financial analysis indicates that we could create tremendous savings by using biomass, which is a renewable form of energy, Managing Energy Consumption for heating rather than using oil,” explained Hickey. Opportunities for energy savings abound, but the service cannot do it alone. “No Gore finds the use of alternatively financed energy projects to matter how great the financial analysis looks, we simply don’t have be extremely promising. “Those are really win-win scenarios for the the appropriated funds to execute the projects. Therefore, we need Coast Guard. They do not increase the size of our energy budget, industry to finance the projects for us, and then we pay off the loans when paid off they will decrease the energy budget of tomorrow, they with the savings generated. We have invested over $200M in our help us reduce our energy intensity and meet our statutory goals, facilities with this strategy already, and there is more opportunity and simultaneously facilitate much needed capital improvements at available,” Hickey said. our shore campuses.” The service’s success is perhaps in part due to willingness of Treating energy as both a commodity and a resource will be individual servicemembers to step outside their job description and important for the Coast Guard moving forward, and they have seize an opportunity. For example, the Energy Center at the Coast already made significant advances managing energy this way. In a Guard Yard was initiated by the civilian facility manager, Richard given year, 20 to 25 percent of the money the Coast Guard spends Eschenbach, who identified the yard as the perfect opportunity. As executing day-to-day operations is spent on energy. “We know we Gore said, “He kept at it until he convinced his bosses and me to spend a lot of money on energy, and if we can figure out how to make that project happen.” O conserve by using less or by learning how to manage it better so we don’t have to spend as much, then we’re freeing up funds to do For more information, contact CGF Editor Maura McCarthy other things. Anything you can pull off the energy side is money at or search our online archives with which you can do more ops,” Gore emphasized. Moving forfor related stories at ward, the Coast Guard is well positioned to meet increasing federal

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Fitness Afloat Deployable fitness options for the Coast Guard ensure your team is mission ready. By Lieutenant Commander Dan Leary

The Coast Guard is coming to a crossroad with regards to fitness. Although we are mandated to be in compliance with body weight standards, we are the only service that does not have a stem to stern fitness test and requirement. There are moves afoot to develop and implement one, and I wanted to take a few minutes to highlight some easy fitness options that don’t require a traditional gym setting. All of these options can easily fit in your sea bag, go-kit, helmet bag or footlocker. First and foremost, a good dynamic warm up is not only necessary but a key component of injury prevention. A good warm

Push: • dumbbell or barbell press • dumbbell or barbell bench press • incline dumbbell or barbell bench press • push ups • dips

Pull: • pull ups • chin ups • dumbbell or barbell rows • TRX inverted rows • rope climbs

Legs: • bodyweight squat • dumbbell or barbell squat • single leg squats • TRX single leg squats • banded squat

Armed with this knowledge, let’s consider options for deployable gear. A primary consideration is bodyweight, which requires no equipment at all. Using just your body, I would set up a workout something like this: Push: 10 pushups; Pull: 10 pull ups; Legs/Hips: 10 single leg squats; Core: 20 sit ups. This should be structured as a circuit and you should complete five rounds with minimal rest in between exercises in order to keep your heart rate up. This can easily be completed in less than 30 minutes! The next tool in our deployable fitness kit: sandbags! I love sandbags as they are easy to use, durable and are constantly moving. I also don’t have to worry about them getting damaged as they are easily replaced. You can make you own to save cost or purchase them. I have used both and can honestly say that these sandbags are the way to go. The sandbag workouts are awesome because the bag is constantly moving, causing you to stabilize while you exercise. Any exercise you do with dumbbells or barbells can be done with a sandbag. The TRX Suspension trainer is a great deployable fitness option that taxes you using only your bodyweight. You can use it 24 | CGF 4.1

up can be as simple as 5 minutes of jump roping or as extensive as you want. The key is to get your heart rate up and get a good sweat on, which will warm up the muscles and prepare them for the workout. For the main part of any workout, I recommend you remember this phrase: push, pull, legs/hips and core. This means the workout should have an upper body push exercise, an upper body pull exercise, a legs or hips (alternating between workouts) exercise and a core exercise. For example:

Hips: • dumbbell or barbell dead lift • single leg squats • TRX assisted single leg squats • TRX leg curls • glute-ham bridge • single leg deadlifts

Core: • sit ups • planks • leg raises • mountain climbers • get ups

by itself or mix it up with other tools or bodyweight exercises. I never travel without one. Although Kettlebells are the new fitness craze in the U.S., they have been around for centuries and originated in Eastern Europe. The Kettlebell can be used for conditioning or building strength; most people need only one or two 35-pound or 53-pound Kettlebells to get a great whole body workout. Medicine balls can provide an outstanding workout. Starting at 2 pounds and building up to 20 pounds, they will really tax your central nervous system and are another great tool to have. You can build explosive power and whole body strength with medicine ball snatches and other core exercises. Take advantage of your surroundings. Most ships already have a sledgehammer on board and combined with a boat bumper they provide a killer workout. Try striking the bumper for 30 seconds and then rest for 30 seconds, completing five rounds. You can also try Tabata protocol during which you work for 20 seconds then rest for 10 seconds for eight rounds of work. These 4 minutes will really challenge you! You can add on other exercises once you build up

Fit for Duty: TRX Training to Build More Fit, Durable Coast Guard Men and Women By Andrew Vontz Life and duty take place in a 360-degree operational environment. Coast Guard personnel must be prepared to move safely and effectively in any direction at any moment, instantly. Widely used in all branches of service, TRX Suspension Training enables Coast Guard men and women to get out of the back and forth, up and down groove of weight training and running and gives them a tool that can be used to cultivate and maintain peak operational fitness and durability, anywhere, with quick, highly effective and functional workouts. The TRX Tactical Suspension Trainer is a training tool born of necessity in the field that’s ideally suited for developing and maintaining durability and functional fitness for Coast Guard personnel on land, at sea, or anywhere they

find themselves. TRX CEO Randy Hetrick made the first version of what would later evolve into the TRX Suspension Trainer while operating as a Navy SEAL when he and his teammates needed a way to stay fit on missions while tucked away in remote regions of the world. A set of nylon straps with handles and foot cradles that weighs less than two pounds, the TRX can be used to execute hundreds of different movements that engage the whole body. Every movement on the TRX challenges the body in all three planes of movement. Simply performing a push-up with your feet in the TRX’s foot cradles instead of resting on the deck transforms this staple move into a whole-body movement that requires 360-degree coordination, strength and balance.

The TRX can quickly be set up anywhere you can find a beam, bar, door, rail, or other overhead point to use the simple carabineer-based anchoring system. The new TRX Force Kit: Tactical was developed with feedback from servicemembers in all branches and optimized to meet the challenges today’s operators face. It includes the new TRX Tactical Suspension Trainer and a weather and tear-proof guide that includes three workouts on two DVDs and a progressive 12-week Tactical Conditioning Program designed to help tactical athletes like Coasties achieve and maintain peak physical readiness. The TRX Force Kit: Tactical can be used as an all-in-one solution or to complement training with other modalities such as weights and Kettlebells.

stamina. Try a round (4 minutes) of sledgehammer strikes followed by a round (4 minutes) of burpees followed by another round (4 minutes) of sledgehammer strikes. These 12 minutes of work will challenge anyone, anywhere. Interchangeable dumbbells provide the same fitness options as barbells but take up a fraction of the space. They are a great addition to any fitness program. Keeping in mind space constraints, fitness bands are a must for anyone with limited space. They provide not only great resistance training options but stretching exercises as well, both of which will help you meet your fitness goals. Looking at all these tools one can certainly see the myriad of fitness and training options. What’s important is to have a plan. A training plan, much like a navigation plan or flight brief, provides you and your shipmates with a road to fitness success. A plan you and your shipmates can stick to will help any unit maintain operation success. O

Lieutenant Commander Dan Leary is the aviation engineering officer at Air Station Astoria, Ore. He has studied fitness/training under renown Coast Guard fitness expert, Captain Richard Shumway as well as job shadowed Chris Carlisle, the NFL Seattle Seahawks strength and conditioning coach, and is currently studying to test for his Certified Personal Trainer designation with the National Academy of Sport Medicine. He can be reached at Note: The views expressed here are the author’s own and are not an endorsement by the Coast Guard.

LCDR Dan Leary demonstrates the TRX Suspension Trainer to Admiral Papp at the 2011 Coast Guard Innovation Expo.

For more information, contact CGF Editor Maura McCarthy at or search our online archives for related stories at

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The Coast Guard Foundation’s Tribute to the Coast Guard in Our Nation’s Capital By Matthew Clark Coast Guard Foundation Staff For the past seven years, the Coast Guard Foundation has made its mark in the Washington, D.C. area with its annual event, the Tribute to the Coast Guard in Our Nation’s Capital. The perennial function has honored the dedicated men and women of the United States Coast Guard, and this year will be no exception. The Coast Guard Foundation will host its 8th Annual Tribute to the Coast Guard in Our Nation’s Capital on June 12, 2012 at the National Building Museum in Washington, D.C. The theme for this year’s D.C. dinner is “Supporting Military Families.” One of the most challenging aspects of life in the Coast Guard is balancing responsibilities of family and duty. In light of these challenges, the Coast Guard Foundation supports families in various ways, including college scholarships for dependents of enlisted personnel, education grants for spouses, and disaster relief funds in the wake of a tragedy. Through the generosity of its donors, the D.C. dinner has raised more than $6.1 million since it began in 2004—and the organization’s goal is to raise another million dollars this year. Coast Guard Foundation Director Cor26 | CGF 4.1

rine X. Kosar will speak on behalf of the Foundation, and Admiral James C. Loy, USCG (Ret.) will be the master of ceremonies for the evening. Admiral Robert J. Papp, USCG commandant, will be the keynote speaker. Other highlights for the evening include a performance by the United States Coast Guard Band. The Foundation hopes to have a “Secretaries Table” at the dinner this year. Invitations have been extended to all past secretaries of Transportation and Homeland Security to recognize their commitment to the Coast Guard. “The brave men and women of the Coast Guard and their families sacrifice so much for us each and every day. They rescue us. They are the nation’s first responders to disasters, both natural and man-made. They protect our ports and our environment. They keep our country safe from the threat of terrorists, as well as keep our streets safe from those who seek to bring illegal drugs here. They do all this, and ask for very little in return. Our Tribute to the Coast Guard in Our Nation’s Capital is a unique opportunity to recognize their accomplishments and thank them publicly,” said Anne B. Brengle, Coast Guard Foundation president.

More on the Coast Guard Foundation’s Scholarship Program Since the inception of The Coast Guard Foundation’s scholarship program 22 years ago, the Foundation has awarded more than $2.4 million to 250 students. Last year alone, children of enlisted personnel were awarded 13 scholarships, worth more than $160,000. As a leader in the support of Coast Guard members’ higher education goals, the Foundation this year provided roughly 800 enlisted men and women and their spouses with grants worth more than $235,000, helping them attain the dream of a college education. To learn more about the Coast Guard Foundation’s Tribute to the Coast Guard in Our Nation’s Capital, call the office at 860-535-0786 or visit them on the web at O

For more information, contact CGF Editor Maura McCarthy at or search our online archives for related stories at

This index is provided as a service to our readers. KMI cannot be held responsible for discrepancies due to last-minute changes or alterations.



Bellevue University. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C4 Empire State College. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 General Dynamics NASSCO. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C2 Vigor Industrial. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

March 26-27, 2012 Combat Systems Symposium Arlington, Va. individualeventwebsites/css/pages/ asnelandingpage.aspx

April 4-5, 2012 International Marine Forensics Symposium National Harbor, Md.

­CGF  4.1 | 27


U.S. Coast Guard Forum

Jeff Sherman Director of Federal Energy Solutions Schneider Electric Q: Can you give us a little background on Schneider Electric? A: Schneider Electric is the global specialist in energy management best known for its heritage brands of Square D, APC, Pelco, Juno Lighting Group and what was formerly TAC. We provide comprehensive solutions from enterprise-level software and supervision down to hardware and application components across the five critical domains of a facilities infrastructure: power management, process and machine management, IT room management, building management and security. We also offer a full suite of services that sustains our customers’ energy management objectives throughout the life cycle of their facilities across the broad spectrum of facility and infrastructure types. Q: How does Schneider Electric leverage this experience to support the U.S. Coast Guard? A: Over a century of experience tells us that uncoordinated, short-term focused, component-level attempts to solve energy management issues without a comprehensive plan that optimizes efficiencies and sources across multiple building domains can inhibit achieving overall energy goals. We’re helping the Coast Guard to develop and implement a strategic life cycle approach to energy management to maximize savings and ROI and avoid degradation of those savings over time. We are also enabling better results and improvements in operations through systematic energy visibility and real-time control of energy usage. Q: What projects are currently being worked on and for what customers? A: We have a broad scope of projects across all agencies from power distribution to data centers to security. For instance, we designed and installed the building-level advanced metering infrastructure [AMI], including more than 12,000 advanced meters, simultaneously at 32 naval and Marine bases worldwide. The AMI infrastructure uses an open methodology to ensure multivendor interoperability and monitors and manages consumption of water, air, gas, electricity and steam. 28 | CGF 4.1

Our project with Veterans Administration National Energy Business Center encompasses more than 800 buildings and 20 renewable energy systems. It employs a hosted ION Energy Enterprise Management software along with metering infrastructure for monitoring and managing their facilities’ electrical usage and $500 million utility bill. Last year, four U.S. Coast Guard sites in Puerto Rico leveraged a $13.8 million capital investment and received a $50 million green overhaul of 35 buildings and 411 housing units through an energy savings performance contract. They installed 2.89 megawatts of photovoltaic [PV] panels and implemented multiple other energy conservation measures [ECMs]. This is allowing the Coast Guard to redirect $1 million of its annual energy spending from brown to green power sources and save $1.1 million in energy spending annually, a 40 percent savings. The financing structure for this project was the first of its kind for the federal government. It combined a renewable energy services agreement financing structure within an ESPC financing vehicle. The unique financing structure enabled the extension of the renewable energy financing term beyond 10 years to 23 years, which complements the longer renewable energy paybacks. Funding the investment for the PV systems also relied upon a $6.5 million U.S. Department of the Treasury grant that expired at the end of the year. Q: What were some of the biggest challenges you faced with the photo voltaic solar panel project for the Coast Guard in Puerto Rico? How did you address those challenges in order to ensure the project was successful?

A: The typical challenges were all evident: cost, schedule and resources, but during the project’s development phase, we also learned that asbestos existed in the roofing material of over half the housing units and buildings to be retrofit. We assembled a team to abate the hazardous material in coordination with the actual roof replacement project. The project schedule was especially challenging. In order to capture the 1603 Treasury Grant, we compressed the project development cycle into only six months. In Puerto Rico, hurricane season spans several months and threatened completion of construction work on time. To compensate, the schedule was front-loaded, thus allowing extra time for delays during storm season. Delivering an energy savings performance contract on a remote island posed significant challenges, but we overcame them. Most materials needed for the project were not readily available on the island, so extra measures were taken for shipping, storage, and identification of suppliers who could meet these expectations. Lastly, we were responsible for managing nine different subcontractors at three different sites to install and commission ECMs at each building. Careful planning and coordination was required to minimize disruption at Coast Guard mission-critical facilities and at individual residences. Q: How do you the measure success of a project like the one in Puerto Rico? A: Through both energy efficiency gains and renewable energy production, the Coast Guard will eliminate 53 percent of its annual fossil fuel consumption. This is a significant step toward achieving Net Zero at installations in Puerto Rico and considerable progress toward energy independence. While the Coast Guard receives the benefit of energy savings, reduced maintenance and improved occupant comfort, the Puerto Rican economy benefitted from job creation. More than 270 island residents were put to work constructing the project, which supports Puerto Rico’s Green Energy Strategy and helps the Coast Guard comply with recent federal energy mandates. O


April 2012 Vol. 4, Issue 2 Dedicated to Those Who Are Always Ready

Cover and In-Depth Interview

Rear Adm. Richard Gromlich Director of Operational Logistics SPECIAL SECTION Tactical Communications After more than a decade at war, the nation’s reserve forces have been utilized more than ever before. What is a deployment like for a port security unit, a unit that is staffed mostly be reservists? How do they combine their unique skills, such as tactical communications, with the Navy to create a task force?

FEATURES Charting a New Course

Training & Simulation

How can a degree or certificate in fire science equip Coast Guardsmen with the education needed to complement their experience and facilitate the transition to a civilian career in the field?

CGF gets a rare glimpse inside TRACEN Cape May and explores how recruits get their feet wet in training and are prepare to join the fleet.

Compel Compliance What initiatives are most promising in the field of non-lethal force? How do the latest developments support the Coast Guard’s maritime law enforcement missions?

Propulsion Systems From FRCs to NSCs and the planned OPCs, what are the Coast Guard’s priorities when powering the fleet?

Insertion Order Deadline: April 13, 2012 • Ad Materials Deadline: April 20, 2012


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CGF 4-1 (March 2012)  
CGF 4-1 (March 2012)  

Coast Guard Forum, Volume 4 Issue 1, March 2012