Page 1

Border Threat Prevention and CBRNE Response

Acquisition Manager Mark Borkowski Assistant Commissioner Office of Technology Innovation and Acquisition U.S. Customs and Border Protection

March 2013 Volume 2, Issue 1

Leadership Insight Rand Beers Under Secretary National Protection & Programs Directorate U.S. Department of Homeland Security

Interoperable Communications Border Surveillance O RVSS Public Safety Comms O Eyes in the Sky O CBP Leadership



Border & cbrne defENSE

Editorial Calendar


MAY 2.3

JULY 2.4








Kevin K. McAleenan

Dr. Kimberly O’Connor

Jose Mayorga

Michael J. Fisher

Acting Assistant Commissioner

Chief of Staff

Director Robert S. Mueller, III

Office of Field Operations Customs and Border Protection

special section Public Safety & Security Roundtable

border security focus Mobile Surveillance Systems

cbrne focus Biodefense

features Port Security Public Safety Communications

Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense,

Federal Bureau of Investigation

Chief of U.S. Border Patrol, U.S. Customs and Border Protection

special section

special section

special section

Homeland Security Education Directory

JPEO-CBD Project Management Update

Border Security Roundtable

border security focus

border security focus

border security focus

2014 National Preparedness Grants Program

Tactical Communications

Maritime Surveillance

Counterintelligence Operations

U.S. Customs and Border Protection

Homeland Defense Strategy and Force Planning

special section

cbrne focus Radiological/Nuclear Detection


cbrne focus Chemical/Biological Defense


Facility Security

Law Enforcement Training

Access Control

Airport Security

IT Modernization

Medical Countermeasures


cbrne focus Hazmat Disaster Response

features Biometrics & Identity Management

border security focus Securing and Managing Borders

cbrne focus CBRNE Unmanned Vehicles


Transportation Security

Global Supply Chain Security


Critical Infrastructure

Counter Terror Expo* (US)



Video Surveillance



IAFC Hazmat 2013


Border Management Conference & Expo*

Counter terror Expo (UK)

National Homeland Security Conference

closing date

IACP 2013* ASIS 2013*

HALO Counter-Terrorism Summit

ISC West

closing date

closing date

EMEX 2013*

Maritime Homeland Security Summit

May 15

August 21

closing date

Small Arms

tradeshows GovSec East*

June 13


October 11

closing date April 15

This editorial calendar is a guide. Content is subject to change. Please verify advertising closing dates with your account executive. *BONUS DISTRIBUTION


March 2013 Volume 2, Issue 1


Cover / Q&A


Leadership Insight Exclusive interview with Rand Beers, Under Secretary, National Protection & Programs Directorate, U.S. Department of Homeland Security focused on protecting and enhancing the resiliency of our nation’s infrastructure.



RVSS technology provides the ability for the Border Patrol to have situational awareness of a particular area, so that an agent can perform those aspects of the mission that only an agent can do. The technology also provides a certain level of safety to the agent by providing information about the incursion detected before the agent encounters it.

In February 2012, Congress enacted the Middle Class Tax Relief and Job Creation Act of 2012, which mandated the creation of a nationwide interoperable wireless broadband network that will enable public safety officials to more effectively communicate. By Brian O’Shea

Remote Video Surveillance Systems

Interoperable Communications

16 Mark Borkowski


Public Safety Communications

Our lives depend on it: From 911 calls to high-frequency radios used by first responders, public safety communication is something that most take for granted … until an emergency. By Nikki Maxwell

11 CBP Leadership

Strengthening the Border Patrol by investing in the future of its agents and challenging them to help move the agency forward with heavy emphasis on advanced education, mentoring and succession management. By Michael M. Bailey


Eyes in the Sky


Protecting our nation’s border entails multiple governmental agencies, a wide range of vehicles and varied equipment, and countless men and women to process different types of gathered data. By J.B. Bissell

Border Surveillance Technology

Criminal organizations clash for control over illegal drugs, weapon smuggling and human trafficking, leading to violent crimes, including murder, on both sides of America’s borderline. By Nikki Maxwell

Assistant Commissioner Office of Technology Innovation and Acquisition U.S. Customs and Border Protection

“We learned that if you’re going to embark on such

ambitious program, you an

really have to have a very tight linkage

what you’re buying and why you’re buying it.” between


Industry Interview

2 Editor’s Perspective 3 FRONTLINE NEWS/PEOPLE 14 SECURITY WATCH 27 Resource Center

Steve Soroka

Group Vice President Homeland Security Group Unisys Federal Systems


-Mark Borkowski

Border & CBRNE Defense Volume 2, Issue 1 • March 2013

Border Threat Prevention and CBRNE Response Editorial Editor Brian O’Shea Managing Editor Harrison Donnelly Online Editorial Manager Laura Davis Copy Editors Sean Carmichael Laural Hobbes Correspondents J.B. Bissell • Hank Hogan • Nikki Maxwell

Art & Design Art Director Jennifer Owers Senior Graphic Designer Jittima Saiwongnuan Graphic Designers Scott Morris Eden Papineau Amanda Paquette Kailey Waring

Advertising Associate Publisher Charles Weimer

KMI Media Group Publisher Kirk Brown Chief Executive Officer Jack Kerrigan Chief Financial Officer Constance Kerrigan Executive Vice President David Leaf Editor-In-Chief Jeff McKaughan Controller Gigi Castro Marketing & Communications Manager Holly Winzler Operations Assistant Casandra Jones Trade Show Coordinator Holly Foster Operations, Circulation & Production Circulation & Marketing Administrator Duane Ebanks Data Specialists Summer Walker Raymer Villanueva

EDITOR’S PERSPECTIVE Legislators plan to tackle the problems of immigration over the next year, and proposals and discussions of failures within the current system are plentiful. However, one of the main issues included in this discussion is that current border security needs to be strengthened before other issues of immigration reform can be addressed. “We’re going to get a lot of equipment from Afghanistan and Iraq that we’ve already paid for to redeploy to the Southwest border, and I think that’s smart. The more we get that done, the more people on my side of the aisle are going to be more willing to have that debate about immigration reform we need to have,” said Brian O’Shea Republican House Homeland Security Chairman Michael McCaul. Editor The White House has recently proposed a plan with four major tenets: strengthening border security and infrastructure, combating transnational crime, improving partnerships with border communities and law enforcement, and cracking down on criminal networks engaging in passport and visa fraud and human smuggling. “We strengthened security at the borders so that we could finally stem the tide of illegal immigrants,” said President Barack Obama. “We put more boots on the ground on the southern border than at any time in our history. And today, illegal crossings are down nearly 80 percent from their peak in 2000.” Arizona Governor Jan Brewer recently said the need to secure U.S. borders is step one in immigration reform, and then legislators can move forward with tackling things like the pathway to citizenship. “We need to secure our border first, and then move forward,” she said. “I feel very, very strongly about that. I think the people, certainly, of Arizona agree with that.” McCaul said the pathway to citizenship and finding those who overstay their welcome in our country are also top priorities. “In addition to our border security operations, the reform discussion must include strengthening the Department of Homeland Security and Immigration and Customs Enforcement’s commitment to finding those who overstay their visas and deporting dangerous criminals,” he said. I agree that that our immigration system needs overhaul and that strengthening our border is a high priority; however, I hope legislators take the time to examine how to do this in a manner aimed at a consistent strategy instead of blindly putting more boots on the ground and adding more cameras. If you have any questions concerning Border & CBRNE Defense, feel free to contact me at any time.

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June 2012 Volume 1, Issue 1

Michael J. Fisher Chief U.S. Border Patrol U.S. Customs and Border Protection

Leadership Insight: Robert S. Bray Assistant Administrator for Law Enforcement Director of the Federal Air Marshal Service Transportation Security Administration

Wide Area Aerial Surveillance O Hazmat Disaster Response Tactical Communications O P-3 Program

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FRONTLINE NEWS DHS Audio and Video Surveillance Solutions Contracts Awarded Cobham Tactical Communications and Surveillance has been awarded two government wide acquisition contracts by the Department of Homeland Security for audio surveillance and video surveillance solutions. The contracts are competitive five-year indefinite delivery/indefinite quantity contracts awarded in the categories of audio and video.

Combating Terrorism Technical Support Office Contract Awarded The Combating Terrorism Technical Support Office (CTTSO) has awarded ManTech International Corporation a prime contract to provide scientific, engineering, technical and administrative support to the CTTSO. The cost-plus-fixed fee contract has a one-year base period and two one-year options with a potential value to ManTech of $33.5 million. Under the contract, ManTech will continue to provide the CTTSO and its subordinate offices with advisory and assistance services and systems engineering and technical assistance services. ManTech professionals will also continue to assist with managing acquisitions and projects to rapidly field combating terrorism solutions at home and abroad. The mission of the CTTSO is to conduct the National R&D Program for Combating Terrorism through rapid research, development and prototyping. Funding, task selection and task management are not dictated by any single agency, and community need determines task priority. Requirements continually evolve and are defined by end users consisting of over 100 federal agencies and state, local, international and non-government organizations. “The CTTSO customer has unique operational and technical demands to quickly deploy advanced solutions in support of the global war on terrorism,” said Terry M. Ryan, president and chief operating officer of ManTech’s Emerging Markets Group.

Network Operations Center Support Services STG Inc. (STG) has been awarded a task order under a GSA single award BPA for the Department of Homeland Security, U. S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) providing Network Operations Center (NOC) support services. “STG will work closely with DHS CBP to apply our Information Technology Service Management (ITSM) framework and best practices from our other NOC engagements, ensuring both NOC locations are staffed with mission-ready qualified personnel,” said Bob Phoebus, STG senior vice president of business development and strategic planning. “By implementing ITSM event management best practices, we will recommend and implement approved, enhanced monitoring and alerting based on mission priorities.” DHS designated CBP as the executive agency for DHS OneNet—the department’s interconnected WAN. DHS OneNet enables the sharing of information across DHS components, to include shared internet, intranet and extranet services. DHS OneNet and CBP NOC has a primary

mission to provide 24/7/365 available, reliable and secure network connectivity to more than 260,000 DHS users, across seven of the most highly visible department components, within three of the department’s most critical datacenters in the United States. This task order is STG’s initial award under the $88 million GSA BPA. “Under this task order, STG will provide CBP with integrated network operations and IT service teams equipped with the appropriate credentials and certifications to enable superior performance and support to the DHS/CBP network environment,” said Mark Jendzejec, STG senior vice president of civil sector. “We will provide continuous network availability monitoring, conduct verification and validation of network availability, monitor network quality of service, and make certain that provisioned services are adequate for specific applications and services to meet CBP requirements.” Elfriede Houseman

Contract Engineering and Logistics Support Awarded CACI International Inc. recently announced that it has been awarded a prime position on the Engineering-Technical and Logistics Domains of the Omnibus Program Engineering and Technical Support contract. CACI will support development and fielding of chemical and biological defense materiel for the Department of Defense Joint Program Executive Office for Chemical and Biological Defense (JPEO-CBD). With a ceiling value of approximately $40 million for each of the two domains, the five-year (three-year base period plus a two-year option period) indefinite delivery/indefinite quantity contract expands

CACI’s presence in its C4ISR (command, control, communications, computers, intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance) and logistics and material readiness markets. John Mengucci, CACI chief operating officer and president of U.S. operations, said, “Our extensive involvement in wide-ranging projects in the C4ISR and logistics arenas will be directly relevant in ensuring the success of the Joint Program Executive Office for Chemical and Biological Defense’s mission. We look forward to providing the critical expertise required to help keep our armed forces out of harm’s way.”

PEOPLE Lieutenant General (Ret.) Joseph Cosumano joined CFD Research Corporation as president, effective February 1, 2013. Cosumano has been at the forefront of efforts to ensure U.S. services were equipped to

meet the challenges of the 21st century throughout his 35-year career. He led the Army’s 1st Quadrennial Defense Review, initiated the Joint Program Office NMD/GMD, was the Army’s force modernizer, stood

up the Future Combat Systems/ Objective Force Office, and culminated his service as the commanding general, Space and Missile Defense Command, during 9/11 and early stages of OEF and OIF.

BCD 2.1 | 3

Saving time, money and lives. By Nikki Maxwell, BCD Correspondent

Our lives depend on it: From 911 calls to high frequency radios used by first responders, public safety communication is something that most take for granted … until an emergency. In the early days of telephones, people simply picked up the receiver and asked an operator to connect them with fire or police departments. After the invention of rotary phones, calling emergency assistance became a confusing process. In 1957, there was a push to develop a nationwide American emergency telephone number. In 1967, the President’s Commission on Law Enforcement and Administration of Justice recommended the creation of a single number to be used nationwide to report emergencies. The 4 | BCD 2.1

Federal Communications Commission (FCC) and AT&T developed a solution 10 years later. Since then, dialing 911 for emergencies has become routine for billions of people in North America. But according to the FCC, the 911 system must evolve to accommodate new technology.

911: The Next Generation No, it’s not a television show—it’s the future of emergency communication. “Although broadband technologies are now central to how Americans communicate, a number of the public safety

answering points [PSAPs] that handle 911 calls still lack broadband connectivity to a service provider network,” the FCC reported in a recent study. “That is necessary to support the evolution to Next Generation 911 [NG 911].” The FCC prepared the cost study for the Public Safety and Homeland Security Bureau in September 2011. “This is an important and reliable service that saves lives, but it has serious limitations. The ‘voice-centric’ legacy 911 system does not support more diverse technologies such as text messaging and streaming video, which Americans increasingly rely on to communicate,” the study explains. “A nationwide NG 911 network will bridge this gap by providing the technical capability for Americans to contact public safety authorities using the advanced software-defined radio (SDR), Envoy delivers new capabilities to the radio through software upgrades so users have access telecommunications platforms of today and Atotrue tomorrow’s features today. [Photo courtesy of Codan] tomorrow.” Experts say NG 911 will improve the speed, accuracy and preparedness of emergency response, and will be more cost-efficient. According to the were left homeless, and thousands were left without utilities for FCC, the legacy, circuit-switched model for routing 911 calls and weeks. Homes, businesses, bridges, tunnels and transportation conveying location information is increasingly obsolete. NG 911 systems were severely damaged. But thanks to public safety tools networks route calls faster using IP-based wireless and wire line that were in place, emergency communication remained intact. networks. “The [911] technology functioned perfectly,” said New York “The mission-critical data capabilities and features can proMayor Michael Bloomberg during a recent press conference. vide first responders with an advantage in responding to emerDespite some complaints about call delays, he said the system gencies,” said the FCC report. “NG 911 capitalizes on these new operated without a hitch. “Are you ever going to have enough platforms to overcome problems inherent in the legacy system operators to take all the calls when all of a sudden everybody and to take advantage of IP-based telecommunications’ superior calls? No, of course not. You have 8 million people in the city, bandwidth, accuracy and flexibility in transmitting audio, video, you can’t have 8 million operators,” he said. text and data in a variety of formats.” “New York has spent a billion dollars to make sure the right The Legacy 911 systems are built on the assumption that a call technology is in place for public safety communications,” Bloomis placed from a fixed point, a landline. NG 911 networks route berg continued. traffic from both mobile-user devices and fixed-location devices. Julius Genachowski, chair of the FCC, added, “There was The NG 911 system uses digital, packet-switched IP data and a very small number of 911 center failures in the aftermath of voice communications. When a user places a call in a NG 911 Hurricane Sandy, but at least 25 percent of the affected region’s system, IP-based technologies and applications geospatially and cellular antenna sites were down, limiting communications.” selectively route the call using internet protocol. This provides Cassidian Communications, an EADS North America Comlocation information and associated call data (formerly referred to pany, manages 60 percent of the 6,000 911 call centers in the as “signaling”). The NG 911 system can also transmit text, images, United States. video and data to the 911 center, helping first responders assess “I am very proud of the fact that our products cover about and locate the emergency. 200 million of the 300 million people in the United States,” said Emergency calls are delivered to an Emergency Services InterJeff Wittek, Cassidian’s chief strategic officer. “The majority of net Protocol Network, which receives calls from different types of the 911 calls received during Sandy were handled using our networks and forwards them to the appropriate PSAP. NG 911 netequipment, which worked in the worst conditions.” works accommodate call-handling by multiple entities and help Cassidian’s 911 call processing was tested by Mother Nature service providers route calls through congested networks. This a few months earlier when violent thunderstorms rolled through enables PSAPs to manage call volume more efficiently. the Commonwealth of Virginia causing power outages at the James City County (JCC) Emergency Communications Center (ECC). The center’s short-term backup power source kicked in Mother Nature as designed; however, the long-term backup power source failed. When the power supply’s batteries became depleted, the center Powerful and devastating, Hurricane Sandy hit the Northlost power. But emergency calls still went through, being rolled eastern United States in October 2012, killing nearly 300 people over to the York-Poquoson-Williamsburg area system. and causing an estimated $63 billion in damages. Hundreds

BCD 2.1 | 5

Operators at the York-Poquoson-Williamsburg ECC logged into the geo-diverse Sentinel Patriot solution as JCC ECC, receiving and processing calls from James City County residents. The two call centers are the first geo-diverse Sentinel Patriot call processing solution installations in Virginia. Wittek said the NG 911 technology provided by Cassidian is an advanced, fully-integrated, geospatial, multimedia platform that is simple to use and easy to maintain. “To keep people connected when it matters most, help keep communities safe, and keep public safety costs within budget, it takes an ecosystem of powerful technologies,” he said. “And that’s what we offer.”

The Broadband Evolution The National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA) recently asked industry leaders for design and business plan input regarding the nation’s proposed interoperable public safety broadband network. The First Responder Network Authority (FirstNet), the body inside the NTIA in charge of designing the network, wanted comments on the “conceptual network architecture” and the general concept of how to develop applications for public safety users. At the group’s inaugural meeting in September 2012, FirstNet requested the FCC transfer the public safety spectrum license to FirstNet. The agency hopes to leverage existing resources and infrastructure to achieve the major elements of the nationwide wireless network. The FCC seems to agree. “Working with the public safety community, carriers, manufacturers and other service providers, the goal is to ensure that effective emergency response is a critical element of the broadband environment,” Genachowski said. In keeping with that broadband vision, several companies have developed products to meet the increasing needs of their public safety customers. Cassidian’s Broadband Vehicle Router (BVR700) was named a “Hot Product” for 2012 by Public Safety Communications, the official magazine of the Association of Public-Safety Communications Officials International. “The BVR700 has the ability to work on commercial LTE networks and the NPSBN [Nationwide Public Safety Broadband Network] currently being designed and deployed on Band 14 by FirstNet,” said Rich Cagle, Cassidian’s vice president of sales for land mobile radio. “It also provides high-speed WiFi capability, which allows the vehicle to become a hotspot so first responders’ COTS [commercial off-theshelf] handheld devices can communicate directly with the vehicle and across an LTE network of their choosing.” Cagle said public safety agencies can now choose from less expensive, smaller, more powerful, full-featured devices that are typically for commercial use while using secure, hardened B14 networks for transport. He said the BVR700 gives customers the ability to buy a device today that works on commercial networks. “They gain the security of knowing that when NPSBN is available, the router will continue to function,” Cagle said. “Plus, once the Band 14 public safety network is available, customers can use the router to roam from commercial networks to NPSBN, giving them the benefit of broadband applications and content today on commercial networks. This means agencies don’t have to wait, and their investment is protected now and into the future.” 6 | BCD 2.1

Another broadband public safety product turning heads is General Dynamics’ GeoSuite, a web-based, multimedia common operating system that allows users to collect, report and share information. “It is designed specifically for personnel at the front line like police officers, rescue workers, field agents and volunteers,” said Brian Slaughter, product manager for GeoSuite. “It improves situational awareness and enables 360 degree collaboration, information sharing and analysis between users.” With only 90 minutes of training time needed for field deployment, Slaughter said the system is very user friendly. The GeoSuite product was adapted from a tactical ground reporting product used by soldiers in Iraq and Afghanistan. Using it, they take pictures, send updates about activity in a location, and send important status information to their commanders. “The information can be shared, stored or enhanced, providing soldiers with life-saving situational awareness,” Slaughter said. “The software was adapted to GeoSuite for use by public safety personnel, giving them the same information advantage that helped soldiers stay safe while operating in harm’s way.” The common operating information management software is web-based, allowing the lowest tactical user, the guy working on the ground, to have more leverage. “The city of Phoenix has a fusion center and is asking for data to be brought in from various sources, gathering information from several users at the same time,” said Graham Celine, director of marketing for General Dynamics Broadband. “We apply that to deployments during events,” Celine continued. “For example, during parades security forces can collect information in real time and in the future.” A long-term example is a deployed cellular network called “NYC Win,” which supports multiple agencies in New York City. “That’s something we have been doing as a company for many years and it’s great to see the police officers in the street when they get these advanced capabilities to help them with their mission,” Celine said. General Dynamics has also designed some tactical wireless networking solutions, collectively called Secure Mesh Networking. Basically, the system does not need a fixed tower and helps to keep smartphones connected to the network. The radios and devices enable communication among users, and each user is a “tower.” Wherever the radio goes, the network follows, or the radio will look for another radio and automatically sync-up to keep the user connected to the network. So if the local tower or communication station is disrupted or destroyed, the radios keep law enforcement and other agencies connected. There are multiple ends of the network, allowing it to be “selfhealing.” “If one end disappears, then it automatically recovers,” Celine said. “If a truck stops working then the network will find another source connection.” “General Dynamics provides an efficient ‘end-to-end’ capability, tying everything together,” Slaughter added.

High Frequency Radios “High frequency radio is great when you need long range and mobility,” said Andy Sheppard, vice president, Codan US. “We have a very strong brand in the emerging world.”

Codan Limited designs and manufactures a diversified product range for the international high frequency radio, mining and metal detection markets. Codan Radio contracts to U.S. and military systems, and has regional centers serving around the world. “Codan radios are everywhere on earth. Solar usage in rugged country makes them self sustaining, and they are designed to be durable,” Sheppard said. “We focus on low power and transportable design.” Sheppard said the ‘repeater’ technology is one of Codan’s key calling cards. During Hurricane Sandy, land radio infrastructure was damaged and degraded. Statewide agencies used transportable repeater and high frequency radio systems. “You need our equipment when conditions are their worst,” Sheppard said. “Codan’s philosophy is we are designing for the harsh environments.” A British man walking across the Earth’s coldest continent is counting on it. Codan’s high frequency radios have been selected to be used during the first-ever attempt to cross the Antarctic continent during the polar winter. Sir Ranulph Fiennes, “the world’s greatest living explorer,” according to the Guinness Book of World Records, is leading an expedition team of five other explorers in a quest to walk across Antarctica in the nearpermanent darkness and super low temperatures of winter. The fundraising adventure is scheduled to begin in March 2013.

codan_envoy_security_2013-01-29.indd 1

During the six-month journey, the team will travel 2,000 miles, mostly in complete darkness and in temperatures as low as -90 C. “Codan radios were selected for the expedition based upon their long-range communications capabilities and reputation for reliability,” said Paul McCarter, technology and communications advisor, The Coldest Journey. “We are extremely pleased to have our radios on this important and historic expedition,” Sheppard said. “The NGT and 2110 manpacks will provide Fiennes and his team with lightweight portability, and will withstand the extreme temperatures and environmental challenges presented by the Antarctic region.” Codan just released a new high frequency radio called Envoy to replace other high frequency radios. It has an icon-based menu with graphics for easy usability in other languages. Sheppard said having IT capabilities to access remotely will change high frequency radio. “We take public safety communications and ‘doing it right’ very seriously,” Sheppard said. “Lives depend on it.” O

For more information, contact BCD Editor Brian O’Shea at or search our online archives for related stories at

29/01/2013 12:17:11 PM

BCD 2.1 | 7

leadership insight

Rand Beers Under Secretary National Protection & Programs Directorate (NPPD) U.S. Department of Homeland Security

Rand Beers was appointed by President Barack Obama to serve as the Under Secretary for the National Protection and Programs Directorate (NPPD) at the U.S. Department of Homeland Security. On June 19, 2009, Beers was confirmed by the U.S. Senate to direct NPPD’s integrated efforts to reduce risks to physical, cyber and communications infrastructures. NPPD collaborates with all levels of government, the private sector, non-government organizations, and international bodies to prevent, respond to and mitigate threats to U.S. national security from acts of terrorism, natural disasters, and other catastrophic events. As Under Secretary for NPPD, Beers oversees the coordinated operational and policy functions of the directorate’s subcomponents—Cybersecurity and Communications, Infrastructure Protection, Risk Management and Analysis, and the United States Visitor and Immigrant Status Indicator Technology (US-VISIT) program—in support of the department’s critical mission. Beers has served as counselor to Secretary Napolitano since January 21, 2009, and will continue in that capacity while directing the activities of NPPD. Before his appointment, he was the co-leader of the Department of Homeland Security Transition Team for incoming Obama administration. Prior to the 2008 election, Beers was the president of the National Security Network, a network of experts seeking to foster discussion of progressive national security ideas around the country, and an adjunct lecturer at the Kennedy School of Government at Harvard, starting both in 2004. 8 | BCD 2.1

Beers began his professional career as a Marine officer and rifle company commander in Vietnam (1964-1968). He entered the Foreign Service in 1971 and transferred to the Civil Service in 1983. He served most of his career in the Department of State, including as deputy assistant secretary of state for regional affairs in the Bureau of Politico-Military Affairs, focusing on the Middle East and Persian Gulf (1992-1993). He was assistant secretary of state for international narcotics and law enforcement affairs (1998-2002). Beers also served on the NSC staff under the previous four presidents: director for counter-terrorism and counternarcotics (1988-1992), director for peacekeeping (1993-1995), and special assistant to the president and senior director for intelligence programs (1995-1998), and special assistant to the president and senior director for combating terrorism on the NSC staff (2002-2003). He resigned from the NSC staff in March 2003, retired from government service in April 2003, and served as national security advisor for the Kerry-Edwards campaign (2003-2004). Beers earned a bachelor’s degree from Dartmouth College and a master’s degree from the University of Michigan. Q: Can you give an overview of the roles and responsibilities of the National Protection and Programs Directorate at the Department of Homeland Security? A: NPPD works with partners to protect and enhance the resiliency of the nation’s infrastructure, which includes everything from power plants and electric

grids to chemical facilities, cyber networks and information systems. Over the last few years, we’ve developed a nationwide footprint, particularly with our protective security advisors, who have developed close, collaborative relationships with owners and operators of infrastructure in the public and private sectors. And through the Federal Protective Service, we protect federal facilities nationwide, and the millions of Americans who work in or visit them. Q: Can you describe some successes and accomplishments in cybersecurity? A: The Department of Homeland Security is committed to ensuring that cyberspace continues to serve as a driver of innovation and prosperity. At the same time, we work to make it safer and more secure, while protecting privacy and civil liberties. Specifically, DHS’s cybersecurity mission is two-fold: We are responsible for securing networks for federal civilian departments and agencies—the .gov domain—and we work with the private sector, states and municipalities to support the cybersecurity efforts of critical infrastructure owners and operators. To secure the .gov domain, we perform protective services to prevent cyber intrusions and incidents across federal departments and agencies while detecting and mitigating potential attacks. These capabilities include the Trusted Internet Connections initiative, which reduces and consolidates external connections, and Einstein, a continuous monitoring and intrusion-detection system.

To secure critical infrastructure, we operate a 24-hour watch and warning center that serves as the nation’s hub for coordinating cyber response efforts. The National Cybersecurity and Communications Integration Center distributes threat warnings and assists private sector companies in preventing and mitigating cyber threats. In addition, the U.S. Computer Emergency Readiness Team now responds to more than 100,000 incident reports each year. Last year, for example, we led multiagency responses to cyber incidents at the NASDAQ stock exchange and RSA, an information security company. DHS also arrested a Malaysian hacker with 400,000 stolen debit/credit card numbers who confessed to having broken into the Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland’s systems. The Department’s Industrial Control Systems Cyber Emergency Response Team [ICS-CERT] helps protect industrial control systems—the systems that run the nation’s power plants, transportation systems and public utilities. ICS-CERT’s activities have increased exponentially over the last four years, with operators increasingly turning to ICS-CERT to assist with security incidents. The team has responded to 41 incidents in 2010, 196 in 2011 and nearly 200 since January 2012. ICS-CERT has also conducted 85 on-site security assessments, 56 security training sessions for industry owners and operators, and distributed 5,900 copies of their digital Cyber Security Evaluation Tool in fiscal year 2012 alone. These programs and services are offered on a voluntary basis, so we’re only successful when companies ask for help. In addition, DHS enhances situational awareness among stakeholders including those at the state and local level as well as industrial control system owners and operators by allowing the federal government to quickly and efficiently provide critical cyber risk, vulnerability and mitigation data. To combat cyber crime, we leverage the skills and resources of the Secret Service, Immigration and Customs Enforcement, the Coast Guard, and Customs and Border Protection, and work in cooperation with the Department of Justice,

especially the FBI, to investigate and prosecute cyber criminals. And, finally, to increase the public’s understanding of how to stay safe online, we launched the Stop.Think.Connect. public awareness campaign. Stop.Think.Connect. partners with states and national organizations including D.A.R.E., the Boys and Girls Clubs of America, the National Crime Prevention Council, and the Girl Scouts of USA to reach millions of Americans. Q: What challenges do you foresee in the future in the arena of cybersecurity? A: In today’s digital age, a vast array of computer networks support the nation’s critical infrastructure, including banking and financial services, electric grids, defense operations, communications systems and transportation hubs. The increasing connectedness of all these systems, however, raises the risk that an intruder could disrupt services we all depend on. Earlier this year, the department hosted a whole of government exercise that tested our country’s ability to respond to a national-level cyber intrusion. Including stakeholders from government and industry in the exercise was critical because everyone has a role to play in the protection of our computer networks and the physical systems they control. Q: What programs are in place to reduce risks to the nation’s critical infrastructure? A: NPPD’s Office of Infrastructure Protection maintains a robust operation, with field offices nationwide, to continually identify, assess, monitor and minimize risk to critical infrastructure at the national, regional and local levels. The office also assists law enforcement and state homeland security advisors with ongoing state and local critical infrastructure security efforts such as local exercises and planning initiatives. In the last year alone we’ve conducted more than 900 vulnerability assessments and security surveys on the parts of our critical infrastructure to identify potential gaps and provide the owners and operators

with options to mitigate those gaps and strengthen protection and resilience. Over the past four years, we have completed 27 regional resilience assessment projects in more than 30 states on critical infrastructure systems in major metropolitan areas to examine regional infrastructure vulnerabilities, threats and potential consequences from an all-hazards perspective to identify interdependencies, cascading effects, resiliency characteristics and gaps. Beyond ensuring the structural integrity of these key facilities, NPPD has conducted nearly 150 bombing prevention and risk mitigation training courses for 6,300 state and local law enforcement officers and private sector security partners. We also conducted 45 workshops for 2,500 law enforcement and first responder personnel, providing local law enforcement with outreach material for distribution to enhance awareness of homemade explosives for 25,000 private sector businesses within their respective jurisdictions. DHS is deeply committed to continuing our work with state and local government, the first responder community, asset owners and operators, and all Americans to raise awareness, improve preparedness and enhance our collective ability to respond to active shooter incidents. To that end, we’ve developed a training initiative to help governments and companies prepare for active shooter incidents. As we have seen through tragic events recently in Colorado and Wisconsin, an active shooter incident can happen at any time and it’s important to remain vigilant and prepared. We are encouraged by the more than 123,000 people who have taken the course entitled “Active Shooter: What You Can Do” available through Q: How important are partnerships, such as those with other government agencies and the private sector, when it comes to sharing information and resources? A: As you can see from our programs, both types of partnerships are essential. The vast majority of critical infrastructure in the United States is privately owned and operated, meaning public-private partnerships are essential to protect and boost the resilience of critical infrastructure and respond BCD 2.1 | 9

leadership insight to incidents. The National Infrastructure Protection Plan establishes both a partnership structure for coordination across 18 critical infrastructure sectors, and a risk management framework to identify assets, systems, networks and functions whose loss or compromise pose the greatest risk. Through this national partnership structure, government and private sector coordinating councils have contributed to national policy discussions, including efforts to implement the National Global Supply Chain Security Strategy and have offered numerous insights to protect intellectual property, deploy new security trainings, share best practices with industry and government entities, and promote cybersecurity awareness, preparedness and suspicious activity. On a more local level, our protective security advisors are continually working with government agencies and critical infrastructure owners and opera-

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tors to conduct risk assessments, provide training and education, and serve as a local link to the department’s resources and information. We’re building on this collaborative foundation to strengthen the protection of critical infrastructure and also its resilience, so we bounce back quickly when incidents do occur. We’re also working to increase partnerships and information sharing in the realm of cybersecurity. In fact, the administration has proposed legislation that would remove barriers to the sharing of cybersecurity information between the federal government, industry, and state and local governments. The proposal also mandates robust privacy oversight to ensure that the voluntarily shared information does not impinge on individual privacy and civil liberties. Q: How are you mitigating the threat of terrorism at the nation’s chemical facilities? A: Chemical facilities across the country research, produce, process and store chemicals essential to food, medicine, energy and transportation. However, many of these chemicals could be very dangerous in the wrong hands. We work with public and private sector partners to ensure security measures are in place at facilities to prevent theft and build and maintain preparedness for accidents. The Chemical Facilities Anti-Terrorism Standards [CFATS] program works to secure high-risk chemical facilities through risk-based performance standards, and we’re working to improve the program every day. Since the inception of CFATS, more than 1,800 facilities have removed chemicals of interest, and more than 900 other facilities have reduced their holdings of chemicals of interest to levels resulting in the facilities no longer being considered high-risk. These actions have helped reduce the number of high-risk chemical facilities. Q: What are the primary challenges the Federal Protective Service [FPS] faces? A: The Federal Protective Service has a big job—protecting federal employees,

contractors and visitors in more than 9,000 federal facilities scattered throughout the nation. FPS protects federal buildings by detecting, deterring, disrupting and investigating threats using law enforcement authorities. Last year alone, FPS confiscated more than 700,000 dangerous weapons, objects and contraband, preventing them from being brought into federal facilities. FPS has increased coordination with local police departments, including implementing the use of interoperable radio systems that allow FPS officers and local police departments to communicate in real time. In February, for example, using this system, FPS assisted Boston police in chasing down and detaining two suspected bank robbers. Q: What are some ways US-VISIT’s biometric identification services are helping identify people who pose a risk to the United States? A: US-VISIT provides biometric identification services to help federal, state and local government decision makers accurately identify the people they encounter and determine whether those people pose a risk to the United States. This includes: • Improving biometric informationsharing across DHS, which for example allows the Department to match undocumented migrants against known databases of past criminal and immigration violations as well as terrorist watch lists; and • Increasing interoperability among agencies and first responders, allowing different networks and systems to work together. This has enabled the Rapid Response program, which can retrieve more than 69 million identities on primary inspection from the FBI’s entire Criminal Master File in real time. O

For more information, contact BCD Editor Brian O’Shea at or search our online archives for related stories at

CBP Leadership

Preparing for the future. By Michael M. Bailey

It is an age-old question as to whether leaders are simply born or created. No matter how you look at it, there is plenty of supporting evidence backing each side. However, in modern practicality I would say that regardless of your belief on this issue, the important concept to impart is that no matter where you currently reside on the leadership continuum, we can all benefit from available on-the-job training and educational opportunities. In May 2012 the Border Patrol publicly issued a new strategic plan that will drive border operations during the 2012-2016 timeframe. One of the major goals of the new strategy is to strengthen the Border Patrol by investing in the future of its agents and challenging them to help move the agency forward. The new Border Patrol strategy places heavy emphasis on advanced education, mentoring and succession management. Having completed my Master of Science degree in strategic leadership (MSSL) through Black Hills State University I feel that these key components of the national strategy play into the strength of the MSSL program as a whole. Having endured detailed study on the various leadership styles and the effects they have on the workforce has given me multiple tools to use during the execution of my daily duties. The MSSL program also provided me hands-on application in the roles of being a mentor and a mentee. This will play a significant role as I incorporate the lessons learned into my role of teaching new supervisors in the Border Patrol’s Supervisor Technical Training Course (STTC), which is required of all new management hires. The Strategic Leadership Program at Black Hills State had another parallel with my work experience as a Border Patrol agent. In the course of my duties the Border Patrol has sent me to The Center for Leadership Studies in Escondido, Calif., to become certified in teaching the Situational Leadership core model. Situational Leadership is based on the proper readiness level assessment of an individual or group as it pertains to a specific task, and then matching that readiness level with an appropriate

leadership response. This is a flexible way to lead, so it can be adapted to different people and different situations. This style of leadership is also emphasized in the school’s program as one “tool” in a leader’s “toolbox” as it creates awareness of leading in a diverse workforce in today’s world. As a detailed STCC instructor, part of my duties are to give my students enough knowledge about Border Patrol operations so that they can leave the training and automatically be more effective in their separate work environments. Having the Border Patrol train me, and then having that training re-emphasized in my Strategic Leadership program, drives home the fact that the material is not only important, but relevant to a multitude of work scenarios. Taking lessons from my own personal experiences this far in my leadership journey, I can see how a good mentoring program works hand-in-hand with the newly stated goal of succession management. Having qualified mentors who are well versed in the mentoring exchange process, and who are equally experienced in the specific requirements of the job, is going to shape our next generation of leaders. The Border Patrol is steeped in tradition and having those traditions incorporated into the mentoring process will frame a mindset that propels our organization into the next generation. This will also create a current operational mindset that allows us as an organization to deal with the problems of today while at the same time working on solutions to the projected problems of tomorrow. I plan on using my education in Strategic Leadership to be a part of this process even if it is only on an informal level. Our agency is charged with a critical mission in protecting the homeland, and this mission simply cannot be accomplished by leaders who lack foresight and the flexibility to change as the various threats change. Part of the Border Patrol history is based on the ability to improvise and change when needed, and it is my goal to seek advanced leadership training opportunities within the Border Patrol to augment my college education so that I can be ready for any assignment my agency gives me.

I now know that leadership should never be judged solely by what happens today, but also by what you are doing to prepare for tomorrow. Strategic leadership allows you to accurately see where you currently are and lets you build a plan (complete with measurable goals) to be where you want to be at a given time. Strategic leadership may be a new concept for some people, but it is a term that offers a challenge for any organization that wishes to remain viable well into the future. By combining work related training and personal development education, you can temper the debate about leaders being born or bred and concentrate more fully on becoming a better leader, no matter what side of the fence you thought you were on. Like Louis Pasteur said, “Chance favors the prepared mind.” O

Michael M. Bailey

Michael M. Bailey, M.S.S.L., is a Supervisory Border Patrol Agent, United States Border Patrol at the Cotulla, Texas Station. For more information, contact BCD Editor Brian O’Shea at or search our online archives for related stories at

BCD 2.1 | 11

Eyes in the Sky

Unmanned aircraft systems conducting aerial surveillance.

When it comes to operational multitasking, protecting American borders might be about as multi as a mission gets. It involves multiple governmental agencies, a wide range of vehicles and varied equipment, and countless men and women to process different types of gathered data. Aerostar International’s Craig P. Laws, program manager, U.S. Navy, and Deborah Husby, product manager: tethered aerostats, agreed that, “securing our border is a massive challenge requiring a collection of technologies working together to achieve persistent surveillance.” Persistent aerial surveillance is the bottom line, and the first, most obvious, component is the use of unmanned aircraft systems (UAS). “The U.S. Coast Guard shares a single operational land-based UAS platform with the Customs and Border Protection [CBP] office of Air and Marine as part of the UAS Joint Program Office,” explained Lieutenant Commander Jeffrey B. Dorwart, U.S. Coast Guard Avionics, Sensors and C4ISR program manager. “It can fly missions up to 20 hours, and offers improved covert activity and lower per hour/per mile operating cost.” Most importantly, the UAS “enhances the work of officers and agents on the ground,” said Ian Phillips, Media Relations Division, Office of Public Affairs, U.S. Customs and Border Protection. “The systems provide aerial surveillance support for agents by investigating sensor activity in remote areas to distinguish between real or perceived threats [for example, determining whether a sensor was activated by a smuggler or by passing animals], allowing agents on the ground to best allocate their resources and efforts.”

Downsizing Best allocating resources is of the utmost importance. Currently, the border protection agencies are making use of a maritime version of the MQ-9 Predator, known as the Guardian, that flies regularly from a facility at Canaveral Air Force Station. But “the Coast Guard is testing various small, cutterbased UAS for their utility,” said Dorwart. “Depending on size, there are many tradeoffs to be considered. The larger the platform, the more robust the sensor suite can be. That being said, sensor manufacturers are 12 | BCD 2.1

working to miniaturize many of the sensors that were inconceivable only a few years ago. An advantage of the small UAS is the reduced acquisition cost.” Insitu’s ScanEagle and Integrator seem to be possible candidates to fill the Coast Guard’s evolving needs. “Our family of longendurance, runway-independent UAS has logged 670,000 combat flight hours since 2004,” said Paul Allen, vice president of business for Insitu. Neither the ScanEagle nor the Integrator requires a runway to be launched or a net for recovery, so the necessary operational footprint is greatly decreased. They’re also cost-effective. “That’s one of the biggest challenges,” admitted Allen. “So we have multiple platforms designed to balance capabilities and costs across most customers’ funding availability.” It’s an impressive balancing act, too, because one of the most remarkable features of these systems is that even while they provide a smaller option, they don’t forsake information-gathering ability. “Insitu has introduced scores of gamechanging technologies that have dramatically improved imagery and exploitation, operational security, training, airspace safety, reliability, maintainability and availability,” said Allen. “ScanEagle typically flies in extreme environments, carrying an electrooptic or infrared imager in a gyro-stabilized turret.” Still, technology improves on a neardaily basis. “It is difficult to keep pace with it,” said Dorwart. “We need to ensure our systems are open in their architecture to allow us to upgrade to new, faster, more powerful imagers, computer systems, etc.” To that end, “our aircraft are modular, allowing upgrades as technology advances,” said Allen.

Maximum Portability One sure sign of advancing technology is increased portability. There’s no question that the aforementioned Guardian provides unparalleled reconnaissance capabilities. “It sends a streaming video from the onboard electro-optical/infrared [EO/IR] turret,” explained Dorwart. “This video can be viewed

By J.B. Bissell BCD Correspondent

in real time and recorded by the operators as well as decision-makers in both CBP and the Coast Guard. It also sends track data [position, course, speed, and more of surface targets, such as ships, boats, etc.] to populate a common operational picture that allows other users to view the targets the aircraft can see with radar, AIS [automated identification system] and EO/IR.” Deploying the Guardian from Cape Canaveral, though, obviously creates some potential problems in terms of the immediacy of delivering all that gathered intelligence to specific operators who might need it most—and might be out of range when duty calls. “Large unmanned systems serve an important role,” said Roy Minson, senior vice president and general manager of unmanned aircraft systems business division at AeroVironment. “Yet, a more comprehensive approach to border surveillance that also includes small unmanned aircraft systems could improve agents’ effectiveness, reduce costs and protect lives.” And when Minson says small, he means downright miniature. AeroVironment’s Raven, Puma AE and Wasp AE can break down to fit into a backpack, be assembled in the field, and are designed to be launched by hand. Once airborne, the advanced avionics chart a flight path based on GPS waypoints entered by the operator. Or, said operator can remotely point the camera toward a target and the onboard computer flies the plane so that the area of interest remains in continuous view. So while the Guardian can deliver intelligence on a grand scale, AeroVironment’s aircraft are meant to provide instantaneous, precise situational information to the men and women on the ground—and in the immediate vicinity. The Raven, Puma AE and Wasp AE all carry electro-optical and infrared video cameras on a lightweight gimbaled payload that’s mechanically and digitally stabilized. This allows them to “wirelessly transmit live color or infrared video directly to the operator, enabling him to identify threats and take appropriate action to save lives,” said Minson. “Small UAS give operators the advantage of being able to see what’s ahead of and around them where risk can be high and time can be short.”

These ultra-small UAS “provide direct access to real-time eyes in the sky and eliminate the need to go up the chain of command to request a larger manned or unmanned system that may or may not be available when needed and whose information may not be available to those on the ground,” added Minson. In addition to all of these benefits, the “Raven, Wasp AE and Puma AE all have a low acquisition cost compared to the milliondollar or tens-of-millions-of-dollars price tags typical for larger manned and unmanned aircraft systems,” said Minson. “Beyond this savings, their operational cost is very low: a few spare parts and electricity to recharge the batteries, and no need for auxiliary equipment and runways.”

Poor Man’s Satellite When it comes to operational costs, however, tethered blimps—known as aerostats—may allow users to pinch the most pennies. According to Aerostar International’s Husby, “Estimates based on a US Navy Study [‘Lighter-Than-Air Systems for Future Naval Missions,’ by the Naval Research Advisory Committee, October 4 2005] show that the cost of providing unmanned aerial vehicle coverage over an area of interest is at least 10 times that of a similarly equipped aerostat per flight hour of coverage. The aerostat has been dubbed ‘a poor man’s satellite’ due to the relatively small cost compared to other overhead surveillance platforms.” A poor man’s apparatus, perhaps, but there’s nothing poor about its performance. “Our aerostat solutions come in a range of sizes that accommodate different payload packages,” explained Laws. “Aerostar also has a wholly owned subsidiary, Vista Research Inc., that specializes in radar processing. These radar processors provide a wide-area surveillance asset capable of tracking targets in the full 360-degree arc around the aerostat, utilizing both air and surface tracks. Should

a track pique the interest of the operator, the camera can be moved to the track position for a closer look.” “The Vista radars can operate at lower flight altitudes, which allows for the entire sensor system—radar, EO/IR camera and communications repeaters—to be flown on a smaller aerostat, which in turn reduces the procurement and operational costs associated with border surveillance. The combination of Aerostar aerostats, Vista radar and EO/IR cameras makes for a highly capable surveillance solution.” The most unique feature of the aerostats is that once they’re filled with helium, they can stay aloft for weeks at a time and provide persistant surveillance that is “closer to 24/7/365 coverage than is possible with any other UAS,” said Husby. “The Vista radars provide continual wide-area surveillance, allowing for precise use of agents and other assets in protection of the border when used in concert with EO/IR cameras.” They also require minimal operator training. Rami Shmueli, the managing director of R-T L.T.A. Systems, another company that designs and manufactures aerostats, explained that one of the greatest benefits of surveillance blimps is their ease of use. “Our SkyStar aerostats are designed to carry different payloads and applications, and are often run by young operators—mostly soldiers—who were trained in only a few days. Still, the very simple operator interface provides very good performance,” Shmueli said. Good performance is key. And not just the performance of a blimp or a back-packable

recon plane or a runway-independent UAS, but the performance of all of it combined. Because as Dorwart said, “Borders are challenging and demand a lot of resources. Fusion of current manned/unmanned technologies will be required to maintain surveillance without a significant increase in resources.”

Wide Area Surveillance Elbit Systems’ Advanced Multi-sensor Payload System (AMPS) is highly stabilized, multi-sensor, electro-optical payload, said Mike Retallick, director, Air Force Solutions, Elbit Systems of America. Although not fielded by the United States, AMPS has been introduced to senior DoD officials and is currently utilized by the Israel Air Force on the Hermes 900 unmanned aerial vehicle. AMPS is optimized for airborne applications and delivers 24/7 intelligence, surveillance and tactical reconnaissance capabilities in all weather conditions at extremely long ranges. “Unique to its design is the high-resolution real-time video for long-range standoff target detection, recognition and identification (DRI),” said Retallick. “AMPS’s unique stabilization technology and combination on electro-optics provide greater DRI ranges than other existing payloads.” O

For more information, contact BCD Editor Brian O’Shea at or search our online archives for related stories at

BCD 2.1 | 13

SECURITY WATCH Dome Network Camera The Panasonic WV-SW559 Full HD Vandal-Resistant Dome Network Camera offers greater intelligence at the IP network edge, providing benefits such as intelligent image processing, face detection analytics and flexible video motion detection. The WV-SW559, which was recently awarded the “Best Intelligent Video Surveillance Solution” at the Government Security News 4th Annual Homeland Security Awards, includes new smart features such as variable image quality on specified areas (VIQS) and lens distortion compensation, which provides a natural image without distortion when viewed through a wide angle lens. Inside the camera, Panasonic’s Enhanced UniPhier LSI processor enables the new intelligent capabilities such as VIQS, which allows up to two areas in an image, such as the sky, to be encoded at a lower resolution to save bandwidth while maintaining maximum detail in critical areas. VIQS, combined with more efficient compression using the H.264 codec engine, enables network bandwidth reduction of 50 percent. Video motion detection features four programmable detection areas, 15-step sensitivity and 10-step detection sizes. Privacy zone can mask up to two private areas, enabling surveillance of public areas while masking out residential windows or other areas to ensure privacy. The WV-SW559 combines exceptional resolution and superior image quality with advanced features to enable surveillance systems that leverage edge-based intelligence to provide security in demanding government applications. The camera’s performance and versatility also create a foundation for more effective video systems with clearer images. The vandal-resistant network camera is enclosed in an IP66-rated water- and dust-resistant dome,

and a dehumidification device enables use in outdoor applications and in various weather conditions. The camera uses a 2.8-10 mm, 3.6x varifocal auto-iris lens, and images are provided by a 3.1 megapixel high-sensitivity MOS sensor. The 1080p network video surveillance camera has dual H.264 streaming capability which supplies both HD images (1,920-by-1,080 pixels) with mega super dynamic picture quality and 360p video, both at 30 frames per second, for simultaneous real-time monitoring and high-resolution recording. Mega super dynamic image processing and adaptive black stretch technologies deliver 128x wider dynamic range compared to conventional cameras. Face detection analytics can be used with a network video recorder equipped with real-time face matching to compare registered face images with a face displayed by a live image. The WV-SW559 incorporates an infrared cut filter that switches on/off for greater light sensitivity of 0.06 lux in black-and-white (B/W) mode (light sensitivity is 0.5 lux in color mode). Auto back focus ensures stable focus in both color and B/W modes and simplifies installation. An integrator can focus the camera remotely, thus reducing the cost of installation and service. Terri Wheeler;

Digital Extreme Low-Light CMOS Camera Introduced Photonis USA introduced Nocturn, a brand-new digital extreme low-light complementary metaloxide semiconductor (CMOS) camera. The Nocturn camera is especially designed for high performance under both daylight and low-light level conditions. Nocturn fits applications where high-resolution detection and ultra-high sensitivity are required under 24/7 conditions. Its small size, weight and power make this camera module ideal for integration into aerial, mobile and handheld surveillance systems. Photonis’ CEO Goossen Boers said, “We are absolutely excited to see the great response from the market as Photonis remains committed to meet the demand for a higher standard CMOS camera. The Nocturn family is the perfect example of leveraging our leadership and expertise in the field of night vision into another innovative product. That expertise is supporting fully our growth strategy, expanding our offering to markets and applications such as surveillance systems, machine 14 | BCD 2.1

vision and process monitoring, life science systems as well as 3-D imaging or license plate recognition.” The Nocturn is a rugged low-light camera module that features high-definition resolution, high sensitivity and high dynamic range with low power consumption. It provides monochrome realtime imaging capabilities—from daylight to bright starlight—in the visible and near infrared spectrum. Nocturn is powered by the Photonis Lynx CMOS sensor. The sensor enables the camera to provide a consistent read noise below 4e- at rates up to its full 100 fps, with superior signal-to-noise performance due to its large 9.7μm2 pixels and high fill factor. The Lynx CMOS is a solid-state sensor with full SXGA resolution (1280-by-1024) that operates in both daylight and low-light levels as low as bright starlight. The Nocturn digital extreme low-light CMOS camera provides a broad range of spectral responses, from 400 nm to near-IR (1100 nm). With a power consumption under

200 mW (10 times lower than current industry standards) providing a direct digital output, the Nocturn camera is ideal for man-portable systems and unmanned remote posts where 24/7 CCTV image availability is required. It can also be used for machine vision and scientific imaging applications requiring the combination of high speed, high resolution and low light sensitivity. The Nocturn family of cameras starts its offering with two versions: the XS model, which provides the basic module for custom system integration, and the XL, which provides full connectivity via USB, NTSC/PAL or a CameraLink compatible platform. Additionally, the camera is equipped with a range of on-board image correction features to optimize the image as required. The Nocturn camera is the latest in the Photonis line of lowlight imaging sensors and cameras. In 2012, Photonis announced the Lynx Digital CMOS Sensor, and in 2011, Photonis released a digital scientific camera, the xSCELL, with its InXite sensor to support demanding scientific imaging applications. Margaret Cooley;

Compiled by KMI Media Group staff

Advanced Information Management Cyber Security Program Introduced ARINC recently announced its Advanced Information Management (AIM) Cyber Security Program is available and is based on Nuclear Energy Institute’s 08-09 Revision 6, a regulation that provides a program for achieving regulatory compliance to Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s (NRC) rigorous regulations governing cybersecurity. Cybersecurity—the protection of networks against intrusions, espionage and data theft—is a critical concern for nuclear power plant operators. In response to this threat, the NRC has mandated that nuclear power plants provide high assurance that digital computers, communication systems and networks are adequately protected against potential, current and future cyber-attacks. Built on ARINC’s AIM Security Computer System platform, the new cybersecurity solution is an integrated assortment of tools and techniques designed to mitigate cyber-attacks under a variety

of operational circumstances. The ARINC solution enables nuclear power plant operators to create a “defense-in-depth” strategy which implements multiple layers of security controls to thwart cyberattacks. Equally important in mitigating cyberattacks, cyber programs must establish proactive cyber policies and procedures that continuously analyze the aggregation and correlation of network node information, allowing IT staff to build in additional protective strategies as part of a proactive cyber program. “ARINC is using both physical protection schemes and cyber protection appliances to give nuclear operators total cyber assurance,” said Frank Koren, business development director of ARINC Security Systems. “Our turnkey solution provides nuclear power plant operators with the ability to mitigate cyber threats and to achieve NRC compliance now and in the future.”

Secure Android-Based Smartphone Federal agencies that need secure voice and data communications on a wireless network now have a new tool in their arsenal: the AME 2000 Secure Mobile Solution from Motorola Solutions. The AME 2000 is based on Motorola’s Assured Mobile Environment (AME) solution, which combines a commercial off-the shelf (COTS) device with hardware and software for end-to-end encrypted communications through private or public wireless networks to support the missions of federal agencies. Using a COTS smartphone with an Android-based operating system, the AME 2000 provides a familiar, userfriendly experience. It has a Suite B IPSec Virtual Private Network for secure data-in-transit between a mobile device and a customer enterprise through private and public broadband networks, including GSM, 3G, 4G LTE and Wi-Fi. End-to-end AES 256/NSA Suite B encrypted voice services and messaging are capable between AME-equipped devices. “The AME 2000 addresses the different vulnerabilities of commercial technology by enabling users to communicate and access sensitive data securely from wherever their duties take them,” said Brenda Herold, corporate vice president, Global ASTRO Products and Solutions at Motorola Solutions. The Motorola CRYPTR micro, a hardware security module in a microSD form factor that meets FIPS 140-2 Level 3 and Suite B standards, provides the AME 2000 with tamper protection for keys, tokens and certificates, and performs high-assurance cryptographic operations. Integrated mobile device management allows over-the-air installation and updating of applications as well as device integrity verification. For additional protection, encryption keys can be erased remotely on devices that are lost or compromised. The AME 2000 supports customer-installed applications, such as graphic information system mapping and video and remote medical monitoring. It also implements government-sponsored security recommendations from Security Enhanced Android for enhanced security policy controls through assured pipelines so processes cannot be bypassed or hijacked by flawed or malicious applications. “Secure mobility is among the U.S. government’s top technology priorities,” said Paul Mueller, vice president, U.S. Federal Government Markets Division at Motorola Solutions. “The AME 2000 features a familiar Android-based OS experience with layered security, device management and applications that comply with federal guidelines.” Scott Rover,

New Identity Management Solution BeyondTrust recently announced the release of PowerBroker for Windows 5.5, the industry’s first identity management solution able to leverage the security context provided by vulnerability and privilege data, which allows customers to more effectively manage the risk of their Windows systems. This release also includes integration with the award-winning Retina CS Threat Management Console, providing robust, enterprise-ready analytics and reporting capabilities for PowerBroker Windows deployments, as well as support for implementing least privilege on Windows 8 systems. PowerBroker for Windows is a fast, easy and most cost-effective way to secure Windows systems through the implementation of least privilege. It reduces help desk burdens and costs, while increasing the security of the Windows infrastructure. This new release allows IT organizations to benefit from system and application vulnerability data when considering the requirements of elevated privileges for users, tasks and applications. Employing this approach, BeyondTrust customers can make more informed security strategy decisions based on a system’s overall risk and susceptibility to attacks. “The high velocity of change in today’s enterprise infrastructure often means security teams are making critical business decisions based on threats, regardless of the actual context of those threats,” said Brad Hibbert, executive vice president of product engineering at BeyondTrust. “This new product release allows organizations to make more effective security decisions, by delivering the context that can only be provided by fusing both vulnerability and privileged identity information.”

BCD 2.1 | 15

Acquisition Manager

Q& A

The Linkage Between What CBP Buys and Why They Buy It Mark Borkowski Assistant Commissioner Office of Technology Innovation and Acquisition U.S. Customs and Border Protection

Mark Borkowski became the assistant commissioner for the Office of Technology Innovation and Acquisition (OTIA) with U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) of the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) in July 2010. He is responsible for ensuring technology efforts are properly focused on mission, are well-integrated across CBP and for strengthening effectiveness in acquisition and program management. In addition to being the assistant commissioner for OTIA, Borkowski serves as CBP’s component acquisition executive responsible for ensuring acquisitions support a mission requirement, are cost effective and are integrated across all of CBP where appropriate. Prior to his appointment as assistant commissioner, Borkowski served as executive director of the Secure Border Initiative (SBI) Program Executive Office (PEO). As executive director, Borkowski oversaw the Department of Homeland Security’s implementation of SBI at U.S. Customs and Border Protection, and oversaw SBI’s continued efforts to develop border security resources that will provide enhanced situational awareness for frontline CBP personnel along the U.S. borders. Before assignment to SBI, Borkowski served as the executive director for mission support at Headquarters, United States Border Patrol. In this role, he supported the chief of the Border Patrol in executing the Border Patrol’s $2 billion annual budget and in managing a total workforce in excess of 17,000 agents and support personnel. He oversaw functions of workforce management, labor and employee relations, finance, logistics, recruitment, training, facilities and tactical infrastructure. As a DHS Level III certified program manager, he provided expert advice and support to the chief of the Border Patrol with respect to the technology program within SBI, SBInet. Borkowski directed a contracted effort for organizational development to redesign and transform the Border Patrol to respond to an unprecedented growth in the organization driven by presidential mandate. His division staff included 75 personnel assigned to six separate geographic locations. Prior to his appointment as executive director of mission support, Borkowski served as director for asset management in CBP’s Office of Air and Marine. In that role, he oversaw acquisition and sustainment for CBP’s aircraft and marine assets. Before joining CBP, Borkowski was the program executive for the Robotic Lunar Exploration Program in the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) at NASA Headquarters. In that role, he oversaw the development and operation of 16 | BCD 2.1

robotic precursor missions to the moon as stage-setters for eventual human missions. Previously, he served as the assistant deputy associate administrator for development programs in the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate. Borkowski assisted the deputy associate administrator in overseeing the technology, development and acquisition programs to implement the president’s Vision for Space Exploration. Borkowski also served as the program executive overseeing the Hubble Space Telescope Robotic Servicing and De-orbit Mission and as the ESMD coordinator for NASA’s Exploration Transportation Strategic Roadmap. During his time at NASA, Borkowski was elected vice president of the International Lunar Exploration Working Group—a consortium of national space agencies and key commercial partners supporting initiatives for international collaboration in lunar exploration. Borkowski served over 23 years on active duty in the United States Air Force, retiring at the rank of colonel. Borkowski’s last assignment in the Air Force was as system program director for the Space Based Infrared Systems (SBIRS) program office. In that capacity, he oversaw satellite programs worth over $40 billion, including the Defense Support Program, SBIRS-High, and SBIRS-Low. During his Air Force career, Borkowski also served as the Support Group Commander at Eglin Air Force Base; the chief of the Programming Division at Headquarters, Air Force Materiel Command; the assistant chief of staff at the Ballistic Missile

Defense organization; and in a variety of other staff, acquisition and engineering positions. Borkowski elected to decline an offer of promotion to brigadier general and to retire from the Air Force in 2004. Borkowski has a master’s degree in astronautical engineering from the Air Force Institute of Technology (AFIT) and a master’s degree in national resource strategy from the Industrial College of the Armed Forces. He also has bachelor’s degrees in aeronautical engineering from AFIT and in mathematics from the State University of New York at Albany. Q: Can you give an overview of the Office of Technology Innovation and Acquisition’s role in Customs and Border Protection? A: OTIA is actually a relatively new organization at CBP. It was stood up in July 2010 as result of some lessons learned. CBP was originally a much smaller agency when it was created. We had become aware of the value of technology and capital investment in supporting our frontline personnel and securing the border and facilitating the movement of legitimate trade and travel. Our experience with acquisition or capital investment, if you will, was not as structured. One of the best examples of that is the former program SBInet, which was a very ambitious program for an organization with the heritage of CBP to take on. It was a very expansive and very challenging program. We learned that if you’re going to embark on such an ambitious program, you really have to have a very tight linkage between what you’re buying and why you’re buying it. The other thing that we learned that was very significant was that the government management of that kind of an activity actually requires a specific set of skills that were not widely available in CBP. Compare this organization to the Department of Defense, for example. DoD has whole career development plans for acquisition managers, not just contracting officers, but acquisition managers. We did not have that. So we learned that there was a value and a need to develop and nurture those competencies. Those very specific skills are important for the government to manage complex acquisitions and the linkage between what we’re buying and why we’re buying it, and the linkage between what we’re buying and the people who will use it. So that is OTIA’s function. To build that strength capacity and have it available to CBP. Q: What policies or programs are set to be implemented in 2013? A: We’re in the throes of buying the successors to the old SBInet. These programs are scaled more appropriately for their missions and they are in various stages of acquisition. They are very high-priority efforts that are being very closely watched. Those programs should start to be awarded as we get further into 2013. In addition, we’re taking a more analytical look at the kinds of systems used at our ports of entry. Specifically the non-intrusive inspection programs, X-rays and other scanning equipment. We’re taking a more deliberate analytical look at those programs to develop a more coherent and comprehensive strategy. Instead of buying things that make sense in little bits and pieces, we’re trying to come up with an overarching strategy to guide future procurements of non-intrusive inspection equipment. There’s actually a broader question about the role of technology and the function it can perform across the border, and the

right time to get technology versus the right time to do something else such as agents, roads, fence. We’re understanding more as we go on that technology has strategic purposes in addition to tactical purposes. What I mean by that is, when we use technology we’re usually using it to support a tactical operation in the field. For example, the Border Patrol is using cameras and radars to provide information leading to an immediate response from the agents who are deployed out in the field. That’s a tactical application of technology. But there’s also a strategic application of technology, and that’s to give broad awareness of what’s going and how it’s changing. It might not lead to an immediate response, but it might support the collection of big picture knowledge to allow us to develop longer term strategies. Q: How does the OTIA stay up to speed with evolving technology? A: One of the reasons for creating OTIA was to create a very denoted connection with the Department of Homeland Security Science and Technology Directorate [S&T]. We rely on the DHS S&T folks to handle the evolution and the development of technology and they support us by providing budget and resources to do that. The other way we stay up to speed is through a pretty active interaction with industry. That includes everything from speaking at industry trade shows and conferences to conducting frequent vendor meetings. I meet with vendors who are interested in what the opportunities are, how CBP sees the future, and then sharing their views of systems they are aware of or developing. I’ve probably done a thousand or more of those individual meetings. We try to collect that information both through the informal meetings with across the table dialogues, as well as other formal structures like requests for information. We’re integrating that into a technology road map. The last thing I would highlight is the formation of the Border Security Technology Consortium [BSTC], which is not really so much an OTIA or CBP initiative, it’s actually an industry initiative. It’s a consortium that consists of a whole bunch of different types of entities, academia, nontraditional suppliers, small businesses, large businesses who can work with the government to synthesize ideas and solutions, offer opportunities, reinforce each other. So BSTC, which is just getting started, is an opportunity we’re looking forward to that may also enhance our ability to stay abreast of current technology. Q: What are the primary challenges OTIA will face in 2013? A: Investment funding often in an environment like this is the first thing you look at when looking at discretionary funding to help deal with budget cuts. Another challenge is getting a handle on our operations and maintenance costs. When you buy things you obviously have to operate and maintain them, and we have systems that we already bought that we’re operating and maintaining. Those costs in a more mature culture or environment are things where you have very structured ways of attacking those costs, reducing those costs and harvesting savings for investment. We have to spend some time on developing that capacity here. Also, we probably have more demands on us than we have resources to meet those demands in terms of the number of people we have to manage the activities related to awarding contracts and managing BCD 2.1 | 17

contractors. I have a couple of high-priority source selections going on and a very lean team of people here. So trying to keep some semblance of schedule and not burn out people, while at the same time developing these arcane acquisition competencies, is a huge challenge. Q: How are you addressing the issue of innovation in a government context within the OTIA? A: First let’s talk about innovation, because I want to set up some context here. The government comes up with initiatives that will make things better and to do more with less, improve efficiency and improve effectiveness. They eventually become tautologies. We just become very comfortable depending on it. The philosophies behind all of these things were generally pretty good, but they got corrupted over time as they evolved into tautologies— ‘How are you going to solve that problem?’ ‘Continuous improvement.’ The latest buzzword seems to be innovation. One of my great fears is that we allow innovation to turn into a tautology. That leads to the first challenge: What exactly is innovation? We spent some time here in OTIA, because we have innovation in our name, making sure that the workforce here understands what innovation means. Not to dictate the meaning to them, but for us to come to a consensus of what it means. What I’ve learned over time is as you sit in meetings with people, everybody is sitting there thinking they know what innovation means, but they all have a different thing in mind. That’s problem one. Problem two is that in the government context there’s a pretty broad perception, I’ll say misperception, that the bureaucracy and the constraints of government make innovation darn near impossible if not absolutely impossible—that there are just too many rigid constraints to innovation. The theory of innovation, which applies out in the commercial world, could never be applied in government, because government just doesn’t have the flexibility and the ability to take the risk that is required to innovate. There are a couple of tools that we’ve looked at. For example, the folks here in OTIA as well as the CBP senior leadership are taking a psychometric instrument called KAI [Kirton AdaptionInnovation Inventory]. We’ve done some things with projections to get people to start thinking about what innovation means. One of the things you need to do is to define an innovation portfolio, and you have to populate it with items that you’re specifically going to attack—issues or opportunities that you’re going to create through the use of innovation—and you want them to be broad in the sense of how they extend across the continuum of innovation. Some people are thinking about how you make incremental improvements and some people are thinking about very revolutionary, transformational stuff where you’re doing things where you don’t even contemplate a need for them. You’re just trying stuff out, and then after you’ve created something and then you identify after the fact, ‘Wow this could help me do this other thing in a way I’ve never thought of before.’ You create these innovation portfolios and you attempt to populate [them] with specific items that you’re going to try to innovate on. You also try to create an environment that encourages people to innovate, which means encourages them to take risk. Innovation doesn’t happen at the top levels of an organization; it happens at the working level. The working level needs a sense that there will be someone up higher than them covering them 18 | BCD 2.1

if they take risks, protecting them from that risk. You have to find a way to convince your people that they can take risks. One of the ways we’re thinking about doing that is finding a way of rewarding risk. I mean that differently than a lot of people. I’ve heard people talk about giving rewards for innovations. I’m talking about giving rewards for the fact that you took a risk that could lead to innovation, and I actually want to reward the taking of the risk, not the result of taking the risk. Q: Will any changes be made to the acquisition process in 2013? A: I think not in a way that’s going to be visible outside of CBP or DHS. DHS is doing a lot as is CBP to put some structure and better understanding of its formal acquisition processes. What the world sees in general, which is the request for proposal process and how we evaluate proposals, probably won’t look very different. Now I mentioned this BSTC: One of the things we’re looking at there is whether it makes sense to use a tool called other transactional authority, which is a different way of creating a business arrangement with somebody. That’s been around for some time; it’s not anything that’s unique or really innovative. We might apply it differently than people at DHS have seen, but DoD has done it. Within DHS and within CBP, one of the things we’re really trying to do is get out of an ad hoc management by heroics approach to getting through acquisition and creating a more stable repeatable process. Q: How does evolving technology play a role in lifecycle logistics? A: Technology should be an enabler for making logistics simpler and less costly. In the past we’ve typically focused on technology as an enabler for doing the job better—the job being to see what’s going on. So we use cameras as long-range eyeballs; they’re better eyeballs. We use radars as long-range eyeballs. By the way, that’s one of the issues; that’s not really innovating, it’s just using them the same way we use our eyeballs. That’s good, that’s an important use of technology, but we also understand that we have to use technology as a way of reducing lifecycle costs, reducing the burden of lifecycle operations, and perhaps even being able to get more efficiency out of individual agents. There are some things that only agents can do; there are some things where technology can substitute for agents. What I want to do is apply more agents to the things that only agents can do and offload them by the use of technology, which also is a lifecycle cost function. We’re going to start looking at technology as an enabler for that in addition to being an enabler for mission performance. Q: Can you describe OTIA’s relationship with industry to meet its goals and objectives? A: We have heard from industry that they really liked panels of operational experts talking about what we see as our mission, how we do our job, almost a kind of stream of consciousness, and what’s interesting to industry is our strategy, our tactics, our objectives, our relative ranking of threats changes over time. To us that change is fairly gradual, it’s continuous, but to industry that gets a chance to check in on us maybe every six months to

a year, these seem like very discrete step function changes in our view of the world. So what they’ve asked us to do from time to time is say, when you come to talk to us normally you’re anticipating an acquisition or you have an industry day, but we really like when you just talk to us without necessarily any commitment, you don’t have any plans to buy anything—we just like to hear how your thinking is evolving. We started doing that last May. We had an industry day that wasn’t really an industry day, it wasn’t a procurement forum. It was exactly that; we had a bunch of panels where our experts just got up and talked about what they’re doing and what they’re thinking and how those thoughts are evolving. We got some feedback from that and industry said they really liked that. The problem they had was it was a lot to cover in one day, and could we continue to do it on a more frequent basis and do more bitesized chunks. So next year in addition to the other things I’ve told you, we will be doing more of those in bite-sized chunks, half a day, and focus on one element of our mission or another. Again, there’s no commitment to any procurement, industry just wants to hear from us. We’ve gotten really positive feedback from that. Q: How does the OTIA use system engineering to evolve and verify an integrated and balanced set of system, people and process solutions that satisfy customer needs? A: That was another thing that we did early on the Secure Border Initiative, but now broader and more corporately in OTIA here. I mentioned the need to develop competencies, and one of the competencies that we’re very concerned about is system engineering. System engineering, in my view, back in the ’90s atrophied a great deal in the government because the government concluded that was something we should depend on the contractors to do. My experience was that the contractors they saw that as discretionary. If the budget got tight that was the trade-off they’d make. They would sloth off on system engineering and take their chances. The government can’t afford that, so I would consider that a government core competency. One of the first things we did was create a human capital strategy to recreate a system engineering competency. Part of this has to do with understanding the operational requirements. Another thing that did not exist in CBP was an entity that spoke for and represented the interests of the operators with the acquisition community. The design is to make sure that the operators have the capacity to direct and subordinate the acquisition community’s operational needs. In the process of doing that, we’ve been bringing in modeling and simulation tools, analytical capabilities. DHS has a federally funded research and development center that we’ve been using to conduct analyses of alternatives, which are ways of looking at different ways of solving these problems, including non-material solutions. This means, when you have a need to do something, you should look at all of the ways of doing it before you conclude you need a material solution, a technology. So those are all things that we’ve been building; we’ve used them in at least some of our mission areas and we expect this to become increasingly important, because as I started off with, one of the reasons OTIA was put here was to do a better job of making sense of when we did capital investments and why we do them. That system engineering process is key to coming to those conclusions. O

BCD 2.1 | 19

Border Surveillance

Technology From desert wastelands to Alaskan tundra … the Gulf of Mexico to the Great Lakes, the total length of the U.S. border with Canada and Mexico is approximately 9,000 miles. According to the Department of Homeland Security, the U.S./Mexico border is the most frequently crossed international border in the world, with approximately 350 million people legally crossing each year. But it’s the illegal crossings, terrorist threats and other criminal activity that border patrol and law enforcement agencies battle every day and night.

Crime Crosses Over Criminal organizations clash for control over illegal drugs, weapon smuggling and human trafficking, leading to violent crimes, including murder, on both sides of America’s borderline. The proximity of El Paso, Texas, to one of the most violent cities in Mexico, Ciudad Juarez, continues to bring fear that Mexican violence is washing into U.S. border cities. In 2010, 3,400 people were killed in Juarez. And while the largest of the border cities, San Diego and El Paso, reported declines in overall crime numbers, murders in each city jumped in 2012. El Paso recorded 16 murders in 2011 and 23 killings in 2012. In reaction to the criminal activity near the U.S. border, DHS doubled the number of immigration and customs enforcement personnel assigned to border enforcement security task forces. The number of intelligence analysts working along the U.S.-Mexico border has also increased, deployments of border liaison officers have quintupled, and 1,200 National Guard troops assist law enforcement 20 | BCD 2.1

agencies by working on entry identification teams. DHS has provided more than $123 million in grants to southwest states to support border law enforcement. Southbound rail and vehicle traffic are now screened for illegal weapons and cash being used to fuel the drug cartel violence in Mexico. More than a century ago, 75 “mounted inspectors” were hired to guard America’s borders—a massive responsibility for just a handful of men. Securing the country’s gateways on horseback, the border patrol pioneers were limited in their surveillance abilities. Today, the U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) is better staffed than at any time in its history. With more than 20,700 agents, the ranks have doubled in less than 10 years. And unlike their predecessors, agents are now armed with high-tech tools to help oversee miles of land, air and water.

Integrated Surveillance Systems CBP recently deployed thousands of technology assets—including mobile surveillance units, thermal imaging systems, and largeand small-scale non-intrusive inspection equipment—at and between the U.S. ports of entry. The Northern Border Project (NBP) deployed remote video surveillance systems (RVSS) in the Buffalo and Detroit Sectors to provide coverage along the Niagara and St. Clair Rivers. CBP says they chose Buffalo and Detroit for this deployment based on the needs of the border patrol and the unique operational area consisting of coastal maritime, ravine, urban and rural environments. The systems in Detroit and Buffalo include

Keeping the Watch

By Nikki Maxwell BCD Correspondent

a network of fixed RVSS sites, each equipped with remotely operated cameras that provide 24-hour, year-round capabilities. In addition, NBP upgraded the Combined Agency Security Center capabilities at the Champlain, N.Y., port of entry, including improved cameras at remote border crossings and upgraded computer equipment to remotely monitor border crossings. Several companies have designed and developed these security and surveillance systems to dovetail with other technologies already in use by law enforcement and border security agencies. EADS North America has provided border security services for more than 20 years, developing security towers and sensors for countries in operationally and environmentally challenging situations. The company’s systems protect more than 8,000 miles of land border globally, providing land, maritime and air space surveillance products. “Our goal is to improve situational awareness and help border patrol agents detect, track and identify illegal activities,” said Joe Valenzuela, director, border security solutions, EADS North America. EADS has a family of radar systems to help border agents identify those targets. The Cassidian-developed Spexer 2000 radar is an advanced system designed for border surveillance and security applications facing asymmetric threats. It can be deployed either as a fixed or mobile land-based system, mounted on a mast or tripod. It automatically detects and classifies multiple ground, marine and low-flying aerial targets. “Drug cartels are using ultra-light aircraft to smuggle their products across the border,” Valenzuela said. “So it helps to have a

surveillance system that is intuitive and user friendly.” AESA (active electronically scanned array) technology allows Spexer to track a target while continuing to perform broad area surveillance. The high scan rate and ultra-fast revisit times makes it ideal for tracking targets that range from slow-moving pedestrians to ultra-light aircraft. “This is a major benefit because it reduces the workload on the operator,” said Valenzuela. “Otherwise it is very taxing mentally and physically. And for prosecution and forensic purposes, the results can be put in a database.” Through developments in sensor fusion and user-interface technology, EADS has refined the “common operating picture” software based on border agent responsibilities and preferences. Cassidian has trained more than 10,000 agents to operate the Geosapien software. “We offer complete packages with modular open systems that are ‘plug and play,’ and that allows us to use any vendor in the world,” Valenzuela said. “Technology is always changing, so instead of having to scrap the whole system that operators are using, the new technology can be incorporated to help them with their mission.” General Dynamics joined EADS in their mission to help border agencies. “Our border and defense customers have applications that require continuous surveillance in the harsh desert environment,” said Gregory J. Catherine, General Dynamics Advanced Information Systems’ director of technology integration. “Our Imaging through Volume Turbulence [IVT] solution has introduced a new technique for increasing the range and clarity of existing systems, allowing customers to get better performance out of current technologies.” The IVT infrared system differs from other infrared tools because over long distances, atmospheric turbulence caused by heat can distort electro-optical and infrared (EO/IR) imagery. This limits a user’s ability to detect, recognize and identify items of interest from a safe distance. “IVT focuses on removing the scintillating effect that heat waves have on images,” Catherine explained. “It also removes the effect of vibration caused by wind or platform motion.” With the ability to minimize the effect of heat and wind, and improve a sensor’s operational range, “IVT is an ideal solution for expansive, harsh desert environments,” he said. IVT is adjunct processing that can be used for real-time detection or operate forensically

on pre-recorded video. When used in real time, the IVT system controls the opto-electronic system, optimizing the ability to process the image. The processor examines the pixels that make it through the atmosphere unaffected, and detects the true image of the target. “IVT integrates with EO/IR sensors to improve image clarity and increase the sensor’s operational range,” Catherine said. The maximum detection distance is dependent on the sensor and the environmental conditions. By increasing a sensor’s operational range, the operator can accurately identify, classify and respond to threats at long range. The system has been integrated with a Z-1000 from General Dynamics Global Imaging Technologies, which can resolve man-sized targets at over 20 kilometers. “Depending on conditions, the IVT algorithm could provide a clearer image at that range or even allow the sensor to resolve items of interest at a greater distance,” Catherine said. Elbit Systems also provides surveillance solutions for border security. “We do everything from command and control/common operating picture to sensor systems, a variety of unmanned technologies, and communications that network all these elements together into an integrated system,” said Gordon Kesting, vice president of Elbit Systems of America Homeland Security Solutions. Elbit Systems has supported the CBP since 2004 when it was one of the first companies to fly an unmanned air system on the Southern border. Much of the border security solution offered by Elbit comes from systems it has deployed in Israel over the last 15-20 years. These systems have been proven in one of the most difficult border environments in the world and form the basis of the system called Peregrine, which Elbit is offering for the Integrated Fixed Tower Program. Elbit has transferred technology to the U.S. and has been testing the system on the southern border for more than a year. “The Peregrine system fulfills the special need and operational requirements of a wide range of potential users around the world,” Kesting said. “In turn, these systems benefit from Elbit’s integration experience with defense customers. “Elbit is continually adding features to its solution that make watching the border more manpower efficient,” he explained. “In addition, we continuously track sensor technology and incorporate features to help fewer operators watch larger stretches of the border.”

The latest enhancement, called the multisensor acquisition and surveillance system, was recently delivered by Elbit Systems to the Israel Ministry of Defense and is now deployed and in operational use along the Israeli border. “This next-generation multi-sensor system, with its command and control center, reduces the number of operators required to manage and operate a large number of different sensors to create a situation awareness picture through the use of automation and advanced capabilities,” Kesting said.

Extra-Sensory Solutions To be more manpower-efficient, border agencies require innovative and integrated technologies to combat very unique challenges. A shift from analog to all-digital surveillance systems is a major step in this direction. “The challenges to using video as part of border security strategy aren’t new,” said John Bartolac, business development manager for vertical segments and government programs at Axis Communications. “But the technological advancements and recent trends in IP-based, digital video provide newer ways to protect the border.” He explained that lack of lighting, tough terrain and the sheer distance requirements of pushing and using video at the border present a unique blend of security issues that generally have called for a more specialized, niche version of video protection. But advances in sensor technology, camera processing power and state-of-the-art software allow border agencies to select from a broad range of products and new innovations to overcome these challenges. For example, in 2012, Axis received the coveted Wall Street Journal Award for its Lightfinder Technology, which can produce detailed, color video at night even with just the moon and stars lighting the sky. In explaining how this technology can play an important role as part of a larger system, Bartolac stated, “Border agencies can utilize thermal IP cameras to detect a human approaching the border, and then integrate Lightfinder cameras to better identify the suspect, thanks to details like color of hair and clothing.” Elbit uses EO/IR cameras, radar systems, a motion-sensitive smart fence and unattended ground sensors to detect movement on land. And for more than a decade, General Dynamics’ EO/IR camera systems have been deployed across the U.S. northern and southern borders providing mobile and fixed surveillance solutions. BCD 2.1 | 21

“The architecture of our system allows you to add new sensors more easily to address new mission requirements and obsolescence,” Kesting said. “Furthermore, since all users on the network have access to all the sensor data and other information, a collaborative environment is created where agents at the station headquarters, in the field, and in the air share a common operating picture and are able to coordinate their response to a given situation.” The thermal cameras are integrated with every CBP Mobile Surveillance System (MSS) currently deployed on the border. The Z-Series systems include mid- to long-range cooled thermal cameras designed to meet a variety of mission requirements from wide-area surveillance to long-range targeting. The camera systems include an integrated Vector pan-tilt system for precision pointing and stability for long-range sensors. Z-Series systems are sealed in a ruggedized housing and protected with an environmental coating to ensure continued operation and uninterrupted surveillance in the harsh conditions on the border. General Dynamics is exploring optics designs that enable high-performance collection on short-, mid- and long-wave infrared. “We also need to address sensor technologies,” Catherine said. “Initially these may be independent sensors with some backend processing. We see the need to tie sensors in the field to the enterprise analytics. Our customers want to use activity-based intelligence to provide real-time indications and warning to the border patrol agents.”

Virtual Watchtower When you’re responsible for watching hundreds of miles of land at a time, it helps to have more than just binoculars. Technology has taken the traditional watchtower to a new level. The sophisticated virtual border security system is a multi-layer border control and management system deploying special border surveillance posts. The autonomous posts include observation systems mounted on towers and placed in strategic locations along the border. Each post is a self-sufficient unit, facilitating power, communication, and site security and processing. This configuration enables deployment by stages, each as an independent component. The system is fully remote-controlled via a central control room. All data from the border surveillance posts is routed there via wireless, fiber-optic or other communication infrastructures, where it is processed and displayed. Based on powerful surveillance and 22 | BCD 2.1

management software, the system enables the user to keep an eye on “the big picture,” while conducting border control tasks with less manpower, at real-time intervals. This improves the reaction time of law enforcement authorities to prevent border violations and to increase public safety. The Raytheon Company is one of a handful of government contractors competing for the lead role in providing those mounted radars and cameras on interlinked towers along the border, which work together with other technology. “We are very excited about the Integrated Fixed Tower Program,” said TJ Kennedy, Raytheon’s director of public safety and security. “Raytheon has some robust solutions for CBP.” As a former police officer himself, he said Raytheon has reached out to the border security agents, asking them what is easier for the operators. “Our system is simple and easy to use, but it is also tried-and-true technology,” Kennedy said. He said Raytheon is focused on system integration, and is already helping CBP secure the borders. “We have border surveillance technologies we have tested on different sites and multiple border solutions currently operating on and near the U.S. borders,” Kennedy said. “We’re very serious about mission solutions.”

Mobile Perimeter Security In order to protect remote and uninhabitable regions, mountainous terrain and border lines that normally lack infrastructure require “out of the box” security solutions. Elbit offers security solutions that combine mobile surveillance, electronic alarm fences and longrange electro-optical measures. Elbit deployed one of the first unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) on the Mexico border, and continues to provide eyes from the sky whenever necessary. Extra eyes on the ground are useful too. “Unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs) are good for patrolling fence lines or in dangerous and difficult environments,” Kesting said. “Elbit provides UGVs and unmanned surface vehicles for water surveillance and patrols.” All of these mobile systems integrate a variety of technologies to provide surveillance for day and night operations. With 4-by-4 allterrain vehicles, technologies include long- or medium-range day and night electro-optic payload, hand-launched tactical unmanned air vehicles (for day and night aerial surveillance), an integrated control console and processing

center, handheld thermal imager, and image intensifier night vision goggles. The mobile platform enables observation, reconnaissance, surveillance and targeting capabilities by maneuvering where it is most needed. Miniature, hand-launched UAVs with stabilized day or night payload for aerial surveillance can be deployed in minutes to provide aerial coverage of areas beyond the line of sight. They can also pursue and track fast-moving targets. All of the data from the electro-optic payload and from the UAV is processed in the vehicle’s integrated control console. “At the heart of border security is the U.S. Customs and Border Protection Multi-Role Enforcement Aircraft (MEA). Sierra Nevada Corporation’s Integrated Mission Systems (SNC/IMS) is making significant capability enhancements to aid in the fielding of MEA. Specifically, SNC/IMS is extensively modifying the Super King Air 350ER Aircraft,” said Tim Owings, corporate vice president, Sierra Nevada Corporation’s Integrated Mission Systems. “The MEA is equipped with a sophisticated state-of-the-art sensor array that can be deployed in support of multiple law enforcement functions to include detection, tracking and surveillance. The versatility of this system allows the MEA to be deployed over virtually all U.S. land and sea borders.” The MEA mission system has several sensor components, including wide area radar with air search, marine surface search and ground moving target search capabilities. The nose of the Super King Air was extended by SNC/IMS to accommodate a high-resolution day/night video camera. “Several new law enforcement communication systems, including satellite communications, have been deployed on the MEA,” Owings said. “The modular configuration of the mission system allows the aircraft to be easily reconfigured to meet CBP’s ever-changing operational requirements.” According to Owings, Sierra Nevada Corporation’s MEA is slated to replace CBP’s current legacy fixed wing surveillance aircraft fleet over the next decade. The battle to secure the border is an endless process, but armed with new surveillance technology, border agents are more prepared for the challenge than ever before. O

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Remote Video

Surveillance Systems

Creating constant awareness along our borders. Mike Potter is the Program Manager for Remote Video Surveillance Systems Upgrade with Customs and Border Protection and spoke with Border & CBRNE Defense concerning future improvements to their current technology. Q: What is Customs and Border Protection looking for in the RVSS upgrade contract? A: The RVSS program was originally deployed on the border between 1997 and 2005. This is the first upgrade the system will have and in addition, we are looking at expanding systems with some more capability and locations. This contract specifically is oriented toward Arizona. Q: Why is there a need for this type of technology? A: There are certain things that only a Border Patrol agent can do. RVSS technology provides the ability for the Border Patrol to have situational awareness of a particular area, so that an agent can perform those aspects of the mission that only an agent can do. The technology also provides a certain level of safety to the agent by providing information about the incursion detected before the agent encounters it. Q: What is CBP currently using? A: The RVSS is currently deployed; however, many of the components of the originally deployed systems are no longer produced or supported by the manufacturers. Q: What are some of the challenges involved in using this type of technology? A: One of the challenges is based on power. Some of the systems are on grid power; some are on generator power; some are on solar,

so there is certainly an issue with providing fuel. In a harsh environment there are always issues with camera repair. But there have been a limited number of incidents of throwing rocks at the systems, throwing paint cans on the solar panels and shooting out the camera lenses. Q: Technology installed in 2005, is that SBInet? A: This technology deployment pre-dates SBInet. Q: What are the lessons learned from the SBInet program? A: Our current RVSS program is one part of the greater Arizona technology deployment plan. So this was one of several programs that were off-shoots, if you will, based on lessons learned from our efforts with SBInet. Absolutely there have been some lessons learned [from those prior programs that we have] incorporated into this program. We’ve taken those lessons in how to design the program, how to work with the vendors differently, how to establish our requirements. There are a lot of things we’re doing differently now that we didn’t do before in our program management efforts. Lessons include a lot more upfront planning. Our team has worked very closely with customers [in] assessing each and every site that we’re looking at going to an upgrade. We’ve also partnered with other parts of our own agency and many others from an engineering perspective, and we’re doing some work separately and not putting it all under one contract. So we’re dividing this up a little bit so we can take advantage of efficiencies and scheduling [to] get some work done in advance. We’ve done a lot of work in the environmental area in advance to prepare for this. The contract itself is a fixed-price contract with options instead of a cost contract, which

will help limit the risk to the government and put more on us, the contractors. I think one of the lessons learned was the effort in requirements documentation. That was somewhat lacking on SBInet. We worked very closely with the Border Patrol in developing the requirements and all the associated documentation that was required. It truly is a Border Patrol requirements-oriented system that we are upgrading to. Another lesson learned from SBInet was extensive coordination along all phases during program development and source selection with the Border Patrol. Even within the RFP we stressed that the number one criteria for evaluation is going to be the understanding of the operations and implications and environment of this system for the Border Patrol. Q: How has CBP taken a non-developmental system procurement approach? A: Rather than having a vendor develop a complete new system and then test it, we ask the vendors to come to us with a proven system that requires minimal testing and is readily available for deployment. Q: What is the timeline; where are we and what has yet to be done? A: We’re currently conducting source selection activities. We expect a contract award later this fiscal year. O For more information, contact BCD Editor Brian O’Shea at or search our online archives for related stories at

BCD 2.1 | 23

Keeping public safety

professionals connected .

By Brian O’Shea BCD Editor

In February 2012, Congress enacted the Middle Class Tax Relief and Job Creation Act of 2012, which mandated the creation of a nationwide interoperable wireless broadband network that will enable public safety officials to more effectively communicate. The law created the First Responder Network Authority (FirstNet), an independent authority within the Department of Commerce’s National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA). Congress charged FirstNet with taking “all actions necessary” to build, deploy and operate the network, in consultation with federal, state, tribal and local public policy entities. The act provides $7 billion in funding toward the deployment of this network, as well as $135 million for a new state and local implementation grant program to enable these jurisdictions to work with FirstNet and ensure the network meets their needs. This federal funding is to be recouped through spectrum auction revenues. However, Congress granted NTIA the authority to borrow $2 billion of the $7 billion, and the $135 million for the grant program, in advance of the government’s receipt of spectrum auction revenues. As a result, FirstNet will need to work within this $2 billion figure in developing the initial phases of its deployment plans, until the FCC conducts the spectrum auctions that will net the $7.135 billion authorized under the act, said Jeffery Johnson, FirstNet board member and chief executive officer of the Western Fire Chiefs Association. “For too long, first responders have been hampered by a patchwork of incompatible emergency communications networks,” said Johnson. “This fragmentation puts first responders and the public at risk in emergencies like 9/11 and Hurricane Katrina, when different public safety agencies could not communicate with one another. In addition, these disparate networks could not easily be upgraded so that they could carry technologically advanced video and data services, which will be increasingly important to effective emergency response.” The L.A. County Sheriff’s Department currently maintains a degree of interoperable communications with local, state and federal public safety agencies across land mobile radio networks. However, interoperable data communications can be somewhat challenging, said Lieutenant Mark Wilkins, Los Angeles County Sheriff’s Department. “Most public safety agencies rely on commercial carrier networks to support this form of communication, and are limited by a carrier’s available bandwidth, performance, survivability and reliability,” said Wilkins. “In terms of data, when there is a lack of interoperability, the exchange of missioncritical information such as real-time video, high-density photographs, GPS location and situational awareness, is slow at best and oftentimes non-existent. The biggest challenges we face in sharing this type of information are the availability of sufficient bandwidth and the standardization of devices and software used.” 24 | BCD 2.1

Rapidly evolving cellular and wireless technologies have driven consumer demand for phones and devices in the commercial market that support high download and upload speeds, GPS capabilities and ondemand video streaming, said Wilkins. These capabilities have been tailored for business and personal use, but first responders could leverage these same technologies to download video from a reported fire, share realtime GPS location information, download and share real-time video from a crime in progress, or access photos of wanted persons right from their own patrol car. “There are key differences between the types of networks that consumers and first responders need,” said Wilkins. “While consumers may tolerate network performance problems, first responders have unique needs for performance, survivability and reliability that are not being met by the current commercial networks. For example, during the recent events of Hurricane Sandy nearly 25 percent of commercial carrier cellular service was lost. This figure is unacceptable in the public safety community.” Wilkins added that improving interoperable communications with regional, state and federal entities, along all platforms, greatly enhances their ability to manage both day-today operations and catastrophic events.

Challenges to Deploy Developing and deploying an interoperable nationwide public safety broadband network (PSBN) are tasks that will take time to implement. “There are many challenges in developing and operating a nationwide emergency communications network and ensuring its services and devices meet the needs of first responders, but we’re confident our board is up to the task,” said Johnson. “A key to meeting these challenges will be engaging in a productive listening and visioning dialogue with the states, tribes and territories, and the public safety community at large.” Harris has a history of innovation and public safety expertise, and has been leveraging partnerships with other vendors to ensure that agencies are provided with a total integrated solution: mission-critical communications and flexibility to work on various networks, said Chuck Shaughnessy, vice president, LTE Business, Harris Public Safety and Professional Communications. “All agree that we must create a missioncritical grade national PSBN designed to

meet the needs of U.S. first responders,” said Shaughnessy. “Building out the network is itself a challenge—ensuring interoperability, cost efficiency, and the unique needs of states are considered, for example. On top of that, it requires a business model that’s attractive to users.” Recently, Harris submitted a response to the NTIA’s notice of inquiry (NOI) issued on behalf of FirstNet. Within the NOI comments, Harris calls for focus on several key areas to drive success, including a sustainable subscribership-driven business plan; enhanced state and local collaboration to expedite deployment; and layered network architecture. Booz Allen Hamilton can provide NTIA and FirstNet analysis and scale to address challenges such as starting the management organization, developing sustainable business models, designing cutting-edge technical architecture, striking deals with telecommunications providers, setting up public/private partnerships, and supporting the operations of a telecommunications network—all while stewarding the interest of the taxpayers and the responsibility of delivering to first responders, said Thad Allen, senior vice president for Booz Allen Hamilton. “Standing up the PSBN requires a complex balance between moving quickly and addressing technical and operational requirements of a yet-to-be-fully defined network— all across a large, heterogeneous group of stakeholders in government and industry,” said Allen. “The desire for a national network to provide interoperability must be weighed against the specific needs of different public safety user groups as well as the requirements introduced by unique geographical and environmental factors.” FirstNet faces three primary challenges: meeting public safety mission needs, taking into account business considerations, and ensuring transparency in the use of limited federal funds, said Allen. Mission needs include coverage, interoperability, availability/reliability/survivability, quality of service/priority access, security, and device integration. Beginning to address the breadth of these needs begins with understanding the requirements of diverse network users. FirstNet has taken a key first step toward this understanding by issuing a notice of inquiry on the PSBN architecture. Business considerations include meeting deployment schedules (including statutory requirements), ensuring affordability, and gaining buy-in from a large user-base.

By developing an initial understanding of user requirements and priorities, FirstNet has taken a first step in planning for business decisions regarding the extent and type (e.g., LTE, satellite) of coverage that can be afforded. This information—coupled with needed business analysis to understand the price points, market size, jurisdictional/procedural constrains and revenue generation models—will help FirstNet deploy a network that is both operational and sustainable. Allen recognizes the importance of seeking the right balance among speed, completeness and accuracy to ensure successful PSBN implementation. However, in an era of limited public funding, the scrutiny and oversight of FirstNet’s initial expenditures will create a challenge to ensure that decisions are made transparently.

Process to Implement Interoperable PSBN Network Cisco offers a major component of the LTE infrastructure called the evolved packet core (EPC). The major components of an LTE system are the radio towers and the devices operating around the radio towers, said Kevin McFadden, public safety solutions architect, Cisco. Cisco does not manufacture any of that technology. What Cisco manufactures is the backhaul from those towers into the EPC, which is the intelligence of the network and switching electronics that help the towers communicate and deliver the communications back to the enterprise (DHS, state and local government, for example). One example McFadden cited is the Criminal Justice Information Systems model, which was a federally funded, federally supported program driven out of the FBI to provide information sharing across the country. It was a slowly adopted model in which states could choose whether or not to participate. Many states did not want to share information with the federal government. However,

BCD 2.1 | 25

now every state participates because they see the value of it. “I think that national PSBN will have a similar track. It will be prescribed by the feds, supported by the feds, but I think it’s going to have to be for the benefit of the states. I think they’re going to come up with a palpable message that helps the states understand that they are not giving up a lot of their decision-making capabilities, their policy,” said McFadden. He added that there must be a discussion about fault domains. How far up can a fault go before users lose their communications? “If I’m in Florida and my infrastructure is home in New York, that’s a long distance; there’s a lot of opportunity for failure,” said McFadden. “I need something in the Florida area that ensures my communications are still reliable and robust. We at Cisco are looking at fault domains as a major area of discussion in more of a distributed model. The governance of these systems is going to be important.” Other major part of the process for implementation include staffing and state participation, said Kevin Krufky, vice president of public affairs for Americas region (North, Central, and South America), Alcatel-Lucent. “I think FirstNet has to organize, and that means staffing up,” said Krufky. “Chairman [Samuel] Ginn [Chairman, FirstNet board, CEO, Pacific Telesis, Auburn University] has suggested that’s exactly what they’re working to do. I think another key element here is that FirstNet and NTIA have to ensure that the state and local implementation grant program in the legislation has to be really meaningful for states. They need the states to be willing partners of FirstNet for its success, which means that state first responders need to be FirstNet subscribers.” Another important part of the implementation process is creating a revenue base to sustain a nationwide interoperable PSBN that is vital to its success, added Krufky. “They also need states to be partners for cost-effective deployment groups,” said Krufky. “State and local government have lots of infrastructure that can be repurposed for an LTE deployment. They need the states to be saying, ‘Here’s what we’ve got, please use this as your architecting network.’” Krufky added for network architecture, FirstNet needs to stick with 3GPP standards; 26 | BCD 2.1

they need to avoid gold plating, the addition of elements to network equipment that are not present in commercial networks. “Half the time that will be the first red flag that you’re heading down the wrong technology path by using equipment not used in commercial networks,” said Krufky. FirstNet does not want to buy equipment that is unique from what other people are buying in order to keep their costs low and, from a redundancy and reliability perspective, ensure that their network won’t be disrupted if they need to switch from one vendor to another, he added.

Republican National Convention Interoperable PSBN In August 2012, several companies, including Raytheon, Cisco, Nokia Siemens Networks, Amdocs and Reality Mobile, teamed up to deploy the nation’s first multi-vendor interoperable public safety LTE network in Tampa, Fla. Nokia Siemens Networks is a global supplier of LTE Core and radio access networks. The company has been active in the early stages of public safety LTE networks and was the first vendor to develop an LTE radio that operates entirely in the public safety band. Nokia Siemens Networks was also the first to pass the initial NIST Phase 3 interoperability tests, said Bob Fennelly, head of government and public safety, Nokia Siemens Networks. “The RNC [Republican National Convention] system is the first truly multi-vendor interoperable public safety LTE system deployed,” said Fennelly. “It was used by federal, state and local officials performing their duties in the high pressure environment of an NSSE [national special security event]. Use of this commercial technology fostered innovation in both applications and user equipment, which were tailored to the needs of the public safety officers. While roaming to commercial carriers networks was also utilized, the system operated on the dedicated public-safety-only frequency band, which ensured capacity availability even during times of extreme commercial network congestion. The RNC system provided an excellent field trial for the upcoming FirstNet system.” Implementing a system like the one used at the RNC teaches several lessons when challenged with implementing an interoperable nationwide PSBN.

“This system debunked the myth that only networks provided by a single vendor can operate reliably,” said Fennelly. “While Nokia Siemens Networks intends to be a large part of the FirstNet system, we recognize that there will be multiple vendors involved and that it is critical to the success of the system that vendors employ standards-based equipment to ensure interoperability.” He added that another lesson learned is the importance of focusing on the endusers’ needs while designing and developing the nationwide network. Raytheon brings skills as a prime system integrator of large systems, said TJ Kennedy, director of public safety and security, Raytheon Network Centric Systems. Raytheon has experience in some of the early LTE Broadband Technology Opportunities Program grant build outs. As a large system integrator that is very much focused on public safety, Raytheon brings a focus in program management, overall system integration, and a longstanding history of interoperability, which is the basis of all future integrated architectural solutions for public safety. “One of the keys to success we keep talking about is open architecture, and that our open architecture and open standards approach to Public Safety LTE really is an important priority for the design of the NPSBN,” said Kennedy. “For example, we teamed up with strong vendors and have built public safety LTE systems quickly that work to meet the local needs of police, fire and EMS agencies. Having a system integrator approach to public safety LTE allows you to do things cost-effectively, allows you to do things quickly, and doesn’t require you to buy a large system that’s proprietary. It’s very focused on being interoperable.” Kennedy added “that a number of good lessons were learned by Raytheon by just working with local public safety agencies to make sure they are meeting their needs while being focused on system security and planning for interoperability.” “We did all those kinds of things, so I think that they reinforce what we think is a good approach,” said Kennedy. O

For more information, contact BCD Editor Brian O’Shea at or search our online archives for related stories at

The advertisers index is provided as a service to our readers. KMI cannot be held responsible for discrepancies due to last-minute changes or alterations.

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BCD 2.1 | 27

INDUSTRY INTERVIEW Border & CBRNE Defense Steve Soroka Group Vice President Homeland Security Group Unisys Federal Systems Steve Soroka is vice president and managing partner for the Homeland Security Group, Unisys Federal Systems, with responsibility for all facets of business for the Department of Homeland Security and its components. Under his leadership, Unisys delivers secure and reliable solutions and services throughout DHS and to customers internationally. Q: What solutions does Unisys provide to the Department of Homeland Security? A: Unisys provides a variety of solutions to DHS, ranging from border security and application support to operations and maintenance and financial systems business functions. We provide a great deal of support to Customs and Border Protection [CBP], where we support the Targeting and Analysis Systems Program Office [TASPO] and Passenger Systems Program Office as well as other DHS organizations. TASPO is responsible for developing and maintaining analytical and targeting systems which help secure the supply chain and support CBP’s layered defense strategy for international cargo and passengers. We recently won a recompete of that contract, where we were the incumbent, so we will be supporting that program office for the next five years. Some of the underlying technologies involved in targeting are big data, machine learning, entity resolution and advanced data analytics. Our support of the Passenger Systems Program Office involves our land border integration [LBI] solutions, where we provide the technology to monitor pedestrians and vehicles coming in and out of the country. Technologies include license plate readers, RFID technology and other biometric solutions along the border whereby we are able to provide information to the customs officers at those crossings in near real time, regarding the identities of people and vehicles crossing our borders. We are very proud of the LBI program and its predecessor, the Western Hemisphere Travel Initiative [WHTI], which 28 | BCD 2.1

won numerous industry and government awards. DHS cited WHTI as its number one program a few years ago, and the government’s LBI program manager was the first recognized Program Manager of the Year by the TechAmerica industry association in 2011. Also, the government’s executive director of the TASPO program office was recognized earlier this year as a Federal 100 Award winner. Unisys also has a presence at FEMA, where we support several of their critical applications. And we support business operations at the U.S. Coast Guard Finance Center. In addition, we do work at the Port of Los Angeles where we provide security assessments, transportation worker identification credentialing capabilities and solutions to the port authority and several maritime port terminal operators. Q: How is Unisys positioned for future growth? A: At Unisys, we provide four main areas of solutions including security, data center transformation, application modernization and end user services. So there are several areas in which we are able to help DHS and other agencies achieve their missions in a very austere budgeting environment. For example, we are looking at ways agencies can leverage existing infrastructure through solutions applications-as-a-service or storage-as-a-service to save money or free it up for further innovation and reinvestment. Q: What are the key priorities for Unisys in 2013?

A: First, we want to continue to provide excellent delivery service to our existing clients and maintain those contracts. As I mentioned earlier, we recently won the TASPO contract, which was valued at about $504 million over the next five years. So we are very proud of that, and we intend to keep that kind of success going. We want to continue to further the mission of CBP and to continue to refine its targeting capabilities to protect the country. We also see several opportunities for innovation and growth in some of the programs we’re already involved in, such as LBI, TASPO and some of our work at FEMA, the ports and the Coast Guard. For example, we hope to expand our border protection work by providing additional pedestrian lanes to further facilitate the legal flow of people into the country. And of course, we will be looking for new opportunities to support DHS and to position ourselves as a prime or to team with other companies on opportunities that emerge from DHS headquarters and other components of the department. Q: What trends do you see emerging next year? A: I think the major trend will be helping the government to leverage existing investments and to reduce operations and maintenance costs—finding ways to cut costs so the government can reinvest in innovation. This can be achieved through service-oriented solutions—storage-asa-service, biometrics-as-a-service—a true service-oriented approach to lower the cost of operations. Another trend is agile development methodologies. We have been very successful implementing agile development at TASPO, and we are looking to do that on any number of opportunities we pursue. Also, I think you will see more demand for cloud brokerage services to provide more of a hybrid private/public cloud architecture so agencies can leverage commercial cloud investments as well as meeting their own private cloud requirements. O

April 2013 Volume 2, Issue 2

Next Issue

Cover and In-Depth Interview with:

Kevin K. McAleenan Acting Assistant Commissioner Office of Field Operations Customs and Border Protection

Features Port Security


The protection of the supply chain infrastructure is a top priority for port security professionals, and this has to be done without interfering with and slowing down passenger or freight traffic.

There are many potential risks posed by biological threats and their use in bioterrorism or biocrime events, and federal agencies are working around the clock to keep our country secure from these threats.

Drug Interdiction

Small Arms

Preventing illegal narcotics from infiltrating our nation’s border is something federal agencies work hard to prevent every day. The number of seizures they’ve accumulated over the past five years shows progress is being made.

Customs and Border Protection agents use a variety of small arms to prevent threats from crossing our nation’s border. Border &CBRNE Defense takes an in-depth look at what those options entail.

Explosive Trace Detection Dangerous materials can cause any number of threats if released in the right location. Border & CBRNE Defense looks at what the federal government currently uses to detect explosive materials, challenges in this area, solutions on the horizon and what role industry is taking.

Special Section CBP Leadership Roundtable: Assistant Commissioner Office of Field Operations, Chief Office of Border Patrol, Assistant Commissioner Office of Air and Marine, Assistant Commissioner Office of International Affairs, and Assistant Commissioner Office of International Trade discuss what policies, programs or technology implemented or deployed in 2013 will have the greatest effect on meeting their office’s goals and objectives.

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