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Dedicated to Those Who Are Always Ready

Major Program Update

Program Guider Rear Adm. Joseph M. Vojvodich Program Executive Officer (PEO) and Director of Acquisition Programs

October 2013

Volume 5, Issue 3

Corrosion Control O Aviation Maintenance O Launch & Recovery Navigation Aids O Cybersecurity O Common Architecture


Photo courtesy of the U.S. Coast Guard. Use of this photo does not constitute endorsement by the USCG.

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U.S. Coast guard forum

October 2013 Volume 5, Issue 3


Cover / Q&A


9 Coast Guard Major Program Updates Replacing and upgrading Coast Guard assets to meet expanding missions. The Coast Guard is acquiring new assets and upgrading legacy platforms, mission systems and facilities to recapitalize its air, surface and communications capabilities to ensure that the service remains “always ready,” even under challenging situations and demanding environments. By U.S. Coast Guard Acquisition Directorate CG-9


Common Architectures

Cyber Watch

In the climate of budget constraints faced by the United States Coast Guard today, one clear path to achieving cost targets on a number of vital avionics upgrades is the expanded adoption of common systems and architectures. By Troy Brunk Directorate CG-9

The Coast Guard deploys some of the latest in cybersecurity tools, those which not only detect and respond to system intrusions but also track internal network behavior in order to identify and defeat more sophisticated attacks, including those executed with compromised credentials. By Peter Buxbaum

Rear Admiral Joseph M. Vojvodich





Launch and Recovery

Tough Air Choices

Rust Away? No Way.

Getting There

Many Coast Guard missions require moving a small platform from or onto a larger cutter. Safety and efficiency are key whether launching a small boat or recovering an unmanned system. By Scott Nance

The Coast Guard spends most of its capital funds on boats and cutters and only about half as much on aircraft. But aviation assets are critical, as they expand and support capabilities of maritime assets. By Henry Canaday



DoD estimates that it spends $20 billion a year fighting corrosion of military equipment and in infrastructure costs. In May 2013, a Government Accountability Office report noted that DoD invested more than $68 million in 80 projects in fiscal years 2005 through 2010 to combat corrosion. By Nora McGann

Next to keeping boats afloat, navigation is the most essential element in seamanship. The Coast Guard devotes substantial resources to navigation, both in training and equipment. While navigation principles endure, the equipment changes regularly. By Henry Canaday

Industry Interview

2 Editor’s Perspective 3 Nav Notes 14 On The Horizon 27 Resource Center

Christie Thomas

Capture Manager for the Offshore Patrol Cutter Huntington Ingalls Industries


Program Executive Officer (PEO) and Director of Acquisition Programs

“Simply put, I will be looking to maintain and emphasize a trained and credentialed crew of acquisition professionals, to continually discover opportunities to streamline and improve processes, to capture and incorporate lessons learned, and to remain engaged.” - Rear Adm. Joseph M. Vojvodich


U.S. Coast Guard Forum Volume 5, Issue 3 • October 2013

Dedicated to Those Who Are Always Ready Editorial Editor-In-Chief Jeff McKaughan Managing Editor Harrison Donnelly Copy Editor Sean Carmichael Correspondents Peter Buxbaum • Henry Canaday • Kelly Fodel Cheryl Gerber • Steve Hirsh • Nora McGann William Murray • Scott Nance

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Although more often in the headlines, piracy along Africa’s east and west coasts is equaled by that found in the waters of the eastern Indian Ocean and southwestern Pacific Ocean. Solutions are best found in partnerships and the sharing of resources, including processes and intelligence. Coast Guard Commandant Admiral Bob Papp’s visit to Australia, Vietnam, New Zealand and South Korea highlights the global implications of shared security and the maritime focus of the region. Counterterrorism, exclusive economic zone issues, piracy, maritime safety and environmental protection are core Coast Guard missions. Naturally, these missions are core to just about every coast guard out there, so it comes as no Jeffrey D. McKaughan Editor-IN-CHIEF surprise the level and depth of conversations that Papp had during visits to several Pacific Rim countries recently. Vietnam, for example, is establishing its own coast guard now and Papp’s visit helped set the framework for future cooperation. The U.S. has an announced policy structured around an “Asian Pivot,” so the admiral’s trip is no coincidence and part of a very deliberate approach to defining and building partnerships at the coast guard level. Fact-finding trips such as this also open doors to thinking not really considered in the past. When one thinks of the Pacific it usually about bright sunshine and warm tropical breezes, but the southern ocean areas are numbingly cold and brutally harsh, with violent seas and shifting ice. In fact, Admiral Papp mentioned that Australian and New Zealand experiences in these waters could be helpful in informing future U.S. Coast Guard operations in the Arctic. The most important take-away from this trip is that it is another indicator of the serious U.S. intent on a strong Asia-facing presence—and with so much blue water, maritime assets will play a critical role and will be the face and flag for much of the country-to-country involvement. Much like the Navy’s assets, a high percentage of Coast Guard assets will sail the Pacific. Much like the Navy, one of the challenges will be how to pay for the increased exposure and how to ensure that the logistical footprint can support the deployments. Will the deployments cause a shift in crew rotations?

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Coast Guard Works to Develop Coast Guard for Vietnam The U.S. Coast Guard continued to expand U.S. ties to Vietnam in early September with a visit by Coast Guard Commandant Admiral Bob Papp, who became the first commandant to visit as part of an official international outreach initiative. Over the past three years, the Coast Guard, in close coordination with the Department of State and the U.S. Embassy in Hanoi, has been helping Vietnam to build their maritime governance capacity by providing training assistance to the Vietnam Marine Police (VMP). The VMP is a Coast Guard-like maritime law enforcement component within their Ministry of Defense, and will become the Vietnam Coast Guard next month. The Coast Guard’s training has focused on maritime law enforcement, search and rescue, and operational planning. “Train the trainer” in nature, the U.S. Coast Guard’s curriculum development assistance will have lasting benefits to Vietnamese maritime safety and security, fostering a stable environment for economic development. In another enduring form of support, the U.S. Coast Guard, supported by Department of State funding, assisted the VMP with constructing a new maritime law enforcement classroom at VMP Region 1 Headquarters in Haiphong.

The groundwork for the Coast Guard’s direct assistance was established by a series of U.S. and Vietnamese agreements, including a bilateral search and rescue agreement in 2002, a counternarcotics letter of agreement in 2006 and a bilateral maritime agreement in 2007, and the Megaports Agreement in 2010 to better identify weapons of mass destruction components in maritime shipping. “Strengthening partnerships with maritime governance forces like the Vietnam Marine Police is vital to improving regional security,” said the commandant. “I’m proud of the strong foundation we have established in pursuing our shared goals of safe transportation, clean seas and secure and efficient movement of commerce. I look forward to future engagements to demonstrate the Coast Guard’s sustained commitment to the VMP.” In addition to touring Vietnam Marine Police boats and classroom facilities, the commandant met with the VMP’s Director General, Major General Nguyen Quang Dam. The commandant also met with other senior Vietnamese officials including Vice Foreign Minister Ha Kim Ngoc

New Regs for PFDs The U.S. Coast Guard recently announced publication of a notice of proposed rulemaking to remove references to type codes in its regulations on the carriage and labeling of Coast Guard-approved personal flotation devices (PFDs). PFD type codes are unique to Coast Guard approval and are not well understood by the general public. The current PFD type code classification system is planned to be redesigned to focus on performance criteria rather than construction standards. A new easy-to-understand label concept is intended to help both professional mariners and recreational boaters select the best device for their intended uses and routes. Removal of the current PFD type codes from carriage and labeling requirements would assist future incorporation by reference of new industry consensus standards for PFD labeling that will more effectively convey safety information without the use of type codes, and is a step toward harmonization of Coast Guard regulations with PFD requirements in Canada and other countries. “Lifejackets that are currently Coast Guard-approved and serviceable are still perfectly safe to use and are not made obsolete by the proposed standards. This rule simply streamlines the use of PFD type codes to pave the way for future alignment with one international standard,” said Brandi Baldwin, P.E., Lifesaving and Fire Safety Division, Office of Design and Engineering Standards at U.S. Coast Guard headquarters.

and Minister of Defense General Phung Quang Thanh. The Coast Guard’s efforts are in coordination with overall U.S. efforts to strengthen ties with Vietnam. During a White House meeting on July 25, 2013, President Barack Obama and Vietnamese President Truong Tan Sang announced a U.S. Vietnam Comprehensive Partnership that will include a focus on international law. In a joint statement they “…agreed to work more closely to counter terrorism; enhance maritime law enforcement cooperation; combat transnational crime including piracy, and narcotics, human and wildlife trafficking; and address high-tech crime and cyber security.” By Commander Rick Wester

Station Marblehead Receives New RB-M The crew of Coast Guard Station Marblehead, Ohio, has accepted delivery of the station’s new 45-foot response boat-medium. The RB-M can respond faster than previous boats of similar size with a top speed in excess of 40 knots and has advanced search capability with an installed forward-looking infrared search technology. Additionally, with twin jet propulsion, the vessel is able to respond in shallower water. The boat has a deep-V, double-chine hull, which provides a balance of performance and stability. The vessel is also selfrighting—if it capsizes in rough seas, the boat is designed to right itself. It can handle heavy seas and waves up to 12 feet and carry up to 24 people. The RB-M augments Station Marblehead’s current craft complement of one 47-foot motor life boat, two 33-foot law enforcement special purpose craft, one 25-foot response boat-small, one 20-foot special purpose craft-airboat and one skiff-ice. The RB-M was built by Marinette Marine in Marinette, Wis., and will replace the MLB at a later date.

­CGF  5.3 | 3

Many Coast Guard missions require moving a small platform from or on to a larger cutter. Safety and efficiency are key.

By Scott Nance CGF Correspondent

stern in a similar manner with a quick release and they slide off the As the Coast Guard has come to take on more and more missions, back of a ship, he said. so has its reliance on launching small boats from its cutters and vessels. Even as the service employs stern launch on some vessels, launch“Every one of the Coast Guard’s missions that we have, we use the and-recovery from davits and cranes remains vitally important, Sciullo small boats for: rescue and assistance, search and rescue, man-oversaid. board recovery, law enforcement, coastal security, all of those things,” said Chief Warrant Officer Anthony Sciullo, cutter boat and seamanship subject-matter expert. New Davit Technology That reliance means it’s critical each ship has safe and dependable systems, such as davits and winches, “We’re designing new ships that don’t have that when it comes time to launch and recover the boats. stern-launch capability,” Sciullo said. “We’re always “Davits are one of those workhorses onboard the looking to try new technologies for our davit systems. cutter that usually gets the last thought, [but] it’s also We’re actually getting ready to deploy a new davit the thing that you give the first thought to when you system.” have an emergency or mission that [requires] you to That new system, from Vestdavit, is scheduled perform a security function,” said Dan Lanxon, marine to be installed as part of an overhaul planned for the Dan Lanxon crane marketing manager at Sherwood, Ore.-based Coast Guard’s 140-foot icebreaking WTGB cutters. Allied Systems, one of the companies that provides the Edmonds, Wash.-based Scan Pacific Northwest, Coast Guard with launch-and-recovery systems. which sells and supports the Norwegian tailor-made More recently, the service has also been experimentVestdavit systems in North America, will deliver nine ing with launching and recovering a whole new type single-point davit systems for that effort, according of vehicle from its cutters: unmanned aerial vehicles to Magnus Oding, Scan Pacific Northwest marketing (UAVs). manager. Although the Coast Guard historically launched The Vestdavit system for the WTGB cutters is an boats from davits, usually on the side of ships, it also aluminum A-frame, designed to be lightweight in has been embracing a stern-launch capability in recent order to minimize the weight that is added to the cutyears. ter. It includes a shock absorber, which takes up about The national security cutters and the 87-foot coastal 80 percent of peak loads during launch and recovery, patrol boats employ such a stern-launch, ramp capability Oding said. Also, a failsafe self-tension system allows a Magnus Oding in which a boat runs up into a notch and is caught by a boat to “ride safely on the waves” before being recovmechanism, Sciullo said. Boats are launched from the ered back into the davit system, he added. 4 | CGF 5.3

system or drives into the stern notch aboard those vessels with stern A Coast Guard vessel may well be outfitted with a variety of davits launch-and-recovery, Sciullo said. from different manufacturers, Sciullo said. This procedure also helps keep down davit costs, he said. “We don’t “We have some ships that have boats that launch from both the have to build larger davits to accommodate all of the weight that goes port and starboard side. Those boats are of different sizes. So there along with all those people,” Sciullo said. A new davit design now needs may be a smaller boat on the starboard side of the ship, and we use an only to factor the weight of the boat and essential crew, he said. articulating crane to launch and recover that boat, or a single-point davit to do that launch and recovery,” he said. “On the other side of the ship, we may have a larger boat that’s Hydraulic versus All-electric launched with, say, a dual-point Welin Lambie davit which has a heavier weight rating and [offers] a little A future move away from hydraulically assisted bit more control when you’re launching and recoverdavits toward all-electric ones will enhance safety by ing the boat.” removing an oil source from on-deck, and it will also Also, the lifespan of Coast Guard boats is much less improve ease of maintenance, according to Grahame of than that of its ships, Sciullo added. Baker, director of sales and marketing for Welin Lam“Over a ship’s lifetime, she may be outfitted with bie, a davit manufacturer based in the United Kingdom any number of different types of small boats to meet and Canada. the mission need. Sometimes we change the davit “When you eliminate hydraulics off of anything, Grahame Baker configuration to meet that, maybe larger or smaller,” you do lower the overall operating cost,” he said. he explained. Although an all-electric davit “is the direction The Coast Guard is working to standardize proceeverything is going in,” it is likely still a few years away, dures throughout the service on how personnel launch and recover Allied Systems’ Lanxon said. boats, including a new shipboard launch and recovery manual introAllied Systems studied costs to manufacture an electric constantduced earlier this year, Sciullo said. tension winch for its davits, but found its cost would be three times as “We’re trying to put that training and tactics and procedures in expensive as the company’s current offerings, he said. place so we generally do it the same everywhere. Say we get a new type “When we looked at making an all-electric, constant-tension of davit that’s totally different than anything we’ve used before—we winch with an all-electric davit, the footprint got much larger than would update this to give operators a general idea how we like it to be done,” he said.

Improving Safety, Maintenance  

The Coast Guard always is looking at innovations that can make inherlaunch-and-recovery safer, Sciullo said. “Launch-and-recovery,   variables ently, is one of the more dangerous things we do. At sea, the are ever-changing.”   For Allied Systems, enhanced safety means producing   davits in strict adherence to all of the governing regulations—but also   keeping the davits as simple to operate as possible, Lanxon said.   “The idea with the Allied davit is we try to keep it as simple as possible, because we recognize in times of emergency—and   you have   to think fast on your feet—the last thing you need is complicated processes or procedures to slow you down,” he said. “We’re really about   making a very safe and dependable davit that is not overly complicated,   so when it comes time to do their mission in an emergency situation   they’re able to do it effortlessly.”   Another safety development involves a change in the way Coast Guard personnel are deployed aboard boats, Sciullo said.   The ser   vice now avoids launching and recovering boats with “non-essential people” aboard, he said.   A boat’s essential personnel consist of its operator and one   or two crewmembers.   “The other folks are passengers, essentially. We’re taking them to   one place or the other to rescue and assist, conduct law enforcement, to do any of those things” the mission requires, Sciullo said.   This way there are fewer people in the water should   a mishap occur, he said.   To transfer the non-essential personnel, a small boat  will go up alongside its parent craft and non-essential personnel will disembark   via a ladder before the boat crew makes their approach to a davit


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­CGF  5.3 | 5

anticipated,” he said. “Also, it’s going to take a lot more space to house all the electrical components that run the control system for the davit.” The technology needs further development in order to “produce an electric davit that does not increase the overall cost of the davit by any more than, say, 30 percent,” Lanxon said. Even without the all-electric systems, the costs associated with manufacturing a davit have “done nothing but go up for everything,” Lanxon said. “We try to minimize the cost, but we don’t sacrifice safety for cost. For us, it’s important that we provide very dependable equipment. And so we really don’t try to cut corners as far as cost for safety,” he said. “I wish I could say that the hydraulic motors were getting cheaper, but the fact of the matter is they are not. Hydraulic motors are getting more expensive, and harder to come by because of other companies buying up these motor manufacturers.” Allied Systems used to be able to get motors for its constanttension winch within a 10-week lead time, but that has changed to a 52-week lead time, Lanxon said. Materials costs, such as for stainless steel, are rising as well, he added. Keeping the davits in-service today often comes down to being able to swap them out as easily as possible, according to Baker. Welin Lambie, for instance, keeps davits in a “rotatable pool,” Baker explained. “It extends the service life of the systems. It keeps each davit current as far as any upgrades,” he said.

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6 | CGF 5.3

Once one of its davits reaches certain point of use at sea, it gets sent back for a “total factory overhaul” and returns to the pool, Baker said. Further, Welin Lambie’s contract with the Coast Guard includes a full-time technician who monitors use in an inspection program, he said. “We monitor the everyday operation of each of the davits fleetwide, which in itself is really quite unusual. It is quite unique. We don’t really know of anybody else in North America that has such a commitment that they have operational systems,” he said. Another key to reducing davit maintenance costs is just to keep up with replacing “smaller items” like new filters, seals and pressure gauges, said Oding, of Scan Pacific Northwest. “When we see customers taking care of the systems, and changing those types of smaller items on a regular basis, then the cost of maintaining the system is much smaller in the long run,” he said. The Vestdavit systems are designed to have a 30-year lifespan, he said.

Launching and Recovering UAVs While it’s been launching and recovering small boats from its cutters for decades, the Coast Guard is much newer at launching and recovering UAVs, said Ron Tremain, business development executive for maritime program management, at Insitu, the Bingen, Wash., subsidiary of Boeing and maker of the ScanEagle UAV. Insitu has conducted two operational demonstrations with the Coast Guard, and is under contract for a third, to occur in the first quarter of calendar year 2014, Tremain said. ScanEagle takes off from the deck of a cutter from a pneumatic launcher, he said. “It’s basically a catapult. It shoots the aircraft off the rail and into flight,” he said. After flight, ScanEagle is recovered via a patented capture system, Tremain said. That system consists of a hook on the end of the wings of the aircraft, while a line is suspended between two poles on a cutter’s deck. The UAV flies into the line and the hooks snag onto it, Tremain said. “The real science in it is the tension of the line, and the ability to fly directly into the line,” he said. “We have a GPS that’s set directly above the line, so the aircraft knows exactly where to fly to. It can be adjusted down to half a centimeter.” Insitu’s first demonstration with the Coast Guard was a proofof-concept evaluation that a UAV could actually be launched and recovered from the deck of a Coast Guard ship, Tremain said. The second was actually operational, and ScanEagle played a “significant part” in the seizure of contraband, he said. The next demonstration will be an evaluation of the effectiveness of different sensor payloads, Tremain said. “They’re taking a significant step forward,” he said of the Coast Guard. “I can tell you the payloads that they’re flying, they’re gamechanging payloads for the Coast Guard—and they’re cutting-edge. They’re ahead of the game in relation to, say, the U.S. Navy as well as other customers we have. They are taking some of our most advanced payloads and putting them out into action.” O

For more information, contact Editor-In-Chief Jeff McKaughan or search our online archives for related stories at

Making the most of tight budgets to keep airborne assets operational. The Coast Guard spends most of its capital funds on boats and cutters and only about half as much on aircraft. But aviation assets are critical as they expand and support capabilities of maritime assets. And the duties of both vessels and planes continue to expand, whether or not money to fund the expansion is ample or very scarce. Tough budgets call for tough choices. The Coast Guard has had to make hard decisions in adding, replacing or upgrading some important aircraft, including the HC-144A Ocean Sentry, the HC-130H Hercules, the HC-130J Super Hercules, the H-65 Dolphin and the H-60 Jayhawk. Captain James Martin, until recently Coast Guard aviation program manager for acquisitions, called the HC-144A medium-range surveillance maritime patrol aircraft an effective complement to the Coast Guard fleet of heavy-lift, long-range surveillance HC-130 series aircraft. “Its high-efficiency turboprop design allows persistent surveillance with endurance nearly three times that of its predecessor, the HU-25 Falcon,” Martin noted. The HC-144A’s state-of-market cockpit improves situational awareness, reduces workload and increases safety. Human factors engineering is integrated into the mission system pallet (MSP) tactical workstation. Systems operators collect, compile and transfer data in near real time to commanders on ship or shore, hundreds of miles from the aircraft. Satellite radios provide clear and uninterrupted voice and data exchange. The advanced automated identification system provides target information that can be correlated with sensor targets to identify, classify and counter threats. The HC-144A is also extremely flexible. The hydraulic rear ramp allows easy roll-on and off of sensor pallets, equipment and cargo. The aircraft can be quickly re-configured from maritime patrol to medical, passenger or freight transport. High-lift wings allow take-off and landing on short, unpaved landing areas. The HC-144 program of record calls for acquisition of 36 aircraft and MSPs by 2025. But this may change if the Coast Guard receives C-27J Spartans from the Air Force. By July 2013, 15 HC-144As had been delivered with three deliveries scheduled for fiscal years 2014 and 2015. Decisions with major economic and operational implications must still be made. EADS, the manufacturer of the HC-144, strongly favors continuing toward the full 36 HC-144As. “In today’s tight budget environment, the U.S. Coast Guard needs programs that deliver what’s been promised, and that are cost-effective to operate,” stressed Guy Hicks, EADS North America spokesperson. He pointed out that the Department of Homeland Security recently recognized the HC-144A as the DHS Acquisition Program of the Year. “The Coast Guard is buying the HC-144A because it has proven to effectively and efficiently perform the broad range of Coast Guard missions, including search and rescue [SAR], homeland security, disaster response, law enforcement, marine environmental protection and national defense. The HC-144A is an indispensable asset not just because it can do the mission, but because it is highly

By Henry Canaday, CGF Correspondent

cost-effective to own, maintain and operate—a critical consideration for any asset the Coast Guard takes into its inventory.” The HC-144A replacement of the HU-25 Falcon as the Coast Guard’s medium range surveillance aircraft will be complete by the end of FY14, said Scott Rettie, deputy program manager, Office of Aviation Acquisition. “This timeline has been a longstanding requirement to avoid a major spike in investment in the aging HU-25, and will be met with the 15 HC-144As delivered and the three being built,” Rettie said. Then the question becomes whether to take C-27Js, if they are offered in sufficient quantity. Rettie called the Defense Department’s release of the C-27J “a once-in-a-generation opportunity for the Coast Guard, offering the opportunity for completing our fixed-wing recapitalization effort before our current plan with a considerable cost avoidance.” However, he said switching from the HC-144A to the C-27J to expand patrol-hour capacity must make sense from a total-ownership perspective, including operations, logistics, basing and long-term sustainment. “We’ve studied the various scenarios and know that as attractive as it sounds, these divested aircraft are not free. But we are ready to receive and establish operations with these aircraft if offered a sufficient number to make it work.” HC-144s are already operating out of Mobile, Miami and Cape Cod. Rettie thinks the average American would be amazed at how efficiently the Coast Guard deployed these aircraft, given its limited resources and inability to take old units out of deployment while ramping up new assets. Even though the HC-144A has not been operated by other services, fleet-introduction issues have been few. Rettie said the most challenging issue has been sparing levels as more air stations transition to the HC-144A. And he argued that sparing shortfalls must be understood in light of the fact that the HC-144A gives the Coast Guard the capability to fly up to 50 percent more program flight hours than with any other fixed-wing aircraft in its fleet. “The sparing requirement to sustain this operational tempo, while meeting readiness and SAR response requirements, is significant, particularly as more operating sites transition.” Improvements are being planned, even as the HC-144A goes into operation. GE is currently responding to Coast Guard requests to improve operation of the CT7-9C3 engine that powers the HC-144A, noted Steve Manton, GE Aviation’s CT7 Turboprop program manager. These include introduction of corrosion-resistant coating for the compressor case, expansion of the allowable limits for continued use of the compressor, introduction of modules that allow the Coast Guard to expand its in-house repair capability, and clarification or expansion of fuel-injector flow limits. Manton said these changes are primarily aimed at reducing the engine’s maintenance costs, although “some on-wing life extension is expected with the compressor limit changes.” All of the GE changes are planned for release later in 2013. “The compressor anti-corrosion coating will applied to new engines and retro-fitted to existing engine at depot level,” Manton said. ­CGF  5.3 | 7

The HC-130J and the legacy HC-130H are long-range surveillance and heavy airlift aircraft, Martin said. Currently in production, the HC130J increases performance and improves commonality with current logistics systems. Radar of HC-130s can detect surface targets at over 50 miles. Closing on targets, electro-optical and forward looking infrared sensors classify and identify targets, even at night or in low-light. Flight management systems, including automatic pilot and precise GPS navigation, allow pilots to concentrate on missions. HC-130s help interdict drugs and migrants, protect living marine life and enforce economic, safety and security zones. The aircraft can also deliver search-and-rescue equipment and serve as effective airborne on-scene commander platforms. In addition, HC-130s are the only heavy airlift capability in the Department of Homeland Security. The program of record calls for continued acquisition of HC-130Js and short-term investments in HC-130Hs until 22 HC-130Js are delivered. By July 2013, investments in the HC-130H had replaced 23 aging surface radars, completed the second Avionics I Upgrade and the prototype installation of a new center wing box. The second wing box is to be installed in October 2013. The Fleet Introduction Project for HC-130Js has made six operational at Elizabeth City. Two more HC-130Js, funded by a FY10 disaster addition to the Navy budget, are being procured along with some logistics. Another HC-130J is being procured through the Air Force. A 10th HC-130J has been funded by FY13 appropriations. Martin said completion of planned HC-130J acquisition will depend on future appropriations. The H-65 has been the Coast Guard’s short range recovery helicopter since 1984. Martin said it is the primary aircraft operating from cutters, enhancing cutter capabilities. The H-65 Conversion/Sustainment Project will extend H-65 service through 2027. The project will replace obsolete components and install more powerful engines, better armament and communications, an integrated flight deck with sensor display, a new digital automatic flight control system and upgraded sensors. The project has six segments. By October 2007 segment 1 had put Ariel Turbomeca engines on all 95 aircraft, now designated as HH-65Cs. By June 2009, segment 2 added seven HC-65Cs for identification and interception of non-compliant light aircraft in Washington, D.C., restricted airspace. Completed in February 2012, segment 3 added improved communications with other agencies, state-of-market sensors for surveillance and situational awareness and provision for weapons and protective armor for the aircraft, now designated MH-65Cs. Begun in August 2010, Segment 4 is installing new components, such as digital inertial navigation and a new flight-management computer, tactical air navigation, identification friend or foe, emergency locator and radar altimeter. By July 2013, 53 conversions had been done. Completion is expected in FY16. This segment 4 changes designation to MH-65D. Segment 5, intended to provide automated securing and traversing on national security cutters, has been cancelled. Segment 6’s modernization of avionics and flight controls, will be completed in FY20. Martin said all Dolphin upgrades have or will be done at the Coast Guard’s aviation logistics center (ALC) during programmed depot maintenance (PDM) inspections. The Sikorsky H-60 is the Coast Guard’s medium range recovery helicopter, suited for operations in bad weather and equipped with flight management, GPS navigation and some automatic-pilot capabilities. 8 | CGF 5.3

The H-60 can fly up to 300 nautical miles offshore, stay on-scene for 45 minutes, recover up to six survivors and return to shore with adequate fuel to divert to another landing area if required. Martin said conversion projects will keep H-60s in service, affordably, through 2027. Two segments add capabilities, and two extend life and standardize the fleet. Two other capability segments have been postponed due to tight budgets. Airborne use of force capabilities have already been installed on the entire fleet, changing the rotorcraft’s designation to MH-60J. Other work is in progress at the ALC as PDM is done and scheduled for completion in FY15. By July 2013, 36 MH-60Ts had received avionics and electro-optical sensor system upgrades, as well as service-life-extension and engine-sustainment segments. Sikorsky was part of the team that has been upgrading MH 60T Jayhawks during the last six years, explained David Spracklen, a former Coast Guard pilot and now homeland security business development manager for Sikorsky. The Coast Guard inducted the last HH-60J for conversion to the MH-60T in June. That will make 42 conversions over the last six years. Sikorsky involvement was to assist the Coast Guard with engineering design and technical support. Conversion and upgrade efforts for all these aircraft have been pressed in a very tight budget environment. “We are obviously in a very austere time for nearly all government agencies and are making increasingly tough choices regarding scarcer acquisition dollars,” summarized Rettie. “However, compared with the effect on the Coast Guard’s operating expenses, the effect of the FY12 sequester has been less pronounced on aviation acquisition activities, which are funded through multi-year appropriations.” Steadiness in acquisition planning is important for, among other reasons, moving toward common systems among different types of aircraft. For example, noted Robert Koelling, principal program manager at Rockwell Collins, many avionics solutions are common across all these platforms, the MH-65, MH-60T, HC-144A and HC-130. “The basic avionics architecture is common. The intra-avionics interfaces and computing hardware are common. Basic capabilities and functionality is common or comes from a common baseline which has been tailored for each platform.” Avionics on fixed-wing aircraft are based on Rockwell Collins’s Flight2 avionics architecture flight deck. Rotary-wing systems are based on the company’s Common Avionics Architecture System (CAAS) flight deck, a variation of Flight2 tailored for rotary wing aircraft. Software for the different systems has a common heritage, tailored for each aircraft’s airframe, mission and operator requirements. For example, MH-65E software was adapted from MH-60T software. Avionics hardware also has common building blocks, with rotarywing and fixed-wing hardware differing slightly at some top-level part numbers. Rotary-wing hardware such as displays, control display units, processor modules, video switches and data transfer units is common for the MH-65E and MH-60T. Fixed-wing hardware will be common for the HC-144A and HC-130H through planned upgrades. And the latest common solutions are usually much better solutions. “For example, CAAS is quite robust and has already experienced a doubling of complex capability enhancements and additions on the MH-60T, with more room for growth,” Koelling said. O For more information, contact Editor-In-Chief Jeff McKaughan or search our online archives for related stories at

Coast Guard Major Program Updates Replacing and upgrading coast guard assets to meet expanding missions. Article provided by U.S. Coast Guard Acquisition Directorate CG-9

The United States has depended on the Coast Guard to save lives, protect natural resources and secure its maritime environment for more than 220 years. However, aging cutters, boats, aircraft and support systems are challenging the Coast Guard’s ability to execute its traditional missions and adapt to new threats in the ever-changing maritime environment. Many legacy cutters and aircraft have exceeded their planned service lives, requiring additional resources to repair and maintain them so that they are ready to respond to the needs of the nation. The Coast Guard is acquiring new assets and upgrading legacy platforms, mission systems and facilities to recapitalize its air, surface and communications capabilities to ensure that the service remains “always ready,” even under the most challenging situations and in the most demanding of environments. The Coast Guard’s Acquisition Directorate (CG-9) manages an investment portfolio comprised of major and non-major acquisition projects and logistics support within three domains: surface; aviation; and command, control, communications, computers, intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (C4ISR). An overview and update on the status of the projects in these domains follows.

SURFACE PROJECTS National Security Cutter Eight Legend-class national security cutters (NSC) are planned to replace the Coast Guard’s 12 aging 378-foot high endurance cutters, which have been in service since the 1960s. The NSCs are the service’s largest and most technologically advanced white hull cutters. The NSCs are designed to execute critical Coast Guard missions, including law enforcement, search and rescue, and homeland security, with its capability to maintain extended on-scene presence in harsh and remote maritime environments. The NSC’s operational requirements include a maximum sustained speed of 28 knots; a range of 12,000 nautical miles; an endurance of 60-90 days; and the capacity to accommodate 148 people aboard. The first three NSCs—Bertholf, Waesche and Stratton—have been commissioned and are fully operational. All are homeported in Alameda, Calif. The fourth NSC, Hamilton, will be christened October 26, 2013, in Pascagoula, Miss. Delivery of Hamilton is scheduled for 2014. The fifth NSC, James, is under construction and scheduled to be delivered in 2015. The production contract for the sixth NSC was awarded April 30, 2013. The Coast Guard awarded a contract to purchase long lead materials for the seventh NSC June 14, 2013.

Offshore Patrol Cutter The offshore patrol cutter (OPC) will recapitalize the Coast Guard’s fleet of medium endurance cutters (WMEC). In contrast with the legacy medium endurance cutters, the OPC’s requirements include increased range and endurance; larger flight decks; state-ofthe-market command and control electronics; air and surface search radars and target classification sensors; the ability to accommodate aircraft and small boats; and “green” technologies to reduce environmental impact while underway. Following extended market research and industry engagement activities, the Coast Guard released a request for proposals on September 25, 2012. The Coast Guard received responses for the full and open competition in January 2013. The Coast Guard will pursue a phased strategy for acquiring the OPC, with preliminary and contract design (P&CD) followed by detailed design and construction. In the fall of 2013, the Coast Guard plans to award up to three contracts for an 18-month P&CD effort, which will be followed by the competitive selection of a single design for detailed design and construction of as many as 10 OPCs. The Coast Guard plans to acquire 25 OPCs. The OPC project is the largest shipbuilding project the Coast Guard has ever undertaken, in terms of total dollar amount.

Mission Effectiveness Project The Mission Effectiveness Project (MEP) is designed to maintain and enhance operational effectiveness and affordability of the legacy WMEC and WPB fleets until OPCs and fast response cutters are available. During the MEP process, legacy 270-foot Famous-class WMECs and the 210-foot Reliance-class WMECs are enhanced with new equipment and repairs to increase reliability and performance of major ship systems. The Coast Guard completed the last MEP availabilities for the 110-foot Island-class patrol boats (WPB) in 2012. MEP availabilities replace obsolete and increasingly unsupportable systems and reduce future maintenance costs on these important workhorses of the Coast Guard’s fleet. MEP availabilities renew the cutters’ decks, living quarters and engineering systems; replace tanks, piping and electrical wiring; replace hull plating on 210-foot WMECs and 110-foot WPBs; and replace other items, such as refrigerators and air conditioning units, to improve habitability. Cutters undergo this refurbishment work at the Coast Guard Yard, Curtis Bay, Md., overseen by the Legacy Sustainment Support Unit. ­CGF  5.3 | 9

Through the end of fiscal year 2013, 15 of 19 270-foot WMEC availabilities have been completed; remaining work associated with the remaining 270-foot WMECs is on track to be completed by the end of FY14. All 14 of the 210-foot WMECs have completed MEP.

Fast Response Cutter The Coast Guard has accepted delivery of seven Sentinel-class fast response cutters (FRC), six of which now are commissioned and in service. The 154-foot FRCs recapitalize the legacy fleet of 110-foot Island-class WPBs. Like their predecessors, the FRCs will conduct a variety of Coast Guard missions, including port, waterway and coastal security; fishery patrols; search and rescue; and national defense. FRCs have a top speed of more than 28 knots, a crew of 22, are capable of operating independently for five days at sea, and can be underway for 2,500 hours per year. The Coast Guard plans to acquire 58 Sentinel-class cutters, each named for a Coast Guard enlisted hero. The service commissioned the first FRC, Bernard C. Webber, on April 14, 2012, at the Port of Miami. By the end of 2013, the Coast Guard will be operating FRCs from two homeports: Miami Beach, Fla., and Key West, Fla.

Response Boat-Medium The response boat-medium (RB-M) recapitalizes the service’s 41-foot and non-standard utility boats. The RB-M is the centerpiece of the Coast Guard’s recapitalized shore-based response forces. The 45-foot RB-M is equipped with state-of-the-art marine technology, including waterjet propulsion and integrated electronics that allow greater control from the pilot house. The RB-M delivers boat crews more rapidly and with greater agility to rescue target locations, as well as providing boat crews with a sophisticated electronic command and control suite able to track and intercept targets in all weather conditions. The RB-M also is a safer platform than the boats it replaces, having been designed to decrease crew fatigue on extended patrols. The Coast Guard plans to acquire 170 RB-M. Today, more than 130 RB-M have been delivered to stations around the country. The contractor is delivering at least 30 boats per year.

Cutter Boats: Over-the-Horizon IV, and Long Range Interceptor II The cutter boats project includes the 7-meter Over the Horizon IV (OTH-IV) and the 11-meter Long Range Interceptor II (LRI-II). The project will supply each NSC with two OTH-IVs and one LRI-II, as well as delivering cutter boats for other Coast Guard platforms, including the Sentinel-class FRC. The new cutter boats, with speeds up to 42 knots, extend the mission reach and their host cutters, interdicting go-fast targets and delivering Coast Guard boarding teams. The OTH-IV, with accommodation for five, including a crew of three and a two-member boarding team, is designed to intercept and inspect vessels of interest during counter-drug patrols. The Coast Guard used an innovative acquisition strategy for the OTH-IV, selecting the winner from a “boat-off” of four competing designs. The Coast Guard may procure 101 OTH-IVs, including additional boats for U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) and the U.S. Navy. To date, 23 OTH-IVs have been ordered for NSC and FRC classes. Three OTH-IVs have been delivered to date, including one to an FRC and two to the NSC fleet. The powerful LRI-II, driven by twin marine diesel engines and water jet propulsors, is capable of mounting high speed chases in 10 | CGF 5.3

pursuit of fast-moving targets far from the host cutter. Each LRI can accommodate 15 persons. An improved command, control and communications suite helps the boat crews stay in contact with their cutter, Coast Guard aircraft and other assets during operations, particularly migrant interdiction. The lead LRI-II was delivered to the Coast Guard in February 2013, completed operational testing in June and has already played a critical role in the cutter boat’s first interdiction of illegal drugs at sea. Additional orders are planned before the end of 2013. The Coast Guard plans to procure up to 10 LRI-II.

Response Boat-Small-II The Coast Guard developed the response boat-small (RB-S) to provide additional maritime safety and security platforms after the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001. The first 25-foot Defenderclass RB-S arrived in May 2002, and the service acquired approximately 300. In 2011, the Coast Guard began to recapitalize the legacy RB-S class, which is approaching the end of its 10-year service life with a new procurement, designated RB-S II. The Coast Guard plans to procure as many as 500 RBS-II to replace the Defender-class, including as many as 20 boats for CBP and 10 for the Navy. To date, the Coast Guard has ordered 84 RB-S II and 57 hulls have been placed into service at Coast Guard small boat stations around the United States.

AVIATION PROJECTS HC-130H/J Long Range Surveillance Aircraft The modernization and recapitalization of the Coast Guard’s long range surveillance (LRS) aircraft will enable aircrews to perform maritime patrols more effectively. The Coast Guard currently has 23 HC-130H Hercules and six HC-130J Super Hercules LRS, which fly search and rescue, transport, and law enforcement missions. The Coast Guard’s HC-130Js are equipped with a state-of-themarket surface search radar, electro-optical/infrared sensor, and a mission operator station installed on the flight deck. The Coast Guard accepted delivery of the sixth HC-130J in May 2010. In 2012, the service ordered three more Super Hercules for delivery in 2016. Since their introduction in fiscal year 2008, the HC-130Js have supported Coast Guard mobility and enhanced the service’s capability to perform search and rescue and drug and migrant interdiction missions. Meanwhile, the Coast Guard is procuring a series of improvements for the 23 HC-130Hs. All have now received new avionics and a new surface search radar system. Work has also begun to replace the center wing boxes of select HC-130s.

HC-144A Medium Range Surveillance Aircraft The HC-144A Ocean Sentry medium range surveillance aircraft replaces the HU-25 Guardian as the Coast Guard’s principal fixed wing maritime patrol aircraft (MPA). The Ocean Sentry is powered by fuel-efficient turbo-prop engines and capable of remaining on station for 10 hours, flying at lower speeds across a wider search area. The Ocean Sentry also is a reconfigurable platform, with a roll-on/ roll-off mission system pallet that includes a suite of specialized electronic surveillance and communication equipment that allows MPA aircrews to tie into Coast Guard and joint force classified tactical networks. The aircraft’s rear ramp allows the cargo bay to be configured for several missions, including maritime patrol, medical evacuation, and transport missions.

The Coast Guard has ordered 18 Ocean Sentries to date, and 15 aircraft are currently performing operations at three Coast Guard air stations. The service has also taken delivery of 12 mission system pallets, and five more are on order. To enhance pilot training for the new aircraft and its mission systems, the Coast Guard is equipping Aviation Training Center (ATC), Mobile, Ala., with a simulator.

H-60 Medium Range Recovery Helicopter The Coast Guard’s medium range recovery helicopter, the H-60 Jayhawk, has been a workhorse of Coast Guard aviation since the 1990s. The aging aircraft require a complex overhaul to address critical maintenance issues. This conversion and sustainment project, performed at the Aviation Logistics Center (ALC), Elizabeth City, N.C., will enhance mission performance and enable the newly configured MH-60Ts to continue flying through 2027. The upgrade replaces worn components and systems on the helicopters and adds new mission equipment that enhance capability and reduce operating costs. The Coast Guard has equipped all 42 Jayhawks with airborne use of force capabilities (including ballistic armor, weapons mounts and other modifications). The service is completing other segments of the MH-60T upgrade, including new avionics, a new electro-optic/infrared sensor system and other improvements to enable aircrews to locate, identify and track targets, day or night in all weather. To date, 37 of 42 helicopters have been completed.

Rescue 21 Rescue 21 is the Coast Guard’s advanced command, control and communications system created to assist mariners in distress and save lives and property at sea. As the maritime version of 911, Rescue 21 helps first responders communicate and work together during maritime emergencies. The Rescue 21 system extends communication range to 20 nautical miles from shore and also provides direction-finding capability to direct rescue assets along accurate lines of bearing to targets in distress. The system also helps identify hoax calls that unnecessarily divert assets and people from real emergencies. Rescue 21 is the first part of the Coast Guard’s recapitalization of its maritime communications infrastructure at its sector command centers. the interagency operations center project and nationwide automatic identification system will build upon and incorporate Rescue 21’s capabilities to improve America’s maritime safety and security. Rescue 21 now is operational along the entire Atlantic, Pacific and Gulf coasts of the continental United States as well as along the shores of the Great Lakes, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, the U.S. Virgin Islands, Guam, and the Northern Marianas Islands, covering nearly 42,000 miles of coastline. The service is currently installing systems in Alaska and the Western Rivers to expand coverage in these areas.

H-65 Short Range Recovery Helicopter The Coast Guard’s short range recovery helicopter, the HH-65 Dolphin, first entered service in 1984. These aircraft are mainstays of Coast Guard cutter aviation, as well as serving at air stations across the country. A project to upgrade these aircraft at the ALC extends their service lives through 2027. In the first phase of the upgrade, the Coast Guard replaced the HH-65s’ engines, which provided 40 percent more power. Next, the service equipped the helicopters with new electro-optical and infrared sensor systems, as well as airborne use of force kits, and re-designated the aircraft MH-65C. The Coast Guard now is improving all 102 Dolphins to the MH65D standard, adding cockpit avionics, such as flat panel displays, an embedded GPS and inertial navigation system, etc. In the final phase of the upgrade, the Coast Guard will install the common avionics architecture system cockpit equipment, similar to that being installed aboard the MH-60T. When complete, the Dolphins will be re-designated MH-65E.


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C4ISR C4ISR equipment is an important component of the mission capability delivered with all of the Coast Guard’s recapitalized cutters, boats and aircraft. C4ISR equipment and networks help the Coast Guard collect, process, share and act on information that may be crucial to the success of a mission. The C4ISR acquisition project helps Coast Guard and interagency decision-makers build in their command centers a realistic common operational picture of the working environment. The information derived from C4ISR equipment helps Coast Guard units work more effectively with one another and partners in other services, to save lives, enforce U.S. laws and provide maritime homeland security.

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Nationwide Automatic Identification System (NAIS) NAIS enables the Coast Guard to identify, track and communicate with marine vessels using the automatic identification system (AIS), which is the global standard for maritime communications using digital VHF technology to continually transmit and receive voiceless data, including vessel location, course and speed. When combined with other government information and sensors, the Coast Guard obtains a holistic view of the arriving ship’s crew, cargo and routing. Equipped with a comprehensive view of traffic on the nation’s waterways, NAIS helps decision-makers respond to safety and security risks. Since September 2007, the Coast Guard has had an interim NAIS capability in 58 ports to receive data out to 24 nautical miles from shore. The NAIS system currently receives 64 million AIS messages per day from approximately 7,900 unique vessels in 58 ports and 11 coastal areas. The permanent system will transmit messages out to 24 nautical miles and receive messages from up to 50 nautical miles from shore.

Interagency Operations Centers (IOC) The Security and Accountability for Every Port (SAFE Port) Act of 2006 mandated the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) establish interagency operations centers to better plan, coordinate and execute maritime security operations among interagency partners in key ports. On behalf of DHS, the IOC project is working to enhance multi-agency maritime security responses. Physical collocation is not necessary for IOCs. Rather, the important element is the ability to share situational awareness through collaborative use of multi-agency inputs. The IOC framework enables port agencies to conduct and apply risk-based operational planning for improved operational effectiveness. IOCs share targeting, intelligence and scheduling information to improve domain and situational awareness, uncover gaps in planned and ongoing operations, and reduce duplication of effort. A primary enabler of the IOC project is WatchKeeper software, an information sharing and management system. WatchKeeper provides a common operating picture to achieve increased situational awareness as well as visibility of the port schedules for merchant traffic. WatchKeeper facilitates coordination with other DHS components and federal, state and local port partners to plan, schedule and execute port security operations. The Coast Guard has deployed WatchKeeper as a technology demonstration at 27 sites across the U.S. and plans to deploy the system to 35 locations by 2014.

ACQUISITION LOGISTICS The acquisition logistics program guides Coast Guard in planning and preparing for the delivery and support of new assets, including surface and aviation platforms, and C4ISR systems. Acquisition logistics helps Coast Guard logisticians developed support plans for new assets delivered to the operational community. Working closely with the Coast Guard’s technical authorities—the Human Resources Directorate (CG-1); the Logistics and Engineering Directorate (CG-4); and the Command, Control, Communications, and Computers (C4) and Information Technology Directorate (CG-6)—the program also assists in the 12 | CGF 5.3

implementation of logistics policy, and supports the Coast Guard’s investments in major systems acquisition facilities.

Asset Project Office (APO) Located at the Coast Guard Yard, Baltimore, the APO’s mission is to plan, manage and execute the delivery and transition of newly acquired assets to operational service in the field. The APO integrates major new asset product lines into the Coast Guard’s logistics and service centers. The APO manages the development of integrated logistics support plans and products; defines resource requirements for staffing product lines and associated billets; trains, develops and directs prospective product lines; and provides logistics subject matter expertise to acquisition projects. The APO is currently focused on providing logistics support plans for critical Coast Guard surface acquisition projects.

Major Acquisition Systems Infrastructure (MASI) As asset delivery schedules and operational requirements require, the Coast Guard’s MASI funding ensures that the necessary facilities and infrastructure are in place to support new platforms and missions systems when they arrive in the field. Before delivery, the MASI team works closely with Coast Guard acquisition and logistics professionals to identify infrastructure needs and prioritize investments in new facilities and facility upgrades to accommodate the boats, cutters, aircraft and mission systems procured by CG-9. Recent and ongoing MASI projects include: •

• •

• •

Construction of HC-144A support facilities at Coast Guard Air Station Cape Cod, Mass., and Air Station Corpus Christi, Texas. Modifications of piers, support facilities and shore power systems to support FRC homeports at Miami; Key West; San Juan, Puerto Rico; Pascagoula, Miss.; Ketchikan, Alaska; and Honolulu. Coordination of activities in preparation for the second NSC homeport at Charleston, S.C. Conducting engineering studies and analyses for futureyear facilities projects to support planning and budgeting for new vessel homeports. Construction of facilities for maritime patrol aircraft and Mission System Pallet maintenance training at Aviation Technical Training Center, Elizabeth City, N.C. Construction of the HC-144A hangar for depot-level maintenance at the ALC. Modifications to support RB-Ms at Coast Guard boat stations nationwide.

Previously completed MASI projects include the HC-144A hangar and simulator building at ATC, Mobile, Ala.; the NSC command-and-control training building at Training Center Petaluma, Calif., and upgrades to NSC piers at Alameda, Calif. O

For more information, contact Editor-In-Chief Jeff McKaughan or search our online archives for related stories at

A common key to meeting avionics cost targets. By Troy Brunk In the climate of budget constraints faced by the United States Coast Guard today, one clear path to achieving cost targets on a number of vital avionics upgrades is the expanded adoption of common systems and architectures. Development costs continue to be an expense that must be planned for as additional functionality is required to meet the operators’ needs. When new requirements are common across platforms and services, creating brand-new systems for each platform frequently may add to costs and timetables without adding value. Many of the capability enhancements the USCG will require for upcoming programs to address FAA NextGen and other requirements are already developed, certified, and in service on other commercial or defense platforms. By working to identify and adopt these solutions, the USCG will help preserve the opportunity to proceed with essential programs, obtain proven airworthy solutions and yield millions in savings for our taxpayers. The USCG’s recent use of the Rockwell Collins Common Avionics Architecture System (CAAS) to upgrade the avionics of 43 MH-60T medium-range recovery helicopters demonstrates the power of this approach. This open architecture avionics solution is a proven, effective commercial offthe-shelf technology initially developed and installed on Army helicopter platforms that has improved the mission effectiveness of the Jayhawks, enabling pilots to navigate in poor visibility, overlay flight plans on weather radar displays and project fuel consumption accurately through an integrated flight management system. CAAS enhances situational awareness and helps with cockpit workload by integrating functions on color displays. The USCG is now realizing further savings as they progress with their MH-65E avionics upgrade by integrating the MH-60T

avionics baseline into the MH-65, enabling further reuse and commonality. The USCG has ongoing opportunities to reduce development costs by reusing upgrades already mapped and developed for other helicopter platforms. Through HC-130H Avionics 1 Upgrade and HC-144 Ocean Sentry Refresh, a similar approach has been taken with the USCG fixed wing HC-130H and HC-144A aircraft to provide improved readiness and situational awareness with additional mission and FAA NextGen capabilities, such as ADS-B leveraging an open-architecture avionics solution. Enhanced capabilities should be shared across all USCG airborne platforms to the fullest extent—at the levels of avionics system and software applications, as well as the products and/or the individual circuit card assemblies. Software development reductions can be achieved by maximizing reuse of solutions developed to USCG requirements across all USCG airborne platforms, and reusing common functional enhancements at every opportunity. Many USCG upgrade requirements align with internal roadmaps, providing the possibility of continued sharing of capability and supportability enhancements. USCG programs are well-positioned to benefit from existing common architecture solutions. Examples include ADS-B solutions and Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS) Localizer Performance with Vertical Guidance (LPV) flight management system upgrades, both to address FAA NextGen requirements. Newly developed and certified flight management system applications could be reused for the WAAS-LPV upgrade for all USCG platforms, for example, saving millions of dollars of development costs.

The USCG is taking the logical first steps down this road of common avionics. At present, the 43 USCG Jayhawks are awaiting the completion of a software upgrade that will provide for enhanced civil air space and search and rescue capabilities. The same common capabilities will then be immediately available on the integration effort currently in development for the USCG’s 102 MH-65E short range recovery helicopters. Fleet readiness will be strengthened by enhanced interchangeable hardware and software opportunities. The USCG will be able to continue to leverage the evolution of hardware and software from a variety of other avionics programs, including programs with the Army, Air Force, Navy and other fielded U.S. and international solutions. While unwelcome, the harsh budget climate should open to door to consideration of more common architecture approaches in avionics. To delay these needed upgrades at this time would be undesirable, given the long-term cost savings the upgrades offer in saving precious lives and valuable equipment. O Troy Brunk is the vice president and general manager, airborne solutions, at Rockwell Collins.

For more information, contact Editor-in-Chief Jeff McKaughan or search our online archives for related stories at

­CGF  5.3 | 13

ON THE HORIZON Fast Response Cutter Charles David Jr. Sets Sail

Bollinger Shipyards Inc. has delivered the Charles David Jr., the seventh fast response cutter (FRC), to the United States Coast Guard. The announcement was made by Bollinger executive vice president of new construction, Chris Bollinger. “We are very pleased to announce another successful on-time and on-budget FRC delivery to the Coast Guard. The Charles David Jr. was delivered to the 7th Coast Guard District in Key West, Fla., and will be stationed at USCG Sector Key West. We are all looking forward to the vessel’s upcoming commissioning, as well as honoring and celebrating the heroic acts of Charles David Jr.” The 154-foot patrol craft Charles David Jr. is the seventh vessel in the Coast Guard’s Sentinel-class FRC program. To build the FRC, Bollinger Shipyards used a proven, in-service parent craft design based on the Damen Stan Patrol Boat 4708. It has a flank speed of 28 knots, state-of-the-art command, control, communications and computer technology, and a stern launch system for the vessel’s 26-foot cutter boat. The FRC has been described as an operational game changer, by senior Coast Guard officials. The Coast Guard took delivery August 16, 2013, in Key West and is scheduled to commission the vessel in Key West in November 2013. Each FRC is named for an enlisted Coast Guard hero who distinguished him or herself in the line of duty. This vessel is named after Coast Guard Hero, Stewards-Mate First Class Charles W. David Jr., who was posthumously awarded the Navy and Marine Corps Medal for his bravery. On the night of February 3, 1943, the U.S. Army transport USS Dorchester was torpedoed by a U-boat off the coast of Greenland in the North Atlantic. The CGC Comanche was on the scene and its crew desperately searched for survivors in the frigid waters. David fearlessly volunteered to leave the safe haven of the Comanche to dive overboard to help rescue the Dorchester’s crew. As other crewmen also volunteered to dive in, 93 survivors were rescued out of the freezing waters. After the last of the survivors were safely aboard, David began to climb the cargo net to the ship’s deck. One of David’s shipmates, Richard Swanson, was having trouble climbing the net due to his freezing limbs. David descended the net with the help of another crewman and pulled Swanson to the deck out of harm’s way. Tragically, David died a few days later from pneumonia.

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Looking for an Outside Perspective The Coast Guard C4IT Service Center is faced with an anticipated budget decrease of approximately 5-10 percent. These budget pressures have led to a renewed focus on OSC’s operations as their costs are increasing by about 10 percent. OSC’s customers have their own budget concerns and are questioning OSC’s value proposition. The current service catalog is not built to communicate customer value and as such, customer engagement is focused on bill of materials versus customer satisfaction and service levels. There is a perception at leadership levels and among customers that governance and management mechanisms of costs, customer/business requirements, technical releases, ODCs, etc., could be more efficient and effective. The Coast Guard has a requirement for a contractor to provide to the C4ITSC an outside perspective of the current state (e.g., baseline) of the OSC’s operations and costs with a particular focus on OSC’s operating model, architecture, technology, engineering and maintenance processes, sourcing, and outsourcing. Additionally it will identify near- and long-term recommended action for the OSC plotted on a roadmap and recommend an OSC future vision statement to likely include: meeting and managing customers’ needs; addressing USCG CIO ongoing, planned and potential consolidation efforts; and enabling adaptability for future technologies. The Coast Guard has also announced its intention to issue a sole source contract to Stokes Evans Limited, Alexandria, Va.

Integrated Bridge System Northrop Grumman Corporation has completed an integrated bridge system retrofit for several RoPax ferries operated by commercial shipping firms. Northrop Grumman’s Sperry Marine business unit provided a fully networked suite of scalable navigation products from the VisionMaster FT series, used to form the core of a ship’s integrated bridge. The Stena Superfast VII and Stena Superfast VIII vessels were upgraded with VisionMaster FT navigation radars, a voyage data recorder, and an electronic chart display and information system (ECDIS) that provides full control on both bridge wings. Meanwhile, the Stena Europe and Stena Adventurer were outfitted with the VisionMaster FT ECDIS, which meets the International Maritime Organization’s (IMO) regulations for paperless navigation while providing a separate, redundant backup station in case the primary ECDIS navigation station is damaged or disrupted. “Our highly reliable, flexible navigation solution provides leading-edge situational awareness capabilities and improvements in radar performance to enhance the ships’ safety at sea,” said Alan Dix, managing director of Northrop Grumman Sperry Marine. “Additionally, it ensures compliance with new carriage requirements for greater navigational safety standards as set out by the IMO.” In addition to equipment, Northrop Grumman provided installation and training on the VisionMaster FT products. The company’s customized, modular solution enables a high level of integration with the ships’ current systems.

Compiled by KMI Media Group staff

New Body Armor

Multi-Sensor Mast

Selex ES, a Finmeccanica company, has revealed Unimast, its new integrated multi-sensor naval mast at DSEi 2013. Unimast brings together air and surface target detection and tracking, communications, IFF and electronic warfare capabilities housed in a single, low-radar cross section profile structure featuring a single management system. The latter integrates the operations of multifunctional 3-D AESA radars, phased array IFF operating at Mode 5 and below, optronic systems, communication suites (including tactical data links) and EW systems.

UNIMAST offers significant operational effectiveness benefits over the conventional approach of adding and replacing separate mast sub-systems over time, with the risks of sub-optimal performance and mutual interference. Every sensor has an unobstructed field of view, and systems can operate simultaneously without conflicting. All systems can be operated from a common System Manager, which acts as the “brain” of the integrated mast. “The UNIMAST will make a huge difference to a vessel’s operational capability. Historically, Navies installed and qualified multiple sub-systems, and then struggled to operate them simultaneously to their optimum performance—those days are over.” said Lorenzo Mariani, Managing Director of Selex ES’s Land & Naval division, adding; “Our expertise goes from large systems integration through to bestof-breed enabling-sensors and communications, so we’re able to combine systems into a single structure and ensure they operate seamlessly together.” The UNIMAST is a modular system which will be reconfigured depending on the vessel mission.

In a milestone accomplishment, Reed Composite Solutions LLC (RCS)—a newcomer to the personal protection market in the U.S. and internationally—has received its first competitively awarded federal contract for the production of Stand Alone lightweight composite body armor, capable of defeating the most lethal threats encountered by homeland security personnel. The contract has a value of approximately $279,000. RCS’s advanced composite armor manufacturing techniques will be used to ensure a 60-day on-time delivery to the United States Coast Guard from the award of the contract. RCS CEO Ryan Reed commented: “We are extremely pleased to have been awarded this body armor contract. While limited in quantity, we feel this award clearly demonstrates that RCS is an emerging technology leader in the personal protection business. Our body armor designs and performance are a leap forward for national security personnel as well as our warfighters. We anticipate meeting the government’s performance, quality and delivery requirements with this order.”

Ballast Water Test Solution The international maritime industry, with more than 70,000 merchant vessels, is responsible for transporting more than 80 percent of the goods traded in world markets, and is a foundation for the global economy. However, commercial shipping is also responsible for transporting ballast water and introducing aquatic invasive species to coastal waters where they can cause enormous ecological and economic damage. The International Maritime Organization’s (IMO) International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships’ Ballast Water and Sediments, adopted in 2004 but not yet ratified or entered into force, include a discharge standard to reduce the transport and delivery of potential aquatic nuisance species. Concurrently in the United States, the USCG developed and finalized ballast water discharge standards (BWDSs) that limit concentrations of living organisms that can be released with ballast water and new regulations that require ship operators to meet those limits. The USCG discharge standard, which is the same as that of the IMO, will begin to apply

to ships constructed on or after December 1, 2013, and for ships constructed prior to that date in 2014 or 2016, depending on ballast water capacity. To address the IMO and U.S. discharge standards, technology developers and manufacturers around the world have designed and built a variety of onboard ballast water management systems (BWMSs) to achieve the prescribed discharge limits. To date, several dozen BWMSs have been tested by independent laboratories and have received type approval certifications from various international administrations in accordance with the IMO convention. These systems include treatment processes such as: deoxygenation, filtration, ultraviolet radiation, ozonation, and various chemical treatments, including electrocatalytic chlorination, peracetic acid, hydrogen peroxide, perchloric acid, and chlorine dioxide. When the IMO and U.S. BWDSs enter into force, port state control officers will require methods to rapidly and accurately verify a

vessel’s compliance with the BWDSs. At this time, there is little to no information on commercially available technologies or the capabilities (testing limitations) of those technologies to verify compliance. This procurement is the first step in the process of developing a feasible method for assessing compliance. To meet that requirement, the Coast Guard has issued a broad agency announcement that includes the development and delivery of prototype technologies that address the current USCG capability gap in the area of verification of ballast water compliance. The scope also includes on-site technical support of the prototype by the vendors during the independent prototype demonstration to determine functional qualities. Selected contractors shall develop a prototype system or modify an existing prototype for use by port state control officers to accurately and rapidly verify compliance. Technology solutions can use direct or indicative measurements of assessing compliance.

­CGF  5.3 | 15

Program Guider

Q& A

Balancing Precious and Limited Resources for Maximum Results Rear Admiral Joseph M. Vojvodich Program Executive Officer (PEO) and Director of Acquisition Programs Rear Admiral Joseph M. Vojvodich currently serves as the U.S. Coast Guard’s program executive officer (PEO) and director of Acquisition Programs. His duties include management oversight of all Coast Guard acquisition programs and projects for the modernization and recapitalization of surface, air, command and control, and logistics assets in support of the Coast Guard’s multiple maritime missions. Prior to reporting as PEO of the Acquisition Directorate, he served as commander of Coast Guard Sector Long Island Sound, responsible for search and rescue, environmental response, port safety and security, inspections of domestic and foreign vessels, ice breaking missions, and fisheries enforcement operations for coastal Connecticut, Long Island Sound and offshore 200 nautical miles. Prior to assignment at Sector Long Island Sound, Vojvodich was the acquisition program manager for the Coast Guard Acquisition Directorate’s command, control, communications, computers, intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (C4ISR) projects where he oversaw a portfolio of five major acquisition projects. His afloat assignments include a tour as commanding officer of the multi-national crewed Caribbean Support Tender, USCGC Gentian; executive officer on USCGC Storis; commanding officer of USCGC Sapelo; and navigator on the USCGC Midgett. He supervised the Coast Guard’s research and development portfolio at the Department of Homeland Security’s Science and Technology Directorate. His other shore assignments include technical and management positions at the Telecommunications Branch of the Maintenance and Logistics Command Atlantic and at the Network Engineering Branch at Telecommunications and Information Systems Command. Born in South Korea, he was raised in Richmond, Ohio, and graduated from Jefferson Union High School. Vojvodich is a graduate of the U.S. Coast Guard Academy with honors. He earned a Master of Science degree in electrical engineering from Purdue University and has completed the Naval War College nonresidential curriculum. In 2001, he obtained his Project Manager Professional certification. He is a graduate of the Industrial College of the Armed Forces where he earned a Master of Science degree in national resource strategy. He is a certified Level III Acquisition Professional and holds the Chief Information Officer certificate from the National Defense University. Q: What are the key bullet points of the PEO: how many projects, budget, number of staff—Coast Guard and civilians, etc.?

field can perform their duties. We have come a long way since my first assignment in 1999 in the old Coast Guard acquisition organization. We now manage a larger number of projects—currently 19 chartered project managers organized under three program managers responsible for the surface, air and C4ISR domains—and the projects are significantly more complex than when I first started in acquisition. These major acquisition projects are overseen and executed by a core CG-93 workforce comprised of more than 400 dedicated military and civilian professionals who collectively manage an annual acquisition budget exceeding $1 billion. CG-93 is part of the larger Acquisition Directorate [CG-9] to better optimize and coordinate project management and contracting efforts with support services that enable these functions. Eleven project resident offices and detachments provide onsite government personnel at contractors’ locations and ensure deliverables are contractually compliant and technically understood. Recapitalizing legacy assets and systems remains a top priority for our service, and we are optimally organized to deliver capability.

A: Acquisition programs are a cornerstone to mission execution. We have to do our job and do it well before our shipmates in the

Q: You have recently taken over as PEO. What are your primary goals and what guidance have you set to chart the path forward?

16 | CGF 5.3

A: That’s correct. I have been onboard for several weeks, and I promised myself that I would seek to understand the organization and the workload before I would outline my priorities. It has been three years since I last worked in acquisition, and the obvious successes in recent years were made possible through significant improvements in processes and collaboration with our many partners to achieve this level of maturity. After two weeks it was abundantly clear to me that we have a corps of dedicated, passionate and professional subject matter experts and project management leaders. Simply put, I will be looking to maintain and emphasize a trained and credentialed crew of acquisition professionals, to continually discover opportunities to streamline and improve processes, to capture and incorporate lessons learned, and to remain engaged on the priorities of the Coast Guard and Department of Homeland Security to ultimately deliver capability to the field. Q: With the current budget environment and corresponding budget reductions, are there entire programs that are in jeopardy of being cut, significant stretching out of acquisition, or programs simply being parked for the time being? What guidance is your office working on in terms of funding?

includes questioning where the cutter will operate, how long it needs to operate, what environment it will need to operate in, and so forth. This is also the time to engage industry to understand the realm of the possible as we preamble the government’s intent. The nation hasn’t built a heavy icebreaker since the 1970s. The shape of the hull, the strength of the materials, the vessel’s propulsion, and the ability to operate in a wide range of conditions are dominating factors that really need to be considered in order to balance operational and functional needs with affordability and delivery within a constrained timeline. While delivering capability within cost, schedule and performance parameters are focus areas for the project manager, we have to carry out the project in a manner that ensures fairness and stewardship and promotes a competitive environment and cost certainty. By ensuring that we are acquiring what we need, engaging industry in the most transparent and fair manner as possible, driving toward the highest possible cost certainty, and thoroughly testing for contract compliance and operational effectiveness, we are positioning the project for success. All of these steps need to be taken to remain on our 10-year timeframe for delivering a fully operational Coast Guard icebreaker.

A: No doubt all of our projects are operating in an extremely challenging environment. I think there is general consensus that the federal government needs to rein in spending, so we should see it as an opportunity to ensure each taxpayer dollar is being applied towards the most meaningful objective in the most efficient manner. The importance of acquisition programs will become even more apparent during this challenging time. We have developed our major systems acquisition processes to help us make difficult decisions in a rigorous manner. As a project progresses, various acquisition activities ensure that we are applying our limited resources toward the most important investments. In the early stages of a project, activities such as the operational requirements document and the alternative analysis point us in the right direction, and as the project matures, we continue to provide a greater level of understanding of the project and its impact through products such as the life cycle cost estimate and processes such as the design and readiness reviews. As we collaborate and work with the sponsor, technical authorities and the resource managers, we should be able to meticulously decide which investment moves forward and how one project might be stretched out or another one put on pause. We will make those decisions considering the totality of the entire portfolio of projects in a purposeful manner.

Q: How would you characterize the progress on your other cutter programs?

Q: With the projected mix of heavy and medium icebreakers, is that fleet sufficient for what the projected missions will require? What is the current timeline for the new heavy icebreaker—and what new capabilities will the cutter bring with it?

Q: Is the Coast Guard interested in the C-27 as an additional fixed wing asset?

A: The acquisition process provides a rigorous means to ensure that we satisfy the nation’s ice breaking requirements while considering all other needs. Our heavy ice breaking capacity has diminished since the ’80s and ’90s, and we are now concentrating on revisiting and defining what those ice breaking needs entail now and into the future. This

A: We all should be excited and proud about the successes achieved by the surface program. We have ordered long lead material for the seventh national security cutter, laid the keel for the James [NSC 5], and launched the Hamilton [NSC 4]. Most importantly, NSCs have logged significant operational accomplishments in some of the most challenging environments that the Coast Guard operates. Most recently Bertholf [NSC 1], equipped with the newly acquired long range interceptor cutter boat, achieved a 537-kilogram cocaine bust in the Eastern Pacific. We have successfully delivered the first cluster of six fast response cutters in Miami, and I proudly note that the logistical preparation of the waterfront and support functions were synchronized much better than in the past. Eighteen FRCs are on contract and we are close to delivering the seventh FRC to Key West, Fla. The steps to fully prepare ourselves for the OPC acquisition in concert with the engagements with industry were exemplary. The RFP for the first phase of the acquisition [up to three contracts for preliminary design] was released this past September, and the project remains on track.

A: Our business case analysis shows that obtaining at least 14 C-27Js from the Department of Defense would enable achievement of the MPA program of record more quickly and potentially avoid approximately $500 million in planned AC&I costs. The receipt of 14 C-27J aircraft are the minimum number of aircraft necessary in order to break even from a business case perspective when considering operational, maintenance, one-time costs, training, standardization and other relevant factors. ­CGF  5.3 | 17

Q: Unmanned air systems is another area that the Coast Guard seems to be modestly interested in. What is the evaluation and acquisition plan? Is there a current preference for fixed or rotary wing? A: UAS technology—both in the airframes and the payloads—and its application have significantly advanced over the years, and we should be constantly reviewing better and more cost-effective means to complete our missions. CG-93 has designated a project manager for UAS to collaborate with the sponsor as the service continues to refine mission needs. The Coast Guard continues to partner with our DHS and DoD colleagues to support UAS development as well as gain greater insights. The Coast Guard recently completed a couple of research and development efforts to enhance our understanding of an UAS system on the NSC. In fact during the most recent R&D demonstration on Bertholf, UAS played a significant role in an interdiction of nearly 600 kilograms of cocaine this past May. In terms of a preference for a fixed- or rotary-wing UAS for operation aboard our cutter fleet, I think factors such as impact on mission, the acquisition cost, expenditures to outfit, and manning to include training requirements will eventually dictate the direction that we plan to take in acquiring a UAS solution. Q: What is the PEO’s responsibility in monitoring quality and compliance from industrial partners, especially on larger programs like cutters and aircraft? A: When it comes to quality and compliance, we depend on a number of entities to play their part. We choose to enter into contractual relationships with industry that are capable of delivering quality per accepted standards and contract specifications and have a strong track record in doing so. Contracts are structured to provide us insight, through events and deliverables such as design reviews, status reports and key performance metrics, into industry’s activities, decision making, and test results that ultimately impact the quality and timeliness of the capability that is being produced and delivered. At the same time, we leverage system engineering activities. We are increasingly utilizing independent assessors to test operational suitability and contract compliance, raising the quality expectation for deliverables. Clearly, larger programs involving cutters and aircraft have greater and more complex challenges in delivering timely and capable assets, but having insight into processes and decision making of industry significantly enhances the governmental oversight role of the project manager and ultimately improves quality and compliance. Q: In your management role over the modernization and recapitalization of the air and maritime assets, what are the challenges of maintaining aging platforms? How do you work with or partner with industry and the other services to maintain operational readiness? A: It is a significant challenge in balancing our precious and limited resources among recapitalization and maintenance efforts, especially given the accelerating pace of technology obsolesce. 18 | CGF 5.3

I think there are three pillars to guide us toward finding the sweet spot between those competing needs. First is informed decision making. With good data and information, we can collectively move in the right direction. Important information such as expenses over the duration of maintaining the asset, the timeline and cost to recapitalize or modernize an asset, and industry’s capacity to meet the Coast Guard’s needs are a few of the important factors that need to be considered throughout the decision-making process. The second pillar is honest and timely communication and collaboration, both internally within the Coast Guard and the department as well as with industry. It becomes a toxic situation when we hunker down in our perspectives and remain too parochial in our viewpoints; ultimately, this can result in the inability to make decisions and move forward. We also need healthy interaction through candid engagements with industry to share the Coast Guard’s challenges and views on our next investments. I believe industry also understands the importance of providing realistic and viable cost, schedule and performance parameters to achieve both recapitalization objectives as well other cost-effective alternatives. Finally, we must work towards repeatable methodologies and processes that provide timely and accurate information and productive interaction among partners and stakeholders. Q: What does the Coast Guard do to build professional and effective program, product and project managers? A: The approach to build and sustain a strong, capable workforce has multiple prongs. In the weeks of my return, I can readily see that we have hired, developed and retained a talented, high-performing cadre of acquisition professionals. In 2007 when the CG-9 Directorate stood up, we focused on project managers and contracting officers for their certifications, but now in 2013, I can see that certifications have expanded to all areas of the project staff and other areas of the Coast Guard. I know we offer regular training opportunities, from one-hour blocks on specific topics to multi-week, multi-month long courses of instruction to fully cover subject matters in greater detail in order to continually enhance and broaden the workforce’s expertise. I am increasingly observing a larger number of military members returning to acquisition programs after field tours or assignments at logistics or service centers as a subject matter expert or technical authority, thereby further growing our members for roles of increasing responsibilities and demanding expertise as an acquisition professional. Q: Any final words? A: Considering the Coast Guard’s extraordinary 223 years of prideful, remarkable service to our nation, there is no better time to be in our service, especially within the Acquisition Directorate as we shape the future of our organization. We embarked on a journey six years ago with a goal to be a model acquisition organization for a mid-sized federal government agency, and now it is a real source of pride to have such a capable acquisition arm for the Coast Guard. We have a number of challenges ahead of us, but no greater than the ones that were overcome by those who built our legacy. We understand the imperative to deliver capability. Mission execution starts here! O

Science, technology and elbow grease keep the scourge of corrosion at bay. By Nora McGann, CGF Correspondent In early May, the Coast Guard announced the results of an engineering analysis board convened to investigate the factors associated with corrosion that had been observed on the Stratton, the third national security cutter, in April 2012. At that time, Captain Charles Cashin, commander of the Stratton, notified engineers that crewmembers had found four very small holes in the ship’s hull. The board concluded that “the unusual pattern of corrosion observed on the Stratton was caused by damage to the hull coating—caused by below-the-waterline welding, coupled with a cathodic protection system that was operating in an ‘under protect’ configuration—contributed to the corrosion on Stratton’s hull. Additionally, stray current corrosion from the welding was also identified as a contributing factor.” The service determined that the corrosion on the Stratton was an isolated incident and not a class-wide concern, although they did conduct visual inspections of the Bertholf and Waesche.

A Costly Price Tag on Corrosion Protecting floating and flying hulks of metal from corrosion and its adverse effects is a significant undertaking. The Department of Defense estimates that it spends $20 billion a year fighting corrosion of military equipment and infrastructure costs. In May

2013, a Government Accountability Office report noted that DoD invested more than $68 million in 80 projects in fiscal years 2005 through 2010 to demonstrate new technologies for infrastructurerelated corrosion. In layman’s terms, corrosion is “metal trying to revert back to its natural state,” explained Barry Miller, vice president of KMR Consulting Inc. On a technical level, corrosion is the process by which metals and alloys return to their natural, unrefined forms as elements and minerals. When they are refined to produce metal, elements and minerals become less stable. Under certain conditions, these metals tend to revert back to their more stable, natural state. In these conditions, metal combines with oxygen to create rust and corrosion. The cost of corrosion to the Coast Guard is “substantial,” said Lieutenant Michael Lindo. “Corrosion damage has resulted in cutter dry-dock availability extensions. This contract growth has pushed dry-dock completion dates to the right in order to deal with this significant structural damage. Therefore, corrosion has a big impact on Coast Guard operations.” When considering the direct and indirect costs of corrosion—from manpower and material to reduced or lost operational readiness—preventing and repairing corrosion becomes a significant component of a vessel’s life cycle cost. ­CGF  5.3 | 19

A Diverse Playing Field

started looking at some of the successes we had in aerospace for their helicopters, and from there it migrated into the marine industry to address issues they were having with their vessels. The Navy started picking up what we were doing in aerospace as well,” recounted Miller. Industrial Maintenance Solutions Inc. is a technical representation company that specializes in maintenance and repair issues. The group predominantly represents Belzona Inc., which offers repair compounds and coatings. “We don’t do the commodity coating like hull paint. We work a lot with interior pumps, elevator pits, stern tubes, heat exchangers, holding tanks, jet drives, etc. Anywhere there is corrosion that is repetitive, we help make it go away,” explained Frank Barnett, president and NAVE-certified coating inspector.

The corrosion control and prevention industry is multifaceted, and players include protective material manufacturers—for coatings, tape and covers—as well as consultants. Shield Technologies Corporation manufactures corrosion-inhibiting covers that act like a barrier between the hardware and the harsh marine environment for use in the military industry. The Navy awarded Shield a Small Business Innovative Research grant, which was used to develop Envelop Protective Covers. Introduced to the fleet in 2003, Envelop is currently “the only cover material recommended by NAVSEA (SEA-21) for use on the topside equipment and weapons found on U.S. Navy ships,” according to James Oaks, USCG and USN Atlantic Fleet representative for Shield. Specialty Coating Systems’ (SCS) Parylene conformal coatings Controlling Corrosion have been used on a number of components for the defense industry for the past 40 years. “We’ve provided Parylene on circuit card assemDenso’s SeaShield system gets to the root of the corrosion blies, power supplies, spacecraft and satellite electronics, backplanes, problem by sealing out oxygen and water, a process that stops corcameras and assemblies, sensors, MEMS and elastomeric parts,” rosion on metal surfaces. “The system also prevents spalling and explained Alan Hardy, SCS electronics and military market manager. corrosion of steel reinforcement in concrete piles. It is ideal for “These components can be used on any number of platforms, includenvironments where conditions are too severe for paint systems, ing ships, submarines, landing craft, drones, land vehicles and planes epoxies and other conventional forms of protection. The system to name a few.” encapsulates wharf piles, riser pipes and exposed piping in splash Navy and Coast Guard facilities have relied on Denso SeaShield and intertidal zones,” Jeff Baker, regional sales manager, explained. Marine Systems for more than 20 years and have used Denso Tape on It can fit a variety of configurations, including cylindrical and hydraulic hoses and fittings, the company said. The Series 2000HD H-Pile configurations, support members, bracing, brackets and System offers long-term corrosion protection of both new and existother irregular surfaces. ing piles. Shielding and protecting metal from the elements is critical. On the consulting side, for the past 20 years, Russell Corrosion Shield’s Envelop protective covers have been used by the U.S. Control has provided a variety of corrosion consulting services Navy, Coast Guard, Army, Marine Corps and Air Force for over 10 for DoD in all types of situations, structures and years and offer a multi-layered approach to keepfacilities. “We offer corrosion engineering consulting ing the elements out and away from hardware. services, which entail, from a coating perspective, “The outer layer of Envelop covers is an extremely coating inspections, coatings failure analysis, research durable waterproof yet breathable material that and general coatings related work, for example allows water vapor to escape from underneath the specification writing,” explained Mike Choi, national cover while keeping rain and sea spray out,” said accounts manager at Russell. Choi has seen the Oaks. “The innermost layer is a wicking material corrosion problem from all sides and is well-suited to which pulls moisture from the surface of equipment discuss the issue; he has worked in protective services then stores it in an absorbent layer until it can be for the marine and defense industry for 15 years, evaporated. The fourth layer is an extruded vapor conducting coating inspections, serving as a coatings phase corrosion inhibitor [VCI] weave, which is disAlan Hardy engineer consultant for DoD, and testing coatings for persed throughout the cover by the moisture vapor a number of marine platforms. He has also written exchange.” This VCI prevents oxidation, and as a specifications for coatings. result, 95 percent of corrosion. Founded in 1995 by Air Force veterans, KMR An ultra-thin coating, SCS’s Parylene stands up Consulting Inc. specializes in military and commerto a tough environment. Its pinhole-free conforcial aviation related logistics issues. KMR leadership mal coating “offers superior dielectric properties, has extensive knowledge of the military logistics. excellent chemical and moisture barrier, ultraviolet Kate Kubernach, master sergeant (Ret.), served as stability, and thermal stability up to 350 degrees CelAir Combat Command corrosion manager; Barry sius,” according to Baker. The coating can be applied Miller, chief master sergeant (Ret.), was the logistics as thin as 500 angstroms to 75 microns. manager for the Air Combat Command F-111 weapon Applied as a spray, CeRam-Kote is a thin-film system fleet; and Eric Redifer, colonel (Ret.), was the and air-cured ceramic coating that offers abrasion director of logistics, Air Combat Command Fighter and corrosion protection in harsh environments, Mike Choi Division. like the marine and aerospace environments. As One such company they work with is CeRam-Kote Coatings, a the product does not contain lead, chrome or isocyanates, it has Freecom Company. CeRam-Kote is a ceramic coating that started a volatile organic compounds rating (1.63 pounds per gallon or off in the oil industry, then transitioned to an aerospace applica198 grams per liter) below the Environmental Protection Agency’s tion. “We ended up in the marine industry because the Coast Guard requirements. 20 | CGF 5.3

interested in a reduced size and lighter-weight materials for better corrosion prevention, resulting in reduced power consumption.” Parylene coatings are ultra thin and lightweight, making them a viable alternative to heavier products. The SCS research and development team have introduced a number of new products based on their work with a Ph.D. polymer chemist and feedback from industry. According to Hardy, “The team developed Parylene HT with superior UV stability and high temperature performance to 450 degrees Celsius to meet the harsh environment demands that today’s electronics must survive. They also developed AdPro Plus and AdPro Poly to address adhesion challenges and expand the application for Parylene,” said Hardy. Most recently, SCS introduced microRESISTAntimicrobial Parylene technology, “which combines the benefits of biocompatible Parylene with antimicrobial properties to effectively eliminate harmful microorganisms.” Leveraging technology developments is likely to play a role. “Whether it’s using cloud-based platforms to maintain maintenance records or simplify ordering of paint for ships, or having a reminder for inspection periods, I think you’ll see more automated processes for coating environments in terms of application of coatings,” Choi predicted. Results Oriented “I think you’ll also see more nontraditional solutions, meaning moving away from coating and maybe using In order to get the desired results from corrosion more corrosive-resistant materials that don’t require solutions, surface preparation and ensuring adhecoatings.” Meanwhile, Miller sees exciting things sion are key, and the two are intrinsically tied. “If happening with nanotechnology and anti-corrosion residues from no clean flux, hand oils or particles, coatings. to name a few, are left on the substrate surface after While the specifications Daubert Chemicals has cleaning, this can lead to adhesion failure between worked with tend not to change from a performance the substrate and coating, shortening performance Frank Vella standpoint, they are at times updated based on fedlife. Additionally, as materials advance, some coateral regulations, such as the decision years ago to ings have a hard time adhering to more advanced eliminate lead. “The focus in the last 15 years has substrates,” Hardy explained. It may not be combeen on water-based products—more environmentally-friendly pletely the fault of the workers preparing the surface and applying products that are higher in solids and lower in solvents. We spend the solution. The surface may suffer from what those in the medical very little time with solvent-based type products … the focus is on community commonly refer to as a pre-existing condition, where water based products. About 90 percent of our projects are waterthere are visible and non-visible contaminates on the surface or based and environmentally friendly,” Vella said. design and build defects that negatively impact the solution’s Lindo noted that for its part, the Coast Guard does consider new effectiveness. technologies and how they could benefit its fleet. “If a vendor wants To address the issue of surface preparation and adhesion, the Coast Guard to use its new coating onboard a vessel, it must be proper training is the most effective solution. Coast Guard personsubmitted and approved through Surface Forces Logistics Center nel attend the NACE Shipboard Corrosion Assessment Training [SFLC] Engineering Services Division [ESD]. SFLC-ESD is the coatCourse. “This training is offered by the Navy, and Coast Guard perings expert for cutters and boats in our service.” Additional research sonnel may attend. This in-depth training is highly recommended and development is conducted at the Coast Guard’s Research and for maintenance personnel who work with coatings and surface Development Center in New London, Conn. preparation. The service has sent over 60 graduates of this course As the Coast Guard continues their fleet recapitalization prointo the field as corrosion prevention advocates,” Lindo noted. gram, the cost associated with corrosion is factored into the acquisition life cycle of new vessels. “Newer cutters are being constructed What’s Next? with longevity and life cycle cost in mind. The Acquisition Directorate is focused on improving the materials selected, preservation The Coast Guard’s Engineering Analysis Board report on the procedures, and evaluation procedures associated with corrosion Stratton included recommendations to prevent the occurrence of control on new acquisitions,” Lindo said. “Given the challenges of similar corrosion, including better training on the use of cathodic the marine environment, corrosion control is essential when viewed protection systems and avoiding welding on wetted hull surfaces. from the aspect of safety, loss of operational availability cost, and Industry, too, has ideas on where corrosion prevention and control environmental protection.” O could go in the future. Hardy noted a shift in industry’s mentality regarding coatings. For more information, contact Editor-In-Chief “In the past, the industry used a ‘thicker is better’ attitude, which Jeff McKaughan or search our online archives for related stories at increases the overall weight and required power consumption for corrosion control and prevention. Today, the industry is very Since its founding in 1935, Daubert Chemical Company Inc., has focused on temporary rust preventative products, and since the 1970s has approved products—compounds, oils, coatings and liquids—to military specifications. One of the larger military specifications in terms of volume and coverage is MIL-PRF-16173E, which is managed by the Navy. “It encompasses five different grades, ranging from heavy asphalt and petrolatum that give you protection of stored parts for outdoor protections, all the way to light oil-type product that is meant to preserve parts in indoor storage,” explained Frank Vella, director of sales with Daubert. Products that are approved for this mil spec have a number of marine applications. “For example, grade 1 is typically used in older ships and coating the ballast tanks. In various areas of a sub or ship, there are a lot of void areas, which don’t have access but aren’t supposed to hold water. Coatings are applied there to give rust protection if moisture gets into that area,” Vella continued. This line is also good at water displacement and is often applied to a ship in dry dock; they can be flushed into the steam lines to protect them from corroding while the vessel is being serviced.

­CGF  5.3 | 21

Cyber threats are growing daily in their numbers and sophistication.

The best defense is a strong surveillance and monitoring effort. By Peter Buxbaum CGF Correspondent

22 | CGF 5.3

The U.S. Coast Guard has a diverse set of missions. It ensures public safety on the nation’s waterways, it enforces environmental laws, it provides for maritime homeland security, and it plays a quasi-military role. But when it comes to cybersecurity, the Coast Guard is all military. As part of the Department of Homeland Security, the Coast Guard’s Internet domain is .mil, a clue to the approach the agency takes to cybersecurity. Playing as it does an important role in national security, the Coast Guard follows all of the standards for cybersecurity set by the DoD. It also routes its Internet traffic through DoD gateways to provide enterpriselevel protection of Coast Guard systems and data. The Coast Guard also deploys some of the latest in cybersecurity tools, which not only detect and respond to system intrusions but also track internal network behavior in order to identify and defeat more sophisticated attacks, including those executed with compromised credentials. The Coast Guard operates its own cyber command and operations center, where skilled analysts and cyber warriors stand guard over the Lt. Cmdr. agency’s systems 24/7. Joseph Thompson “The biggest challenge we face is in educating users,” said Lieutenant Commander Joseph Thompson, the operations director of Coast Guard Cyber Command. “Most of the malware and other things out there that can damage our network require user interaction. They have to open an attachment or click on a link. It’s hard for malware to get into a system unless a user goes to a bad site. We have to educate people on where the bad neighborhoods on the Internet are.”

“We fall under the U.S. Cyber Command,” said Thompson. “As “Security is a challenge for every agency,” said Stanley Tyliszcof November of last year we started to route our network traffic over zak, vice president for technology integration at General Dynamics DoD sensors before it gets down to Coast Guard sensors. That way Information Technology. “There needs to be a lot more innovation we leveraged a higher level enterprise filtering proin implementation of advanced technology. The real cess. DoD is able to knock off malicious traffic before challenge is how to implement security in a budgetit gets to us. That lowered the number of incidents on constrained environment, how to separate the wheat our systems several fold.” from the chaff so you can take appropriate actions.” The Coast Guard also deploys a suite of firewalls General Dynamics IT provides malware and intrusion that block traffic from Internet addresses known detection and prevention, email scanning and other to cause trouble and prevents network users from cybersecurity products and enterprise-level services accessing unreliable Internet domains. “That is on to the Coast Guard. the defense side, the blocking piece,” said Thompson. “An organization like the Coast Guard that has Thompson characterizes the other measures significant national security responsibilities needs to taken by the Coast Guard as “defense in depth.” be concerned about state-sponsored targeted attacks, Tom Cross One such tool, required by DoD, stops users on the in addition to insider threats,” said Tom Cross, direcnetwork from doing things they shouldn’t. “We train tor of research at Lancope. “State-sponsored our users,” said Thompson, “but some people don’t sions are the most sophisticated attacks out there. understand the training as well as others.” They have a lot of smart people, they have the money The Coast Guard also deploys network monitorto spend, and they know about systems vulnerabiliing tools that examine network behavior to look for ties months in advance of the security community.” anomalies. Attempts to log into the network several These days, cybersecurity requires more than just times with false passwords could raise a red flag, as old-school intrusion detection; it requires continucould administrators signing in in the middle of the ous monitoring of network activity and the analysis night when they normally don’t work. of mountains of data to identify malicious activity. “These tools help us to understand what is going “Traditional measures like firewalls won’t catch every on on the network and if it is legitimate or not,” said attack, especially if legitimate credentials have been Thompson. compromised,” said David Pack, director of LogDavid Pack “For many years, people have approached netRhythm Labs. “The way to determine when a credenwork problems from a perimeter security perspectial has been compromised is to build a baseline of tive,” said Cross. “They built high walls to keep bad stuff out. But user or host behavior and to look at log data in real time. Analytical more recent attackers have shown sophistication in getting past tools can detect when behaviors have changed. At that point, an those types of security systems. To identify and track those types of analyst can look into the situation to see whether the account has threats, as well as insider threats, you need to have an audit trail of been compromised.” the internal network.” “It is really a triumvirate of people, processes and technology These newer types of threat detection systems analyze internal that makes for good cybersecurity,” said Tyliszczak. “You can’t do network behaviors, explained Guy Alon, a marketing director at just one piece. Cybersecurity is an ongoing effort and there is no Israel Aircraft Industries, but also search externally for clues that big bang solution—particularly since the threats are increasing in could indicate an impending attack. “From an internal point, we are both sophistication and frequency of attack. We’ve learned, through interested in being able to analyze network behavior, so we collect a number of our programs for the DoD, IC and other federal agendata like the hours that specific employees enter and exit a facilcies, that you have to treat cybersecurity as mission-critical and put ity,” he said. “On the external side, we aim to reach into cyberspace in place multiple checks and practices that make sure systems are to sites like social networks to identify whether there are specific always protected to their highest level. There are some things you conversations that appear to attempts to collect sensitive data. This can automate, continuous monitoring of security state, for example, could represent a cyber threat.” but it still requires trained people, disciplined processes and a cul“We developed a special anomaly detection engine targeted to ture that gives good security practices to the highest priority.” advanced persistent threats,” said Tavi Salamon, an IAI business “The main challenge that our industry faces today is staying development manager. “It is fully automated and is able to detect ahead of the adversary,” said Ross Warren, Inmarsat Government’s patterns out of existing behavior on the network. Once the engine director of cyber security. “The attacker only needs to exploit one learns the patterns, it can tell what behavior is normal and what is vulnerability to gain access to a network. Whereas the defenders abnormal. Other detection engines are rules-based and are based need to ensure some faction of a defense in depth covering every on past experience. The other kind learns new patterns as they avenue for exploitation.” develop.” Inmarsat Government participates in DoD’s defense industrial Inmarsat Government has deployed multiple intrusion prebase (DIB) Cyber Security/Information Assurance (CS/IA) program. vention/detection systems (IDS), giving them a defense in-depth “The DIB CS/IA program is a voluntary DoD program that enhances network architecture. our capabilities to safeguard customer information that transits our “We have partnered with Dell Secureworks, a very well-respected unclassified information systems,” Warren explained. “We also have managed security services provider, to manage our intrusion prea multi-year partnership with the FBI through their Infraguard vention system and provide security on the edge of our network. program, through which we participate in focused interest groups Secureworks’ 24/7/365 security operations center monitors and representing the satellite industry.”

­CGF  5.3 | 23

involved in managing government projects involving sensitive and protects our networks, providing an added level of confidence to our classified data. defensive posture and security.” Inmarsat Government has deployed “Whenever we have a team going on site,” said Verigan, “we do multiple IDS that use the Security Onion Linux distribution. The background checks as required by the agency, but we also educate Security Onion IDS sensors leverage multiple mature, open-source and remind staff members about what we are dealing cyber defense software packages in a very easy-towith.” That means, for example, leaving their cell deploy installation. phones behind when those devices are not allowed “We collect data to develop multiple dimensions on site, usually because of their photographic capaof user behaviors,” said Pack. “It might be normal bilities. for a user to change to a different job function and Verigan also advises prohibiting the use of social access new data, but if multiple dimensions of a media sites on agency networks. “Social media in my user’s behavior changes within an hour, that is an experience is insecure,” he said. “Small malware files indication of compromised credentials.” can be embedded in social media transmissions the LogRhythm pulls network log data to a centralsame as in email. Social media tends to make workized location for processing by an analytics engine. ers a little more casual about their work environment “We enable organizations to baseline normal, day-towhich in itself can be a big security issue. Making day activity across multiple dimensions of the enterTerry Verigan social media secure seems to be a non sequitur.” prise,” said Pack. “The system then analyzes against The Coast Guard is ramping up its training of that baseline log, flow and machine data generated to its cybersecurity personnel, according to Thompson. discover anomalies in real time.” “Because threats are evolving and becoming more challenging and For example, a system baseline could be created showing the more pervasive, we need a more robust ability to respond,” he said. rolling averages of the expected numbers of users logged into a “The National Security Agency has some training courses online system at any given point to create parameters of what constitutes and industry has a robust set of courses that our people can learn normal and abnormal usage. from. Forensics especially requires extensive training. We teach When activity deviates from the normal, an alert can be generour forensics people how to maintain a virtual chain of custody. ated. They have to do everything that investigators do in the physical Collecting network data also helps with job of analyzing an world.” The Coast Guard also provides extensive on-the-job training, attack after the fact. Lancope’s tool collects netflow data, protocols Thompson noted. that are constantly being transmitted by network routers, switches “We currently are researching new detection and prevention and firewalls. “This is an efficient way to create a network audit methods such as botnet interception with DNS redirection and trail,” said Cross. “The netflow metadata is light but can create a rogue user detection though behavior analytics,” explained Warhistory of everything that happened on a network. Other tools which ren. “We strongly believe the way to improved security capabilido deep packet inspections generate a large amount of data which ties is through a greater understanding of our currently deployed needs to be stored.” defenses.” Analyzing netflow data allows analysts to recreate an attack’s kill Inmarsat Government sees the practice and methodologies sugchain. “You can recreate the process the attacker took to break into gested by the Network Security Monitoring principals as a natural the network,” said Cross. “Sophisticated attacks often target specific progression that builds on lessons learned from managing firewalls, people. They have to take action to activate the exploit. Once that anti-virus and web filtering. Understanding normal behavior and happens, the malware establishes a foothold and continues to work the deviations from that normal behavior show the most promise on the inside to find information and move it out of the network. for improving cyber security. Recreating the steps the attackers engage in is useful for building IAI offers a simulated cybersecurity training system that repremodels of attacks, which are used to consider what controls have to sents an integration of several different commercial training tools. be put in place to counter each step of an attack.” “The trainer can insert different types of attack patterns,” said It’s important to emphasize cybersecurity technology doesn’t Salomon, “and the student has to work through the scenario and work effectively on its own. It requires interaction with humans. An distinguish what to do in different situations.” alert generated by a piece of software does not necessarily indicate Once thing that Lancope is working on is to facilitate the sharan attack. The trained analysts are the ones who actually determine ing of threat information among different organizations that use whether an attack has occurred or is underway. their tools or ones similar. “Threat intelligence is not standardized,” “We have watch standers working 24/7 at our cyber operations said Cross. “Work is currently taking place to establish standard forcenter,” said Thompson. “They look at anomalous behavior identimats for communicating threat information and to build processes fied by the software and conduct further investigations. They also within organizations to manage that sharing. analyze attack kill chains to see where our defenses were effective, “Many organizations take in threat intelligence,” Cross added, or not. If defensive measures did not stop an attack, they can put a “but don’t see the benefit of telling other people what they learn. block on that portion of the network. We also have a forensics team We’ve got to break that ice. That is going to dominate the discussion that investigates what systems and data an attack was aiming for in coming years.” O and whether the signature of that attack spread to other portions of the network.” Contractors are well advised to take the educational responsibilFor more information, contact Editor-In-Chief Jeff McKaughan or ity for their own staff that are placed in secure areas, according to search our online archives for related stories at Terry Verigan, vice president of CompuCure. CompuCure has been 24 | CGF 5.3

Getting There

Navigation principles endure, but equipment changes regularly. By Henry Canaday CGF Correspondent

Transas USA has its Navi-Sailor 3100 Next to keeping boats afloat, navigation electronic chart display information systems is the most essential element in seaman(ECDIS) on 90 Coast Guard coastal patrol ship. The Coast Guard devotes substantial boats, noted Paul Welling, regional sales resources to navigation, both in training and director for onboard systems. ECDIS puts equipment. all situational awareness information, GPS, Lieutenant Daniel Wiltshire teaches radar, target and other data on one screen. freshman navigation at the Coast Guard Welling has discussed upgrading to the Academy. “Navigation is taught in a four-year Navi-Sailor 4100, but so far the Coast Guard progression that is a combination of classhas not agreed. This would mean upgrading room lecture, laboratory and actual experiboth hardware and software, but would bring ence,” Wiltshire explained. some major gains. First-year cadets learn navigation funThe latest version, which is now deployed damentals, including paper charts, getting in many commercial applications, would visual and electronic fixes with GPS, and allow ice charting with overlays of satellite using radar to find positions. “It’s all basic pictures, prediction of positions on current chart work and preparation,” Wiltshire course, decision support for choosing naviexplained. “They apply their skills in the gation options, electronic logbook keeping, summer on the Eagle when they act as quarbetter debriefing after accidents and better termaster watch.” training in both simulators and ships. NaviSophomore cadets learn how to give Sailor 4100 has been installed on 100 Military chart briefs and plan voyages, while junior Sealift Command ships and on several U.S. and senior years emphasize skills needed by Navy ships. division officers to manage navigation teams. Welling said the Coast Guard sometimes “They get time in simulators, operating simutries to develop its own navilated vessels underway, as well gation upgrades. He added as time in the river,” Wiltshire that commercial firms, which said. can spread development costs Navigation is taught every over huge commercial fleets, semester for four years, equivare almost always way in alent to a minor at another advance of what can be develcollege. Cadets receive exceloped in-house. lent preparation, but must Northrop Grumman still qualify as desk officers Maritime Systems supplies or engineers after graduation. a variety of equipment and They then exercise skills as software on Coast Guard cuttaught at the academy, but Raymond Miller ters, including sensors such with many more repetitions, as gyrocompasses, radars and “so they get a high degree of speed logs and integrated proficiency.” bridge systems (IBS), noted Raymond Miller, The academy uses navigation equipment business development manager for USCG very close to that used in the fleet. “Fleet programs. The company is under contract equipment varies, so we shoot for the midfor development and support of the Coast dle,” Wiltshire said. In two years at the acadGuard’s fleetwide ECDIS software, Vega emy, he has seen a slow improvement in fleet which automates navigation functions. navigation equipment. “When it changes, we The Coast Guard is replacing the 150 mirror the changes.” Navigation principles spinning-mass MK-27 and MK-37 gyrocomendure, but equipment changes regularly, passes to accommodate additional signal especially electronics.

outputs and higher accuracies. Many larger cutters already have Northrop’s more capable and versatile MK-39 Mod 3 ring laser gyro or MK27F fiber-optic gyro. Ships with higher requirements, such as national security cutters and polar icebreakers, have one of each gyro on board. In navigation software, plug-in modules added to Vega core software support unique requirements for search and rescue, aids to navigation maintenance, blue-force tracking and tactical data exchange. Budgets often require vessels to incorporate legacy systems incompatible with modern network infrastructure. MK27F is a modern sensor that still meets all the interface requirements of its predecessor, including RS-422, synchro and step. Miller said all-digital interfaces are increasingly required for weight and power savings, as are network-centric systems. Northrop systems for cutters are designed to work within these architectures. The company also designs highly scalable navigation data-distribution systems for various cutter classes. And Northrop is known for combining commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) economy with ruggedness and reliability under harsh conditions. Miller said Northrop’s improved IBSs can integrate radar and chart functions on multi-function workstations to reduce space requirements. Software-based network radar control and display integration can be achieved using a modular, hardware-agnostic approach. And Vega has route optimization that has already saved fuel in commercial fleets, he stressed. “There aren’t many truly new navigation technologies, but we see hybridization of existing technologies that creates benefit for users, Coast Guard or otherwise,” summarized Matthew Wood, sales manager with Furuno USA. He pointed to touchscreen interfaces truly useable in boat environments, wearable devices, and portable and multifunction devices as examples of progress in the last decade. ­CGF  5.3 | 25

provides the Coast Guard with mini-very Furuno’s NavNet 1 multi-function dissmall aperture terminal (VSAT) broadband plays were the first units to combine radar, satellite service and TracFone onboard terGPS, chart-plotting and echo-sounding on minals used for small cutter connectivity. a single liquid crystal display in 2001. In Marketing Vice President Jim Dodez said 2013, the company offers the same multimini-VSAT broadband can carry electronic function combination, but with enhanced chart and weather updates and is used for performance and a touchscreen display in transmitting biometric data on detainits TZtouch line. ees and for standard communications. By The new Furuno displays can be conexploiting spread-spectrum technology, the nected wirelessly to iPads and iPhones and KVH system uses antennas soon to Android devices as that are 85 percent smaller well. Wood sees real potential and lighter than competing in bringing open-architecproducts, Dodez noted. ture data sources into Coast KVH’s new satellite serGuard tasks such as homevice is a multi-casting service land security and search and called IP-MobileCast introrescue. duced to the commercial Furuno’s TZtouch devices shipping market earlier this and third-generation NavNet summer. Mini-VSAT broad3D products integrate seamband was launched six years lessly with PC navigation Matthew Wood ago, and KVH has built the suites as well. Furuno still next-generation version with offers both a dedicated variable-coding and spreadter/display solution and a full ing modulation technology. PC-compatible software soluNetwork capacity recently tion that uses common data doubled and will expand sensors, including digital again in coming months. radar sensor antennas, GPS KVH also makes digital antennas and digital black fluxgate compass systems, boxes. which have replaced tradiNavNet also offers free tional binnacle compasses on worldwide weather download U.S. Navy ships. The fluxgate with up to a week of prediccompasses can measure and tive data. Woods said Coast Jim Dodez automatically compensate for Guard trials of this service large amounts of magnetic on long patrols have been deviation. successful. The Navy uses KVH’s Wood emphasizes FuruMV103 digital compass on all vessels and no’s long experience and broad product landing craft. KVH also offers a gyro-staline, more than 200 models. Its first-genbilized version of the MV103 called the eration NavNet 1 displays were delivered GyroTrac. to the Coast Guard in 2002. Furuno offers KVH is now working on a variant of its direct replacement of these displays, with fiber-optic gyro inertial measurement unit enhanced features, one-to-one functionalthat will have an integrated digital compass ity and a five-year service and replacement providing exceptional three-axis orientation policy. and stabilized heading information. Furuno continues to pursue new techIcom America makes automatic idennology and evolutionary refinements of tification system transponders, receivers, radar, plotter, sounding and compass techfixed-station VHF radios, handheld GPS and nology. Wood said regulatory changes in multifunction displays, summarized David 2014 will prompt Furuno to expand its McLain, national sales manager for Icom offerings in radar for specialized applications Marine. “All operate on the same user intersuch as oil and ice detection. Regulatory face with four cursor keys,” McLain noted. requirements for ECDIS and Voyage data “Pick one and you know how to use them recorders will also influence technology, as all.” will changes in speed and distance-measurIcom’s VHF DSC equipment can, with ing equipment. a push of a singe button, automatically Navigation also depends on commusend a distress call to all DSC-equipped nication tools. KVH Industries currently 26 | CGF 5.3

vessels and shore stations in range. The call can automatically include identity, position and nature of distress. But one problem is that many owners of VHF DSC equipment are not connecting the devices to onboard GPS. “Less than 5 percent are hooking up,” McLain said. “They are not getting the position, so when they press the DSC, others do not know where they are.” Modern navigation means not just getting to an intended destination, but optimizing the journey in terms of time, fuel, cost or other variables. GE Power Conversion offers the Coast Guard propulsion, power generation, machinery control and dynamic positioning (DP). DP is mission-critical technology, according to Paul English, marine leader at Power Conversion. DP improves station keeping and heading control, whether a vessel is stationary or moving, by using propulsion units to counteract effects of wind, current and wave action. DP systems are modular and can work with C-Series workstations or integrate with third-party consoles. Modular design suits both new and retrofit installations when bridge space is scarce. DP was once used for only short periods during specialized operations. But now it forms a major part of integrated bridge systems, providing manual lever control, combined joystick control, autopilot, and fixed and tracking control. DP can be tailored for maneuvering, tracking or station keeping. DP can be customized for heavy shocks and vibrations and extreme temperatures. Each GE system reflects the company’s understanding of the entire ship, including the power, propulsion, control and monitoring systems DP depends on. Jeppesen’s commercial marine offerings include the Vessel and Voyage Optimization Solution (VVOS), said Jeffrey Atkinson, senior global military sales executive at Jeppesen. “VVOS incorporates the latest ocean forecasts and comprehensive computer ship-performance modeling to optimize the route and engine settings, providing speed and course recommendations for risk reduction, fuel cost savings and reduced carbon footprint,” Atkinson explained. O

For more information, contact Editor-in-Chief Jeff McKaughan or search our online archives for related stories at

This index is provided as a service to our readers. KMI cannot be held responsible for discrepancies due to last-minute changes or alterations.



Ingalls Shipbuilding. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C3 International Workboat Show. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 L-3 East. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C2 Scan Pacific/Vestdavit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Vigor Industrial. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C4 Welin Lambie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

October 9-11, 2013 WorkBoat Show New Orleans, La.

February 11-13, 2014 AFCEA West San Diego, Calif.

November 19-20, 2013 Cargo Security Summit Baltimore, Md.

February 20-21, 2014 ASNE Day 2014 Arlington, Va.

December 3-5, 2013 TechNet Asia-Pacific Honolulu, Hawaii

April 7-9, 2014 Sea-Air-Space Exposition National Harbor, Md.


November 2013 Vol. 5, Issue 4

Dedicated to Those Who Are Always Ready

Cover and In-Depth Interview with:

Vice Admiral Peter V. Neffenger

Deputy Commandant for Operations U.S. Coast Guard Exclusive Who’s Who

Coast Guard Forum includes our annual Who’s Who in the Coast Guard. This special pictorial spread features the senior Coast Guard leadership and their roles.


Coast Guard Logistics Information Management System

We take a look at a program that was developed to reduce multiple legacy programs down to a central system to manage its technical data, configuration, maintenance and supply chain requirements.

Educating the Coastie

Operating in a maritime environment is rough on metals. The Coast Guard has aggressive corrosion control and mitigation programs to keep rust at bay.

Special section

Program Spotlight

From advanced simulators to virtual reality systems, the Coast Guard is maximizing its resources to increase mission readiness with quality training.

Rotary Wing Sustainment

Training & Simulation

Essential for Coast Guard operations, the rotary wing fleet maintenance and sustainment programs keep the birds in the air.

Insertion Order Deadline: October 25, 2013 • Ad Materials Deadline: November 1, 2013

­CGF  5.3 | 27


U.S. Coast Guard Forum

Christie Thomas Capture Manager for the Offshore Patrol Cutter Huntington Ingalls Industries

Christie Thomas has nearly 20 years of experience in the defense and shipbuilding sectors including business development/ capture, business management, supply chain management and program management. She is currently focused on extended the Huntington Ingalls’ NSC production line, winning the OPC program and expanding into the international shipbuilding marketplace. She holds a bachelor’s degree in Economics from Bucknell University and an MBA from State University of New York-Binghamton. Q: What are your primary business areas with the Coast Guard? A: Huntington Ingalls Industries builds the national security cutter for the USCG at Ingalls Shipbuilding in Pascagoula, Miss. This includes the design and construction of three ships already delivered and performing very successfully from the equator to the arctic and three more in various stages of construction. Ingalls is also competing for the offshore patrol cutter.

an optimized build strategy, reducing the number of grand block unit erections from 32 on NSC 1 to 29 on NSC 2 and 14 on NSC 3 and follow. We have co-located the Ingalls team with the USCG team both on the management side and on the production side. We have an aggressive risk management and lessons learned approach with the USCG, who is an integral part of the team. Q: How do you coordinate your business development efforts to make sure they match what the Coast Guard is looking for? A: The NSC and the OPC designs are focused on supporting USCG missions. Our designs meet or exceed the requirements and provide the best value, lowest risk option for the USCG. The NSC design is from the keel up to meet all of the missions while allowing for future growth over the anticipated 30-year life cycle. The stable design has allowed Ingalls to work with the USCG on enhancing the design to meet evolving requirements.

Q: How have you adjusted your Coast Guard-related business to maximize efficiencies and help keep costs down?

Q: How would you describe your aftersale support capabilities?

A: The national security cutter is a stable, proven program that has achieved regular one-year centers for construction. This maximizes efficiencies and allows for Ingalls to experience a learning curve and pass on the associated savings to the USCG. With the stable design we have worked with the craft teams to develop

A: In addition to the regular warranty period that is inherent in the shipbuilding program, Ingalls has a full post-delivery support team available to the customer as needed. This includes a full planning yard services capability covering any emergent need post shakedown availabilities to overhauls, where we have been very

28 | CGF 5.3

successful customer.





Q: What do you see as major challenges over the next 12 months and how are you addressing them? A: The budget issues are a direct challenge to the U.S. Coast Guard acquisition plan and thus to predicting a stable funding environment for shipbuilders. Ingalls is well-positioned with its production of multiple classes of ships and current production facilities to manage the manpower profile of a large shipyard, while maintaining its ability to provide the highest quality and lowest risk solution to our customers. Q: Is partnering with other companies an important part of your business strategy? A: Yes, as the prime contractor, Ingalls works with a multitude of companies to deliver the highest quality ship and best value ship to the customer. Supplier conferences, for example, allow for Ingalls and our subcontractors to share cost savings ideas and ensure that those ideas are investigated for potential application to programs. Q: How do you measure success? A: Ingalls strives to be the shipbuilder of choice for the U.S. Coast Guard. Ingalls ships will be the highest quality, best value ships, and deliver mission enhancing capabilities to the men and women of the U.S. Coast Guard. O

Mission Ready

Proven Performance

National Security Cutter

Offshore Patrol Cutter

The Legend Continues Semper Paratus


From the toughest environments to the most challenging missions, America can always count on the U.S. Coast Guard. Vigor Industrial is proud to help maintain the mission readiness of our fleet. Semper Paratus. USCG photo by PA2 Mariana O’Leary





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