The Publication of Distinction for the Maneuver Warfighter
Special Section: Marine Corps Program Updates
Marine Leader Gen. James F. Amos Commandant U.S. Marine Corps
September 2013 Volume 4, Issue 4
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ground combat technology Features
September 2013 Volume 4, Issue 4
Cover / Q&A Special Section: Marine Corps Program updates
Marine Corps Systems Command’s 13 program management offices are working overtime to procure needed Marine equipment. We examine major acquisition programs that have the industry all abuzz. Compiled by Jeff CamPbell
Live Fire Training Ranges Whether in a simulator at the schoolhouse or out in a field training exercise, U.S. Army ground training systems are progressing to a level unimaginable just a few years ago. Role players and instructors fresh from the area add to the sense of realism in a safe live fire training environment. By Jeff Campbell
Departments 2 Editor’s Perspective 3 intel 5 People 14 Innovations 27 Resource Center
Low-Cost Targets The U.S. Army Space and Missile Defense Command/ Army Forces Strategic Command has developed a realistic threat ballistic target that saves Army testing funds by using inexpensive missile defense testing targets. These targets cut expenses from the approximate $30 millioin for each high-end target to just $4 million. Find out how the aptly-named Zombie target turns the old into the new. By Jason Cutshaw
Fire Protection Gets Better When hot temps, dry air and dangerous equipment mix and catch fire, flame retardant (FR) uniform material keeps our warriors safe from burns. More than ten years of sustained combat operations has produced major advances in FR clothing and gear. By Henry Canaday
Industry Interview Ryan Jennings
Advanced Systems Manager Ball Aerospace and Technologies Corp.
General James F. Amos Commandant U.S. Marine Corps
“Because of the way we are manned, trained and equipped, we are able to play an important role in our nation’s naval forces as America’s insurance policy. We respond to today’s crisis, with today’s force.” — General James F. Amos
Ground Combat Technology Volume 4, Issue 4 • September 2013
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Unmanned vehicle safety is a top priority for the chief operating officer of the Department of Transportation (DOT). “We have a rich history of advances in transportation,” AUVSI Unmanned Systems 2013 keynote DOT Deputy Secretary John Pocari told the audience at the Washington, D.C. Convention Center. The department has a 2015 deadline to integrate unmanned systems in U.S. airspace. On the ground, the DOT is studying ways to connect vehicles with each other. “This technology could help stop or reduce the severity of vehicle collisions,” Pocari said. “We believe connected vehicle technology could be a building block to vehicle safety.” Safety—a staple throughout Secretary Ray LaHood’s administration—has Jeff Campbell continued to hold prominence with newly appointed Secretary of Transportation Editor Anthony Foxx. “Safety is at the heart of everything we do at the DOT,” the deputy secretary said, pointing out that America is the nation that invented aviation and revolutionized the automobile industry. One hopes the employment challenges returning combat veterans face are not overlooked while achieving stateside unmanned system standards. “The size and breadth of this conference is proof of the potential for unmanned systems, both in the air and on the ground,” Pocari said. It certainly opens up more employment opportunities for our recently returning veterans who have controlled and flown unmanned vehicles under the harshest conditions. But other areas raise concern. There’s no question that the use of unmanned supply trucks in a combat zone has safety value. Here at home though, where 88Ms—the military operational specialty (MOS) for Army truck drivers—have recently gained a quicker route to their commercial driving license in some states, the value scale tips more towards efficiency. “I see a place for both manned and unmanned commercial trucking,” Pocari said. “The talent pool is shrinking, so the commercial trucking industry continues to encourage the hiring of 88 mikes and other MOSs.” When unmanned commercial trucks start rolling along America’s highways, it is true the adjustment won’t hurt job-seeking vets at first, due to the current driver shortage. Eventually, the shortage will even out, and with the addition of unmanned trucks, it could even tip the other way. But surely, our soldiers will adapt and overcome, because like Army transporters say, “nothing happens until something moves,” and a robot can’t exactly drive a truck without human support ... yet.
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INTEL New Biometric Tool
Marine Corps Systems Command has made it easier for Marines to tell the bad guys from the good guys. Within six months of receiving an Urgent Statement of Need, MCSC’s Force Protection Systems team, under Marine Air-Ground Task Force Command, Control and Communications, also called MC3, coordinated with the Army to field the Biometric Enrollment and Screening Device [BESD] to warfighters in Afghanistan. The BESD system is an ultra lightweight, ruggedized, handheld portable device that collects and stores biometrics information. It compares and matches fingerprints, iris images and facial photos against an internal biometric database to identify individuals encountered on the battlefield. It is an enabler in the areas of detainee management and questioning, base access, counterintelligence screening, border control and law enforcement. “The BESD provides Marines the ability to identify friendly or neutral individuals’ true identities while denying the enemy anonymity,” said Ilich Bello, FPS senior program analyst. “It supports the biometric enterprise requirement to capture forensic-quality rolled fingerprints, and meets Department of Defense and FBI standards.” According to FPS authorities, for the past 12 months more than 2,000 Marines and coalition warfighters have received BESD training, and in turn, they have enrolled about 19,000 persons of interest resulting in more than 300 placed on a watch list. The early assets were fielded as “theater-provided equipment, as an interim and immediate fielding solution,” said Sarah Longava, Identification and Detection Systems team lead for FPS. On May 30, the MC3 program manager approved the fielding of the BESD assets to Marine units as a formal fielding. Since then the new biometric devices have been fielded to I, II and III Marine Expeditionary Forces, and to the Command and Control Training and Education Center of Excellence on Marine Corps Base Quantico, Va. By Bill Johnson-Miles, MCSC Corporate Communications
Compiled by KMI Media Group staff
Backpackable EW System Chemring Technology Solutions (CTS) has expanded its Resolve electronic warfare (EW) range with a lightweight version of the Resolve manpack EW system designed specifically for on-the-march missions. Weighing just 22 pounds, The Resolve lightweight manpack system fits into a standard daysack, delivering dismounted soldiers more flexible EW capabilities to exploit multiple communications systems. Despite a significant reduction in size and weight, Resolve’s domainleading EW capabilities have not been compromised, as it delivers immediate threat warning, electronic overwatch and single-sensor location for up to eight hours from a single battery. The simple interface provides instant access to key functions to deliver immediate support in a variety of operational environments, including
close-quarter, long-range patrol or stand-off missions. The lightweight system can still be networked to other static or mobile systems. Gavin O’Connell, business sector manager at CTS, said: “Our original development of Resolve was a real step change, as no other EW system provides such a high level of directionfinding capability for dismounted missions. The Resolve lightweight manpack system builds on this by meeting our customers’ increasing demand for smaller, portable solutions that reduce soldier burden and provide more effective support for on-the-march EW operations.” Optimized for on-the-march capabilities, the system offers an exciting alternative EW system to the standard Resolve manpack, which provides advanced signals analysis and enables multiple mission profiles.
Senator’s Intelligence & Defense Advisor Visits CASCOM In late August, Tommy Ross, senior intelligence and defense advisor to Senator Harry Reid visited the Combined Arms Support Command. Ross and his team of staffers came to the Home of Sustainment to learn about the command’s sexual harassment, assault and response program and current training initiatives. “We thought it was important to get out and talk to the people who are responsible for overseeing and leading soldiers in the field,” Ross said. The visit provided an opportunity to showcase measures CASCOM has initiated to combat sexual harassment and assault. It also allowed Ross’s group to interact with soldiers in various stages of training to inquire about their experiences with the SHARP program. “This organization is about taking care of its people,” Major General Larry D. Wyche, CASCOM and Fort Lee commanding general, said as he stressed that the SHARP program is his top priority. CASCOM trains over 180,000 students annually, through 541 courses taught by the Ordnance, Quartermaster and Transportation schools, Soldier Support Institute and Army Logistics University. It is also a major subordinate command of the U.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command. By Keith Desbois, Combined Arms Support Command Public Affairs
GCT 4.4 | 3
INTEL Mounted Family of Computing Systems DRS Technologies Inc., a Finmeccanica company, announced that its network and imaging systems group has been awarded a competitively bid indefinite delivery/indefinite quantity, three-year contract with a potential total value of $455 million for a modular family of computers and display systems that are expected to form the heart of next-generation network computing technology for the U.S. Army. The mounted family of computing systems (MFoCS) will be installed on ground vehicles and weapons platforms to provide modular computing capabilities across the services. Under the IDIQ contract, DRS will provide dismountable tablets, platform-computing servers, docking stations, interconnecting cables, installation kits, and three sizes of ruggedized sunlight-readable touchscreen display units for more than 40 types of ground vehicles and weapons platforms. The three-year contract,
executed by the Army and available for the Marine Corps and other services to acquire systems through it as well, includes options for two one-year extensions. The family of common computer and display technology will add capability while reducing the overall size, weight, power and cost of the systems currently installed worldwide on U.S. military ground vehicles and platforms. Mike Sarrica, president of DRS Network and Imaging Systems, said, “U.S. warfighters deserve reliable systems and the latest in networking technologies to successfully conduct global operations in all types of environments. Our partnership with U.S. ground forces began more than one decade ago and has resulted in the delivery of some 200,000 battle-proven computing and display systems to the Army, Marines, U.S. Special Operations Command and joint/coalition forces.” The DRS mission, Sarrica said, is “to deliver
Marine Satellite Support TeleCommunication Systems Inc. (TCS), a provider of highly reliable and secure mobile communication technology, has entered into a contract with the Defense Information Systems Agency (DISA) to provide managed satellite services, Ku satellite bandwidth, terrestrial support and 24-hour support services for the U.S. Marine Corps Tactical Satellite Communications Network. The initial funding on this award is $12.8 million for the base 12-month period starting August 1, 2013. The contract includes four, one-year option terms, which, if exercised, have a total contract value of $58.3 million. This contract was issued under the joint DISA/GSA Future Commercial SATCOM Acquisition program. TCS is one of eight prime contract awardees under the $2.6 billion Custom SATCOM Solutions (CS2) vehicle, which was awarded in August 2012. The CS2 contract has a base term of three years, ending August 2015 with two subsequent one-year option terms.
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New Production Patriot Raytheon’s new-production Patriot Air and Missile Defense System successfully launched a PAC-3 missile to engage a tactical ballistic missile target at the White Sands Missile Range, N.M. This test was the culmination of two years of testing of the complete system, proving system performance in all environments and against all threats. “Patriot’s flawless performance only strengthens the longstanding confidence our warfighters and customers have as they rely on Patriot for the safety and security of their people. With modernized Patriot and new customers coming on board, they can now also count on their cost of ownership to go down,” said Sanjay Kapoor, vice president of integrated air and missile defense for Raytheon’s Integrated Defense Systems business. “In fact, the U.S. Army’s recent decision to extend the fielding of Patriot from 2040 to 2048 demonstrates its confidence in the system and its future.”
quality, leading-edge solutions that enable mission command capabilities with unmatched reliability and industry-leading cost-effectiveness.” Three levels of computing and display capability in three hardware configurations will be fielded to meet joint force and Army requirements. The MFoCS is fully interoperable with already fielded legacy systems, protecting significant investments in technology that provide distinct advantages in situational awareness, battlefield digitization and mission command. This next generation of computing platforms also includes new technologies such as the Intel 3rd generation Core i7 Processor, expanded memory, greater storage and enhanced Information Assurance. The enhancements will significantly improve processing capacity and efficiency to run next-generation software applications such as JBC-P, the Forward Observer System and the Tactical Ground Reporting System.
Independent Suspension Axle Systems AxleTech International, a General Dynamics company, was recently awarded contracts valued at approximately $25 million from Textron Marine & Land Systems to produce independent suspension axle systems. The orders are for AxleTech’s 4000 and 5000 Series planetary independent suspension axle systems. The first contract is for the production of vehicle sets for the Canadian Tactical Armored Patrol Vehicle (TAPV) program, and a second contract is to produce additional vehicle sets for the Afghan National Army program. “Our state-of-the-art independent suspension system will provide best-in-class mobility for the TAPV program, especially in rugged terrain,” said H.A. (Graz) Graziano, vice president and general manager of AxleTech International. “We are pleased to continue our work with Textron Marine & Land Systems to provide field-proven axles, spares and other support for these important programs.” AxleTech also supplies axle systems for Textron Marine & Land Systems’ combat-proven M1117 Armored Security Vehicle (ASV) and M1200 Armored Knight military vehicle. The U.S. Army has more than 3,100 ASVs in its fleet. www.GCT-kmi.com
Compiled by KMI Media Group staff
Raven Payloads In early August, AeroVironment Inc. received a $13,487,240 order from the U.S. Army. The order—the final portion of a contract valued at $59.6 million—includes RQ-11B Raven unmanned aircraft systems (UAS), miniature gimbaled payloads and initial spares packages, and is funded from the Army’s fiscal 2012 procurement budget. AeroVironment received three prior orders against this contract in May 2012, August 2012 and March 2013 for $15.8 million, $16.5 million and $13.8 million, respectively. The total actual value of the contract is $59.6 million, compared to its initial projected “not to exceed” value of $65.9 million. “AeroVironment developed and deployed the Raven system quickly and effectively to support our military forces in a dynamic threat environment,” said Roy Minson, AeroVironment senior vice president and general manager, Unmanned Aircraft Systems. “As a result, the Raven, along with Puma and Wasp, make up the large majority of the Pentagon’s unmanned aircraft fleet. Importantly, however, because of the low cost and efficiency of our solutions, our small unmanned aircraft accounted for less than 5 percent of total reported United States Department of Defense UAS spending since 2004. We
deliver highly effective solutions that improve capabilities for the warfighter at low cost to the U.S. taxpayer.” Minson added, “In addition to serving U.S. warfighters, we have also expanded our small UAS to 24 international military forces. Looking ahead, AeroVironment continues to focus on innovation and post-sale support to ensure that our customers maintain their battlefield advantage.” The RQ-11B Raven unmanned aircraft system is a 4.5-pound, backpackable, hand-launched sensor platform that provides day and night, real-time video imagery wirelessly to a portable ground control station for over-the-hill and around-the-corner reconnaissance, surveillance and target acquisition in support of tactical units. Raven systems now come equipped with AeroVironment’s fully stabilized Mantis gimbaled payload, incorporating electro-optical and infrared video sensors and a laser illuminator. U.S. armed forces use Raven systems extensively for missions such as base security, route reconnaissance, mission planning and force protection. Each Raven system typically consists of three aircraft, two ground control stations and spares.
PEOPLE Lieutenant Colonel Matthew Hodge assumed command of the Defense Contract Management Agency’s Joint Systems Manufacturing Center from Lieutenant Colonel Yee Hang. Marine Corps Lieutenant General Thomas D. Waldhauser has been nominated for appointment to the rank of lieutenant general and for assignment as director for operations plans and joint force development, J-7, Joint Staff, Washington, D.C. Waldhauser is currently serving as the senior military assistant to the secretary of defense, Washington, D.C.
Compiled by KMI Media Group staff
Three outstanding sergeants major were recently inducted into the U.S. Army Sergeants Major Academy Hall of Honor. The inductees are retired Sergeant Major Jeffery J. Wells, former operations sergeant major for the deputy chief of staff, retired Sergeant Major Danny R. Hubbard, former operations sergeant major U.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command, and retired Sergeant Major Jeffery Colimon, former operations sergeant major U.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command. On September 4, Command Sergeant Major Patrick K. Akuna Jr. became the new
command sergeant major for First Army Division West. TerraGo has expanded its management team to include David Stokely, chief financial officer; David Basil, vice president, products and services; and Michael Gundling, vice president, product management and marketing. Stokely previously served as co-founder and chief financial officer of GroupLogic, a mobility software company. Basil was the chief executive officer of Red Cloud Security, a cloud-based access control software company, before joining TerraGo. As chief marketing officer at Metron Aviation, now a subsidiary of
Airbus, Gundling helped secure the largest small business contract awarded in FAA history.
Linda P. Hudson
BAE Systems Inc. has announced that Linda P. Hudson, president and chief executive officer, plans to retire next year. She will remain on the board as an outside director through April 2015.
GCT 4.4 | 5
Before our warriors encounter live fire, training ranges provide a safe environment.
Our homegrown troops have several range opportunities near stateside bases and posts. While deployed, they can also train on highquality ranges outside of the United States. Meggitt Training Systems of Suwanee, Ga., supports installations across the Middle East region. With the recent addition of a $4.5 million live fire range in Kuwait to the systems already installed with the Kuwait Army and the National Guard, Meggitt became the largest supplier of live fire ranges and small arms trainer simulators to the country. The 20-range complex at the new police training college was designed to be able to
6 | GCT 4.4
offer a blend of short- and medium-range engagement opportunities presented in an urban setting, according to Meggitt Training Systems Regional Director Stuart Westlake-Toms. â€œMultiple teams can be faced with scenarios which lead commanders and individuals to make tactical maneuver and live fire decisions as they occupy or move through a combination of indoor and outdoor ranges,â€? Westlake-Toms said. During those scenarios, control is exercised from an elevated location, which doubles to house exercise and safety staff. The training there consists of live fire using a mix of simulation and live fire targetry. The systems are able to provide instant feedback.
By Jeff Campbell GCT Editor
“It also produces complementary remote-controlled land, sea and air targets with enhancements that include weapon effects simulators, lights, smoke, decoys, hit detectors and scoring systems,” he said. “Advanced instrumentation, including firing results and video feeds, permits immediate post engagement after action reviews to be conducted on site while lessons are fresh in trainees’ minds.” Joint training is held at these locations because crisis management demands that various agencies train for potential real-life contingencies to react jointly in real time. “Meggitt’s simulation systems are employed to enable commanders to work together to respond to the range of anticipated threats as they unfold, and the essential culmination of this training is to practice the use of live ammunition in a variety of settings,” Westlake-Toms said.
This live fire training is designed to enable different elements to work together safely. “Joint training can include the use of both ground and airborne assets for surveillance, insertion and extraction, patrolling, medevac, firefighting, crowd control, house searching, building entry, hostage rescue, and combating and containing chemical threats.” The forces that train jointly there include law enforcement, military, medical and fire services. Across the world from the Boston Marathon bombings, Westlake-Toms said the services offered at the range in Kuwait are complementary to be able to support a crisis response exercise. At the same time keen to local scenarios, Meggitt developed the training system specifically to set a national standard as internal security forces are being comprehensively modernized
GCT 4.4 | 7
across the country. “It is a center of excellence that will influence the lower level continuation training that will take place at the regional police headquarters and other key agency new ranges,” Westlake-Toms said. “It is expected that internal security force shooting ranges will have Meggitt control systems and targetry. This will permit a common training approach as well as give savings in logistics support.” Interoperability among allies is always a good idea, but post9/11 and in conflicts such as Afghanistan, it is critical that partner nations that fight together train together. During the Cold War era, NATO built upon the foundation laid during World War II, and over time, course developers have learned that interoperability relies not only on common procedures, but also common equipment. “Meggitt is the major supplier of range equipment and small arms simulation trainers to NATO and other forces and security services worldwide,” Westlake-Toms said. “It is most important that countries are able to maintain a common approach to both policing and anti-terrorist work, and our training systems support this.” Real-world training around the world—not just at home—is essential for our ground forces to win in theater because most countries have a rotational training system to bring units to a state of readiness prior to operational deployment. “In the United States for example, there are the joint readiness training centers,” Westlake-Toms said. “This training requires an approach that combines maneuver training with live fire and includes specialist training such as sniper work, building entry, search techniques and theater awareness training with associated cultural and linguistic skills.” Meggitt’s small arms simulation trainers support that type of training, and their ranges can be found at all major U.S. military installations and at the British Army’s live fire training range at Suffield, Canada. Altogether, Meggitt has designed more than
13,000 domestic and international shooting ranges used in over 60 countries. At each location with live fire training, Westlake-Toms said the subject matter experts on staff draw from experience in special forces, infantry, armor, air, naval, security services and police forces. “We harness that experience and spend an impressive amount on research and development in areas such as future architecture, instrumentation, target effects, control systems, scoring and human factors,” he said. “With our global presence we have a 24-hour presence to support customer needs.” Back at home, the Commonwealth Criminal Justice Academy (CCJA) just moved to a new 13,000-square-foot facility in June that boasts an obstacle course and a driving track. The range facility holds about 15 shooters at a time and goes back about 50 yards. There, CCJA instructors work on pistol, shotgun and carbine training, but focus most of their training on pistol work, according to CCJA President Tom Perroni. “We do a lot of handgun training at close quarter battle,” Perroni said. “We are famous for doing our HRP course, which is a spinoff of the Marine Corps’ high-risk personnel course for carbine and pistol.” CCJA holds pre-deployment firearms training for several military organizations, including the Army and Navy. “While we are not training Marines at the moment, our company is a Department of State contractor, and we have the medical coverage contract at Quantico to provide medics on the range for the State Department at all Marine Corps Ranges at Marine Corps Base Quantico,” Perroni said. Every instructor who works at CCJA is an active security professional who has prior military special operations, law enforcement, or fire/EMS service in their background. “What we pride ourselves on is a lot of the individuals that we contract as instructors are currently in that field in the military or in that security field doing the work
G4S ITI’s Virginia outdoor range is paved up to the first 25 yards to incorporate sedans, SUVs and armored cars, bringing realism into the training. [Photo courtesy of G4S ITI]
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itself,” Perroni said. “What we are doing is providing relevant, realistic, real-world training back to our students, because these guys are not folks who did it, they are doing it. That brings cutting-edge training to our students.” When teaching a pre-deployment class, Perroni uses instructors who were in theater just two to three weeks prior. He looks for good instructors who not only have the required background and have a teaching capacity, but also an ability to operate well. “I founded this business because sometimes people are good operators and not teachers, and others are great teachers and not operators,” he said. “We try to have a combination of both: someone who has the real-world experience, tempered with the ability to teach. I think that is very unique.” At the new facility, CCJA has one indoor shoot house and one outdoor range, with plans to build an indoor range facility within the next year. That range is designed to go back 25 yards and handle 20 shooters. “We would also like to expand our driving capabilities beyond the flat surface that we have now to a bigger driving facility,” Perroni said. The third area CCJA concentrates on is medical training. “Driving, shooting and medicine are what we have found to be the hallmarks of training necessary for anyone going overseas,” he said. “Whether they are going to a permissive, semi, or non-permissive environment, those are the hallmarks. They need to be able to defend themselves, take care of themselves should something happen, and then get out of Dodge if necessary.” When Perroni first started the CCJA facility, he only wanted to do private security training, but it has quickly turned in to a one-stop shop. “It is funny how things evolve—you get that phone call from someone saying, ‘Can you do land/water survival training?’ I say, ‘Of course I can’; meanwhile, I’m trying to find an expert,” Perroni said. “Or ‘Hey, mid-south is backed up, we need premium shooter training. We are going to give you this group of combat cameramen from the Navy for five days, let’s see what you do with them.’ That turns into ‘Hey, you did a great job with those guys; let’s see what you can do with these guys.’”
Meggit’s new live fire training system in Kuwait produces enhanced targets to help students be better prepared for tactical missions. [Photo courtesy of Meggitt Training Systems]
Tactical Realism Role players are an important part of the pre-deployment training at CCJA while conducting live fire operational training to prepare soldiers for actual combat. “We tell people all the time, this is a 360-degree hot range, because if I can’t trust you with a weapon here, it is not going to happen down range,” Perroni said. “We need to build the core competencies in safety and marksmanship fundamentals to get these individuals ready to go down range and protect themselves.” To make the scenario as real as possible, CCJA hires role players who are wounded warriors, and players who are local nationals to the area where the client is heading. “That makes a big difference, when we get role players that can play the part speak the language, dress the culture,” Perroni said, stressing the importance for students to have a hands-on experience. “You can die by ‘death by PowerPoint’ or you can die in the field if you don’t pay attention.” www.GCT-kmi.com
With the addition of a $4.5 million firing range in Kuwait, Meggitt became the largest supplier of live fire ranges and small arms trainer simulators to the country. [Photo courtesy of Meggitt Training Systems]
Whether a special warfare group actively fighting in overseas contingency operations, or a National Guard unit taking regular training, Perroni said CCJA gives all students 100 percent. “Everyone who goes down range has got our name on them, and we want everyone to come back,” he said. “We want to make sure that we are training these guys so that they not only survive, they prevail. They receive the right training at the right time.” GCT 4.4 | 9
Student feedback has told Perroni CCJA’s training saves soldiers’ lives. “I received an email and then a beautiful letter from a student who indicated to me that his unit had been in a firefight,” Perroni said. “This kid said to me all he could remember was me screaming at him, ‘Get behind cover, tuck in your elbow, and get in from behind cover! Do your malfunction change with your weapon up in your face so that you can see when your enemy is coming— don’t look down, look straight ahead!’ He told me all those things that I said to him came back in that firefight, and I don’t know if it helped him prevail or not, but he is alive today.” During tight fiscal times, CCJA is standing by to help and assist a unit that needs training but cannot afford it at the moment. “I will do whatever is necessary to work with them, to get them the training they need,” Perroni said. “I think it’s that important. I’m in business to make money, but will do whatever I can to help any military or contractor unit that needs help with training.” Whether under live firearms, driving, or medical training, Perroni wants to ensure America’s ground combat forces get what they need to achieve mission success and return home safely. G4S International Training Inc. (ITI) has 10 full-time instructors at their ranges in Virginia and Texas. The Texas facility has a 1,000-meter range where targets can be placed at any given distance, and Virginia has ranges out to 200 meters. Master Instructor Brandon Wright said their ranges are top-notch. “What we are able to provide for a student is the hard skills for them to survive,” he said. “We’ve got wide, deep, long ranges that run out to 200 meters.” Those ranges are paved up to the first 25 yards so the instructors can bring vehicles out on the range. Whether outside or in their live-fire shoot house, G4S ITI uses real-world scenarios and an out-of-the-box approach to its teaching methods. “Instead of just shooting on the line with students, we take them and put them in scenarios where they are shooting 180 degrees across and downrange as well, so we try to expand that out as much as we can,” Wright said. “We use sedans, SUVs and armored cars; it brings the realism to the training.” That realism extends beyond the Virginia facility’s border, which sits alongside a regional airport. “They have a designated drop zone, so we have had some clients parachute in, land-navigate to our shoot house, then assault it,” Wright said, adding that the site is also near water. “We have a river behind us, so we have had some clients come in by boat, make their way to the wooded area to get to the shoot house and assault us that way,” he said. G4S ITI has also brought people in on helicopter for training scenarios. If the client has the desire and capabilities, Wright said G4S ITI has the space and availability for them.
Soldier-student Character G4S ITI has worked with a wide variety of military servicemembers, from the intelligence community to the special operations community. “We have also worked with some tier-one groups that really have their stuff together and really encompass the word ‘operator,’ because they can do just about everything and they do it all very well,” Wright said, noting that students at each level of experience have their own challenges. “When you deal with a basic student who does not have a whole lot of experience downrange, and is maybe very young and very enthusiastic about what he is about to do, sometimes they have built up in their head a little more than what it really is,” Wright 10 | GCT 4.4
said. “They sometimes can be a little bit of a loose wire, but eventually, they are very focused when it is time to train. When you bring it to realism and we start doing live fire bounding drills or live fire evac drills, they’re very checked-on.” Young or old, inexperienced or weathered, razor-sharp focus is exactly what instructors at the G4S ITI facilities look for. “I have yet to meet anyone who was disgruntled or was not happy to be where they were,” Wright said. “Everybody wants to be there and they want to learn. The best part about it is they come with an open mind, so when we pass on our teachings of the things that we have found we believe in and some of the principles we use, it is welcomed with open arms.”
Training Set Apart Wright started his law enforcement career in 1998, and over the past eight years at G4S ITI has seen how tactics have changed. “The way we did business back in ’98 is completely different than the way they do business now, because sometimes the mission changes,” he said. “The enemies now are equipping themselves with things that we weren’t used to having to compete against, so we have to be sharper and be able to outsmart them and be that next pedestal up.” When called upon, G4S ITI can also train allies through approval of the U.S. government. “If they are going to help our troops out, we want to make sure that they will be able to do that to the best of their abilities so no one gets hurt,” Wright said. That training doesn’t come with basic target stands and sticks. “Our training gets outside the box, where you are able to shoot to the far left, the far right, change your distances up, do live fire bounding, with the ability to bring vehicles and equipment out to the range and shoot around it,” he said. G4S ITI steps out when they can because adherence to the rules can restrict the operator from getting the job done. “The first time you experience shooting through the front windshield of a car doesn’t need to be when the attack is happening,” Wright said. “We want them to experience that in a training environment where we can control it, where we can show them the pros and cons and where we can give them the dos and don’ts, so when they execute it, it is not the first time they have done it.” Based on this real-world training, G4S ITI has around 70 documented saves, most of which were driving-related. “There was one where a soldier took contact from the right-hand side and without hesitation he got on the gas pedal and drove through the attack,” Wright said. The soldier hit a couple vehicles on the way out, but in a letter to G4S ITI, he said the training he had just attended helped him prepare for that scenario. “It wasn’t a shock to hear ‘contact left’ and to get on the gas pedal and immediately start driving away,” Wright said. Whether a known scenario or emerging threat, G4S ITI can teach the cookie-cutter classes or provide tailored courses based on the client’s needs. “If they need strictly a day of driving and a day of medical, we can make that happen,” Wright said. “They get in, get the training that they need, and they are able to get out. Hopefully we can meet their needs, and meet them both on the financial end and on the operational end as well.” O For more information, contact GCT Editor Jeff Campbell at firstname.lastname@example.org or search our online archives for related stories at www.gct-kmi.com.
SMDC saves Army money with low-cost targets By Jason B. Cutshaw
The U.S. Army Space and Missile Defense Command/Army Forces Strategic Command (USASMDC/ARSTRAT) has found a way to save the Army money while still providing capabilities by using low-cost targets during missile defense testing. Members of the USASMDC/ARSTRAT technical center, in support of the Program Executive Office Missiles and Space’s Lower Tier Program Office, or LTPO, is providing a realistic threat ballistic target called “Zombie” for use in testing the Patriot advanced capability-3 missile segment enhancement, or PAC-3 (MSE), advanced missile defense systems. With the Army and testers of missile defense programs looking to save money on ballistic missile targets, SMDC has www.GCT-kmi.com
developed low-cost targets that cut expenses from the approximate $30 million each for high-end targets, to approximately $4 million for SMDC’s low-cost Zombie targets. These savings will allow program managers to stretch their testing budgets and apply funding to where it is needed while reducing the program’s overall testing budget. Zombie uses government-owned material components that have reached the end of their useful life and are subject to consideration of demilitarization. The repurposing of this government hardware instead of demilitarization ultimately saves the taxpayers’ money. “This is what the technical center does and this is kind of what Redstone Arsenal does,” said Colonel Morris L. Bodrick,
former SMDC Technical Center deputy. “Whenever we are able to leverage the government expertise in our labs and our research centers with our industry partners, we can produce a lot of quality work like this project.” To save the government money, SMDC members are using components from legacy systems and reconfiguring them to fly, in modified configurations, as ballistic targets. “Some of the legacy components we are pulling from are from systems that some employees refer to as ‘dead components,’ or components that are not part of the active program’s future developments,” said GCT 4.4 | 11
Bryon K. Manley, technical center flight test services chief. “And then someone like us comes and asks the legacy programs if we can utilize components to fly two new targets in 2013. The ‘rebirth’ of the dead components is where the term Zombie came from. People who have worked this program love this name because of recent pop culture popularity, and even the Patriot interceptor program operators have used the name ‘Zombie Killers’ in their documentation. It is a name that people can get behind and get motivated.” The Zombie missile recently underwent validation as a threat-representative target to meet second-quarter testing needs and will fill a target niche in the future. Zombie is an alternative to the highcost, high-performance, high-fidelity tactical ballistic missile targets historically used in Patriot PAC-3 testing, such as the Juno. Although it is natural to compare Zombie to Juno, Zombie is not a replacement for Juno, as Juno is still needed for the occasion when its specific, required performance capabilities are required. “As the former product manager of the PAC-3 product office, I really understand the value of having these kinds of options,” Bodrick said. “Having a target that is able to meet requirements and is able to fly the kind of envelope it is needed to fly, allows us to not only purchase more targets, [but also] conduct more testing, which is what we haven’t been able to do in the past because of the cost of targets and the amount of time it takes to build a target. “With some of our high-end targets, in the $30 million range, you don’t just go out and build five or six of them,” he added. “So this option allows us to save greatly and gives the Army a lot of options from a missile defense testing perspective. It really allows us some flexibility in meeting our test objectives and checking the performance of our design more frequently.” Bodrick said the genesis of this project was the cost and schedule of threat representative tactical ballistic missile targets for target options typically used to satisfy these types of target requirements. “The LTPO uses a selection of targets to trade off the required target characteristics with the target cost,” Bodrick said. “LTPO generally uses the high12 | GCT 4.4
fidelity, very high-performance, high-cost Juno target or the low-fidelity, medium-performance, very low-cost Patriot-as-a-target, depending on flight test objectives.” This initiative allows a tester to aggressively pursue other options, and in this case, very low-cost options, to be able to meet the same requirements that are needed to get the defense missile system past its milestone decisions. The process is designed to save the government, in the long run, a lot of money. Having this option, and allowing SMDC to meet the requirements that are needed, is a big deal. Since its inception, the Zombie took 13 months to build the first two targets and launch them. “In these times of budget constraints, the Zombie target allows us more flexibility in testing and can possibly free up more funding elsewhere for the Army,” Bodrick said. “Our main goal is to make our customer, PEO MS, successful. We want to speed the process of getting the capability to the field. That is what having these low-cost, short lead time production targets allows us to do in meeting the operational needs of the warfighters.” The Zombie idea is one of several lowcost ballistic targets that have been developed and are developing. Each version and individual development has its own unique performance parameters intent on meeting the full threat representative trade space. The Economical Target-1 was the first in a suite of targets that was developed and launched on its maiden voyage in February 2012. Two other developments currently ongoing, however, add more flexibility and performance at longer ranges. “When the developments are complete, SMDC will be able to make these low-cost target options at lower-than-traditional target costs,” Manley said. “The goal is to build huge capabilities at low cost. We built our two Zombie targets for $7.5 million. Our first target, launched on April 7, was a riskreduction flight that confirmed our ability to produce future low-cost targets, confirm our performance and allow the system under test to get a ‘first look’ at the target.” “Lance is another in our low-cost target suite,” he continued. “The Missile Defense Agency abandoned the Lance missiles and my division went and picked them up, because there are systems that need cheap targets. For less than $500,000 apiece, we are providing eight telemetry configured Lance missiles to get real tactical ballistic
missile test articles to exercise a defense system at a fraction of what other targets are normally available in the integrated missile defense community. “We are not replacing the more expensive targets, we are producing a surrogate that is threat-credible and can be used in its place,” Manley added. “If you place the two side by side, they can simplistically be compared. [One is] like a 1972 Volkswagen bug, and the other is a Maserati from a maximum performance perspective, and that is why you are paying more. But during these tests, all you are doing is transporting passengers from here to there; you are not racing. At the end of the day, the customer only cares about if they are successful, if it has low costs, and we have a target to shoot at that meets their performance requirements.” On June 6, a PAC-3 (MSE) missile successfully engaged, intercepted and destroyed a second Zombie low-cost threat representative target during a flight test at White Sands Missile Range, N.M. Two PAC-3 (MSE) missiles ripple fired against an advanced Zombie tactical ballistic missile target. The first MSE missile successfully engaged and destroyed the tactical ballistic missile target while the second missile self-destructed as planned. “Zombie was a great accomplishment from different offices working together to generate a viable alternative target from that of the more costly Juno target,” said Lawrence Abrams, LTPO assistant project manager for Strategic Planning, “Although the community at large recognized that the alternative target would not meet all the target requirements, collectively it was agreed that critical elements were being met and allowed for use of a significantly lower-cost target.” Manley said the idea his team started out with was knowing that existing target inventories that have been used in the past are going away or have already been shot. These “legacy” target systems are no more, and what was left were targets with more capability than what the tester needed. “So, the idea behind our approach is to develop a whole new suite of targets that utilize old rocket motors that the Army has already invested money in and developed and that have no future planned usage,” Manley said. “We are taking them and retrofitting and reconfiguring them to fly in a manner for which they were not designed. But at the end of the day, when you are flying ballistic missile targets, the performance www.GCT-kmi.com
requirements can be simplified from much more complicated requirements.” Manley said that when he was given the division in 2009, he had two employees, no budget and no programs. One of the first things he did was look at the mission and SMDC’s role in the Army. Being in the missile defense arm of the SMDC tech center, he took a look at what the Patriot missile system was going to shoot in the next five years as a target. He then asked what his division could do to help out in the test arena and help Patriot to be successful. “As we looked around, we had an issue where legacy targets had either been shot up in the execution of tests over the past 15 years, don’t exist, or don’t meet testing requirements,” Manley said. “What we are left with is the high-performance targets with substantially higher costs. There is a better way to approach target development. By focusing on what the missile defense system’s needs are, in this case Patriot needs, performance and cost control can be traded to reach the optimum solutions that meet the program needs.” The Patriot missile system’s PAC-3 (MSE) missile, along with the PAC-3, are two of the world’s most advanced, capable and reliable theater air and missile defense interceptors. They are designed to defeat advanced tactical ballistic and air breathing threats. As the most technologically advanced missiles for the Patriot air and missile defense system, PAC-3 and MSE missiles significantly increase the system’s firepower, allowing 16 PAC-3s or 12 MSE missiles to be loaded in place of four Patriot PAC-2 missiles on the launcher. The PAC-3 MSE missile is packaged in a single canister that stacks to provide more flexibility for warfighters in the field. “From our mission perspective, we are looking for solutions to allow our customers to save money in the target’s arena, so they can increase the amount of testing opportunities and ultimately be successful,” Manley said. “We are playing a role in getting the PAC-3 MSE to production and ultimately fielded where the latest interceptor will protect our troops in the field.” Boyd said the LTPO is investing in the Zombie target program for the long haul and expects to be using these low-cost targets for many years to come. The LTPO is already experiencing a push for higher performance testing with more limited budgets, and Zombie will help fulfill that goal. www.GCT-kmi.com
A Patriot advanced capability-3 missile segment enhancement advanced missile defense system hits its Zombie target during a ballistic missile target test. The U.S. Army Space and Missile Defense Command/Army Forces Strategic Command Technical Center has developed the Zombie targets that cut expenses from the approximate $30 million each for high-end targets to approximately $4 million for SMDC’s low-cost Zombie. [Photo courtesy of U.S. Army]
“The addition of the Zombie target to the LTPO stable is an important development for the LTPO,” said Dennis Boyd, LTPO. “The LTPO testing philosophy is to select the lowest-cost target that meets the key target performance requirements. The addition of the Zombie to the Patriot target stable enables the LTPO to meet mission requirements at a lower cost where the savings are applied to other lower-priority program funding requirements.” Boyd said that past tests of the PAC-3 MSE interceptor have required the high-cost Juno target to meet the test objectives, and in the recent 7-5 flight test conducted on June 6, LTPO was able to meet all of the MSE flight test objectives with the much lower cost Zombie target. He said the result was a savings of 60 percent over previous target costs and future target design-to-cost goal should result in an even higher percentage of savings. “The LTPO has a very full test schedule that requires very careful coordination of assets,” Boyd said. “Scheduling of the first two Zombie targets provided some challenges; though the challenges were similar to that of most target development programs, they were workable and LTPO is ultimately happy with the result.” Boyd mentioned the success of the second Zombie launch. He said that the launch was one more step in making the PAC-3 (MSE) operational.
Everyone involved talked about how the low-cost targets will save money during shrinking budgets and they all agreed the program’s ultimate goal is to speed up the deployment of systems designed to protect soldiers, sailors, airmen and Marines who are defending the nation. “This is such an innovative approach in this fiscal environment to tackling such a huge problem, which is managing target costs within the missile defense community,” Bodrick said. “In this fiscal environment, this kind of innovation and forward thinking is going to allow us to not only be able to help the U.S. missile defense capability, but also our allies. “The SMDC technical center is at the forefront of providing the kind of missile defense testing capability to really save the Army a lot of money on its targets,” he added. “If we are really able to get this thing rolling, I think it will be a big plus for the command and for the nation.” O
Jason B. Cutshaw is editor of the Space and Missile Defense newswire The Eagle.
For more information, contact GCT Editor Jeff Campbell at email@example.com or search our online archives for related stories at www.gct-kmi.com.
GCT 4.4 | 13
INNOVATIONS Colombian Army Acquires Additional Armored Personnel Carriers Textron Marine & Land Systems • Remote turret with 40 mm and .50 caliber weapons • Deliveries completed by April 2014 Textron Marine & Land Systems (TM&LS), an operating unit of Textron Systems, a Textron Inc. company, has announced a $31.6 million contract award from the U.S. Army Tank-Automotive and Armaments Command to provide 28 Commando advanced armored personnel carriers (APCs) with 40 mm/.50 caliber remote turrets to the Colombian Army (COLAR). Initial APC deliveries to the U.S. Army for shipping to Colombia are expected to begin in November, with all vehicles scheduled to be completed and transferred by April 2014. The contract also includes repair services on two damaged APCs in the COLAR’s inventory, which consists of 39 Commando advanced APCs in operation with its Armored Cavalry units. These repairs will coincide with vehicle support service work on COLAR APCs awarded to TM&LS earlier this year. Since fielding its APCs in May 2010, the COLAR has employed them extensively while combating internal revolutionary forces in Colombia.
These vehicles have provided the mobility, protection and firepower needed to meet all COLAR tactical armored vehicle requirements. “Our Colombian Army customer values the performance, operator protection and reliability they have experienced with our Commando APCs during more than three years of demanding operations,” said TM&LS Senior Vice President and General Manager Tom Walmsley. “We’re pleased to be growing this relationship and providing the Colombian Army with this important asset for its cavalry units.”
Switchblade Loiter Weapon AeroVironment Inc. • Backpackable, weighing 6 pounds AeroVironment Inc. announced that it has received a total of $15.8 million in orders under a contract for Switchblade tactical missile systems, ancillary equipment and support. The United States Army Close Combat Weapons Systems Program Executive Office Missiles and Space (PEO MS) awarded these contract options. AeroVironment and its strategic teammate for advanced warheads, ATK, will continue to work together to produce and deliver the systems. The initial contract was issued on August 30, 2012, in support of the Army’s Rapid Equipping Force (REF). The scope of work under this contract includes operational and training rounds plus training, support and rapid delivery to support ongoing customer operations. AeroVironment has received five separate orders totaling $15.8 million under this contract, including the most recent on July 29, 2013. “Switchblade is the first smart loitering weapon, giving our troops a new force protection capability that can deliver precision effects kilometers away with in-flight retargeting, target verification and pinpoint delivery, all resulting in little or no collateral effects,” said Roy Minson, AeroVironment senior vice president and general manager of the company’s unmanned aircraft systems business segment. “AeroVironment and ATK stand ready to deliver more Switchblade systems to protect our troops.” “Adoption of innovative new solutions within the Department of Defense is difficult in today’s budget-constrained environment,” added Tim Conver, AeroVironment chairman and chief executive officer. “These follow-on procurements of Switchblade systems demonstrate our customer’s confidence in this unique capability and the persistence required for the successful adoption and deployment of innovative solutions.” Switchblade provides a high-precision, direct fire capability at beyond-line-ofsight ranges in a rapidly deployable, backpackable package weighing 6 pounds.
14 | GCT 4.4
Soldier Wearable Integrated Power Equipment System Arotech Corporation • Reduces soldier-carried battery weight by 30 percent • Top-Ten Best Army Inventions Arotech Corporation, a provider of defense and security products for the military, law enforcement and homeland security markets, announced that its Battery and Power Systems Division received a $2 million follow on order from the United States Army for its award-winning SWIPES system. The Soldier Wearable Integrated Power Equipment System, or SWIPES, enables extended mission times without the burden of power source swaps or charging due to their high energy density. It also reduces battery weight that soldiers are carrying by up to 30 percent. The batteries continuously charge the secondary batteries inside various devices, such as two-way radios, GPS units and shot detection systems. The SWIPES product allows for individual tailoring for a soldier and is designed to accept new applications as they become available. “We’re very pleased to win this additional order from the U.S. Army, reflecting the products increasing acceptance among U.S. ground forces,” commented Arotech’s Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Robert S. Ehrlich. “The U.S. army is the world’s leading military force, especially when it comes to the use of technology on the battlefield. The fact that they repeatedly choose our SWIPES system, as well as awarding it a Top-Ten Best Army Inventions upon its launch, is testament to the effectiveness and the value our product adds. Since developing the SWIPES product, we have realized over $6 million in sales from the U.S. army. We see significant future growth potential for this product— not only for the various divisions of the U.S. military, but also for ground forces of other armies.” www.GCT-kmi.com
Compiled by KMI Media Group staff
EMD Phase JLTVs Delivered
Displays for M1A2
Palomar Display Products Inc • Bound for an international M1A2 operator Palomar Display Products Inc. has been awarded a $2.2 million firm fixed price contract by the U.S. Army Contracting Command to deliver military display systems for the M1A2 Abrams tank fire control system. These high resolution, optically coupled displays have been designed and qualified for the M1A2 Abrams tank and will be supplied to the U.S. Army for an international customer. All display systems under this contract will be delivered through 2014. “This repeat award contributes to our 2014 backlog,” stated Palomar Display Products President Dennis Crothers. “Our position as the primary supplier of thermal sight displays for the U.S. and international armored vehicle market has been reaffirmed again.”
Low Level Elevation Rocket Intercept Raytheon • Ku radio frequency system fire control radar • Avenger-based AI3 launcher • C-RAM command and control • Technical fire control • AI3 interceptor missile Raytheon successfully intercepted and destroyed a low quadrant elevation 107 mm rocket as part of the second series of guided test vehicle (GTV) flight tests of the Accelerated Improved Intercept Initiative (AI3) program. The intercept is a major test milestone before the U.S. Army live-fire engagements begin in September. “Beginning only 18 months and one week ago, and with firm cost requirements, the AI3 interceptor project successfully engaged and destroyed an inflight rocket on a challenging, high-speed flight profile greatly enhancing the range of existing capabilities,” said Michael Van Rassen, the U.S. Army’s Project Director for Counter Rockets, Artillery and Mortars (C-RAM) and AI3. “The project used a system of systems approach that lowered risk and enabled an accelerated schedule by leveraging existing government components and off-the-shelf subsystems to expand the footprint of the protected area for our warfighters.” The AI3 Battle Element system includes: a Raytheon Ku radio frequency system, fire control radar, an Avengerbased AI3 launcher, a C-RAM command www.GCT-kmi.com
and control, technical fire control, and the Raytheon AI3 interceptor missile. After launch, the AI3 interceptor initially guided on inflight radio frequency (RF) data link updates from the Ku RF sensor radar, which was tracking an inbound rocket target threat. The interceptor then transitioned to terminal guidance using the interceptor’s onboard seeker and the illumination from the radar to guide the missile to within lethal range. The target was then detected using an active RF proximity fuze that determined the optimal detonation time for the warhead. With these measurements, the missile calculated the appropriate warhead burst time and defeated the incoming threat. “This is a significant technical and performance milestone for the program and our team that met the Army’s tight schedule and costs objectives,” said Steve Bennett, Raytheon Missile Systems AI3 program director. “This second GTV demonstrated full integration of the AI3 Battle Element with the C-RAM command and control architecture against the threat target.” Beginning in September, the Army will conduct for-the-record testing of AI3 and continue to engage and destroy baseline and enhanced capability targets such as 107 mm and other rockets, unmanned air systems and other threats to forward operating bases.
• Accumulated 160,000+ test miles • Rugged, blast resistant and agile Lockheed Martin has delivered 22 joint light tactical vehicles (JLTVs) to the Army and Marine Corps under the JLTV program’s engineering and manufacturing development (EMD) contract. Lockheed will transfer the vehicles to the Army’s Yuma Test Center in Arizona and to Aberdeen Test Center in Maryland, where the company will support a 14-month period of government evaluation and testing. “Our team has produced a highly capable, reliable and affordable JLTV for our customers,” said Scott Greene, vice president of ground vehicles for Lockheed Martin Missiles and Fire Control. “These vehicles will meet the toughest demands of our soldiers and Marines. They deserve our best, and that’s precisely what we delivered.” Lockheed’s JLTV accumulated more than 160,000 combined test miles in the program’s technology development phase, en route to its selection for continued development through a $65 million EMD contract from the Army and Marine Corps in August 2012. Lockheed Martin designed its JLTV specifically to meet stated customer requirements for the program, rather than trying to adapt an existing vehicle. The result is a lighter, more blastresistant and more agile vehicle. Lockheed Martin designed its JLTV to be a total solution—engineered from the ground up to balance the “iron triangle” of protection, performance and payload while maintaining affordability. The vehicle provides improved crew protection and mobility, lower logistical support costs, greater fuel efficiency, and state-of-the-art connectivity with other platforms and systems. A Meritor Pro-Tec air suspension system contributes to off-road performance while minimizing crew fatigue. BAE Systems is responsible for the JLTV’s geometrically enhanced protection system, a design that enables levels of blast protection never before achieved in this vehicle class, and for vehicle final assembly.
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Maintaining Forward Presence to Enable Rapid Crisis Response General James F. Amos Commandant U.S. Marine Corps On October 22, 2010, General James F. Amos assumed the duties of commandant of the Marine Corps. A graduate of the University of Idaho, Amos has held command at all levels from lieutenant colonel to lieutenant general. General Amos’ command tours have included: Marine wing support squadron 173 from 1985-1986; Marine fighter attack squadron 312—attached to carrier air wing 8 onboard USS Theodore Roosevelt (CVN-71)—from 1991-1993; Marine aircraft group 31 from 1996-1998; 3rd Marine aircraft wing in combat during Operations Iraqi Freedom I and II from 2002-2004; II Marine expeditionary force from 2004-2006; and commanding general, Marine Corps Combat Development Command and deputy commandant, combat development and integration from 2006 to 2008. Additional operational tours have included Marine fighter attack squadrons 212, 235, 232, and 122. Amos’ staff assignments include tours with Marine aircraft groups 15 and 31, the III Marine amphibious force, training squadron seven, the basic school, and with the Marine air-ground task force staff training program. Additionally, he was assigned to NATO as deputy commander, naval striking forces, southern Europe, Naples, Italy, where he commanded NATO’s Kosovo verification center, and later served as chief of staff, U.S. joint task force noble anvil during the air campaign over Serbia. Transferred in 2000 to the Pentagon, he was assigned as assistant deputy commandant for aviation. Reassigned in December 2001, he served as the assistant deputy commandant for plans, policies and operations, Headquarters, Marine Corps. From 2008-2010 Amos served as the 31st Assistant Commandant of the Marine Corps. Amos was interviewed by GCT Editor Jeff Campbell. Q: Does the Marine Corps have all the equipment required to be ready to deploy at a moment’s notice? A: The Marine Corps is America’s force of first resort and we are ready to deploy to handle crisis and contingencies around the world at a moment’s notice. Do we have all the equipment we’d like? No, but in this age of austerity we are making tough choices every day to ensure we maintain the capabilities and capacities that the nation expects from its Marine Corps. Today, I can tell you that forward presence matters and it enables rapid crisis response. It buys time and decision space for our nation’s leaders, it demonstrates our national resolve and a willingness to deter aggression. It builds trust and develops relationships with our allies and partners. The Marine Corps also maintains a robust prepositioned force and this equipment is an essential element of our national security. Because of the way we are manned, trained and equipped, we are able to play an www.GCT-kmi.com
important role in our nation’s naval forces as America’s insurance policy. We are a hedge against uncertainty in a dangerous world. We respond to today’s crisis, with today’s force. Q: What are some of the ways LHA-6 will enhance the aviation capabilities of the Marine air-ground task force? A: I was there on October 20 of last year when Lynne Pace—the wife of the former chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff—christened the USS America and I got a good first-hand look at the ship and her capabilities. Lynne remarked at the event that LHA-6 was akin to a mini aircraft carrier, and she’s absolutely right. The LHA class ship, or big-deck amphibious ship as we sometimes call them, provides a flexible, multi-mission platform that enables us to forward deploy and quickly respond to crisis around the world. LHA-6 in particular has been optimized for aviation with a larger fuel storage capacity, hangar and weapons magazines in lieu of a well deck. The LHA-class ships are central to our strategy of forward presence and power projection as part of the joint force. The new LHAs will be more capable and able to support both current and future aircraft such as the MV-22 Osprey and the F-35B Joint Strike Fighter. The LHA combined with the rest of the amphibious ready group and embarked Marine expeditionary unit provides our nation with a very flexible and capable force. GCT 4.4 | 17
Q: What have you learned from previous Marine commandants who have endured similar periods of austerity that’s guiding you now? A: I’ve learned that when money runs low, we have to think—and I’m not being glib here. The truth is that we truly have to think hard and make sure that every dollar, every bullet, every minute spent training counts. America has always understood that the Marine Corps is a frugal force that is very careful about the way we spend taxpayer’s hard-earned money. I’m a taxpayer too, so when I make budgetary decisions, I always ask myself if the decision makes good sense for our national defense and if it is a wise use of taxpayer money. We’re sensitive to that— especially now. The fact is that we are at a critical inflection point in history as we wind down a decade at war and deal with sequestration. We can’t draw the wrong conclusions from our experiences. America can’t afford to get this wrong! We need to ask ourselves, how does the United States best contribute to the global order? What are our global responsibilities? The world needs our leadership, engagement and forward presence, and as a nation we need to figure out how much is enough. We also need to reset and reconstitute the Marine Corps after two tough wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. My focus is on reconstituting a balanced force and preserving readiness while avoiding creating hollow units. So we’re in the process of figuring out what’s good enough? We’re not focused on what we want, but we’re focused on what we need. I have a lot of smart Marines working on these problems, and they’re just as good as the others who have worn our cloth for the past 237 years. So the lesson I take away is that while we will certainly be challenged, the Marine Corps—and more importantly, the Marines—will continue to thrive.
Lynne Pace, the sponsor of the amphibious assault ship USS America (LHA 6), prepares to break a bottle of sparkling wine across the ship’s bow as U.S. Marine Corps Gen. James F. Amos, left, and Navy Capt. Robert A. Hall Jr. stand by during a christening ceremony for the ship at the Ingalls Shipbuilding yard in Pascagoula, Miss. The America was the first ship in the America class, which replaced the Tarawa class of amphibious assault ships. [Photo courtesy of U.S. Marine Corps]
An avionics maintainer with Marine Medium Tiltrotor Squadron 165 installs a conversion actuator fairing on a MV-22 Osprey aircraft at Camp Bastion, Helmand province, Afghanistan. The installation was part of a routine maintenance check to ensure the aircraft was safe for flight. [Photo courtesy of U.S. Marine Corps]
Q: How is the phasing of the F-35B into the Marine Corps progressing? A: The F-35B is progressing well. When I first became commandant, the program had its challenges, but we’ve gotten after those and, on balance, I feel pretty good about where we’re at. I’ll give you a quick update on some recent events. You’ll recall that on May 31 of this year, we announced that we’d reach our initial operating capability of the F-35B by December 2015. At this important milestone, we’ll have an operational squadron with at least 10 aircraft that are capable of 18 | GCT 4.4
conducting close air support, offensive and defensive air operations, interdiction, assault support and armed reconnaissance missions. Marine Fighter Attack Squadron 121 will be our first fully operational squadron. They have 10 F-35Bs at Marine Corps Air Station Yuma now and have about 200 Marines assigned to the command. So, things are progressing well and I’m excited about the capability this will bring to the Marine Corps and to the joint force. Q: What are some of the benefits you’ve seen in field sustainability, for example, from programs like the Marine austere patrolling system [MAPS], which will enable Marines to patrol longer with www.GCT-kmi.com
renewable energy sources that make it possible to operate up to 120 days with limited resupply? A: This is an exciting prospect. We’ve been focused on expeditionary energy and lightening our logistics tail for several years now and have made a good deal of progress. In July of this year, we conducted an evaluation of MAPS at Camp Pendleton. I recall the system featured an advanced solar panel and water filtration system developed at the Naval Surface Warfare center in Dahlgren, Va. One innovative aspect of the MAPS is that it connects multiple power lines to a single power interface that should allow Marines to run their radios, night vision goggles and GPS off of one power source—eliminating the need for multiple batteries. This should reduce the weight carried by each Marine and is another example of how we can prevent casualties and save lives by further reducing the number of logistics convoys needed to resupply units in the field. The past decade at war showed us that there is a direct correlation between the number of logistics convoys on the battlefield and IED-caused casualties. Q: What are some of the ways you are investigating increasing mobility and sustainability as the corps operates further from infrastructure and supplies? A: The past decade of war in Iraq and Afghanistan has taught us many lessons about distributed operations and the importance of mobility and sustainability. Much of our equipment needs to be repaired or
replaced, so we will continue to invest in modernization. Two key initiatives to modernizing our ground combat arms element are the amphibious combat vehicle and the joint light tactical vehicle. These systems, combined with the recapitalization of our family of light armored vehicles and refurbishment of our legacy HMMWVs, are critical to sustaining individual and unit combat readiness while ensuring the core capabilities of our ground combat forces. We have also experimented with new technologies such as the KMAX, which is an unmanned helicopter that we have used in Afghanistan to resupply remote combat outposts. We’ve been happy with the performance of this UAV and are considering the utility of such systems in future operations. Q: Do you have any final thoughts about the civilian personnel, reserve, and active duty members of the U.S. Marine Corps and the jobs they are performing today? A: Yes. I am very proud of the men and women who serve the Corps— those who wear our cloth today, both military and civilian; we refer to them as Marines and civilian Marines. They have endured a long decade at war and continue to serve in Afghanistan and around the world at our embassies and forward deployed locations. They have been patient as folks here in the Beltway deal with sequestration and furlough, and they have remained faithful. I want to tell them that I deeply appreciate them and thank them for who they are and what they do every day. O
January 29-30, 2014 Camp Pendleton, CA
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Special Section: Marine Corps Program updates
Marine Corps Systems Command
Select Program Management Office updates. Compiled by Jeff Campbell, GCT Editor Fiscal year (FY) 2013 saw many successes, with several of those arriving by air, from miniature VTOL unmanned vehicles to the first aircraft landing by a UAV. After more than a quarter century in the Marine Corps, their exponential growth won’t slow down in 2014, but FY 2014 may just be the year of anticipation of the ground vehicle. The MRAPs are certified lifesavers, but the improved light armored vehicle (LAV) will move Marines faster while dodging IEDs with an upgraded suspension package. The LAV program is projected to have almost $250 million in its hands in FY 2015, 20 years away from the platform’s end of service life. Marine Corps Systems Command’s 13 program managers have many other projects in their scope for the year ahead. Here’s a look at what’s on the horizon for Marine night vision, radar, weapon systems and more.
Program Manager for Marine Air-Ground Task Force Command, Control and Communications The Program Manager for Marine AirGround Task Force (MAGTF) Command, Control and Communications includes programs such as Improvised Explosive Device 20 | GCT 4.4
(IED) Detector Dogs, Counter IED Systems, Tactical Communication Systems, Networking and Satellite Communications, Radar Systems, MAGTF Command and Control Systems, and Digital Fires and Situational Awareness. In April, the president’s FY 2014 budget submission requested $18.3 million for air operations C2 systems. That’s an $8.5 million drop from 2013, but the request jumps up to $39.6 million in FY 2015 and $39.4 million in FY 2016.
Theater Battle Management Core System The FY 2014 request includes $4.4 million for the theater battle management core system (TBMCS). Funds are now for new equipment training (NET) and on-site fielding reps to support updated software and hardware fieldings, and to procure new hardware for TBMCS to leverage new technology and maintain relevance and capability. These funds support the same efforts as FY 2013 with the addition of NET. TBMCS is a joint mandated air war planning tool for the generation, dissemination and execution of the air tasking order. TBMCS is an Air Force led program, which provides the automated
tools necessary to manage tactical air operations, execute area air defense and airspace management in the tactical area of operation, and coordinate operations with components of other military services. TBMCS is located at the Tactical Air Command Center, with remotes located throughout the MAGTF. It is scalable, allowing for joint, coalition and service specific operations. It is an evolutionary acquisition program.
Marine Air Command and Control Sustainment The request also includes a $9.5 million baseline for Marine air command and control sustainment (MACCS). These funds are for the continued sustainment and replacement of obsolete commercial off the shelf equipment for tactical air operations center systems, tactical air operations module, sector anti air warfare facility, and air defense communications platform. The funds support the in service engineering agent for MACCS legacy systems, and government furnished equipment for commercial item technical refreshment II. MACCS family of systems is organized into tactical agencies and operational facilities, each having www.GCT-kmi.com
different functions, tasks and equipment suites. These agencies are fielded and supported by squadrons within the Marine air control group in support of the aviation combat element.
Radar Systems The budget submission requested $114 million for radar systems in FY 2014, $91.4 million in FY 2015, and $270.8 million for FY 2016. The AN/TPS-59 radar provides three-dimensional long range surveillance and detection against air-breathing targets and tactical ballistic missiles. The AN/TPS-59 is deployed as a national asset by providing launch/impact point and cueing information to other theater missile defense systems. The AN/TPS-59 program is currently managing recurring sustainment activities, while simultaneously implanting a strategy of tech refresh to address obsolete diminishing manufacturing sources and material shortages (DMSMS) issues. The radar has been continuously deployed in support of OEF resulting in decreased material readiness. AN/TPS-59 FY 2014 funding of $10 million will procure electronic components to include REX, IFF/UPX spares, as well as procure north finding ECP mod kits, program management, engineering, and logistics to support the fielding of efforts procured in FY 2012 through FY 2013. Fiscal year 2014 funding continues to address DMSMS and obsolescence issues to increase operational availability. The $20 million decrease from FY 2013 is due to procurement efforts to include mod kits and electrical components originally planned for FY 2014 which have been deferred to FY 2016. The family of target acquisition systems (FTAS) provides the MAGTF the capability to locate, identify and attack enemy indirect fire weapons systems and observe and direct friendly artillery fire. The FTAS consists of the AN/TPQ-46 firefinder radar, the AN/TPQ49 lightweight counter mortar radar, and the AN/TSQ-267 target processing set. The FTAS is critical in the execution of counterfire and the integration of target acquisition information enabling attack by MAGTF assets. The FTAS also provides artillery firing units the ability to conduct artillery registration and other friendly fire missions. The FTAS encompasses the equipment required to support target acquisition within the target www.GCT-kmi.com
Marine Air Control Squadron 2’s newest antenna sits on a hill adjacent to the radar dome at Cherry Point. The new antenna, the most currently used AN/TPS-59a radar technology, will increase the squadron’s radar range by up to 200 miles. [Photo courtesy of U.S. Marine Corps]
acquisition platoon and is resident in the headquarter battery of each artillery regiment. The program will continue to address sustainment issues that arise due to DMSMS items within the FTAS. The $3 million FY 2014 funding of FTAS will procure AN/TSQ-267 networking hardware refresh, demil activities to achieve AAO reduction for the AN/TPQ-46, and provide for program management support. The FY 2014 funding will continue to address lifecycle sustainment issues that continue to arise due to DMSMS items within the FTAS. The AN/TPS-63 is a two-dimensional, medium-range, medium-altitude, transportable, radar system which is employed as a tactical gap-filler or as an early warning system for deployment into the operational area. It has a 360-degree air surveillance capability at a range of 160 miles and complements the co-employed AN/TPS-59 three-dimensional, long-range, air surveillance radar system. The AN/TPS-63 is employed by the Marine Air Control Squadron as its tactical operations center in support of air surveillance and air control mission objectives. Fielded in 1980, this system is currently deployed in OEF and is experiencing numerous DMS and obsolescence issues. The FY 2014 funding of $1.7 million for AN/TPS-63 will support the completion of entry control point upgrades such as shelter,
transportability, and to address any minor issue that might arise with a 35-year-old radar system. The funding profile also provides for program management support. The ground/air task oriented radar (G/ ATOR ANTPS-80) is a multi-role, groundbased, expeditionary radar that replaces five legacy radar systems for the MAGTF. It satisfies the Marine Air Command and Control System and the ground counterfire/counterbattery capabilities. The G/ATOR replaces the AN/TPS-63 and complements the AN/ TPS-59 long range radar and will provide mobile, multi-functional, three-dimensional surveillance of air breathing targets, detection of cruise missiles and UAS, and the cueing of air defense weapons. The G/ATOR contributes to the extension of sea shield/ sea strike by surveillance and detection of enemy air threats not seen by Navy sensors in the littorals by participating in a cooperative engagement network of sensors and shooters; G/ATOR enables integrated fire control (IFC) and provides engage/fire on remote capability. G/ATOR surveillance coverage with IFC will provide unprecedented reach, volume and precision in the execution of operational maneuver from the sea allowing naval forces to project and sustain power deep inland. Fiscal year 2014 funding of $99.3 million for the G/ATOR ANTPS-80 will procure two LRIP G/ATOR systems and the refurbishment GCT 4.4 | 21
Special Section: Marine Corps Program updates
of one G/ATOR engineering development model as well as the support associated with the procurement of systems.
Program Manager for Infantry Weapons Systems The Program Manager for Infantry Weapons Systems equips and sustains the Marine Corps with fully integrated infantry weapons and related systems. The budget submission requested $7.7 million for continuous monitoring, assessment of and implementation of joint service and USMC-unique system modifications. These efforts include: sustain weapon capability and/or improve the operation, maintainability, supportability, service life, ergonomics and safety enhancements. Additionally this line supports the procurement of principle end items due to combat losses, wash-outs, and increases in approved acquisition objectives. This funding also supports the conversion of the M2 heavy machine guns to M2A1 for combat support and combat service support units in OEF, as well as various program/ acquisition support activities. Fiscal year 2014 is a consolidation of funding formerly shown as infantry weapons modifications and principal end item re-procurement programs.
Night Vision Equipment From $48.7 million in FY 2013, the FY 2014 request is just $6.1 million. In FY 2015, it is projected to rise to $13.8 million and dip to $11.6 million in FY 2016. The family of optical systems and modifications (FOSAM) program encompasses all optical systems providing handheld helmet mounted and weapons optics systems including various thermal, image intensifier, magnified optical, laser range-finding, illuminating and pointer functionalities. It replaces multiple singlepurpose night vision equipment systems fielded to the Marine Corps. In FY 2014, $5 million in FOSAM funding is scheduled to support washouts beyond economical repair and AAO shortfalls sustaining the optical portfolio of programs. Beginning in FY 2014, this includes funding transitioned from the night vision modification program for sustainment of 22 | GCT 4.4
Light Armored Vehicle 25s with weapons company, Battalion Landing Team 2nd battalion, 4th Marines, 31st Marines Expeditionary Unit (MEU), pull off the dirt road and orientate towards their targets during an integrated, live-fire exercise for Exercise Koolendong 13. The 31st MEU moved a battalion-sized force more than 300 miles inland to conduct the training. The exercise demonstrates the operational reach of the 31st MEU and reinforces why the 31st MEU is the force of choice for the Asia-Pacific region. The 31st MEU brings what it needs to sustain itself to accomplish the mission or to pave the way for follow-on forces. [Photo courtesy of DoD]
existing systems through modifications and the associated engineering, logistics, program management support and the associated modification kits. This will include sustainment activities such as maintenance and updates to integrated logistics support.
Product Manager Anti-armor Weapons System-Heavy The PM has requested $1.1 million in FY 2014, $1.5 million in 2015, and $1.5 million in 2016 for the improved target acquisition system (ITAS). ITAS is a combat proven system that provides long-range, lethal anti-armor and precision assault fires capability for USMC infantry, tank and light armored reconnaissance (LAR) battalions across the spectrum of contemporary operational environments. ITAS is the replacement for the current M220 tube-launched, optically tracked, wire command-link guided (TOW) 2 weapon system, and it provides the capability to defeat armored vehicles, bunkers and buildings at extended ranges in all battlefield conditions. Far target location includes a GPS-based position and altitude
determination subsystem to ITAS, enabling the system to generate a 10-digit grid coordinate of a target location. ITASâ€™s superior surveillance capability also enables the Marine to shape the battlefield by detecting targets at long range and either engaging with TOW missiles or other weapon systems to destroy those targets. ITAS continues to be the weapons of choice in precision combat engagements in OEF. The night sight image optimization reduces the time required for the operator to identify targets thereby decreasing engagement times. Saber image enhancement conducts production qualification and procures image enhancement improvements to the Saber weapon system.
Program Manager for Armor and Fire Support Systems The Program Manager for Armor and Fire Support Systems equips the operating forces with assault amphibious vehicle systems, fire support systems, high mobility artillery rocket systems, expeditionary fire support systems and tank systems to accomplish their war fighting mission. www.GCT-kmi.com
The FY 2014 budget request dips to $3.7 million but raises to $15.4 million in FY 2015 and $16 million in 2016. Fire support mods is a sustainment line for a set of Joint Service and Marine Corps unique procurement, Marine Corps efforts to address critical operational and logistics deficiencies in existing/fielded artillery/fire support weapons systems and equipment. The FY 2014 request includes $3.5 million to provide modernization and upgrades to existing systems.
Program Manager for Combat Support Systems The Program Manager for Combat Support Systems (PM CSS) provides the operating forces with acquisition and lifecycle management of expeditionary power, combat engineer, test measure and diagnostic, and combat support systems. PM CSS has requested $2.9 million for FY 2014, $5.3 million in 2015, and $18.1 million in 2016. Fiscal year 2014 global CSS-Marine Corps (GCSS-MC) funding of $.5 million is scheduled to support the technology refresh of Increment 1 deployed hardware suites and mobile training suites units and procures production hardware to support limited Increment 2 capabilities. The decrease from $25.8 million in FY 2013 to $2.9 million in 2014 is due to Marine Corps enterprise IT system migration accomplished in FY 2013. GCSS-MC is the physical implementation of the enterprise information technology architecture designed to support both improved and enhanced MAGTF CSS functions and MAGTF commander and combatant commanders/joint task force combat support information requirements.
Program Manager for the Light Armored Vehicle The Program Manager for the Light Armored Vehicle (PM LAV), located in Warren, Mich., provides technologically superior weapons systems while supplying focused life cycle management to customers. PM LAV is a dynamic group made up of multi-functional www.GCT-kmi.com
An intelligence analyst with 1st Battalion, 6th Marine Regiment, reassembles the RQ-11B Raven after disassembling during its landing at Landing Zone Woodpecker. Reassembling the aircraft allows the Marines to sharpen their skills through valuable hands-on training time. [Photo courtesy of DoD]
acquisition experts responsible for planning and directing all resources of execution of assigned U.S. Marine Corps, foreign military sales (FMS) and other customer programs. PM LAV has a highly dedicated work force with over 95 percent acquisition certified. They perform all acquisition functions for life cycle support to include program management, logistics, engineering, procurement, contracting, financial management, quality assurance, and test and evaluation. Synergy and economy of scale are continually pursued between the Marine Corps and FMS programs throughout full life cycle support. The presidentâ€™s 2013 budget projects $6 million for the program in FY 2014, $247.6 million in 2015, and $138.8 million in 2016. The funding decreased from FY 2013 to 2014 due to the reduction in authorized acquisition objective (AAO) requirement for LAV-25 and schedule changes for the LAV-anti-tank systems program and the LAV survivability upgrade program. PM-LAV designed the LAV-C2 Upgrade Program to meet and maintain the command and control requirements of the
operational requirements document. The upgrade provided a hardware and software module for the LAV-C2 to support complex radio configurations. The upgrade sought to integrate in the vehicle those non-developmental hardware and software components that ensured that the vehicles and the appropriate LAR unit command element have the capability to send and receive required voice and data communications to higher, adjacent, and subordinate units. The module provided isolation of critical communications functions in a self-contained module to support a mix of legacy radios. The modification was needed to maintain the LAV-C2 as a viable weapon system through the service life of the LAV family of vehicles. The survivability upgrade program consists of two projects to keep the LAV family of vehicles operational and effective through the year 2035. Project one is a system survivability upgrade and will replace the obsolete power pack that currently exists in the LAV fleet. The Office of Emergency Management has recommended a replacement power pack unit for the LAV that will need to be GCTâ€ˆ 4.4 | 23
Special Section: Marine Corps Program updates
integrated and tested. Any future new production vehicles will be built with the new power pack and this program will replace the legacy fleet with the same power pack. Project two is a crew survivability upgrade by adding the advanced suspension system. The system will allow for greater standoff distance between the floor of the LAV and an IED, providing better crew protection and survivability. It will also improve the mobility and automotive performance over all terrains. The LAV-25 program is for the procurement of LAVs to replace projected reset as a result of OEF. Replacing these vehicles will ensure the USMC LAR battalions have adequate numbers of LAVs for continued combat operations. The LAV-AT system program will modernize the legacy turret and TOW system in order to sustain the capability, improve readiness, ensure a high degree of commonality with USMC and U.S. Army systems, and enable the LAR battalion to employ the full range of current and emerging TOW munitions. The program will counter two converging obsolescence issues on the LAVAT platform: The M901 Emerson turret is no longer in production and has been retired from the U.S. Army inventory, and the M220 TOW system is being replaced by the M41 Saber system in the USMC infantry and tank battalions leaving the LAR battalion as the only unit using the legacy TOW system. Projects funded under the LAV modification program include numerous low-dollar, yet extremely important, minor vehicle and weapon modifications, such as focusing on safety and obsolescence issues, support equipment and tools, and other projects that increase LAV reliability and readiness while reducing operations and support costs. This funding is critical to offsetting support issues generated as a result of OCO and the advancing age of the family of LAVs, respective of the extended service life through 2035, while maintaining acceptable levels of fleet readiness. LAV-25 funding provides for additional vehicles towards the completion of the family of LAVs to the current AAO and any additional war losses. The increased number of LAVs improves redeployment readiness by providing adequate home station training to OEF and an increasing number of alternate training venues 24 | GCT 4.4
Lt. Gen. John A. Toolan speaks with Lt. Col. Kevin Murray, commanding officer, Marine Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Squadron 1, and Lt. Col. John Thurman, commanding officer, Marine UAV Squadron 3, about the capabilities of the RQ-21 Integrator UAV. [Photo courtesy of DoD]
without degrading availability of the LAV fleet during continued conversion to the more survivable A2 configuration at the depots. Planned efforts include procurement of the vehicles, applicable global force management testing, installations and government and contractor support. Planned efforts for the LAV survivability upgrade include the procurement of 101 power packs plus all required testing, logistics support, new equipment training, installation, and required government and contractor support.
Robotic Systems Joint Program Office The Robotic Systems Joint Program Office (RS JPO), located in Warren, Mich., manages the acquisition, engineering, integration, fielding, testing and sustainment of Unmanned Ground Systems for the Army and Marine Corps. The office ensures safe, effective and supportable Unmanned Ground Systems for the military in combat.
RS JPO reports to both the Armyâ€™s Program Executive Officer for Ground Combat Systems and the Commander, Marine Corps Systems Command. The FY 2014 RQ-21 UAS budget request of $66.6 million is more than double FY 2013â€™s budget. The UAS program budget is scheduled to increase again in FY 2015 to $70.6 million, and $73.1 million in FY 2016. The request increase will procure five small tactical UAS systems (25 air vehicles) with associated support equipment. The FY 2014 request also includes $1.6 million to procure 15 Raven B EO/IR gimbaled payloads. Those payloads are part of a UAS family of systems that are individually capable of executing requirements for long, medium and short range missions in fulfillment of the previously fielded small unit remote scouting system requirement. O
For more information, contact GCT Editor Jeff Campbell at firstname.lastname@example.org or search our online archives for related stories at www.gct-kmi.com.
Whether resistant or retardant, FR gear is a lifesaver. By Henry Canaday GCT Correspondent
Combat uniforms must meet an extraordinary variety of demands, including durability, flexibility and the ability to function in heat and cold, wet and dry environments. They must be able to protect soldiers if possible. And uniforms should definitely not help enemies kill or maim U.S. soldiers. That means clothing should not propagate fires from enemy weapons or secondary flames caused by ignition of fuel or other flammable materials. Ten years of war in difficult conditions have brought major progress in fire-resistant or flame-retardant (FR) clothing and gear. Uniforms have strengthened FR properties even as they better met other demands for flexibility, comfort and durability. Many of the same firms that brought so much improvement in the past decade are now working to take these improvements even further. The Marine Corps’ current flame-resistant groundcombat uniform is the flame resistant organizational gear (FROG) ensemble developed in response to an urgent statement of need (USON), explained Barbara Hamby, spokesperson for Marine Systems Command. “FROG mitigates flash-flame injuries caused by improvised explosive device attacks,” Hamby noted. FROG consists of two layers. FROG I has the base layers, which include gloves and balaclavas, close-fitting head garments. FROG II consists of outer garments such as the enhanced flame-resistant combat ensemble and the inclement weather combat shirt. “We also utilize FR undergarments as warming layers issued to all Marines,” Hamby said. A recent requirement directed that permethrin, a synthetic insecticide used against disease-carrying insects, be applied to the uniform to mitigate vector-born threats and that a woodland camouflage Marine pattern (MARPAT) variant be included. On the challenges in securing FR gear, Hamby said only that “a long-term, stable and mature production capacity minimizes industry challenges.” A number of firms have helped industry establish mature production capacity. “We are a technical fabric component in some of the latest FR products,” summarized Jason Rodriguez in marketing communications for W. L. Gore Associates. For example, the www.GCT-kmi.com
Gore Pyrad Hardshell, currently part of the dismounted fire resistant environmental ensemble (FREE) system offered by ADS, is a flame-retardant product specifically designed for ground troops. Gore Pyrad is a self-extinguishing flameretardant laminate that offers a high level of protection from flash-fire and arc-flash threats, minimizing burn injury. This garment system would be used by dismounted soldiers who are outside of combat vehicles. Rodriguez said the inclusion of Gore Pyrad flame-retardant technology would mean the garments would retain their integrity after heat and flame exposure, so if a soldier is exposed to a flash-fire incident the clothing will not crack, shrink, or break apart. Gore, in partnership with Massif, recently introduced two new FR stretch products, Battleshield and Battleshield X. Massif Battleshield and Battleshield X feature Gore’s FR stretch technology, which dramatically increases breathability and improves water repellency. The fabrics reduce overheating and chilling from moisture retention, keeping soldiers drier, safer and more effective in many situations and temperatures. And they are highly durable. Nylon garments have long been proven in the field, but never before provided adequate flame resistance. Massif Battleshield and Battleshield X combine nylon-faced laminates with exceptional FR protection. The Massif company itself was started by search-andrescue (SAR) operators who found that FR clothing used by people in SAR was antiquated, explained David Bywater, vice president of government sales at Massif. The firm looked at the materials used by the top makers of outdoor clothing, like Patagonia and The North Face, to see if it could do better. “We set out to develop a flame-resistant material that was also high-performing,” Bywater said. The firm was looking for FR clothes that stretched for comfort, were very durable, managed moisture well and dried quickly. “If you fly around in a helicopter or ride in a combat vehicle with a seatbelt and the fabric does not stretch, you feel bound up,” Bywater noted. Massif first developed a three-layer cold-weather garment system, with two base layers to match the environment and a cold-weather soft shell that was wind-proof and highly water-resistant. These elements fabrics are also FR GCT 4.4 | 25
and have been widely adopted by all the U.S. services, including the Coast Guard. Another very popular Massif product is the Army combat shirt, an FR shirt designed for hot weather and issued to all deploying soldiers. This is a lightweight shirt that can be worn under body armor, looks like a blouse and is very cool and comfortable. “It is one of the most popular uniforms in the Army, and there was nothing like it originally,” Bywater emphasized. The new Battleshield and Battleshield X are also revolutionary, according to the Massif exec. They use the most advanced materials and mimic the best qualities of non-FR fabrics, but are FR. “The biggest differences are more durability and breathability and lighter weight,” Bywater said. All the services are looking at the new gear and the Navy has already approved it for Navy and Marine aviators. Massif will begin using Massif Battleshield and Massif Battleshield X fabrics in its Massif elements tactical jacket. Plans for using these fabrics in other U.S. military and tactical garments are underway. After great FR uniforms have been developed, another challenge is preserving their life-saving properties, even under continuing tough conditions. Source One Tactical provides the flame-resistant integrated patch kit (IPK) that is issued with FR Army combat uniforms and the new Army combat pants, said Director of Business Development Jeff Henkemeyer. “It is a pressure-sensitive uniform repair kit, designed not only to repair the uniform in the field, but also to bring back the protective properties of the repaired area.” Source One also produces an improved FR ghillie suit, an accessory issued to all Army snipers. “We are a problem solver,” Henkemeyer summarized. Every soldier now gets an IPK. It can fix any tear in uniforms and restore FR properties. If a soldier used an ordinary patch, and a fire got inside the repaired uniform—for example, from an IED—the uniform could burn up from the inside, despite its original FR properties. Now with the IPK, “all they have to do is clean up the tear, put on the adhesive and in 24 hours it can go into the laundry,” Henkemeyer said. The other product, the ghillie suit, was developed in response to the death of two Army snipers in a fire. Snipers are issued ghillie suits to help them blend into the environment, but these suits had not been FR. And although the suits could be sprayed with FR chemicals, this treatment was temporary and could wear out, leaving snipers just as vulnerable to fire as they had been before. “We worked with the Army and developed a material that was inherently fire-resistant,” Henkemeyer explained. And neither water nor cold weather degrades the material’s FR properties over time. Called the ghillie suite accessory kit (FR GSAK), the new gear won the Defense Acquisition Challenge Award in 2010. In the future, the Source One exec predicts, FR fabrics will increasingly integrate more natural fibers, such as wools, so that they combine better moisture management and insulation. Serket USA is a new company that works exclusively for the U.S. military, explained President Trey Harris. “We make combat uniforms, vehicle uniforms and air-crew uniforms, all flame retardant.” The three-year-old Serket has no large military contracts yet, but its air-crew uniforms are in trials and the firm has been down-selected for the next generation of uniforms for Army combat vehicles, such as tanks, Strykers, Bradleys and various mine resistant ambush protected vehicles. Harris said the Serket difference is cutting-edge design and use of different materials. “Firms traditionally used Nomex as a substrate, 26 | GCT 4.4
but we use other materials if they fit the bill.” These alternatives could include hybrids of wool, FR rayon and cotton on the surface. One reason for seeking different materials is that the traditional material, Nomex, is difficult to print on for camouflage treatment. Harris said there are processes for printing on Nomex, but these processes are patented and expensive. The other advantage of materials like wool is that they are less expensive and provide more comfort. “It does not feel as harsh as Nomex, but the flame protection is good,” Harris said. DuPont provides materials for all sorts of personal protection, including individual ballistic and thermal protection, as well as vehicle ballistic protection. And it plays a very important role in FR clothing. DuPont’s Nomex has been proven in emergency response and in industrial situations. Military clothing made with Nomex fiber is inherently flame-resistant, so FR protection does not wash or wear out. It will not melt, drip or support combustion in the air, giving warfighters the confidence it takes to focus on the mission. DuPont emphasizes it has worked with the U. S. military for more than two centuries now. In the early 1960s, it pioneered modern FR technology with the development of Nomex for flight suits for the U.S. Navy. And DuPont scientists and engineers continue to research, innovate and test new technologies to keep up with changing times and conditions. These researchers understand that military personnel face a range of threat levels, so DuPont offers materials that can be further processed to optimize several performance attributes, including protection, durability, comfort and aesthetics. Military clothing solutions containing Nomex can thus deliver the ideal performance for several threats, either in confined spaces in mounted operations or in dismounted operations, when threats come from fuel fires, improvised explosive devices or rocket-propelled grenades. One advantage DuPont has is that it not only makes FR materials, but materials to meet many other threats. Other DuPont protective solutions include Kevlar, an aramid fiber that makes clothing, accessories and equipment safe and cut-resistant and is best known for use in ballistic and stab-resistant body armor. DuPont also makes Tensylon, ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene tapes that provide strong and lightweight armor solutions. DuPont also offers garments for chemical protection, all the way from high-performance vapor protection, abrasion resistance and flame-impingement to chemical and biological protection and liquid-splash protection. DuPont protective materials are used in every U.S. service, Army, Marine Corps, Air Force, Navy and special operations. These materials are tailored to specific military occupation specialties, for confined spaces in aircraft and ground vehicles, Navy shipboard use, or for dismounted operations in hot desert valleys or severely cold mountain ridges. DuPont researchers are now investigating new fiber formats and blends for FR, including use of wool. They are also looking at integrating different kinds of protective materials for multi-threat protection. Since DuPont makes many of these different materials, this is a natural area of research. And the firm is looking at new energy-management systems for soldiers. O For more information, contact GCT Editor Jeff Campbell at email@example.com or search our online archives for related stories at www.gct-kmi.com.
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Ground Combat Technology
Ryan Jennings Advanced Systems Manager Ball Aerospace and Technologies Corp. Ryan Jennings is an advanced systems manager for Ball Aerospace and Technologies Corp. He works within the Tactical Solutions strategic business unit, supporting phased array communications antenna systems.
for high data rate SATCOM communications with military and commercial satellite systems, wideband global satellite or XTAR respectively. The projected production cost of this terminal is competitive with the current dish technology.
Q: Ball Aerospace has been doing business with DoD for a long time. What have you done to stay in step with the services in managing every project to become more efficient and most cost effective?
Q: The ground warfighter is always in search of lighter, more rugged quality comms gear. How do you coordinate your R&D to match what the boots on the ground are in need of?
A: We have put emphasis on leveraging technology developed for the commercial marketplace. We have seen a revolution in technology from Gallium Arsenide two decades ago to Silicon Germanium to Silicon-based RF devices that make up the majority of todayâ€™s smartphones. The revolution in packaging technology and circuit board materials and technology has also been significant. Ball leverages all of these advances into our phased array products. We have also been focusing on process tailoring, which has allowed our company to keep costs competitive while still providing the customer with a quality product. Q: How has Ball approached the challenge of creating antennas that are conformal without losing capabilities? A: This can often be challenging. We have been very successful working with customers to understand their needs and help them determine true requirements. Providing this comprehensive system engineering has allowed us to provide the customer with desired performance without unnecessary requirements. This allows for lowercost, lower-profile antennas. Q: Are there near-term technologies that will create dramatic improvements in communications performance? A: Ball prides itself on innovation. This company history in innovation extends from the invention of the microstrip patch 28 | GCT 4.4
antenna to providing the corrective optics for the Hubble Space Telescope. A key part of the success of our business requires us to stay in touch with leading-edge technology. The communications market is growing, as everyone wants more information, requiring additional communications bandwidth. These higher data rates drive the need for higher antenna gain and more specifically directional antenna systems. The optimal technology fit for many of these applications is phased array antennas. Historically, they have been very expensive and limited to high performance radar systems. Improved technologies in component cost, performance and packaging have resulted in dramatic reductions in these antenna costs. As we continue to increase the quantity of arrays delivered, the cost will continue to decrease. I see these reductions in cost drastically improving the communications capabilities of the warfighter. The revolutionary changes going on in the cellular telephone market can be leveraged into military products. This includes the use of silicon-based RF circuits that are highly complex and enable extraordinary functionality in a very small area yet are fabricated using low-cost commercialdriven processes. Ball believes these technologies are key enablers to high data rate communications for on-the-move platforms at an affordable cost in the near future. For example, Ball has successfully tested a self-contained prototype X-band SATCOM-on-the-move [SOTM] phased array with a low-profile antenna system and no rotating parts. The mobile multifunction low-cost array system is used
A: We spend a significant amount of our time interacting with our customers. Attending relevant conferences, trade shows, industry outreach forums, membership in professional associations [AFCEA/NDIA/etc.] and one-on-one meetings are all areas of focus for us. Through this interaction we get valuable insight to the future needs of the warfighter and an understanding where the requirements are headed. With this information, we are able to determine where we can spend our R&D funds that provide the highest return on investment. Q: How would you characterize your after-sale support and training? A: Ball has a significant history in this area. We have a phased array antenna product, Airlink, that provides airborne connection with the Inmarast satellite system. This product has been in service for 20 years deployed on commercial, private and military aircraft. For this product, we have an FAA certified depot repair facility that has been providing postdelivery support for the product since its introduction. On the ground side, Ball has been providing the USMC with UHF SOTM communications equipment [antennas/RF components] for more than 12 years. These two examples are just a few of the many systems we have produced over the years that have provided us with the experience to support after/ ongoing sales support to our diverse tactical products. O www.GCT-kmi.com
The Publication of Distinction for the Maneuver Warfighter
October 2013 Vol. 4, Issue 5
Cover and In-Depth Interview with:
Gen. John F. Campbell Vice Chief of Staff U.S. Army
Features: Vehicle Subsystems Military vehicle subsystems call for more power from engines, lethal weapons and advanced communications, to name a few. We chat with industry leaders who provide the latest capabilities to ground troops on the move. Eye and Hearing Protection Military organizations constantly work with industry to enhance the levels of protection available to SOF hearing and sight. Ballistically protected ear and eyewear continues to evolve to give operators new levels of safety and comfort. Vehicle Fire Extinguishing Systems Attacks on ground vehicles can rupture fuel and tires ablaze. The longer that fire burns, the greater the harm that can come to our troops inside. We examine the latest available to our warriors in automatic fire extinguishing systems.
Special Section: Major Program Updates Senior staff, including program executive officers, provide a detailed status report on select U.S. Army acquisition programs.
at army rapid equipping force The REFâ€™s new director, Colonel Steven Silwa, outlines his vision for the future of force capabilities to provide rapid solutions to the globally deployed warfighter. This special pull-out supplement is accompanied by a two-page pictorial spread providing a detailed look at the command structure.
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