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Massachusetts College of Art and Design Department of Architectural design

THE MUSEUM OF WATER

CREATING A TRANSITION ON THE CITY’S EDGE BETWEEN LAND AND WATER

KHUYEN NGUYEN LUONG

Submitted in partial fulfillment for the requirements of Master of Architecture. May 2013.


Š 2013, Khuyen Luong Nguyen. All rights reserved. GRANT of PRODUCTION and DISTRIBUTION The author hereby grants to the Massachusetts College of Art and Design, royalty free, non-exclusive and irrevocable permission to reproduce and to distribute publicly paper and electronic copies of this thesis document, including any accompanying unbound supplementary material, in whole or in part in any medium now known or here after created.


By the Author : ................................................................................... Khuyen Luong Nguyen Department of Architecural Design Certified by: ................................................................................... Tamara Metz Visiting Assistant Professor Thesis Advisor Accepted by : ................................................................................... Patricia Seitz Head, Graduate Architecture Program Thesis Committee Chair Expert consultants: Margaret Hickey, Professor Nadine Gerdts, Associate Professor Readers: Greg Wallace, Public Services Librarian


GRATEFUL :

To Tamara Metz, my thesis advisor, who guided me throughout fall 2012-spring 2013

To Marshall Audin, my first thesis preparation professor, who guided me spring 2012 semester

To Marie Sorensen, my thesis studio instructor, who guided me fall 2012 and spring 2013

To all of my classmates for their great efforts, and their great support. You know who you are.

To all the faculty of MassArt in The Department of Architecture

To Oanh Le, my beloved girlfriend, you have been with me for the entire journey.

Finally, my thesis is dedicated for my parents and my entire family. Dad, Mom, you’re my greatest supporters and the only in my life, I am grateful for all of your understanding and being by my side whenever I needed.


CONTENTS 00

INTRODUCTION

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HYPOTHESIS

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SITE

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PROGRAM

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DESIGN

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

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INTRODUCTION


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ABSTRACT What is the meaning of edge? An edge separates, but it also belongs to its adjacent territories. In the city of Boston, one of the most critical edge conditions occurs at the waterfront, at the intersection of land and water. The waterfront is by nature dynamic, and engenders innovative solutions for growth and adaptation. This project is sited in the Fort Point Channel area of Boston on and of the waterfront. Here, the challenge is twofold: connecting the dense historic city center to the dispersed development of South Boston, and reintroducing these two areas through a new edge to nature in the form of water. The exact site chosen is the existing Northern Avenue Bridge. This project focuses, not on the historic value of the bridge, but rather on the potential to create at this site a meaningful space that gives the visitor a sense of the threshold between city and harbor. The proposed program, a Museum of Water, is inspired by the symbolic, cultural and physical powers of water. The Museum brings renewed interest to this moment along the urban edge while enhancing the role of the bridge as an important pedestrian access across Fort Point Channel. Humans, nature and the built environment share boundaries. The goal with this exploration is to create an architecture that exists within and across those boundaries to enhance the experience of all.


You’ve been living on the edge all your life…the boundary between land and air. One of the most important edges in your environment is the coastlinewhere the land meets the sea. Nearly, two thirds of the human population lives on the coast…along with most large ocean creatures. We humans perceive the place where lands meet sea as an edge. But ocean creatures also recognize edges. In fact, creatures like lobster, flounder, tern, and “Living on the Edge” exhibition in Boston Science Museum

plankton thrive on edges in the coastal environment. EDGES ARE WHERE THE ACTION IS.”


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INTRODUCTION This picture below was taken from the ferry to Boston from Salem, Massachusetts. Contemplating the city skyline along the water’s edge from the Atlantic Ocea, the city is the adjoining line between sky and water. At the same time that line connects and separates the inhabitants within his environment. The unique character of the edge interested me and was the starting point for this thesis exploration. However, my scope of study went on to focus on the waterfront of the city - the edge between land and water. The Boston waterfront is one of the case studies. The three aspects this study aims to adress are: transition, movement and connection of activities and architecture along the water’s. I hope to answer some of the following questions: What is the edge? What affect does the waterfront have on the city? What should guide architectural design on the waterfront? Being aware of the water’s edge of Boston, this project creates new activities to encourage movement and invite people to rejoice and rediscover a relationship with water. How can architecture address and celebrate moments of ‘edge’ in a city, and create something new from them? Focusing more specifically on the edges between dense urban fabric and unbuilt/open space: How can architecture reintroduce the urban inhabitant to nature? The edges of cities are not left over places. They are critical and sensitive territories that urge interaction and innovation.


01

HYPOTHESIS


WHAT IS THE EDGE?

WHAT AFFECT DOES THE WATERFRONT HAVE ON THE CITY? WHAT SHOULD GUIDE ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN ON THE WATERFRONT?


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WHAT IS THE EDGE?

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The atmosphere is the edge between the earth and the universe.

The edge between land and water creates the figure of the world. Borders between two countries determine sovereignty.

The coastline presents the border of the country and the ocean. The Great Lakes are example of the edge between land and water inside of the continent.

The Great Lakes are example of the edge between land and water inside of the continent.

The Mississippi River is a long edge separating many states along its flow.

The edge between two natural elements, forest and water, occurs in Florida Everglades National Park.

New York is famous for its edge’s figure surrounded by water, and its long waterfront on both East and West sides.

The Florida coastal is presented by its two conditions of water’s edge: beach-soft edge, and waterfront-hard edge.

Pheonix, Arizona is a power exam of the edge between the city and the desert.

Edge [:ej] noun The outside limit of an object , area or surface A place or part furthest away from the center of something Synonyms: border, boundary, brim, brink, verge

There is a similiar shape between the two edges of the Hoover Dam in Nevada and Niagara Falls - border between Ontario, Canada and New York state, but the difference is that one is A man-made edge and one is a natural edge

The cliff edges along the north coast of the area from California to Oregon

Mount Everest is the highest edge between land and air

The image of an elevated highway interchange is the most familiar edge in most American cities

The edges of the Grand Canyon were shaped by water over time and at the bottom the colorado River forms an edge over one mile deep

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1 Nasa, “Like Earth, like Moon: two worlds seen from space”, photograph, 2013, www.slate.com, http://eol.jsc.nasa.gov/sseop/images/ESC/large/ISS024/ISS024-E-13421. jpg (Accessed 22nd April, 2013) 2 ‘Large detailed satellite map of the World’, map, www.vidiani.com, http://www. vidiani.com/maps/maps_of_the_world/large_satellite_map_of_the_world.jpg (Access 22nd April, 2013) 3 ‘Portrait U.S.A 1976’, map, http://www.codex99.com, http://www.codex99.com/ cartography/103.html (Accessed 22nd April, 2013) 4 Nasa, ‘Great Lakes, no clouds’, map, 2010, http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov, http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/IOTD/view.php?id=45615 (Accessed 22nd April, 2913) 5 ‘The legendary Mississippi River’, photograph, 2011, http://listeningreading. blogspot.com, http://listeningreading.blogspot.com/2011/05/legendary-mississippi-riverfrom-voa.html (Accessed 22nd April, 2013) 6 ‘Everglades national park’s mangrove forests 19913’, photograph, http://www. freegreatpicture.com/, http://www.freegreatpicture.com/landscapes/everglades-nationalpark39s-mangrove-forests-19913 (Accessed 22nd April, 2013) 7 Timsklyarov, ‘New york City Aerial’, photograph, http://timsklyarov.com, http:// timsklyarov.com/new-york-city-aerial/#more-1351 (Accessed 22nd April, 2013) 8 ‘Florida aerial’, photograph, 2013, http://theevilrobotblog.blogspot.com, http:// theevilrobotblog.blogspot.com/2013/05/keys.html (Accessed 22nd April, 2013) 9 Strauss, Amelia, ‘ Pheonix, Arizona’, photograph, 2008, http://www. ameliastrauss.com, http://www.ameliastrauss.com/blog/?paged=49 (Accessed 22nd Aril, 2013) 10 Arthus-Bertrand, Yann, ‘ Freeways of Los Angeles’, photograph, http://www. designsoak.com, http://www.designsoak.com/freeways-los-angeles-usa/ (Accessed 22nd April 2013) 11 ‘The story of Hoover Dam’, photograph, http://h-construction.com, http://hconstruction.com/hoover-dam/ (Accessed 22nd April, 2013) 12 ‘Niagara falls’, photograph, http://bt2000.ps/?p=9 (Accessed 22nd April, 2013) 13 Swartz, Nathan, ‘ Dive into Oregon’s North Coast and US highway 101’, photograph, http://wandrlymagazine.com, http://wandrlymagazine.com/article/the-oregoncoast/ (Accessed 22nd April, 2013) 14 ‘Walking on the edge of mountain’, photograph, http://www.flash-screen. com, http://www.flash-screen.com/free-wallpaper/challenge-yourself-most-excitingadventure-landscape-timeline-cover-collection/walking-on-the-edge-of-mountain-timelinecover,1366x768,65113.html (Accessed 22nd April, 2013) 15 ‘ Grand Cayon, Arizona’, photograph, 2013, http://crazybeautifulnature. wordpress.com, http://crazybeautifulnature.wordpress.com/2013/02/10/grand-canyonarizona/ (Accessed 22nd April, 2013)


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NATURE OF THE EDGE Edges define the physical, visual and psychological limits of an area or an object. Some edges are easy to define, and create a recognizable area and object. However, when edges are not clearly defined, an area or an object can not achieve cohesiveness and identity. In the above examples, the Mississippi River is the strong edge dividing its continent into two sides, while the Phoenix city boundary is very ambiguous, blending its districts into the dessert. What is the edge of the city? Steven Holl defines the edge of the city as: ”A philosophical region, where city and natural landscape overlapping, Holl, Steven. 1991. Edge of a City. New York: existing without choice or expectation.”

Princeton Architectural Press.

In “The Image of the City” Kevin Lynch also describes the edge element in city planning: ” Edges are the linear elements not used or considered as paths by the Lynch, Kevin. 1960. The Image of the City. observer. They are the boundaries between two phrases, linear breaks Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press, pp 47. in continuity: shores, railroad cuts, edge of development, walls. They are lateral references rather than coordinate axes. Such edges may be barriers, more or less penetrable, which close one region off from another; or they may be seams, lines along which two regions are related and joined together. These edge elements, although probably not as dominant as paths, are for many people important organizing features, particularly in the role of holding together generalized areas, as in the outline of a city by water or wall.”

In the built environment, edges vary in scale and define landscape, cities and buildings. Landscape edges are defined by the forces of natural elements in the environment, including the impact of humans. It is the war between one and another, since the one which wins the war will have the right to define its boundary to the other. For instance, the river and its two banks, the cliff and the ocean, the city built environment and the landscape natural environment. City edges are defined by the limitation of the sprawl, of the urban over the natural environment, or spaces between cities. Building edges are defined by the architect. They limit the built environment relative to the surrounding landscape, nearby buildings or the street grid.


WHAT AFFECT DOES THE WATERFRONT HAVE ON THE CITY?

A waterfront is a significant resource and a challenging opportunity for a city; a chance to be an excape valve for the pressure-cooker of crowded city life, a chance to be a bright breathing edge of city living.

Arthur Cotton Moore, Bright Breathing Edges of City Life. Planning for Amenity Benefits of Urban Water Resources.


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Waterfront [wôt∂r fr∂nt, wä-] noun Bank = ground bounding waters, seashore = beach, shore = waterside Synonyms: beach, cay, cliff, coast, edge, embankment, lakefront, lakeshore, lakeside,\ledge, levee, oceanfront, reef, riverfront, riverside, seabank, seaboard, seafront, shore, strand, streamside, waterfront

TaylorLenz, “Inner Harbour”, photograph, 2010, http://www.taylorlenz.com, http://www.taylorlenz.com/2010/08/boston-harborislands-national.html (Accessed 22nd April 2013)


THE URBAN WATERFRONT EDGE BETWEEN CITY AND WATER Fisher, Bonnie, and Beth Benson. 2004. Remaking the urban waterfront. Washington, D.C.: Urban Land Institute, pp 4.

The waterfront is the horizontal edge dividing the land and water of cities. Historically, cities arround the world were founded and developed along water bodies. Different cities have different conditions of waterfront, and different types of adjacent water bodies. The most common are coastal cities, peninsula cities, riverside cities, and lake cities. Harborfront, seafront, lakefront, riverfront, and canalfront are all different conditions of the urban waterfront.

Breen, Ann. 1993. Waterfronts: cities reclaim their edge. New York: McGraw-Hill, pp 11.

In the United States, the earliest permanent European settlers traveled to America via water. For several hundred years waterfronts became a base for urban growth, transportation, and development. As a result, the seventy-five largest cities in the United States are located on or near a water body. Only six are not located on a significant body of water: Atlanta, Tucson, Charlotte, Anaheim, Santa Ana, and Lexington, KY. Every city has different conditions and types of waterfronts, so the study of waterfronts is very useful to understand the character of this interstitial territory. This territory is always “on the verge” of becoming the other.

Fitz, Hugh Lane, “Boston Harbor 1847”, oil painting, 1847, http://www.oceansbridge.com, http://www.oceansbridge.com/paintings/ artists/recently-added/fitz-hugh-lane/big/ Fitz_Hugh_Lane_Boston_Harbor_1847.jpg (Accessed 22nd April, 2013)


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CHARACTER OF WATERFRONT: SEPARATION Edges help to define where one area ends and another begins. However, the relationship between ends and begins depends on which realm we look at. DUALITY OF THE EDGE There is no edge without its two adjoining elements. Moreover, the edge and its adjacent territories are naturally dependent. What is happening to the edge, will also affect both side territories. THREE DIMENSIONALITY OF THE EDGE - edge as adjoining line of surfaces The edge is presented as an adjoining line between X, Y, Z surfaces in the three dimensional world. It is both the conjunction line of vertical and horizontal surfaces, and the line separating two realms in the same surface. CONNECTION LINE, THE IN-BETWEEN ZONE The edge is the meeting line between two territories. Thus, it has the character of both.


WHY IS THE CITY WATERFRONT A DYNAMIC EDGE ? WHAT FACTORS CAUSE CHANGE ? BACKFILLING PORT INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT WATERFRONT RESURGENCE MOVEMENT

1660

18 1766

1803

TO

1660

Diagram showing the original San Franscisco Shoreline with modern 1766 landfill shaded

1890S

Source: U.S Coast survey 1869 and the comparation map on http://www.madrinagroup.org/ panel3.html 1803 TODAY

1834

DIAGRAM SHOWING THE ORIGINAL SAN FRANSCISCO SHORELINE WITH THE MODERN LANDFILL TODAY SOURCES: U.S COAST SURVEY 1869 AND THE COMPARATION MAP ON

http://www.madrinagroup.or

1640 Diagram Showing the evolution of lower Manhattan from its humble beginning as New Amsterdam in 1660 to a booming Metropilis in 2010 Source: Olthuis, Koen, and David Keuning. 2010. Float!: building on water to combat urban congestion and climate change. Amsterdam: 1795 Frame, pp 64.

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2004 DIAGRAM SHOWING THE EVOLUTION OF LOWER MANHATTAN FROM ITS HUMBLE BEGINNING AS NEW AMSTERDAM IN 1660 TO A BOOMING METROPOLIS IN 2010


23 1890S

1640

BACKFILLING Greater Boston, one of the biggest metropolises of America. Founded near a water resource, 70% of the city’s land is manmade by backfilling over water. Looking at its present form, Boston exemplifies an amazing level of development and a complex TODAY 1795 relationship with water. DIAGRAM SHOWING THE Many cities increased their footprint by backfilling over the water ORIGINAL SAN for more landFRANSCISCO to satisfy SHORELINE the requirement of urban sprawl. (Boston, THE MODERN New York, SanWITH Franscisco are examples.) LANDFILL TODAY

SOURCES: U.S COAST SURVEY 1869 AND THE COMPARATION MAP ON

http://www.madrinagroup.or g/Panel3.html

1850

SHOWING THE N OF LOWER TAN FROM ITS BEGINNING AS STERDAM IN A BOOMING OLIS IN 2010

huis, Koen, and ng. 2010. Float!: water to combat estion and climate sterdam: Frame,

1640

1795

NG THE

ORELINE RN

URVEY ARATION

1910

FROM 1630, BOSTON WAS ONLY 30% OF WHAT IT IS TODAY, 70% CITY LAND IS MAN-MADE THIS DIAGRAM SHOWING THE BACKFILLING OVER WATER PROCESS IN DIFFERENT PERIOD OF TIME.

1985

Source: Campbell, Robert, and Peter Vanderwarker. 1992. Cityscapes of Boston: an American city through time. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co.

SOURCES: Campbell, Robert, and Peter

Vanderwarker. 1992. Cityscapes of Boston: an American city through time. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co.

agroup.or

1850

From 1630, Boston was only 30% of what it is today, 70% city land is man made. This diagram showing the backfilling over water process in different times.

2010


Source: Jones, Leslie, “Aerial view of North End and waterfront”, phtotogra[h, 1930, http://www.flickr.com, http:// www.flickr.com/photos/boston_public_library/6511796651/ (Accessed 22nd April, 2013)


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PORT INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT The establishment of a port in a safe harbor reavires width and depth suitable for cargo and passenger ships. A shoreline path or road is established.

As ports develop, larger pier is usually built to allow ships to dock, and more buildings erected along the street grid. Sea walks and buclkheads are constrcuted to stabilize the shoreline and improve anchorage. A shoreline road still provides the primary access to the waterfront.

The settlement becomes a city, and its waterfront emergesas a port. Maritime commerce stimulates urban development, shoreline road becomes a busy street providing services, supplies, and office space for merchants of the shipping trade. Rows of newly constructed warehouses and other buildings simutaneously provide and block access to the water’s edge.

Bigger docks, made of stone and fill, gradually replace wooden piers. As docking and achorage facilities expand, the distance between the city’s center and its shoreline increases significantly. A governing body - a port authority or commission - is established to manage shoreline activities.


As more warehouses are built and the first railroads appear, the port continues to thrive. With the introduction of railroads, a great amount of waterfront land is required both for tracks and for specially designed docks. To meet that demand, the city must create more land (the fill used for this purpose is often generated by the dredging operations that are understaken to deepen the channel). These changes effectively sever the central city from the waterfront.

As the waterfront continues to expand, the distance between the original shoreline road and the water increases, and the shoreline road becomes less useful. The central city is effectively detached from the shoreline, and the waterfront becomes congested and difficult to maneuver through. To alleviate the congestion, an elevated highway is built near the shoreline, providing limited access to the city. Offices and stores along the old shoreline road are converted to warehouses. Scenario 1: If shipping declines, then the shoreline remains unchanged, the buildings along the old shoreline road are eventually demolished, and an expressway may be developed.

Scenario 2: If shipping increases, then the port activities are expanded, more industrial uses are introduced, wider piers are constructed.

Source: “The typical Pattern of Port Development�, Fisher, Bonnie, and Benson, Beth. 2004. Remaking the urban waterfront. Washington, D.C: Urban Land Institute, pp.8,9.


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Working from Fisher and Benson’s diagram of a typical pattern of Port development continuing beyond scenario 2 propose two more diagrams that I have derived from experiencing Boston’s port development. Today, the economically successful port resembles this diagram. However, the original port area has rarely been developed as a commercial shipping terminal. The ports were too constricted for modern container ships to maneuver easily and lacked adequate space for cargo storage. For that reason, new ports are located in deeper channels; accessible to larger areas of land property, typically outside of the city center. A contemporary mixed-use waterfront is developed between few left over industrial facilities. Train stations are relocated and infrastructure is moved underground.

The growth of the sustainability movement and a growing interest in improving health today drives cities to burry infrastructure underground and to create place for public use. Improved water quality and the creation of new recreational buildings attracts people to use the waterfront, turning the waterfront into a useful space ( including: paths, parks and recreational facilitites) for city inhabitants.


Source: ‘A waterfront workplace becomes a playpen’, Campbell, Robert, and Peter Vanderwarker. 1992. Cityscapes of Boston: an American city through time. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co.


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WATER RESURGENCE MOVEMENT In recent decades the resurgence of the waterfront meant that they often became centers of intense redevelopment activity. For that reason this territory has developed as a more dynamic place and rapidly changing in character. Breen and Fisher discuss this issue but see the implication for development differently: Breen introduces factors that leaded waterfront territories to change: • Technological changes post - World War II • The historic preservation movement • Heightened environmental awareness and water clean up • Consistent pressure to redevelop central city areas • Federal urban renewal and related assistance. A decade after Breen, Fisher states that the factors contributing to the resurgence of waterfront development are: • Available land • Cleaner water and land • The historic preservation movement • Citizen Activism and leadership • Urban Revitalization • The return of certain Water uses The main themes recogmized by both are:

HISTORICAL PRESERVATION OF URBAN CORE + RECOGNIZATION OF A NEW REALM FOR PUBLIC USAGE + ENVIRONMENTAL IMPROVEMENT = RESURGENCE WATERFRONT

Breen, Ann. 1993. Waterfronts: cities reclaim their edge. New York: McGraw-Hill, pp 11.

Fisher, Bonnie, and Beth Benson. 2004. Remaking the urban waterfront. Washington, D.C.: Urban Land Institute, pp 4.


PUBLIC USAGE OF THE WATERFRONT Thedevelopment of the waterfront led to several different types of waterfront : Cultural, environmental, historic, mixed-Use, recreational, residental, working All of these types might be presented in a single waterfront, Boston waterfront is shown as an example: The Cultural Waterfront New England Aquarium

The environmental Waterfront Charles river esplanade

The Recreational Waterfront Christopher Columbus Park

The Historic Waterfront Long Wharf

The Residental Waterfront Battery Wharf

The mixed-use Waterfront Rowes Wharf complex

The working Waterfront Boston fish pier


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Boston is just one of the case study in the Since the waterfront resurgence movement began, there are many similiar successful projects that were presented in many cities’s arround the country.

The cutural Waterfront National Aquarium in Baltimore: A pioneer among modern aquariums and a standout in design, popularity, and civic selfimage.

Uzzeli, Steve, ‘National Aquarium in Baltimore’, photograph, http://www.rhodeside-harwell. com, http://www.rhodeside-harwell.com/ portfolio/landscape-architecture/nationalaquarium-in-baltimore.aspx (Accessed 22nd April, 2013)

The environmental Waterfront forest park beach shoreline protection, lake forest, Illinois: Engineering solutions transform a dismal, diminishing shoreline beach into a multiuse recreation facility.

Baird, ‘lake forest beach stabilization’, photograph, http://www.baird.com, http:// www.baird.com/what-we-do/project/lakeforest-beach-stabilization (Accessed 22nd April, 2013)

The recreational Waterfront Battery Park, New York City, New York: An additional green space improves the quality of the lower Mahattan environment along the waterfront.

Mingcrime, ‘Walk along Baterry Park’, Photograph, http://www.virtualtourist.com (Accessed 22nd April, 2013)


The residential waterfront Waterfront square luxury condominium, Philadelphia: A new gateway identity of Philadelphia along Delaware River.

‘Waterfront square’, Photograph, http:// www.centercityteam.com, http://www. centercityteam.com/philadelphia-condos/ waterfront-square/ (Accessed 22nd April, 2013)

The mixed-use waterfront Bayside Marketplace Miamarina, Miami, Florida: Perhaps the most successful of the new “Festival marketplace” designs in the country.

‘Bayside Marketplace’, photograph, https:// www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=101512 71635214681&set=a.1015067165442468 1.415445.167781754680&type=1&theater (Accessed 22nd April, 2013)

The historic waterfront ellis island museum of immigration, New York City: Ambitious, well exucuted restoration of one of America’s notable icons; this waterfront evokes a sense of awe at the milions of immigrants who were processed here.

Chensiyuan, ‘Ellis Island Immigration Museum entrance’, photograph, 2009, http://commons.wikimedia.org, http:// commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Ellis_ island_immigration_museum_entrance.JPG (Accessed 22nd April, 2013)

The working waterfront Fishermen’s terminal, Seattle, Washington: A beautifully excuted, working commercial fishing facility that simultaneiously welcomes neighboring cummunities.

Johanson, David, ‘Aerial view of Fishermen’s Terminal’, photograph, 2009, http:// www.portseattle100.org, http://www. portseattle100.org/properties/fishermensterminal (Accessed 22nd April, 2013)


SEATLE. WA 33

PHILADELPHIA. PA

CHICAGO. IL

SANFRANCISCO, CA

NEWYORK CITY, NEW YORK


WHAT SHOULD GUIDE THE ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN ON THE WATERFRONT?


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Single purpose building nowadays seem to be very luxury and is rarely considered to apply in the design for building on the waterfront. First of all, the waterfront property of land is very limited in each city, even in the re-using waterfront process, it has to take decades for waiting to replace a new building on the waterfront. Secondly, city want to activate the waterfront and attract more people to use it, so that the building on the waterfront have to be created with more than one function in one place to provide more activities along the water’s edge. However mix-used building design principal perhap is not the current choice for the design process, today we also have other theory which is already apply and being popular choice in the design not only for the waterfront building but also for the development of the city planning is hybrid architecture. This is not a new theory but this theory took a while to develope and to become an urgent solution for the growing city not only in size but also in density. The different between mix-used and hybrid architecture is, one combines similiar functional program in a building, and one doesn’t require the relation between program that are used to put in a building. Hybrid architecture has a broaden idea than mix-used architecture, it is considered as creating a city within a city idea. Moreover, Hybrid architecture provides the architect the possible alternative design solution, a combination of developing infrastructure with architecture, and a combination of two built environments: building on and in water for example, more and more flexible combination are brought up in the design of many architects. In Boston city experience, there are numbers of hybrid buildings can be used as examples, such as: Government parking center is the combination between: MBTA connecting station for bus and train, offices, retails, parking lots; Museum of science is a complex building with canal where give way for the entrance of Charles river, MBTA green line train connection, highway, and park; Prudential center; Ruggle station; etc.

USAGE


USERS Today, civic and community leadership influences public improvement for the design of the waterfront. The working waterfront was moved farther the city center giving way to recreational and public services. The transformation of the industrial waterfront has been replaced by tourism. The waterfront is a place for activities in the city. The successful design of building on the waterfront includes flexibility of use to accomodate a wide range of users. When and what times these buildings and associated infrastructures are used guide program development

IDENTITY

SENSE OF PLACE

To attract people from different direction on the waterfront to a building, the design requires designers to think about creating the building identity, in other words it is a challenge to create a building that stand out of the context. I think this is important because it is different to design a building in the center that require a unique design that both matching the context and on the other hand have its own identity. Thus, the design of architecture on the waterfront likes creating an experience for movement that drawing people along it, so the more unique of the building is the more imppresion that will remain in people’s mind. Building can be designed with unique architecture elements, design, or unique program like museum, market, or other community place like ferry hub, transportation hub, etc. Scale, form, material and orientation of buildings on the waterfront must be considered in the design process. On the waterfront, buildings often offer different scale of space to people, for example, with a big lobby opening to a stunning view of the harbor, the large window which is out of human scale can be an impression moment whenever people walks into that building. Various scale of space inside of building provide different relation to the otuside, and vise verses. It is also tranlate the language of architecture about attention to the special space, or just creating a smooth transition between spaces. Form of buildings is shaped with different reason, It could be the contraints of building code in the area; designer’s decision based on context, circulation movement, visual connection between building


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with building, building with context; etc...; or program requirement that building have to cover in relation ship with limitation of spaces are provided. Many design decision derive form many choices that are cooperated with the site conditions. Material use depend on the condition of site. Climate, material use in the area, local material, special material for creating identity are among certain of reason for material desicion. Orientation of buildings is the element that comes first in the design decision. Building is orientated to achieve different purpose in the design. For instance, the orientation follow the sustainable strategies to win the passive design which is currently in fashion for architecture profession. Another orientation decision is make the building become permeable partion. This is the decision that offers vision connection through the building to the waterfront, or directs the visual connection to the next critical destination along the waterfront. Last but not least, the orientation that provide more access in and out the waterfront territory. Without the last one, the building become a protection wall that block the waterfront activity from the city life

ENVIRONMENT AWARENESS As port industry moved out of the center, waterfront development has focused on more improving the environmental quality in the city, the water and its users. Designers choose structural systems and components to support building use at the edge with minimal effect on the environment. Builging envelopesal surfaces can support green lanscapes and minimize building energy use. Reducing hardscape, and replacing building surfaces by permeable surfaces. This helps preventing the water run-off and storing water for building uses.


CONCLUSION MITIGATING BETWEEN HARD EDGES AND SOFT EDGES In cities, sea walls are built to protect the land from erosion. However, besides defining the boundary between humans and water. In contrast, a marsh is a soft friendly and nurturing environment of benefit to the water and the land. It prevents large waves from hitting the land and it filters water run-off. It offers a soft place for ocean species to be born and grow before they flow away. These examples of hard edge and soft edge suggest a metaphor of how to design sustainably for people and their environment. Buildings can become an element to make the edge softer by providing access and opportunities for nature and people


39

BUILDING PUBLIC ACCESS The Oslo Opera House, designed by Snohetta is an example of an innovative building design on the urban water’s edge. A sloped plaza leads people from the building to the waterfront and merges into the water. Oslo Opera House is seen not only a piece of architecture, as Snohetta also wants to reintroduce people to nature, and create a place that allows activities to happen. In their project decription, they state: “The dividing line between the ground ‘here’ and the water ‘there’ is both a real and a symbolic threshold”.

The Institue of Contemporary Arts (ICA) in Boston designed by Diller+ Scofidio, Renfro is another example of design with the intention to creating public access to water. The dramatically cantilevered galleries on the upper level create a large canopy over stepped seating and harbour walk underneath. The design addresses the creation of a new civic building while engaging the public in various activities on the surrounding site. The two designs have a similiar idea: using a building as a threshold that connects people from the city to nature. The design of buildings on the waterfront offers people the opportunity to experience the relationship with a natural system formed by water. DESIGN GOALS In the adjacent photograph, the sky, earth, water, and people are all a apart of the same scene. We know there are boundaries between them, and yet it is unclear where one ends and another begins. Showcasing the blurred moment where the edges meet. I believe that the edge of the city is a place where people and nature can become one.


02

SITE

42° 20’ 59.62” N, 71° 3’ 9.68” W THE OLD NORTHERN AVENUE BRIDGE ADRESS NORTHERN AVENUE NEIGHBORHOOD SOUTH BOSTON ZONING DOWNTOWN WATERFRONT OR FORT POINT WATERFRONT OWNER CITY OF BOSTON PUBLIC WORKS DEPARTMENT


The site is located on the waterfront of the city, with direct contact to the water, and easy to access from many directions. It provides the opportunity to enhance the social interaction and promotes itself as a new attraction destination for the city’s residents, and also the tourist. The site is the part of the development plan of the city. It can be a neglected site, abandoned building, or a replacement for an outdated facility on the waterfront. It holds the potential of incorporating more than one functional program, perhaps a mix between two unrelated types to create an interesting architectural piece.


43

NEIGHBORHOOD EDGES What is the threshold leading people from one district to another? Is there a clear boundary between districts in Boston? Boston is filled with a variety of neighborhoods, each with its own unique characteristics and charm. The chosen site is located on the water outside of these neighborhoods, yet borders them and benefits from their diversity and culture. The site holds the potential to bridge the gap between them and provide a connection for the community that can unify the area. In addition to the diverse surrounding neighborhoods, the site has a direct relationship with water, offering people access to Boston’s rich water culture.


45

GREEN AND OPEN SPACE Green and open spaces provide the community the opportunity to experience the natural world in the heart of the city, engage in healthy outdoor recreation, and contribute to the ecological integrity of an urban area. Due to its industrial past, South Boston is void of open space in comparison to its counterparts across Fort Point Channel and along the Charles River. In contrast, the developing area surrounding the Northern Avenue Bridge longs for these same opportunities as it begins to flourish.


Northern Avenue Bridge is neglected half of the bridge serves as a contemporary pathway for pedestrians and bikers. It is, however, a familiar icon for thses two connected neighborhoods.


47

TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE This diagram presents the network of connections between the neighborhoods in Boston. Recognizing the site as a part of this network, it is a critical extension of the urban grid. CHARLESTOWN BRIDGE CHARLES RIVER LOCK LEONARD P. ZAKIM BRIDGE NORTH END BRIDGE LEVERETT CIRCLE CONNECTOR BRIDGE CHARLES RIVER DAM SUMNER TUNNEL/CALLAHAN TUNNEL LONGFELLOW BRIDGE

THE OLD NORTHERN AVENUE BRIDGE EVELYN MOAKLEY BRIDGE MASSACHUSETTS TURNPIKE CONGRESS STREET BRIDGE SUMMER STREET BRIDGE MASSACHUSETTS TURNPIKE DORCHESTER AVENUE


HARBO R EX PRE SS

TO BOS

TON LO

OU

T

OF

HA B

OR

TION

F HAR ES W ROW

T TON BOS

N LO

STO

O BO

A TERN

IN GAN

AL A

RT

IRPO

GAN IN

TERNAT IONAL

AIRPO RT


49

INTER

TRANSPORTATION TIDES TO ON SITE ACTIVITIES NATIO NAL

AIRPO RT

HARBOUR WALK

WATER TAXI LANDING

HARBOUR EXPRESS FERRY

SILVER LINE SL1 SL2

BLUE LINE

MBTA BUSES


51

CITY MUSEUMS AND CONNECTORS The city thus supports its museums by providing multi modal means of tranportations. In Boston , the major museums : Museum of Science, Museum of Fine Arts, and the New England Aquarium are also the given name for the train stations near them.


BOSTON WATERFRONT

PROPOSED SITE

SO

UT

HB

OS

TON

WA TER

FOR

TP OIN TC

HA

NN E

L

FRO

NT


53

BOSTON - SOUTH BOSTON INTRODUCING THE NEIGHBORHOODS The proposed site is situated at the conjunction between three different territories: the Boston waterfront, South Boston waterfront, and the water: Fort Point Channel. Fort Point Channel is a critical connector between these two neighborhoods. It bridges all and act as a gateway visible from many directions.

n osto th B Sou rfront e wat ur

Bos

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ay

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Bo

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In

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C int

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or

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1 2 5 6 3

7

4 8

9

Photo collected along the harbor walk on the Boston waterfront to understand the character of the public spaces at the edge.


55

BOSTON WATERFRONT

1

5

2

6

3

7

4

8

1. Christopher Columbus Park has a wide path that provides circulation, activities, and public sitting areas for contemplating the harbour view. 2. Long Wharf, an historic site, provides a big plaza shared by the ferry hub, and resting tourists. 3. A linking walkway to and from the city + along the harbor. 5. Adjacent to the New England Aquarium, there is a ferry hub which includes ticket booths, a waiting area for passengers , outdoor restaurants, etc. 3 and 6. Beautiful wooden paths with public seating near New England Aquarium provides a place for families waiting before and after a visit to the museum. 7. Metal scuptures at Harbor Towers frame the view of Boston Harbor and create a space to experience the water’s edge. 4 and 8. The quiet harbor walk adjacent to the Rowes Wharf Complex is private property, and offers only a pedestrian connection along the water

9 The connection between the harbor walk and the site is at the edge of the waterfront. It ends with a modest metal clad stair that leads people from the harbor walk to The Old Northern Avenue Bridge. This is the critical point in my design solution. A widened pathway or ramp is a possible solution for this connection.


1

2

1 2

3

6 4


57

SOUTH BOSTON WATERFRONT 3 1. Moakley United States Courthouse with Fan Pier Plaza is the starting point of South Boston’s harbor walk 2. The Fan Pier development project is an ongoing process; a promising project that proposes changes to the South Boston

4

5

waterfront with a new look. 3. The Institute of Contemporary Arts provides 6 an outdoor seating area intergrated with the South Boston Harbor walk. 4. South Boston Ferry hub. 5. Fish pier supplies seafood for the Great Boston area. 6. The World Trade Center is important building in South Boston for holding financial events and large exhibitions. 7. Liberty Wharf with a new design creates a 7 series of new restaurants for the area. 8. The Bank of America Pavilion is an outdoor concert place for big events and music performances.

5 8

7

8


1

1 2

2

8 3

7

4

9

3

10

5

13

11

4

12 6

5

14

6


59

FORT POINT CHANNEL 1 and 2. The Corner between Atlantic Avenue and Oliver Street is the disconnection point interrupted pedestrian flows to the site is caused by the entrance to the Thomas P. O’Neill Jr tunnels. 3. Water taxi hub at Alantic Wharf on Fort Point 7

11

8

12

9

13

10

14

Channel 4. Conjunction between Summer Street bridge and Fort Point Channel harbour walk 5. Semi-private courtyard is found at the end of Fort Point Channel harbour walk 6. USPS Yard ends the walk-way of Fort Point Channel, this area is restricted. 7. The wooden habor walk under the Moakley Everlyn Bridge leads people to the proposed site. 8. At the back of the Barking Crab restaurant

9. Wooden corridor in front of Children’s Museum with benches provides a pleasant public area along the Channel 10. Floating Tea Party Ship and Museum is another destination for tourist on the Channel 11. The narrow harborwalk between Congress Street Bridge and Summer Street Bridge 12. A historic site along the Fort Point Channel 13. The elevated Summer Street Bridge connects South Boston to Boston 14. A parking area at the end of the Fort Point Channel waiting for development


1

2

3


61

SITE PICTURES The Northern Avenue Bridge location presents a critical opportunity. The bridge is in disrepain yet a visible city icon

1

2 3 4

4


03

PROGRAM


ADDRESSING AND CELEBRATING THE MOMENT OF THE CITY’S EDGE - WATERFRONT

THE MUSEUM OF WATER REINTRODUCING THE URBAN INHABITANT TO NATURE


65

PURPOSE

History of backfilling land over

Marine time history and culture.

water.

The water celebration on Boston Common Oct 25th, 1848.

Experience:

Charles River locks protect and

Kayak-

3D concept of underwater tunnels

maintance the condition and level

Charles River.

a

leisure

activity

on

that run across Fort Point Channel.

of the water in and out the river.

Water as landscape amenities

Zakim Bridge-the new iconic of

Waterworks museum educate

along the Greenway provides

Boston in the new century shows

people about the critical of water

activities for city’s people.

the city’s experience in crossing

along with the development

the water.

history of Boston metropolitan.

The aim of the thesis is create an architecture that encourages people in the city to celebrate and glorify the edge of the city. The proposed program, a Museum of Water, is inspired by the symbolic, cultural and physical powers of water. It offers people to access to explore the relationship between their city edge and the water by moving horizontally and vertically amidst the exhibition spaces of the museum. The Museum of Water will be a place that makes people aware of water by focusing on education, entertainment of the importance of water in a sustainable future.

1. Source: Tobin, James. 2001. Great projects: the epic story of the building of America : from the taming of the Mississippi to the invention of the Internet. New York: Free Press. 2. U.S. Navy photo by Mass Communication Specialist Seaman Shannon Heavin 3. “Boston’s water: public or private?”, painting, www.bostonglobe.com, http://www.bostonglobe.com/ideas/2013/05/04/boston-water-public-private/ Jzj88ifSRYs9DEcU2m0tKJ/story.html (Accessed 22nd April 2013) 4. How stuff works, 3drendering, 2006, www.science.howstuffworks.com, http://science.howstuffworks.com/engineering/structural/tunnel5.htm (Accessed 22nd April 2013) 5. “Charles River Dam Local Protection Project” , photograph, www.nae.usace.army., http://www.nae.usace.army.mil/Missions/CivilWorks/ FloodRiskManagement/Massachusetts/CharlesRiverDam.aspx (Accessed 22nd April 2013) 6. Dan Sheridan, “Charles River Canoe & Kayak”, photograph, 2010, www.helloboston.com, http://www.helloboston.com/attractions/charles_river_ canoe_and_kayak_see_boston_cambridge_from_on_the_river/201524/ (Accessed 22nd April 2013) 8. Matthew Miller, “Zakimbridge”, photograph, 2013, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Zakimbridge.jpg (Accessed 22nd April 2013) 9. “Waterwork museum”, photograph, http://d26ldnyp35burr.cloudfront.net/photos/waterworks3.640x427.jpg (Accessed 22nd April 2013)


PRECEDENT OF HOW WATER IS PRESENTED IN CONTEMPORARY ARCHITECTURE: PHYSICAL STATE OF WATER:

AIR

FLUID

SOLID

THE BLUR PAVILLION WAS DESIGNED BY SCOFIDIO DILLER ARCHITECT FOR THE SWISS NATIONAL EXPO IN 2002. 31,400 HIGH PRESSURE JETS ON THE METRE METAL CONSTRUCTION SPRAYS INNUMERABLE TINY DROPS OF LAKE WATER. THESE SUFFICIENT JETS WHICH SATURATED THE AIR WITH MOISTURE CREATE THE EFFECT OF MIST, THE ‘BLUR’ LOOKED LIKE A BIG CLOUD. WITH THE COMPUTERS AID TO CONTROL THE STRENGTH OF THE SPRAY ACCORDING TO CHANGING CLIMATIC CONDITIONS OF TEMPERATURE, HUMIDITY, WIND SPEED AND DIRECTION, THE VISITOR HAD DIFFERENT SENSORIES EXPERIENCE EVERY MINUTE IN THE CLOUD.

BMW PAVILLION WAS PRESENTED BY THE SERIES ARCHITECT AT LONDON OLYMPIC PARK, LONDON IN 2012 IS ANOTHER EXAMPLE OF ARCHITECTURE USING THE WATER AS THE ELEMENTS IN THE DESIGN. THE WATER CURTAIN FEATURE WRAPED AROUND THE 800M2 TWO STORIES STEEL STRUCTURE ON THE WATER WORK RIVER AND AT THE CENTER OF THE AQUATIC SITE. .SIMILIAR TO BLUR PAVILLION, THE WHITE NOISE EFFECT WAS ALSO APPLIED THROUGH THE DROP WATER TO CREATE THE NATURAL ACOUSTIC IN MIDDLE OF THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT.

STEVEN HOLL ARCHITECT WAS AMONG SIXTY ARTISTS, DESIGNERS AND ARCHITECTS FROM TWENTY FOUR DIFFERENT COUNTRIES WERE INVITED TO DESIGN EXPERIMENTAL WORKS FEATURE VIDEO, AUDIO, LIGHT, OBJECTS AND ARCHITECTURE WHICH MADE OF UP TO 80% ICE AND SNOW IN THE SNOW SHOW, FINLAND IN 2003. REMARKABLE ARCHITECTS ALSO HAD THEIR DESIGN IN THIS SHOW WERE: ZAHA HADID, TADAO ANDO, ANAMORPHOSIS, JUHANI PALLASMAA.


67

MUSEUM DEFINITION ‘A museum is a place where one should lose one’s head.’ RENZO PIANO ARCHITECT.

The museum is a specific and unique type of building, built for a particular purpose. The board spectrum of museum types are: Art, Education, History, Science, Culture, Aquarium, or specific topics relevant to a collection of objects or to a location. All type of museums are incorporate education, tourism, and on occasion a memorial component. Moreover, the user of this type of building has no limitations, from child to adult to senior, from student to tourist, researcher, or anyone with an interest in exploring...


PRIVATE

ITY ED

WILLIAM TEMPLE HORNADAY WAS WORKING ON A LION MODEL IN 1880.

S UE IQ

ISIBLE ARC NV H EI

T & SOMETIM EN M

AN E TR SFORM UR

AMERICAN MUSEUM OF NATURE HISTORY

BLE N MUSEUM NG T DI

NEW ENGLAND AQUARIUM OPENED 1969

TA AS / XIDER AM

IMAL C E AN AR OV

E

THE LION HOUSE, 1906, A SNOW LEOPARD AT BRONX ZOO

CLA S L ARCHITE CA CT SI

IMP R

DIO R

IMM

E ENVIRO N SIV ER

RE CTU ITE

The modern museum developed from the first form of the “cabinets of curiousity” to the truly public spaces of the contemporary museum. Several stages in this development are outlined below.

AND TECH ES N YP

CHARLES WILLSON PEALE AND HIS ART GALLERY, 1786

Y M

TH

CURIOU S OF

E

BINETS CA

MUSEUM + ZOO + AQUARIUM,

‘Presenting Nature’ a lecture topic by Douglas Simpson-Exhibition Designer of Cambridge Seven helped me to understand an overall view of evolution of the modern museum. Here is a sumary of his main points through diagram


69

PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT THROUGH PRECEDENT REVIEW ONMEN R I V

T EN

L MOVEM A T

PUBLIC

DERN EN OR

AR

TU ITEC RE CH

E UR CT

IA

INSPIRED

S ARCHI TE APE SH

COMM ER

ATED M EGR ED NT

NA T EUR

+ ENTER TA ION AT

MUSE NG

PT. BARNUM.S AMERICAN MUSEUM WITH 500,000 CURIOUSITY CREATURES.

ACADEMY OF SCIENCE CALIFORNIA

CTURE WITH TE I HI

ISM AL I C

IVE STOR RET Y RP

ENT=EDU NM C AI

NT ME N I

M

AR C

INT E

ED UT

DISNEY LAND/WORLD

THE PEALE MUSEUM 1814, BALTIMORE IS THE FIRST PUBLIC AMERICAN MUSEUM

VULCANIA MUSEUMDESIGNED BY HANS HOLLEIN ARCHITECT, AUVERGNE, FRANCE

NATIONAL AQUARIUM OF SAUDI ARABIA DESIGNED BY CAMBRIDGE SEVEN


4.6% OF THE TOTAL AREA OF BOSTON IS VISITED BY THE TOURISTS

CITY PASS

DUCK TOUR

OLD CITY TROLLEY

FREEDOM TRAIL

SOURCE: Yim, Dongwoo, Rafael Luna, Christopher Guignon, and Non Arkaraprasertkul. 2012. I want to be metropolitan: Boston case study.


71

INFORMATION

WHO COMES TO VISIT GREATER BOSTON AREA? RESIDENTS

617,594 BOSTON POPULATION

CITY’S PEOPLE STUDENTS

38,26%

x3 TIMES

POPULATION

DOMESTIC TOURIST

236,291 IN 56 INSTITUTIONS

TOURIST INTERNATIONAL TOURIST

20,000,000 VISITORS A YEAR


ARTS MUSEUM

THERE ARE AT LEAST

HARVARD ART MUSEUMS, CAMBRIDGE INSTITUTE OF CONTEMPORARY ART, BOSTON PEABODY MUSEUM OF ARCHEAOLOGY & ETHNOLOGY, CAMBRIDGE MUSEUM OF FINES ART, BOSTON ISABELLA GARDNER MUSEUM, BOSTON

17,500 MUSEUMS IN THE UNITED STATES

BOSTON AREA

HAS

SCIENCE MUSEUM

34 AMONG

BOSTON CHILDREN’S MUSEUM BOSTON FIRE MUSEUM HARVARD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY, CAMBRIDGE MIT MUSEUM, CAMBRIDGE MUSEUM OF SCIENCE, BOSTON NEW ENGLAND AQUARIUM, BOSTON PEABODY MUSEUM OF ARCHEAOLOGY & ETHNOLOGY, CAMBRIDGE WATERWORKS MUSEUM

548 MUSEUMS IN MASSACHUSETTS SQUARE FEET

616,937

HISTORY, CUTURE, LIBRARY

600,000

BOSTON FIRE MUSEUM BOSTON PUBLIC LIBRARY BOSTON TEA PARTY SHIPS & MUSEUM COMMONWEATH MUSEUM, BOSTON FRENCH CULTURE CENTER, BOSTON GIBSON HOUSE MUSEUM, BOSTON HISTORIC NEW ENGLAND, BOSTON HISTORIC NEWTON, NEWTON JOHN F. KENNEDY LIBRARY AND MUSEUM, BOSTON LONGYEAR MUSEUM, CHESTNUT HILL MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY, BOSTON MUSEUM OF AFRICAN AMERICAN HISTORY , BOSTON NATIONAL HERITAGE MUSEUM, LEXINGTON NEW ENGLAND SPORTS MUSEUM, TD GARDERN STADIUM, BOSTON NICHOLS HOUSE MUSEUM, BOSTON OLD STATE HOUSE MUSEUM, BOSTON OLD SOUTH MEETING HOUSE, BOSTON PAUL REVERE HOUSE, BOSTON PEABODY MUSEUM OF ARCHEAOLOGY & ETHNOLOGY, CAMBRIDGE THE MARY BAKER EDDY LIBRARY, BOSTON TRINITY CHURCH, BOSTON USS CONSTITUTION MUSEUM, BOSTON VILNA SHUL, BOSTON

500,000

414,000 400,000

300,000

150,000 200,000

200,000 155,000 150,000

75,000

80,000

65,000

50,000 22,000

20,000 MUSEUM OF FINE ARTS

MUSEUM OF SCIENCE

CHILDREN’S MUSEUM

NEW ENGLAND AQUARIUM

INSTITUTE OF CONTEMPORA RY ART

WATERWORK MUSEUM

MUSEUM OF WATER (PROPOSAL)


73

INFORMATION AND KNOWLEDGE

DISCOVERY & EXPLORATION

WHAT ARE THE EXPERIENCE THAT THE VISITORS HAVE WHEN THEY COME TO MUSEUM OF WATER? RELAXATION MOMENT

UNDERWATER EXPERIENCE

ENTERTAINMENT WITH PERFORMANCE IN WATER


ARCHITECTURAL PROGRAM FOR MUSEUM TYPE BUILDING PUBLIC AREAS FREE SPACES

PAID SPACES

ENTRY VISITOR SERVICES CHECKROOM ADMISSIONS INFORMATION RETAIL SALES ? RESTROOMS TELEPHONES FOOD SERVICES ORIENTATION/ EDUCATION ? GROUP VISITS

GALLERIES + EXHIBITION + COLLECTION AUDITORIUM(S) RETAIL SALES? RESTROOMS FOOD SERVICES ORIENTATION/ EDUCATION ? LIBRARIES?

NONPUBLIC AREAS LOADING DOC + SHIPPING + RECEIVING CONSERVATION LAB(S) COLLECTION MANAGEMENT RESEARCH/ STUDY CENTERS LIBRARIES ? LABORATORY ?

STAFF SPACES + OFFICES + MEETING ROOMS + LUNCH ROOMS + LOUNGES + LOCKERS OPERATING SPACES + SERVICES (DATA-PROCESSING, TELECOMMUNICATIONS, STOCKROOM) + SHOPS (CARPENTRY, PAINTING, ELECTRICAL) MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT + ROOMS +STORAGES

Darragh, Joan, and James S. Snyder. 1993. Museum design: planning and building for art. New York: Oxford University Press in association with the American Federation of Arts and the National Endowment for the Arts.


75 GENERAL LOADING

GENERAL LOADING

COLLECTIONS STORAGE

DELIVERY, RECEIVING

PERMANENT COLLECTION

LOBBY, RESTROOM, INFO, CHECKROOM,CLOAKROOM, ECT.

OPERATOR

SPECIAL COLLECTION

ADMINISTRATIVE OFFICES

FREE PUBLIC AREA 11,800 SQF

VISITOR SERVICES 800 SQF CHECKROOM 300 SQF ADMISSION 800 SQF INFORMATION 300 SQF RETAILS (MUSEUM/RENTAL) 800 SQF RESTROOMS 1200 SQF FOOD SERVICES 1800 SQF 3 CAFE 400 SQF/EACH WILL CALL/GROUP VISIT 400 SQF EDUCATION ORIENTATION 1200 SQF LIBRARY 1200 SQF OBSERVATION AREA 1800 SQF

PARKING

EMPLOYEES PARKING LOT 50 CARS TBD VISITOR PARKING LOT 150 CARS TBD

PUBLIC ACCESS

PAID EXHIBITIONS 57,000SQF MAIN/PERMANENT COLLECTION 20,000 SQF WET EXHIBITION (H20 IS DISPLAY OBJECT) 5 EXHIBITION HALLS 5000 SQF/EACH

H20 SENSES AREA FRESH WATER WATER RECYCLE ENERGY AND WATER WATER ANALYSIS

SPECIAL/TEMPORARY EXHIBITION 6,000 SQF DRY EXHIBITION (DIGITAL/OBJECTS DISPLAY) 1 BIG EXIHIBITION SPACE (EVENTS) 1800 SQF 1 IMAX THEATER 150 PEOPLE/EACH, 1200 SQF 2 MEDIA ROOMS 600 SQF/EACH 1 GALLERY FOR RENT (MONTHLY TOPICS) 1200 SQF 1 EVENT RETAIL 600 SQF

OPERATOR 6,000 SQF

DELIVERY AREA 4,000 SQF

MAINTAINANCE AREA MACHINE ROOMS WATER TANKS BOILING ROOMS ELECTRIC ROOMS MAINTAINER ROOM RESTROOM MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT ROOM

1 LOADING DOCK

CIRCULATION 10,000 SQF

TOTAL 101,400 SQF

ADJACENCY DIAGRAM MUSEUM PROGRAM

STORE, AUDITORIUM, LECTUREHALLS, MULTI-PURPOSE, THEATER, ECT.

FOOD, BEVERAGE SERVICES

SHIPPING/RECEIVING

COLECTION MANAGEMENT OFFICE STORAGES

ADMINISTRATORS 6,600 SQF 5 OFFICES 400 SQF/EACH 1 RESTROOM 600 SQF 1 CONFERRENCES 800 SQF 1 MEETING ROOM 600 SQF 2 CLASSROOMS 600 SQF 1 LOUNGE/KITCHEN 400 SQF LABORATORY 800 SQF

AUDITORIUM/ WATER PERFORMANCE 6,000 SQF AUDITORIUM ATRIUM/HALL CONTROL ROOM TICKET BOOTH BACK STAGE


MUSEUM PRECEDENT

MUSEUM OF FINE ARTS BOSTON, MA


77


OFFICES

TRUSTEE ROOM

OFFICES

CONTEMPORARY ARTS ART OF EUROPE

ART OF ASIA, OCEANIA, AND AFRICA

ART OF THE AMERICANS

ART OF THE ACIENT WORLD

THE FENWAY ENTRANCE

Ticketing Sharf Visitor Centre

ART OF EUROPE

Shapiro Family courtyard New American Cafe’ Shop Galleries Auditorium

NEW AMERICAN CAFE’ ART OF ASIA, OCEANIA, AND AFRICA SPECIAL EXHIBITION

Studying center Offices

HUNTINGTON AVE ENTRANCE

ART OF THE AMERICANS

Trustee room Entrance

ART OF THE ACIENT WORLD


79

MATRIX CIRCULATION

TOPIC

AXES

TOPIC

PUBLIC

TOPIC

OF

TOPIC

TOPIC

CIRCULATION

TOPIC

PUBLIC

The Museum of Fine Arts has a very clear circulation. The line connecting entires from both side The Fenway and Huntington Avenue edge is a strong axis that is used as a reference line for arranging galleries and exhibition spaces. The clear circulation to outside galleries and exhibition rooms helps avoid the busy flow of visitors into the display area. The visitors have more flexibility choosing their itinerary.

TOPIC TOPIC

TOPIC

A gallery section in Americans Wing shows a clear destination by artwork that guides visitors through spaces.


Exhibition corridor astood above the information center

Long and high atrium in the West Wing of the Museum of Fine Arts, designed by I.M.Pei.

CONTEMPORARY ART WING; I.M.PEI EXTENSION

New information center; designed by Foster

ORIGINAL CENTER

Foster + Partners, Foster plans, drawings, 2011, www.architectsjournal.co.uk, http://www.architectsjournal.co.uk/ Journals/1/Files/2011/2/10/Fosterplans.gif (Accessed 22nd April 2013)


TER

81

SCALE AND FEELING

Shapiro Family Courtyard, New America Cafe’

ART OF AMERICANS WING; FOSTER + PARTNER ADDITION

The unique element in the design of the Museum of Fine Arts is the scale change between the two new wings and the originial museum, each built by different architects at different times. Looking at the longitudinal section of the building, we can see how the new wings connect with the original musuem. In the west wing, I.M.Pei chose to design a smooth transition by scaling the exhibition rooms to match the existing. Then, at the middle of the wing, he provides a long and high exhibition atrium to bring sunlight into the space. In this way, people hardly feel the change between the old and the new building. The various scales of the buildings relate to each other. In contrast, Norman Foster brings a new language into the museum by providing a courtyard atrium to separate the new and the old building. The new and old architectural languages meet each other in one place. The increased scale of the spaces drives the circulation into the new wing


MUSEUM PRECEDENT

SCIENCE MUSEUM BOSTON, MA


83


Ticketing Information Courtyard Restaurant, Cafe’ Shops Auditorium Entrance Parking Entrance


85

WINGS ISOLATION CIRCULATION The Museum of Science provides visitors different destination options. Each of its wings contains different themes, and each theme presents topics in an open space. The circulation is effective in that it functions by organizing each topic. Visitors can choose their favorite topics and also browse between their favorite topics. The circulation is clear from wing to wing, but less defined inside the exhibition topic spaces. The big exhibition space at the entry to the museum has a visual connection between floors, bringing energy to the space. The museum not only presents objects, but also allows activities within spaces. However, I think the museum is unsuccessful in maintaining the unity of connective paths throughout the whole building. Expansion occurred because of a need for more exhibition space, but the new design is not a good match to the original.

WINGS PUBLIC WINGS

WINGS


87

ENGAGING NATURE Museums have a variety of ways of relating to nature. The Museum of Science takes advantage of a beautiful view West along the Charles River to give a sense of place to the museum goer. Large areas of glass are located at various locations throughout the museum to access this view and to encourage the juxtaposition of the scientific principles learned within to with the world beyond the museum’s walls. In other locations, natural light is brought into the interior spaces to suggest a more subtle connection to the natural world outside.


MUSEUM PRECEDENT

NEW ENGLAND AQUARIUM BOSTON, MA


89

SOURCE: Joe Hardenbrook, ‘sting ray at the New England Aquarium’, PHOTOGRAPH, 2010, http://www.flickr.com http://www.flickr.com/photos/38117207@N03/4291423767/ (Accessed April 22 2013)


Ticketing Information Shops Lecture room Entrance Offices Staff area


91

SEQUENTIAL CIRCULATION Getting into the Aquarium and folowing the outter-ring path, and moving down the inner-ring path to escape the place is another experience that New England Aquarium want to create in the design. The squential circulation guide the visitors along it path. It is benefit for the museum want to tell a story or create a continous exhibition. However, the number of visitors is limited, and perhaps visitor miss some exhibition in their jorney if one exhibition is crowded than the other, they are hardly standing in the middle of the flows of other visitors.

TOPIC

TOPIC

TOPIC

CORE TOPIC

TOPIC

SOURCE:Kwesi Budu - Arthur, ‘View from New England Aquarium Top of Tank overlook to Penguin Pool below’, PHOTOGRAPH, 2013, http://www.c7a.com/work/neaq-giant-oceantank(Accessed April 22 2013)

TOPIC

TOPIC

TOPIC

PUBLIC


SOURCE: Cambridge Seven Associates, ‘Section of the New England Aquarium’, section drawing.


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IMMERSIVE ENVIRONMENT The Boston Aquarium creates an Immersive environment that puts the museum visitors in an undersea world. Through a variety of paths that bring the visitor an intimate distance with both tank and open water environments, the aquarium creates the feeling of living in an aquatic environment.

SOURCE: David L Ryan ‘Chris Bauernfeind wears a high-tech face mask that doubled as a camera so visitors could see the inside of the tank from his perspective’, PHOTOGRAPH, 2013, http://www.bostonglobe. com/lifestyle/2013/09/30/new-cameratechnology-gives-visitors-new-englandaquarium-diver-eye-view-what-happening-deepgiant-ocean-tank/nxXKt7K5TJJJdpVG24rb0K/ story.html(Accessed April 22 2013)


MUSEUM PRECEDENT

AMERICAN NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM NEW YORK, NY


95

SOURCE: WanderingthWorld, ‘Hanging by a Thread’, PHOTOGRAPH, 2010, http://www.flickr.com http://www.flickr.com/photos/chrisschoenbohm/5157646083/in/photostream/ (ACCESSED APRIL 20 2013)


Ticketing Information Courtyard Restaurant, Cafe’ Shops Auditorium Entrance Subway Entrance Parking Entrance


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TREE BRANCHING CIRCULATION The American Natural History Museum has a very complex circulation. Without the instruction map, the visitors are lost in the museum. Developing and expanding over time, different layers and wings of the museum were added. For that reason, the museum circulation became more complicated. The visitors have to move through one exhibit section to get to other section. Each section contains a topic. Two adjacent topics have relation to convey a continous story to the visitors. Perhaps, because of the scale of each section is quite big, so that the visitor need more time to move along and finish one day observation. This pattern don’t offer choices itinerary

TOPIC

TOPIC

TOPIC

TOPIC

TOPIC

TOPIC

TOPIC

TOPIC

PUBLIC

TOPIC

PUBLIC


Rose Center at American Museum of Natural History, New York city.


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GEOMETRY WITHIN GEOMETRY The American Museum of Natural History presents a unique spatial experience in two very different contexts: The blue whale in the oceans exhibit compared to the Rose Center the planetarium. In both cases, the museum visitor can move around and under massive objects within a lager space. The blue whale, seeming to float within a two story volume, invites visitors to marvel at its scale from the floor below. The planetarium creates several unique moments as the museum goer moves below its sphere, travels around it on a series of floating pathways or enters it for a show.

SOURCE: Alfred Gracombe, ‘Hayden planetarium at night’, PHOTOGRAPH, 2013, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hayden_ Planetarium#mediaviewer/File:Hayden_ planetarium_at_night.jpg (Accessed April 22 2013)


MUSEUM PRECEDENT

ACADEMY OF SCIENCE SAN FRANCISCO, CA


101


Ticketing Information Centre Courtyard Cafe’ Restaurant Shop Exhibitions Auditoriums Studying center Offices Entrance


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CIRCULATION: COMBINATION OF THEMES The Academy of Science in San Francisco is a mixed use museum with a range of natural history, aquarium, and science exhibits housed together in a single large space. Different directions lead to different exhibition spaces. All the topics are presented with equal emphasis in a complex environment, and accessed from the central plaza area circulation

TOPIC

PUBLIC

TOPIC

TOPIC

TOPIC

TOPIC

PUBLIC

TOPIC


Underneath the Planetarium and above the Philippine Coral Reef

The Rainforest of the World exhibition

Underneath the Rainforest of the World exhibition Underneath the Philippine Coral Reef

The Central Plazza


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EXPERIENCING LAYER OF EXHIBITION SPACES The Academy of Science in San Franscisco is a great example of exhibition arrangement. The complex exhibition spaces are divided into pavilions under a giant big living green roof. Each pavilion presents a unique theme and topic. However, the unique design is presented by linking different themes and topics of each pavilion horizontally and vertically. For instance, The rainforest of the World exhibition is a giant sphere containing layers of exhibiition spaces: underwater spiecies, and rainforest plants. Visitors move up along the ramps to observe the exhibition spaces. In the basement exhibition, a glass tunnel provides a sightline up into the underwater world of this rainforest exhibition. The design offers people different layers of similar environment that provides the visitors an ecological integrated view of the theme.


MUSEUM EXHIBITION ORGANIZATION Devising how exhibits are viewed sequentially in a space is a major part of the designer’s task. Approaches differ: some exhibitions offer visitors a very open exploration of exhibits and some are very prescriptive, forcing them to work their way along a predetermined path.


107

Example of single path exhibition space in the Museum of Fine Art Boston

Example of single path exhibition space in the American Museum of Natural History, NYC

A single path ensures that all visitors have similar experiences and allows the exhibitor to plan their approach to each in detail, so that visitors encounter a succession of exhibits in a predetermined fashion.

American Mordern wings in Museum of Fine Art Boston

The fan pattern is usually favoured for business to business trade fairs. This allows visitors to take in immediately all that is on display at a show and works very well for anyone who has little time and wants to see a particular stand without delay

SINGLE PATH

FAN PATTERN


TIME 1900

1910

1920

1930

THEME 1

THEME 2

THEME 3

THEME 4

THEME 5

MULTIPLE PATHS Americans Mordern wings in the Museum of Fine Art Boston

Example of multiple paths exhibition space in American Museum of Natural History, NYC

A multiple path exhibition causes fewer traffic manament problems as visitors can select alternative exhibits to engage with when a particular display is busy. This approach also allows for greater freedom and provides visitors with the posibility of following their own interests.

STARS EXHIBITION Underneath the Planetarium at Rose Center in American Natural History Museum NYC

Exhibitions can be arranged predominantly around outstanding objects when the exhibitor wishes to engage visitors.


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Planet exhibition in American Natural History Museum, NYC

AREAS OF AFFINITY

As it is usually difficult to make absolute classificatory distinstions. Some exhibitors create “Areas of Affinity�, Placing Exhibits as near as possible to similar artifacts

Dinosaurs exhibition in American Natural History Museum, NYC

MAP ORIENTATION

An interactive map is often the hub of an exhibition visitors can consult it and follow the route through the show that is suggests.

Sources: Exhibition arrangement diagrams, Hughes, Philip. 2010. Exhibition design. London: Laurence King.


04

DESIGN


PRELIMINARY DESIGN EXPLORATIONS


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IMAGINATION SPACES I began by exploring some of the spatial experiences I hoped to create in a Museum of Water. In these first sketches, I considered a first impression of the museum. The visitor arrives in a double on triple height lobby atrium, where multiple activities such as ticket booths, information boards and pathways guiding visitors to different areas of the building occur. Visual connection between different levels and spaces is considered.


115

The drawing represents an initial concept for an interior exhibition space. Because my program as a hybrid type requires views and visual connectivity is important, so glass and openness in floors, walls, and ceilings is used throughout. The curved form of the exhibition’s glass wall will lead people into spaces, while making the visitor feel more engaged with central and peripharal environments and each other. The biggest challenge is how to create a space that inspires people through the presence of the water: Visitors can feel the presence of the ocean just as they do in an aquarium.


117

This sketch aside shows a whirl ramp that moves through a water atrium. Visitors walk from floor to floor amid a water environment. Again, visual connections between spaces drive this design. The Atrium may connect to the exterior and serve to provide ventilation and convey natural light to the interior spaces. Water has no color, its color is projected or reflected from its environment, and water has no form, it takes the form of its container. In the sketch below, water is presented in small resilient clear flexible bags, which people can interact with it. They can feel the coolness of the water and enjoy the way it can take on colors that are projected onto the bags. This becomes an art space, and water takes on the role of the primary medium for the creation of art.


1

SCHEMATIC DESIGN ONE

2

1. The original Northern Avenue Bridge can be considered as an urban edge which connects the Boston and South Boston waterfronts. Moreover, It is recognized as the threshold of Fort Point Channel. 2. The middle span of the bridge can swung around its pivot to provide access for boats. 3. When the bridge is swinged perpenticular to the original road, it totally disconnects from the city edge. 4. In this first conceptual idea, I replaced the middle span of the bridge with a new structure with new functions. The new structure still maintains the circulation for pedestrians travelling along the bridge. 5. By swinging, the middle span draws its own property line and this perimeter become its property boundary. 6. The new structure can inhabit this central area.

3

4

5

6

In this study model, the fluid circulation guides people along the perimeter created by the swing of the bridge. The design offers longer circulation for exhibits , and the level and scale changes in the exhibit space offers various possibilities for the visitor eperience. Both above and below the tidal water plane.


119

SCHEMATIC DESIGN TWO This study model presents the idea of reusing the Old Northern Avenue Bridge. The structure of the bridge is bent and portions are rearranged to direct circulation. This creates a curving movement that was inspired from the sketches of area buildings. The stacked circulation spaces in the middle resulted from the studies of the scale of the bridge.

SKETCHES OF BUILDINGS ON SITE

The Moakley Court House on South Boston Waterfront

The Intercontinental Hotel

The preservation historic area

Through a series of on-site sketches, I recognized the value of the curvilinear form language found in the negative spaces created by the built environment. The curves formed by the buildings and the openings to the sky influenced the form of the second study model.


1. This view shows the imagined entrance from the Boston side as pedestrians cross over to South Boston. The left side of the building offers visitors a visual connection to the Inner Harbour. 2. This view to the right of Fort Point Channel shows the entrance to the functional spaces of the museum. 3. This perspective shows the relationship between the double height circulation spaces and the stacked functional spaces. The right view looks to Fort Point Channel, while the left view connects to the Inner Harbour 4. This view shows the imagined entrance from the South Boston side. The right path is an infrastructure zone, a public path that does not enter the museum. The left leads visitor to the functional spaces within the museum.

1

3

2

4


18’

SCALE AND VOID 10’

22’

21’

22’

10’

18’

21’

26’

18’

18’

36’

42’

26’

10’

22’

121

22’

Studying the dimensions of the Old Northern Avenue Bridge was an exploration in the design process. This study helped me to understand the scale of the old bridge, and became my referrence of dimension in order to repeat and apply a similar dimensional experience to the new design.

10’

26’

Middle span of the Northern Avenue Bridge

21’

21’

21’

21’

Both sides of the middle span of the Northern Avenue Bridge

Northern Avenue Bridge study model, scale 1:16


FINAL DESIGN


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The final concept derives from inspirations in nature. Water flows through the rock and shape the form of the rock with its flow. The building acts like a new edge and the entrance to the Fort Point Channel. Four solid pavilion look like rock floating on the water connected by glasses bridge between pavilions. The visitors will observe the water that is presented in the pavilion create the underwater experience, and the movement along the in-between pavilions to observe the scenaries of Boston harbor and Fort Point Channel. Inside of pavilions, the exhibition space offer the visitors not only perceiving the edge horizontally but also submerging the edge vertically into the water realm of the channel.

SOURCE: Eetiedis, ‘River rocks’, PHOTOGRAPH, http://static.flickr.com/109/306347654_ 8839eb0ae9_o.jpg (ACCESSED June 01 2013)


125

CONCEPTUAL DIAGRAMS

DEACTIVATION

OL

BOSTON INNER HARBOR

R IVE RE ST

ACTIVATION

ET

JAMES HOOK RESTAURANT (TEMPORARY)

EV EL YN

M OA KL EY B

OL

D

NO RT

HE RN

AV EN UE BR ID GE

RI DG E

FORT POINT CHANNEL BARKING CRAP RESTAURANT (TEMPORARY) SE AP

OR

TB

NO RT HE RN

MUSEUM WING AT BOSTON SIDE

PU B

MU

SE UM

WI NG

IN

GC

LIC

IRC

PR O

CH AN

NU E

BOSTON’S CHILDREN MUSEUM

PHASE 3: LINKING MUSEUM, ENHANCING CIRCULATION

BR

IN

AV E

LV D

PHASE 1: EXISTING CONDITION ID G

TEA PARTY MUSEUM AND SHIPS

UL AT IO N

GR

NE

AM

L

MUSEUM WING AT SOUTH BOSTON SIDE

PHASE 2: RECLAIMING NEW EDGEMUSEUM OF WATER ORIENTATION

PHASE 4: SHAPING FORM, DIVIDING CIRCULATION


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

PROPOSAL PROJECT EVELYN MOAKLEY BRIDGE LONG WHARF NEW ENGLAND AQUARIUM THE INSTITUTE OF CONTEMPORARY ART FORT POINT CHANNEL PARK BOSTON CHILDREN’S MUSEUM TEA PARTY MUSEUM AND SHIPS

3

4

1

6

2 5

8

7


127

SITE PLAN 1 ENTRANCE FROM BOSTON SIDE 2 BOSTON HARBOR WALK EXTENSION 3 MUSEUM WING AT BOSTON WATERFRONT 4 CONNECTION 1 5 PAVILION 1 6 CONNECTION 2 7 PAVILION 2 8 CONNECTION 3 9 PAVILION 3 10 CONNECTION 4 11 PAVILION 4 12 CONNECTION 5 13 MUSEUM SQUARE 14 SOUTH BOSTON HARBOR WALK EXTENSION 15 MUSEUM WING AT SOUTH BOSTON WATERFRONT 16 ENTRANCE FROM SOUTH BOSTON SIDE

2 bik

e+

1

pe

de

strian

m

us

eu

m

path

3 em

plo

ye

e

en

np

ath

4

ce

ran museum ent

pede

stria

tra

nc

5

6 7

8 9

e

10 11 14

rea

ta

ch

ya

12

bik

e+

pedestrian path

16

museum

15

pe

de

13

str

ian

pa

th

entrance


THE RENDERING SHOWS THE SECOND ENTRANCE FROM NORTHEN AVENUE TOWARD THE WATERFRONT.


129

THE MUSEUM WINGS


BIRD EYES VIEW FROM BOSTON SIDE

CIRCULATION DISTRIBUTION FROM BOSTON SIDE

ROOFTOP OUTDOOR SITTING AREA

U.S COAST GUARD BUILDING ENTRANCE

MUSEUM ENTRANCE AT BOSTON SIDE PEDESTRIAN BIKE + PEDESTRIAN EXPRESS WAY

EXPRESS WAY ROOF TOP ENTRANCE

HARBOR WALK EXTENSION

HARBOR +

MUSEUM LOADING ENTRANCE

ENTRANCE

EMPLOYEE

EVELYN MOAKLEY BRIDGE


BOSTON WING BASEMENT LEVEL -10’BELOW THE GROUD 1 2

3 HARBOR WALK EXTENSION 4 BIKE AND PEDESTRIAN RAMP, LOADING DOCK ENTRANCE 5 LOADING DOCK 6 MUSEUM STORAGE 7 MALE RESTROOM

4

5 6 1

7 10 11

9

3

8 13 12

14 2

15 15

16 17

18 19 16 20 21

BASEMENT LOBBY SPECIAL EXHIBITION

8 9

FEMALE RESTROOM LABORATORY

10 11 12 13 14 15

WORKSHOP CLASSROOM COMPUTERLAB MAINTANANCE ROOM ELECTRICAL ROOM CONFERRENCE ROOM

16 17 18 19

MUSEUM OFFICE MEETING ROOM DIRECTOR ROOM KITCHEN AND LOUNGE

20 SECURITY 21 MUSEUM EMPLOYEE ENTRANCE, HARBOR WALK EXTENSION CONNECTION

THE MUSEUM ENTRANCE FROM BOSTON SIDE

131


SOUTH BOSTON WING

18

BASEMENT LEVEL -10’BELOW THE GROUD 1

BASEMENT LOBBY

2 SPECIAL EXHIBITION 3 HARBOR WALK EXTENSION + WATER TAXI STOP. 4 MUSEUM’S SHOP 5 MAINTANANCE ROOM 6 MALE RESTROOM 7 FEMALE RESTROOM 8 ELECTRICAL ROOM

17

9 AUDITORIUM 10 BACK STAGE

11

11 12 13 14 15 16

LOADING DOCK MUSEUM’S STORAGE FILM ROOM AUDITORIUM STORAGE MUSEUM CAFETERIA CAFETERIA KITCHEN

16

12 10

9 14

3

4

17 HARBOR WALK ENTRANCE 18 FERRY HUB

1 15 2

8 7

13 13 13 17

THE MUSEUM ENTRANCE AT SOUTH BOSTON SIDE

6 5


133

BIRD EYES VIEW FROM SOUTH BOSTON SIDE

CIRCULATION DISTRIBUTION FROM BOSTON SIDE FERRY HUB BIKE + PEDESTRIAN EXPRESS WAY

HARBOR ENTRANCE

ROOFTOP ENTRANCE

ROOFTOP OUTDOOR SITTING AREA

ROOFTOP OUTDOOR SITTING AREA

AUDITORIUM ENTRANCE HARBOR WALK EXTENSION

PEDESTRIAN EXPRESS WAY

MUSEUM ENTRANCE AT SOUTH BOSTON SIDE


THE RENDERING SHOWS THE INTERIOR VIEW OF ANTARTICA EXHIBITION SPACE IN WATER CRISIS PAVILION


135

THE PAVILION AND CONNECTION


PAVILION B PAVILION D

PAVILION A

PAVILION C

LEVEL 5 + 48’

8

8

4

8 12

5

9

LEVEL 4 +36’

4 14

SOUTH BOSTON

11

7

6

7

6

BOSTON

LEVEL 3 + 24’

3 13

10

LEVEL 2 + 12’

2

5

12

1

9 5 12

HIGH TIDE + 10’

2

9

MEAN TIDE - LEVEL 1 LOW TIDE - 1’-8”

BOSTON HARBOR PAVILION A: EXPERIENCING NATURE

PAVILION B: WATER CRISIS

PAVILION C: WATER AND ART

PAVILION D: PURE WATER

1 2 3 4

5 6 7 8

9 EXHIBITION SPACES 10 RESTAURANT KITCHEN 11 RESTAURANT

12 EXHIBITION SPACES 13 HUBWAY STACKS 14 RESTING PLACE

EXHIBITION CORE EXHIBITION SPACES BIKE SHOP MUSEUM’S SHOP

EXHIBITION SPACES MUSEUM GIFT SHOP MUSEUM COFFEE SHOP ROOFTOP

PAVILION B

PAVILION C

PAVILION D

PAVILION A

8

9

9

8

12 LEVEL 5 + 48’

8 9

9 11

6 4

10

7

6 3

14

LEVEL 4 +36’

SOUTH BOSTON

9 13

LEVEL 3 + 24’

9 LEVEL 2 + 12’

BOSTON

5

9

12

2 HIGH TIDE + 10’

5

9

12

1

FORT POINT CHANNEL

MEAN TIDE - LEVEL 1 LOW TIDE - 1’-8”


137

PAVILION A: EXPERIENCING NATURE 1 2 3 4 5 6

EXHIBITION CORE EXHIBITION RAMPS GLASS BOX PAVILION A EGRESS + ELEVATOR EXHIBITION SPACES MUSEUM GIFT SHOP

5

7 PEDESTRIAN PATHWAY 8 MUSEUM CORRIDOR 9 BIKE SHOP 10 BIKE + PEDESTRIAN PATHWAY 11 PAVILION LOBBY 12 GLASS TUBE WITH RAMP

1

3

LEVEL 5 + 48’ 2

6

7

8

LEVEL 4 +36’ 9

10

11

8

LEVEL 3 + 24’

LEVEL 2 + 12’ HIGH TIDE + 10’

MEAN TIDE - LEVEL 1 LOW TIDE - 1’-8”

4 5

12


LEVEL 4 +36’

4

1

3 5

LEVEL 3 + 24’

CONNECTION BETWEEN PAVILION A AND B 1 PEDESTRIAN PATHWAY 2 BIKE + PEDESTRIAN PATHWAY 3 EXHIBITION CORRIDOR 4 ROOFTOP 5 PAVILION B - WATER CRISIS

2

LEVEL 2 + 12’ HIGH TIDE + 10’

MEAN TIDE - LEVEL 1 LOW TIDE - 1’-8”

3


139

PAVILION B: WATER CRISIS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

8 9 10 11 12 13

NORTH POLE EXHIBITION PAVILION A EGRESS + ELEVATOR WATER TANK EXHIBITION RAMPS GLOBE EXHIBITION MUSEUM CORRIDOR PEDESTRIAN PATHWAY

1 2

LEVEL 4 +36’

1

6

LEVEL 5 + 48’ 11

8

7 10

11

5

9

LEVEL 3 + 24’ 12

LEVEL 2 + 12’ HIGH TIDE + 10’ MEAN TIDE - LEVEL 1 LOW TIDE - 1’-8”

13

3 4

MUSEUM LIBRARY PAVILION B LOBBY BIKE + PEDESTRIAN PATHWAY MUSEUM’S BOOKSTORE + COFFEE 3D THEATER ANTARCTICA EXHIBITION


CONNECTION 3 BETWEEN PAVILION B AND C : VIEW FROM THE RESTAURANT TOWARD BOSTON INNER HARBOR

CONNECTION 3 BETWEEN PAVILION B AND C : VIEW IN FRONT OF THE MUSEUM’S BOOKSTORE CAFE’

CONNECTION BETWEEN PAVILION B AND C 1 2 3 4 5 6

RESTAURANT PEDESTRIAN PATHWAY EXHIBITION CORRIDOR ROOFTOP BIKE + PEDESTRIAN PATHWAY PAVILION B - WATER AND ART

4 LEVEL 4 +36’

1

2

3

LEVEL 3 + 24’

1

5

3 LEVEL 2 + 12’ HIGH TIDE + 10’

6 MEAN TIDE - LEVEL 1 LOW TIDE - 1’-8”


141

PAVILION C: WATER AND ART

PAVILION D: PURE WATER

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

EXHIBITION SPACES PAVILION C EGRESS + ELEVATOR PAVILION C LOBBY MUSEUM CORRIDOR BIKE + PEDESTRIAN PATHWAY RESTAURANT’S LOBBY PEDESTRIAN PATHWAY RESTAURANT RESTAURANT ELEVATOR

EXHIBITION SPACES PAVILION D EGRESS + ELEVATOR PAVILION D LOBBY MUSEUM CORRIDOR BIKE + PEDESTRIAN PATHWAY DIRECT PEDESTRIAN PATHWAY PEDESTRIAN PATHWAY

1

1

1

2

1

LEVEL 5 + 48’

LEVEL 5 + 48’

LEVEL 5 + 48’ 8

7

9

4

6

5

LEVEL 4 +36’ LEVEL

1

LEVEL 4 +36’ 3

1

6

4

5

3

4 +36’

1 1

LEVEL 3 + 24’

LEVEL 3 + 24’

1

LEVEL 3 + 24’ 1

LEVEL 2 + 12’ HIGH TIDE + 10’

1

LEVEL 2 + 12’

LEVEL 2 + 12’

2

HIGH TIDE + 10’ MEAN TIDE - LEVEL 1

MEAN TIDE - LEVEL 1 LOW TIDE - 1’-8”

VIEW FROM MUSEUM WING AT SOUTH BOSTON

1

HIGH TIDE + 10’

1

MEAN TIDE - LEVEL 1

LOW TIDE - 1’-8”

LOW TIDE - 1’-8”

1


VALIDITY

The design brief as framed for this project is to use the

position of the Northern Avenue Bridge to create a new pedestrian bridge which embodies more than its main function. The new bridge can be a path that draws people to a city and creates new activities for the city to enhance social interaction. The biggest concerns relative to my approach are the historical, social, and new theoretical aspects associated with replacing the Northern Avenue Bridge. This Bridge was built in the beginning of 20th century as a connection to Fan Pier- the new expansion of South Boston into Boston. The Bridge originally served as a railroad crossing and then used for vehicles, until it was closed in the 1900s. Throughout the last 100 years, Boston and South Boston citizens were familiar with this unique bridge, using it daily to commute to and from downtown Boston. Moreover, this historic Bridge has trademark feature of a pivoting center span that, when rotated, truly releases the bridge from the city to give boats access to the Fort Point Channel. For these reasons, there are many Bostonians that love the Bridge-mostly people who live and work in the Fort Point Channel area, who do really want to preserve it as a reminder of the golden age of the port Industry in Boston. A second concern that builds on the first concern is that there are a series of bridges built in the same period of time as the Northern Avenue Bridge (such as Congress Street Bridge, Summer Street Bridge, and the Old Rolling Bridge) that have not been preserved. Most of them were altered with new supporting structure, or replaced -- as in the case of the Rolling Bridge, which was demolished to make way for new infrastructure system for the city. I may be the case that people want to keep the Northern Avenue Bridge because they weren’t able to keep the others. As a result, other architectural proposals for


143

adapting or replacing the Northern Avenue Bridge are still in limbo. The success of the Highline in New York has become a great precedent for new solutions to adapting old infrastructure facilities, which are abandoned in cities. The High Line approach prove that instead of demolishing infrastructure and facilities, people can re-use and adapt them into new functions that can serve for the public good, and improve the quality of city life. After the High Line, other successful projects are Bloomingdales in Chicago, and the Belt line in Atlanta What makes Boston’s Northern Avenue Bridge different is that it is located at a moment in the city that is severely underexploited. The city of Boston has long had an ambivalent relationship to its harbor, and little of the waterfront is designed to promote a direct relationship between residents and visitors and this essential resource. In addition, the Fort Point Channel area of South Boston has recently been reimaged as an ‘Innovation District’ and seeing massively indreased development and construction, with a focus on high tech industries. It is essential that this unique place, at the edge of historic Downtown Boston and leading directly to this new Innovation District, should represent both a new and innovative approach to design for the city of Boston and a significant reinterpretation of the relationship between the city and its harbor.


CONCLUSION

This thesis is seeking for who really attention to our Bos-

ton area waterfront development. Look at the ongoing development plan of South Boston, it is true value to think about the connection between it with the existing developed waterfront from the other side. Especially, that connection represent for a new alternative edge on the waterfront. By this intervention, the new pedestrian and its auxiliary will become a new definition of the new edge of Boston waterfront. However the historical aspect of the Bridge site and the Bridge itself is very critical, but I’m not hesitated to challenge myself to propose one of the possible solutions. The initial idea of this thesis is continuing grow by keep looking forward to other port industrial facilities along the water edge. The purpose is increase the public usage for the waterfront, how to make this unique edge to become more appealing place not only for Boston people but also attract the tourist from other place. Moreover, It is also a challenge to enhance the meaning and character of Boston water edge. At the North of Boston there is the Love Joy wharf is waiting for developing a new residential, at the South Boston, there is an old dry dock wharf is ready for turning its function to adapt the current need. Furthermore, there are many other places along the East Boston, the adjacent neighbor, which owns provocative water’s edge are also promising project. The water’s edge is place for glorifying and rejoicing, it has to serve for public good, The urban waterfront is a dynamic and vital area, full of potential. Historically, waterfronts have witnessed many layers of development, leaving this zone to often play a peripheral role in the life of the city. The Boston waterfront began as an active trade zone, developed as an important industrial area, and now exists as a somewhat


145

undefined mix of diverse uses. The unique qualities that define an edge, of ambivalence, of ‘betweenness’, suggest a method of understanding and of exploiting the unique characteristics of the Boston waterfront so that it may become a major destination as well as a moment of connection. The site of the Northern Avenue Bridge provides an exciting opportunity to improve existing pedestrian connections, to compliment continuing development in South Boston, and to redefine the ‘edge’ of the city of Boston. It also allows for another important role for the proposed project: to redefine the relationship of the city to its harbor, and of the inhabitants of the city to nature. The proposed project is for a Museum of Water, and for an enhanced public thruway for pedestrians and bicycles. The Museum introduces the major aspects of water in four categories: Experiencing Nature, Water Crisis, Water and Art and Pure Water. Through the experience of the educational pavilions, and through the framed views of the city beyond, the new Museum aims to redefine the edge of the Boston waterfront. The initial scope of this thesis may expand to look at other port industrial areas.

The goal is to increase public usage of the

waterfront, for residents and as an attraction to tourists. In Boston alone, there are many opportunities to enhance the meaning and character of the water’s edge. Lovejoy Wharf in the North End of Boston, the dry dock wharf in South Boston, and many locations in East Boston are all awaiting development. The water’s edge can and should be viewed as a major asset to the city and should be developed as a unique and vital amenity.


REFERENCES Lynch, Kevin. 1960. The Image of the City. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press. Holl, Steven. 1991. Edge of a City. New York: Princeton Architectural Press. Breen, Ann, and Dick Rigby. 1994. Waterfronts: cities reclaim their edge. New York: McGraw-Hill. Fisher, Bonnie, and Beth Benson. 2004. Remaking the Urban waterfront. Washington, D.C.: Urban Land Institute. Campbell, Robert, and Peter Vanderwarker. 1992. Cityscapes of Boston: an American city through time. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co. Olthuis, Koen, and David Keuning. 2010. Float!: building on water to combat urban congestion and climate change. Amsterdam: Frame Darragh, Joan, and James S. Snyder. 1993. Museum design: planning and building for art. New York: Oxford University Press in association with the American Federation of Arts and the National Endowment for the Arts.

05

Hughes, Philip. 2010. Exhibition Design. London: Laurence King. Yim, Dongwoo, Rafael Luna, Christopher Guignon, and Non Arkaraprasertkul. 2012. I want to be metropolitan: Boston case study.

BIBLIOGRAPHY


SUGGESTION REFERENCES Nash, Roderick. 1967. Wilderness and the American Mind. New Haven: Yale University Press. Kiib, Hans. 2007. Harbourscape. Aalborg: Aalborg University Press. Koekebakker, Olof, and Sabine Lebesque. 1998. Verkenning Van De Rivier = Exploring the River: Seven studies for a new cross-river connection in Rotterdam. Rotterdam: Nederlands Architectuurinstituut. Jacobs, Jane. 1961. The Death and Life of Great American Cities. [New York]: Random House. Gehl, Jan. 1987. Life between Buildings: Using Public Space. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold. Speck, Jeff. 2012. Walkable City: How Downtown can save America, One Step at a Time. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. Flesche, Felix, and Christian Burchard. 2005. Water House. Munich: Prestel. Fischer, Joachim. 2008. Water = Wasser = Eau. [Kรถln]: h.f. ullmann. Solomon, Steven. 2010. Water: the Epic Struggle for Wealth, Power, and Civilization. New York: Harper. Boston Society of Architects. 1976. Architecture, Boston. Barre, Mass: Barre Pub. Wolfe, Art, Michelle A. Gilders, and Claus Biegert. 1999. Water: Worlds between Heaven and Earth. New York: Stewart, Tabori & Chang.


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Khuyen luong thesis book 2013  

This is the final thesis book of all research on topic "Edge between water and land" of Khuyen Luong in 2013. All document and picture in us...

Khuyen luong thesis book 2013  

This is the final thesis book of all research on topic "Edge between water and land" of Khuyen Luong in 2013. All document and picture in us...

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