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34 East 67th Street New York, NY 10065 Sanjay@kapoorgalleries.com info@kapoorgalleries.com www.kapoorgalleries.com P. (212) 794 2300


Foreword With great pleasure and pride, I present Kapoor Galleries’ latest catalog. Among other masterpieces, this catalog showcases the magnificent Vasudhara Mandala by Jasaraja Jirila. Dating to 1365, this important work is one of the earliest examples of Nepalese thangka painting whose dedicatory inscription includes the artist’s name and a date. This catalog is also a celebration of the gallery’s forty-plus years of success as a family enterprise, and a tribute to my grandparents, Ramesh and Urmil Kapoor, whose indefatigable efforts helped build the field of Indian and Himalayan art to what it is today. After India’s partition in 1947, Ramesh left Pakistan along with his parents and migrated from Lahore to Jalandhar, India. There, the government allocated his father, Shri Prashotam Ram Kapoor, an empty store where he could establish his own business. As an avid reader, my great-grandfather always carried books with him, which serendipitously led to a thrift merchant offering him an entire private library. Thus, my great-grandfather started a profitable rental library, catering to Indian refugees whose displacement left them with ample time to read. Purchasing this first library collection spurred my great-grandfather’s passion for rare books and led to the acquisition of many private libraries. Some included illustrated books and manuscripts, which helped to propel our family into the field of fine art. When my grandfather finished college in 1958 and joined his father in business, the two worked together to establish relationships with museums and universities, supplying these institutions with coveted artworks. Propelled by growing business and increasing European and American interest in Indian masterworks, my family moved to Delhi in 1962. My grandfather’s first major break came in 1964, when he sold the famous Kashmir bronze Swachhandabhairavi to the National Museum in New Delhi. Since then, it has been featured in many major publications including Dr. Pratapaditya Pal’s The Arts of Kashmir. Ramesh and Urmil married in 1967, and in March 1975 they immigrated to the United States and established Kapoor Galleries Inc. in New York City. Since 1975, our gallery has played an instrumental role in educating the public about Ancient and Classical Fine Arts of India and the Himalayas and encouraging interest in Indian art among collectors and institutions. For over forty years, we have been dedicated to building strong client-dealer relationships, earning the respect, loyalty, and trust of those with whom we build collections. My grandfather, in particular, has guided some of the most significant public and private collections of the 20th century as an arbiter of connoisseurship in the field. With his prodigious talent, sharp business mind, and impeccable ethics, my grandfather is an asset to the art world. Kapoor Galleries Inc. is consistently the privileged custodian of top-quality bronzes, sculptures, miniatures, and thangkas, many of which are now part of the collections of major museums, including The Metropolitan Museum of Art, the Los Angeles County Museum of Art, the Art Institute of Chicago, The San Diego Museum of Art, and the Virginia Museum of Fine Arts. In 2004, my grandparents made a substantial donation of Indian paintings to the Norton Simon Gallery for a featured exhibition. This gift formed the core of the museum’s collection of Indian paintings and contributed to the depth of its overall acquisitions. I would like to take this opportunity to thank a number of people for their invaluable assistance and support: Henry, Yvonne, and Mete of ADM Advertising for their counsel, their contributions to this catalog, and their endless patience; Katherine Fecteau for transforming my thoughts into something both coherent and palpable, and Christine Ritok for connecting us; Clanci Conover for bringing organization to my scattered desktop and Livia Gao for her dedication and skilled translation of select objects in this catalog; my friends in the art world for offering their support and sharing their wisdom; the scholars whose critical research contributed to the identification and attribution of many of this catalog’s works, including Dr. Pratapaditya Pal, Jeff Watt and the team at Himalayan Art Resources, and the numerous scholars and professors I have met during my time at SOAS; Sotheby’s, Christie’s, and Bonhams for sharing photos of several items in this catalog; My grandmother, grandfather, and Yuhee for teaching me humility and directing my boundless energy. Enjoy this catalog, and I look forward to welcoming you to Kapoor Galleries Inc.


1

Syamatara (Green Tara) 綠度母 Circa 17th Century 清代 17世紀 China 內地 Gilt Bronze 銅鎏金 6 3/4 in. (17 cm)

Provenance: 出處: From a private Swiss collection 瑞士私人珍藏

The savior of all suffering is seated in lalitasana on a double lotus base with one leg resting on a lotus socle, the other knee bent and laid flat on the pedestal with the foot lying against the opposite thigh. The right hand held in the gesture of varada mudra and the left in vitarka mudra. Her hair, falling in tresses across her shoulders while also gathered in a high chignon behind a five-leaf crown. She is seen wearing a dhoti, a scarf draped across her arms and shoulders and ornate body jewellery, the head tilted to

one side and the face with a serene expression. Exquisite attention to detail is presented throughout this delicately cast bronze. Compare the sensitively rendered feminine facial features with a Qing dynasty figure of Marici (U. von Schroder, Indo-Tibetan Bronzes, Hong Kong, 1981, pp. 546-547, cat.no. 155F). For further comparison of the modeling of the body, the finely detailed jewelry, the hair and the lotus base, see a bronze figure ofGreen Tara in the George Crofts Collection at the Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto (ROM2005_1586_15).

此尊度母右舒展坐於雙層蓮花寶座之上。左腿橫盤,右腿舒坐,足踏 仰蓮,體態婀娜多姿。右手施與愿印 ,左手當胸結三寶印。頭戴五葉寶冠,髮髻高隆,冠繒垂于兩側, 彎曲上揚。身著天衣綢裙,斜披絡腋, 披帛順肩繞臂,佩飾項鏈瓔珞等。造像面目祥和,面頰豐腴,額際 高廣。造型玲瓏生動,顯示出高超的藝 術水準。 相似的面部細節刻畫可參照清代摩利支天(U. von Schroder, Indo-Tibetan Bronzes, Hong Kong, 1981, pp. 546-547, cat.no. 155F)。更多造像細節對比可參照多倫多安省皇 家博物館George Crofts收藏系列中綠度 母像(ROM2005_1586_15)。


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Avalokiteshvara

18th Century, Qing Dynasty China Bronze 6 ž in. (17 cm.) Provenance: From a private American Collection

Cast seated in dhyanasana on a double lotus base, the right hand lowered in varadamudra, the left hand raised chest, wearing an elaborate beaded necklace, the face with downcast eyes and meditative expression framed by a high fivepointed crown.


3

Uma-Maheshvara

Circa 11th Century Kashmir or Himachal Pradesh Copper alloy w/Silver inlay 6 ⅜” (16.2 cm) Provenance: Sotheby’s NY, March 24, 2011, Lot 18 Harry & Yvonne Lenart Collection, Los Angeles, 1960’s – 2011 Exhibited: “The Divine Presence: Asian Sculptures from the Collection of Mr. and Mrs. Harry Lenart”, Los Angeles County Museum of Art, August 15 – October 15, 1978 Published: Pal, Pratapaditya, The Divine Presence, Los Angeles County Museum of Art, 1978, p. 26, pl. 13 A rare form of Uma- Maheshvara. Shiva is seated in a yogic posture on a lotus, his principal hands holding a waterpot with leaves. His upper right hand grapss a rosary and the left supports Uma, who is gracefully seated on his thigh. Uma too holds a wterpot with her right hand, and in her left a lotus. This rare image is Kumbhesvara, lord of the waterpot. This rare bronze is one of the few known images of UmaMaheshwara from either Kashmir or HImachal Pradesh

According to Shaiva Siddhanta philosophy, Shiva’s infinite power remains concealed until he is in the company of his consort Uma (Sa Uma). In her presence he reveals his benevolence and through her his grace is comprehended. Images of Shiva together with Uma are known as Umasahitamurti and with the addition of their infant Skanda the image becomes Somaskandamurti. Since Shiva was believed to confer his blessings upon devotees most readily in this form it was imperative for every temple to have a Somaskandamurti and this iconographic representation was extremely popular. An early iconographic representation of this form of Shiva is a charming stone relief of circa 7th century date, from the Pallava period, now in the collection of the National Museum, New Delhi (S. Kramrisch, Manifestations of Shiva, Philadelphia, 1981, cat. 55, p. 67). In this tender family portrait we see the divine couple

seated in a relaxed posture upon a plinth, with the infant Skanda on his mother Uma’s lap. The iconography was conventionalized in bronze images such as the magnificent 8th century sculpture in the collection of the Government Museum, Madras (K. Khandalavala (ed.), Indian Bronze Masterpieces, New Delhi 1988, fig. 4, p. 145) where Shiva and Uma are seated upon a tiered plinth or bhadrapeedam From an artistic and iconographic standpoint this arresting sculpture embodies the essential qualities of Shiva and Uma. Their union is a symbol of completeness and unity, “...like a word and its meaning.” (S. Kramrisch, Manifestations of Shiva, Philadelphia, 1981, xviii) Shiva’s expansive, powerful chest seems to be inflated with breath. His face with its prominent features radiates a calm divinity. His mismatched earrings symbolize the incorporation of both male and female energies into a single Godhead. The sculpture radiates not only Shiva’s beauty but also his majesty and strength as the immutable Omniscient Being who generates the eternal cycles of creation and destruction. Uma’s lithe, supple form is an embodiment of beauty and perfection while her gently smiling face emanates spiritual and esthetic joy. Her body is turned slightly inwards to face her lord Shiva, cementing their union and binding them together in an everlasting image of power, majesty, benevolence and transcendence.


4

Je Tsongkhapa

Circa 18th century Mongolia Gilt bronze 17 ¾ in. (45 cm.) Provenance: From the collection JF Chen Acquired in NY in the 1970’s

Tsongkhapa, also known as Je Rinpoche, was born in the Amdo region of Tibet in 1357. He was a highly respected Buddhist scholar and is credited as being the founder of the Gelug Buddhist sect, known as the “Yellow Hat” sect, one of the most powerful and widespread in the Buddhist religion. Revered as an incarnation of the bodhisattva Manjushri, he was reported to have seen and conversed with the deity from a young age. The current bronze example can be seen

Joel Chen, a renowned antiques and midcentury design dealer in Los Angeles, has filled his great room with collected treasures. Credit: Laure Joliet for The New York Times

holding the stems of lotus flowers supporting a sword and book, which are the prime attributes of bodhisattva Manjushri. Compare this powerful piece with a related gilt-bronze figure of Tsongkhapa, 18th century, illustrated in B.Lipton and N.D.Ragnubs,Treasures of Tibetan Art: Collections of the Jacques Marchais Museum of Tibetan Art , p.70, no.22.


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Manjushri

Circa 15th Century Nepal Gilt Copper 5 in. (12.7 cm) Provenance: From a Midwestern Estate

Richly gilt and seated in dhyanasana on a double-lotus base, his hands in dharmachakramudra (the gesture of teaching), wearing a dhoti with beaded hems and jewelry, his serene face with raised urna and smiling mouth, his hair in a high chignon, secured by an elaborate foliate tiara, flanked by two lotus stalks supporting his sword and book. The base is sealed with a double vajra. “Manjusri, bodhisattva of wisdom, is one of the most important iconic figures in Mahayana art and literature. He represents the wisdom of prajna, which is not confined by knowledge or concepts.

His Sanskrit name means “He Who Is Noble and Gentle.” He is often portrayed as a young man holding a sword in his right hand and the Prajna Paramita (Perfection of Wisdom) Sutra in or near his left hand. Sometimes he rides a lion, which highlights his princely and fearless nature.”


6

Nepal Syamatara Syamatara (Green Tara)

Circa 15th Century Nepal Gilt Bronze with precious stone inlay 6 1/4 in. (16 cm) Provenance:

From a private Zurich collection, acquired in the 1970’s

Syamatara is seated in lalitasana on a lotus base with her right foot placed on a smaller one. Her right hand is in varadamudra while the left in vitarkamudra, and both were originally holding the stem of a lotus flowering along her upper arms. She is wearing a sari and jewellery set with semi-precious stones. Her hair is coiffed in a chignon and secured with a tiara.


7

Amoghapasha 不空羂索觀音

c. 15th century 15世紀 Nepal 尼泊爾 Copper 紅銅 5 3/4 in. (14.6 cm) HAR item no. 41061 著錄:喜馬拉雅藝術資源網,編號41061 Provenance: 出處: Collection of Leo D. Arons, Princeton, New Jersey Leo D. Arons先生私人珍藏,新澤西州普林斯頓 Acquired from Lester & Robert Slatoff, New Jersey, 4 October 1972 美國普林斯頓1972年10月4日收藏自美國新澤西州Lester & Robert Slatoff夫婦

Finely modeled, standing in a slightly-flexed pose on a lotus base with pointed petals, his eight radiating arms holding a sutra, trident, lotus, kundika, lasso, and rosary, and displaying the gestures of charity and teaching, his broad face surmounted by a tall crown secreting a diminutive Amitabha nestled in his chignon.

Amoghapasha represents a tantric form of Avalokiteshvara and is particularly popular in Nepal, where he is regarded as the tutelary deity of the Kathmandu Valley. The Nepalese style is both graceful and conservative. Compare the similar lithe body and cascading folds that connect with the lotus base on an Ascetic Avalokitesvara published in von Schroeder, Buddhist Sculptures in Tibet: India and Nepal, 2001, p. 502, no. 16A-B, and Reedy, Himalayan Bronzes, 1997, pl. N230. Compare also to a 15th century paubha of Amoghapasa held in the Victoria and Albert Museum (IS.581977).


8

Indra

Nepal, 14 th Century Gilt Bronze 7 in. 18 cm Provenance: From a Private Scandinavian collection

This king of the gods seated in rajalalitasana; with his right arm delicately resting on his knee and left supporting his weight from behind. Adorned with royal jewelry and a prominent belt, his face expertly cast in a serene expression with a delicately incised third eye, on his left shoulder blooms a lotus stalk with a vajra resting upon it. The king of gods is garbed in a short dhoti and his hair is arranged in a high chignon flanking his royal crown decorated with masterful chase-work.


9

Amitayus

16th Century Tibet 9 in. (22.89 cm) Provenance: From a Private Polish collection

Seated on a double lotus base in dhyanasana¸ garbed in a billowing dhoti flowing between his crossed ankles, heavily adorned with jewelry and chakras inset with turquoise hardstones, the face in a serene expression with a gentle smile, elongated and downcast eyes flanked by lotiform earrings, and sharply arched brows surmounted by a foliate tiara, the hair in a high chignon and freely cascading down his shoulders. The surface of this impressive figure is entirely covered in a rich fire-gilding. Such portrayals of Amitayus are characteristic

of imagery from Tibet. He is associated with the rites that ensure long life, especially worshipped by Tibetans, who believe that life can be extended through long lineages, faith and compassion. It is also believed that one can achieve self-enlightenment and cater to the welfare of other with the help of Amitayus meditation.


10

Vajradhara

Circa 1400 Tibet Gilt Bronze 9.8 in. (24 cm) Provenance: Private European collection acquired in the 1950’s

Seated in padmasana on a double-lotus base with his arms in vajrahumkara mudra (highest energy) holding the vajra and ghanta, clad in a dhoti and a shawl draped over his shoulders with jointed hems extending from his elbows and freely flowing symmetrically downward, adorned with a belt and necklaces of bead and pendant swags, anklets, bracelets, and leaf earrings, hisah steadfast expression serene and an urna of inset turquoise, his hair pulled into a high chignon secured with a five-leaf tiara and surmounted by a half vajra; the base is sealed and consecrated with a double vajra.


11

Mahakala Shadbhuja

Circa 17th Century Tibet Bronze with poly-chrome 6 in. (15 cm) HAR item no. 35867 In Sanskrit Maha translates to great and Kala to time/death. Mahakala is the primary Buddhist Dharmapala and is respected in all schools of Tibetan Buddhism. , All names and colors are said to melt into Mahakala, symbolizing his allencompassing nature, and lustrous black skin. He is seen as the absolute reality. Shadbhuja, the six-armed Mahakala, is a favorite amongst the Gelukpa order of Tibetan Buddhism. Shadbhuja is recognized as the fierce, powerful, and wrathful embodiment of the Bodhisattva of compassion Avalokitesvara. In this elegantly cast

piece attention to fine detail is evident throughout the six- armed form. In the primary left hand of is a skull cap (kapala) filled with minced remains of enemies to Dharma. In the primary right hand a crescent shaped chopper (katrika) or curved knife, which corresponds to the shape of the skull cap so it can be utilized for making the “mincemeat�. The chopper is a

representation of detachment from samsaric existence. Within the secondary right hand lies a damaru, an hourglass- shaped drum which arouses the mentally-clouded from their ignorant state, putting them back onto the path of Dharma. The sound which emanates from the damaru is supposed to be the same as that which manifested all of existence. A rosary of dried skulls adorns the uppermost right hand; this symbolizes the perpetual activity of Mahakala on a cosmic scale, as rings are inherently continuous.The secondary left hand holds a noose, whose function is to lasso those straying from the divine path of Dharma.The skin of an elephant is held taught across the back of Mahakala in his upper left hand, symbolizing the ability to overcome delusion.


12

Black Jambhala

Circa 15th Century Tibet Stone with polychrome 8 1/8 in. (20.5 cm)

Jambhala is the Buddhist counterpart of Kubera, the Brahmanical god of wealth. Like Kubera he appears to have originally been a yaksa. As the bestower of riches, Jambhala is very popular among the Buddhists and there are many sadhanas in the Sadhanamala which describe his various forms. An emanation of Ratnasambhava, he is richly adorned holding a kapala (skull cup) in his right hand, while his left hand squeezes a nakula (mongoose) who spits forth jewels, seen in a pile at Jambhala’s feet. The nakula is supposed to be the receptacle of all gems and jewels and in Tibet it is claimed that the mongoose symbolizes Jambhala’s victory over the Nagas, guardians of the treasures.


13

Vajradhara

Circa 14th/ 15th Century Nepalese school in Tibet Gilt Bronze with semi- precious stone 5 1/8 in. (13 cm)

The figure is shown seated in dhyanasana on a double-lotus base, with his hands crossed before his chest and holding a vajra and a ghanta. He is clad in a dhoti and adorned with jewellery, his face has a serene expression and he wears a foliate tiara.


14

Maitreya

Circa 14 th /15 th century Tibet Gilt Bronze 8 1/2 in. (21.6 cm)

This exquisite and finely cast sculpture depicts Maitreya, the bodhisattva of loving kindness and the Buddha of the future. He is seated in dhyanasana atop a double lotus base with his hands in abhayamudra and varadamudra, gently clasping the stems of two lotus blossoms which rise up around his shoulders, his right flower supporting a kundika. He is adorned in finely beaded jewelry and a thin dhoti with intricately incised borders billowing around his legs. His top knot is secured by a five-foliate crown and topped by a stupa. His slightly tilted head and sensitively modeled facial features give him a gentle welcoming demeanor. The present sculpture displays the superior quality and elegance of sino- Tibetan sculpture.


15

Vajrapani

Circa 17th Century Tibet Gilt Bronze with Polychrome 6 1/2 in. (16.5 cm) Provenance: From a private North American Collection

Vajrapani, the bearer of the thunderbolt, in wrathful form represented in a powerful cast stands in alidasana, the warriors pose, wearing a dhoti incised with tiger-skin stripes flanked by a windswept sash and jewelry adorned around his bountiful midsection, centered with beaded festoons. A thick snake is wrapped around the neck, The wild mane of hair is surmounting Vajrapani’s iconographic third eye. Detailed casting throughout, the face bears a fierce and detailed expression.


16

Prajnaparamita

Circa 16th Century Tibet Gilt Bronze Height: 8 1/4 in. (21 cm) Provenance: Private European collection

Prajnaparamita means “the Perfection of (Transcendent) Wisdom�; in Mahayana Buddhism. Prajnaparamita refers to this perfected way of seeing the nature of reality, as well as to a particular body of sutras and to the personification of the concept in the Bodhisattva known as the "Great Mother". The word Prajnaparamita combines the Sanskrit words prajna [wisdom] with paramita [perfection].

Seated in dhyanasana on a double lotus base, her principal hands in dharmachakramudra, and her upper hands in vitarkamudra, the left holding a manuscript and the right holding a beaded mala, earing an ankle-length dhoti secured at the waist with a beaded belt, adorned with various jewelry and a billowing scarf around her shouIders, her face with a serene expression and downcast eyes centered by a raised urna, topped by an elaborate five- leaf crown.


17 A bronze figure of Padmapani 8th Century Swat Valley Bronze 8 1/2 in. (20.8 cm.) high

Provenance: Sotheby’s London, 9 May 1977, lot 36. London Art Market. Acquired by the present owner from the above, 1992. Exhibited: Gilgamesh Group Inaugural Exhibition, Setsu Gatodo Gallery, Nihonbashi, Japan, November 29th - December 1st, 1979. Cat. 48. Published: Gilgamesh Group Inaugural Exhibition, Setsu Gatodo Gallery, Nihonbashi, 1979, cat. 48. U. Von Schroeder, Inda-Tibetan Bronzes, Hong Kong, 1981, pp.90- 91, fig. 9H. HAR item no. 24324 Like the lotus, whose pristine blossom rises out of the mud, Padmapani has transcended the pain and impurities of the material world, reaching enlightenment in body, speech, and mind. The bodhisattva forgoes entering nirvana until he has released all sentient beings from the cycle of death and rebirth. This rare eighth-century bronze figure of Padmapani, an emanation o Avalokiteshvara, displays the convergence of post-Gandharan and early Gupta aesthetic ideals that took place in the Kashmiri/ Swat Valley region during the sixth to the eighth centuries. The Swat Valley is located along the upper stream of the Indus River in what was the ancient region of Gandhara. Serving as a link between India and Central Asia, the valley witnessed a constant 11011, of Buddhist pilgrims, becoming an important

melting pot of cultures and an epicenter of Buddhist art production. The present figure displays a muscular body and a dhoti with long looping pleats - typical traits of the Hellenistic features of Gandhara - while the flesh contours, clipped waist and large almond-shaped eyes suggest influences from the Gupta sculptural school. Compare the trifoliate crown, beaded necklace, facial features and corporal modeling with a Swat Valley bronze figure of Shakyamuni in the Metropolitan Museum of Art (1985.77). The present example is testament to a unique historical moment from which only a small number of bronzes survive. Cover and illustration, U. Von Schroeder, Inda-Tibetan Bronzes, Hong Kong, 1981, p.91, fig. 9H.


18 Dakini Vajravarahi 金剛亥母

Circa 12th century 12世紀 Tibet, Pala Style 西藏,波羅風格 Bronze alloy with semi- precious stone inlay and cold gold 9 1/2 in. (24 cm.) 銅合金嵌寶石和金 Provenance:出處: A private Swiss collection 瑞士私人珍藏 Sothebys, New York, March 19th, 2008, lot 301 紐約蘇富比,2008年3月19日,拍品號301 Koller, Zurich, 1986 蘇黎世Koller拍賣行,1986年 The dancing dakini poised on the toes of her left foot with right leg raised, Blending elegance and power, the robust goddess centers her weight effortlessly on flexed toes, achieving an accomplished pose. The sow’s head that identifies her as the consort of the great transformative deity Samvara projects boldly to the right. Holding the kartrika up in her right hand and a kapala in her left, a skull tiara, necklace of pendant jewels and a heavy garland of severed heads hung on twisted rope, a savage expression fixed on the painted face, hair painted orange and a sow’s head emerging, the figure cast in a lustrous alloy with fine patina. This powerful image of Vajravarahi embodies the intensity of eastern Indian tantrism that was the spiritual inspiration for many Tibetans from the eleventh century onwards. The dakini instructs her initiates with a commanding scowl, sharp fangs emerging from the corners of her mouth. Vajravarahi embodies both passion and compassion, and represents the essence of Wisdom, the female prajna. A chilling dichotomy pervades the sculpture, with freshly severed human heads hanging from the shoulders while precious jewels hang from her slender neck, the voluptuous female form at odds with the savagely bared fangs and steely gaze. The sculpture, cast in a sublime alloy is inset with colourful semi-precious stones, inspired by the bronzes of Pala India of the eleventh and twelfth centuries, from where the cult of the deity herself originates.

She is also the only goddess in Tibet to reincarnate on earth, serving as the abbot of Samding monastery, near Lhasa. Compare the posture and details such as the severed heads hung on twisted rope with a twelfth century Indian bronze Vajradaka, see Ulrich von Schroeder, Buddhist Sculptures in Tibet, Hong Kong, 2001, p. 295, figs. 98EF, and for gem-set Pala period copper alloy sculpture, cf. a series of eleventh or twelfth century Tathagatas, see ibid, pp. 250-259, pls. 78-82.

此尊左腳點地、右腳彎提 如舞蹈姿,右側頭部長出 野豬頭的空行母,為金剛亥 母,是佛教金刚乘本尊之 一,胜乐金刚与大悲红 观音之明妃。其形像是 一面二臂三眼,頭戴五 髏冠,身材如美少女, 飽滿勻稱,面相微忿含 笑,眼睛圓睜,開嘴露牙。 右手高舉鉞刀,左手持捧顱缽, 身戴瓔珞及骷髏幔。金剛亥母主尊光澤 柔潤,面部鎏金,金水鋥亮,頭髮漆鮮亮 橘色,項鏈及腰帶均鑲有寶石,整體造型 極為美麗,十分別緻。


19

Maitreya

Circa 2nd/3rd century, Kushan Period Ancient region of Gandhara Blue-gray Schist 41 x 18 x 9 in. (104 x 46 x 23 cm) Provenance: Private French collection, acquired circa 1930 with the assistance of former Iranian prime minister Ebrahim Hakimi (1871-1959) Documentation and full write-up available upon request

Scripture states that the oceans will recede, sins of attachment and desire will run rampant, and dharma will be all but forgotten. This is the time when Maitreya will leave the heavenly realm of Tusita and make his appearance on the physical realm of earth (Jambudvipa) to restore the path of

enlightenment. Established as the Bodhisattva of the future, he goes by many names; Jampa in Tibet, Maithree in Sinhala, Metteyya in Pali, Di-Lac in Vietnamese, and Maitreya in Sanskrit (literally translating to loving-kindness). Seated gracefully in lalitasana upon a richly embellished throne and backed by a large aureole, his left arm resting palm upward on his lap elegantly dangling a lotiform Kundika in the shape of a down turned lotus bud teeming with the elixir of life. The strong right hand raised in abhayamudra with a webbed membrane to represent his divine status. Deeply incised and stylized folds of his sanghati offer striking contrast when elegantly draped over his left shoulder, fully exposing the right shoulder and pectoral. His rounded and gentle face downcast, almond shaped eyes surmounted by smoothly arching and deeply formed brows with an urna in the center. His serene expression flanked by pendulous pierced earlobes. Atop the head of Maitreya rests a rare turban, lithe with floral motif, uncommon imagery eloquently alluding to Ksatriyan origins. Elaborately adorned in jewelry he boasts various necklaces including a thick inset choker along with talismanic armlets, and a sling of capsules containing various tantric incantations and prayers. Eloquently carved with sensuous chappals, Hellenistic roots are readily apparent. Life sized, sporting a broad and muscular torso, this sculpture masterfully embodies the powerful yet benevolent nature of Maitreya.


卡普爾畫廊 佛經言,法欲滅時,五逆濁世,魔道興盛。如是之後,數千萬歲,彌勒菩薩當下世作佛,建立人間淨土。作為三世 佛之一未來佛的彌勒菩薩(Maitreya),名號譯由梵文,意為慈心。 作為卡普爾畫廊重要收藏作品之一,這尊“卡普爾彌勒菩薩” 造型優美,保存完整,是貴霜王朝時期犍陀羅風格彌 勒菩薩塑像中難得的典範。 卡普爾彌勒菩薩呈放鬆坐姿優雅地坐在蓮花寶座之上, 背靠光環,雙腿曲右展左,右腿單座,左腿向下舒展,盡顯安 逸的王家氣度。左臂彎曲憩于膝上,掌心向上指間懸一蓮花形淨瓶,右手施無畏印 。菩薩面容圓潤靜謐,杏眼高鼻,眉間白 毫,雙耳垂肩飾有耳璫。袒露上身,披著天衣,天衣纏繞左肩懸垂而下,衣褶厚重於腰腹前成一道流暢律動的大圓弧型衣紋垂 掛。端詳的表情與健碩的形體形成鮮明對比,不僅體現了菩薩的高貴不凡,典雅俊美也體現了菩薩慈善的本性。卡普爾彌勒菩 薩嚴飾項鏈瓔珞、臂釧、腕釧、小箱盒護身符以及細膩華美的敷巾冠飾,皆是古代印度剎帝利的贵族地位的標記。 早期的佛教藝術遵從印度無佛像傳統,避免直接用人像來表現佛陀的形象。 無佛像時代藝術風格形成的真正原因至今 仍未有定論,拒上部座佛教經典記載,早期佛教戒律間接禁止了擬人化塑像,然而無論是出於意識形態或是美學考慮,值得提 出的是這一缺乏擬人化造像的特殊藝術階段絕不是由於工匠的創造局限性或是工藝的落後而造成。 最早的佛教象征符號,包 括佛塔,舍利,腳印,法論等,廣泛存在於公元前3世紀印度北部,至公元1世紀前後貴霜王朝時期,擬人化塑像技術開始在犍 陀羅地區傳播(又有學者爭議說秣菟羅地區),逐漸取代佛教象征符號的宗教地位成為信眾敬拜的主要對象。彌勒菩薩及其他 眾多的擬人化菩薩塑像皆誕生於這一時期。 犍陀羅,位於今日阿富汗東部和巴基斯坦西北部一帶,地處中亞、波斯以及印度次大陸的交通樞紐,是東西方文明的 交通要要道,同時也是古代重要的兵家必爭之地。公元前326年,亞歷山大大帝率軍入侵犍陀羅地區,建立許多殖民地并傳入 希臘文化。自公元前180年至公元10年間,希臘國王更是建立了跨越兩個世紀的印度-希臘王國統治。希臘文化及塑像技術的傳 播很快使佛教進入佛像崇拜時代,同時也造就了犍陀羅獨具一格印度希臘化的藝術風格。 貴霜王朝(公元前2世紀至公元3世紀)是犍陀羅藝術的鼎 盛時期。其疆域自鹹海流域綿延至今烏茲別克斯坦,阿富汗 ,巴基斯坦及北印度地區。受希臘文化殖民影響,早期貴霜王朝塑像多用於體現傳統希臘神話人物故事,由於迦膩色伽一世( 公元127年-公元151年)在位期間鼎力宣揚佛教,具有濃厚希臘化風格的佛教塑像因此應運而生,成為貴霜王朝時代主要的藝 術主題。 迦膩色伽一世在位時期極大的弘揚了說一切有部部派佛教, 而彌勒菩薩敬拜傳統正是發展於此時期,因此彌勒菩薩塑 像在貴霜時期犍陀羅藝術中並非罕見。 據說一切有部《中阿含經》中記載,彌勒菩薩現居於兜率天內,將繼釋迦牟尼佛之後 遞補佛位。待兜率天四千歲滿,彌勒菩薩即將下生人間傳法,所以世人尊稱其為當來下生彌勒尊佛。 分辨佛像需要豐富的宗教知識,通常可以通過手印,坐姿,手持物,面部及服飾等特征來辨認。以卡普爾彌勒菩薩為 例,其頭戴敷巾,眼瞼低垂,眉間白毫,雙耳垂肩,蓮花寶座,左手執淨瓶,右手施無畏印等特征皆暗示了其彌勒菩薩的身份 。卡普爾菩薩放鬆的坐姿起源于貴霜時期犍陀羅地區,是同時期半跏思惟坐(參見附圖3,4,5,6)的一種罕見的變式,對 後 世中國佛教藝術中遊戲坐的發展有著深遠的影響。卡普爾菩薩右腿彎曲抬起,左腳單腳穿鞋的造型具有濃厚的希臘風格,在希 臘統治之前的印度未有先例。右手抬起的姿勢可追溯到古代希臘羅馬藝術中對聖人形象的塑造,神態也帶著西方太陽神阿波羅 的英拔風采,沉靜肅穆,體現了清澈明淨的精神境界。衣料質感厚重的希臘羅馬式披袍及裝飾華美的涼鞋等非印度的服飾特征 也體現了古希臘的美學原則與寫實技巧。 以佛教美術史專家約翰漢庭頓(John Huntington)在其著作《犍陀羅彌勒信仰與彌勒圖像研究》一書中對犍陀羅地 區彌勒造像特征的總結為佐證,我們可以準確地確認該塑像彌勒菩薩的身份: “……立像通常左手自然下垂,淨瓶懸掛於拇指與食指間,或懸掛於食指與中指間以拇指蓋於瓶口……坐像通常右 手施無畏印,左手或施類似禪定印懸掛淨瓶於跏趺坐前,或手掌向上執淨瓶憩於左腿之上……另一彌勒造型特徵見於 沿襲自印度傳統的敷巾冠飾,敷巾樣式不拘一格,常有寶石點綴其中…… 最後一種廣為人知卻存世不多的彌勒造像形 式即為彌勒以放鬆的遊戲坐姿勢於兜率天講經說法形象……” 該彌勒塑像周身嚴飾瓔珞珠寶,因此可知其尚未證得佛果,任以菩薩身份駐於人世。彌勒菩薩與觀音菩薩造型相似, 若把該菩薩像左手懸掛蓮花形淨瓶單純視作一朵蓮花,則該菩薩像可被視為觀音菩薩。然而因為貴霜時期以蓮花形象雕刻彌勒 手持淨瓶是一種常見造型形式(參見圖3,5,6,7,8,9,10),因此這一推測並不成立。 卡普爾彌勒菩薩周身呈灰藍色片岩材質。法國佛學研究專家亞爾弗雷·佛顯(Alfred Foucher)於1895-1987考察期 間首次確認了這一少見的灰藍色片岩產自今巴基斯坦偏東沙巴茲加希地區馬哈班山附近,其他地方極少發現。因此可大致推斷 造型完美的卡普爾彌勒菩薩曾被供奉於馬哈班山麥哈桑達寺(monastery Mekhasanda)內。 隨著大乘佛教的傳播,獨特的犍陀羅塑像和造型技術也經由絲綢之路傳入中國。六朝時期(公元220-589年)由於 政局動盪戰亂頻繁,彌勒菩薩自天界下凡普度眾生的形象因此深入民心成為主要的崇拜對象,菩薩造型中常見的遊戲坐也在中 國佛教塑像,尤其在後來的銅像中得到極大發展。公元7世紀前後,佛教在東亞普及,彌勒菩薩繼而逐漸成為韓國與日本佛教 中的主要供奉對象。 儘管由於犍陀羅塑像多無銘款,使其很難準確斷代,但通過一定的歷史知識積累以及對塑像造型特征的分析,我們可 以確定這一具有希臘藝術風格的灰藍片岩雕像歷史可追溯到一至三世紀間貴霜王朝時期。 其典型的彌勒菩薩造像特征進一步 使其確認為兜天帥彌勒菩薩像。


20

A serene figure of Padmapani 蓮華手菩薩

Circa 12th Century, Pala Period 波羅王朝時期,12世紀 Northeast India 印度東北部 Bronze with silver and copper inlay 銅嵌銀和紅銅 3 7/8 in. (10 cm.) Provenance: 出處: From a private European collection 歐洲私人珍藏 Seated in rajalilasana on a lotus base with his right arm elegantly resting on his raised right leg while the left holds a lotus stem, clad in a dhoti richly inlaid with silver and copper medallions, adorned with silver- and copper-inlaid jewelry and a sacred thread, his face with a benevolent expression with silver-inlaid eyes and urna, his hair styled in a high chignon topped by a knop, centered with a stupa and secured by a tiara The Pala

dynasty, which flourished from the 8th-12th century in northeastern India, was one of the last strongholds of Buddhism, as the country became increasingly Hindu by the 11th century. As Buddhism continued to flourish under the Pala rulers, there was a surge in travel among Buddhist practitioners and laypeople to sacred sites associated with Buddha Shakyamuni. With this came the expanded propagation of Buddhist texts and religious icons, which were easily transported by pilgrims. Bronze sculpture which were especially portable, played a crucial role in the propagation of Buddhist iconography throughout the region. As a result, Pala bronze work achieved an exceptional level of sophistication and to this day, is revered as one of the golden eras of the Indian sculptural tradition.

This sublime figure of Padmapani, the Bodhisattva of compassion, is emblematic of the artistic mastery of Pala period bronze work. Rendered with jewel-like sensitivity, the god sits languidly atop a throne of lush lotus petals. The body is modeled with exceptional naturalism and sensuality. From the fleshy toes, to the slightly bulging belly and exaggerated curve of the torso and shoulders, every detail is rendered with a softness rarely captured in metal. The abundance of shimmering silver and copper inlay suggest this sculpture was an object of particularly special veneration. Compare with another Pala period bronze image of Maitreya in the British Museum, London (U. von Schroeder, IndoTibetan Bronzes, 1981, p.282-283. cat no.69D).

此尊菩薩身姿曼妙婀娜,右膝彎曲,左足半趺,右臂自然彎 曲置於膝上,左手握蓮花撐於左膝后 ,自在坐於雙層蓮花寶座之上。身著天衣,斜披絡腋,佩 飾瓔珞臂釧,耳鐺垂肩,胸前項鏈醒目, 以銀及紅銅間隔鑲嵌。菩薩表情祥和靜謐,雙眼及白毫嵌 銀,髮髻高綰,頭戴王冠,頂飾佛塔。 蓮華手菩薩,梵語:Padmapani,是最早的觀音形象,印度 地區的蓮華手菩薩,手持蓮花是最重 要的特徵。 此尊蓮華手菩薩呈現了明顯的波羅風格,身材曲 線流暢圓潤,薄衣貼體,造型自然優 美,肢體細節細膩柔美,是波羅時期銅像中難得的典範。 波羅王朝,是8-12世紀統治印度東北部的一個重要王朝,也是 自11世紀印度教逐漸盛行后最後一 個信奉佛教的印度王室。 在王室鼎力弘揚佛法下,佛教信眾 中產生了遊歷朝聖與釋迦摩尼佛有關 聖地的熱潮,佛教典籍以及塑像也隨朝聖者傳播至印度其 他地區。由於其便於攜帶,銅像在波羅 王朝時期佛教的傳播過程中起到至關重要的作用,因此在 造像藝術性方面也達到前所未有的高度 。


21 Parnashavari

Circa 10th/11th Century, Pala dynasty North Eastern India or Bangladesh Phyllite 40 x 18 in. [100.3 x 45.7 cm] Provenance: Ex-Collection Wasim Zaman, Waltham, MA, USA before 2001 Associated with the mysterious Shavari tribe of ancient India, the Forest Goddess, Parnashavari, with three faces and six hands, wears a skirt and a garland of thatched green leaves. She is associated with jungle tribes and the practice of healing, particularly curing contagious diseases. In the Himalayas and Tibet when a large group of people congregate to receive extended religious teachings, it is common to first give the initiation and blessing for the Forest Goddess in order to stave off sickness. The Forest Goddess is an example of an Indian folk deity absorbed into Tantric Buddhism. She is a popular practice and has numerous forms with varying emphases. For the practitioner of Esoteric Buddhist meditation, the Forest Goddess is an emanation of the Buddha, and her special characteristic or metaphor is that of sickness and healing. Parnashavari (‘Wild Leafy One’) is mentioned in the Hevajra Tantra together with four other great goddesses, with whom she forms a pentad of deities called ‘Wisdoms’. The term refers to the role played in tantric Buddhism by the female element, corresponding to Wisdom and Emptiness, which have to be joined with Compassion and Means, as symbolised by the male element, in order to allow the practitioner to reach enlightenment as well as Buddhahood. The development and success of the late esoteric schools of Indian Buddhism – whose doctrines were taught in Tibet both by Tibetan teachers who had studied them in India and by Indian masters that were invited to the Land of Snows – is reflected in the growing importance that female deities acquired within

the Buddhist pantheon. Like Hevajra, Parnashavari belongs to the family of the cosmic Buddha Akshobhya, whose very emblem, the vajra, she holds in her upper right hand. The Sadhanamala, a collection of invocations addressed to Buddhist deities, describes her as a splendid young girl dressed in leaves, but bedecked with all the ornaments befitting important goddesses: a crown, earrings, necklaces, armlets, bracelets and anklets in gold. Parnashavari is portrayed here in her manifestation with three heads, each with three eyes, the expression on her main face being neither peaceful nor wrathful, while she grins and chuckles with her two side faces. She stands on a lunar disc supported by a huge lotus flower in a threatening attitude, slightly bent on her right knee in a militant posture, removing or tying up obstacles with the weapons and attributes she holds in her hands: the vajra, a bow, an arrow, a rope, an axe, and a leafy branch. Parnashavari’s diadem, richly decorated with vegetable motifs, the circlet of leaves she wears around her neck, her thatched skirt of fresh leaves, as well as her belly, slightly sagging, betray the origin of her iconography, which should be traced to the early preBuddhist Indian pantheon peopled with deities symbolising the world of nature, including trees and rivers: yakshas, yakshis, nymphs and driads. Her representation follows Indian iconography as well as aesthetics, according to which the human body reaches its perfect stage of development at the age of sixteen, when its energy, almost exploding, is just about contained within the surface, which appears almost plump, like a blooming flower, at its last stage of extension. -Himalayan Art resources


22 The Vasudhara Mandala 財源天母壇城 Dated 1365 年 Signed: JASARAJA JIRILA 簽名 Nepal 尼泊爾 Ground mineral pigment on cloth 41 by 34 in. (104 by 86.4cm.)

Provenance: 來源: Doris Wiener, New York, circa 1970 Doris Wiener 1970年代私人收藏於紐約 The Collection of Stuart Cary Welch: Sothebys, London, May 31st, 2011, lot 84 2011年5月31日經倫敦蘇富比Stuart Cary Welch珍藏專場拍出(拍品84號) Exhibited: 展覽: Nepal: Where the Gods are Young, The Asia Society, New York, 1975 Himalayas: An Aesthetic Adventure, The Art Institute of Chicago, 2003 Literature: 文獻: Thanka Art, pl.T.; Art News, vol.73, March 1974, no.3, p.97 Pal 1975, no.43 Pal 1978b, pl.72 Pal 2003, no.32, p.60 Casey, Jain “An Aesthetic Adventure at the Art Institute of Chicago, 2003 no. 7 Beguin, Gilles “Buddhist Art. An Historical and Cultural Journey”, 2009. No. 1 p. 246, 250, back cover

Inscription: om sristanyayaksi,srimani // sreyostu samvat 485 magha krsna titithau yokoche khila xx paksa khadvasurisa datara krta iya vasudhara pata // acaju srijulo vahara raju jusana vamtasohasake dajaka guthisamuhaske dunta juro // xxx ju jasaraja jirilasyam liksita jasapta subhamastu // “The great milk Yakshi, the great Jewel. May it be auspicious. In the Year 485 [C.E. 1365] on the Third day or tithi of the dark half of The month of Magha [January-February] the inhabitants of Yokoche ... Paksa, and Khadvasuri, The donors, commissioned this painting of Vasudhara. The priest teacher (acaju, in Sanskrit, acarya) sri Julo, Vahara, and Raju are ... responsible for establishing the Guthi. Jasaraja Jirila painted (liksita) this painting (jasapta)” This sumptuous Vasudhara mandala is the earliest recorded Nepalese paubha that contains a date within its dedicatory inscription, and was painted in 1365 by Jasaraja Jirila. It may be assumed that Jasaraja Jirila was a Newar from the Kathmandu valley. This work has been recognized by several scholars and connoisseurs as

one of the finest and most important of the relatively small corpus of early Buddhist and Hindu paintings from the Kathmandu Valley. Details are drawn with consummate finesse, charm and sensitivity, no more so than in the animated scenes of

worship, music and dance below. Choice pigments are used throughout creating a vibrant palette, with subtle shades complimenting the predominant vermillion and midnight

blue that define the early painting of Nepal. The ordered geometric schema belies the dynamism in the structure of the painting, with a sense of radiating expansion from the calm sanctuary at its centre. The distinctive shrines with cusped arches at the ordinal points are a common feature of Vasudhara mandalas from this early period, cf. a mandala of circa 1400 in a private collection, see Pal 2003, cat. no.33. And the overall format is typical for Newar painting with the inclusion of ritual scenes and portraits of the painting’s donors below; and with each framed episode from the Suchandra avadana and the Great Miracles depicted with alternating and acutely contrasting backgrounds, deep red to dark blue or white, a conventional Nepalese device used already in 12th century manuscript cover illustration, see Zwalf 1985, pls.169, 172. A consecratory practice peculiar to Nepalese painting, of placing a tablet of gold beneath the painted surface at the heart of the principal deity, may explain the darkened square seen on the upper body of Vasudhara, see


Bruce-Gardner 1975, pp.378-81. The Buddhist goddess Vasudhara is worshipped in Nepal as bestower of prosperity, and is depicted at the center of the painting holding emblems of wealth and abundance and symbols of the Buddhist faith. The scenes in the side registers and the lower of the two upper registers refer to episodes from the legend of Suchandra whose son stole bricks from a stupa: the sacrilegious act resulted in the breakdown of the family and the loss of their wealth. Suchandra supplicated the Buddha with meagre offerings, all that he could muster in his straightened circumstances. The Buddha advised that he worshipped Vasudhara, and his wealth was restored. The story promotes the devotional worship of the goddess and is often included in Nepalese Vasudhara mandalas, see Pal 1975, p.82. Indeed Vasudhara is one of the most popular goddesses in Nepal. According to mythology she is the consort of the king of the nature spirits who are invoked for bountiful harvests: Vasudhara is traditionally depicted holding a sheaf of grain in one of her left hands. Furthermore the inscription pays homage to Vasudhara as sristanyayakshi, srimani, the great milk yakshi, the great jewel, equating wealth and prosperity with the ownership of cattle and the bountiful production of milk, see Pal 2003, p.280 for the translation and interpretation of the inscription by Gautama V. Vajracharya. This exquisite Vasudhara mandala was painted during the reign of the Nepalese Malla king Jayarjunadeva (r.13611382), a period of relative calm in Nepal following recent punishing Muslim raids, and remains a document to the artistic genius that made Newar artists famed and sought-after throughout the Himalayan region, and as far afield as the Chinese imperial courts of the Yuan, Ming and Qing dynasties. The goddess of wealth with the six-armed seated in lalitasana on a lotus at the centre of the mandala palace, holding a bound volume of the prajnaparamitasutra, a sheaf of grain and a kalasha in her left hands, her right with bountiful gestures and one supporting a triratna emblem, a tall torana arch rising behind with vyala at either side supported by hamsa, two makara

above emerging from swirling waters with the snake-tails of naga appearing from the mouth of the kirtimukha mask at the apex, all supported by a lion throne within a cusped niche strewn with gold, gems, caskets and jewelled emblems poured from sacks held by corpulent attendants above, with seated bodhisattvas to either side of Vasudhara, Avalokiteshvara to her right and Vajrapani to her left, the central shrine bordered on four sides by registers of deities together with vases of abundance and gems on red, green, blue and white scrollwork grounds, with an outer concentric register of deities and kalasha vases and attendants bearing sacks of gems, all on a red scrollwork ground leading to the four elaborate palace gates beneath vajra-form arches, the palace set in midnight blue space contained within a circular multicolored lotus and flame border, with cusped arches surmounted by stupas at the outer corners housing shrines to the four-armed Prajnaparamita upper left and multi-armed Pancha Raksha goddesses with kneeling adorants and auspicious emblems, and with a final concentric register depicting scenes from the Suchandra avadana on three sides, and episodes from the life of the Buddha below including the miraculous birth, the disturbance of the Buddha’s meditation by cowherds, the worship of the Buddha by monkeys, the subjugation of the rogue elephant Nalagiri, the assault of Mara, the first teaching, the miracle of multiplication at Srivasti, the audience with the Hindu gods Indra, Shiva, Brahma and Vishnu, and the Parinirvana, the uppermost register with Maitreya at the left, Shadakshari, Vairochana, Akshobya, Ratnasambhava, Amitabha, Amoghasiddhi, Avalokiteshvara, and Manjushri to the right, and the lower register depicting scenes of ritual and dance to music, with the donor family depicted to the right beneath a two-line Newari inscription. “Perhaps the most striking element, however, is the remarkably successful use of the intense, Nepali red that seems to burst before our eyes like a lush spray of poinsettias.” – Dr. Pratapaidtya Pal, Nepal l Where the Gods are Young, 1975

Holy lady, source of all blessings and well-being, Queen of riches and glory, Vasudhara, Bestower of all desired good fortune, I bow to you, noble lady, wishfulfilling mandala. Font of cloudlike heaps of possessions and all desirable objects, Sporting on a water-crystal mandala, Resting on the corolla of a manyhued lotus, I render homage to you, holy Vasudhara. Beautiful as a golden mountain, Adorned by two hands - wisdom and skillfulness, Bestower of endless treasure to living beings, I worship you, sublime Vasudhara.


題字: om sristanyayaksi,srimani // sreyostu samvat 485 magha krsna titithau yokoche khila xx paksa khadvasurisa datara krta iya vasudhara pata // acaju srijulo vahara raju jusana vamtasohasake dajaka guthisamuhaske dunta juro // xxx ju jasaraja jirilasyam liksita jasapta subhamastu // 這幅精美絕倫的財源天母壇城是現知 存世最早的尼泊爾布繪藝術,稱為博 巴(paubha)。博巴通常會 在下方位置描繪供養人畫像和題字, 因此我們可以準確判斷這幅布畫由加 德滿都谷紐瓦麗畫師Jasaraja Jirila繪製於1365年。關於Jasaraja Jirila的記錄甚少,但他巧奪天工的作 品是早期紐瓦麗博巴作品中最精美 最重要的典範之作。這幅博巴秉承了 早期尼泊爾佛教繪畫傳統,畫面整體 色調艷麗,以朱紅及子夜藍為主 ,畫工精細,富麗考究,人物造型生 動形象,飽滿富有張力。構圖嚴謹又 富於變化,祥和中透出莊嚴之氣 ,令人望之心安。畫面構圖嚴格遵循 宗教儀軌以及紐瓦麗繪畫風格,平面 幾何形狀構圖中描繪了主尊,諸 佛菩薩,供養人,儀式場景,佛教譬 喻等內容。 財源天母,是財寶本尊之一,尊於六 道中專管人道世間之財富,並為五路 財神之佛母。依不同傳承化 現一面二臂或一面六臂,手持寶瓶, 如意寶,果穗等,以種種珍寶瓔珞嚴 飾,是尼泊爾地區最供奉的主要 神像之一。該壇城中央主尊六臂財源 天母以遊戲坐單腿彎曲坐於蓮花臺座 之上,左邊上手持般若經卷,中 手持麥穗,下手持寶瓶,右邊三手持 寶器、施手印。臺座背靠拱門,飾有 神獸,中央頂部饕餮口吐蛇尾龍 頭,象徵著無上威德。臺座左右上方 各有兩位協侍肩抗寶袋向下傾注吉祥 如意寶,底部左右兩旁各有白色 瑞獅,周圍錦飾金銀珠寶。醒目的拱 形臺座是同時期財源天母壇城中常見 特徵(參見cf. a mandala of circa 1400 in a private collection, see Pal 2003, cat. no.33. ),具有濃厚 尼泊爾風格。財源天母左右各坐金 剛薩 埵和觀世音菩薩,其外兩圈描繪諸尊 聖、協侍及寶瓶,四面各有一帷幔錦 飾城門立於金剛杵形雙拱下。

壇城內方外圓,外圓部分由三道 圍牆構成,自外向內依次為火焰 牆、金剛牆、蓮花牆。其中,火 焰牆 由五種顏色表現的32個火輪組 成,象徵出離心;金剛牆由金剛 杵首尾相連組成,象徵保護行者 不受外在與 內在諸魔的障礙;蓮花牆由64 瓣蓮花組成,象徵菩提心,如蓮 花出污泥而不染。四隅各有一宮 殿,左上方 宮殿內坐四臂般若佛母,其他三 隅各坐一守護佛母由協侍跪與殿 前。圓環外圈方形邊框下沿記錄 了釋迦摩 尼佛生平神跡故事,左右及上邊 框紅藍背景交替記錄了月賢王家 財散盡,後悉聽佛陀教誨虔誠供 養財源天 母,終重獲財富的傳說。這一提 倡供奉財源天母的佛教故事常見 於尼泊爾地區財源天母壇城繪畫 中(見Pal 1975, p.82),而這一分格插畫 手法也自12世紀起就沿用於尼泊 爾地區(見Zwalf 1985 , pls.169, 172)。 博巴上沿有一排坐像如來和菩 薩,從左至右依次為彌勒菩薩,

四臂觀音,大日如來,阿閃佛,寶 生佛 ,阿彌陀佛,不空成就佛,觀音菩 薩和文殊菩薩。下沿五幅圖畫描繪 了歌舞敬拜等儀式場景及供養人 畫像 ,其上兩行紐瓦麗文字題詞保存完 好,記錄了畫師姓名及繪製年份。 題字部分又把財源天母尊稱為 sristanyayakshi, srimani, 藥 叉女等。 (題字翻譯及釋義見 Gautama V. Vajracharya著作 Pal 2003, p.280)。 出於神聖的信仰之情,尼泊爾佛教 工匠畫師常會於畫面主尊畫像下層 墊鋪金箔,因此我們推測這也許 是主尊財源天母上身顏色較深的原 因。 (見Bruce-Gardner 1975, pp.378-81)。 這幅絕妙的財源天母壇城繪於14 世紀相對和平穩定的馬拉王朝 Jayarjunadeva (r.1361-1382) 統 治時期 ,由於其體現了早期紐瓦麗繪畫高 超的藝術水平及重要藝術價值,珍 貴無比,使其成為中國元、明、 清歷 代皇室收藏之稀有佳作。


23

The Elder Arhat Kanakavatsa 十六尊者之迦諾迦伐蹉尊者唐卡

Circa 18th Century 18世紀 Tibet 西藏 Ground mineral pigments on cloth 著錄:喜馬拉雅藝術資源網,編號36292 36 1/4 x 24 in.(92 x 61 cm.) Provenance: 出處: Koller Zurich, June 1978, lot 46 1978年6月由蘇黎世Koller拍賣行拍出,拍品號46

The seventh of the sixteen great Arhats adorned in a red and orange patchwork robe heightened with gold leaf details. Seen seated on a lush green landscape, surrounded by trees, rocks, and a muttering stream: features characteristically Chinese in style, a syncretic attribute derived from the intimate relationship between China and Tibet created by the conversion of Kublai Khan, the Mongol ruler of China, to Tibetan Buddhism. The haloed and mature saint with eyes opened wide and gazing intently as he holds a jeweled lasso in his hands, according to the legends the jewels serve to give wisdom and

understanding of Buddhist doctrine and were a gift of the Nagas. In the richly colored sky sit the sun and moon. In “Art of Tibet: A Catalogue of the Los Angeles County Museum of Art Collection, June 1984, pg. 137, plate 4” Dr. Pratapaditya Pal references an early Arhat thangka, possibly of Kanakavatsa, with heavy Chinese influences. In this thangka an attendant figure is positioned offering a bowl to the Arhat. Dr. Pal explains that this iconography can also be seen in an eleventh century description of an Arhat series by an unknown Song master, in which “Kanakavatsa is worshipped by the King of Kashmir who sits on the right-hand side, the Arhat makes a mudra. Before him a flower bowl is placed…” Dr. Pal explains that “The kneeling figure in this thangka (LACMA), wearing the rich figured silk and offering the lapis

lazuli flower, may be the “barbarian” king of Kashmir who is said to have visited Kanakavatsa…” One might postulate that the attendant figure in this thangka may also be the “barbarian king of Kashmir” offering a stylized vessel in homage. “Arhats are the saints of Buddhism, followers of the Buddha who have attained freedom from ignorance and suffering. In the Hîyâna school of Buddhism, the Arhat was considered to be the Buddhist ideal, but in later Mahāyāna Buddhism this role was taken over by the Bodhisattva. Arhats remained important in Tibetan Buddhism as protectors of the doctrine. Prayers were said to them and they were credited with many miracles.”– British Museum

這幅唐卡表現的是十六羅漢中位列第七的迦諾迦伐蹉尊者。唐卡中尊者身著橘紅金縷僧袍,右腿 單盤,左腿垂足坐於青綠山水之間,以山石松木為伴,頭頂天空中祥雲遍布,日月同輝,座前湍 湍溪澗間浮有吉祥如意寶。自元世祖忽必烈定藏傳佛教為國教以後,漢藏文化交流頻繁,藏地唐 卡繪畫技法上吸收了青綠山水的技巧,層次豐富,暈染妥帖。尊者背靠光環,目光炯炯有神,雙 手提一串有珍寶的繩索。據傳說珍寶和繩索由神龍所賜,庇佑修行人智慧增長,究竟佛法。 在《西藏藝術:洛杉磯縣里美術館珍藏圖錄》一書里(1984年6月,137頁,彩圖4), 知名學者帕爾博士(Pratapaditya Pal)提到一幅漢風濃郁的早期羅漢唐卡。唐卡中表現 的很有可能為迦諾迦伐蹉尊者,旁邊有侍從手托供盤。帕爾博士指出,類似的造像形式早在11 世紀宋代就有文字記載 “迦諾迦伐蹉尊者施手印,右側坐有敬拜尊者的克什米爾國王,面前 有蓮 花寶盤……”,而《西藏藝術:洛杉磯縣里美術館珍藏圖錄》中收錄的羅漢唐卡中 “身著 艷 麗絲袍,手獻藍寶石花的跪像可能是敬拜迦諾迦伐蹉尊者的克什米爾國王……”。由此 可推測 這幅迦諾迦伐蹉尊者唐卡中手托寶瓶的協侍极有可能為克什米爾國王。 羅漢為梵文Arhat (音譯阿羅漢)的簡稱,意為應真,最初意指釋迦摩尼佛的得道弟 子。 南傳佛教認為證得阿羅漢果為佛教徒修行的最高目標,然而在大乘佛教中這一目標是 以修 行菩 薩行來實現。阿羅漢以其住世護法的特質在藏傳佛教中也廣受供奉。


24

A fine thangka of Shakyamuni

Circa 18th Century Tibet Ground mineral pigments and gold on cloth Image: 24 x 15 in. (61 x 38 cm) Framed: 31 1/2 x 21 1/2 in. (80 x 55 cm) Provenance: Collection of late John Walden (1925-2013)

Seated in dhyanasana on a lotus base, his hands in bhumisparsamudra, in the left an alms bowl, dressed in multicolored patchwork robes, the face with serene expression backed by a nimbus and aureole, all surmounting Shadakshari and Vajrasattva below. Born in the Shakya race through skillful means and compassion; destroying the army of Mara who was unable to be destroyed by others; with a body radiant like a mountain of gold. Homage to you, King of Shakya." (Sakya liturgical verse)(HAR).

Shakyamuni Buddha is the founder of the Buddhist religion. He lived and taught in India in the sixth century B.C.E., a time of burgeoning religious and philosophical thought from Greece to China. Born as the crown prince of the great Shakya Kingdom, the young Siddhartha Gautama was groomed to be a king in accordance with the wishes of his royal father. However, when he was about 29 years old, he learned of the deep suffering experienced in life by people. He left his palace life, gave up his fine garments and jewelry in order to find the causes of this suffering and the means to overcome it. After about six years of study, selfdeprivation, and deep meditation he finally realized his goal. He had become an enlightened one (a Buddha). After this, he is said to have walked to a deer park in Sarnath (Benares) on the outskirts of Varanasi in India. Here he gave his first sermon, an event which is called the turning of the wheel of Buddhist law (Dharmacakra). The wheel as a metaphor for Buddha’s teaching will become a prevalent symbol in Buddhist .


25

White Tara

Circa 18th Century Tibet Ground Mineral pigments on cloth Image: 15 3/4 x 10 1/8 in. (40 x 25.5 cm)

Seated on a lotus platform, her left thumb and forefinger holding the stem of an utpala to the heart with the petals blossoming at the ear, the right bestowing charity held across the knee. In this white form of the

deity she appears specifically for the purpose of bestowing longevity - long life and health. Revered in all schools of Tibetan Buddhism it can probably be said that Tara is second in popularity only to Avalokiteshvara. Her practices are found in all classes of tantric literature of both the old Nyingma traditions and the new Sarma schools from India. “...with a hue white like an autumn moon - radiant like a stainless crystal jewel, shining with rays of light, one face, two hands, and having three eyes; with the conduct of having sixteen years of age. The right hand is in the mudra of supreme generosity; the left holds with the thumb and forefinger the stem of a white utpala to the heart with the petals blossoming at the ear. Representing the buddhas of the three times the single stem is divided into three, in the middle is a blossoming flower, the right in fruition, the left in the form of a bud; adorned with various jewel ornaments; having various silk upper garments and a lower garment of red silk; seated with the legs in vajra posture. The palms of the hands and feet each have an eye - the seven eyes of pristine awareness.� (Sachen Ngagwang Kunga Lodro, 1729-1783).


26

Hayagriva

Circa 18 th Century Tibet Ground mineral pigments on cloth Image: 29 1/4 x 20 in. (75 x 51 cm) Provenance: From a Private Italian Collection

Hayagriva is a Tantric Buddhist meditational deity that can be found in all four of the standard classifications: Kriya, Charya, Yoga and Anuttarayoga. He is associated with the Padma Buddha Family where the Buddha is Amitabha, the Lord is Avalokiteshvara and chief wrathful deity is Hayagriva. According to some traditions Hayagriva is an independent entity while in others he is the wrathful emanation of Amitabha or Avalokiteshvara.


27

Kalpavriksha, The Wish- Fulfilling Tree Circa 15th century Western India Brass 28 in. (71 cm)

Provenance: Ex Collection Jay C Leff [1925-2000], acquired by 1960 Near & Far Eastern Art, Property of Jay C Leff and Another Collector, Parke-Bernet Galleries, 980 Madison Ave, New York, May 9-10, 1969, Lot 140 Published & Exhibited: Near Eastern and Far Eastern Art from the Collection of Jay C. Leff, American Federation of Arts, October 1965- October 1967, No. 64 By: John F. Haskins The Peaceful Liberators: Jain Art from India, Los Angeles County Museum of Art, November 6, 1994 – January 22, 1995, cat. No. 64 By: Dr. Pratapaditya Pal Dancing to the Flute: Music and Dance in Indian Art, Art Gallery of New South Wales, June 12 – August 24, 1997, cat. No. 81 By: Dr. Jim Messelos, Jackie Menzies and Dr. Pratapaditya Pal Published: “Leaves of a Pipal Tree” by Dr. Harsha V. Dehejia, August 2005, Page 10

“This unusual throne-back is fashioned in the form of a large tree surrounded by a framework containing eleven seated female figures. Close inspection of the tree reveals bunches of three mangoes at the juncture of each limb with the outer frame; this indicates that the now missing main image was originally the goddess Ambika [6o - 63], identified by the mango fruits she holds or by

the mango tree under which she is frequently depicted. The female figures in the outer frame are all musicians, except for two attendants bearing flywhisks at the level where the head and shoulders of the main image would have been. The two figures directly above the flywhisk bearers hold hand cymbals, and the remaining figures can also be identified as musicians, since their hands are in positions typically used to hold musical instruments; these must have been separately cast and have not survived. The juxtaposition of Ambika with a retinue of female musicians’ and attendants follows an earlier Western Indian tradition, as there are several reliefs at Mount Abu that portray the goddess with such company (Shah 1987A, fig. 154; Tiwari 1989,56- 57. figs. 1617). It is possible that the female figures are meant to be devata (subsidiary goddesses), but the position of their hands argues against this since they would have typically held religious attributes in different positions (Shah 1987A, fig.

148; Tiwari 1989, 83, fig. 36). Originally there must have been an additional figure at the base of the frame on each side. These were either musicians, attendants, or perhaps Ambika’s two sons, Siddha and Buddha. A foliate finial presumably once surmounted the frame. Not only is this a representation of Ambika’s mango tree, but it is also the well-known celestial wish- fulfilling tree (Kalpavriksha). The wish fulfilling tree is associated with Ambika in a number of Jain texts, such as the late twelfth century Nemichandra’s Lilavati Prabandham (Shah and Dhaky, 38). The Jains believe that there are ten types of wish-fulfilling trees, which ‘always give to the people whatever they desire without effort on their part’ (Shah 1955. 75). The rewards of worship include wine, dishes of delicacies, fine apparel, musical instruments, lamps, wreaths, ornaments, houses, and divine luminosity.” -Dr. Pratapaditya Pal, The Peaceful Liberators: Jain Art from India


28

Saraswati

Circa 1200, inscribed Rajasthan, India Stone Stele 17 3/4 in. (44.86 cm.) ArtLoss no. S00132165 Provenance: From a private Georgia Estate

The goddess is sensuously carved dancing in the foreground rendered with an elegant tribhanga, the veena in her left hand, in her others a mala, rosary, and a sutra, wearing beaded necklaces and a tiara. At her feet her vehicle, the peacock, looks up along with a companion. Saraswati, the “one with the lovely voice,� is the goddess of music, literature, poetry and wisdom. She is a part of the trinity along with Lakshmi and Parvati. All the three forms help the trinity of Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva to create, maintain and regenerate the universe respectively. Initially a Hindu deity, her image was eventually absorbed into Buddhism and became prevalent throughout Buddhist Asia as the epitome of female wisdom and the consort to the bodhisattva Manjushri.


29

Vishnu

Circa 1300, late- Chola Period South India Bronze 23 1/4 in. (59.4 cm.) Provenance: Sothebys, New York, September 20th, 2005, Lot no.69

The four-armed deity stands erect in samapada on a circular lotus base supported by a multi-tiered square plinth. His principal right hand is in the fear dispelling abhayamudra. The preserver is adorned in a tall jeweled crown, several necklaces and foliate armbands. His broad shoulders are accentuated by a tapered waist and soft bulging belly, His elongated torso supported by muscular legs covered in a finely incised patterned veshti, which is elegantly knotted on both sides and secured by a wide girdle with a kirrtimukha at the center. Meant to be viewed in the round, the back of the sculpture is no less masterful than the front. His muscular back and pronounced buttocks project three-dimensional power. His teardrop shaped face is accentuated by arching eyebrows, almondshaped eyes, a straight aquiline nose, and gently smiling lips. The sensuous

modeling coupled with the confident and assured treatment of form suggests a mature or lateChola date for the sculpture.


30

Buddha Muchalinda Circa 13th century Thailand Sandstone 37 in. (94 cm.)

Provenance: Spink and Son’s, London, England: L65 B131/ F11 no.2 Julian Sherrier Collection, London, formed between the early 1940s – 1972 Christie’s, New York, March 23, 2010, Lot 276 Private American Collection The Buddha Muchalinda represents a moment in the Buddha’s enlightenment. Deep in meditation, he was not aware of rising lake waters, sent by a demon to drown him. The Naga serpent king raised the Buddha on his coils and wrapped his body beneath him during meditation, fanning out his hood with seven cobra heads to protect him from the storm. This sensitively carved figure of the Buddha is seated in padmasana with his hands in dhyanamudra, the face with a slight smile and an expression of compassionate serenity.The coiled body of the serpent beneath him is finely incised overall with an imbricated pattern, its seven- headed hood rising up behind the Buddha, His feet as well as the back of the serpent are marked with symbols of the wheel of law. Compare to an in situ example of a stone sculpture of Buddha Muchalinda, in M. Freeman and R. Warner, Angkor, The Hidden Glories, 1990, ill. p. 128. “Thus I heard: at one time the Gracious One was dwelling near Uruvelā, on the bank of the river Nerañjarā, at the root of the Mucalinda (tree), in the first (period) after attaining Awakening. Then at that time the Gracious One was sitting in one cross-legged posture for seven days experiencing the happiness of freedom. Then

at that time a great cloud arose out of season, (bringing) seven days of rainy weather, cold winds, and overcast days. Then the Nāga King Mucalinda, after leaving his domicile, and surrounding the Gracious One’s body seven times with his coils, stood with his great hood stretched out above his head, (thinking): “May the Gracious One not be cold, may the Gracious One not be hot, may the Gracious One not be affected by gadflies, mosquitoes, wind, the heat (of the sun), and serpents.” Then with the passing of those seven days, the Gracious One arose from that concentration. Then the Nāga King Mucalinda, having understood that the sky was now clear without a cloud, having unravelled his coils from the Gracious One’s body, and after withdrawing his own form, and creating the appearance of a young brāhmana, stood in front of the Gracious One, revering the Gracious One with raised hands. Then the Gracious One, having understood the significance of it, on that occasion uttered this exalted utterance: “There is happiness and detachment for the one who is satisfied, Who has heard the Dhamma, and who sees, There is happiness for he who is free from ill-will in the world, Who is restrained towards breathing beings. The state of dispassion in the world is happiness, the complete transcending of sense desires, (But) for he who has removed the conceit ‘I am’ - this is indeed the highest happiness.” -Udana, Exalted Uterrances: Mucalindavaggo


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Vishnu Yogasana

Circa 10th/ 11th century Himachal Pradesh, India Brass 18 1/2 in. (47 cm) Provenance: From the collection of Simon Digby, Oriental Scholar

This notably large and rare piece from Himachal features Vishnu seated on a lotus, holding a massive conch and wheel in his two upper hands, his lower hands in Dhyanamudra, the elaborate torana with Shiva and Brahma. A heavily researched piece of “Vishnu and Lakshmi with Avatars” from the same group as the above piece is currently on

view in the Norton Simon Museum of Art. Joseph Dye suggested that Rajasthan is the source of the Simon piece and dated it to the 10th century. Martin Lerner gave the Simon piece “a circa 1000 dating and considers it a paradigm of Pratihara period sculpture in metal, showing connections in Rajasthan but created in Himachal Pradesh.” Karl Khandalavala “prefers an early tenth century date (for the Simon Piece) and believes it to be from the upper valleys of the river Jamuna or Sutlej”. Lerner believes the crown of the Simon piece (which is similar to the above piece as well) to be related to sculptures of Himachal Pradesh rather than the plains. “Between the 10th and 12th centuries, patrons in Himachal Pradesh seem to have made a conscious attempt to adopt architectural and sculptural styles from the plains. This impressive tableau, however, reveals unusual features, adornments, and proportions. If this piece is from Himachal Pradesh, then clearly we are witnessing the handiwork of a sculptor with a strong sense of individuality.” -Dr. Pratapaditya Pal in regards to the Norton Simon Vishnu and Lakshmi with Avatars, P.44, Vol. 2, Art from the Himalayas and China.


32

Leaf from a Gita Govinda series: Radha vents her frustrations Circa 1775 - 1780 Kangra school, India Gouache heightened with gold on paper 7 x 10 5/8 in. (17 x 27 cm) Provenance: Francoise & Claude Bourelier, Paris

The eye is first moved to a landscape showing the forest in spring time. Radha is garbed in a semitransparent skirt comprised of mute colors, brief bodice and bare midriff while sitting

beside a bank of the Yamuna surrounded by a grove of trees, gazing over her shoulder to the right as her confidante in a violet skirt and orange wrap draws her attention to the topic of Krishna. Radha’s dress is elegant albeit simple, the upper portion a choli and a ghaghra skirt around her waist cascading into gentle folds. A transparent orhani is draped around her body. Paramount attention to detail can be seen in the diaphanous materials depicted on her outfit as well has her intricate jewelry, copious but not gaudy she is adorned with gold, emeralds, and pearls, as well as a nose ring. The ground is lush, boasting multiple shades of greenery. The vakula and tamala trees stand proud and lush, their leaves dark and odorous. The setting is established with meticulous care, great love is placed

into every brushstroke. The small rises of the terrain, undulating ground all give a feeling of vast space and openness, but in such a way that attention is not drawn to wander from the foreground in which Radha and her companion are engaged in discussion. Both the face of Radha and her attendant can be surmised to have been derived from a particular type, the shading of Radha done distinctly more elegantly, demonstrating an intentional status remark. Her face is of “porcelain delicacy”, rounded but in such a matter as to not be “fleshy”. Her features are pronounced and sharp, her lips small (an attractive quality of the time), eyebrows gently arched, eyes gazing soft yet discerningly. “Radha’s body is young and lissome; the limbs tender, the breasts full, hands and feet delicate.” (Goswamy & Fischer, pg 315). Her stance is relaxed and natural, directly mirroring her countenance and echoing her state of mind. Reference: Goswamy, B.N. and Fischer, Eberhard Pahari Masters, Niyogi Books, 2009


33

Blind Man’s Buff/ Hide and Seek

Circa 1775-80 First generation after Manaku Pahari, Kangra, India Opaque watercolors heightened with gold on paper 10 x 8 in. (25.4 x 20.32 cm.) Provenance: Doris Wiener, September 21st, 1973

The eye is first drawn to a young seated Krishna, the crowned deity with a mauve complexion adorned in a yellow dhoti. His eyes are shielded by a playful Gopa, the mid-section of the piece “a friezelike interplay of figures”. In the foreground a group of seated cows are arranged in a delicate manner evoking a mood of evening pleasure along with a background of lush flowering foliage, typical of the period. Bahadur explains in his footnotes on page 335-336 that coramihicani or “blind mans buff ” is a game in which six or seven players take part. One of them, “the thief ” has their

eyes covered, while the others hide. The thief then runs in search of the others. Those who have hidden try and return to the khutavam, the place where the thief ’s eyes were shielded. If the thief can touch a player before he reaches the khutavam that person becomes the next thief. The subject is a deep allegory, as “everything is illusory: the natural world is subsidiary to Krishna’s game; and to the moral lesson it teaches.”


34

Illustration to a Harivamsa series: Narada warns Kamsa Circa 1800 – 1820 Attributed to: Purkhu Kangra School, India Gouache heightened with gold on prepared paper Image: 16 7/8 x 12 1/2 in. (47.5 x 37 cm) Folio: 18 1/2 x 14 1/4 in. (47 x 36.2 cm)

Provenance: Acquired by Stanley A Kaplan, in India, during the 1940’s-1950’s

The Harivamsa (an account of the Dynasty of Hari [Vishnu]) is a work of three chapters appended to the great epic, the Mahabharata. The first chapter contains an account of the creations and the genealogy of the Yadavas, the family of Krishna and Vasudeva descended from their Aryan ancestor, Yadu. The second chapter describes the life of Krishna and his affairs with the gopis, where many of the stories are similar to those in the Bhagavata Purana. The last chapter deals with prophecies of the present age (Kali Yuga) and other matters unconnected with the title of the work. In Hindu mythology Narada is revered for both his sage advice and his notorious mischievous ways, creating some of vedic literatures most humorous tales. He is known as a master of the Veena, and is frequently depicted with one (as in this particular scene). This painting illustrates the following excerpt from the Bhagavata Purana: “...The great saint Narada descended from the heavenly planets to the forest of Mathura and sent his messenger to Kamsa. When the messenger approached Kamsa and informed him of Narada’s arrival, Kamsa, the leader of the asuras, was very happy and immediately came out of his palace to receive Narada, who was as bright as the sun, as powerful as fire, and free from all tinges of sinful activities. Kamsa accepted Narada as his guest, offered him respectful obeisances and gave him a golden seat,

brilliant like the sun. Narada was a friend of the King of heaven, and thus he told Kamsa, the son of Ugrasena, “My dear hero, you have satisfied me with a proper reception, and therefore I shall tell you something secret and confidential. While I was coming here from Nandakanana through the Caitraratha forest, I saw a great meeting of the demigods, who followed me to Sumeru Parvata. We traveled through many holy places, and

finally we saw the holy Ganges. While Lord Brahma was consulting the other demigods at the top of Sumeru Hill, I was also present with my stringed instrument, the vina. I shall tell you confidentially that the meeting was held just to plan to kill the asuras, headed by you. You have a younger sister named Devaki, and it is a fact that her eighth son will kill you.” (reference: Hari-vamsa, Visnu-parva 1.2-16)” Purkhu is one of the master artists of early Kangra Painting. Active from 1780 – 1820, under the patronage of Maharaja Sansar Chand, he is respected for his brilliant execution of emotionally evocative processional scenes. “Purkhu saw individuals essentially as falling into types. There is no insensitivity to appearances,

and he was quick to establish distinctions between one person and another… therefore Purkhu was best in rendering large groups: court scenes, processions, statefestivals, private celebrations, and the like. He was able to invest these scenes with the specific character of each occasion. “(Beach, 2011) In this particular painting our eye is immediately drawn to the foreground, where a courtly meeting surrounded by lush topiary is being held. A chowry-bearer fans Kamsa (inscribed above crown) as the king watches Narada (inscribed in red), the most travelled sage, fly away on the upper right, veena in hand. The lush surround of the court scene is reminiscent of Purkhu’s most famous work for the Gita Govinda series often referred to as the Lambagraon Gita Govinda. Literature: Archer, W.G., Indian Paintings from the Punjab Hills, London, Parke-Bernet, 1973, I: 294- 295 Beach, M.C. et al, Masters of Indian Painting: Vol. II, Zurich, 2011, pgs. 728 - 732 Goswamy, B.N and Fischer, Eberhard, Pahari Masters, Zurich, 1992, pgs. 367- 387


35

Krishna lifts Mount Govardhan Circa 1750 Kishangarh, India Gouache and gold on paper 11 3/4 x 7 5/8 in. (29.5 x 19.3 cm)

Provenance: Christies, London, October 11th, 1979, lot 146 Sothebys, New York, October 6th, 1990, lot 38 From the Collection of Dr. William K. Ehrenfeld, San Francisco Published: Daniel J. Ehnbom, Indian Miniatures. The Ehrenfeld Collection, catalogue of the traveling exhibition organized by the American Federation of Arts, September 1985- November 1987, no. 73, illus.

In this painting Krishna lifts Mount Govardhana to shelter a group of villagers from a devastating rain invoked by the god Indra, Lord of Storms. Krishna stands with one foot crossed in front of the other, holding the mountain aloft with his left hand as he is offered pan. Rain falls in torrents from a black sky filled with lightning, yet it is deflected by the massive mound. To either side, villagers look on in reverence and cattle gaze upward in smiling adoration. Indra himself is depicted prostrating in the foreground offering obeisance. Rather than depicting the full story, the artist has focused on the main episode, the miraculous revelation of Krishna as god. The treatment of the mountain with its broad brush technique is similar to “Vistas at Kishangarh”, dated circa 1750, illustrated in S.C. Welch, Room for Wonder, Indian painting during the British Period 1760- 1880, Asia House, NY, 1978, no.58, p.131 Krishna found his friends the cowherds (gopas) preparing to worship Indra, the Lord of the

Heavens and God of Rain. When he asked why Indra was to be the object of veneration, they replied that Indra was the all powerful Lord of the Rain, who granted water, which is the life of living beings. Krishna asked them instead to worship the mountain Govardhana, and said that if they did, the spirit of the mountain would be revealed. The gopas agreed to do so. Krishna himself became the spirit of the mountain and received their offerings. Furious at being replaced, Indra sent a dreadful storm of the worst kind of destructive clouds to punish the gopas and gopis and their cattle. But Krishna lifted the mountain like an umbrella over his friends and the cattle, and held it up for seven days. Indra then understood Krishna’s power, relented, asked Krishna’s forgiveness, and was pardoned. As with other of the fantastic tales in the Bhagavata Purana, from which this episode is adapted, the story contains an underlying moral message: pride dispels knowledge, allowing evil to become manifest.


36

Krishna shares a drink with Radha Circa 1800 Kishangarh, North India Gouache Heightened with Gold on Paper 12 1/4 x 10 in. (32 x 25 ½ cm.)

The couple meets at dusk on a terrace overlooking a canal, a boat passes in the background whilst crowds enjoy a palace garden on the river side, the couple surrounded by richly adorned female attendants, two pavilions emerging from dense foliage to the right.


37

Lakshmi massaging the foot of Vishnu

Circa 1810-20 Kangra School, India Opaque pigments and gold and silver on paper Painting: 23.3 by 15.8 cm., 9 1/8 by 6 1/8 in. Folio: 28.5 by 21 cm., 11 1/8 by 8 1/4 in. Provenance: Private collection, Canada

“Vishnu or Narayana, looking as young and resplendent as his avatar Krishna, sits crowned and enthroned on a green throne seat. His four arms carry the usual attributes of Vishnu – mace, lotus, conch and discus. Lasksmi crouches before him reverencing his left foot – his right is raised up and placed on the throne in the traditional posture of royal ease adopted by divinities, maharaja-lilasana. Vishnu’s posture is a somewhat daring exercise in converting to a perspective view from the side, a composition always seen from the front in earlier sculpture and painting. Behind the throne stands a young woman with a chowrie and the white cloth signifying royalty. The divinity is here treated exactly like a raja, enthroned on a terrace with dishes awaiting his pleasure. Two baluster columns enclose the scene, their linking arch half hidden by a textile blind, while instead of a landscape there is beyond the terrace a gold ground sky streaked with orange and with rolling clouds.    This painting is a later version of an original of 1765-70 formerly in the collection of Gloria Katz and Williard Huyck, sold at Sotheby’s, New York, 22 march 2002, lot 49, and now in the Benkaim Collection, Los Angeles. Portraits or scenes viewed through an arched opening had become a commonplace

of Guler painting from the 1750s. A portrait of Raja Govardhan Chand smoking a hookah, circa 1750 (Archer 1973, Guler 24), employs exactly the same type of pillar and capital with acanthus leaf moulding as does our painting here. A golden sky frames the figures with rolling coloured clouds and garish streaks above, while a rolled up blind closes the scene at the top. The vividly coloured sky is also found in Basohli painting at this time (Archer 1973, Basohli 25-26) and reflects influence from Mughal painting both from Delhi and Avadh, possibly brought back to the hills after Nainsukh’s pilgrimage with his new patron Raja Amrit Pal of Basohli to distant Puri in 1763. A lady smoking a hookah on a terrace has exactly the same kind of arched format and background as ours (Losty 2012, no. 17). For an almost identical painting from the

Galbraith Collection, see Welch & Beach 1965, no. 77.” References  Archer, W.G., Indian Paintings from the Punjab Hills, London, 1973 Losty, J.P., Indian Painting 16001870, exhibition catalogue, New York, Oliver Forge and Brendan Lynch Ltd., London, 2012 Welch, S.C., & Beach, M.C., Gods, Thrones and Peacocks, New York, 1965


38

An illustration to the ‘third’ Rasamanjari of Bhanu Dutta: The intoxicated courtesan

Circa 1695 Attributed to: Devidasa Basohli Opaque watercolor, gold, silver, and beetle wing cases on paper; the nayika pines against a red bolster on a silver platform, consoling attendants who offer her more wine. Irregular: 8 1/4 x 11 1/2 in. (21 x 29.2 cm) Provenance: Doris Wiener, New York, before 1981 Bonhams, New York, 11 Sep 2012, lot 83 Private Collection, USA

“The maiden is seen seated in a relaxed and open pose supported by a silver platform against a red bolster, secured at the arms by attendants who offer her more wine. To the left foreground a seated maiden offers wine to another

who raises her hand in refusal. The gathering is set against a green wall decorated with vase filled niches and surrounded by white faceted turrets, a yellow awning and flowering shrubs. The illustrated text of the Rasamanjari is centered upon the popular theme of the hero and heroine (nayaka–nayiki) and expounds upon the many aspects of love (longing, separation, rejection, etc). The compositions are noted for their contrasting fields of solid color, lyrical figures and applied lustrous green beetle wings and the jewel-like raised dots of shell-lime.

As noted by Archer in The Loves of Krishna in Indian Painting and Poetry, London, 1960, p. 106 “The text in question is a treatise on poetics illustrating how romantic situations should best be treated in Sanskrit poetry—the conduct of mature mistresses, experienced lovers, sly go-betweens, clowns or jokers being all subjected to analysis..” This piece shows a mature heroine (nayika) so distressed by the absence of her lover that she spends her days intoxicated to numb the pain, drowning her longing. Sensitive to the pangs, her consumption is excessive contrasted with the accompanying maiden who practices moderation, raising her hand to refuse another glass. Archer goes on further to state (ibid, 105) “This series of illustrations is in some ways a turning point in Indian painting for not only was it to serve as a model and inspiration to later artists but its production brings to a close the most creative phase in Basohli art”. Four other pages from the same series are in the Lahore Museum (see FS Aijazuddin, Pahari Paintings and Sikh Portraits, London, 1977, nos. 3(i-iv). Also see W. G. Archer, Indian Paintings From The Punjab Hills: A Survey and History of Pahari Miniature Painting, Delhi, 1973, nos. 15(i-v).”


39

Ragini Seehuti, wife of Raga Malkos Circa 1800 Kangra school, India Gouache heightened with gold on paper Image: 6 1⁄2 x 9 1⁄4 in. (16.5 x 23.5 cm) Folio: 8 x 10 3⁄4 in. (20.3 x 27.3 cm) Provenance: Private English Collection

“Music is a kind of inarticulate unfathomable speech, which leads us to the edge of the Infinite and lets us for a moment gaze into that, observed Carlyle... The Hindus are unanimous in their praise of music, observes Willard, and extol it as one of the sweetest enjoyments of life, in which the gods are praised with due sublimity, kings and princes have their benevolent and heroic actions recited in the most suitable manner, the affluent enjoy its beauties without reproach, the needy by its aid forget their misery, the unfortunate finds relief by giving vent to his sorrow in song, the lover pays the most gratifying compliment

to his mistress, and the coy maiden without a blush describes the ardour of her passion” [Randhawa, 1971] Ragas and raginis are generally construed to mean certain melody molds. Coomaraswamy defined a raga as a selection of notes combined in certain characteristic progressions, and with certain notes more emphasized than others. Why certain sounds, combined in a particular manner, should have influence on the human mind and provoke emotions of joy and sorrow, still remains as unexplained as the effect of colors on emotions. The majority of raga and ragini paintings of the Kangra Ragamala show love scenes. Love is represented according to the classic definition of Keshav Das as viyoga or love in separation, and samyoga or love in union. Reference: Randhawa, M.S., Kangra Ragamala Paintings, National Museum, New Delhi, 1971 Ebeling, Klaus, Ragamala Painting, Ravi Kumar, Basel, 1973


40

An Illustration To A Mahabharata Series: Vidura confers with Dhritharashtra Circa 1820 Attributed to: Purkhu Kangra, North India Opaque pigments heightened with gold on paper 18 1/2 x 13 1/4 in. (47 x 34 cm.)

This leaf from the Mahabharata is a depiction of the scene in which the blind king of Hastinapur, Dhristarashtra, confers with Vidura, the most respected adviser of the Pandavas. The rival Kauravas and the Pandavas have gathered with weapons at the ready. To the left are Bhima,

Yudhishthira, Drona, Arjuna, as well as the twins Nakula, and Sahadeva. To the right stands Duryodhana and Ashwatthama. Clad in shimmering gold armor to the far left, gifted by his father the sun god Surya, stands Karna. To the upper right sits Gandhari, mother of the Kauravas, blind folded to share her husband’s debility. On the opposite corner is Kunti, mother of the Pandavas. “In many narrative paintings ascribed to Purkhu and his workshop, diagonals are employed freely in the composition and

architecture is a dominant characteristic. Several balconies and terraces, walls and connecting courtyards appear, peopled with multiple figures. Although unable to convey spatial depth in the scene, these elements of design are considered essential for the narrative and for the establishment of atmosphere (Goswamy and Fischer, 1992, pg. 371).”


41

Radha and Krishna under parasol

Circa 18th century Bundi School, India Gouache heightened with gold on paper Folio: 9 1/2 x 6 7/8 in. (24.13 x 17.46 cm) Provenance: Arthur L and Genevieve S Funk collection, acquired January 2, 1970

This sensuous painting depicts Krishna embracing Radha, as they take shelter under a beautiful delicate parasol of leaves. As the lovers gaze deeply into each other’s eyes, cows prance around them, enamored by their passion for each other, while stylized clouds evoke the romantic mood further. Reference: Chandra, Pramod, Bundi Painting, Lalit Kala Akademi, New Delhi, 1959


42

Meghbaran Rampaging The Elephant Meghabaran Goes On A Rampage Circa early 19th Century India, Kishangarh Opaque watercolor heightened with gold on paper Image: 8 1/4 by 8 in. (21 by 20.2 cm.).

A large elephant named Meghabaran has broken free of his restraining chains and chases his frightened handlers up into the branches of a tree while his mahouts try to subdue him with a goad and swirling fireworks. In the middle distance tiny figures of riders on swaybacked horses are seen galloping to the hunt accompanied by runners, while on the crest of a nearby hillock, a nobleman holds court beneath a canopy. Behind the hillock emerges a procession led by a tame elephant and in the farthest distance figures are seen climbing up the path of a steep hill toward what appears to be the

indomitable Kishangarh fortress built by Maharaja Roop Singh, whose name is inscribed on the verso of the painting. CATALOGUE NOTE The painting is remarkable for its panoramic composition incorporating several different scenes within a receding perspective, a convention that had its origins in earlier Mughal prototypes. The elephant, with his elongated body bedecked with bells and his face decorated with henna, is boldly

executed in the distinctive, exaggerated Kishangarh style favored throughout the 18th and 19th Centuries. His powerful, robust form is deftly juxtaposed with the miniscule, delicately rendered figures in the background. As Stuart Cary Welch remarks, “... at Kishangarh, the most striking representations tend to be the mysterious and unique ones,� S. C. Welch, Indian Drawings and Painted Sketches, New York, 1976, p. 118.


43

Krishna and Radha playing Yo-Yo Circa 1800 - 1810 Kangra, India Gouache heightened with gold on paper Image: 6 x 9 1⁄8in. (15.2 x 23.2 cm) Provenance: Private French collection, acquired from Galerie Marco Polo, 1982 Published: “Krishna the Divine Lover” Edita-Vilo, Lausanne 1982, ill. No. 156, p.157. It has also been exhibited at the Fogg Art Museum, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass. U.S.A. (Exhibition Poster)

In the palace courtyard Krishna and Radha are sensitively rendered playing yoyo. The thread is knotted on the finger of Krishna but it is Radha who launched the toy. The yoyo symbolizes the contradictory feelings that animate the games of love: the pleasure of meeting and the sadness of separation; affliction caused by a quarrel and the joy of reconciliation.


44

A leaf from the Ramayana Rama and his allies take counsel

Circa 1790 Guler, India Opaque watercolor heightened with gold on paper image: 8 by 12 in. (20.3 by 30.5 cm.) folio: 10 by 13 7/8 in. (25 by 35.3 cm.) Provenance: Christie’s, London, 8 July 1982, lot 144 Private collection, 1980s

The scene depicting the blue-skinned Rama with his brother Lakshmana to his left, receiving a message delivered by Jambhavan, king of the bear army, who has pledged his bear army to fight alongside Rama and the monkey forces in order to rescue Sita. The group is encircled and protected by the monkeys and bears of Rama’s army, some of whom are carrying tree branches. Others have their heads turned towards the fortified golden citadel of Lanka, situated on a rocky cliff The portrayal of the seemingly invincible fortress of Lanka placed atop sheer rocky escarpments may be compared to another illustration from the same series: see Roy C. Craven (ed.), Ramayana Pahari Paintings, Bombay, 1990 no. 8, pp. 98-99.


45

A Tired Prince Led To Bed

Circa 18th century Lucknow, North India Gouache heightened with gold on paper Painting 9 5/8 x 71â „2in. (24.5 x 19cm.) Folio 13 x 111â „4in. (33 x 28.5cm.)

A tired prince is led to his bed chamber by female attendants and musicians, dawn is heralded by the cockerel and the grey half-light of the new day, in gold illuminated margins


46

Homage of the Gods A Leaf from the Devi Mahatmya Attb. To a master of the first generation after Nainsukh and Manaku c. 1775-1780 India, Pahari Region, Guler Ink on paper 5 5/8 x 7 7/8 in. (14.2 x 20 cm.)

Provenance: From the Collection of Stuart Cary Welch [1928 – 2008] Sothebys, London, 31 May 2011, Lot 64

This exquisitely drawn Devi Mahatmya sketch from the Markandeya Purana depicts Kali leading female forms of the gods, who ride their respective vahanas, including Shiva’s Nandi, Indra’s white elephant, Karttikeya’s peacock and Vishnu’s eagle Garuda. The gods are seen praising the Shaktis individually and their weapons as well as all the

different forms of the Goddess. Drawn using a red ink, the work exudes the delicacy and lyricism of a master artist. This piece is very likely a precursor for an illustration now in the Lahore Museum [Homage of the Gods, LM no. E.193 (02065/1929)] and illustrated in Pahari Paintings & Sikh Portraits in the Lahore Museum by F.S Aijazuddin,

1977 (Page 32, Guler 41xxx) The entire series of 34 paintings are dated Phagun (February- March), V.S. 1838 (1781 AD) A series of drawings of similar size and style is in the Rietberg Museum, Zurich (see Boner, Fischer and Goswamy 1994, nos.390-396).


47

A leaf from the Ramayana: Rama, Sita, and Lakshmana Exiled

Circa 1825-1850 Garwhal, Uttarakhand Attributed to Chaitu Opaque watercolor heightened with gold on paper 9 1/2 x 7 1/2 in. (24.13 x 19.05 cm.) Provenance: Property of a diplomat, acquired in India during the 1950’s Published: Studies in Indian Painting, by Nanalala Chamanlal Mehta, Bombay, 1926 Page 53, no. 19, “Rama’s Departure” Painters of the Pahari Schools, Page 143, no. 2 “Chaitu at Tehri Garwhal”, Usha Bhatia “Chaitu was particularly fond of simple hues, and his reliance on fluidity of line is noteworthy. Another of Chaitu’s strengths is the animated way he rendered the drapery of women’s garments. These graceful forms seem to share the emotional life of their beautiful owners who slowly trail their gowns through the elegant painted scenes. The decorative element is always subordinate to the principal action of the picture, and one might say Chaitu’s paintings have an element of austerity about them. In this scene Rama, Lakshmana, and Sita, in obedience to the commands of King Dashratha, are leaving Ayodhya to dwell in the forest. The background is painted with the same thoughtful simplicity in yellowish green that is a signature of Chaitu.” -Usha Bhatia


48

Vishnu Slaying Hiranyaksha

Circa 1800 Pahari, North India opaque watercolors heightened with gold on paper 121â „2 x 9 in. (31.6 x 22.7 cm.)

After waging war on Heaven, Hiranyaksha the demon challenged Vishnu to a duel by abducting his consort Prithvi, the Earth Goddess, and hiding her at the bottom of the ocean. Vishnu, in his third incarnate as Varaha the Boar, immediately shot out of Brahma’s nose and dove into the ocean to rescue

her. He lifted her up by his tusks and ascended to the surface. Once safely above water, Varaha used his chakra to disarm and destroy the demon.


49

An Illustration To The Hamir Hath: Hamir Consults With His Advisors While His Archers Hold The Fort Circa 1810 Mandi North India Attributed to SAJNU, Image: 12 5/8 x 17 3/4 in. (32 x 35 cm.) Folio: 14 5/8 x 19 7/8 in. (37 x 50.5 cm.) Provenance: Private German Collection Sothebys, New York, 1 April 2005, lot 115 Sothebys, New York, 19 September, lot 212

The Chauhan ruler Hamir speaking to his minister Jaja and his daughter Devala while Mahi ma consults with other courtiers within the walls of the Ranthambore fort, Hamir’s archers battle with Alauddin Khilji’s horsemen, Alauddin is depicted seated in a tented encampment with his men and European soldiers in brimmed top hats above, the names of figures inscribed in white and red devanagari script. within white rules, narrow blue inner and red outer borders, with 811. of black and red devanagari script on reverse describing the scene, the fly-leaf with folio

number ‘16’ in black ink and bearing the royal Mandi library stamp, mounted Painting 12½ x 17¾in. (31.8 x 45.lcm.); folio 14% x 191/ain. (37.2 x 50.5cm.) The Rajasthani ballad, Hamir Hath (‘Pride of Hamir’). composed by the bard Sarangdhar, relates the story of Raja Hamir Dev, the heroic but arrogant Chauhan ruler of Ranthambore, who battled with Alauddin Khilji, the Sultan of Delhi. This painting is closely related to a set of twenty-one illustrations to a Hamir Hath series, which were painted by Sajnu in 1810 as a present for Raja lsvari Sen of Mandi. Sajnu presented these to the Mandi ruler after having left Kangra and his former patron Sansar Chand. The tale of Hamir is strikingly similar to that of Sansar Chand, the despotic ruler of Kangra. It involves the siege of an obdurate ruler in a vast fortress surrounded by dizzy precipices,

quite like the Kangra fort. with a disastrous end. Stylistic characteristics in the painting which are reminiscent of Sajnu include the zigzag geometrical composition, the ‘jigsaw-puzzle’ rocks, the floral motifs of the carpets, and the juxtaposition of the bright colours of the dresses, carpets and tent panels against the pastel colours employed for the architecture and the rocks. The composition of our painting is also strikingly similar to ‘Hamir and the dancing girl’ from the presentation series mentioned above. For comparable illustrations and further discussion on the series, see Archer 1973, Vol. I, pp. 360-362, Vol.II, fig. 42(i).(ii), pg. 273. For another folio from this series which sold at auction, see Christie’s New York, 23 September 2004, lot 167. For more examples from this series and for further discussion see Shastri, October 1915, vol. 17, no. 132, and Khandalavala, 1958, no. 185 & 186, pp. 230 and 232. Also compare with Sotheby’s, London, March 27, 1973, lot 155 and Sotheby’s, London, April 25, 1974, lot 11


50

A leaf from the Shahnameh

Circa 1600, Akbar Period Imperial Mughal Court, India Gouache on paper Folio: 17.7 x 14 in. (45 x 35 1/2 cm) Image: 12 1/4 x 9 in. (31.1 x 23 cm) Provenance: Estate of Theordore Allen Heinrich (1910-1981). Professor Heinrich was an art historian, curator and educator. From 1955 to 1962, he was the director of the Royal Ontario Museum, and afterwards he taught art history at the University of Saskatchewan and York University.

This painting represents the conclusion of a tale of forbidden love between the Iranian warrior Bizhan and the princess Manizha, daughter of the Turanian king Afrasiyab. Crossing the border to see the fair maidens of Turan encamped at a spring festival, Bizhan encountered Manizha, and the two were so powerfully attracted to each other that they trysted in her tent for

three days. When Afrasiyab learned of the affair, he arrested Bizhan and imprisoned him in a dark pit covered by a heavy stone, with only the dishonored Manizha to keep him alive. Eventually, Bizhan was saved by the Iranian hero Rustam, who was the only one strong enough to remove the stone from the mouth of the pit. The painting shows the moment of rescue. Rustam, dressed in his tiger-skin coat, has cast away the stone and with a rope pulls the chained, Bizhan up from the depths. On the left stands Manizha. Encircling the main scene, a crowd of admiring soldiers witnesses the rescue mission.


51 INDIAN PAINTING Love-Torn Lady

Circa 1850 Kangra school, India Gouache heightened with gold on paper Folio: 9 3/4 x 11 5/8 in. (24.8 x 29.5 cm) Provenance: Private English Collection

From among the creations of the Kangra school it is the paintings of love-lorn women, virahini nayikas, which are most touching. The lover has gone on a journey and in his absence his beloved suffers the pangs of separation. To her, though surrounded by her sakhis [maidens] the house looks empty, and she feels desolate. The Kangra artists have poignantly portrayed in their paintings of these women the pathos which lies in the silent depths of a woman’s heart in all its tragic intensity. Lonely

women standing on the sills of door-frames wistfully looking at clouds and lightning, clasping smooth trunks of plantains, holding the branch of a tree, carrying fans and cooling the fever of love in a moonlit night, or escaping a storm and hurrying inside rooms are all love-sick women.


52

Illustration from a Ragamala Series: Desakh Ragini Circa 18th century Bundi, India Illustration from a Ragamala Series: Gouache heightened with gold on paper 10 3/8 x 6 in. (21.3 x 15.25 cm.)

Provenance: Property of a diplomat, acquired in India during the 1950’s

Five men test their strength, agility, combat proficiency, and stamina by lifting weights, climbing a column and wrestling. Set against a training ground surrounded by finely detailed trees, with a river in the foreground. In the background hills and valleys are set against a red sky with a golden city in the distance.


53

Folio from an Usha-Aniruddha Romance series Circa 1840 Garhwal, Himachal, India Gouache and gold on paper 9 x 12 in. (22.9 x 30.5 cm)

This illustration relates the story of Usha, the beautiful daughter of a powerful king named Banasura, who was smitten by Krishna’s grandson Aniruddha. Banasura, an ardent devotee of Lord Shiva, was granted a boon of invincibility by the latter. With his thousand arms, Banasura defeated all his enemies. He jealously guarded his daughter Usha in an impregnable fortress. One day, Usha saw a handsome prince in her dreams and fell in love with him. Her resourceful and clever friend Chitralekha helped her identify the object of her desires as Krishna’s grandson Aniruddha. Chitralekha then went to Krishna’s palace, found Aniruddha and secretly transported him back to Usha’s palace.


54

The Goddess Kali

Circa 1810 Attributed to: Sajnu Mandi, North India Opaque watercolors heightened with gold on paper 12 1/2 x 9 1/2 in. (31.8 x 24.2 cm.) Provenance: From a private Swiss collection

The goddess depicted in a classical stance after her killing spree, the third eye surmounts her tongue struck out in between protruding fangs, clad in a belt of decapitated hands and a necklace of severed heads as jagged hair runs down her shoulders. The manifestation of destruction and barrenness is seen brandishing a curved sword (kharga), holding a decapitated head, with a foot over Shiva’s body. Jackals and vultures surround the scene smelling death in the bloodsaturated air. The illustration is centered in an octagonal medallion, the spandrels embellished with gold scrolling foliate tendrils, in black borders with scrollwork, wide pink margins containing further depictions of her emanations, cusped cartouches above and below with a vulture and a rat. The distinctive elaborate margins of this work with cusped cartouches containing attendants of Kali and associated animals are similar to those found on a painting of Raja Isvari Sen of

Mandi worshipping Shiva attributed to artist Sajnu, (W.G. Archer, Indian Paintings from the Punjab Hills, London, 1973, fig. 46, p. 275).   About Sajnu “Painting at Mandi, a relatively large kingdom in the Punjab Hills, did not really get underway until the middle of the eighteenth century. It reached an apogee of creativity during the reign of Raja Isvari Sen, who was under the cultural sway of painting mad Kangra and Guler, the two kingdoms which supplied a number of Isvari Sen’s favorite artists. His leading court painter was Sajnu, originally from Kangra or Guler. Sajnu, like Nainsukh and the Basohli Master of the Early Rasamanjari before him, did much to transform the style of painting everywhere in the Punjab Hills. Early nineteenth century Pahari

painting was greatly influenced.” - McInerney, Terence; Kossak, Steven; and Haidar, Navina. Divine pleasures: painting from Indias Rajput courts. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2016 pg. 238. Print.


55

Samudra Manthan “The Churning of the Ocean”

Folio from the Dasavatara set Circa 19th century Kangra, India Opaque watercolors heightened with gold Leaf: 12 1/2 x 10 in. (31.75 x 25.5 cm.) Image: 9 1⁄2 x 7 in. (24.13 x 17.78 cm.) Provenance: Acquired from Bharany’s Curio House some time in the 1960’s

This painting belongs to a series of ten Avataras of Vishnu. Here the second of the great Avataras, Kurma, the tortoise, is rendered, connected as it is with the great myth of the churning of the ocean. While Kurma supports on his back the cosmic mountain, Mandara, as the churning stick, and the awesome serpent, Vasuki, serves as the churning rope, the gods take up their position on the tail end of the serpent; the demons, as cleverly contrived by the gods, are on the side where the heads of Vasuki are so that they are constantly weakened by the poisonous fumes

emitted by the great snake. The gods are led by Brahma; behind him is Vishnu himself, and finally Shiva. In this threesome, the painter makes a statement about all the gods assembled to perform this task necessary for the recovery of Amrita, the nectar of immortality, from the depths of the ocean; likewise, the host of the demons is condensed here into two rather comic- looking demons. The

churning seems to have already yielded several of the ratnas, jewels, that the depths of the ocean held: The Parijata tree, the seven- headed horse Uchchaihshravas, the celestial nymph, Rambha, a vessel containing poison (indicated by the flames emerging from it), the divine physician Dhanvantari, the wish fulfilling cow Surabhi, the elephant Airavata (future vehicle of Indra), the moon, the bow and, above all, a pot of nectar. Vishnu is depicted three times in this work, once in the act of churning, a second time in his reptilian form as the tortoise, and then appearing a third time, seated atop the mountain on a lotus throne, four- armed, holding his familiar attributes.


56

An illustration from the “Shangri” Ramayana: Laxmana confers with Rama Circa 1700-10 Jammu and Kashmir, Bahu, India Book IV, Kishkindhakanda, Chapter 4 Opaque watercolors heightened with gold on paper Leaf: 14 x 9 in. (35.5 x 22.8 cm) Image: 12 1/4 x 7 1/2 in. (31.12 x 19.05 cm) Published: Book IV, Kishkindhakanda, Chapter 4

The Hindi inscription on the top is written in devanagari and reads “After talking to Hanuman, Laxmana is conferring his discussion to Rama” the bottom right says 4, referring to the chapter. On the back of the work it translates to “Kishkinda, 7” referring to the

“Monkey Chapter”, leaf 7. This work is style III and was most likely completed in Mandi, close to the Kulu valley. Please see the the above link for a full discussion of the ShangriStyle III as well as comparables.  This painting comes from the great series known as the “Shangri” Ramayana.  It was first discovered in 1956 by M.S. Randhawa in the collection of Raja Raghbhir Singh of Shangri, a town in the Kulu valley.  Raghbhir Singh, a descendant of the Kulu royal family, owned 270 pages of this

magnificent Ramayana that have since been dispersed.  In 1973, William G. Archer attempted to give a historical justification for the Kulu origins of the work.  He grouped the paintings into four different styles, which he identified as Shangri Styles I-IV. (3)  In 1992, B. N. Goswamy and  Eberhard Fischer challenged the Kulu attribution and reassigned the paintings to Bahu, the capital of a branch of the royal Jammu family.  This was on account of similarities in the physiognomies of the characters to portraits of Raja Kripal Dev and Ananda Dev of Bahu as well as their courtiers and attendants. (4)  The Kishkindhakanda is executed in Shangri Style III.  Recent scholars such as Darielle Mason suggest that the Kishkindhakanda may have been completed in Mandi, close to the Kulu valley; others such as Joseph M. Dye retain the Kulu provenance.(5)


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The Rise of the Dealer by Clanci Jo Conover

With Asia Week asserting itself as a cultural staple in New York, Asian Art and Antiques have garnered increasing attention in the art world. Recent exhibitions across the city like the Guggenheim’s past show Art and China After 1989: Theater of the World and the Metropolitan’s Crowns of Vajra Masters: Ritual Art of Nepal have helped to promote a renewed interest in the region’s arts. Auction houses boast a high volume of available lots during Asia Week, but art galleries are prevailing as the venue of choice for many collectors. Kapoor Galleries has a long history of working with Indian and Himalayan art, offering work that has been thoroughly vetted to ensure that it is of the highest quality. The ability of the gallery to decisively choose which pieces to include in Asia Week sales allows for only the most refined pieces amidst a turbulent world market. If we look back to 2016, total auction sales of Ancient Art in the U.S. dropped by 9.7%, causing the antique and ancient art markets to struggle for attention in the New York art scene. 1 These reportedly low sales of antiques at auction can partly be attributed to the art dealer’s successful takeover of the market, counting for the majority of global art sales.2 In the Americas, private dealers accounted for $8.8 billion in sales, while auctions represented just $5.7 billion in sales.3 The dealer has certain privileges that the auction house does not - namely control over a set price and the ability to decide which works/artists to represent, giving the dealer obvious appeal to those buyers that prefer discretion and reliability. The depression of the Asian (and Ancient) art markets, however, was short lived. In 2017, Asian Art saw an impressive spike in numbers. During Spring 2016, New York Asia Week participants (auction houses) drew in a total of $130 million in sales, whereas in 2017 the world record was set for highest selling piece of Indian artwork at auction4 and total sales amounted to $424 million.5 Many buyers that drove these sales were visitors from mainland China and Hong Kong,6 indicating that the slowed growth in Chinese markets from the previous year had much to do with the lacking sales volume. Alongside these market trends, Indian and Himalayan art are clearly starting to command a greater respect for their unique attention to detail, stunning imagery, and symbolic meanings that Kapoor Galleries have been privy to for decades. Congruently, the rise of the dealer grows out of their ability to remain the top choice for buyers to acquire these valued works of art, setting a professional standard for the ever developing world of art.

Sources: Bowley, Graham. “Surprising Sale at Christie’s Lifts Asia Week New York.” New York Times , March 21, 2017. https://www.nytimes.com/2017/03/21/arts/design/christies-sale-liftsasiaweek-new-york.html Christie’s. “A Large and Important Black Stone Figure of Lokantha Avalokiteshvara,” https://www.christies.com/lotfinder/Lot/a-large-and-important-black-stone-figure-6061 734-details.aspx Pownall, Rachel. “TEFAF Art Market Report 2017,” The European Fine Art Foundation , 2017.

1 Rachel Pownall, “TEFAF Art Market Report 2017,” The European Fine Art Foundation , 2017; 141. 2 Ibid., 144. 3 Ibid., 26-27. 4 “ A Large and Important Black Stone Figure of Lokanatha Avalokiteshvara,” Christie’s, https://www.christies.com/lotfinder/Lot/a-large-and-important-black-stone-figure-6061734-details.aspx 5 Graham Bowley, “Surprising Sale at Christie’s Lifts Asia Week New York,” 2017. 6 Ibid.


Livia Gao Buddhist art has become a hot topic in China as the government continues to heavily invest in the One Belt and One Road initiative, it is evident a rise in the Chinese market is coming. In 2013 China’s president, Xi Jinping, proposed the One Belt and One Road (OBOR) or Belt and Road (B&R) initiative, planning to spend 900 billion USD in rebooting the ancient Silk Road through a trade and infrastructure network, snaking via Central Asia to Europe and down through Africa. This ambitious initiative not only aims to create the world’s largest platform for economic cooperation, but also focuses on promoting Chinese culture while building a multilateral social and cultural cooperation among countries along the road. According to Chinese officials, since 2014, China has launched a series of cultural events including: the Silk Road International Arts Festival, the Marine Silk Road International Arts Festival, and the Silk Road (Dunhuang) International Cultural Expo, with hopes to promote cultural communication among Belt & Road countries. By the end of 2016, China had signed approximately 318 official cooperative deals and action plans on cultural exchanges with participating nations, establishing Chinese cultural centers in 11 countries. Most recently China has formed an alliance with a number of initiative participants in terms of founding Silk Road-themed theaters and museums. Buddhism, and the art it has brought with it, is inarguably amongst the most treasurable gifts sent to China along the Silk Road, greatly enriching and shaping Chinese culture to what it is today along with the influence of Chinese Daoism and Confucianism, making it an essential piece of the development of today’s Silk Road Cultural Industry Belt. In fact, a series of Buddhist art themed cultural events were promoted by the government; including an international tour exhibition of Chinese Buddhist Art that was kicked off in Malaysia, the ‘Belt and Road’ Buddhist Art Lectures Series, held among China’s top tier universities, and the ‘Belt and Road’ World Buddhist Art Project. With an increasing emphasis both from the Chinese government and non-governmental parties, exhibitions featuring art along the Silk Road flourished in the past year and are carried into 2018 both internationally and domestically. In 2017, the Nepali embassy organized a cultural exhibition in Beijing , displaying ancient artworks, paintings, and books from Nepal. At the opening, the Nepali Ambassador to China Leela Mani Paudyal highlighted various aspects of Sino- Nepali cultural relations and the need to elevate the two countries’ relations with strategic partnerships for both economic development and cultural relations. In February 2018, Ca’ Foscari University of Venice kicked off Italy’s first ever exhibition on Buddhist art from Dunhuang, the Jewel from the Silk Road , with the aim to introduce Buddhist art to Italy and to renew the Silk Road legacy establishing trade and cultural exchange once again. Domestically,Himalayan art themed exhibitions, some focusing on thangka painting, were held at China’s top tier venues including; the National Art Museum of China, Palace Museum, Cultural Palace of Nationalities, etc. Outside of Beijing, Buddhist art themed exhibitions also thrived in various other cities; The Hometown of Buddha: Exhibition of Buddhist Art from Gandhara exhibition featuring over 70 pieces of arts and artifacts from Gandhara toured from the Hubei province to the Henan province, attracting thousands of people to come and appreciate the art source that later gave birth to all Chinese Buddhist art. The Mysterious Dunhuang, one of the largest Dunhuang exhibition to date was open to public in Shenzhen, January of 2018. By using reproduction and cutting- edge technology, the exhibition allows visitors to walk through life size reconstructions of the ancient Mogao caves and to have a close look at the exquisite art found within the caves. Across the South China Sea, Miles upon Miles: World Heritage along the Silk Road was a major exhibition organized by the government of Hong Kong, featuring some 210 rare exhibits from four provinces and two countries, which was viewed as an effective way to engage the young about culture, according to Lau Siu-kai, vice-chairman of the Chinese Association of Hong Kong and Macau Studies . With the concise execution of its strategic initiative, it is clear that the Chinese government, aiming to revive its ancient and glorious culture, is now gradually loosening its atheist belief and taking steps to boost a global awareness of its abundant Buddhist culture. With that, it can easily be surmised that a further rise in the market is just around the corner. Campbell,C. The Silk Road Rebooted. Time. Retrieved from http://time.com/china-silk-road-epic-journey/ Dipananda, BD. (2018, March 5). Ca’Foscari University of Venice Hosts First Dunhuang Exhibition in Italy. Buddhistdoor Global . Retrieved from https://www.buddhistdoor.net/news/cafoscari-university-of-venice-hosts-first-dunhuang-exhibition-in-italy He,Y. (2017, October 12). Belt and Road building cultural bridges. China Daily . Retrieved from http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/opinion/2017-10/12/content_33147377.htm J.P. (2017, May 15). What is China’s belt and road initiative? The Economist . Retrieved from https://www.economist.com/blogs/economist-explains/2017/05/economist-explains-11 Li, Y. (2018, January 24). Exhibition of Tibetan thangka paintings held at National Art Museum of China. China News. Retrieved from http://www.ecns.cn/travel/2018/01-24/289840.shtml Nepali embassy organises cultural exhibition in Beijing. (2017, December 22). The Himalayan Times . Retrieved from https://thehimalayantimes.com/kathmandu/nepali-embassy-organises-cultural-exhibition-beijing/ Thangka art exhibition held in Beijing. (2017, September 5). China Daily . Retrieved from http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/culture/2017-09/05/content_31587720.htm Wisman, A. (2018, January 23). One of the Largest Dunhuang Exhibitions To Date Opens to the Public in Shenzhen. Buddhistdoor Global. Retrieved from https://www.buddhistdoor.net/news/one-of-the-largest-dunhuang-exhibitions-to-date-opens-to-the-public-in-shenzhen 《缘起——喜马拉雅艺术展》在京开幕. (2017, December 26). Xinhua Net. Retrieved from http://www.xinhuanet.com/expo/2017-12/26/c_129775487.htm


BIBLIOGRAPHY A.K Coomaraswamy, The Dance of Shiva, Buddhist- Primitives, London, 1925, p. 74 I. Alexander Studholme: The Origins of Om Manipadme Hum. Albany NY: State University of New York Press, 2002, ISBN 0-7914-5389-8 II. Brancaccio, Pia, 1966-, Behrendt, Kurt A., 1964- and ebrary, Inc Gandha вan Buddhism : archaeology, art, texts. UBC Press, Vancouver, 2006. III. Department of Asian Art. “Kushan Empire (ca. 2nd century B.C.–3rd century A.D.)”. In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/kush/hd_kush.htm (October 2000 Editions de la Reunion des musees nationaux, 2001 V. Eugenia Strong, La Sculptura Romana da Augusto a Constantino (Florence 1923) . Foucher, The Beginning of Buddhist Art and other essays, London, 1918, reprint, Varanasi, 1972, p.4 . Gisela M. Richter, The sculptors and sculptures of the Greek (New Haven and London,1930) . Huntington, John. “The Iconography and Iconology of Maitreya Images in Gandhara.” Journal of Central Asia (1985): 133-78. Print. . Jean- Francois Jarrige et al. National museum arts asiatiques- Guimet. Paris: . Krishan, Y. The Buddha Image: Its Origin and Development. New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal, 1996. Print. . Kumar, Baldev. 1973. The Early Kuşānas. New Delhi, Sterling Publishers. . Rhi, Juhyung. “Bodhisattvas in Gandharan Art.” An Aspect of Mahayana in Gandharan Buddhism. UBC, 2006. 151-180. Print. . Richard Gombrich, Theravada Buddhism: A Social History from Ancient Benares to Modern Colombo. Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1988, . Salomon, Richard, and Gregory Schopen. “ON AN ALLEGED REFERENCE TO AMITABHA IN A KHAROSTHI INSCRIPTION ON A GANDHARAN RELIEF.” Journal of the International Association of Buddhist Studies Volume25. Number1-2 (2002)Print. . The origin of the Buddha image “Studies in Buddhist art of South Asia, ed.A.K. Narain, New Delhi, 1985, p.27 . The origins and Development of the Pensive Bodhisattva Images of Asia: Junghee Lee, Artibus Asiae, Vol. 53, No. 3/4 (1993), pp. 311-357 Goswamy, B. N., and Eberhard Fischer. Pahari Masters: Court Painters of Northern India. Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1997. Archer, W.G., Indian Painting from the Punjab Hills, 1973 Pal, P., ‘Ramayana Pictures from the Hills in the Los Angeles County Museum of Art’ in R.C. Craven, Jr., ed., Ramayana Pahari Paintings, Bombay. 1990, pp. 87–106 The Ramayana of Valmiki, translated by H.P. Shastri, London, 1952-59 Seyller, J., and Mittal, J., Pahari Paintings in the Jagdish and Kamla Mittal Museum of Indian Art, Hyderabad, 2014 Valmiki, Le Ramayana illustre par les miniatures indiennes du XVIe au XIXe siecle, Paris, 2011 (Goswamy and Fischer, 2011, p. 680, figs. 15-16b and B.N. Goswamy and E. Fischer, Pahari Masters - Court Painters of Northern India, 1992, p. 313, figs. 106-108) Archer, W. G. Indian Paintings from the Punjab Hills; a Survey and History of Pahari Miniature Painting,. London: Sotheby Parke Bernet, 1973. Print. B.N. Goswamy: Nainsukh of Guler: A great Indian Painter from a Small Hillstate. Museum Rietberg, Zurich 1997. ISBN 3-907070-76-3 (Artibus Asiae: Supplementum Volume XLI.). Centres of Pahari Painting, by Chandramani Singh. Published by Abhinav Publications, 1982. ISBN 0-391-02412-4.

J.C French, Review of W.G Archers Indian Painting in the Punjab Hills, in Art and Letters, Vol XXVI (1952) Kangra Painting, by William George Archer. Published by Faber and Faber, 1956. Kangra Paintings on Love, by M S Randhawa. Publications Division. 1994. ISBN 81-230- 0050-2. Kaul, Manohar. Trends in Indian Painting, Ancient, Medieval, Modern. New Delhi: Dhoomimal Ramchand, 1961. Print. Kossak , Steven (1997). Indian court painting, 16th-19th century.. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art. ISBN 0870997831. (see index: p. 148-152) Macdonell, Arthur Anthony (1900), “Kāvya or court epic”, A History of Sanskrit Literature, New York: D. Appleton and company Mehta, N. C. Studies in Indian Painting; a Survey of Some New Material Ranging from the Commencement of the VIIth Century to circa 1870 A.D. Bombay: D.B. Taraporevala Sons, 1926. Print. Miller, Barbara Stoler (1977). Love song of the dark lord : Jayadeva’s Gitagovinda. Columbia University Press. Randhawa, M. S. Kangra Valley Painting. Delhi: Publications Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Govt. of India, 1954. Print. Randhawa, M. S., and John Kenneth Galbraith. Indian Painting; the Scene, Themes, and Legends. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1968. Print. (Pgs 129-140) Schomer, Karine; McLeod, W. H., eds. (1987), The Sants: Studies in a Devotional Tradition of India, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 9788120802773 Welch, Stuart Cary (1985). India: art and culture, 1300-1900. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art. ISBN 9780944142134. Binney, E. Indian Miniature Painting from the collection of Edwin Binney, 3rd: Mughal and Deccani Schools (Portland Art Museum, 1974) Ebeling, K. Ragamala Painting, Ravi Kumar (Basel·Paris·New Delhi, 1973) Ehnbom, D. Indian Miniatures: The Ehrenfeld Collection, Hudson Hills Press (New York, 1985) Fischer, E & Goswamy, B. N Pahari Masters, Artibus Asiae (Switzerland, 1992) Jessup, H. Sculpture of Angkor and Ancient Cambodia, National Gallery of Art (D.C., 1997) Klimburg-Salter, D. The Silk Route and the Diamond Path (, 1982) Kramrisch, S. Manifestations of Shiva, Philadelphia Museum of Art (Philadelphia, 1981) Kramrisch, S. Painted Delight, Philadelphia Museum of Art (Philadelphia, 1986) Miller, Barbara S. Love Song of the Dark Lord, Columbia University Press (New York, 1977) Olson, E. Tantric Buddhist Art, China House Gallery (New York, 1974) Pal, P. The Arts of Nepal: Sculpture, Vol. I (Leiden/Koln, 1974) Pal, P. Nepal, Where the Gods are Young, Asia Society (New York, 1975) Pal, P. The Sensuous Immortals, Los Angeles County Museum of Art (Los Angeles, 1977) Pal, P. Art of Nepal, Los Angeles County Museum of Art (Los Angeles, 1985) Pal, P. A Collecting Odyssey, Art Institute of Chicago (New York, 1997) Pal, P. Himalayas: An Aesthetic Adventure, Art Institute of Chicago (Chicago, 2003) Pande, A. & Dane L. Indian Erotica, Roli & Janssen (Singapore, 2001) Randhawa, M. S. Kangra Paintings on Love, National Museum (New Delhi, 1962) Rawson, P. Erotic Art of India, Thames and Hudson (London, 1977) Uhlig, H . On the Path to Enlightenment, Museum Reitberg Zurich (Zurich, 1995) Von Schroeder, U. Indo-Tibetan Bronzes (Hong Kong, 1981)


Book Cover: The Vasudhara Mandala See catalog number 22

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Kapoor Galleries Asia Week NY 2018  

With great pleasure and pride, I present Kapoor Galleries’ latest catalog. Among other masterpieces, this catalog showcases the magnificent...

Kapoor Galleries Asia Week NY 2018  

With great pleasure and pride, I present Kapoor Galleries’ latest catalog. Among other masterpieces, this catalog showcases the magnificent...