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DECLARATION

The research work embodied in this dissertation titled MUSIC AND ARCHITECTURE: MAPPING THE TRANSPOSITION PROCESS has been carried

out by the undersigned as part of the undergraduate Dissertation programme in the Department of Architecture, School of Planning and Architecture, New Delhi, under the supervision of Ryan Christopher Sequeira The undersigned hereby declares that this is his/her original work and has not been plagiarised in part or full form from any source.

Name: KABIR SAHNI Roll No.: A/2435/2012 Date: 13.11.2015

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I extend my heartfelt gratitude towards everyone for helping and guiding me towards the successful completion of this dissertation. I thank my guide, Ryan Christopher Sequeira, whose patience and understanding guided my research ahead and his valuable advice always encouraged me to do better. I also would like to thank my co-ordinators Dr. Jaya Kumar, Dr. Leon Morenas and Dr. Shweta Manchanda for their guidance and helping me understand the process of research better. I would like to extend heartfelt gratitude towards Rajiv Bhakat and Thomas Oommen and Parul Kiri Roy for giving me greater perspective and opening my mind to new directions. I would also like to thank Michael Vivian Ekka for his motivation and for sharing knowledge in music theory. I also extend gratitude to the library staff at School of Planning and Architecture, New Delhi for their generous help in acquiring literature. And finally I would like to thank my family and my friends for their intense support and for having had hours of informal discussions and showing interest in my dissertation.

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THE ABSTRACT. THE OVERTURE. • MUSIC • ARCHITECURE • TRANSPOSITION • • PHENOMENOLOGY • STRUCTURE • COMPOSITION • This is an exploration. This is an expedition. This is an embarkment from the embankment of incompleteness into the oceans that resonate more wholesome, exciting and eccentric energies. The emphasis lies on the bond between two intricate art forms – music and architecture. The aim is to begin with an investigation on the intimate relationship the two art forms share and then move on to mapping the translation of the former to the latter. Music when blended into architecture generates a phantasmagorical freshness that when experienced feels like a live concert of materials, volumes, light, shadows and landscapes. The coalition manages to enhance the impact of architecture as an art form and create magnanimity in its compositionality, expression and universal presence. Architecture has lost its sensuality and beauty by just intertwining around function and mediocre response to surroundings and technology and there is a dire need to jolt the dormancy among designers and inspire them to explore the range of the art form by fusing it with music. Music is not the only solution to architectural conceptualization. The idea is to reverberate the idea of using music (as one of other possibilities) as a leap vehicle to generate a wave that is able to wake up the dormancy of architectural designs. Let us create architecture with greater personality and cosmic presence. Let this music and architecture covalence begin to pollinate to the world. Plug into those amps, pick up your axes, tap those sticks and let the music invasion dismantle this architectural anarchy. And so, in 5… 4… 3… 2… 1… (Opening riff) 8


TABLE OF CONTENTS DECLARATION

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

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THE ABSTRACT. THE OVERTURE.

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THE INTRO

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THE PROPOSAL RESEARCH OUTLINES AIM OBJECTIVES SCOPE LIMITATIONS RESEARCH QUESTION RESEARCH METHODOLOGY DEFINING ARCHITECTURE THROUGH MUSIC

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CHAPTER ONE: THE COALITION

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MUSIC AND ARCHITECTURE AS ART FORMS REJECTING MIMESIS COVALENCE BY VIRTUE OF DISJUNCTION THE Y-CONDITION LOOKING AT TERMINOLOGIES AN INTRODUCTION TO PHENOMENOLOGY

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CHAPTER TWO: THE STRUCTURE

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CASE STUDY #1 : THE BOHEMIAN RHAPSODY

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CHAPTER THREE: SCHENKERIAN ANALYSIS

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CASE STUDY #2 : STRETTO HOUSE, STEVEN HOLL DEALING WITH THE STRUCTURE Background Middleground Foreground AS A MEANS OF TRANSPOSITIONING

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CHAPTER FOUR: MUSI-TECTURE

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CASE STUDY #3 : MUSI-TECTURE (INSTRUCTIONS) AS A TRANSPOSITION METHODOLOGY CASE STUDY #4 : SERENADE FOR STRINGS, EDWARD ELGAR

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CHAPTER FIVE: ARCHITECTONICS OF MUSIC

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CASE STUDY #5 : FOUR3 – JOHN CAGE CASE STUDY #6 : PSAPPHA – IANNIS XENAKIS

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CHAPTER SIX: SPOTLIGHT: IANNIS XENAKIS

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INTRODUCTION IANNIS XENKAIS CASE STUDY #7 : THE POLYPHONIC & UNDULATING GLASS CASE STUDY #8 : THE MAGNUM OPUS: PHILIPS PAVILLION THE ARCHITECTURE OF XENAKIS CASE STUDY #9 : LATERALUS INTRODUCTION SONG DETAILS THE ANALYSIS APPLICATION

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CHAPTER SEVEN: PHENOMENOLOGY

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CASE STUDY #10 : VISUALISING THE INVISIBLE

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CHAPTER EIGHT: CODA

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THE CATALOGUE CRITICAL OVERVIEW STRETTO HOUSE, STEVEN HOLL MUSI-TECTURE: YOUNG, BANCROFT & SANDERSON IANNIS XENAKIS & MATHEMATICS VISUALISING THE INVISIBLE, PHENOMENOLOGY FOUR3 + PSAPPHA, THE ARCHITECTONICS OF MUSIC STUDIO THE SALIENT FEATURES AND THE DRAWBACKS THE BOHEMIAN RHAPSODY – COMPLETE SAGA

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OUTRO

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

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LIST OF FIGURES

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LIST OF TABLES

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THE INTRO THE PROPOSAL Music and architecture exist as two intricate and highly regarded forms of art. As individual art forms they deeply interact and engage with their listeners and users respectively and managed to cast quite the effect. They have their own distinctive medium and form of expression and their own unique methods of composition. But what is exceptionally interesting is to see the kind of covalence and energy they produce when they come together. This fusion is not as direct as the combination of visuals and audio clips to form audio-visuals or films. It is of the form where one is being defined by the other, or where one is being viewed through the lens of the other. It has more to do with inspiration rather than dictatorial impact. It is like looking at the world through a kaleidoscope where the existing images put on a new set of dynamics and are perceived with a new twist. The coalition of music and architecture releases a stupendously enticing resonance that manages to capture time, progression, emotion, energy and vitality. It makes volumes hop, skip and jump to the beats of the inspiring composition, erasing the mundane flatness of space. This covalence introduces depth and a vivacious energy that just involves one at so many levels. Goethe’s famous statement, “architecture is frozen music and music is liquid architecture� (Von Goethe, Johann Wolfgang, 1827) certainly wraps up the entire relationship in one statement, but the idea now is to understand the levels at which this statement works. The idea is to push the mind beyond the physical imagery of architecture and allow it to transcend into a realm that talks about space, volume, structure and composition. It is to understand how concepts of sensuality, motion, rhythm, multi-sensory engagement and composition lack in the architectural expression and how music, as an artistic, intellectual and phenomenological input in to the field of architecture can fill up those holes and cracks.

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This is to be done by the introducing music that will work as a catalyst to accentuate the pure flavors of architectonics and spatial. And so, this research underlines the transpositioning of music into the field of architecture and the various ways in which one can construct this procedure of transpositioning. The process of translating music to architecture or vice versa believes in the existence of a ‘y-condition’, a middle ground from where one can go either way and this research paper aims to construct the different lenses with which the ‘ycondition’ can be comprehended and then translated to architecture thereafter. It aims to draw attention to the energy and eccentricity that music can bring forward when it behaves as an ingredient in the cognitive, intuitive, logical and structural creation of physical space and volume. It looks into the ways in which the subject of transposition has been handled so far and tries to conclude a catalogue that expresses the components, aspects and facets of music that can be analysed and harnessed to improvise the design, architectural expressions.

RESEARCH OUTLINES AIM The aim of this research paper is to understand the process of translating music to architecture. Starting with defining the relationship between the two art forms, the dissertation progresses onto defining the transposition of music to building language based on the lines of structure, notation and phenomenology. The aim circulates around tracing the various ways of dealing with music, an intangible, and using it as a leap vehicle in the creation of physical space.

OBJECTIVES D Understanding the relationship between music and architecture as forms of art and otherwise. D Looking at the concept of the ‘y-condition’ and thereafter analysing the concept of translating music to architecture. 13


D Defining the structure of music and architecture and forming a translatable correlation. D Looking into the concept of phenomenology and linking it to the two art forms. D Analysing the transposition of music to architecture based on terminologies, structure and phenomenology. D Coming up with different methods to translate and form a concept catalogue.

SCOPE D Forming a relationship between music and architecture and creating common grounds at a rudimentary level based on the their similarities as art forms, looking into common terminologies and describing the fact they both generate a phenomenological effect. D The research restricts its scope to defining architecture through music only. And does not analyse the opposite transpositioning process. D Looking at the structure of music and the structure of architecture and finding common grounds based of chronology, terminologies, progressions, etc. D Looking into phenomenology and then analyzing the phenomenological characteristics of music and explaining its architectural translation. D Understanding the different theories and methodologies adopted to translate aspects of music to architectural space and design.

LIMITATIONS D The dissertation restricts itself to defining architecture through music and not vice versa. D Due to the lack of examples existing in India to explain the concept of music and architecture, examples outside the country the of residence of the author have been chosen and hence there is a heavy reliance on secondary data due to inaccessibility to these buildings. 14


D The music theory is limited to all the literature read for this dissertation.

RESEARCH QUESTION “WHAT IS THE CORRELATION BETWEEN MUSIC AND ARCHITECTURE? WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENT WAYS IN WHICH MUSIC CAN BE TRANSPOSED INTO ARCHITECTURAL EXPRESSION AND DESIGN AND WHAT IS THE BEST WAY OF DEALING WITH MUSIC AS A LEAP VEHCILE IN THE DESIGN PROCESS?”

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY The methodology helps to achieve a set of objectives and conquer the aim set. It aims at setting a strategic route to the desired conclusion. It also helps judge the reliability of the hypothesis and claims, and helps in stringing them with appropriate examples and arguments. D It deals with the relationship between music and architectural aspects and covalence associated with their coalition. D It looks at terminologies common to both fields that behave as basis for translation. D With the aim to conclude with a list of ways to deal with music as leap vehicle for architectural design, this research revolves around multiple case studies and examples to cite the different outlooks that have been adopted. These case studies include: 1. Examples of built architecture, 2. Unbuilt concepts, 3. Theories, 4. Studio projects undertaken in architectural courses, 5. Graphic artwork, 15


6. Installations, and 7. Analysis of musical compositions D Further, to detail out the aspects of music that form gold mines in the ‘ycondition’ and allow a subliminal translation into meaningful and sensual forms of architecture.

DEFINING ARCHITECTURE THROUGH MUSIC The aim of this research is to throw light onto this very architectonic play between music and architecture, the transposition from one to the other and the impact on architectural design and space. This dissertation restricts itself to defining architecture through music and not vice versa. It manages to bring more than just the visual appeal to the spotlight and make architecture an explosion of experiences. Transposition of music to architecture involves in looking at the two primary relationships between the two art forms, namely, structure and phenomenology. The former deals with the physicality, arrangement, materiality, form and delivering the function. The latter deals with the experiences of the music and space, connecting with the users, and the enveloping quality of the envelope achieved through structural formations. And finally, the research aims to perceive architecture beyond its physical presence and to turn it into a performance, a drama rather than just a product; furthermore perceive this “drama as the gesamtkunstwerk (the total artwork)” (Cerrito, 2014).

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CHAPTER ONE: THE COALITION “…Aaaah ah! Aaaah ah! We come from the land of the ice and snow, From the midnight sun where the hot springs flow. The hammer of the gods will drive our ships to new lands, To fight the horde, singing and crying: Valhalla, I am coming!” - Led Zeppelin, Immigrant Song, Zeppelin III, 1970

MUSIC AND ARCHITECTURE AS ART FORMS Art is a manifestation of a man’s imagination, perception and cognition. The process of creating art is nothing but a systematic alignment of these three into some form of order and then allowing the order to morph itself into words, images, sculptures, sounds and buildings. It is a cerebral activity combining imagination, analysis, intent and problem solving that coordinating with the rest of the body to express or project this cerebral animation. Iannis Xenakis defined music ‘as a sort of compartment for whoever thinks it and makes it; an individual phenomena; a fixing in sound of imagined virtualities; as a model for being or for doing by sympathetic drive; the gratuitous play of the child and the mystical asceticism’ (Xenakis, 1971, p.181). Music is the art form that deals with mental imagery, imagination and emotions and expresses them as sounds strung together in a meaningful composition. Architecture is the process and product of planning, designing, and constructing buildings and other physical structures. It requires the creative manipulation and coordination of materials and technology, and of light and shadow. As an art form, architecture is a manifestation of the designer/architect’s imagination,

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cognition and feelings in response to a context (could be a positive or negative or zero response) and to a requirement in the form of a spatial experience and volumetric display. And so, the very first chord connecting music and architecture is the fact that both of them are pure forms of art.

REJECTING MIMESIS Art breaks down into five primary versions or categories – painting, literature, sculpture, music and architecture. The former three separate themselves from the latter two by the concept of mimesis. Painting, literature and sculpture all three are imitations or abstractions of nature and our surroundings. They are translations of what the artists perceive or view from their surroundings into some form of representation. Music and architecture on the other hand are renegades when it comes to any form of mimesis or mimicry. They are the invigorative art forms, the abstractions, and the deliberate creations of the artist as a response to inspiration, cognition and imagination. And so, beyond the fact that they are children of the same parent, art, another underlining concept makes the two inseparable - music and architecture follow the same mantra – no mimesis. Literature, painting, sculpture and their other siblings are incarnations or imitations of nature, but both music and architecture are more provocative rather than imitative (Ndubisi, n.d.).

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COVALENCE BY VIRTUE OF DISJUNCTION Music and architecture form a covalent bond. Beyond disregarding mimesis, they take imagination, inspiration, content, volume and principles as the core structural framework in their synthesis, they introduce a covalent effect where they complete each other and form a very strong and stable relationship. As quoted by Paul Waterhouse, “architecture works in the quiescent mass and exists in external space; music works in that feeling for tone which is unconditioned by matters and exists in tone qualities and time movements” (Waterhouse, 1921, p.326), music exists as intangible, invisible, audible and progressive whereas architecture is the yang and is perceived as tangible, visible, inaudible and static. Separately, they are what is stated above but when put together they complete the other. Musical works are immaterial – in the sense that they cannot be touched; architectural works are concrete – in the sense that they can be touched and felt (Ndubisi, n.d.). “On the face of it, of course they have nothing in common at all. A cathedral is built of stones, a symphony of tones; architecture is static, music is dynamic; architecture is in space, music, medium of time; architecture is primarily utilitarian music is a natural expression of the human mind, serving no other purpose than the desire for that expression.” (Higgins, 1925) This disjunction between music and architecture expresses the complimenting coalition they project where when their attributes are pooled together, they are able to cater to all physical and intangible realms of design.

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THE Y-CONDITION When undergoing interchangeability, they are subjected to a change, a change postulated as the y-condition by Elizabeth Martin (Martin, 1994). This is the ‘state between music and architecture, where the idea is being translated to either architecture or music (McEwen, 2011). It born from the relationship they share and that manages them to transposed from one state of art to the other. It is their artistic core, their rejection to mimesis and their complimenting attributes make them excellent leap vehicle for one another.

LOOKING AT TERMINOLOGIES Beyond mimesis and basic essence, music and architecture, draw parallels based on structure and terminological constituents. These terminologies encompass; composition, proportion, scale, metre, pitch, rhythm, harmony, tactus, contrast, nuance, accent, triad, interval, tonality, detailing and musical landscape (Imaah, 2004, p.172). Through common terminologies music becomes a “leap vehicle” (source of inspiration) for architectural compositions and vice versa (Young et al., 1993, p.39). Music follows a set of tonal combinations, harmonic laws, and principles of rhythm (Waterhouse, 1921) and other structuring laws that formulate a composition and turn a collection of sounds into music. Similarly, from just turning out to be mere walls of brick, material turns into architecture under laws of gravity and rules of symmetry (Waterhouse, 1921), notions of deconstruction, abstraction, arrangement, rhythm and hence turning out to be a composition. In other words, Goethe’s “frozen music”. It is these elements that formulate the base of the structural correlation between music and architectural space.

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There is a need to understand the existence of common terminologies among music and architecture and their importance in the composition of works of the individual art forms that will help understand their transferability. Lets us take an example: Dynamics, phrasing, and timbre are critical elements of music. D Under music, “dynamics enhance what the notes are trying to express.� (Agarwala, 2011) D Phrasing is what underlines the core idea of composition, causing a continuum from the eruption of the first key to the silence at the end of the piece, progression form key to key and movement from the intro to outro, through intermediate layers. D The character of the passage is guided by the timbre. It is enhanced by instrumentation and quality of instruments. In architecture, these musical elements of dynamics, phrasing, and timbre can then be transposed into the luminosity, the movement, and the materiality of a space, respectively and then expressed as building language. D Luminosity affects how the space is perceived and felt. How it is viewed, absorbed, analysed and experienced, like the dynamics of music. D Similar to phrasing, movement highlights the progression of the viewer (i.e. listener for music) from its start to its finish. It defines how an occupant moves through the space. There could be transitional elements in which the occupant may pass by at an accelerated pace, or perhaps slow down or pause in order to experience a particular moment. D The timbre of a composition can be read as materiality in architecture. Instrumentation and their combination with each other and with time (intervals) generate character in music and in the very same manner this character is brought forward in architecture through materiality. “While the space is based off a concrete analysis 22


(the layering system of a Schenkerian Analysis), its character can be developed through the materials used to create the construct” (Agarwala, 2011, pp.5-6). The above construct between music and architecture based upon three of the many common terminologies states how these elements add meaning, depth and value to a composition. And based upon these one can easily transcend from one art form to the other, forming the music-architecture covalence. The two complimenting art forms relate to space and rhythm. Architecture is nothing but space and the experience of movement through the space. Music is also the invisible fluid that fills in space. It is the solution to space embellishment. And so both art forms deliver space-gilding services making them more intimately linked to each other.

AN INTRODUCTION TO PHENOMENOLOGY “Music is the actualization of the possibility of any sound whatever to present to some human being a meaning which he experiences with his body – that is to say with his mind, his feelings, his senses, his will and his metabolism” (Clifton, 1983). Phenomenology is experiencing the art at a multisensory level. For music, there is more than what meets the ear. Music is felt through an induced synesthesia. It is experienced. It is not just heard but absorbed and then it plays its magic, affecting the heartbeat, the thoughts, and the imagination. One even feels the surroundings change. Bodies to sway along with the beats, the rhythm and the riffs. Heads bob (sometimes bang), arms sway, pupils dilate, hips swivel and fingers strum the eccentric solo. It envelops you into a sound based

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phenomenological experience. The audile gravity pulls the mind and the body to generate images, colors, patterns and reinterpret and perceive the atmosphere. Architecture is also a function of phenomenological experience. “Instead of creating mere objects of visual seduction, architecture relates, mediates and projects meanings”. “An architectural work is not experienced as a series of isolated retinal pictures, but in its full and integrated material, embodied and spiritual essence” (Pallasmaa, 2012, p.13). The building is not a volume of air concealed in an appealing box, it is not just for the eyes to enjoy and it is not just made for the camera to capture. Architecture is an experience of space much like the music is the experience of sound. Like the fingers bursting into an air guitar solo under the influence of music, the eye, the body and the heartbeat travels through a series of volumes, covered, enclosed, open, and absorbs the transition of levels, heights, light, material and acoustics. We touch the building, see the light and shadows, move through spaces, hear echoes and reverberations and sense energy and pulsations. Phenomenology is the other half of architecture and music, the former being structure and all other elements and laws. It is ‘the polyphony of senses’ (Bachelard cited in Pallasmaa, 2012) where “the eye collaborates with the body and the other senses. Where every touching experience of architecture is multi-sensory; qualities of space, matter and scale are measured equally by the eye, ear, nose, skin, tongue, skeleton and muscle.” (Pallasmaa, 2012, pp.44-45). And so, along with structural qualities, music and architecture form transferability from one to the other on the basis of experience or phenomenology where the experience of the composition and the architectural volume become primary portals to ignite the transposition.

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CHAPTER TWO: THE STRUCTURE The structure of a song relates to the compositionality and the combinations of instruments set within the composition. It deals with the flow from the beginning to the end and the route taken by the instrumentation. The structure is the wireframe or base plate upon which the notations play to detail out the music. Architecturally the structure is the core framework within which spaces follow to synchronize with each other and the overall composition is thus formed. It is the pattern of movement from the entrance to the exit, through the various other volumes and across different material. And so the primary basis of translation of music to architecture is the structure of the song and the underlining compositionality scheme. It helps form a much more meaningful and wholesome connection across all the spaces to be built and makes the overall reading of the architectural work more readable and playful for the leap vehicle is the flow of sounds and the narration of the chosen piece.

CASE STUDY #1 : THE BOHEMIAN RHAPSODY To explain the translation of the music structure to a piece of architecture the Bohemian Rhapsody by the British rock band Queen is a perfect case to study. 1. Freddie Mercury, the composer of the song and the band’s front man composes a unique piece of music. The song follows what is known as the ‘monomyth’. The monomyth as per narratology and mythology is a template for tales centered around a protagonist or a “hero”. It primarily involves the adventures of the hero, followed by an acute crisis, his

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attempts to overcome the obstacles and achieve a transformation by the end of his adventures. The song, the Bohemian Rhapsody deals with the crisis of a man who has committed murder and begs for forgiveness. It highlights his struggles and inner battles to achieve atonement. It believes in the existence of a line of the unknown that one crosses as one enters the phase of challenges and crosses yet again, back to the known after having transformed. The opening lyrics of the song clearly highlight the line of reality: “Is this the real life? Is this just fantasy? Caught in a landslide, No escape from reality…” - Queen, Bohemian Rhapsody, A Night at the Opera, 1975 The monomyth is not a conventional tale template and does not end on a “happily ever after” note, rather leaves the story full circle with the vibe of impending adventures and obstacles. “…Nothing really matters, Anyone can see, Nothing really matters, Nothing really matters to me. Anyway the wind blows.” - Queen, Bohemian Rhapsody, A Night at the Opera, 1975 2. Other than the narration of the song, the composition follows a unique construction of an array of genres, eventually creating a rock opera. The song starts with plain vocal intro, flows into a ballad, energises into a guitar solo, then pops into an opera, bursts into hard rock and finally has a soft outro. This is the instrumental and vocal structure of the song and the amazing dynamics it brings forward. 26


Figure 1: The genre progression of the Bohemian Rhapsody (Source: Author)

Figure 2: The monomyth narration (Source: Author)

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Architecturally, the monomyth and the genre and instrumental structure renders excellent ways of linking spaces. 1. It leaves the idea of coming back to the same place to achieve full circle or perhaps mirror or generate symmetry at the close to make the walk back to the start to be the experience of the monomyth yet again. 2. The genre composition helps vary spatial and volumetric geometry to generate energies based on the part of the song they represent. 3. The spaces themselves can be strung from end to end based on the energy that the space resonates and the energy the respective part of the song inculcates. The following is an example of how the Bohemian Rhapsody could be transposed to an institutional building based on its narration, lyrical composition and genre and instrumental structure. (source: author).

Figure 3: Reinterpretation of the genre progression as spatial programme (Source: Author)

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Figure 4: Application of the monomyth (Source: Author)

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CHAPTER THREE: SCHENKERIAN ANALYSIS The Schenkerian Analysis began with its application to tonal music (music with a prominent key). It was a development by the Austrian music theorist and pianist Heirich Schenker. The analysis was meant to understand the structure system of a piece of music that then allowed the music to be converted into spatial configurations and eventually let a new piece of architecture emerge. The structure mentioned here varies from the structure mentioned in chapter two. This structure deals with notations and instrumentation. It is a hybrid of the structure system mentioned so far and the notational technique adopted by Iannis Xenakis that will be mentioned in chapter six. It does not look at the pure mathematics of the notations that Xenakis did but deals with the compositionality of the notes, the rise and falls, the construction and deconstruction and the solids and voids.

CASE STUDY #2 : STRETTO HOUSE, STEVEN HOLL On considering Steven Holl’s Stretto House one clearly sees a transposition of the overlapping of notes in Bartok’s piece, falling rhythmically like the water on the property (Earl, n.d.). The building was a resultant of an overlay of the Stretto notes of symphony ‘Music for Strings, Percussion and Celesta’, written in 1936, by Béla Bartók. The entire building formed a beautiful progression of the rise and fall of horizontal and curved roofs and a variation of open and covered spaces. It followed the rhythm of the Stretto notes of the composition, leading to a unique composition in itself. It was a fluid arrangement along its longer elevation and longitudinal section of concrete and glass. The piece is divided into four movements and these form the core and primary structural layering of the music, which is hence transposed into four major blocks or constructs of the house. ‘The layering system that exists within the piece is composed of Bartok’s musical expression along a structural framework based on the Fibonacci

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sequence. The contrasting elements of musicality and a rigid framework within a multi-layered system create a systematic approach in the design of the house’ (Agarwala, 2011).

Figure 5: Paul Klee's analysis of the Stretto notes of Béla Bartók’s symphony

Figure 6: East elevation of the Stretto House by Steven Holl

Figure 7: Split axonometric view of the components of the Stretto House showing the rhythmic play of strings and percussions in the form of roofing variations and volumetric play

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DEALING WITH THE STRUCTURE The Schenkerian Analysis divides the structure of the musical composition and architectural output into three major components – the background, middleground and foreground.

Background The background forms the core structure of the music and hence the core structure of the architecture thus formed from the transposition. As a part of the composition it forms the fundamental structure in the form of the core decent and the bass arpeggiation. The core or fundamental decent is the drop from the 3rd, 5th or 8th scale degree of the tonic (the tonic is the primary key of tonal music towards which all other keys inclined) and the bass arpeggiation is the harmonic progression. In an architectural connotation, the background is the primary structural system of the building, the physical supports and the primary and underlining proportioning system adopted by the building.

Middleground The middleground appears in one or more layers. It is the transition from the elementarity and fundamentalist quality of the background to the detail and intricacy of the foreground. The number of layers is directly proportional to the level of complexity and length of the composed piece. It involves the compositionality of the music from the broad and fundamental bass to the detailed ornamentation that forms the foreground. Architecturally, the middleground is the set of all the elements that make the fundamental structure ready for ornamentation and detailing. The middleground comprises of components like circulation, detailed proportioning, programmatic arrangement and volumetric order. It is the mass and the details of the mass. It

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appears in a sequence of layers where each consecutive layer adds greater depth, order and detail to the structure arrived at the background level.

Foreground The foreground is the set of all details and ornamentation that make a composition of sounds and instrumentation into worthy music. It forms the real identity of the music. It is what makes a set of riffs, lyrics, vocal, percussions and bass into the legendary Stairway to Heaven by Led Zeppelin or Layla by Derek and the Dominos. The ornamentation is crucial to make the music intricate, distinguishable, eccentric, and complete. The architectural counterpart is all the detailing that goes into making a building stand out amongst the many others. Detailing comes in the form of the geometry of fenestrations, the cornices, the color palette, the surface finishes and what have you! Its what makes the composition of bricks, mortar and other materials, unique. The two diagrams below express the background, middleground and foreground in musical and architectural frameworks. The notational intricacy and the degree of pitch play of both, the treble and the bass notations increase from the background score to the foreground score. The three layers of the middleground also show an evident heightening of the ornamentation and structural detailing as one progresses from just a treble background to a combined bass and treble foreground.

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Figure 8: Schenkerian reduction depicting the background, middleground, and foreground layers. Source: Heinrich Schenker, Five Graphic Music Analyse

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Figure 9: Watercolor diagrams of J. S. Bach's Chorale Ich Bin's, Ich, Solite Buesse.

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AS A MEANS OF TRANSPOSITIONING The Schenkerian Analysis hence adds another degree of structural correlation between music and architecture. It underlines the basis of translating a piece of music to an architectural framework and detailing it based on the tripartite division of the song and aligning these divisions the way instrumentation is layered in the musical composition. And so its focus lies on the song structuring and instrumental layering. It states that structure cannot be left alone, it needs the artistic quality of the composer, the essence of his or her stylistic contribution to a tonal structure. This is because the number of tonal arrangements is countable, and so after a particular stage the translation will produce repetitive outputs. And hence, it is the flavor produced by the composer and his or her command over the structure that makes the piece and its architectural counterpart unique. This is the second methodology of treating the ‘y-condition’ of music and architecture. It deals with a layering system of notations and instrumentation and relates to the rudimentary, essential, structural and ornamental details and outlines the architectural design and allows its composition based on a layering format.

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CHAPTER FOUR: MUSI-TECTURE Music educator Gregory Young, architecture educator Jerry Bancroft and intern architect Mark Sanderson conducted a studio exercise for students of music and architecture at the Montana State University, Bozeman, Montana. The exercise aimed at the unison of the music and architecture and using one as a leap vehicle for the other. The studio revolved around understanding the common terminologies between music and architecture through both lenses and then using one as the inspiration to design the other. The students of architecture dwelled on understanding the terms in the realm of music and architecture and further, using a piece of music to design an architectural space and vice versa. The final output for the musicians was to come up with a musical composition.

CASE STUDY #3 : MUSI-TECTURE (INSTRUCTIONS) Every architecture student was given one piece of music and one common terminology. The term was to be defined in an architectural and musical sense. And investigation was to be made to find examples of architecture that expressed the term in the form of building expression. Further, the students had to analyse and identify the portion of the term resonating in the piece of music thus chosen. And finally a piece of architectural space was to be designed based on the terminology, its significance in the musical composition and the architectural vocabulary.

AS A TRANSPOSITION METHODOLOGY In contrast to the rudimentary structure, the narration and the Schenkerian Theory, Musi-tecture dealt with terminologies. As mentioned in an example in chapter one (i.e. dynamics – luminosity, phrasing – movement and timbre – 37


material), terminologies directly take both music and architecture to the ycondition, rendering both as potentials to be translated into the other. The term works as a catalyst to link the two complimenting fields and the intangible to the tangible with its double faceted interpretation, one in each field. It allows one to be defined by the other and allows this definition to impact on the creation of space or the composition of music.

Figure 10: Musi-tecture Class Study #1. Student Brendon Byers designed a house using Vaughan Williams' Symphony No. 3 as his "leap vehicle". (Source: Musi-tecture: Seeing Useful Correlations Between Music and Architecture, Young, Bancroft and Sanderson)

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Figure 11: Musi-tecture Class Study #2. Student Irma Van Wyk composed a work for solo violin, using Landship III by Osamu Ishyama as her "leap vehicle". (Source: Musi-tecture: Seeing Useful Correlations Between Music and Architecture, Young, Bancroft and Sanderson)

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CASE STUDY #4 : SERENADE FOR STRINGS, EDWARD ELGAR This is an analysis of a famous composition by Edward Elgar titled “Serenade for Strings.” It has been analysed on the lines of the Musi-Tecture design studio and made to convert in to a spatial arrangement. D Based on movement the piece was divided into three – allegro piacevole, larghetto and allegretto. D The larghetto was taken as the base. D Based on the parameters of progression the larghetto was divided into five parts – introduction, melody 1.1, development, melody 1.2 and the epilogue. D Based on progression the introduction and the epilogue and the two melodies were seen comparable to each other. D The parameter of progression further strung the five components in an order. D Symmetry helps realize the sense of emphasis on the introduction, epilogue and the melodies and how the developments was overshadowed and proved to be a pivotal point. D Repetition and rhythm allowed the constant interaction between the introduction and the epilogue, melody 1.1 and melody 1.2.

Figure 12: Spatial configuration derived from Serenade fro Strings. (Source: Visualising Music, Natalie Pierro)

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CHAPTER FIVE: ARCHITECTONICS OF MUSIC An exercise conducted by Steven Holl in his studio revolves around designing music inspired architecture. The activity involved using pieces of music as the leap vehicle to design space. Highly inspired by John Cage saying:

Figure 13: Quote by John Cage (Source: Architectonics of Music, Steven Holl)

Holl involved a variety of aspects of music to translate. He used composition, rhythm, structure, notation and even big of experience. Some examples are:

CASE STUDY #5 : FOUR3 – JOHN CAGE Aspects: 1. The number 3 2. Weightlessness 3. Silences 4. Light 5. Slow tempo

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Figure 14: Four3 model, section and plan by Yun Shi and Yiqing Zhao (Source: Architectonics of Music, Steven Holl)

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CASE STUDY #6 : PSAPPHA – IANNIS XENAKIS Aspects: 1. 16 instruments 2. Sieves in the composition 3. Mathematical modularity 4. Stable rhythm

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Figure 15: Psappha notations, model, section and plan by Shu Yang and Yang Xia (Source: Architectonics of Music, Steven Holl)

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CHAPTER SIX: SPOTLIGHT: IANNIS XENAKIS “Rhythm and pitch can invoke soul in music listeners and elevate is altogether into a new level, the same way visual rhythm of forms and spaces in architecture with pitches elements like color and texture can elevate the soul to boundary-less and timeless ambience of architecture” (Bhattacharga, 2008)

INTRODUCTION This is the start to the intellectual transposition of music to architecture. The basis of this transposition is the correlation of music and architectural elements – rhythm, texture, space, volume and, primarily, notation. “Music is architecture in movement” (Xenakis, 1992) can be further modified into the fact that the introduction of music into the synthesis of architecture adds movement and fluidity and leads one to the study of the harmony. The theoretical transposition of music stems from the work begun by Pythagoras on melody and the struggle for “universal principle of an underlying mathematical or musical harmony” in the world (Hale, 2000). Originating from the theory of ‘harmonic proportioning’, this relationship between music and architecture is made on the basis of mathematics, geometry and numeral formulae. It is a numbers game. A transposition built out of proportions and forms, it ‘uses space as a means to articulate the complexity of the musical language and enhance the sensuous experience of sound’ (McEwen, 2011). Pythagoras’ initiation on the intellectual conversion of music into architecture laid heavy emphasis on the harmony and rhythm as the core musical structures that underwent the transformation. ‘Harmony was easily transposed into resonating wires; and rhythm, by appropriating the idea of a relationship in time to a relationship in space, could be changed into architectural rhythm’ (McEwen, 45


2011). Structure of the musical system formed the structure of the architectural system.

Figure 16: Simple graphical transposition of music into architectural form and expression (Reckoner words and music by Thomas Yorke, Jonathan Greenwood, Colin Greenwood, Edward O'Brien and Phillip Selway)

The harmony lays down the emphasis on a sense of completeness, on a whole, a sense of combination and overall performance. It emphasizes on the concept of Gesamtkunstwerk – combining all of the arts into a whole, where one part affects the other (McEwen, 2011). And hence this ideology emphasizes on the fact that when this ‘music-transposed’ architecture emerges it will achieve the qualities of conceptual completeness, wholesome experience and holistic appearance. The harmonic, tonal and rhythmic conversion of music to space,

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volume and design forms the mathematical and geometric relationship between music and architecture.

IANNIS XENKAIS One of the greatest examples of intellectual (mathematical and geometric) transpositions of music to architecture lies in the works of the Greek composer, structural engineer and architect, Iannis Xenakis. Considered dead in his homeland (Greece), Iannis Xenakis had arrived in France where he started his architectural career in the office of the great and controversial architect, Le Corbusier, as an engineer. He went onto being purist in the field of intellectual transposition of music to architecture. His style was distinct, charismatic and lyrical. He performed the perfect convergence between his compositions, mathematical formulae and graphical representations, forming innovative, energetic and exceptionally ‘musical’ architecture. Xenakis was an engineer and his knowledge in the subject made him find that forms of music unimpeded by earlier genres could be created using mathematical formulae for density and probability (Sterken, 2007). His Stochastic Music (Xenakis, 1971) relied on the use of probability to produce a single sound out of a large number of different notes (McEwen, 2011). “A multitude of short glissandi on strings can give the impression of continuity” (Xenakis, 1971, p.9). The music was a fusion of mathematics, probability, instruments and players and this music was further processed into graphical scores forming a line work structure. This arrangement was now a visual or graphical conversion of sounds, tones, textures and harmonies (that were mathematically drawn). This went onto becoming the framework for arranging volumes, materials and structural systems and thus completing the intellectual transpositioning. his primary works were a combination of the Corbusier 47


‘Modulor and the use of graph paper’ where he ‘used the first tool to organize time in a rational way’ and the ‘second to shape pitch envelopes and musical form’ (Sterken, 2007). Mathematics and human emotions seem to have common origin in the elemental laws of nature. (Florman, 1968)

Figure 17: Study for Terrtektorh (glissandi), Iannis Xenakis, 1965-66

CASE STUDY #7 : THE POLYPHONIC & UNDULATING GLASS Xenakis’ fusion of the Pythagorean ideology, the Corbusier Modulor and graphical representations began to expand and become more complex. He explored rhythms and formed his own understanding of rhythmic patterns and tonal variations. 48


This sense of geometric rhythms mirrored in the façade of the Sainte-Maria-dela-Tourette near Lyon, a project commissioned to Le Corbusier. This was the west façade of the French monastery. The design was a transposition of musical rhythms, painting a unique sense of musicality across the entire façade. He introduced the rhythmic quality onto the façade by creating a sense of playfulness with the distances between the concrete casings and synthesizing the rhythm in the form of an asymmetric visual appeal after having taken inspiration from his work on Le Sacrifice, a temporal and graphical conversion of the piece of music. This was a gamut of graphical conversions, applications of mathematical combinations and permutations, an overlay of lines on the rhythm of music and projections of graphical lines into physical distances between the concrete members, forming the opening sizes. The result was amazing – a beautiful, unique and visually complex presentation on the façade of a bulky, piano shaped building. It brought out the true essence of the term ‘composition’. But then he took it to the next level by introducing his origins – the Modulor, the epitome of geometry that had a great deal of overlaps with musical rhythms (Fibonacci series). He created the rhythm on graph paper but then instead of placing this rhythm as a replica on the façade, Xenakis introduced texture in the form of densities. The densities were a more enhanced and temporal. It not only played with the spacing but even glass as a material. ‘He demarcated zones in the façade where a higher or lower number of castings per length unit would be required and then decided how the transition between these two states would occur: fluently or abruptly’ (Sterken, 2007). The final outcome was titled ‘undulating glass’, a detailed polyrhythmic study of light and shade (Sterken, 2007). It formed a vertical polyphony between the glass variations and the varying distances between the concrete casings – an expression of dynamism with straight lines and densities and a new form of visual appearance, one of asymmetry, rhythm and complexity. It was this 49


bombastic imagery based on the lines of proportions, musical patterns and composition.

Figure 18: La Tourette Monastery west faรงade

Figure 19: La Tourette Monastery west facade: densities placed between concrete bases and casings

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Figure 20: La Tourette Monastery west facade in the making: Table of progressions of rectangles with increasing widths and golden sections drawn from the Modulor

CASE STUDY #8 : THE MAGNUM OPUS: PHILIPS PAVILLION Xenakis’ solution to a fluent transition from music to architecture was the use of graph paper. For Xenakis, the analogy between the orthogonal co-ordinate system and the musical notation system must have been too obvious to pass unnoticed (Sterken, 2007). This was the essence behind intellectual transposition of music to architecture. This was the method of linking rhythms, ones and textures in music to their counterparts in architecture. This was the fluent transposition from sound and pulse to space, volume and experience in an intellectual and mathematical format. Iannis Xenakis reached the peak of this

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transposition by the use of the analogy mentioned above – by the application of the graph paper. The use of graph paper developed a constant interaction between the hand and the ear. It created a perfect overlay between the components of music and those of the architectural language. It took into consideration temporal notations, pitch, tones and textures and simply turned them into an architectural display. The vertical axis was indicative of the pitch and the horizontal axis defined time. And then it was simply plotting and joining the dots as the music progressed from origin to the end. Metastaseis, one of Xenakis’ most popular compositions was the perfect example of this transposition. In terms of the structural analysis of Metastaseis, two complementary characteristics are significant. First are those features that are complex, perhaps somewhat abstract, and generally atypical of the music of the majority of Xenakis’ predecessors and contemporaries. These features include his particular use of sound masses and the rendering of ruled surfaces and other geometrical and algebraic structures into sound. Second are the clear structural signposts, which help to give his music such focus and dramatic power. It is as if Xenakis guides the listener through the unfamiliar territory of his music by referencing—even if subliminally—harmonic structures that may be familiar from the recent, or even not-so-recent past. (Squibbs, n.d.) Metastaseis laid the foundation to Xenakis’ most well – known work of architecture – the Philips Pavilion. The ‘atypical quality’, the ‘abstraction’, the ‘ruled surfaces being rendered on geometric and algebraic grounds’ and ‘the formation of harmonic structures’; these were core ingredients of the musical composition that became the core architectural language and characteristics of the music pavilion.

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Figure 21: Graphical score of Metastaseis

The pavilion was a joint effort of Le Corbusier, Iannis Xenakis and Edgard Varese for the 1958 Brussels World Fair. It was made as an artistic audiovisual presentation of the possibilities for Philips’ products (Treib, 1996). It was commissioned to Corbusier and his atelier where he took care of the plan and the lighting, commissioned Xenakis to his biggest project to design the façade and the structure and brought in the Frenchman, Varese to compose the music. The pavilion, as a piece of architecture was to be designed to house the music of Varese titled Poème èlectronique. Le Corbusier had minimal real contribution to the project and had just come up with a vague organic plan solution. He initially took all the credit for the success of the project but eventually accepted the quantum of contribution Xenakis had made. The entire magnanimity and magnificence of the project lay in the façade and structure that were considered to be a sublime solution to housing a genius piece of music.

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Xenakis housed music with music and this went onto becoming one of the most amazing transpositions of music into architecture through the intellectual procedure. Metastaseis is a literal sonic interpretation of this idea: sound volumes are created on the basis of simple straight lines (glissandi) (Sterken, 2007). The composition was based on arithmetic formulae and the golden section geometry of the Modulor and with a very mathematical core, the transposition of the sonic volumes made the architectural outcome even more spectacular and ‘musical’. “Among the elements derived from drawing and architecture in Metastaseis are applications of proportions to the work’s temporal structure. This is done following their application to architecture as formulated in Le Corbusier’s Modulor, which was both a method of measurement based on the golden section and the name of a two-volume study of that method.” (Squibbs, n.d.). Projections of the glissandi lines on the ruled surface in the form of a pitch-time graphical representation formed the hyperbolic paraboloid. This dynamic curve became structural and aesthetic extravaganza of the Philips pavilion. This was a very sublime and sensual conversion of rhythm and harmonies into physical and geometric lines and curves, forming an enhanced volumetric persauna and intricate spatial configurations. Graphical and intellectual translations have happened before but there was something about this Metastaseis graphical output to form the Philips pavilion that was so very unique and fresh in the music – architecture arena. The catch lay in the additional dimension that Xenakis added to this transpositional procedure. The answer as to why the Philips Pavilion was a much well-known and more superior a piece of architectural work lies in the final statement mentioned on the Stretto House by Steven Holl - the Stretto house was a two dimensional 54


transposition of the Stretto notes. The notes were simply overlaid with vertical, horizontal and curved lines to form the longer elevation of the House in relation to the water body in the vicinity. Steven Holl simply converted the string and percussion notes into the horizontal roofed and curved roofed spaces in the linear composition. And so, taking the intellectual transposition of music to architecture to the next level, Xenakis added, what was stated before, the additional dimension. Even though the graphical score of the glissandi notes formed the hyperbolic paraboloid in the two-dimensional ruled surface, Xenakis did not regenerate the two-dimensional curves and extrude them along the other axis. What he did was consider the arrangement of the glissandi lines in a three-dimensional plane enabling the walls to fully articulate the slide from the axis of the wall (x-axis) to the axis of the roof (y-axis) (McEwen, 2011). The graph formed a volume across all three dimensions and was no more a replica in any one of the planes (vertical or horizontal planes). This bridged the possible gap between the organic plan, the walls and the roof and led to the composition of a seamless structure sitting in perfect unison with its base and its agenda to encapsulate music. Architecturally it was a mass of abstract yet perfectly composed concrete hyperbolic paraboloids over an organic planning system. There were no separate walls (verticals) and spanning roofs (horizontals). The hyperbolic paraboloids worked as diagonals serving the dual role and adding a beautiful new twist to the volumetric composition of the pavilion. As bonus the structure also resolved acoustic challenges that were ought to be evaded in order to make the music the hero of the pavilion. The constantly changing radii of the curved elements also reduced ‘uncontrolled acoustic contributions’ of echo and resonance (Philips techical review, 1958), creating a space inside where the various spatial methods Varese would employ would be heard clearly (McEwen, 2011).

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Figure 22: The formation of the shell of the Philips Pavilion through a three dimensional conversion of the glissando of PH by Iannis Xenakis

Figure 23: The Philips Pavilion, Brussels

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THE ARCHITECTURE OF XENAKIS Iannis Xenakis took intellectual transposition of music to architecture to a whole other level. He has lifted the ancient Pythagorean idea of numerical proportions as a structural bond between architecture and music to a more general level by applying mathematical and scientific ‘models’ in both arts. (Sterken, 2007). Xenakis formed his own unique style of super imposing his compositions with graphical lines and connections and allowed the rhythm and the texture to form the underlining system of his architecture. He dived into the depths of the time, mathematical roots and principles of music and made them the heroes of conversion to space. He made geometric representations and glissandi notes as his metaphor, his y-condition (Martin, 1994), and from this emerged sensual, complex and mesmerizing architectural energies, volumetric experiences and visual persauna. This was the take on intellectual transpositioning of music to architecture, a transfer based on mathematics, chord geometry, Fibonacci series and an overlay of architectural expressions on musical rhythms, tones and textures.

CASE STUDY #9 : LATERALUS INTRODUCTION Lateralus is the title track of the third album by the progressive metal band, Tool. The song has a deep connection to mathematics and renders itself as a piece of music that can resolve the y-condition on the basis of mathematics and geometry. Lateralus has a unique time signature and mathematical significance. Conceptually, the song is made like an aboriginal tale expressed through color references, alchemy, Hermeticism, etc. The song revolves behind the thought of pushing yourself beyond and moving forward continuously, expressed through the spiral imagery. 57


SONG DETAILS TITLE: Lateralus ARTIST: Tool PARENT ALBUM: Lateralus GENRE: Progressive metal YEAR OF RELEASE: 2002 DURATION: 9:24

THE ANALYSIS 1. The song is centered around the Fibonacci sequence where each number is the sum of the preceding two numbers. The sequence is 0, 1, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55‌ 2. The very fist existence of the sequence is in the time signature. There is a varying time signature of 9/8, 8/8, 7/8 and here the number 987 thus derived is the 16th stage in the Fibonacci sequence. 3. Further the enunciation of the vocals by Maynard James Keenan involves halting whose overall effect follows the Fibonacci series. This adds a pure mathematical framework to the auditory experience. black [1] then [1] white are [2] all I see [3] in my infancy [5] red and yellow then came to be [8] reaching out to me [5] lets me see [3] there is [2] so [1]

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much [1] more and [2] beckons me [3] to look through to these [5] infinite possibilities [8] as below so above and beyond I imagine [13] drawn outside the lines of reason [8] push the envelope [5] watch it bend [3]

The syllable is hence enunciated as 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 5, 3, 2, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 8, 5, 3 which a rise and fall in a Fibonacci manner. 4. The lyrics “Swing on the spiral of our divinity and still be human”, “Spiral out, keep going” twice, and “Spiral out, keep going.” five times follow Fibonacci numbers for repetition and also generate the imagery of the never ending and progressively expanding Fibonacci spiral. 5. Keenan first begins singing 1 minute and 37 seconds into the song, which equates to 1.617 minutes (the golden ratio = approximately 1.618, also a derivation of the Fibonacci sequence)

Figure 24: The Fibonacci spiral

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APPLICATION A site planning analogy was derived from the Fibonacci spiral and sequencing for a studio project (project source, author). The site contours were read and the spaces were arranged on site using the Fibonacci grid.

Figure 25: Fibonacci and rhythmic alignment of the site contours (source: author)

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Figure 26: Inserting spaces and functions in a Fibonacci grid (source: author)

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CHAPTER SEVEN: PHENOMENOLOGY “Just as one experiences the musicality of a piece through the sense of hearing, one can experience this same element through a visual phenomenon in a space.” (Agarwala, 2011, p.5) The experience lies common to both music and architecture. Up and above the structure, rhythm, notations and the mathematics, the feel or the enveloping characteristic of both music and architecture play an equally important role in its comprehension and absorption. Through a synesthetic effect the art forms generate additional Imagery and alter the way the surroundings are perceived. Music has a synesthetic audile gravity that pulls the listener to a set of images, energies, colors, volumes, and patterns. And this is the final solution to the ycondition – the experience of music.

CASE STUDY #10 : VISUALISING THE INVISIBLE A studio exercise at the Graduate School of Architecture, Utah titled ‘Visualizing the Invisible” aimed at looking the experiential or the intangible aspects of architecture and using those to render new spaces. It emphasized on sound, smell and touch and followed a procedure that started with perceptual awareness and direct experience, followed by critical and analytical studies and concluded with experimental representation to achieve a method to translate the intangibles as tangibles. Under sound the students were first made to directly experience the targeted space – the great hall of the University Museum of Fine Arts. This experience was to be mapped as a three-dimensional digital model based on the experience and the composition perceived. This model became a wireframe where the

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members rearranged themselves based on the auditory experience of the students. The outcome was a visual transposition of sound.

Figure 27: Top: Visualising the sound of architecture using principles of rhythm, repetition and dynamism. Students: Clio Miller, and Suasan Allred. Bottom: Example of a visual representation of the sound of the museum’s great hall utilizing a notation system of rhythm to create a composition. Students: Larry Curtis and James Neilsen. (Source: Visualising the Non-Visual Nature of Architecture, Julio Bermudez, Albert C. Smith)

“A studious blind man who had mightily beat his head about a visible object and made use of the expectations of his books and his friends, to understand those names of lights and colors, which often came his way, betrayed one day that he now understood what scarlet signified. Upon which, his friend demanded what scarlet was? The blind man answered it, it was like the sound of a trumpet.” (Baron-Cohen & Harrison, 1997, p.4)

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CHAPTER EIGHT: CODA THE CATALOGUE Resolving music as the leap vehicle for architectural design is possible in multiple ways. The basis of this translation is drawn from the chosen aspect or component of music. These aspects range from structure to notation to instrumentation to mathematics and geometry to phenomenology and finally to a combination and permutation of these aspects. The catalogue of solutions to the y-condition is: METHOD

ASPECT EXTRACTED TO

EXAMPLE

TRANSPOSE Rudimentary structure

Schenkerian Theory

Musi-Tecture

Instrumentation and

Bohemian Rhapsody,

narration

Author

Structure and layering of

Stretto Holl,

instruments

Steven Holl

Terminologies

Serenade for Strings, Edward Elgar

Architectonics of Music

Terminologies, character,

Four3,

structure, (the non-

John Cage

mathematical structure) Iannis Xenakis

Phenomenology

Mathematics and

Philips Pavilion,

Notations

Iannis Xenakis

Experience

Polytopes, Iannis Xenakis

Table 1: List of methodologies and their key catalyst or aspect in the transposition of music to architecture, with and example (Source: Author)

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CRITICAL OVERVIEW All of the cases studied and analysed have primarily adhered to one aspect of conversion. Either it has been the structural or the phenomenological side of music. And further, within the structural side it has either been the rudimentary structure, instrumental layering, terminologies or mathematical and notational compositions of music. These examples have been purist in their methodology of translating the chosen piece of music to the architectural space. The translation cannot have a singular music aspect reside in the translation process. It must broaden its horizon and expand is versatility and not just do justice to the piece of music that behaves as the leap vehicle but even have a more holistic effect of the music on the architectural attributes of the output.

STRETTO HOUSE, STEVEN HOLL The limitations of the Stretto have already been expressed when analysing the Philips Pavilion. The design has adhered to the Schenkerian theory of transposition and delivered musical energies in the form of instrumental layering in the Stretto section of Bela Bartok’s symphony, Music for Strings, Percussion and Celesta. D The architectural expression generated by the layering of the Stretto is only expressed in the play of straight and curved roofs along the longitudinal axis. D It doesn’t generate the apt energy of the composition in its materiality and even the other axis.

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Figure 28: Percussion & string and materiality overlay on east elevation of Stretto House (Steven Holl)

MUSI-TECTURE: YOUNG, BANCROFT & SANDERSON This studio exercise displays a great way of understanding the transferability of music to a building expression. It manages to link the two art forms based on a common ground or conjunction, the common terminology. The terminology here behaves as the y-condition itself where both art forms take an equal step towards the middle condition by expression the terminology through their own language. By looking at the terminologies one also looks at the structure of the musical composition and expresses it as a visualization that can be adopted to form the building language. D Where it falls short is limiting the reading of the music to the common terms and further, D Limits the building expression to the term thus chosen. D Further, there may not be anything energetic in the musical expression of that terminology and so the possibility of mundane and typical translation to architectural language. D The terms are generic in their approach and so make the translation also very generic, leading to the possibility of fewer options or repetition.

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IANNIS XENAKIS & MATHEMATICS Iannis Xenakis managed to draw the best out the music use as the leap vehicle in his designs under Le Corbusier and his set of Polytopes. This was only because the compositions ere his own and constructed only under pure mathematical intent and geometric outputs. But the question is what if he wasn’t a composer? What if he had to apply mathematics and geometric conversion to the compositions of others? The answer lies in the case study of Lateralus. The song is piece of brilliance, mathematically and otherwise.

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D Unfortunately under a mathematical analysis what came out of the song was Maynard James Keenan’s Fibonacci enunciations, the time signature and other Fibonacci structuring. D Adam Jones’ eccentric guitar solos and the rhythm sections of the music were totally overlooked and share not feature in the architectural counterpart of the song. D The structuring and compositionality of the song as also not considered D The energy and the phantasmagoria the song resonates, the highs and the lows, the built ups and disruptions, none of them were perceived throught the lens of mathematics and geometry.

VISUALISING THE INVISIBLE, PHENOMENOLOGY The studio exercise at the Graduate School of Architecture, Utah manage to understand the translation of intangibles to tangible forms and expressions through the convergence of direct experience and digital conversion and display. This helped in expressing smells, sounds and other sensory experiences into graphical terms to allow the conversion to happen thereafter. The experience of the space is unique the individual which is subjected to constant change and morphs itself based on a whole of variables. D But what phenomenology fails to do is add a sense of realism and physical expression. The digital formations tend to get exceptionally abstract and have to be lulled to arrive to a practical, feasible and viable option. D This is due to the lack of a structure.

FOUR3 + PSAPPHA, THE ARCHITECTONICS OF MUSIC STUDIO All the design solutions under the Architectonics of Music studio by Steven Holl manage to grab an edge over the designs analysed so far. It redefines its understanding of the structure and broadens the scope. It belongs to the structural side of music but it does not draw out only one aspect of the structure. It constructs a combination of varied elements of the structure and

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negates elementarism of influence. Is involves all aspects of the most aspects of the structure that barring mathematics and geometric conversions. It deals with terminologies, instrumentation, layering, progression and other aspects based on what is heightened in the song. It appreciates individuality of structural delivery of a song and that only some aspects may be highlighted per composition and those need t be extracted to resolve the y-condition. D It negates mathematics in all conditions, so if any piece is rooted heavily in numeric structuring, the concept will be negated. D It does not look at the experiential energy of any song and limits to the rudimentary and detailed structure.

THE SALIENT FEATURES AND THE DRAWBACKS METHOD

ASPECT

SALIENT FEATURES

DRAWBACKS

COMPOSITIONALITY

• very basic and

EXTRACTED TO TRANSPOSE Rudimentary

Instrumentation and

structure

narration

rudimentary • limited to structure • no experiential extractions

Schenkerian Theory

Structure and

COMPOSITIONALITY

• limited to

+ DYNAMICS

instrumental

layering of instruments

structure • no experiential extractions

Musi-Tecture

Terminologies

DIRECTLY CONNECTS TO BUILDING LANGUAGE

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• limited to the terms • no experiential extractions


Architectonics of

Terminologies,

MORE BALANCED

• limited to

Music

character, structure,

CONVERSION OF

structure

(the non-

MUSIC

mathematical

• no experiential extractions

structure) Iannis Xenakis

Mathematics and

REFLECTION OF

Notations

THE DETAILED STRUCTURE AND RHYTHM

Phenomenology

Experience

EMIT THE SONG’S ENERGY AND PULSE

• limited to numbers • no experiential extractions • no structural base • very arbitrary and abstract

Table 2: Salient features and drawbacks of all transposition methodologies (Source: Author)

The best way to transpose and do justice to the chosen piece of music is to analyse it based on all of the aspects. Not always do the all the aspects of a piece shine equally brightly and what is important is to be wholesome, balanced and impactful and hence to derive the strengths of the music. 1. Analyse all the aspects 2. Extract structural as well as phenomenological conversions to have a design rooted n both aspects – either feel flat not too abstracted 3. Play to the strengths of the song and extract what symbolizes the song better. 4. Under structural elements keep overall compositionality and details equally inspired. 5. The song is a leap vehicle and not a dictator. The following is a design intervention to express how the song is played to its strengths and a holistic leap vehicle transposition is achieved. It is a continuation of using the Bohemian Rhapsody as the leap vehicle and the output being an incubation centre. (source: author).

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THE BOHEMIAN RHAPSODY – COMPLETE SAGA 1. The monomyth guides compositionality. 2. The genre structure and instrumental layer affects the geometries and treatment od the programme in association with the Fibonacci grid. 3. The notational detail guides the façade design (use of guitar tabs), 4. The theatricality, rock opera experience and energy of the song is expressed through phantasmagorical contrasting chromatic compositions, edgy building morphology and planar footprints. 5. The style of the composer, Freddie Mercury resonates through the eccentric and visually powerful light wells.

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Project Work on the transposition of the Bohemian Rhapsody

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73


74


75


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OUTRO Architecture feels baseless when just born from a combination of functional needs and contextual responses. It feels monotonous and blunt. It has a lesser level of association and engagement with its users. There is a need for a base concept that guides the intuition and the intent of designing. Music is one of such concepts. Having understood its intimacy and covalence with space, time and people, it certainly feels exuberating to use musical compositions and sounds as an inspiring base in the design of space. It manages to enhance the sense of composition and also plays a vital role in the detailing of individual spaces and elements. Being an art form itself, music renders a very subliminal blend with architecture and makes the architectural output more expressive and engaging as art form. It heightens the ability for volumes to enrapture and envelope the user and pulsates a phantasmagorical energy that is both visually sensual and experientially extravagant. It makes the space a stage for the finest of architectural concerts and leaves the users dazzled.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY Clifton, T. (1983) Music as Heard: A Study in Applied Phenomenology. New Heavan & London: Yale University Press. McEwen, H. (2011) A Discussion of Xenakis and Varese, Metaphor and Simile, Music and Architecture. London. Quek, R. (2008) The metaphor of music in architectural theory and practice. University of Nottingham. Cerrito, A. (2014) Architecture & Music. Ndubisi, D.E.J.O. (n.d.) Inspirational Role of Music in Architecture: A Philosophical Investigation. Umunya: Tansian University. Xenakis, I. (1971) Formalised Music: Thought and Mathematics in Composition. Bloomington & London: Indiana University Press. Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix. 2007. [Film] Directed by David Yates. United Kindom, United States of America: Heyday Films. Imaah, N.O. (2004) Music: A Source of Inspiration and Harmony in Architecture: An African View. International Review of the Aesthetics and Sociology of Music, 35(2). Bhattacharga, A. (2008) Relationship Between Music and Architecture [Online]. Available at: http://anuragarch.blogspot.com/2008/07/relationship-betweenmusic-and-architecture.html [Accessed 2015 June 25]. Xenakis, I. (1992) Formalized Music. New York: Pendragon Press. Hale, J.A. (2000) Building Ideas: An Introduction To Architectural Theory. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons. Guck, M.A. (1994) Two Types of Metaphoric Transfer. In Kassler, J.C.(. Metaphor: a musical dimension. Basel: Gordon and Breach. pp.1-12. Martin, E.(.). (1994) Architecture as a Translation of Music: Pamphlet Architecture 16. New York: Princeton Architectural Press. Florman, S.C. (1968) Engineering and the Liberal Arts. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company.

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Sterken, S. (2007) Music as an Art of Space: Interactions between Music and Architecture in the Work of Iannis Xenakis. In Muecke, M.W. Resonance: Essays on the intersection of music and architecture. Ames: Culicidae Architectural Press. Squibbs, R. (n.d.) Varieties of Transformation in Xenakis’s Metastaseis. Connecticut: University of Connecticut. Treib, M. (1996) Space Calculated in Seconds; The Philips pavilion, Le Corbusier, Edgard Varese. New York: Princeton University Press. Earl, B.Y. (n.d.) Stretto House by Steven Holl. New Yourk School of Interior Design. Philips techical review. (1958) The Philips Pavilion at the 1958 Brussels World Fair. Eindhoven: Philips Research Laboratory. Waterhouse, P. (1921) Music and Architecure. Music & Letters, 2(4), pp.323-31. Imaah, N.O. (2004) Music: A Source of Inspiration iand Harmony in Architecture: An African View. International Review of the Aesthetics and Sociology of Music, 35(2), pp.169-82. Young, G., Bancroft, J. & Sanderson, M. (1993) Musi-Tecture: Seeking Useful Correlations Between Music and Architecture. Leonardo Music Journal, 3, pp.3943. Agarwala, V. (2011) Music + Architecture: The Spatial Translation of Schenkerian Analysis. Journal of Undergraduate Research, 13(1). Pallasmaa, J. (2012) The Eyes of the Skin: Architecture and the Senses. 3rd ed. John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Bachelard, G. (1971) The Poetics of Reverie. Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America: Boson Press. Baron-Cohen & Harrison. (1997). Higgins, L.N., 1925. Music and Architecture. The Musical Times, 1 Hune.

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LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1: The genre progression of the Bohemian Rhapsody (Source: Author) 27 Figure 2: The monomyth narration (Source: Author)

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Figure 3: Reinterpretation of the genre progression as spatial programme (Source: Author)

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Figure 4: Application of the monomyth (Source: Author)

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Figure 5: Paul Klee's analysis of the Stretto notes of Béla Bartók’s symphony 31 Figure 6: East elevation of the Stretto House by Steven Holl

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Figure 7: Split axonometric view of the components of the Stretto House showing the rhythmic play of strings and percussions in the form of roofing variations and volumetric play

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Figure 8: Schenkerian reduction depicting the background, middleground, and foreground layers. Source: Heinrich Schenker, Five Graphic Music Analyse 34 Figure 9: Watercolor diagrams of J. S. Bach's Chorale Ich Bin's, Ich, Solite Buesse.

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Figure 10: Musi-tecture Class Study #1. Student Brendon Byers designed a house using Vaughan Williams' Symphony No. 3 as his "leap vehicle". (Source: Musi-tecture: Seeing Useful Correlations Between Music and Architecture, Young, Bancroft and Sanderson)

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Figure 11: Musi-tecture Class Study #2. Student Irma Van Wyk composed a work for solo violin, using Landship III by Osamu Ishyama as her "leap vehicle". (Source: Musi-tecture: Seeing Useful Correlations Between Music and Architecture, Young, Bancroft and Sanderson)

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Figure 12: Spatial configuration derived from Serenade fro Strings. (Source: Visualising Music, Natalie Pierro)

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Figure 13: Quote by John Cage (Source: Architectonics of Music, Steven Holl) 41 Figure 14: Four3 model, section and plan by Yun Shi and Yiqing Zhao (Source: Architectonics of Music, Steven Holl)

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Figure 15: Psappha notations, model, section and plan by Shu Yang and Yang Xia (Source: Architectonics of Music, Steven Holl) 81

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Figure 16: Simple graphical transposition of music into architectural form and expression (Reckoner - words and music by Thomas Yorke, Jonathan Greenwood, Colin Greenwood, Edward O'Brien and Phillip Selway)

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Figure 17: Study for Terrtektorh (glissandi), Iannis Xenakis, 1965-66

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Figure 18: La Tourette Monastery west façade

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Figure 19: La Tourette Monastery west facade: densities placed between concrete bases and casings

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Figure 20: La Tourette Monastery west facade in the making: Table of progressions of rectangles with increasing widths and golden sections drawn from the Modulor

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Figure 21: Graphical score of Metastaseis

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Figure 23: The formation of the shell of the Philips Pavilion through a three dimensional conversion of the glissando of PH by Iannis Xenakis

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Figure 24: The Philips Pavilion, Brussels

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Figure 26: The Fibonacci spiral

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Figure 27: Fibonacci and rhythmic alignment of the site contours (source: author)

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Figure 28: Inserting spaces and functions in a Fibonacci grid (source: author) 61 Figure 29: Top: Visualising the sound of architecture using principles of rhythm, repetition and dynamism. Students: Clio Miller, and Suasan Allred. Bottom: Example of a visual representation of the sound of the museum’s great hall utilizing a notation system of rhythm to create a composition. Students: Larry Curtis and James Neilsen. (Source: Visualising the Non-Visual Nature of Architecture, Julio Bermudez, Albert C. Smith)

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Figure 28: Percussion & string and materiality overlay on east elevation of Stretto House (Steven Holl)

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LIST OF TABLES Table 1: List of methodologies and their key catalyst or aspect in the transposition of music to architecture, with and example (Source: Author) 64 Table 2: Salient features and drawbacks of all transposition methodologies (Source: Author)

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Music & Architecture - Mapping the Transposition Process  

Fourth Year Dissertation Mapping the transposition process of music to architectural space, design, expression and experience

Music & Architecture - Mapping the Transposition Process  

Fourth Year Dissertation Mapping the transposition process of music to architectural space, design, expression and experience

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