MODERN TIMES i
Editors: Ambika Malhotra Kabir Sahni Meher Nishchal Bahl Niharika N Shekhawat ÂŠ School of Planning and Architecture, New Delhi, 2017 Disclaimer, The author and editor(s) do not accept any responsibility or liability whatsoever whether in contract, tort, equity or otherwise for any action taken as a result of information in this report for any error, inadequacy, deficiency, flow or omission in the information provided by the report. The editor(s) and authors of the papers do not claim any ownership over text/content that has been referenced or already published. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be produced in any form or by any electronic or mechanical means, including information storage and retrieval systems, without written permission from the publishers or author(s), except in the case of a reviewer, who may quote brief passages embodied in critical articles in a review. Published in 2017 by Department of Architecture School of Planning and Architecture 6B, Indraprastha Estate New Delhi, 110002 India Printed in New Delhi, India
MODERN TIMES v
Preface A highpoint of the ninth semester in the Department of Architecture, SPA – Delhi, ‘Seminars in Architecture’ is an important event on the School calendar. Involving considerable research, documentation, analysis, presentation, publication and above all coordination and cooperation amongst group-mates. Seminars usually brings out the best in the students and faculty every year. Topics for research and investigation are initially identified by the Seminar coordinators along with the advisors but the student-groups soon ‘own’ their topics and deal with them by their particular convictions. The seminar programme results in a series of multimedia presentations and installations, all of which culminates in the much-awaited annually published seminar book. ‘Seminars in architecture’ have always been about exploring and investigating issues or ideas related to architecture in various aspects. For the past few years we have been conducting this research under an overarching theme for a deeper and more comprehensive understanding of topics under investigation. This year, we continued to work within an overall framework, including thematic modules distinguished by the nature of research and analysis required. Each module had a specific thrust and theme of research. Thus, if one module required extensive library surveys another required comprehensive empirical investigations. The theme of Seminars 2016 took into cognisance the students’ unique position of having successfully completed 7 semesters of academic training and one semester of practical training and being at the threshold of the penultimate year of the course. It was expected that their recent experience of internship at various offices would have them better equipped to appreciate the intrinsic connect between a project and its process, and its translation through a production process into a product. Our theme for this year was, ‘Narratives Of Delhi’s Architecture’ and as the title suggests the seminar was to study the architecture of Delhi through its chief determinants. Thus architecture was attempted to be understood and explained by looking at it through the following lenses: 1. Projects and its Processes : The design processes employed and priorities prevalent over specific time periods that helped build a narrative on Delhi’s architectural expression were explored towards a more comprehensive understanding of the city’s physical fabric.
2. Product: Here architecture was critically evaluated as a product of the systems employed. Thus, construction methods, structural systems, services, materials etcetera selected in specific buildings were documented, analysed and presented towards a better appreciation of their importance in the overall success of a building. 3. Production: Understanding the complexities of large sites and the management of the construction and subsequent maintenance of buildings along with associated socio-economic and political issues was the focus here. The importance of efficient and accurate translation of design detail to an actual building on site in a socially and environmentally balanced way underpinned this inquiry. 4. Practice: Studying the socio-legal ramifications of running an architectural consultancy firm and understanding the laws of professional practise and its ethics was the intense and involved commitment of the group exploring the practise of architecture. Students individually selected their preferred areas of research from the ones identified above. Thereafter students and advisors in consultation with the coordinators recognised ideas and issues that needed to be investigated to explore as wholly as possible the larger subject. Thus a total of 20 topics were identified which eventually resulted in as many presentations and papers. With all papers having been included here, the full range of the research is available. However, some of the papers not only meet the objectives of the Seminar but are also evidence of the hard work, capabilities and commitment on the parts of both the students and their advisors. As with the individual groups charting their own routes and goal-posts all within the scope of the initial research theme, the original title was replaced by another. This one possibly best reflecting the batch response on the idea of architecture in Delhi. They called it â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Archichakkarâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;. Finally this seminar book would not have been possible but for a small band of dedicated editors who made it their unenviable task of coaxing their batch-mates to submit the manuscripts, make corrections and add images and then putting it all together and seeing it through at the printerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s. To them!
Coordinators: Ranjana Mital Anjali Mittal
The Team Coordinator Prof. Dr. Ranjana Mital Anjali Mittal
Editors Ambika Malhotra Kabir Sahni Meher Nishchal Bahl Niharika N Shekhawat
Contributors Neena Annu Joseph Rahul Arora
Cover & Interleaves Prabhash Dhama
Branding & Logo Atul Ravi Khalkho Dhruv Dhingra Krittika Mittal Maddu Shravan Murali Prabhash Dhama Radhika Ravindran Samridh Chaudhary Suprima Joshi
Editorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Note Seminars form the ideal incarnation of deliberation and debating, both of which prove to be an important conjunction between ideologies and reality. They are a platform for citing, researching, analysing, inferring and finally voicing issues, concerns and ideologies. As young builders of cities, societies and ecosystems, seminars become the perfect way for us to look at the diverse shortfalls of past and contemporary architecture and planning. Notions that go unnoticed due to their quotidian or lack of dramatic persona end up finding their way into the spotlight and make one see the degree of negligence. As a process, it enables us to get our hands dirty in research, fact finding, arguing and eventually forming the right debate and solutions that will move listeners to enable change. The format of this seminar also helped each individual develop the quality of coexisting as a group. It helped breaking the ice of thought an expression in an intimate group and at a public level. It helped turn rebukes, disapprovals and little group quarrels into insightful augments and solutions. Hours of group deliberations and researching helped turn sand into glass through fine and exacting debating. Our coordinator, Prof. Dr. Ranjana Mital and our guides were the perfect mentors. Their constant disapprovals, chiding, exasperation and time to time assailing became the perfect muse for us to keep raising the bar of work and sinking our teeth deeper and deeper into our research and emerging with better solutions and arguments. Their constant pushing enabled us to be better and do better. Finally, the seminar as a form of presentation stood out to be the most unique. Models and drawings transformed into arguments, exhibitions, intricate presentations with a precursor of advertising onesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; seminar. The jurors ranged from architects, planners, professors, faculty, parents and students from all years listening to our words like hyenas ready to pounce. It was a remarkable experience to express insights into topics we normally do not speak of, experience all the battles within groups, all the berating from our guides and all the blood, sweat and tears transform into great seminars on architecture. Architecture and education require a profound commitment to sculpt the future of our cities and the people living in it. As architects, it is our responsibility to research and implement solutions for an inclusive design of spaces and seminars helps us to do just that. It helps in finding the issues in the fabric of the city and concoct apt solutions to evade or rectify them. We hope this book helps stimulate thought and questions on the complexities of a city and its intangible aspects.
THE TEAM & EDITORâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;S NOTE ix
vi viii ix -
Prologue Preface The Team Editor’s Note Acknowledgement Seminar Presentation Schedule
About the Series: Archichakkar
Projects & Processes
Delhirious Mega Events
An Architect’s Guide to Ideas that Sell in the National Capital
बाज़ार हुआ बाज़ारी
सफ़र या Suffer?
The Blue in Green
Just Do It, Again
सबका मािलक एक ‘नहीं’ है
सबसे अच्छा कौन?
Building की सुनवाई
Go Government Gone
Genuine Practice: Architectural Services in the Private Sector
Act on the Act: An Exposition on Architectural Business
देसी या ‘िव’देसी
The Right to Know Wrong
Archichakkar About the Series: ‘Archichakkar’ as a theme for the Seminar Series of 2016, explores and investigates the determinants of architecture, after independence, in the National Capital Delhi. Our theme focuses on narratives of Delhi’s architecture and the intrinsic connections, processes and factors that shape it. Divided into four modules the seminar series maps the projects and their processes, the product, its production and finally the practice of the architectural profession itself, while also critically evaluating the findings, recommending best practices, and even venturing to predict future trends. This year’s seminar dug into the roots of architectural design. It polarized what seems to be a smooth process of design and implementation into four major modules. This enabled all students to not limit the scope to a few arenas but look at all the important stages that cohesively form the union of architecture. It helped turn prosaic notions of architectural design and practice into histrionic topics of discussion and from that emerged a deeper understanding of all such topics one will have to look out for once we spread our inchoate wings into the open field. Together the four modules dwell upon ideologies, styles, movements, pivotal loci that impacted architectural design, problems of architectural construction and management and finally the issues beleaguering architectural practice in Delhi. The investigation does not rest simply at architecture or its architects but unearths and addresses issues concerning the interface between people (users) and built space, values and ideals that (must) inform design decisions, priorities and principles that govern construction systems and the role of the architect in today’s city and community.
This module explores the finished product and the processes that went in its making. It observes the architectural landscape of the city through a critical evaluation of selected examples of public architecture. Determinants of the architecture typical of a period, architect, building-type etc would be identified. This exploration serves to illustrate the designerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s philosophy and prevailing building regulations. Design processes employed and priorities prevalent over specific time periods help build a narrative on Delhiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s architectural expression. The narrative continues with architecture based on newer design processes and tools and set the stage for a prediction of the future.
MODERN TIMES Gautam Vohra | Kabir Sahni | Prabhash Dhama | Protyasha Pandey | Radhika Ravindran | Sarth Khare Guides: Ar. Leena Gupta | Ar. Moulshri Joshi | Ar. Rajiv Bhakat | Ar. Saptarshi Sanyal Chairperson: Dr. A. G. K. Menon
ABSTRACT Delhi stood perplexed at the stroke of midnight. This might sound very dramatic but right after independence the city was left in a field of opportunity. It could either accept historicism and run back to the times it once flourished before colonial influx or choose to cast a new dawn for the rest of its progression. The city was vulnerable because of a lack of identity, and having cited as the new capital of the independent nation had a huge task at hand to develop a role model of progression and development. Industrialization in the West took the world by storm and at the brink of dawn Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru envisioned India to reach at par with the western hemisphere and see the country grow stronger, self-reliant and flourishing with ideas, economic output and as a healthy population. Modernism and its preachers inspired Nehru to form his vision of an independent India and that went onto bringing the forms of modernism that took over the country and the city of Delhi. The city of Delhi stood politically independent after the exeunt of the British Raj but what the city did not realise was the persistence of being under an imperialist state. This imperialist was modernism and its regional flavour seeping in to the nooks and crannies of architectural design, education, policy making and building regulations. This is an investigation to show how even after political independence, the city of Delhi continued to breathe under a form of architectural imperialism and regionalist modernism that continues to show its persistence even today. A false equivalence was developed between modernism and modernity where the former went onto prescribing and proscribing the architectural functioning of the city of Delhi.
Amidst the reality of providing for the aspirations of as vast a population, arrives Modernism with the promise of “universal application”, austere design reflecting the solemnity of the national project. The architecture that came to represent post-independence Delhi was discernibly formulaic; the projects prescribed and the processes prescriptive. With this seminar, we look at the conditions that gave rise to this distinct architecture. In the first part we demonstrate the influences on the practice of architecture and in the second part we elaborate on the prescriptive nature of our education. Influenced by the Soviet experience, Nehru sought to modernize the Indian economy through industrialization. Prof Mahalanobis Indianized the Stalinist economic model into one for Nehru’s own Fabian Socialism; prioritizing heavy industry in the public sector as a symbol of economic independence, crucial to maintenance of political independence. A Soviet-inspired Planning Commission was established and in 1956, the Second Five-Year Plans was set in motion. India was envisaged as a classical command economy, where private enterprise had little role to play, and, indeed, lost much of its economic freedom. Private investment was mostly excluded from the utilities and much of infrastructure. The absence of private investment towards commercial architecture continued to be felt in Delhi till the late 80s-early90s. In the backdrop of this economy the architecture that emerged took three major forms: i. The first were the British architectural firms that turned to modernism as the need of the hour. India had already transitioned from art deco to a functionalist building typology in the 1930s. ii. Second, the Revivalists who projected cultural images of Indian identity onto their buildings to highlight the historic grandeur of Indian Architecture. iii. The third was the work of the Indian architects who were educated in foreign nations, aware of the discourses in movements of architecture across the globe, and wanting to contribute towards the building of the independent nation. These architects were inducted to the Central Public Works Department or the CPWD of India, the central government authority that builds and maintains public buildings in India, in practice since 1854. At independence, it inherited its value system of the colonial CPWD, in its format and ethos. What changed was the patronage, from the British Raj, to the Government of India. The responsibility for the construction of major public buildings still rested with the CPWD. Public sector monopolies were originally set up on the pretext that the Indian private sector was not mature enough to cater to the multifarious needs of the nation. In the following decades, however, authorities created the public sector monopolies by simply expropriating the private sector. After 1966, through aggressive nationalization and increasing controls, described aptly by Balakrishnan as a “lurch to the left.”
ROW 1 & 2 FUNCTIONALIST BUILDING TYPOLOGY ROW 3 REVIVALIST ARCHITECTURE ROW 4 WORKS BY INDIAN ARCHITECTS Source: www.architexturez. net
Emblematic of the restriction of freedom of enterprise was industrial licensing. It stifled the private sector much like the colonial Government of India had; instituting a more-or-less stagnant colonial economy. Through the 70s, the government controlled virtually the entire banking sector. Thus, the state effectively extended its control over all resource allocation within the country. These controls only eased in 1978, with the dismantling of the Mahalanobis framework and subsequently, in 1980, with the Industrial Policy Statement. Meanwhile, the spectrum of architecture had always been too vast and too difficult to classify within a sectoral model. In the steel scarcity between â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;68 and â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;72, the architecture of post-independence Delhi drew from the infrastructure sector, coming to rely on material already favoured for infrastructure projects. Concrete emerged as a viable resolution in the absence of factory-made (mass-produced) building elements. The rejection of Fordist impulses of Western modernism is what gave modern Delhi its unique character; its monumentality distinguishing it from its mercantile contemporaries in other cities of India. MODERN TIMES 7
PUBLIC WORKS DEPARTMENT Between its establishment in the middle of the 19th century and the close of the Victorian era, the Public Works Department of British India devised a corpus of explicitly defined design standards, norms and regulations. The engineers employed by the PWD created standard design solutions to proscribe all types of buildings undertaken by the department. Based on a study of the day-to-day functioning of the British Indian PWD in the late 19th century, Scriver writes that the bureaucratic motives of the PWD were; i. Accuracy, in the planning of projected costs of the department’s undertakings. ii. Conformity to familiar methods and known quantities, and above all iii. Efficiency in the presentation of information in prescribed formats to enable analyses and comparison.
Scriver’s Schema The standards that were meant to help employees in the design process by providing guidelines for optimal climatic and programmatic design became a way of prescribing stock plans for all building types. With the ossification of the design reasoning within the PWD, the ‘Innovative Intentionality’ of the PWD engineers was suppressed by the standards they themselves established. Scrivers schema of the design resonating from mid to late 19th century attempts to trace the norms and their resulting directives that guided the reasoning of the PWD in the colonial era. The PWD, used acquired knowledge and precedent-based design solutions to proscribe practices that were inconsistent with their criteria. This PWD, survived Independence along with its bureaucratic structure and some of its Indian employees.
SCRIVER’S SCHEMA Source: Author ARCHI-CHAKKAR 8
Here, we appropriate this schema in order to apply it to the post-colonial PWD. • If we take Nehru’s ‘need for an Identity’ to be the first norm. • The rationalisation of the second wave of modernism by the first generation of Indian architects becomes the first directive. • The subsequent standardisation of that identity by the PWD in search for consistency becomes the second directive. • The need of the PWD to standardise building practices for the smooth functioning of its bureaucracy led them to ‘control standards’, which is the third directive. This control works at two levels;
i. Within the PWD, through standard plans,
ii. Through building codes and schedule of rates for private architects.
• This forced conformity led to; i. The repetition of standard plans and materials in State funded projects, and
ii. A break-away from standard practice by private architects.
These directives led to a particular typology of public buildings in Delhi. The inherent character of these buildings was noted by the limited range of building materials, the formula-based standardized construction and response to climate.
APPROPRIATED SCHEMA (POST-INDEPENDENCE) Source: Author MODERN TIMES 9
UTILITARIAN MODERNISM This ingenious architecture came to be known as Utilitarian Modernism i. The effortless formula of column and beam, in-fill walls and concrete slabs was a very rapid method of construction. Years of rationalization of building systems of the PWD made the system highly functional in execution. ii. Vikram Bhatt and Peter Scriver defined these buildings to consist of â&#x20AC;&#x153;reinforced concrete frame, masonry in-fill and floor slab roof; a strip or screen on concrete sunbreakers over continuous fenestrations; a linear, outward looking order in planning with a spacious grid-determined distribution of elements in the landscape.â&#x20AC;? iii. They typically had low ceilings, flat roofs and an open plan; a defined structural grid and a play of volumes, with elements of the program distributed in the landscape. Exposed concrete with brick masonry dominated the look of the buildings. Sunshades defined the facades. There was freedom of adding elements externally for the facial treatment of the building. This graph shows the usage of sunshades in the public buildings in Delhi. Although quite popular initially, we see a sudden decrease in the use of sunshades after the 1985 which can be directly mapped into the improvement and increased availability of air-conditioning technologies after 1980s.
GRAPHS SHOWING THE PROGRESSIVE USE OF SUNSHADES, JAALIS, RECESSED WINDOWS AND LOUVRES Source: Author
i. Recessed windows were widely used throughout 1965-1985. From 1985-1990 their popularity fall, alongside an increase in dependence on shear walls and glass facades. ii. Jalis fell out of favour due to the ostensible austerity of construction bereft of ornamentation, besides being more difficult to construct than recessed windows and straight louvers. ARCHI-CHAKKAR 10
ROW 1: EMPIRICIST ARCHITECTURE ROW 2: BRUTALISM ROW 3: LOCAL INDIAN ARCHITECTURE Source: www.architexturez. net
At this time other parallel styles of public buildings existed simultaneously in Delhi: i. Empiricists - Joseph Allen Stein and MM Rana who focused on the sensitive approach to the entire built environment. They designed for the micro-environments of the space their building was located in, and harmonised the building using traditional landscape and traditional elements. ii. The direct influence of Corbusier’s work in Chandigarh was also noticeable. The vocabulary of exposed concrete and structural proficiency was clear. Shiv Nath Prasad’s Akbar Hotel and Shri Ram Centre at Mandi House also impacted the architectural landscape. Similarly, the IIT Delhi building of J K Choudhary and The Palika Kendra by Kuldip Singh, because of their great visual contrast, rose as important examples. The enduring Imperialist impulse is expressed to us in the bulky, immutable forms that could not, at the time, have afforded the grace of metal. iii. Reaction to heavy push of Modernism gave rise to the regional building vocabulary. Local building material and technologies that didn’t conform to the standards set by the CPWD started to be called as ‘Alternative Building Technologies’. The local skill and systems of construction of the region were given importance. This directly critiqued the standardized ways of modernism. This was seen as a postmodernist step and was cited as Regionalism. Laurie Baker’s Building Centre and Development Alternatives was a great step in acknowledging the regional context of the buildings. Profs Anil Laul and Ashok Lall worked in these directions. iv. But it was only the ‘Rationalist’ thought of the Utilitarian Modernism that grew and overpowered its counterparts in Delhi. These functional and standardized buildings created an idealized setting for modernity. MODERN TIMES 11
LIFESTYLE The utilization of the new emerging media during these decades, propagated the idea of modernity. Akashvani, Vividh Bharti and Doordarshan were able to reach out to large swathes of the population. Cinema depicted aspirations of city life. Television commercials too, promoted a lifestyle that represented a changed and improved way of living, and were a reflection of the new modern world itself. Simple details like sitting on a table for breakfast, using various new-fangled kitchen appliances, enforced the idea of embracing modernity over tradition. The new modern lifestyle moves away from the struggles of the previous decade and accepted new ways of comfort, dressing and use of technology in daily life. Modernity was the idea that was associated with improvement and development. Modernism became emblematic of this modernity we aspired to in our lives.
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EDUCATION The Timeline The education system of the city was either too outdated to match a freelyprogressing third world agenda or non-existent especially in the fields of higher education. The schooling system had begun to update its pedagogy and as the capital of the nation, Delhi aimed to deliver prime examples of quality institutions. The primary motive of this educational system was to reflect independent days and the future development and progress of the nation. The state of design and art education was sour and exceptionally weak and the entire nationâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s source of educated designers and architects rested on the shoulders of the draftsmen born during the British Raj, Tagoreâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Shantiniketan and its affiliates and the Sir J. J. School of Art.
TIMELINE OF DESIGN EDUCATION IN INDIA Source: Author MODERN TIMES 13
And so there was a chronic need for the establishment and development of design and architectural education through a system of institutions of optimum quality. This triggered Delhiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s progression to develop design education pedagogies, unfortunately what Nehru and his fellow academics and policy makers saw as a means of seeking inspiration from developed nations, we found, ended up transforming into the establishment of a system prescribed by these overseas pedagogies and eventually proscribed by not stalling the persistence of this prescription.
Multi-disciplinary Curriculum The first edition of architectural education in Delhi was fronted by the establishment of the Department of Architecture under the Delhi Polytechnic in 1941. The education system of the Department of Architecture was found to be built on the lines of Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Illinois Institute of Technology with their affiliated secondary institutions. Models of American design and architectural institutions became the first guidelines for setting up the education system.
MULTI-DISCIPLINARY CURRICULUM OF BAUHAUS AND SCHOOL OF PLANNING & ARCHITECTURE, DELHI Source: Author
Alongside American institutions, the first edition of architectural education of Delhi was immensely inspired by the pedagogy followed by the Bauhaus system of education that originated in Europe and started a strong shift from classical art education. Indian academics were found to have mirrored Bauhaus onto the Delhi landscape by a great extent. Two very distinct propositions of the Bauhaus pedagogy appealed to the academics and went on to define the core structuring of architectural education that persists even in present times with little alteration. The first is the most profound derivative of the Bauhaus ideology, the multidisciplinary approach introduced by Walter Gropius. Instead of academic theory, the Bauhaus relied on a pluralistic educational concept, on creative methods and on the individual development of the studentsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; artistic talents. Horizons were broadened beyond art education that involved material properties, color theory, construction, craft techniques, anthropometrics, mathematics and building materials. Modern day School of Planning and Architecture at Delhi maintains the multi-disciplinary approach prescribed by Bauhaus trends. There may not be stress laid on production as compared to the Bauhaus but the institution maintains a balance between design, craft, graphics and then humanities, material theory, structures and other non-artistic disciplines along with an amalgamated stress on theory, practice and technology. ARCHI-CHAKKAR 14
Curriculum Of Scale Gropiusâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; famous curriculum diagram formed the very progression of the academic session from start to end. It followed a scaled progression of curriculum where the scale and level intensity rose from a preliminary course of theory to the final building. The pedagogical diagram lays out the curriculum in concentric rings. On the outside, a foundation year, and, at the core, the mastery, all linked through intermediate bands of theoretical and material studies. The Department of Architecture at the Delhi Polytechnic established the curriculum of scale that persists subliminally in the present day School of Planning and Architecture pedagogy. The primary years cater to theoretic knowledge, skill building and setting a foundation with a smaller scaled design exercise in the first year like a pavilion. It builds scale by moving onto a residence, then a community Centre to a housing complex and finally to an urban design scale through second, third, fourth and fifth years. The scale of a literature document moves from rudimentary researches to dissertations to fifth year seminars.
CURRICULUM OF SCALE: BAUHAUS AND SCHOOL OF PLANNING & ARCHITECTURE, DELHI Source: Author
SCALE OF PROJECTS IN SCHOOL OF PLANNING AND ARCHITECTURE, NEW DELHI Source: Author MODERN TIMES 15
The Eameses And The Lota Analogy
THE EAMES PRESCRIPTION Source: Author
What we found to be a further solidification of the prescriptive design and architectural education system was the emergence of the India Report in 1958. The need to establish a centralised education system for design and architecture led to the invitation extended by Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru to Charles and Ray Eames who went on to formulate the India Report that established the Indian design education system. What was born out of the desire to achieve modernity went on to become a montage of prescriptive education. India was vulnerable. It knew of the existence of technology and had experienced the introduction to technology, architecture and design through its colonization. But India did not, yet, know how to tap creativity, design acumen and its potential human resource in a structured way. The massive deterioration of goods and services right after colonization rendered industry, architecture and goods in a mess and there was a dire need for recovery. This was taken as the primitive objective of the Eames Report. The report stated a set of recommendations and for the establishment of a design curriculum, eligibility for students and faculty, and the administrative structuring for the education system. They explained that new designs for modern India should provide the same â&#x20AC;&#x153;tremendous service, dignity and loveâ&#x20AC;? as the lota. The lota was seen as an output of perfection and by examining through the lenses of the premise, details, materiality, functionality, geometry, aesthetic, mass production, and logic and logistics. And so the lota led onto establishing the nuances of the system and the system itself.
THE LOTA ANALOGY Source: Author ARCHI-CHAKKAR 16
ROSTER OF DISCIPLINES: COA AND EAMES REPORT Source: Author
The roster of disciplines that were established under the Bauhaus pedagogy were detailed and appropriated with the Eames overlay. Direct linkages are visible between the roster presented by the India Report and present day School of Planning and Architecture curriculum. Major supersets of design, anthropometrics, preliminary theory, craft, material study and construction that were established under Bauhaus analogy were detailed with the introduction of subjects like sociology, history, physics, technology, demographics and artistic expression The eligibility criteria for students and faculty showed great resemblance between the Eames Report and S.P.A. Delhi. Educational qualifications, scientific proficiency, general knowledge and additional talents were some of the criteria stated in the Eames Report. These were translated into entrance examinations that required proficiencies in science, mathematics, art and general knowledge. They have formed the present day AIEEE and JEE Main examinations that set benchmarks for eligibility into this college.
Conclusion Design education lay unattended and undefined in the post-independent landscape of Delhi. The leaders of the independent nation turned to look for inspirations to accelerate the inception of design and architectural education and looked to the West for ideas, ideals, case studies and plausible examples. But what occurred in the need for acceleration was that the modernist pedagogies were aped to reflect modernity that we aspired for in the field of education. Inspiration turned prescription, turned proscription, and is unfortunately, persistent in the postmodern era. Those very directives of modern education and nomenclatures of architectural curriculum stand in present day education and there hasnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t been any radical change in education systemâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s mod mentality, to closer fit the changed society today.
MODERN TIMES 17
CONCLUSION The modernism of Delhi is defined as much by its vast stock of primarily institutional buildings, as it is by the curious absence of corporate modernism. In their vocabulary, material and method, the modernism embodied by Delhi’s repertory is derived from a state-controlled industry of construction/architecture, which stands in contrast to the futurism, and post-war decadence of modernists elsewhere. “The assumption of such a dictatorial planning is perfectly reasonable in such economies where there is a central or command planning with total coverage of all sectors. It is most inappropriate for an economy like India where govt can enforce decisions by command in only a small part of the economy.” (Karmakar, 2012) Utilitarian Modernism had its own set of limitations. Repetition of the building style by the government sector and the emphasis on completion of the building rather than on its functionality or usability in terms of the types of spaces produced led to the change in outlook of these buildings. Modernism started to be seen as a building type in degeneration rather than an architectural style (Lang, 2002). The boring forms that repeated in all typologies of buildings educational, institutional, commercial, residential – apartments and housing. Also the structural system failed quite often in the construction. Steel reinforcement corroded due to the lack of cover in the beams which led to the columns being crumbled. There was often efflorescence on the brickwork. Stucco started to be used as a smooth finish to cover up the bad workmanship on the buildings(Lang, 2002). These led the architects to look for different ways of construction. What emerged as a reaction from the limitations of directive led Utilitarian Modernism was a new style of architecture. The idea of architecture remains to be Modernistic in tradition. A building that stand out in the context and is visually strong. With the structure being expressed and creating a framework which can be modified as per the climatic factors. Simplicity of forms, the interpretation of spaces, the precision of detailing and the high level of craftsmanship (Lang, 2002). Today, in 2016, Architecture and other services lie beyond the range of the command of the government authority. A single decision-maker cannot command all the decisions in this vast, overwhelming private sector economy. The successive policies of liberalization of the economy have allowed diversification of individuals invested in urban development and hence, diversity in architectural practice. Concentration on the build-up of heavy industries base by the Mahalanobis strategy caused relative retardation in investment in building technologies over the period. As a consequence, the country became dependent on the import of architectural products, and eventually ideas. (Post-91) The stock of built form added in the last (two) decade(s) that has been achieved through private investment, in large part, bears little resemblance to the modernism that preceded it, not in small part due to the vastly different masters it serves.
Education defines practice and the kind of practitioner you will be. It sets the very foundation upon which one individually experiments to achieve a versatile career life. It ought to be a democratic foundation made from the very people who will experience it, experiment on it and go onto defining the industries of design, architecture, art and construction. The very misinterpretation of modernism as modernity replaced the democratic quality of education to that of an prescriptive takeover. This is how architectural education fell into the hands of a modernist imperialism along with building standards and went onto defining the architects who graduated and the buildings they introduced to the landscape of Delhi. In a society aspiring towards modernity, Modernism arrived as a panacea, uniting the country under an umbrella of a defined architectural language. Those educated in the modernist language preached and practised it; teaching the same expression in the institutions. After the already prescribed pedagogy, students were also exposed to the very same building style in their apprenticeships. This led to subsequent generations being dictated on the standardized construction of buildings. Yet, the idea of architecture remains deterministic in tradition: visually strong buildings that stand out in their context. Structure is explicitly expressed, creating a modifiable framework. Simplicity of forms; inter-penetration of spaces, and precision-detailing. After the exit of the British Raj, the city of Delhi stood politically independent; but unconscious of the persistence of an imperialist state. Modernism and its regional flavours seeping into the nooks and crannies of architectural design, education, policy making and building regulations, projects stood prescribed; processes turned prescriptive and this imperialism snowballed forward.
FULL ARTICLE Read the full article on: https://issuu.com/kabir.sahni/docs/modern_times__final_report_
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REFERENCES Khilnani, S., 2012. The Design Manifesto - HT Mint. [Online] Available at: http://www.livemint.com/Opinion/J5PcsLOaQk6M9XNHypt75H/The-designmanifesto.html [Accessed 08 September 2016]. Eames Office, n.d. Eames Office. [Online] Available at: http://www.eamesoffice. com/the-work/the-lota-the-india-report/ [Accessed 08 September 2016]. Eames, C. a. R., 1958. The India Report, Ahmedabad: National Institute of Design. Vossen, C., n.d. Teaching at the Bauhaus. [Online] Available at: http://www. bauhaus.de/en/das_bauhaus/45_unterricht/ [Accessed 12 October 2016]. Bauhaus, 1. Y. o., n.d. 100bauhaus.de. [Online] Available at: https://www. bauhaus100.de/en/past/overview/[Accessed 12 October 2016]. Tallman, S., 2009. Bauhaus Curriculum. Art In America, 1 December, Issue 2010. Rapoport, A., 1977. Human Aspects of Urban Design. New York: Pergamon. Menon, A. G. K., 1998. Architexturez.net. [Online]. Menon, AG Krishna. The Contemporary Architecture of Delhi: a Critical History. New Delhi, India: TVB School of Habitat Studies, 2003. Seminar on Architecture, Edited by Achyut P. Kanvinde. New Delhi: Lalit Kala Akademi, 1959. Bhatt, V. and Scriver, P. (1990) After the masters: Contemporary Indian architecture. United States: Mapin Publishing Pvt. Ltd ,India. Scriver, Peter. Rationalization, Standardization, and Control in Design, a Cognitive Historical Study of Architecture. Theses. Delft, the Netherlands, 1994. Balakrishnan, Pulapre (Nov., 2007) Visible Hand: Public Policy and Economic Growth in the Nehru era. Centre for Development Studies, Trivandrum. Working Paper 391 Chibber, V. (2003) Locked in Place: State-building and late industrialization in India. Princeton University Press.) Katano, Hikoji (1965). Some Characteristics of Professor Mahalanobisâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; Growth Model. The Developing Economies. Vol. 3, No.1 pp 34-47. Karmakar, Dr Asim K. (2012). Development Planning & Policies under Mahalanobis Strategy: A Tale of Indiaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Dilemma. International Journal of Business and Social Research (IJBSR). Vol. 2, No.2 pp 121-132 Kolawole, Bashir Olayinka (Apr., 2013). Economic Development Planning Models: A Theoretical and Analytical Exposition. European Scientific Journal. Vol. 9, No.10 pp. 176-180. (This reference carries the following citations: Ghatak, S (1995). Introduction to Development Economics, Third edition. Routledge, London and New York. ARCHI-CHAKKAR 20
Thirlwal, A. P. (1983). Growth & Development with special reference to Developing Economies. Third Edition. The Macmillan Press.) Komiya, Ryutaro (Feb., 1959). A Note on Professor Mahalanobisâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; Model of Indian Economic Planning. The Review of Economics and Statistics. Vol. 41, No.1 pp. 2935 Mahalanobis, P.C. (1955). The Approach of Operational Research to planning in India. Sankhya. Vol 16, Nos.1 & 2 pp 3-62, 63-130 Mahalanobis, P.C. (1953). Some Observations on the Process of Growth of National Income. Sankhya. Vol 12, No. 4 pp 307-312 Mishra, Sanjeev Kumar (1994). Mahalanobis Approach to Planning in India. Deep and Deep Publications. Mitra, Ashoke (Mar., 1957). A Note on the Mahalanobis Model. The Economic Weekly. Vol. 9, No.11 pp. 372-378. Sanyal, Sanjeev (Aug., 2008). The Indian Renaissance: Indiaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Rise After a Thousand Years of Decline. World Scientific Publishing Company.
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DELHIRIOUS MEGA EVENTS Divya Solanki | Himanshi Chirangoo | Krittika Mittal | Noharduth Gopee | Ramya Khare | Shubhra Kansal Guides: Ar. Leena Gupta | Ar. Moulshri Joshi | Ar. Rajiv Bhakat | Ar. Saptarshi Sanyal Chairperson: Prof. Sambuddha Sen
ABSTRACT “Delhirious Mega Events” looks at the Mega Events that changed the landscape of India’s capital city. The focus of the seminar is on the significant impact these had on the architectural language of the number of projects that were actualised as the result of the increased building activity in those times. The three Mega Events: Asia’72 fair, Asiad Games in 1982 and the Commonwealth games in 2010; impacted the urbanscape of Delhi in different ways. The seminar begins by establishing a basic understanding of Mega Events. It first examines the Asia’72 Trade Fair that led to the start of the creation of mega architecture projects in the city, the prominent landmark of the same being the recently demolished Hall of Nations in the Pragati Maidan Complex. It then goes on to study the Asian Games held in 1982, which spearheaded large scale construction of various stadiums, hotels and other infrastructure, bringing the capital at par with other host cities. The seminar then moves on to study the much controversial Commonwealth Games, the next Mega Event hosted after a gap of twenty eight years. In conclusion, the seminar aims to study the various architectural trends that emerged during these events and became an identity of the city and compares them across the world during the same time period to understand the state of Indian Architecture of Mega Events.
INTRODUCTION Cities are slow processes in general, built over long periods of time. There are times when a city witnesses a catalyst in its development process, a sudden spike in its otherwise steady graph. For the city of Delhi, being the capital of India, the first such event was the Independence of the country in 1947. As a newly independent nation under Nehru’s leadership, India wanted to break away from its imperial past, with a mindset of “nation building”, to establish the new India. There was an attempt to propagate new images for the city and the nation. Immediately after independence, India’s architects were “infected with an inferiority complex taking cues from the hastily developed, inadequately tested but ready to hand down ideas of the West, instead of their own research” – Claude Batley, Principal of JJ School of Art, Bombay said in 1954 (Grover and Shah, 1995, p.18). However, it was indeed difficult to come up with an appropriate architectural vocabulary and imagery for something for which prototypes did not exist. India’s first experience with international events was when it hosted the 1951 Asian Games, at the already British- built National Stadium (now known as Major Dhyan Chand National Stadium). Opportunity to explore architecturally arose through the Trade Fairs of 1958 and 1961 (held outside India), although they were small in scale with temporary structures being constructed. Pavilions, like the India Pavilion by Sachdev Eggleston for the World Trade Fair held in Osaka Japan 1970, were made with significant enthusiasm. Indian architects started to grasp and explore the techniques for India’s new architectural styles. The coming in of a competition culture and the increasing confidence of Indian architects made Delhi, the capital city, the perfect playground for exploration (Grover and Shah, 1995). The first and second Asian International Trade Fairs, previously successfully hosted by Bangkok and Tehran respectively, further encouraged Indira Gandhi, the then Prime Minister of India, to boldly put forward the name of Delhi as the venue for the third edition of the Fair to be held in 1972. After 25 years of independence, it was an occasion for India to portray how it was at par with the world, while being right at home. India was ready to host mega events.
HINDUSTAN LEVER PAVILION Source: https://architexturez. net/doc/az-cf-166171 ARCHI-CHAKKAR 24
LOGOS OF THE THREE EVENTS Source: http://www.stampsoftheworld.co.uk/wiki/ India_1972_Asia_’72__3rd_ Asian_International_Trade_ Fair http://www.ocasia.org/game/ GameParticular.aspx?9QoyD9QEWPevanEkik24kQ
WHY MEGA EVENTS?
https://en.wikipedia.org/ wiki/2010_Commonwealth_ Games
Definition of Mega Events A mega event is termed so, because the impact of the event is mammoth in scale. Martin Muller (2014), in his work, defined mega events as follows; mega events are ambulatory occasions of a fixed duration that: • Attract a large number of visitors • Have a large mediated reach • Come with large costs • Have large impacts on the built environment and the population
Why Do Countries Bid for Them? Mega events act as stimulant for the development of the host city. The aim for the mega event is to: • Serves as a catalyst for Infrastructure development • Promote certain activities like sports and trade • Enhance tourism and projecting the city as a global destination • Showcase the country on an international platform and affirming the city as a “World Class City” • Give a boost to the economy by opening the market to potential investors. (Majumdar and Mehta, 2009) This is precisely why countries, developing or developed, strive so hard to attain the opportunity to host such events. They provide that unique opportunity for progression, in lines of design, technology and construction. In the case of infrastructure development, cities have the potential for possible development/ redevelopment of specific zones of the city, construction of sporting and accommodation venues, renovation and creation of city level roads, flyovers, and other transportation networks etc. This requires huge amounts of capital, planning and execution which otherwise, without the occurrence of event, is difficult to get off ground. DELHIRIOUS MEGA EVENTS 25
Vision and Legacy of Mega Events Although a mega-event affects both the tangible and intangible, the legacy of the event majorly presents itself in terms of its physical manifestation. In such a short lapse of time, mega events induce long lasting overhauls. The events might be temporal, but its effects are permanent for the city. The mega structures that the mega events leave behind, be it stadiums or exhibition halls; eventually become important and visible landmarks of the city. They become embedded in the city’s skyline. Many times they symbolize the city, becoming almost synonymous with the city’s identity. The Eiffel Tower in Paris, built during the World Fair 1889 and the Bird’s Nest Stadium in Beijing for the 2008 summer Olympics prove it. This, along with no capital expenditure limit, the burden of displacement and the effort put into organising the event, enforces the responsibility of advancing architecturally. Because of all these reasons, since the last few decades the administrative bodies of major sports and expositions have been focusing on the worth of legacy value envisioned to be generated as a major deciding factor in the selection of the host city. Legacy constitutes of many parameters: increase in participation of the related activity, improvement in social and economic spheres, creation of usable and required supporting infrastructure, tourism boost, investment boost, sustainable and environmental benefits, urban regeneration and many more. Another major aspect that is now being added vaguely along the legacy worth is the architectural vision. While both developing and developed nations bid for mega events, the bid documents reveal a difference in the approach adopted to these events. The developed countries usually have a detailed vision of the event from the bidding stage with strategic plans to improve upon a pre-existing urban issue.
Making it Worthwhile Architectural construction costs in India are treated as they are reflected in the budget as ‘capital expenditure’ (Menon, 2016). They are to be spent as minimally as possible as they are not perceived to be generators of economic activity. But in those circumstances, such as the preparations of a mega events, the state doesn’t really put any spending limits. This, in itself becomes an opportunity to be utilised for the advancements in the field of architecture. Additionally, the infrastructure projects require the displacement of large quantities of settlements, in and around the selected sites. The high scale uprooting interventions and huge cost overruns, burden the responsibility that the mega events hold towards the city. Mega events are not just to realize grand visions on a grand scale, but are events to question the future of the city; to both preserve and advance the way we live in our cities.
METHODOLOGY AND ANALYSIS The prevalent architecture of that time in India, the Indian subcontinent, as well as the world, was thoroughly studied and analysed through architecture publications, award winning projects and popular media publications. After comparing parameters such as theoretical framework, reference to context, materials, trends, etc. The architecture built for each event was compared, and rated as progressive or regressive.
NEWSPAPER CLIPPINGS Source: http://www.indiamike.com/india/delhi-f19/ commonwealth-games-in-delhi-t90586/25/ http://www.michellehenry.fr/ delhigames.htm
ASIA INTERNATIONAL EXPO, 1972 COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS Source: Author DELHIRIOUS MEGA EVENTS 27
ASIAN GAMES, 1982 COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS Source: Author
COMMON WEALTH GAMES, 2010 COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS Source: Author
DELHIRIOUS MEGA EVENTS 29
STATEMENTS While the architecture of the first two events was ahead of its time, the Commonwealth gamesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; architecture was behind its time. We have lost the architectural opportunity that CWG could have provided for the city of Delhi. We seem to have gone from a progressive past to a regressive present.
TABLE OF TRENDS AND ANALYSIS Source: Author
The prejudiced selection of the architects for the event- Foreign over Indian- might be a possible determinant of the architecture of these events. There is a link between the shift from Indian to foreign architects being for these events and a simultaneous shift in the architecture produced from being progressive to regressive. This incites us to break away from some of our prejudices against awarding projects of national importance to Indian architects.
Left: PRAGATI MAIDAN Source: https://architexturez. net/doc/az-cf-123722 Right: INDIRA GANDHI STADIUM Source: https://en.wikipedia. org/wiki/Indira_Gandhi_ Arena
ASIAN GAMES VILLAGE Source: http://www.rajrewal. org/projects/housing-asian. htm DELHIRIOUS MEGA EVENTS 31
ARGUMENTS • There is an observable shift from ‘’Indian’’ to ‘’Foreign’’ architecture in the case of the Commonwealth games. It can be seen that the vision for the event and its architecture was influenced by a perception that foreign architects provide a better suited vision. Combining this mind-set with an already rampant prejudiced association of foreign architecture with avant-gardism led to the side-lining of Indian architects. • Gerkan, Marg and Partners (GMP) won the competition for reconstruction of the existing Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium in 2006. When questioned in an interview by The Hindu in 2007, as to how they intend to incorporate a ‘local flavour’ in their design, they answered that they loathe the global architectural ‘fashion’ trends, which they said makes everything look the same everywhere. ‘A stadium which we have designed for a particular place, will never look like one we design for a different place’, they said in the interview (Hindu, 2007). • Despite such tall claims of designing a modern and unique stadium which responded to the context of the city, all that GMP came up with was a stadium that was “Made in China’’. Why do we align with the prejudice? There is no guarantee that foreign architects envision a better future and better architecture for our cities, as we saw through the example illustrated above. Why do we adhere, increasingly, to the side-lining of Indian Architects in the process of designing for these events? Especially when these events are important from a standpoint of building an architecture of national importance, as well as for national prestige on the world stage!
JAWAHARLAL NEHRU STADIUM, Delhi by GMP 2010 Source: http:// gauravrajanand.blogspot.in/p/ xix-commonwealth-games2010-delhi.html
LOTUS CENTURY STADIUM FOSHAN, CHINA BY GMP 2006 Source: http://www. dianliwenmi.com/ postimg_9602527.html ARCHI-CHAKKAR 32
Left: TALKATORA STADIUM 1982 Right: ‘UPGRADED’ TALKATORA STADIUM 2010 Source: https:// msoorya.wordpress. com/2010/06/24/100-daysto-go-for-the-celebration/thetalkatora-indoor-stadium/
• Not that foreign firms and foreign architects are incapable of carrying out context specific progressive architecture, but there is no guarantee that foreign equals better. For example, the revamping the Talkatora stadium for the CWG, was unfairly awarded to a Chinese firm China Railway Shishu Group Corporation, which had no prior experience of working in India. It illegally sublet the drawings to an Indian firm called Simplex Projects Ltd. (Sharma, 2010). The project massively overrun the costs and the deadlines, but even after that, one can see from the unimaginative cladding and drab exterior of the ‘upgraded’ Talkatora Stadium, that neither time, nor money was invested in creating anything worthy. • Foreign architects seem to find it difficult to create architecture which is suited to the time, context and philosophy, in a country that is foreign to them. Ignoring the involvement of local architectural style, concepts or materials and technology, their concern becomes just the skin of the building. “....We believe we have worked well with the Indians to produce some good buildings. There are some issues with design and fittings, but these are minor ones. Our concerns are based on the appearance of the buildings,” says Carlo Corallo, director at Peddle Thorp (Architects and Design, 2016). Given that, it is ironical that the one concern is not living up to the expectations.
THE COMMONWEALTH GAMES VLLAGE LYING ON THE RIVER FLOODPLAINS Source: http://www.dnaindia. com/topic/central-publicworks-department-cpwd DELHIRIOUS MEGA EVENTS 33
• We saw that there was no architectural vision in our bid for the games. Even if the foreign architects did have a suitable design vision, the numerous local collaborations necessary for their work in India (a country for which they don’t hold a practicing license in) lead to the lack of implementation of whatever little vision there was in their minds. Time constraint cannot be cited an excuse for the bad architecture of the Commonwealth Games. For Asiad (1982), construction occurred in a two-year time span. Commonwealth had at least the same time frame (Majumdar and Mehta, 2009), if not more, to work with, and yet the resultant architecture is nowhere close to the standards set by the previous mega events. But this is not to say that everything should be constructed in a short duration. The reason that these mega events are allotted to host cities almost 6 to 7 years before the event is so that they can prepare for them adequately. • From our analysis, we see that Indian architects have performed beautifully for the Asia ‘72 Expo, as well as for the Asiad 1982. They managed the implementation of the projects on ground while not compromising on the design and the vision they imagined for their country. But for the CWG, this changed. The government was blinded by the perceived glamour in association with foreign firms. They barely looked at the work quality of these firms. In the attempt to collaborate and work with foreign firms, we lost out more than expected because elaborate schemes were carried out in an attempt to take advantage of it. The projects were eventually done by unvetted local firms, and the whole intention of incorporating foreign experience in design and construction was gone. • Structures like the Hall of Nations that is currently undergoing debates and discussions for its demolition destined to begin this December, gave the city an image and iconicity. The fact that these structures have become functionally obsolete due to availability of better technologies and changing needs further strengthens the need for the upcoming mega events to establish architecture that can take its place in building the image of the city.
HALL OF NATIONS PRAGATI MAIDAN Source: Author ARCHI-CHAKKAR 34
REFERENCES Author Unknown (2009) Developing modern fair culture in The Economic Times dated Apr 14, 2009 [Accessed: 11/08/2016] http://articles.economictimes.indiatimes.com/2009-04-14/news/27661092_1_ trade-fairs-industrial-fair-pragati-maidan Author Unknown (1955) The Indian Industries Fair, as published in The Economic Weekly dated October 29, 1955. pp. 1275-1276. Azim, F. ,1991. Architecture of SAARC nations. New Delhi: Media Transasia. Bahga, S., Bahga, S. and Bahga, Y. ,1993. Modern architecture in India. New Delhi: Galgotia Pub. Co. Comptroller and Auditor General of India, 2009, ‘’A report on the preparedness for the XIX CWG 2010’’, pp10. Contemporary architecture of Delhi, 1983. New Delhi: School of Planning and Architecture. CGF, 2010. post games report: Delhi Commonwealth Games 2010, New Delhi: s.n. Dhanda, H.K. (1982) ‘Why not the Asiad?’, India International Centre Quarterly, 9, pp. 136–140. doi: 10.2307/23001512. Economic and Weekly, P. (1985) ‘A house for Usha’, Economic and Political Weekly, 20(41), pp. 1716–1717. doi: 10.2307/4374904. Frampton, K. Ozkan, S. (2013) Raj Rewal: Innovative Architecture and Tradition. India: Om Books International. pp. 58-67. Grover S. and Shah J., 1995, ‘’Building beyond borders: Story of contemporary Indian architecture’’, United States: National Book Trust, India. Housing and Land Rights Network Habitat International Coalition, 2011,’’Planned Dispossession: Forced Evictions and the 2010 Commonwealth Games’’, Accessed on <http://www.hic-sarp.org/documents/Planned%20Dispossession.pdf>. HLC, 2010. Commonwealth Games Village: Second report of the HLC, Delhi: Vigyan Bhavan Annexe. HLRN, 2010. CWG human rights voilation, s.l.: s.n. HLRN Housing and Land Rights Network, 2011, Planned Dispossession, Forced Evictions and the 2010 commonwealth games, Fact Finding Mission Report 14, Aspire Design, New Delhi Indiatoday.intoday.in. (2016). Kanishka Hotel in Delhi slumped into losses in 1999 and never recovered : Cover Story - India Today 15072002. [online] Available at: http://indiatoday.intoday.in/story/kanishka-hotel-in-delhi-slumped-into-losses-in1999-and-never-recovered/1/219433.html [Accessed 9 Sep. 2016] Kalara, S. Y., 2010. Road to Commonwealth Games 2010, New Delhi, New delhi: Penguin Enterprises .
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KHANDEKAR Nivedita, 2012, Article, Hindustan Times, New Delhi, New expo centre at Pragati Maidan raises eyebrows, accessed on July 12, 2016, http://www. hindustantimes.com/delhi/new-expo-centre-at-pragati-maidan-raises-eyebrows/ story-YHJfxQqb8rdwBFfvSDDdHI.html LALCHANDAANIL Neha 2016, The Times of India, Delhi’s Pragati Maidan set for Rs 2,000 crore revamp; work to start this year, accessed on July 12 2016, http:// timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/delhi/Delhis-Pragati-Maidan-set-for-Rs-2000crore-revamp-work-to-start-this-year/articleshow/50779550.cms Limited, H.M. (2011) 1982 Asiad: The game changer. Available at: http:// www.hindustantimes.com/delhi/1982-asiad-the-game-changer/storyaYjCuSUKRzYzBUSHSzpHSO.html (Accessed: 9 September 2016) Limited, H.M. (2016) JLN stadium a Petri dish for sports stars. Available at: http:// www.hindustantimes.com/delhi/jln-stadium-a-petri-dish-for-sports-stars/storywrWuF50ZDWlGg2Ki45I2TP.html (Accessed: 9 September 2016). Manokaran, Jeyanthi. (2013) The Master’s Builder: Padma Shri Joseph Durai Raj 13.5.1919 - 11.1.2013. India: Sudarsan Graphics Pvt. Ltd. pp. 58-65 Majumdar Boria and Mehta Nalin, 2009,’’India and the Olympics’’, New York: Routledge, Print. Matheson, V. A. & Baade, R. A., December 2004. Mega-Sporting Events in Developing Nations: Playing the Way to Prosperity? The South African Journal of Economics , Volume 72:5. Menon A G Krishna, 2016, ‘’Government policies have become an assault on Delhi’s architectural heritage’’, Accessed on < http://www.sacw.net/article12404.html> [Accessed July 2016] Muller Martin, 2014, ‘’What Makes an Event a Mega-Event? Definitions and Sizes’’, University of Zurich, Routledge Taylor and Francis Group, Available on <https:// papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2462539> [Accessed 6 Oct. 2016]. PTI 2016, The Economic Times,NBCC bags Rs 2,149-cr order from ITPO for redevelopment of Pragati Maidan [Accessed:July 12, 2016] http://articles.economictimes.indiatimes.com/2016-01-27/news/70120322_1_ nbcc-bags-rs-itpo-buildings-construction-corporation-ltd Rao A., 1981, ‘’Ugly Prologue to Asiad’’, Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 16 Issue No 42-43, Accessed on <http://www.epw.in/journal/1981/42-43/ our-correspondent-columns/labour-ugly-prologue-asiad.html?0=ip_login_no_ cache%3D8fafc4a1af936d30da76110cfde0e236> [Accessed 3 Oct. 2016] Richter, Linda K. The Politics Of Tourism In Asia. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1989. Print. Sarkar, K.C.T., SATARAWALA, K.T., Bawa, P.S. and Kumar, A. (1982) ‘Preparing for Asiad: A panel discussion’, India International Centre Quarterly, 9, pp. 163–182. doi: 10.2307/23001516.
Scroll.in. (2016). Flashback 1982: The Asian Games that transformed Delhi. [online] Available at: http://scroll.in/article/680435/flashback-1982-the-asian-gamesthat-transformed-delhi [Accessed 9 Sep. 2016] Shah, J. 2008, Contemporary Indian architecture. New Delhi: Lustre Press. Sharma Aman, 2010, ‘’NDMC bent rules for Talkatora & Shivaji stadium revamp’’, Available on <http://indiatoday.intoday.in/story/ndmc-bent-rules-for-talkatora-&shivaji-stadium-revamp/1/116820.html> [Accessed 3 Oct. 2016] Sharma, R. (n.d.). Contemporary Architecture of India Sharma, R. T., 2012. DDA sells 87 CWG appartments for almost Rs 400 corores.. The Economic Times. Sundaram, Ravi (2010) Pirate Modernity: Delhi’s Media Urbanism. Oxford, New York: Routledge. Team, P. (2019) ‘Violation of workers’ rights at the commonwealth games construction site’,Economic and Political Weekly, 44(24), pp. 10–12. doi: 10.2307/40279100. Architecture and Design, 2016, ‘’Delhi games venues designed by Aussie firm’’, Accessed on http://www.architectureanddesign.com.au/news/industry-news/ delhi-games-venues-designed-by-aussie-firm [Accessed 14 Oct. 2016]. Burbank M.J, Andranivich G.D, Heying C.H, 2001, Olympic Dreams: The Impact of Mega events on local politics, Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner. Staff reporter, 2011, ‘’DDA failed to penalise errant firms bidding for Games Village: CAG’’ Accessed on <http://www.thehindu.com/news/cities/Delhi/dda-failed-topenalise-errant-firms-bidding-for-games-village-cag/article2333355.ece> The Hindu. 2007, Human quality in architecture. [online] Available at: http://www.thehindu.com/todays-paper/tp-features/tp-sundaymagazine/humanquality-in-architecture/article2275289.ece
DELHIRIOUS MEGA EVENTS 37
AN ARCHITECTâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;S GUIDE TO IDEAS THAT SELL IN THE NATIONAL CAPITAL
Milind Goel | Shagun Lakhotiya | Vikram Bengani Guides: Ar. Leena Gupta | Ar. Moulshri Joshi | Ar. Rajiv Bhakat | Ar. Saptarshi Sanyal Chairperson: Ar. Sudipto Ghosh
ABSTRACT Architecture is one of those rare professions where we compete openly and with rigour. Despite being one of the most visible events in architectural practice and pedagogy, competitions in Delhi, at large remain uninvestigated, undocumented and unstructured. To uncover this unventured realm we disjoin ourselves from the ambiguous debate and dialouge, and create a statistical structure of objectively breaking down the winning designs of the last 50 years into their constituent parts and note their frequency. We then present you with a guideline of what to do, should you, too, wish to play this game.
THE COMPETITION MAP OF DELHI Source: Author
Brief We attempt to look at the architectural competitions and their winners in Delhi over the past 50 years, analyse them and come up with meaningful insights and patterns that can inform students, designers and institutions that hold these competitions.
The Need for Research We are one of the rare professions that compete openly and with considerable rigour, in the hope of an underlying pursuit of excellence and the assumption that competing will push the envelope of design thinking. However, in spite of being one of the most visible events in architecture, both in practice and pedagogy, design competitions in Delhi remain an uninvestigated realm. There are a lot of discussions, debates and opinions, but no documentation or a meaningful analysis. The most shocking fact is that there has been absolutely no attempt to undertake such research academically or professionally. Therefore, the most important agenda behind our research is to initiate a formal and well documented dialogue for critique and a comprehensive understanding of how competitions are held and what kind of architecture do they produce. ARCHI-CHAKKAR 40
METHOD Structure The paper has been divided into two major components - the process - where we discuss the issues related to the theme as a collection of fabricated conversations, followed by the project - where we look at the winning entries objectively, and highlight the frequency of various parameters against which they are compared.
Competitions in Delhi have not been documented at all, and no body, including the Council of Architecture, keeps a track of them. Finding competitions in Delhi, or information related to them becomes very difficult.
We decided to find as many competitions as we can, without regard to region, time period, typology and issuing authority. Based on the data-set, we constructed out a scope, narrowed down the predefining scope and then collecting data based on that. This allowed us to be flexible enough to undertake such a task. We found over 75 competitions, which eventually, were narrowed down to 45, and shortlisted to 36 for an indepth analysis.
For the government, everything is a competition, including bids and tenders, which in fact, are the major means of commissioning projects. This creates a problem in creating a list of competitions that actually involve submission and selection of design proposals.
Instead of assuming our own definition of a competition to inform the research, we let the research inform the definition. While this definition may not be ideal or correct, it is the one that exists and therefore, must be presented as is. This allows us to look at competitions in Delhi without bias, and through a thorough survey and analysis of data, come up with a plausible model for the same.
Everybody has something to say, but off the record. Because of the controversial nature of the topic and the insightful nature of the seminar, people become extremely diplomatic if they expect themselves to be quoted on the issue.
We decided to document and record conversations, but also promised the interviewees that they will not be quoted. This allowed them to divulge opinions and information freely. We then divided the interviewees into three broad categories - established professionals, academics and start-ups and government bodies. Each category was personified and their collective opinions, biases and concerns were presented as a fabricated conversation such as this one. This allowed us to model and understand larger issues and agendas that need to be addressed to create a better model for organising competitions in the national capital. AN ARCHITECTâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;S GUIDE TO IDEAS THAT SELL IN THE NATIONAL CAPTIAL 41
Information on how the jury was held and reasons behind selection of a particular design scheme is practically non-existent. Therefore, there is no way to find out ‘why’ or ‘how’ a particular scheme won.
The limitation that the ‘why’ and ‘how’ are not available worked out in our favour as it allowed us to focus on the ‘what’. This was a turning point in how we approached the theme. We focused on the actual physical features present in the winning entries, and their frequency, enabling us to collect and comment on an unambiguous data set backed by a simple, objective analysis.
Scope The scope of the seminar is restricted to ‘civic’ architecture. We deliberately avoided the term ‘public’, because it comes with a baggage of two assumptions that are not entirely true. First, ‘public buildings’ suggest spaces that are accessible to everyone. That is almost never true. For example, the extension to the National Gallery of Modern Art, by the nature of its brief is not accessible to large economically weak demographic. Similarly, to access several spaces in the Indira Gandhi Stadium, one needs a membership or special permission. Second, while we focused on government procurement of design services through competitions, there were certain notable exceptions to this rule. For instance, the Bahai House of Faith could not be excluded from the research despite being commissioned by a private body because of the open-competitive process followed, and the significance and impact of the building in the national capital. Therefore, we chose the word ‘civic’ and not ‘public’.
DATA The Challenge 1965 1965 1970 1972 1972 1973 1975 1975 1975 1976 1978 1978 1978 1980 1980 1980 1982 1983 1985 1985 1985 1986 1990 1990 1994 1998 1998 1999 1999 2000 2001 2002 2004 2004 2005 2005 2005 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2012 2012 2016
Bhikaji Cama Place Complex Each competition is represented by a ‘DOT’. NDMC City Center Dilshad Garden LIG Hall of Nations Nehru Pavilion Kalkaji LIG Housing Complex LIG Housing Development Mazar of Fakiruddin Ali Ahmed Self Financing Housing STC Building Talkatora Swimming Stadium MCD Indoor Stadium Memorial to Mahatma Gandhi Each ‘DOT’ is coloured according Asian Games Village to their ‘TYPOLOGY’. Scope Complex Lotus Temple IGI Stadium Fruit & Vegetable Market MCD Civic Center NGMA Extension IGNOU IGNCA Indian Parliament Library Delhi Institute of Technology Campus Oxfam India Headquarters DDA Hotel Socio-Cultural GGSIPU Institutional DDA Model Housing Office NSIC Convention/Exhibition Center Videsh Bhavan Stadium Alliance Francaise Housing JNU Campus Delhi Gurgaon Expressway Toll Complex Cultural Complex Dilli Haat IFCI Tower Jawaharlal Nehru Bhavan SPA UD Competition MCD Indoor Stadium Air Force Museum National Police Museum EDMC Complex Rajaswa Bhavan National Institute of Technology National War Memorial
COMPETITION TO TYPOLOGY PLOTTING Source: Author
AN ARCHITECT’S GUIDE TO IDEAS THAT SELL IN THE NATIONAL CAPTIAL 43
2010 COMMONWEALTH GAMES
INTERNATIONAL TRADE FAIR
TIMELINE PLOT Source: Author
Instant Gratification We immediately observe patterns by looking at the ‘PLOT’. 1. The frequency of the competitions increases significantly between 1972 and 1982 and then again around 2010. This means that ‘mega-events’ do inspire more architecture competitions in Delhi. 2. There is a stark decline in the number of competitions from 1992 to 1997 owing to time needed to restablise the economy after liberalization.
THE PROJECT Parameters Material & Technology
Glass Facade Cladding Material / Exterior Color RCC Steel Structures Climatological Response Human Scale Grand Access Transformation of the Brief Historical Response
Recurring Names Open / Invited Multidisciplinary Collaboration State/National/International level
Mega Scale Permeability - Access/Visual Crafts Industry Recognition of the Informal Sector
Enclosure Courtyard Concentrated Masses Fragmented Masses Extruded Masses Open Plan/Closed Plan Parking Resolution Expandability Flexibility in Use Vertical Articulation & Grandeur Integrated Landscape Articulated Edge Stone Cladding Subtractive/Additive Form Surface Articulation Symmetry Streamlined Forms & Iconic Spans Monoliths Inclusivity with Informal Sector Facade Typology Structural System Inspiration Process Building Configuration Utopian Intent Graphical Design of the Entries AN ARCHITECTâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;S GUIDE TO IDEAS THAT SELL IN THE NATIONAL CAPTIAL 45
The Approach Each one of the 45 competitions was evaluated against 45 Parameters divided into 7 Categories. While most comparisons did not result in usable information, certain patterns emerged in a few, which were notable and formed the ‘ideas’ that ‘sell’.
1. Statistical Winners
a. Use of Reinforced Cement Concrete
b. Use Enclosures
c. Stone Cladding is a Must
d. Include lots of parking
2. Statistical Trends
a. Include Courtyards
b. Avoid Red Sandstone; Use Yellow Quartzite Instead
c. Add as much green as you can
d. Create Articulated Edges for various incident urban activities
e. For the next 5-8 years, create concentrated masses
3. Statistical Losers
a. Do not create a Monolithic Mass
b. Flexible spaces really don’t win competitions
4. Passive Strategies
a. Collaborate with a foreign firm
b. Create an expandable structure
c. Use symmetry in facade articulation
d. Create a grand access
REFERENCES CentralVigilanceCommission.(2002). ProblemAreasofCorruptioninConstruction:PreventiveVigilance Publication. New Delhi: CVC. Accessed 20.10.2016 CentralVigilance Commission. (2010). Circular No. 01/01/10 : Selection and Employment of Consultants . New Delhi: CVC. Accessed 20.10.2016 Central Vigilance Commission. (2011). Circular No. 08/06/11. New Delhi: CVC. Accessed 20.10.2016w Council of Architecture, India (1983). Architectural Design Competitions Guidelines. New Delhi: COA. The American Institute of Architects. (2016) Handbook on Architectural Design Competition, Council of Architecture. (1989) Architectâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s (professional Conduct) Regulations 1989 . New Delhi: Coun- cil of Architecture. EU Directive 2014/24/EU, European Parliment & Council Indira Gandhi National Centre for the Arts. (1984). Concept and Respones : Inernation Architectural Design for the IGNCA. Accessed 20.11.2016. http:// ignca.nic.in/ot_01.htm Indian Institute of Architects. (October 1954). Journal of Indian Institute of Architects., New Delhi: Unknown Menon, AG Krishna. (2003).The Contemporary Architecture of New Delhi: a Critical History. New Delhi: TVB School of Habitat Studies, 2003. Mehrotra, R., Hoskote, R., Mehta, K., (2016). The State of Architecture : Practises & Processes in India, Mumbai: Urban Design Research Institute Malcom Reading Consultants. (2017). Helsinki, viewed 20.11.2016 designguggenheimhelsinki.org. Ministry of Finance, Department of Expenditrure. (2005) General Financial Rules, 2005. New Delhi: Minstry of Finance Ministry of Finance, Department of Expenditure. (2005) Manual of Policies and Procedure of Employ- ment of Consultants. New Delhi: Ministry of Finance Rewal, Raj. (2017). New Delhi: unknown. Accessed 20.11.2016. http://www.rajrewal.in/ books.htm
AN ARCHITECTâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;S GUIDE TO IDEAS THAT SELL IN THE NATIONAL CAPTIAL 47
बाज़ार हुआ बाज़ारी Akansha Mittal | Deepansh Tyagi | Girisha Sethi Guides: Ar. Leena Gupta | Ar. Moulshri Joshi | Ar. Rajiv Bhakat | Ar. Saptarshi Sanyal Chairperson: Ar. Rajiv Bhakat
ABSTRACT This seminar raises questions on the state of retail built environment in Delhi post Liberalisation. Of all the post-independence events and phenomena, Economic Liberalisation and the consequent privatisation and the creation of a global economy - has been a revolutionary wave of change that hit all facets of urban settlements. With huge amounts of foreign investments and foreign brands pouring in, the retail sector went through an absolute metamorphosis in its structure and ideologies, which reflected in its architecture. The seminar studies the impact of Liberalisation on the retail built environment across the city, with particular focus on how the shift of development authority from the state to private developers had a direct impact - in form, aesthetics, driving parameters, operations and consequent impact on people and the city. The seminar raised questions on the aesthetic quality of contemporary architecture, the idea of identity and iconicity within the same, visual and social impact of changing schemes and motivations, and the resultant influence on the public space and architecture of the city.
INTRODUCTION Of all the post-independence events and phenomena, the economic liberalisation, the consequent privatisation and the creation of a global economy has been a revolutionary wave of change that hit all facets of urban settlements. Within the realm of architecture, it impacted all typologies - from retail to office spaces, from housing stock to transport infrastructure, with the impact on retail being a more pervasive as it interacts with people from all sections of the society and forms an important part of the public architecture of the city. Also, with huge amounts of foreign investments and foreign brands pouring in, the retail sector went through an absolute metamorphosis in its structure and ideologies, which reflected in its architecture. This seminar aims to study the impact of liberalisation on the retail built environment across the city, with particular focus on how the shift of development authority from the state to private developers has had a direct impact. Within retail architecture, the scope of this study covers soft goods retail and at the scale of operation of a district centre. The district centre as a typology allows for a study of evolution from state-led developments to public-private participations to entirely privately-led developments visibly at an architectural scale. Along the timeline, the research focuses primarily on the contrast from pre-1991 to post1991. A significant part of the contemporary city’s footprint is the retail sector – both formal and informal, and operates at all scales within the city. It is retail, of all typologies of buildings, that has an interaction with people of all kinds and contributed hugely to the public space and activities of the city. Liberalisation has been a wave of change for the city, its structure and the lifestyles of people. The new retail has had a significant impact on the cityscape, lives of people and the image and identity of the city. This makes it important to see how Liberalisation-Privatisation-Globalisation has impacted the retail sector which further has an impact on the entire city.
UNDERSTANDING TYPOLOGIES IN RETAIL
On the Basis of Product - Type • Food Products - Typically require cold storage facilities. • Hard Goods or Durable Goods - Automobiles, appliances, electronics, furniture, sporting goods, lumber, etc., and parts for them. Goods that do not quickly wear out and provide utility over time. • Soft Goods or Consumables - Clothing, other fabrics, footwear, toiletries, cosmetics, medicines and stationery. Goods that are consumed after one use or have a limited period (typically under three years) in which one may use them. • Arts - Contemporary art galleries, bookstores, handicrafts, musical instruments, gift shops, and supplies for them.
On the Basis of Scale and Proportions (as in MPD)
FLOW CHART TO CITE SCOPE OF STUDY Source: Author
• Central Business District - The largest in scale, serving the entire city’s population. • District Centre - Smaller than CBD, serving a district, a population of few lakhs. • Community Shopping - Smaller than a district centre, serving a neighborhood. • Local Shopping Centre - A small market in a locality, serving almost 10,000 thousand people. • Convenience Shopping - A small store or group of stores for daily needs at the smallest level of the city, serving a few thousand people.
On the Basis of Planning and Formality • Planned / Formal - These are the markets which are planned and included in master plans. In master plans, urban designers designate areas and develop retail centers like CBD and district centers or define areas for retail development and give them to private owners to develop. What is striking that the formal sector might be the agglomeration of money.
बाजार हुआ बाजारी
• Unplanned / Informal - These are the markets which are unplanned and informal in nature. These shops come up organically and are mostly movable. They are not on any government document. They might not even be solid shops and could be only temporary setups.
On the Basis of Development Authority • Development By the State - These are the retail centers which are developed by government bodies like DDA and PWD. DDA in the master plan designates the areas for these kind of development and assign the PWD for building the central business districts or district centers. • Private Development - These are the retail spaces that are developed by private developers. These developers design these spaces according to local bye-laws and often based on the master plan framework and make personal profits out of these. Aesthetics of these buildings are all according to private developer’s discretion.
HOW LIBERALISATION AFFECTED RETAIL FORMATS The beneficial effect of globalization on Indian Industry was that it brought in huge amounts of foreign investments and foreign enterprises into the industry. As huge amounts of foreign direct investments were coming to the Indian Industry, they boosted the Indian economy quite significantly and changed the entire structure of the commercial and retail sector. On the contrary, the coming up of new markets created a tight competition on ground. The increased number of choices in the market also led to the increase in strategies of marketing and advertisement. This underlying driving force in the market created new aspirations and changed perceptions and lifestyles. It had a direct impact on the design of spaces for retail. Retail was no longer driven by the needs of the retailer - storage, display, efficiency, but by an underlying attempt to attract more customers and make a mark above the competitors.
At the Cluster Level Rise of the Private Developer With liberalisation, the state allowed the power to flow into the hands of private developers at all scales of operations – from taking decisions and exercising control at the scale of a unit design to the design and operation of an entire district centre. With the private builders’ lobby gaining more dominance, the aesthetics of publicprivate participation models underwent significant change. Also, the private bodies had motives and driving forces very different from the state which were reflected in the architecture they produced and how they maintained it.
New Built Typology - The Mall (They say “Lifestyle Center”) With foreign brands pouring into the Indian market, there was a massive development of new retail formats such as malls, hypermarkets, supermarkets and lifestyle stores, of which the mall spread across big cities like wildfire. With Ansal Plaza being the first mall in Delhi in the 1990s, today there are about 250 malls in the city. The mall typology adapted from the American system of things, has adapted to an Indian version of itself. The infrastructure of the city does not allow for the American concept of a mass products selling mall outside the city. Instead, the mall in India is a concentration of more expensive products - predominantly foreign brands.
THE BOX - WITH ITS SOARING ATRIUM AND SPRAWLING FLOOR PLANS Source: www.citymetric.com
When Ansal Plaza was constructed in Delhi, it was received with huge enthusiasm from the youth. It was a space not only for shopping and eating, but for meeting and relaxing with friends. It came to be associated with a certain status symbol. Visiting malls and buying branded products satisfied their thirst for a better quality of life. Shopping as a need based experience transformed to a more conspicuous indulgence.
THE ANSAL PLAZA MALL WITH ITS SINGLE LOADED CORRIDOR Source: www.ansalplaza.in
Under the wave of privatisation, the malls in Delhi began to be developed by private developers like DLF, MGF, TDI and others. With their freedom to be able to take decisions without state interventions and with huge capital investments flowing in, malls sprouted with a quest for a global image. Also, the inspiration for most lay in western typologies. The interiors are fancy with lights and temporary installations, modern materials and minimalistic details. With facilities like lifts, escalators, centralized air-conditioning, firefighting systems and others - malls have become more customer-friendly than open to sky spread-out markets and thus are increasingly preferred especially by the elite.
बाजार हुआ बाजारी
Retail Intelligence Retail intelligence is the application and management of knowledge and resources through the study of different parameters of shopper’s behavior such as pedestrian flow and magnitude, visual tendencies, length of stay etc. Retail intelligence has always existed in Indian markets as an inherent, informal strategy. Post liberalisation, formal international standards and strategies began to occupy Indian markets. These affected the structuring of retail clusters and units and consequently the form and experience of the same. Some of the pervasive applications include: • Double-Loaded Corridors - Double-loaded corridors against single-loaded ones as in some open street markets or in Ansal Plaza mall, provide more accessibility to the facade and displays of the stores with lesser circulation space, thus increasing opportunities and hence sales. • Retail Clustering - Malls today capitalize on concepts like retail clustering which involves clustering stores with some common grounds to maximize the sellthrough and marginal potential. Usually in a mall, stores selling similar products are strategically placed next to each other or on the same floor. • Strategic Zoning of Leisure Zones - In most malls, leisure destinations such as food courts, entertainment zones, indoor gaming areas and movie theatres are placed on upper floors. They are planned such so that the user passes by the various levels of retail to reach these destinations. • Dimension of Time - Along with foreign brands, marketing strategies and enclosed shopping malls, there came the concept of service entrances. Earlier, the shops had a single entrance which acted as the primary entrance as well as entrance for the loading/unloading of goods. To avoid overlaps in customer and service footfalls, these entrances are mostly used at times when the density of people accessing that space is lowest. • Dumbbell Layout - Shopping malls generally work on the premise of the classic dumb-bell concept, with the large competing ‘anchor’ stores at two ends working as ‘magnets’ spaced between smaller multi-cellular units. For example, in Select City Walk mall, Saket, anchor stores ‘H&M’ and ‘ZARA’ are placed on the two ends and smaller stores are placed in between to strategically increase footfall along the entire corridor.
DUMBBELL LAYOUT IN THE DLF PROMENADE MALL, VASANT KUNJ Source: www.delhi-ncr. mallsmarket.com ARCHI-CHAKKAR 54
• Visual Connection - The idea of having a central atrium and double-loaded corridors allow for visual connection between various levels. A soaring central atrium and stores along the edges give a clear visual picture of upper floors to the customer from all points of the mall, thus increasing visual and physical accessibility and attraction.
At the Unit Level Showrooms The design of retail spaces became increasingly influenced by sell-ability and marketing strategies. • To make sure that their brand name and product is “noticed” well among customers, measures to maximize their brand name (attractive hoardings), advertise their product (billboards) and enhance the entrances of the shops were adopted. • Earlier, shops which that had simple masonry entrance facades with an entrance door, now began to transform to complete glass fronts with huge display windows. This change can be seen directly in Connaught Place where all stores today have huge glass facades and are superimposed with advertisements, a view very different from when CP was first built. • Earlier shops would have more of storage and less of display. But now the storage has become less and display area became more. Therefore, shops now required more area that earlier. • Another thing that became common post liberalisation was the need for flexibility within shops, flexibility to accommodate newer ranges of products and newer concepts every season within a brand as well as newer brands in the same shop. LEFT: FACADE OF AN OLD LOCAL TOY SHOP IN CONNAUGHT PLACE RIGHT: FACADE OF AN INTERNATIONAL BRAND STORE IN EMPORIO MALL, VASANT KUNJ Source: www.bp.blogpost.com & www.piaget.com
Anchor Stores Anchor stores are the major retail stores that are used to drive business to smaller retailers. These larger departmental stores or grocery stores are generally part of a retail chain and are a prominent business in a shopping mall. These stores not only benefit the retailers but they also ease up the customers as they get a variety of brands and a variety of products within a single showroom. For example: Lifestyle, Westside, Shoppers Stop, etc.
बाजार हुआ बाजारी
RETAIL STRUCTURE: MASTER PLAN 1962 After Independence, the first Master Plan of Delhi 1962 formulated the structure of trade and commercial sector in Delhi, along with other land uses, in an organized form. Of the total land area of the city, about 1.9% was allocated to retail activities, including the 1% of the residential sector (the residential sector being 40% of the total city area) that was permitted for retail. Apart from wholesale markets, commercial areas were identified under the following categories:
Central Business District Two major zones – Old Delhi and Connaught Place – were identified as major retail Central Business Districts. All CBDs together constituted 15% of the total commercial space in the city and served the entire population.
Sub-Central Business District Gaffar market in Karol Bagh and Shahdara comprised of Sub-central business districts and constituted together to 8% of the total commercial area in the city and served all of the city’s population.
District Centre In order to decentralize commercial activity, 15 district centres (Malviya Nagar, Khyber Pass, Dilshad Garden, Shalimar Gardens, Pusa Road, etc.) were proposed to include retail shopping, local business, commercial and professional offices, local government offices, cinemas, restaurants and other places of entertainment.
Sub-District Centre Apart from the district centres, 13 sub-district centres including Khan Market, Gole Market, Lajpat Rai Market, Jhandewala, Azadpur, etc. were proposed and developed. These were allocated near railway lines and major road crossings that provided scope for intense activity nodes. These together constituted 7.3% of the city’s commercial area.
Local Shopping Apart from the business districts and district centres, local shopping facilities were provided at various tiers of residential areas, with a standard of one shop for 150 people. These comprised of 3.4% of the total retail sector and had the following levels: • Community Shopping Centre - Serving a population of 40,000 to 50,000 • Residential Planning Area Centre - Serving a population of 12,000 to 15,000 • Convenience Shopping - Serving a population of 3,500 to 5,000 ARCHI-CHAKKAR 56
RETAIL STRUCTURE: MASTER PLAN 2001 AND 2021 In the years between 1981 and 2001, the population of Delhi double folded, from 62 lakhs to 128 lakhs. The retail sector, that was a total of 1.9% of the total area of the city in the MPD 1962 expanded to 3-4% in MPD 2001 and to 4-5% in the MPD 2021. The informal retail sector (without roof) also expanded greatly. In 1990, there were 1.39 lakh informal sector retail units and 95 weekly market sites. Temporary retail organizations varied from flea markets to ones as large as Palika Bazaar. The permissible FAR also increased from a 110 to 150 through MPD 1962 and MPD 2021. One of the major features of the MPD 2021 is the mixed use regulations, blurring the boundaries between retail and residential to create a more cohesive neighborhood.
MAPPING THE IMPACT OF LIBERALIZATION
Retail That Was (And Remained Same) • Smaller Units - Mostly the retail architecture in smaller units/shops have remained same. Small scale shops that were initially illegally started on the ground floors of residential units. They are now being legalized to initiate mixed-land use, but they remain more or less the same. For example, the Tri Nagar market. They were/are solely for retail purpose, unlike present day shops that are more of showcasing and advertising. The goods also come through the same selling counter through which customers interact. • Small Scale District Centres - District Centres which are still developed by government bodies (DDA, PWD) remained same in terms of design layout and materiality. Individual shops are given to various retailers and are not centrally air-conditioned. These are mostly local markets at a much smaller level as compared to Central District Centres. For example, DDA or Sector markets in Rohini. • Central Business Districts - Due to huge population growth, the old Delhi area became more and more congested. But what remained same was all the shops the saree shops in Chandni Chowk, stationery shops at Nai Sadak, other shops at Chawri Bazaar.
Retail That Changed / Adapted • Smaller Units - Though most of the smaller unit shops remained same (with a counter in front), many adapted themselves to the new typology that came with liberalization. The same old kirana shops would now have most of the stacks displaying the products that customers can directly access and decide by comparing different products and go to the billing counter. • Sub-District Centre - For example, markets like Khan Market. It consisted of local shops and stores but has now completely changed to a high-end market.
बाजार हुआ बाजारी
• Central Business Districts - The central-most market of Delhi, that is Connaught Place, has also adapted itself and survived the wave of liberalization. The changes are clearly noticeable to look at. The local shops have changed to become showrooms of foreign brands. Therefore, changes can be seen internally as well as externally in case of Connaught Place.
Retail That Emerged • Malls - The entirely new typology of retail that emerged after liberalization. Malls are not only a shopping place but a place to rejuvenate, socialize and entertain. In malls today, one gets everything under one roof - from branded clothes, grocery, and footwear to electronics, home furnishings and automobiles, while earlier one had to go to separate stores/markets to buy different products. • Lal Dora markets - Markets like Hauz Khas that lie in the Lal Dora area emerged. The Lal dora areas which were originally only for agricultural purpose, emerged as this high-end markets.
MAPPING & OUTLINING CASES FOR STUDY Source: Author
TABULATION OF CASE STUDIES Source: Table - Author; Images - Author, http://delhi-ncr. mallsmarket.com/malls/dlfpromenade-vasant-kunj
बाजार हुआ बाजारी
Development Authority [ बनाने वाला ] LOGOS OF DEVELOPMENT AUTHORITIES: PUBLIC VS PRIVATE SECTORS Source: www.delhilpp.org, www.dlf.in/dlf-ethos.aspx, www.mgfindia.com, www. selectgroup.com, www. tdigroup.net
Building Character The pre-liberalisation developed retail complexes were state-driven and had a static building language. The building expression of the entire district centre was cohesive, governed by an underlying framework of standards and specifications. This can be seen in the all-pervasive use of grit wash or red sandstone for façade treatment in various state led projects. This consistency provided identity to the city. But is this cohesive building character often mistaken as “identity” actually a dull monotone? The state led developments have an integrated language in contrast with complexes developed by different private developers, where each tries to be stark and iconic in itself, leading to a disintegrated style. One sees this evidently in the Vasant Kunj malls complex where each mall tries to make a statement of its own. Here, one wonders if the private builders’ lobby and their experimental aesthetics add iconicity to the city or a disintegrated chaos?
Operations and Maintenance Most DDA developed retail centers are inarguably in a sad state of infrastructure today. With plaster peeling off, men peeing and spitting paan on the base of columns or walls, trash scattered in open spaces, facades juxtaposed with exposed AC machines, one wonders how efficient DDA is in maintaining the infrastructure and if that is the reason for the falling footfall for their centres?
Retailers [ चलाने वाला ] Foreign Brands and Advertising
ARCHITECTURE ON SALE Source: Author + www. discovermygoodwill.org
One of the major influx after globalization was of foreign brands and companies. These brands offered better quality, huge variety to choose from, products in varied price ranges, and in huge quantity. Coming up of foreign brands increased competition in the market. As a result of this increased competition, retailers ARCHI-CHAKKAR 60
began to advertise their products in the best way they could. The upsurge of the marketing industry had a great impact on the mentalities of people, which further affected lifestyles and perceptions. Eventually, this changed perception had a direct impact on the architectural language of the upcoming estate. Architecture began to be looked as a commodity, like everything else. Each cubic foot was seen more with regards to its value and profit. Space and experience took a backseat. In a situation like this, one poked to ask - has architecture today zeroed down to a commodity? How does that affect the experience of a city? Previously, the Indian market was less driven by the advertising industry. All retail buildings were government buildings and the retailers ran their business on grounds of their own establishments and not ‘global’ marketing strategies. But after the privatisation of the retail sector and increased competition, brands began to put up huge billboards and advertisements. What impact does an architecture superimposed with marketing schemes have on the cityscape?
BILLBOARDS ARE THE NEW FAÇADE TREATMENT Source: Author
The Idea of a A Showroom With the coming of foreign brands and materials, facades of stores transformed to full glass curtain walls, allowing for display of products. The stores on the inside too were designed with global retail intelligence for sucking out maximum interests from customers to generate maximum revenues. It makes one wonder - have we really become slaves (as designers and consumers) to the marketing schemes that are solely intending to make money?
SOCIETY [ आम आदमी ] Malls as Introverted Bubbles The mall typology adopted from the American system has adapted to an Indian version of itself. The infrastructure of the city does not allow for the American concept of a mass products selling mall outside the city. Instead, the mall in India is a concentration of more expensive products - predominantly foreign brands. Fully air-conditioned enclosed spaces, vertically stacked stores, pay higher taxes than street stores and attract a higher elite clientele. This box of retail stock sits on the city as an alien almost, with little interface with the streets and public space of the city.
बाजार हुआ बाजारी
Concentration of Activity This concentration of activity in an inward looking box rather than be spread across a street seems feasible with the increasing real estate rates in the city, but has a huge impact on the streets of the city. A market spread across the streets provides eyes on the streets throughout the day. This leads one to question if the idea of a mall is sustainable with regards to safety of the city? One could argue in response that the concentration of retail activity inside a mall leads to the concentration of public transport facilities outsides, proving for the same eyes nonetheless. In case of street markets, the outpour of retail on the semi open or open leaves little room in most cases for transport facilities to occupy, or else lead to congestion.
Social Aspect The security barriers of a mall and by virtue of its enclosure, is an invisible wall keeping the lower classes outside of malls. How viable is the idea of the retail stock of the city stuffed inside boxes that is not socially inclusive for the city? Also, can one design a retail space equally attractive and accessible to the rich and poor alike? The new foreign brands that came up catered to only a specific class of people. Not all people had equal access to those. Most foreign brands specifically catered to the elite class of people. This created an intangible barrier of access to different economic classes. For instance, the Khan Market attracts only the elite class. With the wave of liberalization, with intends to give more power to private individuals, are we increasing the social disparities in our cities?
THE VICIOUS CYCLE Amidst the chain of operations from the domain of the development authority, the retailer and the society, retail architecture today lies in a handicapped state. The post-liberalisation wave of change has trapped, what once was a need-based activity into a vicious cycle of profit, exclusivity and conspicuous consumption. Each leads to and is led by the other. The retailers want to gain maximum sale and maximum profits. They demand an efficient design model from developers that is intelligent enough to help them generate maximum profits. Thus private developers are driven to follow the same structure and develop typologies that can help retailers meet their ends, for the profit of both the developer and the retailer. This has led to the spread of global typologies of showrooms and malls adapted to local real estate specifications. The retailers follow class selectivism and design to attract an elite clientele for their benefits. This is in contrast with state-led developments which are not driven by profitmaking but stand on grounds of providing public space for the city and are thus only need-driven. They thus end up being more inclusive and show a truer essence of the story of the city, of the sense and character of urbanity. Private developments, on the contrary, have resulted in insulated spaces and introverted bubbles of architectural spaces, catering to only a certain class of the society, leading to an increased gap between the rich and the poor. In reverse, the rich further demand ARCHI-CHAKKAR 62
the exclusivity and seclusion from the lower classes as it benefits their aspirations and the cycle continues! The demand and the in turn supply of space and form, both reinforce each other. The three stakeholders, private developers, retailers and the society, form a never ending cause and effect loop and one questions if there’s a way out to a more sustainable system at all or not?
THE VICIOUS CYCLE Source: Author
बाजार हुआ बाजारी
REFERENCES Books Contemporary Architecture, Sarabjit Bagha Entangled Urbanism, Sanjay Srivastav Idea of Delhi, Romi Khosla Indian Cities in Transformation, Annapurna Shaw Liberalisation and Urban Social Services, C.N. Ray Living Over the Store: Architecture and Local Urban Life, Howard Davis
Articles Democracy and Economic Transformation in India, Partha Chatterjee Externalities, Urbanism and Pirate Modernities: India, Ravi Sundaram Understanding Delayed Structural Change in India, Deepankar Basu and Amit Basole
Web Sources http://www.architecture-student.com/architecture/changing-trends-inarchitecture-due-to-globalization/ https://researchspace.auckland.ac.nz/bitstream/handle/2292/6358/02whole. pdf?sequence=9 http://www.yourarticlelibrary.com/speech/liberalization-privatisation-andglobalisation/40740/ http://conference.osu.eu/globalization/publ2011/17-21_Ayna.pdf http://www.vsdp.in/wpcontent/themes/twentyten/pdf/Impact%20of%20 globalisation%20on%20Indian%20Architcture.pdf http://japr.homestead.com/eldemery.pdf http://www.adamarchitecture.com/images/PDFs/RA-Globalisation.pdf
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सफ़र या SUFFER? Ambika Malhotra | Meher Nishchal Bahl | Niharika N. Shekhawat | Tanya Makker Guides: Ar. Leena Gupta | Ar. Moulshri Joshi | Ar. Rajiv Bhakat | Ar. Saptarshi Sanyal Chairperson: Dr. Amit Hajela
ABSTRACT सफर या SUFFER? identifies usability as a cross cutting
issue that is lacking in some of the most important public spaces of the capital city. We begin with understanding what it is that makes a space usable as per principles laid out in existing theories. These theories also show how architecturally disabling a space can be, which is the phenomenon where the built space inflicts the user with disability which makes the experience inconvenient, uncomfortable or unsafe. These existing definitions are extended to include visual usability as an equally important parameter to holistically evaluate a space. These parameters are applied to multiple points on major pedestrian movement lines in the area under investigation: area surrounding the New Delhi Railway Station. In this area of high traffic, wide impact and huge significance, the user experience is found to be very very low. There are multiple identified break points on the pedestrian movement lines. Deconstruction of these break points into infrastructure, and their control and ownership results in an interesting pattern. Finally, to establish this pattern as a recurring phenomenon in the whole city, more such transport hubs have been analysed.
INTRODUCTION Seamless travel is an important characteristic of urban transport system. From a user point of view, ‘seamless travel’ is where everyone can move effortlessly from origin to destination, between various modes of transport and from building to building and place to place within the urban fabric. However, many aspects of the design of the built environment restrict children, elderly and disabled people by having difficult access, changes in levels, high, steep steps, poorly maintained pavements, busy roads with few controlled crossing points, isolated, unlit bus stops and inadequate public toilet provision. Other deterrents include perceptions that the urban environment is unsafe which adds to disability caused by architecture. This leads to the phenomena of ‘architectural disability’.
WHAT IS ARCHITECTURAL DISABILITY? ‘Architectural disability’ is a term that has been used (Goldsmith, 1997) to describe how the physical design, layout and construction of places and buildings can confront people with hazards and barriers which make the built environment inconvenient, uncomfortable or unsafe and may even prevent some people from using it at all. Goldsmith stated: ‘An architecturally disabled person is a person who, when using or seeking to use a building, is confronted by an impediment which would not have been there, or would not have been so irksome, had the architect who designed the building done so in a way which was responsive to his or her particular needs.’ According to this view, all environments have the potential to contribute, in differing degrees, to the enablement and disablement of their inhabitants. For example, if a person using a wheelchair is not able to get into a space or building because of steps, it is the steps that are causing the problem. Therefore, the architecture is disabling the person. The steps and the lack of an alternative entrance are a construct of the architecture. Architectural disability is not about considering all individuals to be equal, it is about the need to have a “design for all” attitude by the designer. When the designer designs for all, there is a high usability of that space. This “usability” factor is inversely proportional to how architecturally disabling a space can be.
Architectural Usability is the potential of the built environment to accommodate and cater for the needs of all user groups, aiding in a “seamless travel” through urban space.
PRINCIPLES OF USABILITY The 7 principles for determining the “Usability” factor as per Centre for Universal Design (1997) are: • Equitable use • Flexibility in use • Simple and intuitive • Perceptible information • Tolerance for error • Low physical effort • Size and space for approach and use We gave each of these principles a physical analog: • Equitable design translates to equitable use by males, females, children, differently abled and the aged. • A space is flexible if it is robust enough to accommodate various activities such as waiting and collection spots. • Simple and intuitive design results in easy way finding. • A space is easily perceived if it has adequate lighting and signages. • Tolerance for error means providing fail safe features such as dedicated pedestrian pathways. • Lower physical effort is required if there are obstruction-free paths and minimal level differences. • Size and space for approach and use is satisfied when a space is designed keeping in mind anthropometrics and ergonomics. Some of these are further translated into simpler tangibles for the ease of finding out its usability score: • Equitable use for female users is judged on the basis of feeling safe in an area in terms of lighting, while for children, elderly and the differently abled it is obstruction free pathway with ramps and minimal level differences. • Flexibility in use in terms of waiting spots is decided by the number of seating provided. A design is simple and intuitive when its equipped with an easy wayfinding in terms of signages and lighting. • Low physical effort is determined when there is no obstruction by variable elements such as hawkers or barricades on the pathway along with minimal level differences.
PRINCIPLES OF USABILITY Source: Author
सफ़र या SUFFER?
MAJOR TRANSPORT HUBS IN DELHI Source: Author
NEW DELHI RAILWAY STATION BOTTOM LEFT: NDLS INFRASTRUCTURE MAP BOTTOM RIGHT: NDLS MOVEMENT AND BREAK POINT MAP Source: Author
The railway station of the capital of the country. 16 platforms, 281 trains, 5 lakh passengers daily. The site, being one of the most important public spaces in the capital of the city, having seamless travel for the user is a very important aspect. The number of people interacting with this station and its ancillaries, covers an entire spectrum of abilities, classes, age groups and gender.
In total There are 15 different layers of infrastructure present in this area. All pedestrian movement lines in this area were mapped along with multiple break points on it. A break point in movement is when the movement of a user is interrupted by a barrier or hindrance in space.
Pedestrian Entry of New Delhi Railway Station
The above break point was studied and analysed as per usability parameters, and the following is the analysis.
CITED BREAK POINT AND ANALYSIS Source: Author
USABILITY SCORE: VERY LOW Source: Author
If the space is deconstructed into all participating agencies one realizes the presence of six overlapping agencies
PARTICIPATING AGENCIES Source: Author
सफ़र या SUFFER?
Entry to Yellow Line Metro Station
CITED BREAK POINT AND ANALYSIS
The above break point was studied and analysed as per usability parameters, and the following is the analysis.
USABILITY SCORE: VERY LOW Source: Author
If the space is deconstructed into all participating agencies one realizes the presence of eight overlapping agencies.
PARTICIPATING AGENCIES Source: Author
Entry to Airport Express Metro Station
The above break point was studied and analysed as per usability parameters, and the following is the analysis.
CITED BREAK POINT AND ANALYSIS Source: Author
USABILITY SCORE: VERY HIGH Source: Author
With one identified break and comparatively easier use, only two overlapping agencies are present.
PARTICIPATING AGENCIES Source: Author
सफ़र या SUFFER?
22 break points were studied for New Delhi Railway Station and the tabulation shows an interesting pattern.
FINAL TABULATION OF 22 BREAK POINTS Source: Author
When agency overlap is > 4, usability = very low The above study, correlating usability of a space to the number of agencies present may be relevant only to the New Delhi Railway Station. Or is it a city wide phenomenon? To test it out, similar studies were conducted for two other sites in Delhi.
KASHMERE GATE METRO STATION The first site, Kashmere Gate, is a complex transport hub consisting of the Inter State Bus Terminal and three converging metro lines.
Entry to Metro Station
CITED BREAK POINT AND ANALYSIS Source: Author
USABILITY SCORE: LOW Source: Author
If the space is deconstructed into all participating agencies one realizes the presence of six overlapping agencies.
PARTICIPATING AGENCIES Source: Author
सफ़र या SUFFER?
The same study conducted for 9 such points tabulated.
FINAL TABULATION OF 9 BREAK POINTS Source: Author
The results were very similar. The usability of a space was indeed inversely proportionally to the number of overlapping agencies present.
When agency overlap is > 4, usability = low
HAUZ KHAS METRO STATION The second site was the area around the Hauz Khas metro station. This site is far less complex than the other two under investigation. However it was found to be dealing with similar issues.
LEFT: HAUZ KHAS METRO STATION INFRASTRUCTURE MAP RIGHT: HAUZ KHAS METRO STATION MOVEMENT AND BREAK POINT MAP Source: Author
Footpath Outside Hauz Khas Metro Station Entry
CITED BREAK POINT AND ANALYSIS Source: Author
USABILITY SCORE: LOW Source: Author
If the space is deconstructed into all participating agencies one realizes the presence of four overlapping agencies.
PARTICIPATING AGENCIES Source: Author
सफ़र या SUFFER?
The same study conducted for 11 such points tabulated.
FINAL TABULATION OF 11 BREAK POINTS Source: Author
This confirmed our hypothesis. The relation between usability of a space and the number of participating agencies is a city wide phenomenon. Yes, when agency overlap > 4, usability is very low.
EXPERIENTIAL USABILITY Often a space is not just physically difficult to navigate through but is experientially unfavourable to use. Most theories on usability including the definition by Centre for Universal Design, take into account physical qualities of the site only. However, visual, aural, olfactory experiences are important factors in forming the overall user experience of the space. Hence, these should be important parameters to assess its usability.
EXTENDING THE DEFINITION OF USABILITY TO INCLUDE VISUAL, AURAL & OLFACTORY USABILITY Source: Author ARCHI-CHAKKAR 78
In the area around the New Delhi Railway Station, there were sharp plunges in experiential usability at some sites. These were dead zones that became sites for open urination, spots for gambling, garbage dumping, petty crimes and misconduct.
LEFT: DEAD ZONE BETWEEN AIRPORT EXPRESS METRO STATION AND RAILWAY LAND
Regarding the position of such sites in the area, an interesting pattern was observed. Most of these sites were at physical interfaces of agencies. There were loose, untreated edges of ownership and control which became dead zones. Therefore, is the state of experiential usability in the city, yet another outcome of lack of lateral coordination among agencies?
CENTRE: INTERFACE BETWEEN YELLOW LINE METRO STATION AND PARKING RIGHT: INTERFACE BETWEEN AIRPORT EXPRESS METRO STATION AND BUS STOP Source: Author
VISUAL USABILITY Among all factors that determine experiential usability, we examined the visual quality of the space, specially that pertaining to its built environment design. However, with a large in-cohesive material palette, there was no one defining colour or texture to the built environment.
VISUAL PALETTE OF THE AREA AROUND THE NEW DELHI RAILWAY STATION Source: Author
सफ़र या SUFFER?
The architectural styles of the buildings in the area were found to be conflicting or unresponsive. TOP LEFT: NEW DELHI RAILWAY STATION ENTRY - ECLECTIC PREDOMINANTLY COLONIAL WITH SOME ELEMENTS OF MODERNISM TOP RIGHT: AIRPORT EXPRESS ENTRY MODERNIST CENTRE LEFT: DMRC MULTI LEVEL CAR PARKING POST-MODERNIST CENTRE RIGHT: PUBLIC TOILET - BLAND FUNCTIONALIST BOTTOM LEFT: IRCTC GINGER HOTEL MODERNIST BOTTOM RIGHT: MOVEMENT CONTROL OFFICE - BLAND FUNCTIONALIST Source: Author
This made the overall visual expression of the built environment incoherent and chaotic. However, is the user so busy navigating that the visual expression goes unnoticed? Could this be a reason for a general lack of user demand for a visually pleasing built environment?
CONCLUSION Through this study we question the priorities in the development of the city. Is the majority of the population, interfacing with the city as pedestrians, the least important? However, these very pedestrians and users of all kinds are also responsible for the state of public infrastructure. But are there mechanisms to instill that sense of responsibility through civic pride? While they encounter innumerable physical hindrances, is the lack of an architectural order and cohesiveness in these spaces a desirable diversity or a visual chaos that needs to be addressed? Due to the lack of cohesiveness in the architecture, spaces of informality are created at the junctions of multiple agencies. This allows the public space to become more inclusive, vibrant and creates livelihood opportunities, but at what cost? Most public spaces are adjoined to infrastructure for transportation and it is at these junctions that lack in usability and experiential chaos occur. Who will address these cross cutting issues? Who can intervene holistically and ensure the lateral coordination that is clearly missing between individual participants? An organisation like this does exist but lacks the power to prevail over other organisations. In the current scenario, UTTIPEC is a government organisation that is made up of representatives from each transport and infrastructure organisation. The overall design of public spaces and the responsibility of each organisation is decided/approved by this body. But UTTIPEC lacks the power of keep check on each organisations execution of work. Therefore, how can the scope for such a profile be created in the current disjointed multiplicity? ARCHI-CHAKKAR 80
SEE FULL DOCUMENTARY https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zzgH6xT-VXU
REFERENCES CENTER FOR UNIVERSAL DESIGN (1997) The Principles of Universal Design Version 2.0 [Online] Available from: Design.ncsu.edu. [Accessed on: 10 Oct, 2016] NATIONAL DISABILITY AUTHORITY (1997) The 7 Principles [Online] Available from:http://universaldesign.ie/What-is-Universal-Design/The-7-Principles/ [Accessed on: 10 Oct, 2016] NBM&CW MAGAZINE (2001) Interchange design for seamless travel [Online] Available from:http://www.nbmcw.com/other-articles/18196-interchange-designfor-seamless-travel.html [Accessed on:29 Sep, 2016] SELWYN GOLDSMITH (1997) Architecture Modal of Disability
सफ़र या SUFFER?
This module focuses on understanding the complexities of large sites and the management of the construction and subsequent maintenance of buildings along with associated socio-economic and political issues. It includes planning schedules according to the workersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; calenders, managing their welfare, safety systems etc. Graduating from the drawing board, rather the computer to the site, the focus now shifts on the actual implementation of the drawings with its attendent problems and priorities.
DELHI INSITES Divleena Singh | Divya Chand | G. Lakshmi Chaitanya Reddy | Preeyambika Bagha | Suprima Joshi Guide: Ar. D. Vishwanathan Chairperson: Prof. B K Paul
ABSTRACT Across Delhi, construction activity today is extensive and the image has become synonymous with the urban realm. There are the ever growing suburbs and the burdened core. Urban-dwellers thus interact directly or indirectly with construction sites on a daily basis. The plenitude and the protracted periods of construction inspire the discussion in this research â&#x20AC;&#x201C; viewing construction sites in themselves as being designed, or rather the argument formed here â&#x20AC;&#x201C; construction sites as needing conscious design. This seminar explores the potential of a site during construction in affecting the conditions inside and outside its boundaries. In the process it questions the common practice of considering a construction site (especially large scale project) as transient given its deep and prolonged effects on the surroundings, the environment and the people in contact. Various practices around the world that result in better site conditions are looked at with the perspective of factors that make them work and considered in the context of Delhi. There is an attempt to understand where site environment falls in the priorities of the many stakeholders, and what kind of incentives and efforts work in the favour of maintaining better sites.
INTRODUCTION As it stands today, Delhi has become a site of frantic urbanisation. The city is under constant pressure to cater to this agglomeration. Moreover, the vision of Delhi as a world class city has led to the conception of projects of great ambition, providing an image of what needs to be achieved. Phase 3 of Delhi Metro, over 500km of tracks, is under construction currently and Phase 4 is in line. As many as 30 redevelopment projects have been planned to maximise carrying capacity, each having long construction periods. Delhi thus presents a complex urban scenario where infrastructural growth is escalating exponentially. A major part of the urban landscape, at any given point in time, is formed by buildings and infrastructure in production. Many of these sites, with their prolonged lifespans of several years, develop an interim system of spaces and communities in and around, with repercussions, ecological, sociological, on the surroundings as well as in the lives of those involved in the process. The ‘process of producing’ itself becomes a ‘product’ of architecture. The design and management of site environment alongside various other construction processes hence proves critical. This paper discusses the role of interim design in governing the quality of urban construction site environments. Here,
Site Environment refers to the conditions within the site itself, the general surroundings and conditions that the site is located in, and further, the cityscape it affects. It is inclusive of but not restricted to the ecological connotation. Interim Design includes:
• The practices that aim to enhance site environments, their design and management.
• Interventions made on site or structures that are constructed or installed temporarily on site during the phase of construction.
• Overall communication strategy of a construction site, whether the idea and
concept of the final architectural project, as envisioned by the architect and builders, is reflected in the production phase.
While it is apparent that the final product of construction affects its users and context - physical, environmental, social, and political, the project in the stage of production is an equally important part of the cityscape. Lands are cleared, roads diverted, communities disrupted and created, as construction sites take their place within the existing urban fabric. The entities affected immediately include:
• Labour/Workers (on site) • Managers and Engineers (on site) ARCHI-CHAKKAR 66
Apart from these, others that are affected or affect the site during its construction phase by varying degrees in terms of influence (power) and relationship with site are:
• Client/Developer • Architect • Builders/Contractors • Consulting firms • Urban governing authorities
Construction also affects the:
• Residents around site • Commerce around site • Tourists/ Visitors to neighbourhood Lastly the city as a whole gets influenced too.
SET OF STAKEHOLDERS OF A CONSTRUCTION SITE Source: Authors DELHI INSITES 67
PRIMARY CASE STUDIES Phase 3 Metro Construction We have limited our observations to large-scale construction sites because of their prolonged periods of construction and wider impact. Delhi metro sites form our key observational study given their prevalence in the current cityscape. Newspaper headlines echo the problems faced during construction at various sites, as well as the breakthroughs achieved, which is expected because of the sheer number and scale of these sites, as well as their public image. As much as 500 km of metro line is under construction, as compared to 316 km that is operational. (Source: TOI, Aug 3, 2016) The Lal Quila metro station is a part of the heritage line in phase 3 which connects various monuments in the city, and all the stations on this line are underground so as to minimise visual impact and displacement in these high density regions. While the facade of the final product will reflect the Lal Quila sandstone and jalis, the site remains for 4 years, a wound in the road edge; a dismal picture opposite the magnificent Lal Quila. The hawker market has been relocated, and the road reduced to a serpentine stretch.
NEWSPAPER CLIPPING EXPLAINING THE DESIGN & CONSTRUCTION TECHNIQUE OF THE LAL QILA METRO STATION Source: Skyscrapercity.com ARCHI-CHAKKAR 68
SATELLITE IMAGES SHOWING THE TRANSFORMATION BETWEEN 2012 & 2016 Source: Google maps
EDGE CONDITIONS OF THE CONSTRUCTION SITE Source: Authors
From 2012 to 2016, the site has devoured the bus bay and Lajpat Rai market parking, yet the market continues to thrive. The road edge is chaotic and unfavorable for pedestrians. There are temporary site offices, first aid room, material dropoffs, lunch area and toilets planned by the contracting company. The construction site has material stored at the ground level, and drop-offs need to keep changing according to the kind of material arriving and storage space designated.
In clockwise order: SITE MAP SITE CONDITION ON CONCOURSE LEVEL SITE CONDITION ON ROOF LEVEL Source: Authors
In ITO Metro station which was opened recently, small scale interim design decisions such as these are important to be communicated publicly, and should be made after deliberating with the affected parties. These small decisions impact the image of the project, as they impact the public directly in the construction phase. There is an attempt to retain circulation paths despite wide spread of the underground station such as the public unpaid subway at ITO, which was opened as the construction progressed, which encourages pedestrianization, just like the foot over bridge at South Extension. Such expensive technologies as TBMs (Tunnel Boring Machines) and Push box technology are being used that minimise surface disruptions, showing that public convenience overrides cost. Also, digging of metro tunnels has increased the mapping of sensitive heritage monuments, with Akbarabadi mosque unearthed near Jama Masjid site. Water channels were found near Delhi gate metro. DELHI INSITES 69
NEWSPAPER CLIPPING EXPLAINING THE DESIGN & CONSTRUCTION TECHNIQUE OF THE LAL QILA METRO STATION Source: Skyscrapercity.com
There are obvious negative impacts such as air pollution, soil erosion, ground water depletion, and traffic chaos also mentioned in the Environmental Impact Assessment of Phase 3 metro, and metro construction is classified as a category â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Aâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; project in terms of social and environmental impact. The sheer number of such metro sites in the city as well as their presence in the cityscape for considerably long periods of time, calls into question the popular view of only imagining the final product against the backdrop of the city. It also raises various pertinent questions which are mostly disregarded when construction sites are looked at as transitory. What is the image that a construction site projects? Is the idea and concept of the final architectural project, as envisioned by the architect and builders reflected in the production phase? What are the aspirations that a site sets in the minds of various stakeholders? The metro construction site at South Extension makes for an important study as the impact of on-going work on pedestrians is explicit, highlighting their stake in the project. The experience of South Extension market has been characterized by the construction site in the past few years. City dwellers from near by areas have claimed to stop preferring the market recently due to myriad hindrances. A foot over bridge has been constructed by the DMRC in order to ease pedestrian crossing across the busy Ring Road. It overlooks the metro construction site, and allows a clear view to the ongoing construction activity and progress to the pedestrians. This evokes an image of an ongoing open surgery in the city. Even though DMRC provided this pedestrian movement to cross the ring road, no pedestrian walkway has been designated along the edge of the ring road. Navigating the market is a tedious task with hindered physical and visual access.
IMAGES OF THE SOUTH EX. MARKET WITH THE METRO STATION CONSTRUCTION IN FULL SWING. Source: Authors ARCHI-CHAKKAR 70
East Kidwai Nagar Redevelopment Apart from infrastructural projects, redevelopment projects across NCR are set to change the face of the city. East Kidwai Nagar is one such site where construction is in full swing. This redevelopment is a 300,000sq. m. Government project undergoing redensification since 2013 and is expected to be completed in 2019 (i.e. lasting for 7 years). It is one of the thirty developments to change the face of Delhi. With the construction of Kidwai Nagar Redevelopment project and the South Extension metro station happening simultaneously the ring road at this stretch has become clogged. Also, at the initial stage of construction, the public road connecting Aurobindo marg to Darya Khan tomb had been encroached. This served as a road for residents to access Aurobindo marg, INA market and metro. Hence, a petition was filed by a senior advocate, mentioning that the plan was made without considering environmental implications and social repercussions at such a central and densely populated residential area. Due to the clogging of the ring road and Aurobindo marg, emergency access to AIIMS and Safdarjung hospital is severely hampered.
SITE Source: Authors / Google maps DELHI INSITES 71
The construction site is a complex spatial network of:
• Buildings being constructed • An existent Jhuggi-Jhopdi settlement • Construction workers’ housing • Public roads The following are the site conditions:
• 6 m high barricades enclosed the site as a means to protect users of the public roads.
• These are also stamped with safety posters for workers. • Though the barricades mention the precautions to be taken, the construction
site design does not cater for it. Trenches are being crossed over make-shift bridges that have been poorly fixed.
• Children and residents of the JJ clusters on the site live in close proximity to the dangers of the construction site.
• Storage of materials is relatively ordered, but random scattering of debris and uneven pathways can be observed.
• The worksite does not offer a safe environment for the construction workers in
terms of site design even though safety precautions as mentioned by laws such as helmets and jackets are being followed.
• It can also be noted that some of the workers reside on site, living in the half completed buildings or on the periphery of the site.
• There is a small subzimandi(vegetable market) within all this cement dust, which catered to the residents and perhaps site workers too.
Within the site, there is an ASI Protected monument, Darya Khan tomb, which is a respite from the threatening and disorienting nature of the site. It was used by children for playing, robbed of open play spaces, as well as the mullah for performing rituals. It will be eventually merged with the site landscaped area, and will retain the character of being a landmark, as it is in the construction phase. There is also a Hindu temple in the site. The site is very dusty: exposure to the fine particles of cement dust can impair the respiratory system; hence construction workers are particularly at risk. Shopowners as well as the residents of the locality are exposed to this hazard as well. As a measure to control mud trails out of the site, trucks and their wheels in particular are washed. The trail of water left behind the trucks helps keep dust from rising up. Even though these measures are being taken, no provision has been observed in preventing dust from the spreading around the site.
LANDSCAPE DEVELOPED BY IREO, SERVING THE WHOLE NEIGHBORHOOD
Grand Hyatt Residences and Hotel - IREO (Gurgaon)
The projects discussed till now are all brown field developments located in the thick of the urban realm. Our next study is different from these in it being a private development located in the fringes of the city. Grand Hyatt residences and hotel, in Gurgaon is being developed by IREO. A well-managed site with internationally recognised clients and contractors, this is a good study of how better site environments were created as a marketing strategy. IREO landscaped the surroundings and developed the road adjacent to the site leading into the future Ireo City in collaboration with the local government; sewers and lamp posts were introduced in the area. Observations from construction site:
• Relatively even pathways for workers to pave through the site. Site is designed to maintain safety of workers in addition to safety posters being put up at different location as an awareness method for workers.
• Barricading of excavation zones and pits by using green curtains. • Dedicated drop off and storage of materials. • Workers following safety rules and regulations (helmets and protective boots) • Site offices giving a relatively qualitative work environment (Air conditioned) • Cleaning of trucks before exiting construction site • Future consideration of putting scaled rendering of hoardings on building façade (marketing strategy)
In collaboration with architects and contractors a logistic plan of location of temporary structures of the site has been formulated. As a marketing strategy, a viewing deck has been placed in the middle of the construction site. The site has decent temporary offices where regular meetings are held. Since IREO City is set out in phases along a main road, we find a possibility of planning construction activity so as to mitigate its adverse effects. For instance, when the discussed project is occupied, numerous other constructions sites will be active in the area. DELHI INSITES 73
ANALYSIS From the aforementioned studies, it is apparent that construction sites are challenging in many ways. They tend to:
• • • • • •
Cause spatial disruption Reorganize existent networks of communities Create new complex networks, Adversely affect the environment (especially air pollution and creation of waste) Communicate the image of development Set varied aspirations among the stakeholders
The cumulative result of all these affects is that sites tend to be viewed in negative light and are usually considered as interference in the urban experience. Conscious effort needs to be made in making construction sites easier on the city. Who then, is responsible for this? Having discussed the various ways in which construction sites act as problems, it becomes important to appreciate the complex nature of a site, and the many difficulties it poses with respect to planning and operation, especially in dense and active urban areas such as Chandni Chowk, South Ex and Kidwai Nagar. Sites are dynamic areas where machinery and equipment keep shifting almost on a daily basis leading to constantly changing layouts. The planning and operation of these sites involves expertise, and is usually undertaken by the contractor and the project manager with the prime objective being efficiency within the site. Most interventions on site are an attempt to follow the guidelines listed in the National Building Code (NBC), GRIHA, LEED or other such Green Building manuals. NBC lists down certain practices to be followed on the sites while GRIHA and LEED, with their recommendations and certification benchmarks, act as incentives to maintain these sites. With regards to construction sites, the rules and strategies listed in all these documents are minimal and inadequate. For instance, the recommendation of GRIHA regarding the covering of the superstructure during construction in order to control air pollution is redundant in the face of the fact that excavation activity along with storage and transportation of debris is the primary source of pollution. Effort to go beyond what is prescribed to achieve better site environments is also recognized by awards, like those distributed by CIDC, that are given away to construction firms for their work in this direction. However, these are not very well recognized, and good sites are hence only pursued by a select few. Conventionally, the main strategies along which sites are planned and operated include: • Safety • Health • Environment Only recently has discourse on various forums begun regarding the • Social aspect of construction sites. • Beyond this social aspect is the discussion of Image, which brings into scope the design and aesthetic of a site in the production phase. The consideration of social aspect and image allow us to view sites as opportunities instead of mere difficulties. ARCHI-CHAKKAR 74
CONSTRUCTION SITES AS OPPORTUNITIES Around the world, experts have gathered to discuss how can construction sites be turned into for favorable practices:
CONSTRUCTION FOR A LIVEABLE CITY Construction for a Liveable City is the New York Building Foundation’s initiative to improve worksite quality and be a better neighbor. Leaders in design, construction, and real estate investigated construction site management practices and their impact on the public and the urban environment. Their intention is to encourage participation and reward success within the scheme. They arrived at a checklist, implementation of which encourages well-managed, clean worksites that are responsive to the community. The program has enlisted participation of 7,000+ construction sites in NYC to improve as many of construction worksites as possible. By broadcasting a “Good Neighbour Policy” its acts as a vehicle to create best practices – an industry standard – for construction site maintenance for the building industry. While promoting these practices, it encourages contractors through various promotional activities through workshops, award events, and other marketing services. Some practices under the CLC foundation, in New York, are as follows : 1. RENOVATION OF GRAND CENTRAL TERMINAL— F. J. Sciame Construction Company, Inc. During the renovation of Grand Central Terminal, Sciame Construction had to bring steel beams, a metal deck, and other materials into the building without damaging the iconic, landmarked façade, and without interfering with vehicular or pedestrian traffic in one of the City’s busiest corridors.
CLC, NEW YORK Source: Author DELHI INSITES 75
The solution was to construct a custom bridge that rises from street level, spans the viaduct roadway encircling the terminal, and enters through one of the building’s historic large windows while working closely with the State Historic Preservation Office. Sciame also ensured the quality of its worksite structures, including sheds and fences visible to the public. All structures were constructed using undamaged, freshly painted panels and organized to minimize intrusions on public space while satisfying their intended safety functions. 2. AMERICAN MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY RENOVATION OF MAIN FAÇADE AND ROTUNDA - Bovis lend lease LMB, inc. During the renovation of the façade of the American Museum of Natural History, the design team worked closely with construction manager Lend Lease, and built a movable wooden fence that shielded active work areas from the public. The fencing included Museum information and directions, and could be quickly reconfigured as particular phases of work are completed. To further reduce the impact of ongoing work on the Museum experience, the Museum covered scaffold netting with a customized scrim that displays a full-size rendering of the actual façade.
RENOVATION OF GRAND CENTRAL TERMINAL Source: Construction for a Liveabale City
RENOVATION OF THE FACADE OF AMERICAN MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY Source: Construction for a Liveabale City ARCHI-CHAKKAR 76
The New York Building Congress called for a Construction of Shed Design Competition, keeping in mind that the design should : •
Be more open and inviting streetscape
Improve quality of life for residents and visitors
Reduce latent health and safety risks
Catalyze economic development
The competition served as an initiative to create innovative and attractive alternatives to the confining and often forbidding structures that cover sidewalks around building sites. The selected designs were practical, replicable, cost effective, and aesthetically improved. New York Building Congress then intended to work with owners, contractors, the City, and scaffold companies to implement.
SHED DESIGN COMPETITION ENTRIES Source: Construction for a Liveabale City
CONSIDERATE CONSTRUCTORS SCHEME The considerate constructors scheme is a UK based non profit organisation working with the construction industry to improve its image. The Code of Considerate Practice commits those sites, companies and suppliers registered with the Scheme to care about appearance, respect the community, protect the environment, secure everyone’s safety and value their workforce. This is done through the monitoring of registered sites, companies and suppliers, and the displaying of posters around the construction site, promoting registration with the Scheme. The scheme allows for registration of specific sites as well as companies involved in construction. The code is as follows: 1. Caring about appearance - constructors should ensure sites appear professional and well managed
• Ensuring that the external appearance of sites enhances the image of the industry.
• Being organised, clean and tidy. DELHI INSITES 77
CONSIDERATE CONSTRUCTORS Source: Author
• Enhancing the appearance of facilities, stored materials, vehicles and plant. • Raising the image of the workforce by their appearance. 2. Respect the community - Constructors should give utmost consideration to their impact on neighbours and the public
• • • •
Informing, respecting and showing courtesy to those affected by the work. Minimising the impact of deliveries, parking and work on the public highway. Contributing to and supporting the local community and economy. Working to create a positive and enduring impression, and promoting the Code.
3. Value their workforce - Constructors should provide a supportive and caring working environment
• Providing a workplace where everyone is respected, treated fairly, encouraged and supported. • Identifying personal development needs and promoting training. • Caring for the health and wellbeing of the workforce. • Providing and maintaining high standards of welfare.
4. Protect the environment - Constructors should protect and enhance the environment
• Identifying, managing and promoting environmental issues. • Seeking sustainable solutions, and minimising waste, the carbon footprint and resources. • Minimising the impact of vibration, and air, light and noise pollution. • Protecting the ecology, the landscape, wildlife, vegetation and water courses.
5. Everyone’s safety - Constructors should attain the highest levels of safety performance
• Having systems that care for the safety of the public, visitors and the workforce. • Minimising security risks to neighbours. ARCHI-CHAKKAR 78
• Having initiatives for continuous safety improvement. • Embedding attitudes and behaviours that enhance safety performance. Many initiatives have been taken to improve the image of construction in the minds of people. The Best Practice Hub is related to the Considerate Constructors Scheme’s Code of Considerate Practice, and includes best practice initiatives either already in place or currently being developed. Other on site related issues addressed by the Considerate Constructors Scheme include :
• Drugs and alcohol • Mental health • Code of conduct and language • Cycle safety • Mascots to raise awareness about children’s safety around construction sites and increase awareness
• They recently held a community participation event to paint site boundary fences where more than 2800 kids across England participated.
There is a network of professional in the industry to gain from, alongside a collection of best practices, opportunities for certifications, awards of recognition and various promotional activities. The scheme connects a member to possible suppliers, consultants and provides links for acquiring products for interim design at the site as well. They conduct seminars, workshops, annual events and also produce films for awareness.
COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION EXERCISES Source: Considerate Contractors Scheme
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UNSITELY! COLLOQUIUM Source: Authors
UNSITELY! INTERNATIONAL COLLOQUIUM Another example of how opportunities of construction sites have been explored was during an international Colloquium held in Montreal in 2014 which gathered specialists and provided networking opportunities between creatives, industry and municipal stakeholders. Questions were raised and the discussions oriented about how can design (graphic, architectural, industrial, landscape, event-based, etc.) be called on in early phases of planning, conception and activation of construction sites and aim to provide creative solutions to this major universal challenge? Also, how can design improve our individual and collective experience, and the overall communication strategy of major worksites, or, at least, contribute to reducing their negative impact on the daily lives of merchants, residents, workers and tourists? The transformation of Les Halles in the center of Paris was one of the discussed case studies.
LES HALLES Source: Unsitely! Colloquium ARCHI-CHAKKAR 80
The idea unfolds in four main directions:
• The design of the construction site itself, spread over 7 years, aims to share “live” the progressive transformation of the site with local residents and users.
• Windows onto the site allow passers-by to discover the activity that unfolds
within it, while its surfaces present graphic information relating to the history of the place, and its projection into the future.
• The exhibit pavilion on site presents renderings of plans, perspectives, samples, models and films of the project.
• The site office and worker housing of the construction site is built of colorcoded modules that expand according to the volume and needs of the teams of contractors and workers involved in the site.
WORKER HOUSING AT LES HALLES Source: Unsitely! Colloquium
Times Square Transformation is part of the Alliance’s larger commitment to ensuring that the construction sites promote, rather than inhibit, the energy of the plazas and maintain their role as cultural hubs for surprising programming, innovative contemporary art and quality design. Tate’s Modern extension experimented with the Skirt of the Black Mouth began as a new approach to the traditional hoarding, using it as a sculptural element to redefine the space, while allowing glimpses of what lies behind. Characterized by a distinctively twisted arrangement of the wall, bench and path, it is a space stolen back from the construction site, dividing one world from another.
TIME’S SQUARE TRANSFORMATION Source: Unsitely! Colloquium DELHI INSITES 81
IN CONTEXT In light of the examples from other parts of the world, noteworthy construction-site practices are considered in the complex context of Delhi. As discussed earlier, there are few advocates of interim design in this city. How then can good site practices be incentivized? We can begin by identifying the key concerns of various stakeholders:
• Cost of construction • Speed of construction • Ecological impacts - - - - -
Air Pollution Water Pollution Waste generation and disposal Soil Erosion, excavation, disposal Effects on flora and fauna in and around site
• Quality of environment on site
- Safety - Noise levels - Aesthetics - Temporary provisions and utilities - Water supply and Sanitation - Efficiency of spaces - Comfort of workspace/site offices - Efficiency of access and movement around site
• Image of the project To understand where site environment as a concern falls in the priorities of the stakeholders, they are broadly into two categories: Those who wield most power with respect to their influence on site
• Workers on site
• Managers/Engineers on site
• Urban Governing authorities
• Commerce around site
• Managers/Engineers on site
• Residents around site
Those who are most vulnerable due to their immediacy to the site
PRIORITY DIAGRAMS INFLUENCERS
The above represent the basic priority diagrams of both categories, with the bottommost indicating the most important priority. Among those with more power, site environment becomes important with respect to image, marketing and increased efficiency of workers. Further impetus to better sites is given, to a certain extent, by building codes, green building certifications, and awards as discussed earlier. Better results can probably be achieved by clearly relating the major concerns of the influential stakeholders (cost, time, and quality) to site environment. Moreover, the Rupee value to doing good cannot be ignored. Another important factor in bettering sites is public participation. In all the secondary studies, the discussed areas are home to dynamic civilians, demanding quality urban environments. There is an active dialogue where the public voices their concerns and distress regarding construction sites that interfere with their daily activities. This drives the governing bodies and developers to push beyond necessities and provide for interactive and pleasing solutions.
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THE WAY FORWARD… The study of successful practices and initiatives with intentions similar to the area of investigation indicate that the main actors who can bring about the proposed change include:
• Ambitious clients • When clients realize the persistence of the spaces under construction, and
the impacts and potential these spaces have in that period of time, they would appreciate the need for holistic treatment and demand design and execution services.
• Contractors willing to cooperate • If given the appropriate incentives and made to realize the business value of better sites, contractors would be willing to work in this direction as well.
• An envisioning design team Architectural Design also has immense opportunity to contribute in this area, allowing architects to be better involved with construction sites . The construction phase is a time where the roots of a project are established. The rapid changes in surrounding environments creates a feeling of disconnect in the urban community. Local residents seek a connection and sense of belonging with their city which is lost when enigmatic organisations cause monumental changes in their neighbourhood without proper communication. There is a need for tangible action during construction. The argument being made is a far cry from mere decoration of hoardings. The basic objective is to think about the people in an urban space undergoing change. A worksite is a specific moment in time when there is a risk of misunderstanding. For while the space is temporarily empty, it fills with everyone’s imaginations, desires and assumptions. One’s experience of a city as large and diverse as Delhi is incredibly dynamic. It is further complicated by the task of grasping a world as complex as the worksite. Better communication through design can prove valuable in such a situation. Design can help deal with the temporal and spatial challenges to help activate public spaces, involve communities, and make safer and healthier construction site environments.
REFERENCES National Building Code of India, 2005, viewed on 12-8-2016, <http://www.bis.org. in/sf/nbc.htm> SP 7, National Building Code of India, 2005, viewed on 12-8-2016, <https://law. resource.org/pub/in/bis/S03/is.sp.7.2005.pdf> GRIHA Manual, Volume I, 2010, viewed on 12-8-2016, <http://www.grihaindia. org/files/Manual_VolI.pdf>
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सबका मािलक एक ‘नहीं’ है Abhijeet Kumar | Deepak Kumar | Himanshu Garg | Saajan Varanasi | Shambhavi Singh | Vamshi Krishna Bukka Guide: Ar. Suditya Sinha Chairperson: Dunu Roy
ABSTRACT Architecture is not just about the built and open but the whole process involved in achieving the final product. The process of production is the one which materializes architecture as we see it. This process has many contributors, providing resources to help materialise it – in the form of natural resources, finance, materials, design and drawings, technology and tools, human resource etc. There are four major stakeholders that have been identified in this process of production of architecture and this study has been conducted according to their role in it. These stakeholders namely are – the client, the architect, the project manager and the labour. Among these, the first three contributors are involved in providing the resources while the latter one is the one, actually shaping any project. The latter ones are the ‘Forgotten Stakeholders’ who have the least say in the whole process and produce the most. We studied the various factors affecting the productivity of the labour as they are an important stakeholder in the process and the factors that affect the productivity of these labour. Out of all the factors that were considered, skill was chosen and studied. Does skill of the labour affect their productivity majorly? Or are there other major factors in play? Will skill training the labour improve production or is it not enough? These are some of the questions that have been pondered over and researched through this seminar study.
INTRODUCTION We often find it useful to look at building architecture and see if it aspires us for some new idea. Though buildings are called ‘Frozen Music’ this frozen material of great vitality for life and nation undergoes certain ‘production process’ to be frozen. Multiple layers are get engaged in the process of freezing it and something is created which stands there for several decades. There have been architects for as long as we have built structures, the regulated profession of building architecture is less than 150 years old. Ancient, traditional cultures and languages used the same word for both builder and architect. Construction was an integrated craft. The master mason or carpenter knew how to design structures, estimate costs, assemble labour and materials, and manage the construction process from foundation to roof. W And along with all this came a proliferation of highly specialized subcontractors who knew more about the new but this time they were not the human resource themselves but someone who is hired to take order from them (knowing less about anything invented new) and produce the architecture. Henceforth this process of producing architecture shifted from the art of craft to the work in supervision, while the role of the architect became more clearly focused on providing overall conception of structures, and managing the relationship between the client and the builder/contractor; and the rest are someone synonym to “FORGOTTEN STAKEHOLDERS”. This relationship between the designer, the builder and the producer is such that the producer remains the lowest in the strata of these partners in commission and is served and valued the minimum possible. Though the apparent stakeholders trivialize the plight of labours the eventual loss is in the way the production is done, and the cost and time is done. Designing theories and expression all intangible aspects of architecture has no limit but the practical part .i.e. construction of the building is something which is full of deadlines in terms of time, cost and quality and these roles are heavily affected by the people who do it. Labours are like the stuntmen who don’t come on the screen but plays the primary role in the movie and without their performance there is no interest in the outcome. From the different aspects and analysis it can be established how this passive game players can be affected to have a better production process and a product eventually.
“Architecture is not only what is built. Architecture is a shared knowledge out of which every architectural project (and every building) is made.” -David Chipperfield
NSDC REPORT Source: NSDC ARCHI-CHAKKAR 88
ROLE OF THE LABOUR According to Central Statistical Organization & Union Budget report there are over 35 million workers engaged in building and other construction activities in India. They constitute the most vulnerable segment amongst the unorganized workforce in the country owing to their temporary nature of work and lack of a definite employee- employer relationship. Apart from this there is neither a fixed working hour, nor any documentation like an employee register, attendance, etc. maintained by the employers due to the temporary nature of assignment even the also one of the most important stakeholders of the construction process. Labour are the last person who literally involved in the process of production and give a physical form to it. LABOURERS Source: https://pbs. twimg.com/media/ CzCXHqyVQAA6A5s.jpg
Source: http://img01. ibnlive.in/ibnkhabar/ uploads/2015/09/p18_ labour.jpg Source: https://www. elusivemagazine.com/wpcontent/uploads/2015/07/ McCurry.jpg
As mentioned by Shri A.K.Tiwari, Chief – PM&T, BMTPC,“Labour is the back bone of infrastructure development for the country. They give the physical form to the built space we are living.” We see a lot of projects coming up these days like metro, malls, high rise buildings, new roads and bridges are proposed showing the rapid development of the infrastructure of India which are only possible due to the hard of the labour which gave it a physical form. Let it be any type of the building like school, offices of IT, Airport, sea port, hospital, sports complex etc. all possible only because of the labour and their hard work. Hence, labour plays a very important role in developing the infrastructure development of a country.
Potential of an Architect Architects have to keep in mind at each and every step what kind of design their labour can make while designing. Therefore, labour defines the potential of the scale and the type of architectural project that an architect can take. In the conducted survey 7 out of 10 architect give 1st or 2nd number to the labour in the preferable sequence of all the factor affecting the efficiency of production out of the given choices (Technology and Equipment, material, labour, finances, drawings and Government). And when asked most of them agreed on the fact that potential of an architect is also dependent on the available labour. As we have seen labour play a very important role in the process of production. However, architectural pedagogy and theory are currently strongly focused on the material disposition of projects, placing very less emphasis on the labour side of the process.
“A plea for the spinning wheel is a plea for recognizing the dignity of labour” – Mahatma Gandhi
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SKILL AND ITS NECESSITY Skilled workforce is necessary to enhance architectural production efficiency. As more and more Indians undertakes roles in construction, it becomes increasingly important for it to focus on improvement of the skills and these skills which have to be advanced as well as relevant to the present construction techniques. For transforming its demographic dividend, an efficient skill development system is the need of the hour. Therefore to achieve its ambitious skilling target, it is very essential to have holistic solutions of the challenges identified instead of piecemeal interventions.
Source: http://www. rsjhe.org/wp-content/ uploads/2017/02/RSJHEVISION-IMAGE.jpg
â&#x20AC;?The skills journey: A long history but no destination in sightâ&#x20AC;? - India Together. SKILL is an ability and capacity acquired through deliberate, systematic, and sustained effort to smoothly and adaptively carryout complex activities or job functions involving ideas (cognitive skills), things (technical skills), and/or people (interpersonal skills). Observing the current scenario of construction industry in Delhi which is based on the site studies and interviews with various architects, project managers and contractors who are informed about the term, SKILL in the industry, necessity of the skill in labour is for two major reasons: 1. For the better production of what needs to be produced. Better production focuses on efficient use of materials, on time product delivery and saves on financial investment. 2. For the production of something new. Right now our designs are restricted to various constrains which are related to on site implementation where labour are the major stake holders and whose skill is the only barrier which prevents us to try something new on site.
Based on the level of skill of an individual, labour in construction industry is majorly divided into three categories: 1. Skilled 2. Unskilled 3. Semi-skilled
SKILLED WORKFORCE (IN %) Source: 11th 5yr plan planning commission, Pubished in Human resource and Skill requirements in the Building Construction and Real Estate Sector (20132017, 2017- 2022) by NSDC
The Practical Numbers Based on the site visit of under construction projects in Delhi, contractors hire skilled and unskilled labours in an approximate ratio of 2:5 or skilled, semi-skilled and unskilled in a ratio of 1:1:5 whereas work productivity of the labours is still not up to the check neither in quality nor in speed. Improving the skill set of labours plays a very prominent role which results in increase of profitability in construction field in terms of cost, quality, time and energy and resources spent. According to a survey in 2011, as much as 80% of the workers of employed in construction and building sector are least or almost no skill and this percentage is expected to increase to 90% by the year 2021. The two main initiatives which National skill develDevelopment policy aims at are: • Institution-based skill development, including ITIs/ vocational schools/technical schools/ polytechnics/ professional colleges, etc. • Learning initiatives of sectorial skill development organized by different departments/ ministries. The Ministry aims at skill on an immense scale with speed and high standards in order to achieve its vision of ‘Skill India’. The initiatives are aided by the following functional arms: • National Skill Development Agency (NSDA) • National Skill Development Corporation (NSDC) • National Skill Development Fund (NSDF) • 33 Sector Skill Councils (SSCS) • 187 training partners registered with NSDC
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The Ministry also plans to work with the current universities, system of skill development centers, and other alliances in the field. Furthermore, collaborating with relevant Central Ministries, all State governments, industry and NGOS, international organizations has been commenced for multi-level engagement which shall lead to higher impactful implementation of the undertaken skill development efforts. (Source: MSDE). Here we discuss about the definition of skilled labour. SKILLED LABOUR Dictionary: Is the specialized part of the labour force with advanced education. Examples of skilled labour include physicians, plumbers, masons, engineers, builders, architects and professors. Labour Laws: Is a person who is capable of co-ordinating with unskilled labour, who is proficient in their own trade and need to understand machine operation and their basic troubleshooting. (Source: NSDC Sector 2022) Practical: Skilled labour is an individual who is capable of discharging his duties efficiently by co-ordinating with unskilled labour, having independency in judgments and have adequate knowledge of the craft, materials, trade and tools involved in the particular job. (Source: Interviews with architects and contractors).
COMPARISON BETWEEN SKILLED, UNSKILLED AND SEMI SKILLED LABOUR Source: NSDC Sector 2022
Advantages of Skill training Skill training of workforce will have direct impact on production on the following three main factors: T – Time C – Cost Q – Quality • Better understanding and execution of work • Technologically innovative construction won’t be hindered • Self-awareness and well being • Dignity of workforce ARCHI-CHAKKAR 92
Undesirables Due to Skill training • Cost of labour • Management of skilled workforce force • Dignity of workforce • Export of workforce • Skills mismatch
Demand and Supply Analysis of Skills “Demographic dividend,” a term coined by demographer David Bloom as defined by the United Nations Population Fund (UNPF) means, “the financial growth potential that can result from shifts in a population’s age structure, mainly when the share of the working-age population (15 to 64) is larger than the non-working-age share of the population (14 and younger, and 65 and older).” In other words, it is “a boost in financial productivity that occurs.” (Smart Economy in Smart Cities) In India, traditionally the construction industry has been labor exhaustive as it is low-priced and easily available. In 1995-96, approximately 1.50 Crores people were employed in this industry which is expected to be 3.26 Crores by the year 2004-2005.
QUICK FACTS Source: www.cafindia.org; Kaushal India Campaign
Some of the sectors which are going to be needing large supply of skilled labor: 1. The residential construction market will expand further in the next five years. It will hold a 30.6% market share in 2020. (As per the timetric Report “Construction in India: Key Trends and Opportunities, 2020”.) 2. Government of India is going to invest INR 980 billion in its Smart Cities project. 3. The “Housing for all by 2022” project will provide further pressure to the construction industry. 4. The Government is planning to expand its infrastructure projects improve the rural infrastructure. Hence in the near future, township and housing infrastructure will become the major driving force behind the construction industry.
Challenges and Issues in Skill Development • Mobilization • Lack of Basic Education • Mismatch between youth aspirations and jobs • Unemployment amongst higher skilled is also high • Ensuring minimum wages • Labour laws • Lack of training infrastructure
WORKING AGE POPULATION 15YRS-59YRS (IN %) Source: United Nations World Population Prospects2010
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CONCLUSION From the first part of our seminar, where we talked about relationship between building process and labours, it was clear that they play a major role in production of a building at individual level and eventually in developing the architectural sense in that area when looked from a larger level. It is actually an ambiguous question whether architecture is driven by the skill of the labour or the vice versa. From our research, we were successful in formulating the fact that skill is what changes the whole scenario of how a labour is engaged and envisioned in the production process. Secondly, from our seminar we could get a sense that wherever the parameters of skilled or unskilled labour came, it is always subordinated with the comparable duty of the other stakeholders i.e. architects, clients and contractors in terms of handling and retaining of the skilled and unskilled labour in this business. The degrading and the poor scenario of the skilled force in India involves the improper practice by other players of this process who have failed to convince and produce the need of getting skilled workforce and creating an coherent environment for learning and getting engaged in it for a longer time voluntarily. The abysmal figures on the efficiency of the skill training institutes and the crave for better labour force can be interpreted in another way - it can be said that it is not the inefficiency of the labour but the ‘lack of skill’ of others which gets reflected in unskilled labours. It is the inefficiency of the practice which makes ‘labour’ as undesirable entity which results in rat race for changing the title form a labour to a contractor or the subcontractors. It is possible when ‘Clients would ask informingly, architects would generate it properly and timely, contractors pay and behave accordingly and the labour reacts to it honestly.’
नहीं सबका मािलक एक
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TECH ’KNOW’ PHOBIA Ayush Kamalia | Bhavya Hurria | Fahim Abdul Rahman | Tushar Verma Guide: Ar. Raman Vig Chairperson: Mr. Rajesh Goel
ABSTRACT New and emerging construction technologies are not new to India, and certainly not to the world outside. Most of these technologies were widely used in the Middle-East, the USA and Europe almost 25-30 years ago. Even after extensive research by several government and private institutions, their implementation in India has been very limited. The architects and the various stakeholders like contractors and project managers have limited awareness regarding the emerging technologies due to various reasons, ranging from their lack of inclusion in the architectural course syllabus to the absence of live examples. Architects hesitate in adopting them and stepping out of their comfort zones. The involvement of architects in the implementation of these technologies has been reduced considerably by the concept of project managers. Thus, several architects have distanced themselves from the production phase. In doing so, they are no longer aware of the issues faced at the construction site during the phase of production. Therefore, they are not able to decide what technologies to use for different typologies and scales of projects when it comes to analysing them from the production point of view. Also in a country like India, social acceptance of these new technologies is either low, or slow to happen. Anything which looks a little different from conventional practices comes with apprehension from the side of the people, and Indians are still hesitant to stay in houses made with â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;hollowsoundingâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; walls, or walls where personal nailing wouldnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t be possible. The lack of the implementation of these technologies cannot be attributed to a single group of professionals or stakeholders but is affected by the interdependencies between all these stakeholders. Architects have a vital role to play in creating awareness and be responsible for ensuring the implementation of the best technologies in practice, in India.
INTRODUCTION Post-Independence, the people of India faced 3 major issues – food scarcity, illiteracy and lack of infrastructure. As the government policies, have largely overcome the first two issues, the third still remains to be tackled. The Construction Industry in India is the second largest after agriculture and employs 35 million people. (Jain, 2016) Yet the infrastructure in India at the present level is inadequate to meet the demand of the existing urban population. There is a shortage of 18.8 million dwelling units in urban India, and is estimated at 47.4 Million units in rural India. (Development, 2015) The Construction Industry in India faces many challenges which inhibit its growth. There are certain factors like overall economy of the country and natural disasters which are beyond our control, but some of these issues can be overcome. These include: •Delays and cost overruns •Poor penetration of construction equipment and a large dependency on labour •High cost of capital coupled with a lack of options for rental equipment •Poor transportation infrastructure to move equipment and material opportunities •Lack of sufficient energy and power generating systems to facilitate projects of large scale (Kumar, 2016) It is necessary to find a solution which would reduce the time and cost without any compromise on quality. A solution, for efficient production and construction. Technology can play a vital role in achieving this. So, our research investigates the present condition of technology in India, and what technologies can be best used to strike the balance between time, cost and quality?
STATISTICS RELATED TO HOUSING SECTOR Source: Author
Digital Technology or Construction Technology? There are two kinds of technologies that are applicable in the production phase of buildings. Digital technologies like BIM and CAD facilitate the transfer of a design from paper to production and improves the communication between different stakeholders. But it is actually the construction technologies that are involved in the production phase and directly affect the construction in India. The Indian industry needs to find technologies that affect the construction at its grass root level and construction technologies are more effective in this regard than digital technologies. (Vig, 2016) Further, construction technologies can be divided into executional technologies and complete system interventions. Executional technologies like grouting machines, complex cement mixers are small scale interventions which do not require much contribution on the part of the architect. The architect’s role is more significant in the application of complete construction system technologies.
INTEGRATION OF TECHNOLOGY WITH CONSTRUCTION Source: Author
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WHY NOT VERNACULAR?
While selecting these technologies, it was necessary that we narrow down the scope of our research owing to the limited time we had. Thus, we chose to pursue more modern technologies over the vernacular ones. Other reasons which led us to not consider the vernacular technologies was that our area of study was limited to Delhi/NCR. Being a predominantly urban area, the demand for building higher cannot be fulfilled by the vernacular technologies. Also, these modern technologies are being avidly promoted by the Government and its agencies like BMTPC and HPL. Establishing parameters for analysis: Before going into detail about these technologies, we established some parameters based on which these could be analysed. • SAFETY: Being in the high seismic, urban zone that we live in, the earthquake resistance and fire safety were important factors. • TIME: Be it the time for designing or for procurement or even for construction, all these factors were considered. • COST: This factor included the cost of introducing the new technology and building it up from the foundation to the terrace, from purchase till disposal. • QUALITY: This included the structural and aesthetic quality of the technology and the flexibility that it allows in designing.
PARAMETERS FOR TECHNOLOGY ANALYSIS Source: Author
• ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT: This included the embodied energy of the material used and the environmental effect its recycling or disposal had. • EASE OF CONSTRUCTION: From the availability of the technology to its understanding, handling and application on the site by the workers. Also, the availability of codes and standards associated with the technology, for example, its presence in the ‘Schedule of Rates’ of CPWD. • LABOUR: While analysing these technologies from the production point of view, it was imperative that labour was considered as a factor. The level of involvement of the labour in the construction, quantitatively in terms of the time required and qualitatively in terms of the kind of labour or rather skilled labour considered. ARCHI-CHAKKAR 100
TECHNOLOGIES Pre-Cast Construction Pre-cast construction is characterized by concrete pre-cast components that are assembled with the help of cranes and other mechanical means. It is set up pretty quickly and efficiently with just a small group of labour. This technology deals with concrete components that are cast and cured at another location, or factory. By producing the precast concrete in a controlled factory environment, it can be properly cured and closely monitored for quality. The components produced in the factory are brought onto site, and then connected together through different connections, according to the requirement. The major advantage of using pre-cast concrete members is its rapid erection time, and savings energy, water and building material used. There is minimum wastage in the production process, and the material could be recycled and reused after demolition in new buildings. High precision and high quality can be achieved in factories, and there is less dependency on labour due to automated machinery used. But there are some basic requirements for this technology. At the initial stage of designing and planning, careful consideration must be given to design in a way that every member of the same type, like beams, columns, staircases, are similar in design and dimensions. This will help bring down the overall cost, and reduce the high initial investment that could be necessary if the components are different. There needs to be proper road connectivity and access to the site, and availability of space around the site, due to the large size of the precast members.
LEFT: PRE CAST MEMBERS ASSEMBLY ON SITE Source: http://precast.org/ wp-content
RIGHT: ANALYSIS GRAPH-PRE CAST SYSTEM Source: Author
Concrete Formwork Systems: This section deals with Monolithic concrete systems that build concrete structures with the help of innovative types of shuttering and formwork. These custom designed systems form the complete concrete structure, and help achieve unsurpassed construction speed, along with a high-quality finish.
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Pre-Engineered Building (PEB) Steel has been a material of choice for design and construction because it is inherently ductile, flexible, and has good tensile strength. Thus, came the concept of Pre-Engineered buildings, where the entire primary framing members and secondary structural members are pre-sheared, pre-punched, pre-drilled, prewelded and pre-formed in factories before shipping to site for construction. This is a versatile building system; it can be furnished internally to serve any function, and accessorised externally to achieve unique and aesthetically pleasing architectural designs. They have a wide range of applications, from factories, warehouses, workshops to showrooms and housing. Compared to conventional steel construction, the pre-engineered structures show less displacements in columns and less consumption of steel, offering lower costs, but higher strength, durability and design flexibility.
LEFT: SKELETON OF A PEB BUILDING Source:https://s-media-cacheak0.pinimg.com/
RIGHT: ANALYSIS GRAPH- PEB SYSTEM Source: Author
Light Gauge Steel Frame (LGSF) Light Gauge Steel Frames, also known as LGSF, makes use of cold formed steel members in building construction. Use of cold formed steel began in the 1850s (in US and Britain), but there was limited acceptance to the material till the recent times. Light gauge steel construction is very similar to wood framed construction in principle; the wooden framing members are replaced with thin steel sections. The steel sections used here are called cold formed sections, meaning that the sections are formed, or given shape at room temperature. This is in contrast to thicker hot rolled sections, which are shaped while the steel is molten hot. The steel is then galvanized with zinc and aluminum for protection. The thickness of steel used here ranges from 1-3 mm for structural members, and 1-2 mm for non-structural members. They have a size similar to wooden members: 2”x4” and 2”x6”. In this method, a frame of steel members is first constructed, and then clad with dry sheeting on both sides to form a load bearing wall. Connections between members are made with self-tapping self-drilling screws. These members are usually prepunched to provide for electrical and plumbing lines also. A major advantage of using these steel technologies is the light weight nature of the structures, increasing the earthquake resistance of the structure. The foundations necessity to support these structures is lesser and its cheaper to build. There is also an opportunity to create new jobs and trades, as the local population could be trained to fabricate and erect these structures. ARCHI-CHAKKAR 102
LEFT: ERECTED LGSF MEMBERS Source: http://biasharapoint. com/blog/wp-content RIGHT: ANALYSIS GRAPH-LGSF SYSTEM Source: Author
Expanded Polystyrene Panel System (EPS) To cover these structures, different types of dry sheeting or paneling is done so as to protect these structures from external and other forces. They range from ribbed steel sheets that could be used for roofing and partition walls, insulation sheets made of materials like rock wool, aluminium foil and cement, or materials like polystyrene or polyurethane foam. One such emerging technology is the Expanded Polystyrene System (EPS). This system could be used as panelling for the LGSF and PEB frames in structures up to 20 storeys. But these panels have enough strength in them to even build load bearing structures of up to 3 storeys. This system is based on factory made panels, consisting of self-extinguishing expanded polystyrene sheet sandwiched between two engineered sheets of high strength galvanized wire fabric mesh. The panels are finished at site using minimum 30 mm thick shotcrete (of cement and coarse sand 1:4). Lightweight EPS offers an exceptionally lightweight solution to many types of construction. The high strength and structural stability of the matrix structure of EPS brings the benefits of compressive strength and block rigidity. These panels could also replace the other horizontal and vertical parts of the buildings, like roofing, flooring and staircases. These panels are either manufactured with a single core or a double core of polystyrene, encased by the shortcrete coat. Single panels could be used for internal walls and for building small structures of upto three storeys, and double panels could be used along with RCC and other framing systems for mid and high rise construction.
LEFT: SHORTCRETING OF AN EPS WALL Source: http://g01.s.alicdn. com/kf/ RIGHT: ANALYSIS GRAPH-EPS SYSTEM Source: Author TECH â&#x20AC;&#x2122;KNOWâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; PHOBIA 103
Glass Fibre Reinforced Gypsum (GFRG) Another kind of panelling system which has a more sustainable edge over the others are the Glass Fibre Reinforced Gypsum (GFRG) panels. They are manufactured using phospho gypsum as a core material which is generated as a by-product in the fertilizer industry. It is currently being manufactured in Kochi and Mumbai. Also, known as Rapid Wall System, it is a load bearing pre-fabricated wall panel. It is suitable for rapid mass scale building construction and was originally developed and used since 1990. The most common use of GFRG panels are as load bearing walls. Cavities of walls can be filled with concrete or reinforced concrete depending on the load. Even without concrete filling, the panels could be used as load bearing wall elements for buildings of upto two storeys. The advantages of using these panels is its eco-friendly nature, and that there is sufficient reduction in cooling or heating needs of a space. The structures are earthquake and fire resistant, and are free from corrosion, due to the absence of steel. However, there are some limitations in using these panels. GFRG cannot be used for circular walls or walls with high curvature and clear spans are restricted to 5m for residential buildings.
LEFT: A SECTION OF GFRG WALL Source:http://gfrgconsultants. com/images RIGHT: ANALYSIS GRAPH- GFRG SYSTEM Source: Author
Tunnel Formwork Tunnel form is a formwork system that allows the contractor to cast walls and slabs in one operation in a daily cycle. It combines the speed, quality and accuracy of factory/off-site production with the flexibility and economy of in-situ construction and is recognised as a modern method of construction (MMC). LEFT: TUNNEL FORM WORK IN ACTION Source: http://en.deneyimmakina.com/uploads/
RIGHT: ANALYSIS GRAPH-TUNNEL FORMWORK SYSTEM Source: Author ARCHI-CHAKKAR 104
Monolithic Aluminium Formwork In this system, instead of traditional beam and column construction, all the walls, floors, slabs, columns, beams, stairs, together with door and window openings are cast in place in one operation at site by use of specially designed, easy to handle modular formwork. These components are made of either lightweight aluminium or aluminium plastic composite, and using this system, rapid construction of multiple units of repetitive type can be achieved. Fixing of the formwork is done using tie, pin and wedges system. There is no requirement of very skilled labour to use the system. The construction is nominally divided into 3 main stages. First, the assembly of the special formwork is undertaken. The reinforcement is placed within the formwork, and then concrete is poured into them. It is possible to achieve a 7-day cycle using the monolithic aluminium formwork. These formwork panels can be reused about 250 times, and that is a main drawback of such systems also. Unless there are a large number of repetitions of the formwork, it is not feasable. LEFT: MAF FORMWORK READY FOR CASTING Source: http://g03.s.alicdn. com/kf/
RIGHT: ANALYSIS GRAPHMONOLITHIC AL FORMWORK SYSTEM Source: Author
Climibing/ Slip Formwork Climbing formwork, also known as Slip Form/ Rapid Form, uses the help of selfclimbing mechanism where the formwork and access platforms are lifted as one, thus minimising need for labour and also saving up on material.
LEFT: SLIP FORM CONSTRUCTION PROCESS Source: http://www.climbingformwork.com/photo/ RIGHT: ANALYSIS GRAPH-SLIP FORMWORK SYSTEM Source: Author TECH â&#x20AC;&#x2122;KNOWâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; PHOBIA 105
ANALYSIS OF TECHNOLOGIES Compiling the data collected from various sources about the technologies mentioned previously, a comparative analysis matrix was prepared, considering all the parameters coming under the topics of safety, cost, time, quality, environmental impact, ease of construction and labour.
ANALYSIS MATRIX OF ALL THE TECHNOLOGIES Source: Author
ANALYSIS MATRIX OF ALL THE TECHNOLOGIES Source: Author
ANALYSIS MATRIX OF ALL THE TECHNOLOGIES Source: Author
ANALYSIS MATRIX OF ALL THE TECHNOLOGIES Source: Author ARCHI-CHAKKAR 106
COMPARATIVE GRAPH To have a better understanding of all the factual data in the matrix and the analysis, a comparative analysis graph was prepared of all the technologies that were mentioned in the previous slides. The performance of all these technologies are benchmarked with the value of conventional RCC construction being 5, and denoted by the colour ‘yellow’ in the graph.
COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF ALL THE TECHNOLOGIES Source: Author
FINDINGS FROM THE ANALYSIS After preparing the comparative analysis and the graphs, we found out that the performance in ‘time’ and ‘quality’ segments of all the technologies taken for analysis were better than conventional RCC framed construction. There were considerable savings when the time factor is taken into main consideration. There was also a better performance in the labour parameter, where there was a need for less labour in the case of the emerging technologies. And most of these technologies, if used efficiently, could provide savings in cost also. But each technology had its own ups and downs. Each technology had advantages that made it better suited for particular types of construction, and that no technology provided a complete solution for the conventional RCC systems. But according to a particular situation, one could choose a technology that could perform better than the conventional systems of building. Precast, LGSF, EPS and GFRG systems provide solutions suited for both low rise and high rise construction, and could be used for both commercial and residential buildings, according to the requirement. The formwork systems, due to its need for large repetitions, was best suited for high rise construction and mass housing.
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THE STAKEHOLDERS AND THEIR ROLES After formulating the matrix and reviewing the graphs, we found out that these technologies were not being adapted and practiced at a larger scale in India. So we came to the bigger question of, ‘why has the technology been limited to a very few projects in the larger cities and not been applied at the grass root levels where these technologies could be even more useful?’ Architects are partly responsible for this slow change and general lack of awareness about these technologies. But on the other hand, there are a number of stakeholders involved in the construction process and all these stakeholders had to be responsible for bringing about this change in construction technology. The identified stakeholders in the construction process are:
ALL THE STAKEHOLDERS Source: Author
The Project Manager
The Government of India
All of these stakeholders are interdependent on each other and work as different cogwheels of the machinery – that is the Construction Industry. But there must be some factors within this mechanism that are not allowing the widespread application of these technologies. Digging in further, interviews and surveys were conducted to investigate the role and responsibility of each stakeholder in the production process. We began with the architect as he thought his role to be the most important. But after interviewing various practicing and non-practicing architects in Delhi, we realised that the architect knew very little about very few technologies. The technologies were never part of the formal training of architecture, and the application of these technologies required a lot of extra effort in the part of the architect. Extra research was required and special design provisions had to be made to incorporate these technologies.
The next stakeholder interviewed consisted of contractors involved in the production phase of construction. The findings in this area was that the contractors mainly didnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t want to step out of their comfort zone and pursue new methods, they were comfortable in earning their livelihood doing it the way best suited to them. Very recently, a tender was issued for the construction of demonstration houses, using EPS and LGSF, in Hyderabad by the BMTPC (BMTPC, 2016). This received a very poor response from the contractors as very few were willing to take up this challenge. Coming to Project Management Consultancies, various Project Managers interviewed raised the concern of work increasing manifold while implementing these technologies. More supervision is required to maintain the strict regulations as prescribed by the foreign agencies producing these technologies. Finding vendors in the smaller cities and transportation of these elements over larger distances is a hassle. Most of the project managers were under the opinion that until the demand for these technologies rose in the Indian market, the web of service providers required for construction will not be built. There is a lack of proper training of the labour for the special skills required for these technologies. Different technologies require different skill sets, and unless these technologies start being implemented at a larger scale, the work for such labour remains sporadic. The government, although very recently, has taken steps to promote these technologies. However there is a lack of proper research laboratories and consolidated mechanisms for inventing new indigenous technologies. The technologies that are being adopted from the west are not best suited to the Indian context and thus face problems in acceptability. The vendors for these technologies are available in the larger cities, but the widespread network is missing. The vendors argue that unless these technologies are taken up by more architects and contractors, they cannot expand as they would be looking at immense losses. The client had very limited information about the technologies, but was willing to learn more about them. They remained unconvinced about these technologies until live examples of a structure were built with these technologies. Their willingness to experiment also changed with the typology of the building. They were more willing to experiment with an office or an institutional building than with a residential building.
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PROBLEMS IN INDUSTRY While the problems facing the Indian Construction Industry are a lot at the moment, due to our lack of time and scope, we would be discussing two of these factors in detail.
Awareness These technologies are available easily with a stable market base and a research backing, yet technological innovation and experimentation is not extensively done. A proper research has been thoroughly conducted by different governmental (BMTPC & HPL) and non-governmental agencies on these systems. Many of these technologies have also been included in the CPWD Schedule of Rates, thus making them easier to be implemented. One of the main reasons for the non-extensive application of these technologies is the general lack of awareness in the sector and its stakeholders regarding these technologies. Lack of awareness among the clients, architects, architectural students, builders and contractors and lack of awareness among the vendors about the potential of the market are the reasons that the technologies are not being taken up. The course syllabus of architecture throughout the countryâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s architectural colleges have no mention of these technologies, and hence the fresh architects who are entering the market donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t have any awareness regarding these construction systems. A survey was conducted among the senior students of architecture at the School of Planning and Architecture, Delhi to check their knowledge base regarding some of the mentioned technological systems in construction. The results were appalling. It was found that while almost everyone had a good knowledge about RCC Framed, Pre-cast and Load bearing structures, about only 40 % of the participants had heard about GFRG and LGSF technologies. Furthermore, only about 20% students had heard about EPS, Monolithic Aluminium Formwork and Tunnel formwork. The actual knowledge about these technologies was even poorer, as more than 80% of the students admitted to knowing nothing about most of these technologies.
SURVEY FINDINGS Source: Author ARCHI-CHAKKAR 110
Social Acceptance A very important question that comes foreward while discussing new technologies is - how many of these technologies are socially acceptable? A pre-conceived love for the 230-mm wall and other such conditions in which we imagine the structures we want to build is a prominent one. So, there is an inbuilt resistance towards accepting change. To cite an example, we visited the Technology Park at Hindustan Prefab Limited, and while we were looking at an exemplary structure made with EPS technology, another inspecting official from the ministry of urban development was heard saying ‘why would I want to live in a house made of thermocol?’ Well this is a genuine question when we don’t know everything about the EPS technology as we just know it consists of thermocol like material in its wall section. This phenomenon is referred to as Material Stigma. Also, when we adapt to a new technology, or an unorthodox option we tend to make changes to those technologies to suit us, we tend to transform them to fit our personal needs, but most of these modules which are developed on the foreign land and culture do not allow that, to be precise, none of them allow us the ‘Jugaad’, that we are so used to. Even the nails for hanging a wall clock needs to be pre-decided. Aspirations for a house are high for the Aam Aadmi. He is not ready to compromise in it at all. He wants to put in everything he has. He doesn’t want the walls to sound strange or the sounds of his W/C flushing to reach his living room. Some people spend all their life earnings on a house and they do not want to experiment with it. The social stigma is a very valid point in India and needs to be tackled to achieve efficient production.
SURVEY FINDINGS Source: Author TECH ’KNOW’ PHOBIA 111
CONCLUSIONS Coming back to the mechanism of construction, we realised that it is stuck because of various factors that are interdependent. The stakeholders are embedded in a vicious cycle, blaming each other for the failure to promote new technologies. But they cannot be blamed. After a complete analysis one realises that the solution does not lie in blaming a certain group of professionals, but can only emerge if all these stakeholders work in a unified manner towards bringing about this technological advancement. The cogwheels of this machinery require a push, one that comes from within. The architect is best suited to provide the push and be the initiator to set this machinery in motion. He is the team leader in any construction project and is looked upon to provide the innovation and ideas that drive the team. Following are some suggestions that could be solutions to overcome the challenges that technology faces. They are •There is a need to develop indigenous technologies that cater to the Indian market and the user. To achieve this goal, more unified research and development labs and units need to be set up to facilitate the testing and innovation of these technologies. •There is a need for a design, to build an approach to be followed in construction using these technologies, instead of the usual individual consultants. This would help in bringing together the various consultants under one umbrella of trying to locate each one separately. They would also be responsible towards the construction as a unit and would not try to shift the blame on the other stakeholders. •These technologies should form a significant part of the architectural curriculum and awareness regarding these should start spreading from an early stage of an architect’s life. •The architectural community as a whole should pledge to step out of their comfort zones, get over their Techknowphobia and be the drivers of this technological revolution. Our objective by this research is not to prove which technology is the best, or to degrade the existence of the prevalent RCC structures or other conventional techniques and so on and so forth, but to just nurture an open and rational mind in increasing our knowledge about our options, we might choose anything but the wise thing is to know that we have options. So, as stakeholders and participants of this construction industry, we should be aware of the immense scope of innovation and experimentation in the technologies that are available and the ones which can be developed to achieve a commendable quality in lesser time and at reasonable rates.
REFERENCES Bhatnagar, A., 2016. BMTPC Interview [Interview] (24 September 2016). BMTPC, 2016. Tender List, BMTPC. [Online] Available at: http://www.bmtpc.org/ TenderList.aspx?type=ac [Accessed 13 October 2016]. Certificate No. 06/0241, Irish Agreement Board, Ireland. Deloitte. (2015). Infrastructure and Construction Sectors Building the NationDevelopment, M. o. U., 2015. The Mission. [Online] Available at: http:// amrut.gov.in/[Accessed 21 September 2016]. GFRG / Rapidwall Building Structural Design Manual, prepared by IIT Madras, published by BMTPC, New Delhi. ARCHI-CHAKKAR 112
Goyal, R., 2016. Hindustan Prefab Limited - CMD [Interview] (27 September 2016). Indian Construction Industry at a glance 2011-12. (2012). Retrieved from Indian Mirror: http://www.indianmirror.com/indian-industries/2012/construction-2012. html Indian Construction Industry Overview. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www. indianconstructionindustry.com/: http://www.indianconstructionindustry.com/ overview.html IS 3809:1979 – Fire Resistant Test of Structure Jain, A., 2016. Indian Construction Industry to Boom. The HIndu, 4 March. Jain, N. (2013). Innovations in building construction in India. Retrieved Sept 08, 2016, from http://www.projectsmonitor.com/guest-articles/innovations-inbuilding-construction-in-india/ Krish, R. (2014, January 7). Indian construction Industry: Challenges ahead. Retrieved from Build India: http://indiaconstructionupdate.blogspot.in/2014/01/ indian-construction-industry-challenges.html Kumar, D., 2016. Causes and Effects of Delays in Indian Construction Projects. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology, 3(4). Laskar, A., & Murty, C. V. (2004). Challenges before Construction Industry in India. Manual on M2 System by EMMEDUE, S.P.A. Italy. Manual on Schnell Home, Schnell Wire, Italy. Ministry of Urban Development. (2015). The Mission. Retrieved from ATAL MISSION FOR REJUVENATION AND URBAN TRANSFORMATION(AMRUT): http://amrut.gov.in/ MCME, 2011. Annual Report, Delhi: s.n. OFORI, G. (1999). Challenges of Construction Industries in Developing Countries: Lessons from Various Countries. Singapore: Department of Building, National University of Singapore. PAC No. 1010-5/2014 : Performance Appraisal Certificate issued by BMTPC, New Delhi Performance Appraisal Certification PACs No. 1008-S/2011 issued to M/s Rashtriya Chemicals and Fertilizers Limited, “Priyadarshini”, Sion, Mumbai. Performance Appraisal Certification PACs No. 1009-S/2012 issued by FACT – RCF Building Products Ltd., FACT Cochin Division Campus, Ambalamedu, Kochi. Prasad, J., 2016. BMTPC - Director, Materials [Interview] (24 September 2016). Rao, K., 2016. Wave City Centre - Synergy [Interview] (22 September 2016). Review of EVG-3D Technology for residential buildings in India, IIT Mumbai. Report on Performance Tests conducted on EMMEDUE Panel System at Hesarghalta, Bangalore Civil Aid Techno Clinic Pvt. Ltd., Bangalore Schedule of Item & Rate Analysis for GFRG Construction, BMTPC, New Delhi (to be published). Takalkar, R. (2009, 10 16). ALUMINIUM FORMWORK TECHNOLOGY. Retrieved from http://aluminiumformwoktechnology.blogspot.in/ Technical Report on Experimental Evaluation of Building System M2 by Structure Lab. Department of Engineering, Ponitificia Universidad Catolica Del Peru. The Mission. (n.d.). Retrieved from ATAL MISSION FOR REJUVENATION AND URBAN TRANSFORMATION(AMRUT): http://amrut.gov.in/ Vig, A. R., 2016. Applicability of technology in construction [Interview] TECH ’KNOW’ PHOBIA 113
INSTA ‘घर’ D. Shivaram Reddy | Nadiminti Satish | Penugonda Varshini | Suthari Swanminath Guide: Ar. Raman Vig Chairperson: Prof. K. T. Ravindran
ABSTRACT Construction of a building is a collaborative process between several people to reach at a final outcome. Productivity thus becomes an important factor to determine the success of the construction industry. The process of construction includes several decisions to be taken from the side of the architect. One such thing is to decide between the adoption of on-site construction or the use of elements prefabricated. The idea of this proposal is to explore the extent to which prefabrication is suitable based on the several factors considered. Depending upon the factor which plays the key role in the project; one would be able to understand the need for adopting prefabrication or in situ construction.
INTRODUCTION An article published on October 06, 2016 describes an order passed by the center to adopt precast technology for all projects worth more than 100 crore. But before adopting such a technology, one has to have a knowledge of these and whether or not, Delhi/ NCR is suitable for a such a technology. The question then arises as to how would one decide between which technology should be chosen for construction. Is it in situ or prefab? What is the scale of the project in which prefab construction can be adopted? What is the type of the project that would make prefab construction profitable?
PREFABRICATION What is Prefab? It is the manufacture of the building components that are a part of the larger assembly. Prefabrication usually takes place in factories in which several materials are used and the components required for the final assembly are produced. Since the production is done off-site, there is an increase in the speed of production and the quality of the final product. (Schoenborn, 2012)
Why Prefabrication? The construction Industry accounts to about 4.6 lakh crores of the total revenue in India. It is one of the ever increasing fields and in the coming ten years, it is going to increase to about 10 lakh crores. But, the gloomy fact is that, according to the report of technical group on Urban Housing Shortage, there is an estimated shortage of 18.78 million houses in urban areas. About 95% of this shortage pertains to economically weaker sections and low income groups. On June 2015, our honourable Prime Minister Narendra Modi while launching “Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana - The affordable housing Scheme”, declared that 50 million houses will be built for the poor by 2022; out of which 30 million would be in rural areas and 20 million in the urban sector. All this leads to the need for faster construction and prefab seems to be one of the established ways of achieving the same.
Stages During Prefabrication • Design phase: In which plans are finalised and are sent to the factory. • Fabrication: Where the manufacturing of the components takes place in the factory. Most of the building is converted into components and then made in the factory. Inspections take place in order to assure the quality . • Transportation: Wherein the elements are transported to the site for assembly. Based on the rules of the local government, care is taken to restrict the size of the elements. • On-site assembly: This includes the assembly of the elements on site. The crane is usually the most expensive element of the assembly and careful planning has to be done to always keep it engaged.
LEFT - STAGES OF PREFABRICATION (TOP TO BOTTOM): DESIGN STAGE, FABRICARION, TRANSPORTATION & ONSITE ASSEMBLY Source: noun project RIGHT - GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATIONS (TOP TO BOTTOM): 1. TIME COMPARISON OF PREFAB VS CONVENTIONAL CONSTRUCTION 2. COST COMPARISON OF PREFAB VS CONVENTIONAL CONSTRUCTION Source: A Comparative study on prefab construction with cast in situ construction of residential buildings
What Do Studies Suggest? In the paper “A Comparative study on prefab construction with cast in situ construction of residential buildings”(2015), a double storey residential building was constructed using both conventional construction system and prefab technology and a comparison was made based on cost and time. The time estimation showed that prefab construction took about 63 days less than that of the conventional construction which accounts to about 50% less than that of conventional system. The time for the sub-structure was same but, the time taken for the super structure for prefab was 12 days in comparison to the 52 days of the conventional system that has saved a lot of time. But, the results of the cost comparison are a bit different than expected. The total cost was higher than that of the conventional system. The cost of the super structure for prefabrication is comparatively more than the conventional system. So in the cases where the number of units to be made are lesser in quantity, the building might actually cost more. But, due to a time advantage being obtained, profits can still be gained.
Bawana Mass Housing, Delhi In case of the study on the mass housing of Bawana, which has 3164 units, studies reveal better results. About 21% savings were gained for intermediate floors and roofs; 30% for staircase; 25% for sunshades and lintels; 30% for kitchen platforms. The time comparison for the construction of one block gives interesting results wherein the construction of one block of housing took about 122 days in the conventional system and the prefab technology took 71 days. This project has given an edge over cost and time.
BAWANA HOUSE KEY POINTS OF PREFABRICATION (LEFT TO RIGHT): COST CUTTING, TIME EFFICIENCY Source: noun project INSTA ‘घर’ 117
THE IDEA So, how to decide what to adopt? One seems to be interested to understand if this technology is really suitable to Delhi/NCR. The idea was to understand this with the help of architects and project managers practicing in Delhi/NCR and who have executed projects in prefab and in situ and their reason for adopting the same. A set of factors have been identified which were considered important in the decision making of a construction technology and have been discussed with architects and project managers. This has been done with the help of interviews conducted with architects and project managers who have shared their experiences about various projects and the reason for adopting a particular type of construction technology. Infrastructure companies using prefab technology and having their own prefab/ precast factories were visited to understand the working in a better way.
THE FACTORS Though the factors listed below are interdependent on each other in some cases; they have been classified broadly as: • Design related factors • Module related factors • Site attributes • Labour considerations • Transportation and equipment • Codes and permits • Technology related • Project risk • Sustainability requirements • Finance related
QUESTIONNAIRE DESIGN Outline of the Questionnaire The questionnaire was designed in order to test the factors which were considered important while choosing a project to be done in prefab or in situ. It was presented in the following sections: Part 1 1. Name of the firm / company 2. Name of the person being interviewed 3. Position in the firm / company 4. Experience in the field Part 2 1. Company/ firm profile 2. Number of the projects 3. Type of the projects done (Residential/ commercial/ educational etc.) Part 3 Questions based on the various factors considered: 1. Design related 2. Module related 3. Site attributes 4. Labour considerations 5. Transportation and equipment 6. Codes and permits 7. Technology related 8. Project risks 9. Site sustainability Part 4 The last part of the questionnaire consisted of general questions with respect to the person’s perspective on prefabrication / in situ construction and its perceived advantages and disadvantages. Part 5 Comments and suggestions INSTA ‘घर’ 119
Results and Analysis Response for Design Related Factors When talked about the reasons for not adopting prefab, architects practicing the conventional system say that lots of pre-planning is required for this system and with the frequent changes done in the design, pre-planning might be a difficult task. To adopt prefab technology, the project has to be envisioned in prefab and designed accordingly. “It is designed for prefab”, not “design and then convert to prefab”. A lot of discussion has happened till now about the adoption of prefab for affordable housing. But is prefab just meant for EWS and LIG? The myth that prefab is inflexible has to be broken apart. Hotels, hospitals, educational institutions have been made in prefab in lesser time and cost. Premium residences are being done in prefab. Customization is possible. It’s time to break the preconceived notions.
Response for Module Related Factors The fear that prefab elements have issues in joinery and might lead to leakages has been existing. The prefab buildings done once upon a time in Delhi at Sadiq Nagar and Masjid Moth has shown problems like that. But solutions do exist. Projects are being done in prefab with good joinery. details
Response for Site Attributes The conditions of the site and its topography turn to be important to decide the storage of the materials on site for in situ construction. Whereas the location of the site plays an important role in the selection of prefab technology. “ Choose wisely” says the engineer in HPL about the various systems in prefab. The system of prefab to be chosen has to be based on the distance of the particular material required for it. In particular for precast, “100 KM radius is cost effective“ says Suresh Tripathi Vice President of the technical department of Super Cast. Decisions are thus just not based on cost or time of technology but also on the site and its location. “Nothing can be decided in isolation”.
Response for Labour Considerations India is a labour intensive country. Availability of cheap labour is plenty. We are unable to harness the power of labour to the full extent. There are specific times in which construction stops due to festivals, weather conditions and if some others pay more for the same type of work, they might shift there. But what if we provide more secure place to work, controlled conditions and fixed salary? That would make life much more easier . India is moving towards skilled labour. Skill development programs for construction are being taken up by ITIs and NSDC to train labourers for adopting prefab technology. ARCHI-CHAKKAR 120
Response for Transportation and Equipment For the conventional type of construction, the storage of materials is an issue rather than transport of the same. The myth that prefab technology involves huge machinery and it might pose a problem in construction has to be broken. It is just not about having machinery. Better alternatives do exist. Decisions vary... The site matters. Understanding various technologies is necessary before taking the decision on the equipment and fixing it.
Response to The Factors of Codes and Permits There are no special codes and permits required for adopting prefab construction and almost all the architects and project managers interviewed had a knowledge of the same.
Response for Technology Related Issues The present day development in BIM softwares helps in executing the project in a better way. Though the architects are ready to adopt to this software, some consultants might be reluctant to do the same. So, some are still stuck in the regular system of practice. Problems might not be faced if BIM is not used, but there is no harm in better execution of the projects.
Response for Project Risks and Finance Sometimes awareness seems to be the most important factor while discussing all of these. Some architects feel that they might lose the control over the project once the order has been placed to a prefab factory. “Losing control over the project! I can’t afford to do that !” say the architects. But is that what is really happening? In case of Super Cast about 40% advance is taken at the time of ordering, 35 % during inspection and the balance during dispatch. So regular check up can be done over the quality of the product being delivered. The contract that is being framed has to be a smart one. One has to take call in order to frame the contract in such a way such that the architect never loses control over the project.
Response for Site Sustainability Waste reduction is a major issue these days and prefab can be one of the solutions to solve this. Almost 0% waste is generated since the elements are manufactured in the factory itself and the only work left is to assemble. Construction work creates “hell” for the neighbours. The dust and noise around, which goes on for 2-3 years for large projects makes life miserable. When compared to that prefab makes life happier. “The lesser the time of construction, the better it is.” INSTA ‘घर’ 121
COST, TIME, QUALITY - THE FACTORS FOR DECISION MAKING Source: Author
CONCLUSIONS FROM THE INTERVIEWS The architects adopting in situ construction feel that type of construction provides them with flexibility in the project. The reasons they have mentioned for not adopting prefab is the notion that prefab is meant for affordable housing, lack of experience in the field and fear of improper joinery resulting in leakage. The architects adopting prefab construction have said that prefab helps in major time saving and results in quick delivery of the projects and that is one of the major factors for adopting the same. They have adopted in situ construction in some situations wherein the site conditions posed major problems. In several articles published on prefab and in situ construction, the prefab technology has always been a better technology to be adopted. Cost, time and quality are the three factors best handled by prefab. In most cases they seem to be the deciding factor in the decision between prefab and in situ construction. But even though there seem to be a lot of advantages for prefab technology, there is still reluctance in adopting this technology.
AND FINALLY Based on the observations made from the interviews and secondary studies, it has been understood that “prefabrication is the most suited technique that can be adopted when time is the key factor; or when cost and quality are important. But the reluctance in adopting the same is due to the lack of awareness, the attitudes of the developers and improper contracts that lead to the loss of control of the projects.“ Contract: The fear of losing the control over the project. The need for framing a better contract arises. Attitude: The idea of prefab being an inflexible technology and that it is suited only for the poor has to be removed from the minds of developers and the users. The Government is taking advantage of the faster construction that prefab provides in order to provide affordable housing which is a good initiative but that shouldn’t serve as an idea to prefix prefab technology to affordable housing only. Awareness: Lack of knowledge prevents architects and developers from adopting new technologies. Observe, understand and adopt will be the key for success of the construction industry. Let our country be ahead of others in adopting new technologies rather than waiting to see if something fails or becomes a success. ARCHI-CHAKKAR 122
REFERENCES Azhar, S Lukkad , Y Ahmad, I 2012 ,Modular vs. Stick built construction: Identification of Critical Decision Making Factors,48th ASC Annual International Conference Proceedings, viewed 7th July, 2016, <http://ascpr0.ascweb.org/archives/cd/2012/ paper/CPRT202002012.pdf> Govinda ,G 2015,Suitability of Prefab technology for Indian Construction, project seminar, School of Planning and Architecture library. Jangde ,R D,Waghmare ,AP, Analysing Modular Construction with Respect to Design and Cost, International Journal on Recent and Innovation Trends in Computing and Communication, vol3, issue 12, viewed on 8th July, 2016, <http://www.ijritcc.org/ download/1450607066_20-12-2015.pdf> Modular Building Institute 2011,Permanent Modular Construction 2011 Annual Report, viewed on 7th July 2016, <http://www.modular.org/documents/document_ publication/2011permanent.pdf> Schoenborn, M 2012, A Case study approach to identifying the constraints and barriers to design innovation for Modular Construction, thesis, Virginia Tech University, viewed on 1st July, 2016, <https://theses.lib.vt.edu/theses/available/ etd-05082012-010848/unrestricted/Schoenborn_JM_T_2012.pdf> SmartMarket Report. 2011. Prefabrication and Modularization: Increasing Productivity in the Construction Industry. 2011, viewed on 9th July,2016, <http:// www.modular.org/htmlPage.aspx?name=McGrawHill_Prefabrication>
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THE BLUE IN GREEN
Megha Chaudhary | Shiva Sah | Shivangi Rajput | Thoufeer Muhammed N. Guide: Ar. Suditya Sinha
ABSTRACT The production of buildings comprises of a series of processes which are very resource intensive. These processes have a direct impact on the world’s existing resources and in turn, burdens it. Water is one such resource which in inevitable in construction. The water ‘embodied’ in construction of a building is an aspect that has been often overlooked while determining the requisites for sustainability. However, the study predicts that the future water demand for construction industry is expected to shoot manifold; resulting in a close conflict with other sectors in need of water. In such a scenario, we are presented with the question of sustainability within the current trends and practices within the industry as well as the role of stakeholders in handling the situation.
INTRODUCTION The resource usage across the entire supply chain produces environmental pollution plus the worldwide resource consumption is increasing steadily. Buildings have many facets of resource use and waste generation - energy, water, land, biodiversity, air and so on. Limited evidence shows that building can be responsible for 40 per cent of energy use, 30 per cent of raw material use, 20 per cent of water use and 20 per cent of land use (Roy Chowdhury, 2011).
Burden of Built Environment The rapid rate at which humans are consuming the earth’s valuable natural resources is a rising global concern. It is widely reported that the world reserve of fresh water is rapidly diminishing. Water is used all through the entire construction life cycle of a built environment—from extraction of the raw materials for making products, through manufacturing to the construction process. Also water is used in the operational stage and for the demolition processes it is used to suppress dust (NAPCC, 2016). This research aims to discover the potential of conserving water by exploring the indirect use of water which comprises the embodied water of the materials used in construction along with the water used during construction. However, the embodied water of construction is still in the developing stage. Very little work has been accomplished in the field of embodied water of construction, although many studies have been done in the area of water consumed in operation phase of a building. Since the construction industry hold the position of second largest bread earner after agriculture in India, it is completely natural to conduct the study of the embodied water in construction industry.
WATER CONSUMPTION IN CONSTRUCTION Water is consumed at various stages in the construction sector. This type of water which is embedded in a building through building activities and materials is called its embodied water. Embodied water is divided into two types. First the inherent embodied water component and other is induced embodied water component. Inherent embodied water component is the water required for the manufacturing (cradle to site) of the materials used in construction. This is the first part of embodied or virtual water of construction. The selection of different building materials has a substantial effect on building’s embodied water (McCormack, 2007).
WATER CONSUMPTION IN CONSTRUCTION Source: Bardhan, 2011 ARCHI-CHAKKAR 126
Induced embodied water component is the water required during the actual construction process at the site (site preparation to pre-occupancy/completion/ actual operation). This forms the second part of embodied or virtual water of construction. The other water usage occurs in the operational phase of building; that is the amount of water used in our homes, hospitals, shops, hotel etc. This water consumed is called operational water (Bardhan, 2011).
Embodied Water in Electricity Energy and water, both are the most valuable resources which justify human welfare and are to a large extent, interdependent. Water is widely encountered in energy production: in electricity generation, in transportation, in irrigation, in processing fossil fuels etc. Likewise energy is a crucial part for the provision, transportation and collection of water. From many decades, electricity has been produced from three different forms of power plants - fossil, hydro and nuclear. Renewables currently generate a relatively small share of the worldâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s electricity, although that share is growing fast. In Delhi most of electricity is generated by fossil fuels and renewable sources.
Power generation technologies
Efficiency (L/1000 KWh)
Fossil fuel thermoelectric
WATER CONSUMPTION BY TYPE OF ELECTRICITY GENERATION TECHNOLOGIES Source: Jones, 2008
WATER QUALITY FOR CONSTRUCTION Water is an essential ingredient of construction activities but still the quality of water is ignored as an aspect of this component. The water used for mixing concrete and curing should be free from injurious quantities of acids, oils, alkalis, salts, sugars, organic materials and other substances that may cause harm to bricks, stone, steel, glass or concrete with a pH value not less than 6. (Khanna, 1961) For major construction projects and important elements of the building such as sub structure and super structure, water is advisable to be tested through a certified lab. IS 3025 part 22 and 23 describes the detail test procedure for testing the quality of water used in construction purpose. Initial strength of concrete can be reduced up to 25% due to the presence of impurities like salts, chemicals, sulphates and organic matter. Also there can be rusting of steel and algae problems.
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THE FUTURE? With inadequate and irregular municipal water supply, dependence on groundwater is increasing. A study conducted by the National Institute of Urban Affairs (NIUA) in 2005 suggests that 56 per cent of Class-I and Class-II Indian cities are dependent on groundwater, fully or partially. The situation is so severe that cities are now drawing water from sources hundreds of kilometres away, generating conflicts with the existing users of that water. It is within this scenario that the building sector is taking shape in Indian cities. The study by the World Resource Institute indicates the fact that more than half of the northern India is under extremely high water stress. To further strengthen this argument, the draft water policy of Delhi Jal Board, the nodal organisation in authority for providing water in the metropolitan city, states that the water availability in India has tremendously declined to 1500 cu m per capita per annum, while 1700 cu m per capita per annum is gauged the threshold inferior to which a society is designated to be water stressed.
Water Crisis in Delhi “Taking into account the present water supply capacity, there is a shortfall of 165 MGD at present. Going by DJB norms of 60 GPCD, the water supply requirement in March 2021 for the projected population of 230 lakhs may be around 1380 MGD.” (Delhi Jal Board) As explained in an interview by Jyoti Sharma, President, Forum for Organized Resources Conservation and Enhancement (FORCE), a non-profit organisation, the city gets about 900-950 million gallons per day of water which after treatment reduces to 835 million gallons per day, including 100-150 million gallons per day that comes from ground water. She also stated that the city needs 1000 million gallons of water per day. Thus, explains the “real shortage” of water in the mega city. With increase in urbanisation processes in Delhi, the requirement of water by construction industry is estimated to escalate immensely. According to MPD-2021, the projected water demand is 1840 MGD @ 80 GPCD for projected population of 230 lakhs in Delhi by 2021. Now, assuming a constant rate of supply, (though it is unrealistic; looking at the rates at which the sources are depleting), there would be a shortfall of 460 million gallons of water per day. This means, that the Delhi Jal Board’s supply capacity will be reduced to only 75 percent of the total estimated requirement by 2021.
DEMANDS BY BUILDING CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY While the scarcity of water is becoming a significant issue, it is being contrasted against the ever-imposing demand for water in construction industry. According to MPD-2021, the housing sector is estimated to grow at the highest rate with the maximum FAR to be developed under this category. Addressing the basic need of shelter, it seems legit. According to MPD-2021, there is an estimated need for 24 lakh new dwelling units ARCHI-CHAKKAR 128
in Delhi, out of which 60 percent of the housing need is assumed to be potentially satisfied by 14.4 lakhs new housing units whereas 40 percent of the demand can be catered through the redevelopment of the existing ones. The manifestation of the above demand will echo in terms of water consumption demand also. The findings of a research conducted by Bardhan (2011) suggested that the inherent water was comparatively more significant than the induced water component. The embodied water was found to be about 27.604 kL/sqm of built-up area. When this data is converted into volumetric terms, it shows that an ordinary brick masonry and RCC building uses the volume of water as much as nine times its own volume. In a different research, Indraneel Roy Choudhuri found out that total of embodied water could be as high as 31.65% of the operational water demand of hotels for a 50-year life cycle. By using the embodied water content for a prototypical unit, a regression model was generated for housing industry. For a dwelling unit of an average size of 40 square metres, as prescribed by MPD-2021, the water requirement for housing would amount to about 383.3 MGD. This means that 45 percent of the total water supply by DJB needs to be supplied to the housing sector only which is impossible as opposed to its present capacity of channeling 20 percent water to the entire construction industry including civil, commercial, retail and hospitality. To supply the required amount of water to housing sector would result into severe water stress among other sectors such as industries, civil construction and most importantly, domestic. In the past, the construction industry has been adversely affected whenever a sudden scarcity of water has aroused. The direct impacts were - delay in construction resulting in delay in giving possession, loss of jobs for construction
NEWSPAPER CLIPPINGS SHOWING WATER SCARCITY SCENARIO IN CONSTRUCTION Source: The times of India, 2016 & Hindustan Times, 2016 respectively THE BLUE IN GREEN 129
(CLOCKWISE) 1. LEAKING STAND PIPES; 2. HOSES WITHOUT TRIGGER GUNS; 3. LEAKING PIPE CONNECTIONS; 4. MAN SPRINKLING WATER ON SITE Source: (clockwise) 1. WRAP, July 2011; 2. Author; 3. WRAP, 2011; 4. Hindustan Times, 2016
workers, loss of finances and wastage of resources; to name a few. However, the outlook of construction industry towards handling the resource has been rather careless. It is known that Delhiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s infrastructure and more notably water infrastructure is unable to keep up with the growing demand. This estimation clearly indicated that lacunae between the set developmental goals and the available resources. However, if the demand needs to be met, the construction industry needs to look at efficiency in water consumption, both in terms of materials or processes.
ROLE OF GREEN BUILDING ORGANISATIONS GRIHA In India, Green Rating for Integrated Habitat Assessment (GRIHA) developed with Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE), is a national rating tool that rates the environmental sustainability of buildings. The criteria of GRIHA rating systems are also related to evaluation of water used during construction of a building. In the figure one can clearly see that there is a major gap in terms of appraisal of embodied water of a building. The criterion 12 of GRIHA rating system provides an evaluation of water used during the construction of a building, wherein it aims to minimise the use of potable water in construction activities. It suggests the use of pre-mixed concrete as an alternative material, use of recycled treated water, waste water control etc. However, the lack in priority given to the consumption of water during construction stages is evident from the degree of appraisal awarded under this criterion; which is only 1 appraisal ARCHI-CHAKKAR 130
point against the total of 5 appraisal points rewarded for minimising occupational water usage (Criteria 10 &11) (GRIHA Manual, 2010). When contrasted against the findings of research conducted on embodied water, it was found to be as high as approximately 31 per cent of the occupational water consumed by a building during its entire life cycle (Roy Choudhuri 2015). So, for a building using RCC & brick, embodied water is as much as one - third of its operational water, which is a significant amount. Thus, one can clearly see that there is a major gap in terms of appraisal of embodied water of a building.
CPWD The Central Public Works Department (CPWD), which is a major government institute in the field of building construction has also issued Guidelines for Sustainable Habitat in 2014 in with an aim to assist architects, engineers, project managers and contractors with day to day decision making process with regard to use and choice of materials and technology on sustainability parameters. The sustainability index is calculated based on evaluation and appraisal of building materials based on the various parameters and the weightage given to each one of them. The list of the parameters adapted in the evaluation process are enlisted below.
SUSTAINABILITY INDEX FOR BUILDING MATERIALS
The above analysis indicates that the parameter of embodied water is missing or in
Source: CPWD Guidelines for Sustainable Habitat (2014)
Some cases are not prioritised enough in the green rating systems. This poses a serious question that, when green rating systems and guidelines are formulated, how can a significant part of the resource consumed can be simply overlooked?
ROLE OF STAKEHOLDERS Major portion of production stage of a building occurs on site. Various agencies are involved in this process, each with a set of tasks required to achieve a complete functioning building. Large scale construction processes involve collaboration across multiple disciplines. Generally, the job is managed by an architect while construction manager, construction engineer, design engineer or project manager supervises it.
Role of Architect Production of a building starts right from the architectâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s office and it continues until the occupancy of the building. In the contemporary industrialized world, production includes the translation of designs into reality. A prescribed design team is gathered to strategise the physical proceedings, and to incorporate those proceedings with the other fragments. The architect has a critical role in reducing water footprint of a building. Since the production starts in his office, he/she is responsible for choice THE BLUE IN GREEN 131
of materials. Since it has already been concluded in the previous researches, that the major chunk of embodied water of a building is comprised in construction materials, the choice of materials should be consciously made, keeping in mind the environmental impact of the same.
Role of Vendors Production also extends to include manufacture of building materials in their respective factories. All the processes involved in manufacturing of building materials including their delivery to construction site is encompassed. Since the study of Bardhan (2011) explains that 93% of the embodied water of a building is contained in its materials, a little advancement towards efficient technology to manufacture building materials would create a huge impact in the volume of water consumed in the construction of building.
Role of Site in-charge Production in construction sites is also an important phase where water can be conserved, since this is the phase where water is mostly wasted. The following are some techniques by which water consumption can be checked at construction sites (Ai Group Assistance, 2006):
Water saving action plan: Preparation of a water saving action plan for the project that takes into account all activities during construction, equipment and plumbing to be installed, reuse potential, landscaping and utilisation of rainwater.
Filters: Prevent concrete, sediment, sand and rubbish from going down the storm water drain. Filter or cover storm water drains and inlets.
Tenders: Ensure that protection of water quality and water conservation is included in all contractual and tender documentation.
Dry sweep: Encourage workers to use broom instead of a hose to clean gutters and paths. If water use is compulsory, use aerated high pressure hoses which are water efficient as well as more effective cleaners.
Tools: Prevent running water to clean tools and use buckets instead.
High pressure cleaning: Wherever possible, use aerated high pressure hoses.
Cement works: Ensure that the cement works are carried out away from roads or paths to prevent the need to wash the slurry away with water.
Silt prevention: Fence the construction site temporarily and line it with hay bales or geotextile.
ALTERNATIVE TECHNOLOGY GFRG GFRG panel provides a new technique of building construction in less time, using prefabricated light weight panels with modular cavities. This efficient process helps reducing cost, man power and time of construction by a significant percentage. They also have low embodied energy and need a smaller amount of energy for thermoregulation of interiors. GFRG panel construction is much quicker and easier. There are no debris remaining at site. Time of construction is reduced to 15-20%. These panels enable wall by wall construction instead of brick by brick construction. In repetitive type mass housing, where one or two units are repeated numerous times, GFRG construction reduces construction time by 75-80%.
CONCLUSION A holistic approach towards water management is vital to determine whether existing efforts are appropriately focused or whether a swing in focus towards the embodied water of construction is required. In the construction industry, due to lack of awareness embodied water is neglected most of the times. For the sustainable development, efficient use of inherent water is very important. For spreading the knowledge several polices and norms should be revised including the embodied water associated with any building in its life cycle.
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REFERENCES Bardhan, S. (2011). Assessment of water resource consumption in building construction in India. Ecosystems and Sustainable Development VIII, [online] 144, pp.97-98. Available at: https://www.google.witpress.comtransactions-on-ecology-and-the- [Accessed 10 Aug. 2016]. Bardhan, S. and Choudhuri, I. (2016). Studies on Virtual Water Content of Urban Buildings in India. Indian Journal of Science and Technology, 9(6). Choudhuri, I. (2015), ‘Assessment of Embodied Water of Construction: Case Study of a Four Star Rated Hotel in New Delhi, India’, Volume 3, Issue 8, International Journal of Emerging Engineering Research and Technology, PP 195-199 CONSTUCTION MANUAL FOR GLASS FIBRE REINFORCED GYPSUM BASED (GFRG) BUILDING PANELS. (2016). 1st ed. [ebook] Kochi: FRBL. Available at: http://www.frbl.co.in/cm.pdf [Accessed 14 Oct. 2016]. CSE. (2016, september 7). Retrieved from Centre for Science and Environment: http://www.rainwaterharvesting.org/index_files/about_delhi.htm Delhi Jal Board 2014, WATER SUPPLY AND SEWERAGE, viewed 30th August, 2016 < http://delhi.gov.in/wps/wcm/connect/16541d8048d8ebdea8e9f97a2b587979/ESD+2014-15+-+Ch-13.pdf?MOD=AJPERES&lmod=519320373&CACHEID=16541d8048d8ebdea8e9f97a2b587979> Farid, S. (2007). INVESTMENT OPPORTUNITY PROFILE FOR PREFABRICATED CONSTRUCTION BLOCK IN NWFP. 1st ed. [ebook] Available at: https://www. unido.org/fileadmin/user_media/UNIDO_Worldwide/Offices/UNIDO_Offices/Pakistan/Prefabricated_Construction_Blocks.pdf [Accessed 14 Oct. 2016]. Fundamentally rethinking alternate future scenarios for the city. (2016, september 8). Retrieved from DELHI 2050: http://www.delhi2050.com/sources-of-watersupply-in-delhi/# Glass Fibre Reinforced Gypsum Panel System. (2011). 1st ed. [ebook] Mumbai. Available at: http://www.bmtpc.org/DataFiles/CMS/file/PDF_Files/22_GFRGPanel-RCF.pdf [Accessed 14 Oct. 2016]. GRIHA Manual. (2010). 1st ed. [ebook] TERI Press, pp.69-71. Available at: http:// www.grihaindia.org/files/Manual_VolI.pdf [Accessed 14 Oct. 2016]. Jain, A. (2016). India’s construction sector to boom. The Hindu. [online] Available at: http://www.thehindu.com/features/homes-and-gardens/indias-construction-sector-to-boom/article8314034.ece [Accessed 3 Sep. 2016]. Khanna, P. N., 1961, indian Practical – Civil Engineer’s handbook, Volume 4, Engineers Publishers, New Delhi McCormack, M., Treloar, G., Palmowski, L. and Crawford, R. (2007). Modelling direct and indirect water requirements of construction. Building Research & Information, 35(2), pp.156-162. Ministry of Urban Development, Government of India 2005, Status of Water Supply, Sanitation and Solid Waste Management in Urban Areas, viewed 15th September 2016 < http://cpheeo.nic.in/status_watersupply.pdf> ARCHI-CHAKKAR 134
MPD-2021, Delhi Development Authority, viewed 11th August 2016, < http://dda. org.in/ddanew/pdf/Planning/reprint%20mpd2021.pdf> National Action Plan on Climate Change, Govt. of India. (n.d.). Prime Ministerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Council on Climate Change., 1-52. Retrieved from http://pmindia.nic.in Sswm.info. (2016). Reduce Water Consumption in Industry | SSWM. [online] Available at: http://www.sswm.info/category/implementation-tools/water-use/hardware/optimisation-water-use-industry/reduce-water-consum [Accessed 14 Oct. 2016]. WATER SAVING TIPS FOR CONSTRUCTION. (n.d.). 1st ed. [ebook] The Australian Industry Group. Available at: http://pdf.aigroup.asn.au/environment/water_saving_ construction.pdf [Accessed 14 Oct. 2016]. WBCSD. (2016, september 7). Retrieved from World Business Council for Sustainable Development;vision 2050: www.wbcsd.org/
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JUST DO IT, AGAIN Arif Ali | Kumund Kohul Guide: Ar. D. Vishwanathan Chairperson: Dr. Virendra Kumar Paul
ABSTRACT Changes are inevitable in a construction project and plays the role of necessary evil, the best practice is to manage them effectively to avoid undesirable impact by identifying changes and anticipating their consequences which can further help project teams to mitigate the negative impacts. This seminar tries to delve into the facets of changes. It questions the viability of fast track construction projects from perspective of change. The seminar is aimed against the notion of change being a negative entity. The seminar attempts to find a balance between the role of an architect and the maximum threshold of change. This is done by understanding the fragmented and cumulative impact of that change on the projects as well as the organizations involved. Simultaneously, one would put light on the dichotomy of the opportunity cost which is an unsung aspect of change. This seminar also questions the viability of RERA from the perspective of change. We aim at bringing about the importance of how the skill of an architect plays the role of a game changer in mitigating changes.
INTRODUCTION Change is defined as “the act or an instance of making or becoming different, an alteration or modification” (Concise Oxford Dictionary). Architects are prone to uninformed changes at different stages of the overall process of an architectural project. This is especially evident when, in construction projects, changes occur at any stage to suit the new parameters of the existing situation. The visibility of change during construction phase increases and becomes more evident as the change is dealt within a physical real time. More often than not, these changes in construction projects present tough and controversial issues which needs to be tackled, and more importantly, tough and controversial decisions which might need to be taken. Different reasons can act as a catalyst for change. It can be safely agreed upon that the effects of changes on an organization and people may vary according to the type of changes. However, what is most important is the way the changes are managed. Since changes are inevitable, the best practice is to manage them effectively to avoid undesirable impact. Furthermore, these change need to be managed in order to increase the benefits and minimize the penalties and safeguard quality and profitability.
FLOWCHART OF ‘CHANGE’ Source: Author
Change management can either be process or non-process driven. These techniques of change management in construction projects have considerable impact on the overall project as they disrupt work and create a negative impact on the work sequence and productivity and thus causing schedule delays and cost over-runs. Change management becomes all the more crucial and difficult, when large projects are involved, which have geographically distributed organizational structure. When a lot of stakeholders are involved in a project, the number of decision makers also increase. In vast projects, change implications are not limited to a particular genre, a change in MEP may have repercussion on HVAC or the overall layout. In large scale projects, changes are a trigger of a ripple effect in the project. Hence a formal approach to change management was established so that all the concerned stakeholders are aware of the notifications and implications and also a record is generated to document the change. ARCHI-CHAKKAR 138
The legal responsibility of change and its impact is a major source of deviations between project participants, which often leads to disagreements. Such changes are categorized into disputed change and undisputed change. Therefore, impacts and consequences of changes differ not only in accordance to the nature of changes but also on how they are dealt with. There are two types of management systems in place for change management in the construction industry- Reactive and Proactive solutions. • Reactive: handling the change after its occurrence. • Proactive: Identify and forecast potential changes and develop solutions before the change occurs (Cox et al., 2006). In India, the new Real Estate Regulation Act (2016), which recently came into existence minimizes the possible scope of change in residential sector. According to RERA, there should be no change in the licensed drawing and the final product’s drawing. This act prolongs the time taken to produce the drawings for approval, minimizing the scope of change. However, in the event of a change, managing them efficiently is important for the success of a construction project. Identifying changes and anticipating their consequences can help project teams mitigate these negative impacts, and the implications it would have on the project down the line. This seminar tries to delve into the facets of changes. The seminar attempts to find a balance between the role of the architect and the maximum threshold of the change. This has been carried out by analyzing two residential projects of small scale, a developer based mixed use development project and an infrastructure project at the city level. This seminar broadly discusses upon three major arenas: • Firstly, how changes emerge out during construction phase in a project (overview). • Secondly, understanding the fragmented and cumulative impact of the change on the projects as well as the organizations involved. • Finally, since the emergent behavior of change is not specific to predetermined conditions of the projects and vary from project to project therefore in this seminar, we have taken up specific cases to reach a further understanding of our query. This seminar questions the viability of the fast track construction projects from perspective of change. The seminar is aimed against notion of change as a negative entity. We aim to bring about the importance of how the skill of an architect plays the role of a game changer in mitigating changes. Simultaneously, while explaining about the relationship between architect and change, one would put light on the dichotomy of the opportunity cost which is an unsung aspect of change. This seminar also questions the dilemma, change being a necessary evil for evolution of a project but at the same time the governing authorities are putting an stop to it by implementing RERA. JUST DO IT, AGAIN 139
CAUSES OF CHANGE As perceived by most of us changes are not always negative. In fact, if the changes didnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t have a positive outcome, such changes will not be implemented/incorporated in the project. The process of change might be a negative aspect of change as it creates hindrance in the construction projects but sometime the process itself is changed to have better productivity. It is very important to mark the origin of the change to understand why it was initiated and how it would affect its stakeholders. The initiation of change is an opportunity to either take a fall or make the most out of the situation. Change can be categorized in many different ways (Lbbs, 2007). Five types of change have been proposed ie. change in project scope, differing site conditions, delays, suspensions, and acceleration. According to Hanna and Swanson (2007), change can be caused by many factors such as design errors, design changes, additions to the scope, or unknown conditions in the field. Changes are virtually inevitable during the course of the work due to the uniqueness of each project and the limited resources of time and money available for planning (Moselhi, et al., 1991). Owners usually retain the nearly unilateral right to change work at any stage of completion while contractors are obligated to comply (Cooper et al., 2004). Clients at the initial stage of a project are not able to relate to / read drawings as good as an architect or a construction engineer. They understand the scheme when the construction starts and projects start taking shape, and sometimes it is exactly what they wished for and sometimes they understand the miscommunication/ misinterpretation which happened at the proposal stage causing the change. The cause of change is not only limited to the stakeholders of the projects but it also depends on the economic status of the country in which it is happening, market rules and regulations or building guidelines / bye laws. It is not necessary that a change may generate as a response to only one problem, changes are managed in ways that it solves many conflicts at the same time.
CAUSES BEHIND â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;CHANGEâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; Source: Author ARCHI-CHAKKAR 140
Changes in a construction project can be categorized in many different ways. Motawa et al. (2007) allocated changes into three core headings: changes occurring due to time, need and impact. Based on time : • Anticipated or emergent, gradual or radical, proactive or active, pre-fixity or post-fixity. Based on need : • Elective or required, discretionary or non-discretionary, preferential or regulatory. • Beneficial, neutral or disruptive changes. As it can be understood from the title, “gradual change” takes place little by little over a long period of time with low concentration while radical change is impulsive with high impact. Anticipated changes are thought of before the change occurs and emergent changes are not thought of and are spontaneous in nature. Elective change can be implemented or not implemented but in case of a required change there is no other option but to act on it. Changes in construction phase of an architectural project can be caused by several sources at different stages of the construction work. The change may initiate from external or internal issues. External causes may be triggered because of: • Changes in construction industry can be caused by various sources at different stages of the work. The cause of change may originate from external or internal issues. External causes may be triggered because of: • Changes in the client’s requirement, policies or taste. • Changes in government policies. • Changes in the economic environment of the nation or of the project stakeholders. • Activities of our competitors may force us to alter our approach and perspective to various projects. • Changes because of the political situations of the country. • The project’s work was incorrectly estimated. • The customer or project team discovers obstacles or possible efficiencies that require them to deviate from the original plan. • The customer or project team are inefficient or incapable of completing the required deliverables within the budget, and additional money, time or resources must be added to the project. • During the course of the project, additional options are requested. • Construction changes may occur as a result of weather conditions, inappropriate site conditions, unsatisfactory ground conditions and material handling and delivery. JUST DO IT, AGAIN 141
And among them, lack of availability of materials is believed to be the most critical disruption caused by changes. Internal changes may happen as a consequence of changes in the companyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s management policies or changes in its organization goals and perspectives. Changes usually originated from either design or construction events. Changes due to design may include design change, design errors, omissions, information and operation improvements. Most frequent and most costly changes are often related to design, such as design changes and errors (Issa, 2005).
IMPACT OF CHANGE At the planning stage, changes can lead to revisions or rework while in the construction phase changes can have more drastic impacts like demolishing the part which has already been constructed and rebuilding it (Love et al., 2000). Impact of change is not only limited to projects in which it occurs, it also leaves a mark on the society and its neighboring environment. Many studies have demonstrated that change can be detrimental and often leads to project disruption (Jones, 2001). Change caused disruption is a major source of damage on construction projects (Hanna et al., 2002). (Clifton, 2001) Divides the effects of the changes within the project team into two as direct effects and indirect effects. Direct effects are simply visible as compared to indirect effects. Direct effects of change in the project team can be the need to change their project information and outputs, review their work, update their communications to the others, reorganize and schedule their work methods, spend additional cost and time implementing the change, production schedules and deliveries and introduce acceleration measures to maintain the project program. The direct impact of change can often be predicted and quantified. However, the cumulative effect of change is tough to manage. Understanding change impact on construction projects is helpful for developing better change management systems that minimizes the negative effect of the project change. (Jones, 2001)Pointed out that change not only directly adds to, subtracts from, or changes the type of work being performed in a particular area but also affects other areas of the work for which the change has not accounted. Cooper et al. (2004) provided a scenario of the cumulative impact of change: â&#x20AC;&#x153;The direct consequence of change is to reduce the rate of work accomplishment, and perceived progress. With lower progress and a schedule to meet, management increases their requested staffing. More overtime may be used. Sustained high levels of overtime reduces the productivity of staff. Skill levels might be diluted and supervision is stretched thin. Again, productivity is eroded and rework increases. The errors created by the fatigued and less experienced staff will be propagated. The pressures of overrunning the budget and schedule, and finding more and more rework, leads to morale problems, furthering the decline in performanceâ&#x20AC;?.
Diekmann and Nelson (1985) found that an overall additive change rate for 22 federally funded and administered projects during the 1979-1983 period was six percent due to design errors, owner initiated changes, differing site conditions, etc. Semple et al. (1994) studied 24 construction projects in Western Canada, and found that project costs increased by at least 30 percent for more than half of projects and increased by at least 60 percent for more than a third of projects. Furthermore, several projects suffered delays over 100 percent. Specifically, 11 lump sum contracts had 44% cost increase and 74% schedule increase, and 8 unit price contracts had 88% cost increase and 48% schedule increase. Hsieh et al. (2004) found that a 10–17% ratio of change order cost to total project cost is typical in metropolitan public works in Taipei, Taiwan. (Ibbs, 2005) found that the greater the amount of change, the more productivity and costs are degraded; and a late project change more adversely affects labor productivity than early change. From 90 construction disputes in 57 independent projects, Leonard (1987) demonstrated a significant correlation between percentage of change order hours to contract hours and percentage of lost productivity. The timing and magnitude are important change aspects (Moselhi et al., 2005). A research by the University of Salford indicated that the cost of rework in construction project can be as high as 10 to 15% of the original contract value. Change in labor productivity is a typical type of cumulative impact. Increasing amounts of project changes will have significant and progressively worsening impact on labor productivity. Numerous studies have been conducted on analyzing such an impact. (Allen, 1995) were among the first to quantitatively investigate the effect of change orders on labor efficiency in construction projects. Three hypotheses regarding change and labor productivity were proved: • Changes which occur late in a project are implemented less efficiently than changes that occur early. • The more change there is on a project, the more of a negative impact it has on labor productivity. • The hidden or unforeseeable cost of change increases with more project change.
WBS TIMELINE Source: Product head, GMR Infra JUST DO IT, AGAIN 143
CASES TO STUDY CHANGE Indira Gandhi International Airport at New Delhi Introduction In the first case study of IGI T-3 terminal, a fixed deadline due to Common Wealth Games, could not be compromised and has led to the implementation of the fast track method. This incorporates an overlapped elements of WBS maintaining the overall time line of the whole project. This generally incorporates a method where design and construction begin simultaneously. But the time saved in the fast track construction poses the risk of further problems as simultaneous processes are at a higher risk of failure or change that can delay the process exponentially. When the project started, the capacity for T-3 stood at 22 mppa and site leveling was done. But when GMR conducted the study, the projected capacity was at 34 million users per annum. So, to factor this increase in passenger flow the building space was increased which now stands close to 5 million square meters. To utilize the work already done, they cleverly changed the orientation. Hence a small amount of work was again awarded on rate basis in the contract. But changing the orientation had its own disadvantages. Aircrafts generally require 1.4 km to land after the runway starts which was not feasible at the site due to the presence of a gigantic Shiv statue in the vicinity. The increased distance of 2 km after the runway starts, posed more problems forcing the pilots to apply reverse thrust which is very dangerous. After a lot of brainstorming, they decided to tilt the runway by 3 degrees and adding 1.4 km to the runway to comply with the safety standards.
SHIVA STATUE IN AIR FUNNEL Source: Nat Geo, Mega structures
Due to the tilt of 3 degrees, the runway was now standing on a swamp which degraded the load bearing capacity of the soil. This posed a danger to the runway. To solve this problem, they increased the thickness of the runway layer which now consisted of cement, soil and glass fabric. MEP Due to limitations created by functional and operational restrictions, the key element of design which shone through was the struggle for space on the PTB floor. This later turned out to be a success story, where an innovative design solution turned the idea around.
In Indian airports, the idea of designing walkable trenches and service tunnels was not welcomed enthusiastically initially, but was eventually accepted by the client/ employer, and has gone on to become one of the key features of the services design of T-3, IGI Airport. Laying of services within the tunnels such as water pipes, HT cables, condenser water pipes and fire water pipes, along with civil construction was carried out simultaneously. If it hadnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t been done so, the construction span (in a directly buried mechanism), would have further increased by 6 months and would have resulted in maintenance issues later on during the life of the system. The MEP team used Building Information Modeling (BIM) software, from Oct 2008 to speed up the process of co-ordination among various tasks that required to be finished on time to keep track with the race to meet finishing works. In view of its high versatility, BIM encouraged all the on-board subcontractors to simulate and visualize their existing plans and services to design their installations accordingly. The simulation software was actually seen as a boon, with all changes and last minute modifications, which was more often than not issued by the client as Change Orders, executed with hardly any delay. The use of the aforementioned software thus allowed changes to be visualized beforehand , if an initial change had already created a ripple before. Airport Services Building The airport services building acts as the neuro centre for operational control of the airport. The building, which is up to five storeys tall, was subjected to complete and wholesome architectural changes three times in order to meet the clientâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s consistently evolving requirements. The aesthetically pleasing design which the services building wears today is a testament to this process. Air-side Services & Utilities In the area of New Delhi where T3 is located, there is no water supply given by the Municipal Corporation. To procure water, bore wells were dug at the commencement of the project and this was the lone source of water. This continuous usage of ground water table near the existing T2 and residential sector created an imbalance which resulted in water table being depleted at a rate faster than acceptable every year. It was estimated that the rate of withdrawal of underground water table would exceed recharge rate by the year of 2017. To overcome this foreseen crisis, the team planned for a contingency where a 5 MLD water treatment plant would be designed and constructed and 13 MLD Sewerage treatment plants were also designed for the current phase. For the current phase, using zero liquid discharge to storm water, the total demand of 200 MVA capacity with 42 MVA DG backup amply demonstrates the size and complexity involved in carrying out the design with necessary interface. Passenger Terminal Building After almost completing the structure, a new change was initiated by the client. They added two more floors in the program, which was solved by integrating the per-existing concrete structure with the steel structure to meet the deadline of the project.
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MEZZANINE FLOOR, IGI T3 Source: Author STAGE OF ATC (left to right) Source: HOK : Author
Air Traffic Control Tower HOK architectsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; proposal had been complex in nature which led to many iterations by the contractor. Therefore, to achieve the building form, the contractor insisted on keeping the straight-forward structure and achieving the form by a faĂ§ade strategy tilting the external cladding. After completion of the structure, they realized that the cladding is not possible, leaving the intent of the architect unrealized. Even after this, the Architect did not lose his zeal and used an optical illusion using paint to achieve a similar result. Document Management The proper documentation of interface details, the mistakes, errors and omissions including their consequences were taken up through interface management which served as a good learning opportunity. This has been shared for better handling of future communication and better opportunities. The management of change to apprise the project decision makers required a very sound schedule monitoring & impact assessment procedure. Project control team analyzed & dissected several changes which were necessitated due to changing conditions and prepared impacted schedule for each one of them to analyze them in a globally professional way.
PLAN FOR MIXED USE DEVELOPMENT Source: m3murbana.com ARCHI-CHAKKAR 146
PLAN FOR MIXED USE DEVELOPMENT Source: m3murbana.com
Learnings from the IGI Airport Case This project issued more than 400 change orders and a lot more must have been dealt on reactive bases at that particular moment. Inspite of all the challenges, they managed to finish the project on time and under a manageable cost overrun. Despite constraints of extreme conditions due to weather, challenges in mobilizing and retaining over 20,000 workmen from all parts of India, the entire structure was completed in just 18 months. During the execution, mobilizing and retaining of skilled manpower like carpenter, fitter etc. was also a challenge which was mainly due to high levels of attrition. To overcome this hurdle a Construction Skills Training Institute was set up at the project site to upgrade the skill levels of available workmen with any type of competency level to meet the needs of the project.
MIXED USE DEVELOPMENT IN GURUGRAM This project is located in Sector 67, Gurugram. According to the master plan, they had a fixed program for retail but to fill the F.A.R., they came up with offices and other typologies for the remaining F.A.R. In this case study, we are going to focus on the L-shaped block, high-lighted in yellow, as it went through maximum change during the construction process.
STRUCTURAL GRID Source: Author JUST DO IT, AGAIN 147
The developers wanted to start building as soon as possible to lure more prospective clients. Initially they planed all the retail on the ground and first floor with two basements and a typical office layout above. As the construction of the basement started, they found that there was less demand for office spaces, therefore they reduced the top four floors from an almost completed structure and induced the remaining F.A.R. in this block and they changed the functional use of the typical office floor to service apartments as they were unable to sell the pre-existing office space in another block. As a result of the change, too many service apartments were there in this block and no operator was interested to buy service apartments in such a big quantity. Therefore, they divided the service apartments in two blocks which resulted in the change of lobby design and the vertical circulation requirements. To keep the cost in check, the architect achieved the change in the existing structural grid while meeting the requirements. But the location of the new lift wells was created to meet the change in the functional requirement. Then one fine day, the client again came to the architect and said that 360 service apartments were just too much for 1 vendor, and insisted on building half office space and half service apartments. They found a service provider again. The new office required one more lift while the service apartment needed less. The construction was stopped at the first floor. Ground layout changed while the service apartment and office were segregated. The operator withdrew from the project, after incorporating the design specification specific to them. As a result, the client insisted on removing the amenities and building studio apartments instead. The structural grid of the non-constructed floors above was re-planned on clientâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s request. The column load of the above grid was transferred through the service floor to the pre-existing structure. These changes required further strengthening of the pre-existing columns which was done by applying carbon fibre coating on the columns. One thing to learn from this case study is what has been changed during construction and another is what impact it may have on the things that have not been built yet. Change in usage, change in functional program have an impact not just on the building but on the site as well. While these changes were happening, there were other effects on the project like change in capacity of STP due to change in number of toilets. The increased FAR of this block increased the requirement of DG Flue after constructing the basement. The architect never allow the change to overpower the design and designs to overpower the change. The changes in the above discussed three stages is very evident. The facade of the built form evolved a lot from the initial design. These changes occurred during the construction phase. In this case study the architect exploited the opportunity to further develop the design to overcome the change initiated.
When the re-work is awarded to the architect, they have already distributed the human resources to other projects but since the work needs to be done on urgent basis, the architects again brings back the resources to the initial project to tackle the change. Although, the re - work fee is given to the architect but the opportunity of using that resources somewhere else is lost. This part of the change has been in the shadows as it cannot be quantified and the things which cannot be quantified, cannot be awarded a cost to compensate that. This raises a big alarm, about the line between the imageability and opportunity cost? As a learning for the architect who designed this building, the proactive approach is better to test the functional grid for different functions in such projects as the clientâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s requirement and global market cannot be deemed unchangeable.
REAL ESTATE REGULATION ACT Recently the government approved Real Estate Regulation Act, has been launched to save the consumers in the Real Estate sector. Change must be seen as a positive entity, and architects need to acknowledge the change in a positive way as their image-ability is at stake. But this act, which is eliminating the scope of change in the construction phase can have adverse effects on the involved stakeholders.
Plotted House Development Let us now look at the other side of the coin, focusing on the negative aspect of change and the architect. Recently, a lot of such cases are emerging where the architect produces drawings for government approval but leaves before or during the construction phase. In this case study, the client asked the architect to increase the liveable space, but the architect refused to incorporate the change abandoning the project and taking a lump sum amount for statutory approval drawings. A lot of such cases are prevalent now-a-days because of the negative attitude towards change.
Opportunity Cost Let us look at what happens in the architectâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s office when the need for change arises. By diverting the available human resources from efficient projects into the projects where change has taken place, the efficiency of both projects can be substantially affected. This is an unsung aspect of change that goes unnoticed in the wide realm of architecture.
CONCLUSION If change can be perceived as a positive aspect and if its adverse effects can be channeled towards efficiency, it would no longer be an aspect of architecture that is considered as avoidable at all costs. Change must be embraced to understand the ever-growing demands of architecture. And most of the times it is an opportunity in disguise and identifying its potential must be a cherished skill of an architect.
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REFERENCES Allen, I. a., 1995. Impact of Change’s Timing on Labor Productivity. Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, ASCE, 131 (11). Amine Ghanem, M. H. M. E.-G., n.d. A Case Study for Improving Construction Project. s.l., 51st ASC Annual International Conference Proceedings. Anon., 1990. Concise Oxford Dictionary. s.l.:s.n. Bartoli, A. H. P., 2004. Managing change and innovation in IT implementation process. Journal of Manufacturing. Chua, D. K. H., 1999. Critical success factors for different. Journal of construction engineering and management. Clifton, L. a., 2001. s.l.:s.n. Ibbs C. W., M. G., n.d. Evaluating the Cumulative Impact of Changes on. Cost Engineering. Ibbs, C. W., 1994. Quantitative impacts of project change. Journal of Construction Engineering and Management. Ibbs, C. W., 2005. Impact of Change’s Timing on Labor Productivity. Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, ASCE, 131 (11). Issa, L. a., 2005. s.l.:s.n. Jones, 2001. s.l.:s.n. Langroodi, B. P., n.d. http://ascelibrary.org/doi/abs/10.1061/9780784412329.119. [Online]. Lee, S., n.d. Understanding and Quantifying the Impact of Changes on Construction. s.l.:PhD Dissertation, UC Berkley. Love et al., P. E. D. a. L. H., 2000. Quantifying the Causes and Costs of Rework in Construction. Journal of Construction Management and Economics, 18, pp. 479490. Moselhi, O. L. C. a. F. P., 1991. Impact of change orders on construction. s.l., s.n. S. Isaac, R. N., 2008). Feasibility study of an automated tool for. Journal of Construction Engineering and Management. Sexton, S. S. a. M. G., 2004. MANAGING CONSTRUCTION PROJECT CHANGE IN KNOWLEDGE AGE, s.l.: s.n. Zou, Y. a. L. S. H., 2008. Construction Management and Economics. s.l.:s.n.
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अपिरिचत Chirag Sankhla | Kamran Ahmed | Pawan Singh | Sushil Kumar Guide: Ar. D. Vishwanathan Chairperson:Ar. Vijay Garg
ABSTRACT The objective of this research paper is to analyse the architectâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s responsibilities and role during construction and how to manage the design at site. It will also emphasize on the services an architect provides during construction and get a better understanding of the limitations of an architect during construction. This research paper will provide an understanding of an architectâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s job to establish a reasonable discussion and research towards it. This report will also give literature review based on this topic in form of resources and information gathered from books, internet and journals. It will investigate the process involved in the execution of a building and the responsibility led by an architect. It will navigate the role of an architect in case of any discrepancies and how an architect manages all the issues at the site. It will also look the different types of projects and change in the architectâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s role according to that.
INTRODUCTION The architect’s role is more than designing a structure. They are also a part of the project before it starts. Their relationship turns more complex with growing complexity and quantum of contruction. Sometimes the role of an architect is not clear in the project. Sometimes, it overlaps with the others’ job during construction and in India with the enactment of Act of Architect 1972, the architect stands protected as the act prohibits any other professionals including a civil engineer from entering their domain unless they have been accepted as a member of the Council of Architecture. In the process, the prospects of civil engineers who have been reigning the construction field hitherto, are affected. The research on “Role of architect during construction phase” has been done to elaborate the responsibilities of an architect during the construction phase in India, and the changing role with the changing typology and scale of projects. An architect is considered as the “CAPTAIN OF THE SHIP”, but it is not true in every case. This research will try to analyse the change in the role with the nature of projects. The research is based on the matrix of the responsibility of the architect with the changing scale of the project and the changing type of the contract involved. This will be based on the interviews with the different people involved with projects at different stages, especially during construction. With the help of those interviews, inferences will be drawn to speak for or against the statement. The role of an architect also changes with the location. In cities like Delhi, the role is structurally defined but in small cities where there is less exposure for the architect, the role changes. The situation is the same with architectural practices in India versus foreign practices. With changing norms, the role of an architect also changes. Architect’s main job is to design a given project and to get the contractor started on it’s construction and as the projects passes on, the role decreases. The level of care and skill to be exercised must be in conformity with the normal standards of the architect’s profession. An architect owes his duty to the client/employer, but not to any third party. Ultimately, architects are responsible for ensuring that their design is brought to completion.
THE COUNCIL OF ARCHITECTURE (COA) The code of the Council of Architecture states that an architect should visit the construction of projects at a reasonable frequency, after the contract is set in motion. This is not to say that the architect has to supervise the work on site. Such a requirement would be too onerous and require the architect to maintain a continuous presence on site. Instead, the day-to-day supervision of the works is usually the responsibility of the building contractor, who is required to have a competent person in charge of on site. The architect is expected to act as a disinterested judge of the performance of the contractor and the owner. In this quasi-judicial capacity, the architect is called upon to interpret and decide matters concerning the performance of the owner and the contractor. They are expected to interpret fairly what the contract documents require. In doing so, they are enjoined to show no partiality towards either the owner or the contractor.
These diversities in the architect’s role somehow confuse architects as well in identifying what they should be doing. This gives rise to many questions in their minds. Do architects play an important role in the construction phase of a project? Most architects want to be involved until the project is completed. Very few actually make money during the construction phase. Many want this involvement in order to see that their original design concept is carried out as they intended it to be. Many view this continued involvement as the opportunity to resolve problems and correct mistakes which are only revealed in the field. The role of architects during the construction phase is as discussed below: • Architects make the construction documents, including drawings and specifications, even though they are not directly responsible for the construction which the contractor, the major party carrying out construction, uses to construct the project. • Architect are majorly responsible for supervising the contracts requirements. • Moreover, they observe and make sure that the work meets the design intent. • Architects at the site can be called an intermediary between the contractor and the owner, providing communication in matters regarding the contract which includes changes in work, acceptance of the work and due payments to the contractor.
INTERRELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DIFFERENT PARTNERS IN CONSTRUCTION PROCESS Source: Author
DIAGRAM SHOWING THE HIERARCHY BASED ON HIRING PROCESS OF THE CLIENT Source: Author
Authority of Architects and its Limitations Throughout the building phase, architects might perform roles at the construction site as a client’s representative, and will act on the client’s behalf with a certain authority. Their authority could be actual, implied or superficial. Actual authority is when the client explicitly gives authority to the architect to represent the client at the construction site. For instance, the architect may authorize slight variations in the work that are levied due to the intent of the contract documents and do not involve any alteration in the contract amount or completing time. Implied authority lets architects to carry out authority related to their actual authority. Apparent or superficial authority is when clients lead others to believe that the architects have additional authority than they actually have. Refusing contractor’s work if work does not replicate to the contract documents is a common authority granted to architects by contract. During construction, an ARCHI-CHAKKAR 156
architect makes several frequent site visits in order to become accustomed with the progress of the work and usually determine that contractor’s work is progressing in accordance to contract documents.
Fee Schedule The major factor that decides the involvement of architects in the various stages described above is their professional fee in the corresponding stages as per the COA.
PAYMENT SCHEDULE ACCORDING TO COA CODE OF CONDUCT Source: Author
Liability Architects are marked careless when they fail to perform their responsibilities. They are expected to work with high degree of care and capability and match the proficiency of a reasonably accomplished fellow of the profession providing similar services under similar circumstances. Architects may be held liable for their acts of negligence, failure to act or any similar cases if found to happen. Architects owe a legal duty to the complaining party and on any unsuccessful attempt to perform their duty that is an immediate cause of damage or a subsequent damage or consequence that can be held against them. Depending upon causes of action allowed by applicable law, architects may face negligence action by the client, the contractor or third parties. Depending on the claim and type of compensations sought, privity of agreement may be required to enforce liability on architects. Pertinent law and contracts may compel architects to maintain insurance, such as worker’s compensation, professional, general and automotive policies. Typically, if an owner asks an architect to carry additional insurance or limits, the owner compensates the architect for the corresponding costs. Professional liability insurance protects architects from negligence claims. Majority of the professional liability policies demand that the architects give notice to its professional liability member if a claim is made against the architect. The legitimacy of a claim depends upon the architect’s policy to be considered a claim, but the incident must have these three elements: 1. Grievance to a person or property that has been verified 2. Accusation that the architect was the one who caused the harm 3. A call for compensation
The role of architects is dependable on the project typology and it also depends on the type of the project contract enrolled with it. These dependencies have been categorised according to the project: • Government Project • Residential Project • Corporate Project • Developer’s Project There are several factors involved in a project that determine the role of architects in a construction project. These factors play a vital role during the construction. Some of these factors are: • Fee • Volunteer • Client • Landmark design • Dependency on project • Scarcity of time • Shop DWG check • Location
Residential Project In residential projects, generally the size of the project is small scale so it needs less division of work. The architect has the responsibility to develop and translate the owner’s requirement and represent them graphically so that the contractor or builder can schedule, calculate cost and implement the design. The responsibility is not very complex for either the architect, builder or contractor. In addition to designing, the architect must have enough skill and expertise to supervise the project during construction and make the final product match client needs and satisfaction.
Commercial / Corporate Project The corporate sector is all about making profit. It has no concerns about environment, social responsibility and sustainability and in these type of projects the architect is hired by the client’s choice or by competition. A contractor or builder is also hired independently. There is another agency involved in it for the proper execution of the project. That agency is known as PMC or the project management consultancy. The governance of the architect on the project reduces in this sector. The fees of the architect depends upon the project’s timeline. The governing agency here is the PMC. ARCHI-CHAKKAR 158
Government Project The scenario of government projects is totally different from that of residential projects. This includes very different steps for the construction of the project. The percentage fee for the architect is very less in government projects. It can go to less than 1 percent and there is no direct ownership of these projects. The architect is hired with the help of a tender or through a competition. The architect’s job is very independent from the client as there are only representatives of a larger institution or agency. A contractor is also hired through a filed tender. The most common type of contract involved here is the rate contract. The contractor with the lowest bid is generally selected for the project. The responsibilities of architectural consultancies are very clear in government projects. They are assigned to do a very specific set of work under their work order. All the deliverables are delivered at the pre-construction phase of the project. Architects are bound to deliver any modifications in design during the construction phase. Their job does not overlap or conflict with the contractor as their territory is clearly defined.
Developer’s Project Developer’s project is whole new arena for architects and in this type of project the clients themselves are contractors. They have the mechanism for the project but lack finance. The developer gets the finance from the client by selling the built blocks in advance. Then, with that chunk of money, the project is begun by hiring the architectural consultants. The total finance of the project is completely depending upon the clients’ payment and if this payment gets halted due to any reason, the project stops immediately due to the stalled cash flow. As the payment is received from multiple clients in installments during the time period of construction phase, the possibility of inconsistency of cash flow is often encountered. If the projects stops, the payment to the architect also stops. The architect’s job in this type of project is in the hands of the contractor. These projects help in making more money in less time as there is limited work and no overlapping. The developer hires different agencies for different jobs making it an easy job that also brings quick returns. The architects are not the “CAPTAIN OF THE SHIP” here as well. They don’t have exclusive responsibilities in these projects as all the parts have been distributed.
INFERENCE It is important, that architects provide services, not final products. Even when practicing professional judgment, architects might be judged for being mistaken but, unfortunately buildings cannot be pre-tested and guaranteed. Architects are liable for bad services, but will not be liable for errors or issues that any reasonable consultant might have also made under similar situations. Architects will be held accountable for any disregard when they fail to practice with reasonable proficiency, sound judgment, and causing no consequential harm to people or property. Architects should be very cautious when making contracts by clearly stating their role for all phases of the project and while exercising their responsibilities before and during construction.
Architects play a crucial role in a highly multifaceted industry where “interpretation” is a continuous action exercised by all project members, each paying consideration to their own benefits, even though the achievement of a project’s construction would be the definitive goal. Today, the role of architects has minimised on site. If the role is to be increased at site, the number of paid visits will have to be increased, but in many cases architects don’t want to get involved in the construction without the proper authority. The increase in fee will ensure their greater relevance and involvement during construction. Clients should take responsibility of any third party and not intrude in the work order of an architect.
REFERENCES Ahuja, H., Dozzi, S. and AbouRizk, S. (1994). Project management. New York: J. Wiley. Albert R. Russell, Architect. (2009). The Architect’s role at the construction site. [online] Available at: http://www.alrussellarchitect.com/blog/2009/05/architectsrole-at-construction-site/ [Accessed 9 Sep. 2016]. Dharwadker, P. (1995). Construction management. New Delhi: Oxford & IBH Publishing. Gould, F. and Joyce, N. (n.d.). Construction project management. Gilespike.com. (2016). Roles & Responsibilities | Architects | South West London. [online] Available at: http://gilespike.com/roles-and-responsibilities.html [Accessed 9 Sep. 2016]. Strukts.com. (2016). Senior Architect Roles and Responsibilities | strukts. [online] Available at: http://www.strukts.com/2014/09/senior-architect-roles-and_25. html [Accessed 9 Sep. 2016]. Reardonsmith.com. (2016). The Architect’s Role On-Site - ReardonSmith Architects. [online] Available at: http://www.reardonsmith.com/about-us/viewpoint/25-thearchitect-s-role-on-site#.V9Lw2Pl97IV [Accessed 9 Sep. 2016]. Watts, G. (2016). The Architect’s role. [online] Building. Available at: http://www. building.co.uk/the-architects-role/1029531.article [Accessed 9 Sep. 2016].
This module critically evaluates architecture as a product of the systems employed. Thus the systems â&#x20AC;&#x201C; construction methods, structural system, services, materials etc selected in specific buildings would be critically evaluated and for the efficacy of each selection. Market surveys to identify alternative technology and/ or systems available and a possible restructuring may be a parallel study.
BUILDING की सुनवाई Lakshya Satija | Girish Kumar | Manisha | Puneet Thakre | Vidit Jaiswal Guides: Ar. Abhay Ghate | Ar. Vivek Verma Chairperson: Dr. Virendra Kumar Paul
ABSTRACT The seminar “BUILDING की सुनवाई”, deals with the importance of integration of services and structure with design and critiquing a building on those lines with a case example of Fortis memorial research Institute in Gurgaon, a 400 bedded super specialty Hospital. The seminar is introduced with defining the building as a Product and understanding the breakthrough of technologies in construction. The Buildings have become complex with its services and functions like malls, hotels and hospitals. We can’t imagine life without these services and the comfort that they provide to us. They have become an inevitable need. The need for services in all types of buildings has greatly increased as a consequence of new approaches to working and living. This complexity has given rise to the need for various professionals and specialists to come together and work as a team to create a good final product.
IMPORTANCE OF INTEGRATION OF STRUCTURE AND SERVICES WITH DESIGN Like all other engineered products, buildings must fulfill the purposes that they are designed for. They should not only provide shelter and protection from cold, heat, rain and wind, but also healthy and safe environments for people to live in. In the 21st century the basic purpose of a building remains the same but the complexity involved has increased tremendously. The need for services in all types of buildings has greatly increased as a consequence of new approaches to working and living. We can’t imagine life without these services and the comfort that they provide to us. These have become an inevitable need. This complexity has given rise to the need for various professionals and specialists to come together and work as a team. • The Architect • Consultants • The Client The key person responsible for bringing these role players together is the architect. The architect is like a composer here. He is dealing with a band of people and is responsible for creating a harmonious composition. Designing a building to be a good product, requires architects to explicitly and consciously consider the following: • The function of the spaces • The structural systems to be implemented • The services to be accommodated • And, the building envelope Harmonization of these elements is the key to well-performing buildings.
THE ROLE PLAYERS Source: Author ARCHI-CHAKKAR 166
THE ROLE PLAYERS Source: Author
A large number of materials, components, equipment, and assemblies must be properly integrated to achieve a high-performance building. If all these are thought of at the initial stages of design, the final product is good. (Kesik, 2014) Buildings serve several needs of society – primarily as shelter from weather, security, living space, and to comfortably live and work. In order for this product to work efficiently, the various aspects that control the parameters need to be optimized and integrated.
FUNCTION, STRUCTURE, SERVICES & BUILDING ENVELOPE Source: Author BUILDING की सुनवाई
METHODS OF INTEGRATION There are several methods and technologies available to help us with the integration of services, structure and functions.
Service Floor Service floor is a breakthrough technology that allows us to address all these aspects of a building. The National Building Code of India states that if the height of the service floor is kept up to 2.4m, it is free of F.A.R. This helps greatly in incorporation and maintenance of services in a complex building. The image below shows a well-designed service floor. Here, the service ducts and pipelines have been placed on the sides and there is enough room for accessing and maintaining them.
A WELL DESIGNED SERVICE FLOOR Source: http://www. julpharbd.com/images/news// d30d1b13b3abd34002 8a2a2de063af5e.jpg
In the hospital building that we visited, the service floor has strategically been placed such that it is sandwiched between the patient rooms floors above and operation theaters below. The service floor also enables us to transfer services horizontally.
SECTION SHOWING SERVICE FLOOR SANDWICHED BETWEEN THE PATIENT ROOMSâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; FLOORS ABOVE AND OPERATION THEATRES BELOW Source: Author ARCHI-CHAKKAR 168
SEPARATE AHUS FOR OPERATION THEATRES CONVENIENTLY PLACED ON THE SERVICE FLOOR Source: Author
Operation theaters require separate AHUs in order to maintain sterile conditions. By this strategic placement of the service floor, AHUs can be conveniently placed just above the operation theatres, thereby eradicating the need for ducts to run through large distances. But, it has been seen quite often that architects designate very low heights to service floors, sometimes as low as 1.5m. This is where the issue arises. This low height makes it difficult to access the service floor. The result is hindrance in the implementation of services during construction phase and difficulty in maintenance of these services in the post construction phases. Site engineers literally have to crawl in to get through.
THE STRUCTURE ZONE AND THE SERVICE ZONE Source: http://www. steelconstruction.info/ File:C5fig1.png
In a building, there are two zones in any space -The Structure Zone and the Service Zone. A building can be made spatially efficient by providing more clear height within the same overall height of the building. This can be done in two ways: • Either we minimize the structural zone and allow the services to pass underneath • Or, we accommodate the services within the structural zone, thereby combining the two zones BUILDING की सुनवाई
WAYS OF ACHIEVING MORE CLEAR HEIGHT WITHIN THE SAME OVERALL HEIGHT OF THE BUILDING. Source: http://www.steelconstruction.info/File:C5fig1. png
There are several practices and technologies that can be adopted to achieve the above.
Composite Beams with Web Openings In this method of construction, sufficiently large depth of steel beam is selected, so that usually rectangular shaped openings can be cut into the web. Typically, the length of the openings should not be more than 2 times of the beam depth.
Cellular Beams Lighter and deeper sections can be fabricated from structural sections in the form of â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;cellularâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; beams. These sections are produced by cutting hot rolled steel sections and re-welding them to create deeper beams with a series of circular holes. The sections are structurally efficient, and relatively large openings can be provided through which services can be passed.
Tapered Beams The tapered web beams is designed to provide voids which can be utilized to run for modestly sized service ducts. Typically, tapered beams are mostly economic for spans of range 13 to 20 m.
Composite Trusses Composite trusses can be designed for long span applications of range 15 to 20m, which comprise either angles or T-sections and for more heavily loaded applications, square hollow sections can be used. Generally the braced members are located in a W-form so that sufficient space can be provided for large ducts.
Active Chilled Beam System A chilled beam is a type of HVAC system based on convection designed to heat or cool the large buildings. In this System, pipes of water are passed through the beam. As the beam cools the air around it, the air becomes denser and falls towards the floor.
Service-structure integration can allow for extra floors to be provided within the same overall building height. By using Active Chilled Beam system, the size of vertical shafts and ductwork can be greatly minimized which results in reduced floor to floor height, keeping the clear height same.
EXTRA FLOORS PROVIDED WITHIN THE SAME OVERALL BUILDING HEIGHT. Source: http://www.ahrinet. org/App_Content/ahri/ images/Fig%202%20 active%20beam.jpg
This accommodation of services within the structural elements leads to cost savings in construction by reducing the overall height of the building, which in turn, has a double benefit of reducing the external cladding required and also reducing heat gain through the envelope.
BUILDING की सुनवाई
CASE STUDY We visited Fortis Memorial Research Institute in Gurgaon. It is a 400 bedded Super Specialty Hospital. What has been seen is, people perceive hospitals as places of disease and pain. The designers of Fortis Hospital took up the challenge to change this perception and provide an atmosphere of healing and wellbeing. The main lobby leads to the atrium which acts as a central waiting area. It is a well day lit space with a pleasant ambience.
FORTIS MEMORIAL RESEARCH CENTRE, GURGAON Source: http://www. indiameditourism.com/ assets/files/hospital
THE ATRIUM INSIDE THE HOSPITAL Source: http://www.vaidam. com/sites/default/files/Fortis-Gurgaon-Lobby-3.jpg ARCHI-CHAKKAR 172
There is a 36 seater movie theatre called the Fortiflex where movie screenings take place for the patient’s family members during waiting hours.
FORTIPLEX INSIDE THE HOSPITAL Source: Author
The experience of the patients has also been taken care of. One example can be seen in the MRI room where the patient is given a dramatic experience using ambient lighting.
MRI ROOM IN THE HOSPITAL Source: http://cdn. fortishealthcare.com BUILDING की सुनवाई
The building is an R.C.C framed structure with Flat Slab system used in lower floors, Vierendeel girders for service floor, and beam slab system for upper floors.
A 3D MODEL SHOWING STRUCTURE OF THE HOSPITAL Source: Author
The building has been constructed in three blocks which are connected by expansion joints.
PLAN AND 3D MODEL SHOWING DIFFERENT ZONES CONNECTED BY STRUCTURAL JOINTS. Source: Author
On the service Floor, majority of vierendeel girders are resting on columns, but some are resting on primary beams. At these intersections, critical junctions are being formed. This is not favorable in cases of earthquakes and other lateral forces. ARCHI-CHAKKAR 174
3D MODELS SHOWING CRITICAL JUNCTIONS IN THE SERVICE FLOOR STRUCTURE. Source: Author
3D MODELS SHOWING CRITICAL JUNCTIONS IN THE SERVICE FLOOR STRUCTURE. Source: Author
BUILDING की सुनवाई
Services A pneumatic tube system is installed in the building which is used for easy and quick transportation of medicines from pharmacy to patient rooms and for collecting samples and sending them to testing labs.
PNEUMATIC TUBE SYSTEM IN THE HOSPITAL Source: Author
Medical gases are supplied from a gas storage and supply rooms to patient rooms.
GAS STORAGE AND SUPPLY ROOM OF THE HOSPITAL Source: Author
The image below shows the first floor plan of the hospital with: • The double height entrance lobby and the atrium • Patients and visitor lift lobbies • The fire staircases We analyzed the floor plan for travel distances in case of fire. According to NBC, the maximum travel distance should not exceed 45m in buildings equipped with sprinkler system. ARCHI-CHAKKAR 176
FIRST FLOOR PLAN OF THE HOSPITAL Source: Author / Fortis Healthcare
We observed that most of the spaces follow this mandate. Although, there were some spaces which did not fall within the 45m travel distance. We carried out the same analysis for the patients’ floors.
TYPICAL PATIENTS’ FLOOR PLAN OF THE HOSPITAL Source: Author / Fortis healthcare
The terrace given acts as refuge area in case of emergency. Similarly, on the other side of the patient floors also, there is a huge terrace that acts as a refuge area further contributing to the safety of the occupants. Smoke extraction system has also been incorporated in the building.
BUILDING की सुनवाई
CONCLUSION After interacting with professionals in the industry, understanding their viewpoints, and analyzing case examples, we arrived at the following conclusions: • Planning of services, structure and building envelope in early design stages can help in increasing efficiency of the building, avoiding service clashes, minimising wastage of building materials and better utilisation of spaces. • In multi-storeyed buildings, structure-service integration can allow provision of extra floors within the same overall building height. • Proper integration and appropriate implementation of structure and services with design, right at the initial stages of design, plays a major role in making the final outcome a good product-
A building that is: • Efficient • Comfortable • Cost effective • Easy to maintain • Flexible
All in all, the end-user experience is good.
A GOOD FINAL PRODUCT Source: Author
REFERENCES Anon., 2014. [Online] Available at: http://www.steelconstruction.info/Service[Accessed 15 July 2016]. Anon., 2014. Comfortable Low Energy Architecture. [Online] Available at: http://www.new-learn.info/packages/clear/thermal/buildings/configuration/surcafeareato_vol_ratio.html [Accessed 09 September 2016]. Anon., 2015. Chilled beam. [Online] Available at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chilled_beam [Accessed 10 August 2016]. Anon., 2015. HVAC_system_size.pdf. [Online] Available at: http://www.construction-innovation.info/images/HVAC_system_size. pdf [Accessed 11 August 2016]. Anon., 2016. Active chilled beams: Sustainable air conditioning. [Online] Available at: http://dadanco.com/active-chilled-beams/ [Accessed 11 August 2016]. Barton, P. K., 1983. Building Services Integration. 1st ed. USA: E. & F.N. Spon Ltd. Basulto, D., 2009. Seattle Central Library / OMA + LMN. [Online] Available at: http://www.archdaily.com/11651/seattle-central-library-oma-lmn [Accessed 11 august 2016]. BIS, 2000. Indian Standard SAFETY CODE FOR AIR-CONDITIONING. [Online] Available at: https://law.resource.org/pub/in/bis/S08/is.659.1964.pdf [Accessed 20 July 2016]. BIS, 2006. IS.655.2006 Duct Work Specifications. [Online] Available at: https://law.resource.org/pub/in/bis/S08/is.655.2006.pdf [Accessed 10 August 2016]. Both, B., 2014. Airflow rate calculation. [Online] Available at: http://www.epget.bme.hu/en/component/phocadownload/category/71-ag62_airconditioning?download=703:airflow-rate-calculation [Accessed 11 August 2016]. CPWD, 2013. Indira Paryavaran Bhawan. [Online] Available at: http://www.moef.nic.in/ipb/enerygy-efficiency.htm [Accessed 11 August 2016]. Fuller, S., 2010. Life-Cycle Cost Analysis (LCCA). [Online] Available at: https://www.wbdg.org/resources/lcca.php [Accessed 09 September 2016]. Gary D. Beckfeld, P., 2012. m199content.pdf. [Online] Available at: http://www.pdhonline.com/courses/m199/m199content.pdf [Accessed 12 August 2016].
BUILDING की सुनवाई
सबसे अच्छा कौन? Dhruv Dhingra | Neena Annu Joseph | Samridh Chaudhary | Jupiter Moirangthem |Shravan Murali | Raja Ravi Teja Madagala | Teja Yadav | Pidemo Odeyuo | Vaishali Verma Guides: Ar. Abhay Ghate | Ar. Vivek Verma Chairperson: Ar. Avtar Singh
ABSTRACT A product defined as â&#x20AC;&#x153;a method, idea, information, object or service created as a result of a process and serves a need or satisfies a want. It has a combination of tangible and intangible attributes.â&#x20AC;? With innumerable products being created it becomes extremely crucial that every new product is bettered for tomorrow through analysis and evaluation. Product analysis involves studying and describing an object in terms of its size, material or color, or its different components. Product evaluation involves testing a product in terms of its effectiveness, e.g. its energy consumption, its maintenance, how well it performs etc. Such studies help a designer to understand a product better and in turn identify its efficiency parameters in terms of its quantity/quality/both. This further helps in finding ways for improvement. Designers today perform such studies critically where being critical is about analyzing the good as well as bad points of the product. When several designs of a similar product are critically evaluated it might be possible to compare them and reach a conclusion about which is the most successful overall for a particular application. However, the main purpose of the exercise is to give the designer ideas for other new or improved products.
PARAMETERS THAT MAKE A BUILDING “ When a truth is necessary, the reason for it can be found by analysis, that is, by resolving it into simpler ideas and truths until the primary ones are reached.” - Gottfried Leibniz. With innumerable products already in existence, it becomes extremely crucial that every new product is better for tomorrow.
Product Product analysis helps us understand a product better and in turn, it could identify parameters that affect its efficiency. An analysis of a product would give us the efficiency of the product in quantitative/qualitative/both terms. Designers study existing products to learn more about how they were designed and made, and to see if they can find ways of improving them. Hence the analysis and evaluation of a finished product are of utmost importance.
Analysing Building as a Product A building can also be classified as product, which like any other product can be analyzed. The physical entity that a building is, the parameters that determine its efficiency and reach are a combination of both tangible and intangible aspects. The aim is to be able to provide the designer, the architect, an evaluation of his product and also give him alternate ideas about specific parameters that affect the efficiency of the product, the building. To create a common platform where the designers and users of the product can interact to have a better appreciation of the product and at the same time creating awareness on both the sides.
‘SABSE ACHA KAUN’ APP HOMESCREEN Source: Author ARCHI-CHAKKAR 182
PRODUCT EVALUATION SAMPLE Source: Xiaomi Redmi Note 3
Evaluation To evaluate, the parameters under which a building can be evaluated as a product, a system of various sub-systems has to be identified and determined. A resource book, setting the base for the evaluation of parameters with information about the recommended practices for Delhi and information of the possible alternatives of each sub-parameter / sub-system has to be created. It is important to apply the parameters on case studies to identify the importance of the integration of the sub systems. For a building evaluation, fuzzy logic is a more efficient way than binary evaluation since it reduces the chances of ruling out a system by terming it in good/ bad and instead focuses on the choice of selection by introducing an intermediate marking. User rating system has to be developed in order to identify the end user perception of the product, which would directly influence the decisions for the products of the future. The entire process is a post design analysis, with nothing being recorded in the predesign or the manufacturing stage. The parameters are identified and discussed on more of a qualitative basis than a quantitative one. The purpose of the exercise is not to classify a product as good or bad, but an attempt to understand the various layers of sub-systems that compose the product. Buildings picked up as case studies are large-scale contemporary non-residential ones in Delhi. When all the information about a product has been gathered together, a final judgment can be made. Being critical is not just about saying what is wrong with something. There may be good and bad points about a design – it may work well in one respect, but badly in another. If several designs of a similar product are being evaluated (e.g. a range of torches) it might be possible to compare them and reach a conclusion about which is the most successful overall for a particular application.
सबसे अच्छा कौन?
Parameters These parameters have to be categorised, for evaluation. Three primary categories have been identified, which can be best represented as: Structure, Services & Sustainability. The interrelations and overlaps between the parameters are marked. Each of these parameters individually and together determine the function and the form and the determinants of the product.
Structure Structural systems consist of many elements. Each system has its advantages as well as different purposes. Furthermore, each structural system has a different level of stiffness. There are also several alternative structural building materials. The selection of structural system is sometimes based on personal experience or perception without being evaluated, as it should be to provide advantage for the project. The conceptual selection process provides an orderly way to determine and review vital criteria, which leads to the selection of the optimum structural system. Determining the required criteria in this case were guided by effective integration of different sub layers of the product. Optimum structural system is that system which achieves most of these required criteria. • Flexibility • Performance in extremities • Design integration • Service integration • Maintenance
THE IDENTIFIED PARAMETERS Source: Author
GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION OF SUSTAINABILITY PARAMETER Source: Author
Sustainability The Sustainability Parameters aim at analysing the building design to minimize the demand on non-renewable resources, to maximize the efficiency of these resources when in use, and maximize the reuse, recycling, and utilization of renewable resources. Parameters checks the use of efficient materials and construction practices; implementation of passive design techniques; maximizes the use of renewable sources of energy; uses efficient waste and water management practices; and provides comfortable and hygienic indoor working conditions. The architect, landscape designer, and the air conditioning, electrical, plumbing, and energy consultants need to work as a team to address all aspects of building and system planning, design, construction, and operation. This ‘integrated’ design team critically evaluates the impacts of each design decision on the environment and arrives at viable design solutions to minimize the negative impacts and enhance the positive impacts on the environment. A sustainable design guideline thus evaluates the following aspects of the building design in an integrated way. These are analyzed using the following 5 sub parameters • Heat gain • Daylighting • Indoor air quality & Temp • Acoustic comfort • Waste management
सबसे अच्छा कौन?
INTEGRATION OF PARAMETERS Services Imagine yourself in the most fabulous building in the world. Now take away the lighting, heating and ventilation, the lifts and escalators, acoustics, plumbing, power supply and the security and safety systems. You are left in a cold, dark uninhabitable shell. Building comes to life through these services, which makes the building environment comfortable and habitable. Building services contribute largely to the sustainability and functioning of the building. Mechanical, electrical and operation systems make up for the whole of services. Mainly, HVAC, electrical, plumbing, lighting and fire fighting. Evaluation of these systems has been intended to integrate to the sustainability and the efficient functioning of the building. • Cost efficiency • Design efficiency • Degree of control • Innovation • Maintenance
Graphs - Individual • Each of the 3 main parameter are sub divided further, on basis of which points are given. • The area formed by the pentagon gives an idea of the overall efficiency of that category of parameters.
GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION OF STRUCTURES PARAMETER Source: Author ARCHI-CHAKKAR 186
GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION OF INTEGRATION OF 3 PARAMETERS Source: Author
Integrated • Each of the sub-division is evaluated. • The shaded area represents not only a product with better sub-parameters; but it also gives an idea of their integration.
Findings The buildings studied cannot be categorised as good or bad buildings, but the analysis gives an idea of the integration of the sub-systems that compose the product. An average of the average sub-systems will read as a better product that one with extreme systems. Hence, the study is a comment on the overall functionality, form and in general the effectiveness of the building as a product.
Statements of Debate The relevance of the topic studied and discussed, limited to designers Aspects of integration of services and structures into the product could be questioned by someone who is not a designer. Seeing ducts that are not designed or service/structural elements that seem to be the result of little last minute thoughts might not be such an issue for the users as much as it affects the designer. If the misfits do not hinder with the functionality and comfort of the space then the user may not concerned with it at all.
सबसे अच्छा कौन?
BUILDING EVALUATION - NATIONAL GALLERY OF MODERN ARTS, NEW DELHI Structure NGMA was designed as a column and beam framed structure with a grid of 7.68mx7.68m. Without the requirement of basement parking, the freedom of setting the grid was greater. The grid was chosen to respond to the structure of major buildings in Lutyens Delhi. The grid varies in the administration block though, which houses the auditorium, the library and the offices. This block follows both beam-column and a diagrid framework, with the use of waffle slab. This provides large column free spaces for the auditorium and the library. Flexibility/Adaptability - The exhibition spaces are not large column free spaces but they can still be configured according to requisites. Many of the outdoor spaces have been designed to be used as exhibition spaces. Some of them are used, most are not. Future Expansions - In the form of the built may not be possible because of the tight offsets and site restraints on site. Performance in Extremities - The form of the building, being a cube essentially follows equal mass distribution about the central axes, making it more earthquake resistance.
Design Integration Adding Value to Aesthetics - The introduction of secondary and tertiary beams to reduce the depth of beam increases clear height enhancing the spatial quality and also provides enough space to accommodate lighting fixtures which otherwise might have been a hindrance for the precious art works in the gallery thus adding value both aesthetically and functionally. Negative Spaces - There are no negative spaces that are created because of the structural grid. Negative spaces between the beams have been utilized for lighting fixtures. Services Integration - Reduced beam depth facilitate running of HVAC ducts. Maintenance - The structural system provides for a clean layout that is essential for the function that NGMA caters to.
SHADOW ANALYSIS ON VIRTUAL MODEL, NGMA Source: Author ARCHI-CHAKKAR 188
GROUND FLOOR PLAN SHOWING EXHIBITION SPACE, NGMA Source: NGMA files from the architect
Services HVAC - Uses chilled water centrally air-conditioned systems. The chilled water pipes are distributed at the basement level and rise up at different AHU’s in the three blocks. In each block the AHU’s are placed at opposite corners of the square plan, which facilitates efficient and uniform distribution of ducts. Electrical - The electrical conduits run on trays within the false ceiling in all other floors, except in the basement where all services are exposed. Plumbing - NGMA’s plumbing system is as per design recommendations by NBC. Lighting -The galleries are lit with a combination of natural and artificial lighting. The artificial lighting, other that providing a pre-set illumination level, includes specific fixtures for viewing of the artwork. The specifications given by the architects included dimming modules that would have not only enhanced the viewing experience of the user but also made the system more energy efficient. They were not implemented because of tight budget constraints. Fire-Fighting - A composite system of water and gas based sprinkler system have been installed.
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Sustainability Heat Gain • Shaded Openings - The three blocks mutually shade the intermediate space between them for most parts of the day. • Shading Devices - All the windows are recessed. No other shading elements have been used. • Thermal Resistance/Material - The entire building has been clad with sandstone, which increases the thermal resistance of the masonry walls. Natural Lighting - The requisite natural lighting for exhibition spaces have been provided. The provision of lighting is in accordance with specific interior functions. Spaces like the library and the lobby have recessed skylights that let in diffused light. Also, the ramps that connect one floor to another are placed along the external face of the building. This creates a buffer space and makes sure that the exhibition space does not receive any direct light. They are illuminated by diffused light not only from the ceiling but from the walls as well. Smart Lighting - The galleries are equipped with sensors which monitor the outdoor illumination levels and adjust the indoor light levels accordingly. Building Form & Orientation- The form, although appears to be a cube, has recessions and some volumes being set back that allow some shading to happen on the facade. The guidance factor of the placement and orientation of the building on the site was to maximize its distance from the existing Jaipur House while leaving minimum required offsets from the site boundary.
ILLUSTRATION SHOWING CHILLED WATER PIPE SYSTEM INTEGRATED AT BASEMENT LEVEL, NGMA Source: Author
STRUCTURAL BEAMS AND COLUMNS, NGMA Source: Author
Indoor Air Quality & Temperature - The gallery spaces and the stores in the basement require a completely controlled and monitored environment. The HVAC system not only maintains the ambient temperature but needs to very carefully takes care of the humidity levels too. The humidity levels are constantly recorded and analyzed. Spatial Arrangement/Building Form - Spaces that are not so frequently used, such as the auditorium and services, have been placed on the SW side to act as a buffer against heat gain. Waste Management - The panels and other modules from the exhibitions are stored in the basement so that it can be re-used for the upcoming ones. A Sewage Treatment Plant exists on site. Segregation of organic wastes from the canteen happens. Landscaped elements use treated grey water.
GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION OF RATINGS FOR DIFFERENT PARAMETERS AND OVERALL INTEGRATION OF THE THREE, NGMA Source: Author
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BUILDING EVALUATION - ALL INDIA COUNCIL FOR TECHNICAL EDUCATION Spread across a linear site are blocks that house primarily offices, along with an auditorium, guest houses and some supporting components. The main office wing has been analyzed for each of the identified parameters.
Structures A beam and column framed structural system has been used. Flexibility/Adaptability - With columns only on the external faces of the building, the internal spaces can flexibly be divided into different layouts. Future Expansions - There is barely any scope for expansions because of the tight offsets and space restraints of the site. Performance in Extremities - The building is visually symmetric. On adding the expansion joints, the resultant sub-structures being symmetric follows equal mass distribution about the axes, making it more earthquake resistant.
Design Integration Adding Value to Aesthetics - The pre-stressed beams do not break in the atrium, but continue to span across adding to the visual quality of the space. Negative Spaces - The structural grid is not orthogonal, yet there are no negative spaces that are formed. Service Integration - The ducts and conduits for services run on trays underneath the beams, all of which is completely covered by the false ceiling. The running of the conduits is not integrated with the structures.
SITE PLAN AND PLAN OF WING 2, AICTE Source: Google Earth and AICTE archives ARCHI-CHAKKAR 192
PLAN OF WING2 HIGHLIGHTING DIFFERENT SERVICES, AICTE
Source: AICTE archives
HVAC - AICTE building uses water cooled VRV systems which are distributed by AHU’s that repeat on every level. The regularly used spaces is cooled via ducts from the AHU’s while the spaces that are not so frequently used have separate cassette units that can be controlled individually, thereby creating a combination of an efficient system. The AHU’s are located along the main corridor and the ducts can be accessed through the false ceiling, which makes the maintenance easy. Electrical - The electrical conduits run on trays within the false ceiling, except for in the basement where they are exposed. The maintenance is easy as they can readily be accessed. Plumbing - Sanitary fittings with motion sensors help conserve water. Recycled water is not being used for any purposes within the building. Alternate sources of energy have not been used for heating water. Lighting - For electrical fittings, the best available choices have been used. They consume lesser energy. The system is also fitted with sensors that make it more energy efficient. Daylighting has been utilized which along with the artificial sources of light provide sufficient lighting levels. Fire Fighting - Water based sprinkler systems have been installed. Smoke detectors, fire extinguishers and fire hose reels have been provided. The building can be accessed from sides in case for a fire using wide fire tender paths.
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Sustainability Heat Gain - The central landscaped courtyard does have much of an effect on the buildings, which are completely sealed. Any micro climatic conditions created within the courtyard does not flow from one space to another. Shading Techniques - Recessed ribbon windows have been used. There are no shading devices on the openings. Thermal Resistance/Material - Parts of the building have been cladded with granite which has a good thermal resistance. Double glazed units have been used for windows, none of which is openable. Orientation - The building is aligned in the NW-SE direction, which is primarily determined by the linear shape of the site. The longer edge of the building faces the south-west, which results in maximum heat gain. Form - The form is an extruded mass, with each facade being almost a singular plane that is directly exposed to heat gain. The close proximity of the individual blocks results in some mutual shading. Day-Lighting - The width of each of the wing is 15m which allows for natural light to reach all interior spaces. But the windows have not always been provided with consideration of specific interior function. For example, the conference rooms also lets in a lot of light which is not required. Indoor Air Quality & Temperature - The indoor air quality is completely controlled by the HVAC system. There is no provision for natural ventilation. Waste Management - The waste generated is primarily office waste. The canteen on the upper floor also generates some organic waste. There is no provision of a garbage chute in the core. A Sewage Treatment Plant exists on site. Some of the grey water produced is treated and used for watering the plants.
FIXED GLASS RIBBONS, AICTE Source: Author ARCHI-CHAKKAR 194
GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION OF RATINGS FOR DIFFERENT PARAMETERS AND OVERALL INTEGRATION OF THE THREE, AICTE Source: Author
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ARCHITECTURALLY AWARE SOCIETY Who should rate the product? The product needs to be evaluated. The perspective of evaluation can be that of the user or the designer. The structure of the analysis will be different for both the parties involved. An extensive survey will have to be conducted to begin to understand the category of users. The parameters on the basis of which the evaluation is done will be altogether different. The importance of knowledge/experience of the designer play in ensuring an integrated product A product has to be efficient. The development of a building cannot be a linear process. There are multiple facets to think about and most of them need to be considered together. The designer maybe well aware of the importance of the building acting as a cohesive whole but the practical knowledge or understanding that is required for one to be able to do so could be missing. Management of the different consultants who bring the product together The coordination of the various consultants, that form the team with the designer, is difficult because of the sheer number of people involved. Integration of the services and structures for a better product becomes more difficult with the number of times that they would have to come together. The coordination is required at different stages of making the product. â&#x20AC;&#x192;
REPRESENTATION OF CREATED BUILDING EVALUATION SYSTEM Source: Author
LOGO FOR THE CREATED APP, ARCH IT Source: Author
ARCHIT Introducing ArchIT, a comprehensive architectural assessment app designed to critically gauge and rate existing buildings in New Delhi. The app is based on ArchIT’s very own building rating system. The system collects feedback, based on a series of parameters concerning the structure, services and sustainability of the building as well its usability, aesthetics and comfort, from both the end-users of the buildings as well as industry experts such as architects, civil engineers, etc. The app comes with a handy guide detailing the parameters discussed in the building rating system, the existing guidelines in New Delhi as well information on existing technologies and building methods. The data collected is then compiled and eventually, converted into easy-to-read visuals and graphics, offering a comprehensive assessment of any given building, all a finger’s touch away on your smart-phone! Though the app currently services only the city of New Delhi, we hope to expand to more regions across India and eventually, the world, so as to create an all-inclusive repository of architectural and building data that will enable the end-user to take better informed decisions when buying or renting a property and the architect, while designing the same. The app has a wide scope hoping serve as a marketing platform – in the private sector, for the advertisement of commercial projects and in the public sector for better public engagement. However, in the long run, we envisage, the app will bridge the gap between the public and the architects and also create awareness in the general public, eventually enabling a more architecturally aware end-user to participate in the healthy debate regarding architecture and its future and in turn, achieve a better architectural product.
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REFERENCES Anonymous, 2012. Plumbing Equipment and Systems. [Online] Available at: http://aesl.hanyang.ac.kr/class/are1024/PDF-ENG/ARE1024(ENG)-CH09.pdf [Accessed 17 October 2016]. Anonymous, 2014. Integration of building services. [Online] Available at: http:// www.concrete.org.uk/fingertips-nuggets.asp?cmd=display&id=892 [Accessed 25 September 2016]. Anonymous, 2015. Understanding Building Services. [Online] Available at: http:// www.understandconstruction.com/building-services.html [Accessed 10 October 2016]. Anonymous, n.d. Lighting and Lighting Systems. [Online] Available at: http://me.emu. edu.tr/atikol/MENG449/ME449-UA-CH5.pdf [Accessed 25 September 2016]. Anonymous, n.d. Sprinkler Systems. [Online] Available at: http://wiginton.net/pdf/ Wiginton-Fire-Protection.pdf [Accessed 25 September 2016]. Archnet, n.d. New Wind of the Mational Gallery of Modern Art New Delhi. [Online] Available at: https://archnet.org/system/publications/contents/2973/original/ DPT0650.pdf?1384769168 [Accessed 29 October 2016]. Brandemuehl, M. J., n.d. HVAC systems overview. [Online] Available at: http://ceae. colorado.edu/~brandem/aren3050/docs/HVACDesignOverview.pdf [Accessed 29 October 2016]. Clements-Croome, D., 2006. Systems integration for building services. [Online] Available at: https://www.reading.ac.uk/icrc/Projects/icrc-projects-27-SystemsIntegration-for-Building-Services.aspx [Accessed 25 September 2016]. Ella Dutta, 2012. NGMA E-newsletter, New Delhi: National Gallery of Modern Art. Fouchal, H. a. L., 2012. Design approach for the integration of services in buildings. [Online] Available at: https://dspace.lboro.ac.uk/dspace-jspui/ bitstream/2134/15241/3/MSTS_BSERT_submitted_Design%20Approach%20 for%20the%20Integration%20of%20Services%20in%20Buildings%20_Hassan. pdf [Accessed 10 October 2016]. Ghnemmat, H., 2014. Structural Systems. [Online] Available at: https://www. slideshare.net/hamzaghnemmat/structure-33967178 [Accessed 19 October 2016]. Gomez, H., 2011. Types of structures. [Online] Available at: https://www.slideshare. net/jgc.tecnologia/types-of-structures [Accessed 19 October 2016]. HĂ¤kkinen, T., n.d. Sustainable Building and BIM. [Online] Available at: h t t p : // w w w. ra ke n n u s t i e t o . f i /c h a n n e l s /p u b l i c / w w w /ra n e /m a t e r i a l / attachments/5oJ5FjlGF/5xDib83oW/Sustainable_building_and_bim_T_Hakkinen. pdf [Accessed 25 September 2016]. Hart, R., 2016. Introduction to Commercial Building HVAC System. [Online] Available at: https://www.energycodes.gov/sites/default/files/becu/HVAC_ Systems_Presentation_Slides.pdf [Accessed 29 October 2016]. Heritage, O. o. E. a., 2012. Energy Efficient Lighting. [Online] Available at: http:// ARCHI-CHAKKAR 198
www.environment.nsw.gov.au/resources/business/140017-energy-efficientlighting-tech-rpt.pdf [Accessed 29 October 2016]. Kongboontiam, P., n.d. Introduction to structural systems in architecture. [Online] Available at: http://www.faed.mju.ac.th/staff/punravee/attachments/article/9/ AR375%20Topic%201%20Intro%20to%20Structural%20System%20in%20 Architecture.pdf [Accessed 17 October 2016]. Mishra, D., 2016. Case study on National Gallery of Modern Art. [Online] Available at: https://www.slideshare.net/DivyaMishra45/casestudy-on-national-gallery-ofmodern-art-new-delhi [Accessed 29 October 2016]. Osman, N. I., 2013. Fire Fighting Active Systems. [Online] Available at: https://www. slideshare.net/NooruleInieOsman/fire-fighting-active-system?qid=84c54b57fc01-4d1d-89cf-a00ce5663082&v=&b=&from_search=2 [Accessed 25 September 2016]. Tandon, G. H., 2015. Air conditioning and HVAC systems. [Online] Available at: https://www.slideshare.net/gauravhtandon1/air-conditioning-hvacsystems?qid=b0d439c1-ed86-4dbf-af61-1df4b218df2c&v=&b=&from_ search=4 [Accessed 19 October 2016]. Taylor, H., 2013. Basic Plumbing System. [Online] Available at: https://www. slideshare.net/haroldtaylor1113/10-basic-plumbing-system?qid=9a665ce8f6a0-4c62-ba38-31282895e1a2&v=&b=&from_search=2 [Accessed 17 October 2016]. TERI, n.d. Energy Efficient Lighting Design. [Online] Available at: http://www.teriin. org/ResUpdate/reep/ch_4.pdf [Accessed 25 September 2016]. Zimmerman, A., 2011. Integrated Design Process Guide. [Online] Available at: https://moodle.polymtl.ca/file.php/1047/IDP-Charettes/article_design_guide_en_ aug23.pdf [Accessed 17 October 2016].
List of Interviews: • A.R. Ramanathan: Architect for NGMA • Snehanshu Mukherjee: Architect for NGMA • Ramachandran: Officer at AICTE • Prof. Dr. Ranjana Mittal, Professor at SPA Delhi • Prof. Manoj Mathur, Professor at SPA Delhi • Vijay Garg, Vice President of COA & visiting lecturer at SPA Delhi • Devansh Mahajan, Architecture graduate from SPA Delhi • Anant Mittal: 4th year student at SPA Delhi • Mohammed Nihal: 4th year student at SPA Delhi • Hilor Sharma: 3rd year student at SPA Delhi • Faizan Ziya: 2nd year student at SPA Delhi
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This module focuses on studying the sociolegal ramifications of running an architectural consultancy firm, understanding the laws of professional practise and its ethics. Focussing on professional practice and ethics, this group also looks into COA regulations and the manner of awarding projects. It investigates the manner of awarding projects, the laws protecting architects and their clients etc towards commenting on the professional climate prevailing and its impact on the city.
GO GOVERNMENT GONE Alankrit Gupta | Rishika Dhawan | Tashi Norzin Tenzing | Tenzin Phuntsho Guides: Prof. Anil Dewan | Ar. Sudhir Vohra | Ar. Abhishek Bij | Ar. Amritha Ballal Chairperson: Prof. Anil Dewan
ABSTRACT Architecture has the tools to deliver us experiences which directly or indirectly affect oneâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s mental status by modulating the ways of movement between buildings and spaces and is perceived in sights and sounds and these may simply be altered by the landmarks and intervening things like parks and buildings. How it comes along, weather in a consciously attempted design or just as accidental encounters, their consequent perception, their appearance, distance or proximity, all together defines the scenario called healthy and wellcelebrated architecture. On paper architecture is still considered as that sculptural massing of form, that wonderful making of spaces & ambience but most public spaces sadly display none of that infect what is observable is the nothing but a big blank boxy building, dreary mass of broken and smudged plaster which is depressing, unsightly, flagging in spirit and blemished. The following study will help bring about the reason for the changing landscape of public architecture and who is responsible for this change; the architecture government departments or the private practices of New Delhi. The study has been done by analysing public buildings in New Delhi and tabulating the changes in these buildings through the years. This will help to understand what are the changes that can be made in order to change the ever changing landscape of the city.
INTRODUCTION “The state government’s decision to abolish 48 architect posts has not gone down well with students of diploma in architectural assistantship. Over 1,000 students, who have graduated from different polytechnic institutes offering the course, are currently unemployed.” (TNN, 2016) The research proposed questions the need for a public – private partnership when it comes to public architecture in New Delhi. This research will help us to understand why architecture departments in government bodies are looking to hire private architects? What is it about the organizational structure of the department that they cannot handle projects themselves? Are public – private partnerships beneficial to departments as well as private practicing architects? Are government architecture departments considered as “practices”? Public buildings always have been, and still continue to be a vital part of the vitality of a city and are often designed to make a significant statement about the city or community. They ought to mind certain feelings or events that resonate with the visitors and the residents, which often develops an identity of its own but there is a type of similarity or monotonicity seen in the public buildings made by the government bodies which infect a lot more than that compared to the ones made in partnership with private contractors and designers. There are certain perceptions that are engraved in peoples’ mind when someone brings up “government architecture” or “public architecture”. These perceptions are associated with the condition of public buildings as well as the idea of a public building. Often social infrastructure such as schools, hospitals, police stations and residences etc. are considered when thinking of “public government architecture”. In this study we wish to bring out those buildings which are not publicly associated as government public buildings.
Aim The aim of this study is to understand the organizational structure of architecture departments and private practices in New Delhi, and to find out the merits and demerits of a public – private partnership in public building architecture.
Objective The objective of this study is to bring about the similarities and differences between architecture departments within the government and private practices and find out the reason why these departments are outsourcing work rather than handling it themselves.
Scope The research will be carried out taking examples of architecture departments and government bodies situated in New Delhi and NCT areas. The buildings taken as examples will be public buildings and will be studied through a general criterion for assessing the practices through their outcomes.
Limitations After researching and making a list of buildings to analyze, it appears the buildings are mostly from the central Delhi region which would not give us the overlook of the public architecture in New Delhi. Since government practice is based on interviews we may get biased opinions rather than facts.
Methodology This study will be carried out in two parts; the first part is the organizational structure of practices and departments, which will be done by Internet research and interviews with architects. The second part is to study public buildings as an outcome of their process in their respective practices. The buildings have been chosen according to a divided timeline; 1900-1950, 1950-1970, 1970-1990, 1990 to current date. The first era is a pre – independence era where there is a lot of western influence seen due to the presence of the British leading to the creation of Indo – Sarscenic style of architecture in the capital city of New Delhi. The 50s – 90s is an era which sees a lot of change post-independence in terms of the country making a mark for themselves in the world. This era has been divided into two parts in order to study the influences in terms of styles and materials which can be seen further. The last era is the current situation in New Delhi. This system of division will help us to compare buildings within a certain timeline as well as study the progressing trends.
LOCATION OF SELECTED BUILDINGS IN DELHI AND CENTRAL DELHI Source: Snazzy maps
The buildings will be analyzed using a point system of -1, 0 and +1 which will be awarded to each building under different categories which are aesthetics, function, context, orientation, structure and material. These six points chosen are as:
PARAMETERS CHOSEN Source: Author GO GOVERNMENT GONE 205
LITERATURE SURVEY “Builders can simply replace architects and engineers if they raise the red flag against violations, said a professional association that met the municipal commissioner of Mumbai.” (TOI, 2015) The state of architects within government bodies is deteriorating over the last couple of years. Most architecture departments are being shut down and most posts are being abolished. There are architects graduating every year who are forced to work in the private sector due to lack of government jobs. This issue has been raised due to the new agenda of architecture departments outsourcing their works to private practices. “There was a time in Delhi when some of the best buildings were the government buildings”, Architect P R Mehta (Design Action Group). People are starting to notice the change in the architecture of public government buildings or the lack there of. There is now a trend seen of buildings which all look similar. Architect A P Kanvinde tried to cover the topic of the changing of architecture in the city and compare it to that of the change cultural values in the city. (Menon, 2003) Before one could see a sense of pride and individuality that was expressed in the architecture of the capital city. There is now the idea that if one building is working then what is the harm in using the same design for the similar function. We can see that there was a huge influence of colonialism on the architecture in India, which is still seen today showing that what was once the colonial imperative remains unchanged in the ways of thinking of contemporary architecture. (Menon, 2003) “In the last fifty years, architects have not considered this conundrum an issue, and have thus failed to develop the colonial legacy into transformative architecture after Independence.” (Menon, 2003) There was a shift seen through two notable buildings, the Ashoka Hotel (1952) and the Headquarters of the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) (1953). These buildings brought about the ideas of going back to the past and portraying culture through contemporary materials, while the other was a volumetric composition with no identifying characters. (Menon, 2003) Both these public buildings were the start of the identification of architecture in the capital city. As told by Architect Ravi Kakkar, there are also many problems that are seen with the architectural departments within the government bodies that force them to hire private practices. Government employees are secure in their jobs and know that once a project is handed to them, it will not be taken away. By hiring a private practice and putting time regulations one is able to monitor and complete projects efficiently. Most government projects are given to the private practices through national competitions. But these competitions may not always be fair. For starters, Architect Ravi Kakkar, formerly working for the CPWD, informs us that at most times a pre decision is taken on making a list of architects who are eligible for the project and the invites are only sent to them, which is what leads to only larger companies getting the public scale building work. In the early 70s, a national competition was held for the design of the Jawaharlal Nehru University and Campus. The winner was C P Kukreja, who at that time was a starting architect. The CPWD felt that the firm would not be able to handle the work and assigned another body to work with them in order to implement the project. ARCHI-CHAKKAR 206
GOVERNMENT ARCHITECTURE DEPARTMENTS The National Capital Territory of Delhi (NCT) comprises three local bodies, MCD, NDMC and Cantonment Board. The Municipal Corporation of Delhi comprises approximately 96 per cent of the area and population of the Union Territory of Delhi. The NDMC covers mostly the central and northern areas of Delhi, while the Cantonment Board is specific for the Army areas of New Delhi. In addition to these departments each ministry is equipped with their own architecture and design departments, which are responsible in executing construction projects under their jurisdiction. It is these architects who contact the departments below when they wish to execute a building in the city. Architecture departments within the government follow a strict hierarchy. The Director General is the main representative of the department. Next in line is the Chief Architect; this is a directional post where he/she is responsible for the department and represents them at all meetings. The projects are allocated to the Chief Architects. The next in order are the Senior Architects. They are in charge of distributing the work amongst the Assistant Architects, Deputy Architects and Architects. They handle the client and represent the department with parallel departments. The level below are the architects who are responsible in the evolution of design and preparing of drawings only with approval from the Senior Architects. For public buildings designed by the government a requisition is sent to the Chief Engineer, Chief Architect and Senior Architect from the Government department. The Senior architect obtains the particulars and starts the site analysis, program analysis, development potential of the project, obtains all the norms required and coordinates with the clients functional and spatial requirements. In case the project is a large project the Senior Architect delegates the work to the Architects. The preliminary design and drawings are prepared and are sent to the client for approval. The Senior Architect sends the drawings to the Chief Engineer for a cost estimate. Once approved, drawings are then sent to clients for expenditure sanction. After approval, the Senior Architect prepares the working drawings and detailed drawings. The Senior Architect then sends the drawings to the Engineers for tender documentation. After this stage the Engineer takes over the coordination and implementation of the project. Ministry of Urban Development (MoUD), Government of India, is the apex body for formulation and administration of the rules and regulations and laws relating to the housing and urban development in India. Under this administration there are different departments, which undertake various works relating to urban development such as the DDA and the CPWD. The Council of Architecture has defined guidelines for the conditions of agreement between two parties when involved in design and execution of a building. These guidelines define that the scope of the work needs to be clearly laid out in order to avoid confusion between parties involved. The work is then divided into a schedule of services which have different stages at which the checking and payment will take place. These schedules are followed and in case there are any problems with the agreement, there are ways to terminate the agreement as well as arbitrate the issue. (Council of Architecture, 2016) In the next section we will look at some buildings under these various departments and try to understand the effect of the roles of architects and practice on the final product of a public building
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BUILDING ANALYSIS Source: Author
BUILDING ANALYSIS Source: Author ARCHI-CHAKKAR 208
BUILDING ANALYSIS Source: Author
Aesthetics From the analysis above, one can see that the pre-independence period was a time where aesthetics was an important criteria for a building. The post-independence period sees a fall in the quality of aesthetically appealing buildings, which can be connected to a time where India was establishing themselves and there was a need for public buildings rather than a want. The recent times can see a change where people are taking more interest in the appearance of the building.
Function There is an importance that is given to the function of the public buildings. Being public buildings they are required to serve their purpose for generations ahead. This is seen in most of the buildings of Delhi. But some buildings such as the Commonwealth Games Village that due to certain issues was unable to function as a residential complex after its use at the event in 2010.
Context Context was an important factor in the pre-independence period. All the buildings being designed in central Delhi were in the same Indo-Sarcenic style. Postindependence there is an effort by all architects to create iconic buildings around the city which end up not respecting the context.
Material In the case of materials, the pre-independence period sees an experimental period where there is the onset of new materials which are being used in public buildings. With the onset of concrete and glass, the buildings post-independence tend to have a look which are very similar and show very little experimentation.
Orientation Orientation has recently become a factor that is important with the onset of sustainable and environment friendly design. Thus in the pre-independence period there is not much emphasis give to the orientation of the building. Orientation was regarded according to creating the city grid of Delhi, with the more important buildings being oriented towards the center and high point of the city.
Structure Structures observed are largely conventional structures which would prove to be long lasting. There is not much experimentation with the shape and build of the buildings. GO GOVERNMENT GONE 209
BUILDING ANALYSIS Source: Author
When the buildings are compared according to their practices, we get an idea of how the buildings are an outcome of the practices. Each building was studied under 6 points of aesthetics, functionality, context, orientation, structure and material. When considering material, structure and functionality there is a similarity in the buildings created by the government architects as well as the private practices. Context and orientation are factors that are prominent within the government architects as when private architects create buildings they stick to the idea of creating â&#x20AC;&#x153;iconicâ&#x20AC;? public buildings which tend not to respond to their immediate contexts. The idea of aesthetically pleasing buildings is more prominent among the private architects. In government departments they are weighed down by the rules, norms and regulation with regards to building, which tends to lessen their exploration and create buildings which are aesthetically and functionally similar. There is no study to say that the government is not capable of handling projects and creating architecture which is appealing aesthetically and functionally. There are architects like A.P. Kanvinde and Habib Rahman who, as chief architects of the CPWD, have been able to contribute to the changing landscape of public architecture in New Delhi. Does this mean that the government bodies are able to handle design themselves? Could this mean that it is the introduction of the private practices, which is replicating and making the monotonous public buildings? The government bodies are slowly moving towards the idea of a governmentprivate partnership when it comes to design of public buildings. This initially started with the idea that private enterprises should be encouraged and given more work. Over the years the demand of public buildings increased and the government bodies were not equipped with the resources to handle this. Thus, they reduced their human resources and started to outsource their work more. Lately the core competency of disciplines getting diluted. Architects in these government bodies are being treated as civil servants. They are equated to civil engineers, who eventually end up becoming project managers. The government itself is no longer quality driven. When choosing a bid they go with the lowest fees. This is exploited by the government and encourages the private practices to make mediocre buildings in a particular time frame. ARCHI-CHAKKAR 210
In another perspective, when someone designs a building for the government departments within the government, they are designing under the name of their department, their names does not appear in relation to the projects. Whereas for the private sector architect, they are able to attach their name to their building. Private sector architects when designing public buildings tend to forget about the context and get lost in the creativity of their designs and the idea of creating â&#x20AC;&#x153;iconicâ&#x20AC;? buildings, which gives interesting buildings but creates a landscape for Delhi which has different views. The model of a public â&#x20AC;&#x201C; private partnership is mutually beneficial for either party. In the case of architecture departments under government bodies there is minimization of their resources and in case of private practices they are exposed to large scale projects and experimentation.
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REFERENCES Architecture of Delhi, n.d., “The Tracking of Post Independence Developments”, last viewed 8th September 2016, http://delhi-architecture.weebly.com/post-1947-developments-buildings-part1.html Architecture of Delhi, n.d., “The Tracking of Post Independence Developments”, last viewed 8th September 2016, http://delhi-architecture.weebly.com/part2.html Council of Architecture, 2016, “Comprehensive Architectural Services”, Last viewed 13th October 2016, https://www.coa.gov.in/index1.php?lang=1&level=2&sublinkid=294&lid=81 Council of Architecture, 2016, “Scale of Charges”, Last viewed 13th October 2016, https://www.coa.gov.in/index1.php?lang=1&level=2&sublinkid=299&lid=86 Chhaya, Himanshu, R, 2004, “Profession, Education and Regulatory Bodies in India: a theme paper towards a national dialogue” Architecture + Design India, http://architexturez.net/doc/az-cf-21639 Delhi Development Authority, 2011, “Pioneering Urban Development”, DDA at a glance, last viewed, 12th August 2016, http://dda.org.in/ddanew/dda_at_glance. aspx Express News Service, 28th july 2015, “Soon, Public Buildings That Look Good”, The New India Express, viewed 11th July 2016, http://www.newindianexpress. com/cities/chennai/Soon-Public-Buildings-that-Look-Good/2015/07/28/article2943543.ece Menon, K, 2003, “The Contemporary Architecture of Delhi: a Critical History”. New Delhi, last viewed 8th September 2016, http://architexturez.net/doc/az-cf-21213 Ministry of Urban Development, May 2016, last viedwed 12th august 2016, https:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ministry_of_Urban_Development TNN, 9th Novemeber 2015, “Architects Rue Lack of Government Jobs”, The Times of India, viewed 8th August 2016, The Times of India online TNN, 10th Novemeber 2015, “Architects say Builders can Replace them if they Flag Violations”, The Times of India, viewed 8th August 2016, The Times of India online
Name: Ravi Kakkar
Occupation: Retired Govt. Architect Institute: CPWD
Name: P R Mehta
Occupation: Architect Practice: Design Action Group
Name: Amit Hajela
Occupation: Architect, Urban Designer
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GENUINE PRACTICE : ARCHITECTURAL SERVICES IN PRIVATE SECTOR Akshay Aman | Atul Ravi Khalkho | B. Srujana | Mitali Gupta Guides: Ar. Abhishek Bij Chairperson: Ar. Shridhar Rao | Ar. Doogar
ABSTRACT This seminar is an exploration of the domain of an architect with reference to architectâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s act 1972 as discussed above and in the realm of private practice. It aims to examine services rendered by an architect weighed against the rules by council of architecture and find possible propositions to make the profession more ethical. Every year thousands of architects graduates in our nation. Where do they get jobs? Do they work under the public sector or the government sector? Or do they work in private sector or its proprietors? So through this seminar, we are focusing on the private sector as it is important for us as graduates and we would like to evaluate the scope of services provided by the private sector - are they less, just enough or more, through surveys and discussions with architects and clients considering COA guidelines as our base. Through this study and analysis, we aim to provide suitable suggestions to outdated scope of services defined by COA.
ROLE OF AN ARCHITECT Source: https://cdn.miragestudio7.com/wp-content/uploads/2007/07/maaikarchitecture_architect_comic.jpg
KEY ITEMS Architects Act, 1972 Act that registers architects and governs the matters that are related with it. It has come into force from 31st May, 1972 and extends to the whole of India. It contains 4 Chapters with 45 Sections along with one schedule. The Council of Architecture (COA) is a body corporate by the Government of India under the provisions of the Architects Act, 1972, enacted by the Parliament of India, which came into force on 1st September 1972. The Act provides for registration of architects, standards of education, recognized qualifications and standards of practice to be complied with by the practicing architects. The Council of Architecture is charged with the responsibility to regulate the education and practice of profession throughout India besides maintaining the register of architects. For this purpose, the Government of India has framed rules and Council of Architecture has framed regulations as provided for in the Architects Act, with the approval of Government of India.
Public Sector Initiating, processing and executing architectural services by government bodies is called public practice. For example PWD, HUDCO, NDMC, DDA, HUDA, NBCC etc.
Private Sector On the other hand if a project is initiated, processed and executed by an architect or group of architects who are non-governmental are private practices. For example, Raj Rewal Architect, MOFA, AECOM, Atkins, CP Kukreja architects etc.
RATIO OF MALE & FEMALE ARCHITECTâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;S REGISTERED UNDER COA; PLACEMENT OF WOMEN ARCHITECTâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;S TILL 2016 Source: COA ARCHI-CHAKKAR 216
INTRODUCTION According to the data of registered architects under COA, the findings were 92% of the architects registered under COA in 2001 worked in the private practice and only 8% in the public practice. Recent data of year 2016 suggests, just 1% of the women architects out of 44 % of total registered architects joined public practice and 99% went for private practice. Year-wise analysis of graduating students from S.P.A. Delhi since 2010 has got the same story where 90% of them join private sector.
PLACEMENT OF ARCHITECT’S GRADUATING FROM SPA, DELHI SINCE 2010 Source: Author
PROJECTS DONE BY DDA Source: http://dda.org.in/ ddaweb/index.aspx
WHAT HAPPENS IN THE PUBLIC SECTOR? As discovered by the seminar, “Go Government Gone”, most of the public sector work is administrative. So, most of the graduating students don’t have the charm or inclination towards the same. Public organizations don’t take on varied range of projects. Most of the projects done by DDA are of housing and landscape. The interesting projects are only executed by the private practices. If we as young architects or with a startup were to apply or work of our own for exciting or interesting projects, we don’t meet the stringent pre-qualification criteria set by them. GENUINE PRACTICE 217
PREQUALIFICATION CRITERIA FOR PUBLIC PROJECTS Source: Author
SCOPE OF SERVICES COA prescribes scope of services for four major sub-heads namely, urban design, interior design, landscape design and comprehensive architectural services. However, in reality architectural practice is not restricted to these four scope of services but also: • Concept Design • Comprehensive Services • Design and Built Services • Construction Services • Design and Construction Management • Project Management Consultancy • Design and Project Management Consultancy • Transaction Advisory Services (and so on)
SCOPE OF SERVICES DEFINED BY COA AND FOUND IN PRACTICE Source: Author ARCHI-CHAKKAR 218
ROLE OF COA Source: Author
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE SCOPE OF SERVICES BY COA, LIVE CONTRACTS AND SCOPE OF SERVICES IN PRACTICE Source: Author
DATA ANALYSIS AND DISCREPANCIES The following projections are discrepancies found through our analysis that enlist volumetric design, sound and acoustic design, BOQ’s, open space design and so on. However, the major ones were listed and questionnaires were made on those discrepancies. • GRIHA/LEED approvals • Statutory approvals • Base maps • Site supervision • Design options and approvals • Allied services
CATEGORIES OF ARCHITECTS TO BE ANALYZED
A survey was conducted among clients and different groups of architects. GENUINE PRACTICE 219
SURVEY AND ANALYSIS 1. When asked whether they were aware that the Council of Architecture prescribes the scope of services for interior design, urban design, landscape architecture and comprehensive architectural services, the results were shocking. 24% of the architects registered under CoA were totally unaware of it and 84% of them who were aware, never referred it before approaching the clients. The other sad part was that more than 90% of the clients didn’t know that these lists existed. 2. About GRIHA or LEED approvals by the body, the answer was 50-50. With the globally rising environment concerns, even the governments are pushing towards sustainable approaches. HUDA has mandated 5% energy consumption through sustainable sources like rainwater harvesting, solar heater, solar power generation etc. 3. When the architects were asked how many design options do they want to provide, majority claimed to design until client satisfaction. Opportunity cost is proportional to the process of design and should be factored into contract guidelines, equitable fee for the equitable work. During the concept stage a project can have multiple design options but on later stages the changes should be restricted. Multiple design options can be rendered till conceptual stage. However, once the design has reached schematic stage the number of changes should be minimized. Worldwide contracts are made according to “time sheets” which are filled by the people working on the project. It happens even in BDP and Morphogenesis. 4. When asked if they are expected to coordinate with vendors, contractors, MEP and so on even if a PMC is appointed for the project, 58% said yes. The aspect of project coordination should be flexible as per the contract guidelines. For example, if PMC is appointed as the extended service for the project, then the architect’s role is reduced to site supervision. Hence vendor, building contracting negotiation, tender negotiation should not be in purview of an architect. 5. When asked the architects about who needs to be the site supervisor, all the architects were on the same page with COA stating that it can either be an architect or a clerk appointed by the client (site supervisor). But, many clients want the site supervised by the architect himself. Architects solely cannot be the site supervisor however as stated by COA, a clerk can be the site supervisor with periodic visits by the architects. 6. At times, in interior design projects the clients expect the architect to work on facade treatment, exterior hardscape and softscape. In case of urban design, sometimes architects are forced to detail out building footprints for which they are not paid extra. When asked the architects if they were asked to provide such allied services, majority of them were already providing. We would like to state an example from the premise of Pattern Language by Christopher Alexander that every scale is linked to a scale larger and to a scale smaller than itself. So there is a kind of expectation to loosely connect the services that are to provide one threshold front and one threshold back. For example, when designing a coffee shop, architect should be concerned about ARCHI-CHAKKAR 220
the interface of the street with the shop and also to the coffee mug that is going to be present in the shop. 7. When we asked the architects if they intended to provide assistance to the client in obtaining the statutory approvals, just 33% of them disagreed while 48% intended to provide assistance. In foreign practices, the scope of work is too compartmentalized. However in India, there is no regulated scope of work. In case a PMC is involved as the consultants, the architectâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s work reduces to site supervision and other works like negotiation etc are to be dealt with the PMC. 8. Confidentiality in contracts led to sieving of data on payments/cost. Though talking to architects gave us some other points not covered in questionnaires. Now days, the building cost is not the main criteria. The total cost of the project depends upon several factors like materials, context, site location, scale, time, quality of construction etc. Some of architects already follow this payment on square footage. And around the world, this is being followed. 9. In any case these suggestions also depends on two primary aspects of building mechanics, which unfortunately, the CoA doesnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t acknowledge. For example: Complexity of a program - Hospitals, educational institutions, airports, etc. require a certain kind of understanding. Scale - In foreign practices, the scope of work is compartmentalized. The scale is the biggest factor which disturb the domain for the architect. It is one of the major criteria on which most of the discrepancies arise. Redefining or incorporating this factor for different project types can solve few of the major discrepancies.
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SUGGESTIONS Awareness - Awareness of the client. GRIHA/LEED Registration - The sustainability of the building, orientation etc. can be incorporated in scope of services. Opportunity Cost- Equitable fee for the equitable work. Coordination - Project coordination should be a flexible deliverable. Site Supervision - Architects solely cannot be the site supervisor however as stated by COA , a clerk can be the site supervisor with periodic visits by the architects. Allied/Threshold Services - The services are to be provided one threshold front and one threshold back, loosely binding the services. Statutory Approval - In foreign practices, the scope of work is too compartmentalized. In case a PMC is involved, the architectâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s work reduces to site supervision. Payment - On the basis of square footage rather total project cost. Summarisation - Scale, budget, built up area, complexity of program
REFERENCES Gupta, A. A. (n.d.). http://www.posts.architecturelive.in/council-of-architecturewillcome-heavily-down-on-the-institutes-flouting-norms-vijay-garg-vicepresident-coa/.Retrieved from architecturelive.com. Gadkari, A. U. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.posts.architecturelive.in/. Architecture, C. o., 2002. Handbook of Professional Documents-2002. Delhi: COA. Bob, G., Karen, G. & Brian, S., 2005. Law and Practice for Architects. Burlington: Elsevier. Agrawal, A., 2015. https://www.linkedin.com. CoA, 2007. Handbook of Professional Documents. New Delhi: CoA. Delhi Police, P. H. N. D., 2008. DEVELOPMENT OF, New Delhi: Delhi Police, Police Headquarter, New Delhi. Delhi, I., 2014. REQUEST FOR PROPOSAL (RFP), New Delhi: ICDWQ Delhi. desk, E. w., n.d. [Online] Government, J., n.d. REQUEST FOR PROPOSAL, Ranchi: Executive Engineer, Special Works Division, Building Construction Department. Gupta, A. A., n.d. http://www.posts.architecturelive.in/council-of-architecture-willcomeheavil-down on-the-institutes-flouting-norms-vijay-garg-vice-presidentcoa/. [Online]. HLL Lifecare Limited, N., 2014. Expression of Interest (EOI), Noida, U.P.: GoI Enterprise. IECC, K., 2015. Request For Proposal, Kerala: IECC, Kochi. PMIDC, C., 2013. Request for Proposal (RFP) PMIDC, Chandigarh: PMIDC, Chandigarh.
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ACT ON THE ACT: AN EXPOSITION ON ARCHITECTURAL BUSINESS Abhay Pratap Singh | Rahul Arora | Shikha Kaul | Shriyak Singh Guides: Prof. Anil Dewan | Ar. Sudhir Vohra | Ar. Abhishek Bij | Ar. Amritha Ballal Chairperson: Prof. Satish Khanna
ABSTRACT Architecture as a profession in India is managed and regulated by the Architect’s Act of 1972. The act led to the formation of an administrative body called the ‘Council of Architecture (COA)’. This body is responsible for looking after all professional and ethical aspects of an architectural practice in the country, ranging from the registration of all architects in the country, as well as their firms; to supervising all activities of an architectural practice on ethical, moral and professional grounds. A professional cannot use the title of an ‘Architect’ unless registered under the COA. The rules and regulations prescribed by the act and the body, however, were established long back, at the time of its conception. These regulations have undergone only minimal changes since, even though the profession has dramatically transformed over the years. This has led to a great disparity between the methods and prescriptions of the practice in these documents and what the ground realities and needs of the profession are in the current times. This academic paper tries to identify some of the most detrimental gaps in these regulations and suggests possible amendments to the act which would help bridge the fathom between the regulations and the aspirations of the current generation of professionals, without undermining the basic vision of the act when it was established, which was to create a profession for social upliftment and betterment on ethical and legal grounds, while defining the accountability of the profession in various situations.
INTRODUCTION What is the COA? It’s known that COA or Council of Architecture is the regulatory body for architectural practice in India. As a body of such function, it provides certain rules and mandates which are considered to be the codes for professional conduct. It is enforced by the Architect’s Act 1972.
The Architect’s Act, 1972 The Architect’s Act 1972 was put into force to safeguard architects, and to protect the ‘style’ of an architect. However, a few of the regulations seem archaic. They appear to be insensitive towards the current times and changing trends; and require a much needed amendment. The COA holds power to restrict people from posing as architects. This indirectly implies that it regulates major decision making in the construction venture in the way that all construction projects have to be undersigned by an architect for approval. Hence, architects became important and as a result The COA became important. Architectural profession is regulated in a similar fashion and by similar legal bodies in most parts of the world. Architects around the world face different working environments, markets, opportunities and handicaps, specific to their country and regulatory body. The principles are enforced by these bodies for the proper and ethical fulfilment of professional duties of an architect. These regulations, in many cases, can have a crippling effect on architectural practice. The rules can really change the game. The rules can enable one to be able to compete and adapt to the changes. The regulations also control the economical dimension of the entire set-up. The guidelines of the developed world seem to be adaptive of the change and enable the architectural practice to flourish both creatively and economically. The set of instructions which govern architectural practice in India go a long way in retarding the profession from coping with the visible changes in the market, globally and locally. With this report, we intend to highlight the legal bindings of Indian regulations (Architect’s Act, 1972) on the practice of architecture which is restricting the profession to flourish and become locally as well as globally competitive. With this reference, we throw some light on the struggle of Indian architects to flourish as well as views of architecture allied professionals on the same.
SECTION 23 - ARCHITECT’S ACT, 1972 The Section 23 of the Architect’s Act, 1972 talks about the registration of architects. It deems the COA responsible for the maintenance of such register. The contents of the register shall contain particular information like: a. The full name with date of birth, nationality and residential address of the architect; b. His qualification for registration, and the date on which he obtained that qualification and the authority which conferred it; c. The date of this first admission to the register; d. His professional address; and e. Such further particulars as may be prescribed by rules; The amendment bill of 2010, which is yet to be incorporated in the law, talks about formalising the architecture practice with regard to forming firms/partnerships. Formally the amendment 23A says: “23A (1) The Council shall prepare a register of “Firm of Architects” as well as “LLP’s of Architects” for India with relevant details, on receipt of fee, as may be prescribed by rules. 23A (2) The Council shall prescribe regulations for renewal, suspension, cancellation or any other related matter with respect to Certificates of Registration and Certificates of Practice, as issued by the Council under the provisons of this Act.” (The Architect’s (Amendment) Bill, 2010) Register contains information like: a. The full name of the firm / LLP and mailing address of the firm/LLP; b. The full name with date of birth, nationality and residential address of all the partners of the firm; c. Qualification of all the partners in the firm along with and the date on which he obtained that qualification and the authority which conferred it; d. The date of this first admission to the register; e. Such further particulars as may be prescribed by rules; The act, in its other sections (Section 14 & 15) prescribes the qualifications which are to be recognised as suitable qualifications and deems the holder eligible to be entered in the register (and hence be called an ‘Architect’) Hence, it is safe to say that under the act, as of now, nothing is formalised with respect to architectural practice. However, the pending amendment bill has tried to validate the same. It recognises (i) Partnership Firms and (ii) Limited Liability Partnership (LLPs) as possible methods or forming professional conglomerate in architectural practice.
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NEED The prescribed rules and regulations in India, as defined by the Architectâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Act, 1972, have very few recognised means of forming a partnership or establishing a firm. Before the amendment, there was not much heed given to this part of architectural practice. It can be said that most of the small scale architecture firms in the country are on a Sole Proprietorship principal. The amendment of 2010 however addresses this dearth of validation and comes up with two possible options. Conversely, there are a few other viable options which should be considered along with the ones mentioned in the amendment. A business model which incorporates, say, Private Limited Partnership or Limited Partnership or Public Limited Partnership etc., can give rise to different types and styles of architecture practice. They can be great value additions in terms of delivery and economic viability of the firm. Such business models also protect the partners of the firm from economic liabilities. We strongly feel that further freedom is necessary in terms of choosing a partner and the type of practice an architect wants to run, especially at this age of changing roles and an uncertain economic climate of the country as well as the world. For Indian architecture practices to become competent with the ones established in the developed world, we need to modify and adapt our businesses, and hence our regulations, to meet the economic needs and quality demands of the global market.
WHERE DO I STAND Source : https://theantidote. wordpress.com/category/ uncategorized/
AVAILABLE OPTIONS AND COMPARISONS Partnership Firm – Best suited for multiple partners and local businesses Key Features • Partnership firm is a more structured entity and requires registration under the Indian Partnership Act, 1932. • It can have two to twenty parties enlisted as partners, with each deciding its contributions, duties, responsibilities, salaries/profits, liabilities etc. They come together after signing a partnership deed. • The firm needs to be registered with the Registrar of Partnerships. The physical presence of each partner is important at time of registration before the registrar. (Suri, 2015) • The partnership firm is not a separate legal entity, it has a limited identity for the purpose of tax where the firm is taxed separately from its partners. The individual partners are taxed on their own personal income. • It can also be converted into a LLP (the benefits of which have been explained later in the report) by filing requisite forms with the Registrar of Companies (ROC). (Suri, 2015) • It is relatively easier to arrange for finances when compared to Sole Proprietorship. • Foreign investment is not allowed to start a partnership. • Existence of a partnership business is dependent on the partners. Could be up for dissolution due to death of a partner. • Non-transferable ownership and no requirements to conduct annual statutory meetings. Pros • More structured and regulated by Indian Partnership Act. • Relatively easier to obtain finances, (i.e. through contributions of partners) but other legal entities provide better channels for the same. • Less cumbersome to wind up if the partners so desire. This is a big factor when the founders are looking to start a venture more as an ‘experiment.’ (Suri, 2015) • Less or no legal formalities required to start and run a partnership business. Cons • There is a cap to the number of partners a firm can have (i.e. 20). • Physical presence of all partners before the registrar is imperative for all the partners. This is difficult when the partners are based in different cities/countries. ACT ON THE ACT 229
Limited Partnership (LP) – Best suited for local businesses, looking for external finance Key Features • In a limited partnership, there are one or more general partners and one or more limited partners. The general partners participate in management and have 100 percent of the liability for partnership obligations. (Morrow, 2009) • The general partners are responsible for all the liabilities of the LP. Their share of the profit is agreed upon by the partnership agreement. • Other legal entities can also constitute general patterns. • Limited partners contribute to the business only through monetary investment. They are protected from personal liabilities. • Limited partners don’t have to pay taxes on their earnings as dividends for their prior investments. This is because they only receive “dividends” for their share of investment in the business and they are not considered self-employed as long as they stay passive in the business operation. Limited partners don’t have to pay self-employment tax as general partners do. (Associates, 2012) • They also don’t have any voting or managerial rights. Pros • Can attract external finance easily. Financiers can easily enter the firm as they will be limited partners with no liabilities or responsibilities of the business. • Limited partners don’t have their personal assets are not put to risk. • There is no double taxation in LP’s. Double taxation happens in corporations because the corporation pays income taxes on its profits, and then uses the remaining profits to pay dividends to shareholders, who again pay their own individual income tax on it. Thus, the same profit gets taxed twice. However, with partnerships, the partners themselves are taxed on their personal income tax returns for their share of ownership in the partnership, which usually amounts to less taxation. (Associates, 2012) Cons • 100% financial liability of general partners. • No limited liability to the investor participating actively in the management of the form. • Shares cannot be publicly traded in the stock market, due to nature of business and the regulations controlling the conglomerate. • The limited partners cannot have any say in the working of the business even if they disagree with the decisions made by the firm.
LLP STRUCTURE Source: https://www.quora. com/How-can-a-business-bestarted-with-10-INR-in-India
Limited Liability Partnership (LLP) – Easy to setup and operate + credible Key Features • A Limited Liability Firm is governed by the regulations prescribed by the Limited Liability Act, 2008. • Registrar of Companies (ROC) is the governing officer for issues related to LLP. • LLP is a separate legal entity registered under the LLP Act, 2008. • There should be at least two parties involved in an LLP. There is no upper limit on the number of partners. • In a LLP all partners enjoy limited liabilities. Partners is liable only to the extent of their contribution to the LLP. • There are certain formalities and fees involved in the process of starting a LLP. These however are less complicated compared to dayto-day formalities involved with other legal entities like Private Limited Company. • Foreign investment is allowed in a LLP only with prior approval of Reserve Bank of India and Foreign Investment Promotion Board (FIPB) approval. • Existence of a LLP is not dependent on the Partners. Could be dissolved only voluntarily or by an Order of the Company Law Board. ACT ON THE ACT 231
• Transferable Ownership. • Filing of Accounts and Statement of Solvency and Annual Return are required. • Registration charges of Rs 7,499 are required to start a LLP company. Pros • LLPs are often preferred by professional service businesses, such as law firms, accounting firms and financial service firms. This is because partners of an LLP are not liable for the negligence or malpractice claims made against other partners. (Associates, 2012) • It is good if there are higher chances of losses in the business. • There is no double taxation in LLP’s. Double taxation happens in corporations because the corporation pays income taxes on its profits, and then uses the remaining profits to pay dividends to shareholders, who again pay their own individual income tax on it. Thus, the same profit gets taxed twice. However, with partnerships, the partners themselves are taxed on their personal income tax returns for their share of ownership in the partnership, which usually amounts to less taxation. (Associates, 2012) • The registration process gives the business more credibility. • Relatively lower initial fee. • No restriction on remuneration to partner. It should be provided in LLP Agreement. Cons • Longer registration process and additional formalities during the dayto-day functioning of the business (these however are much less when compares to private limited companies).
PVT LTD. STRUCTURE Source: https://www.quora. com/How-can-a-business-bestarted-with-10-INR-in-India
Private Limited Company – Can handle larger finances; good for large scale business and firms A private limited company, or LTD, is a type of small business entity which is privately held. This type of business entity limits owner liability or legal protection to their shareholders, maximum number of shareholders is restricted from 50-200, public trading of the shares is restricted for the shareholders. Key Features • The PLC can remain active and can exist only if the annual compliances are met on a regular basis. • It also has a minimum requirement of 2 shareholders. • Shareholders have protection against the liabilities of the company. Their liabilities are limited to their share or contribution to the company. • Shareholders are restricted to offer the shares owned by them to general public over a stock exchange. • The strength of the shareholders in fixed or limited, in India it is limited to 50-200. • A company will have a minimum of two Directors and the upper limit being 15. • Theoretical value of the shares & any, paid in return for the issue of shares by the corporation is limited to the capital which is initially invested. ACT ON THE ACT 233
Pros • The personal assets owned by the shareholders are not affected or is safe, as the shareholders are liable for only the invested money. • Shares can be issued at ease to obtain funding from venture capitalists. • The company can own property along with current incurring debts. • In India it is mandatory to have at least one resident Indian as a Director. • A Private Limited Company is not restricted in its business growth as it can be converted to a Public Limited Company unlike LLP. • A PLC doesn’t need a mandatory office building, it can be established to a residential address. • The business looks more established and credible. Cons • The government of India doesn’t permit a LLP to be converted to a Private Limited Company according to LLP Act, 2008 and the Companies Act, 2013. • The minimum capital which is authorised to initiate should be Rs.100,000, which is relatively expensive. • It is possible for a struck-off PLC to be revived only within the period of next 20 years after the company has become a Dormant Company. • It has a long and complicated registration process. • It requires frequent formalities involved in day to day running of the business. • The denied profit in the business will still be taxed until you either sell the company or fold it. • All yours dealings are not private and must be made public and registered including your salary.
CONCLUSIONS After researching and analysing different forms of legal entity options available in India, we can formalise our findings in a tabular format. The observations are based on the parameters selected for comparison. These parameters are based on varied aspects of the spectrum, covering regions like registration, ownership, liabilities etc.
CONCLUSIONS Source: Author
Our observations clearly show the difference in different forms of legal entities. We can see some of these types have a clear upper hand over others. For the purpose of a prosperous and successful architectural practice any of the given options can prove valuable and fruitful. It is entirely up to the architect to decide upon his/her business model. However, options like LLP and Pvt Ltd. appear to be more suitable for our requirements. Out of the two, LLP seems to have fulfilled most of the criterion most efficiently. Conversely, other legal conglomerate have their own merits which can prove their worth in a different kind of a professional setup. These options can be chosen based on the scale of the firm (smaller/ local businesses could prefer partnership or LP whilst larger firms do better with LLP or Pvt. Ltd.), aspirations of the architect (as per our interviews, a few architects seem apprehensive about starting a Pvt. Ltd, as they claim not to be overly involved in a large commercial enterprise and are satisfied with a self-sustaining local business) etc.
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SECTION 37 - ARCHITECT’S ACT, 1972 Collaboration with foreign architects as partner SECTION 37 (1) After the expiry of one year from the date appointed under sub-section (2) of section 20, no person other than a registered architect, or a firm of architects shall use the title of title and style of architect. Provided that the provisions of this section shall not apply toa. Practice of the profession of an architect by a person designated as a “landscape architect” or “naval architect”; b. A person who, carrying on the profession of an architect in any country outside India, undertakes the function as a consultant or designer in India for a specific project with the prior permission of the Central Government. According to architect act 1972, under sub-section of section 37, any architect from outside of India and who is not registered with COA, cannot practice in India. He/she can only function as a designer or consultant in India for a specific project with the prior permission of the Central Government. As architectural practice is increasing at rapid speed in global context. To keep pace with the global context, we need to revisit our form of practice in which we can have collaborations with foreign architects. This collaboration will help to achieve maximum technological advantage for the project and global ideas. And this will increase the level of architecture in India. This collaboration will facilitate Indian architects to use the experiences of foreign architects in the Indian project and help to handle large sized projects in house. The projects which was earlier designed by foreign architects like Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport, Mumbai, designed by Skidmore, Owings & Merrill (SOM), an architectural services company of U.S., can be done easily by this collaboration. This collaboration will also help Indian architectural firms to use the experience of foreign architects as pre-qualification of any larger competition. We suggest, this kind of collaboration will take architecture in India to next level. In a case example, the competition of iconic museum of Patna was open to Indian and international architects with collaboration. The competition was won by Opolis Architects, a Mumbai based firm with a foreign partner firm MAKI & ASSOCIATES, a Tokyo based firm (Lord.ca, 2012). The only disadvantage of this collaboration is that foreign architects can take over the projects evolving in India. To get the views of Indian architects about this collaboration, we did interviews and found out that, this disadvantage can be resolved by giving authority to Indian architects to choose whether they need foreign architects to involve or not in any particular project. This collaboration gives a project global exposure from foreign architects as well as vernacular feeling from Indian architects.
COLLABORATIONS Source: Author ARCHI-CHAKKAR 236
Partnership With Other Discipline SECTION 26A –PROPOSED ARCHITECTS BILL (AMENDMENT) 2010 (1) The council shall within six months from the date of notification of this amendment in the Official Gazette by the Central Government; cause to be prepared in a manner prescribed by regulations, a system of issuing Certificate of Practice of Architects. Only an Architect who holds a valid Certificate of Practice (COP) shall be entitled: a. To represent himself and sign as a practicing architect on drawings, plans or the like, documents including certificates and applications made to municipalities, planning/development authorities and other statuary bodies in India. b. To be partner in firm of architect or an LLP of architects. c. To represent himself as a practicing architects in courts, municipalities, planning/development authorities and other statuary bodies in India. (Architects Bill 2010 (Amendment), 2010) According to The Architects Act, 1972, a firm can have only partners who are practicing and registered with COA. It strictly prohibits LLP of architects but the proposed Architect Bill 2010 (Amendment), allows to form LLP of Architects. But according to Architect Bill 2010 (Amendment), LLP can be formed with only those practicing architects who have Certificate of Practice (COP) and these COP will be given to Architects only. So we see here no chance of partnership of architects with other disciplines. To flourish the practice of architecture in India, architects’ partnership with other disciplines will help my ways. Architecture is about a lot of disciplines coming together concurring with the knowledge and expertise to get a building built. So partnership of architects with other discipline will help architects to gain more ideas and knowledge in different disciplines and increase the efficiency of firm. In the words of winner of Pritzker Prize 2016, Alejandro Aravena, “When you don’t know about something, there are two possibilities: you study or you partner with somebody who knows. I did the latter” (Aravena, 2016). Alejandro did partnership with Andres Iacobelli who was a transport engineer by profession. In Indian context, there are many firms having partnership with other discipline.
INTERDISCIPLINARY PARTNERSHIPS Source: Author ACT ON THE ACT 237
As a case example, Christopher Charles Benninger Architects Private Limited (CCBA) is an Incorporated Company registered in 1999 under the Companies Act 1956. The company founded by Prof. Christopher Benninger along with Founder Director Ramprasad Akkisetti is supported by two working Directors, Er. Rahul Sathe and Ar. Daraius Choksi. In this firm, Prof. Christopher Benninger and Daraius Choksi are architects whereas Ramprasad Akkisetti is a doctor by profession and Rahul Sathe is a civil engineer (Ccba.in, 2016). CP Kukreja Architects, multi-disciplinary architecture & engineering firm of Delhi, has partnership of multi-discipline. In this firm CP Kukreja & Dikshu C. Kukreja are architects on the other hand, another partner of the firm, Mr. S K Nandi is a civil engineer. (Kukreja, 2016) This multi-disciplinary is one of the top 100 firms of the world. (ArchDaily, 2013) Architectsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; partnership with other disciplines increases the efficiency of the firm. It reduces the dependency on different consultants. It also makes architectsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; work easy throughout whole designing process. Project coordination becomes much easier than normal firm.
HANG YOUR SHINGLES Source: https://www. businessofarchitecture. com/architect-marketing/ is-marketing-against-yourethics/
SECTION 45(2)(i) â&#x20AC;&#x201C; ARCHITECTâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;S ACT, 1972 Architects (Professional Conduct) Regulations, 1989 Under Section 2, the regulation states the following restrictions over the Indian architects on advertising or promoting their professional services. The Section is as stated below: 2 (1)xxv. Shall not advertise his professional services nor shall he allow his name to be included in advertisement or to be used for publicity purposes save the following exceptions: (a) A notice of change of address may be published on three occasions and correspondents may be informed by post. (b) An architect may exhibit his name outside his office and on a building, either under construction or completed, for which he is or was an architect, provided the lettering does not exceed 10 cm. in height. (c) advertisements including the name and address of an architect may be published in connection with calling of tenders, staff requirements and similar matters. (d) May allow his name to be associated with illustrations and descriptions of his work in the press or other public media but he shall not give or accept any consideration for such appearances. (e) May allow his name to appear in advertisements inserted in the press by suppliers or manufacturers of materials used in a building he has designed, provided his name is included in an in-ostentatious manner and he does not accept any consideration for its use. (f) May allow his name to appear in brochure prepared by Clients for the purpose of advertising or promoting projects for which he has been commissioned. (g) May produce or publish brochures, pamphlets describing his experience and capabilities for distribution to those potential Clients whom he can identify by name and position. (h) May allow his name to appear in the classified columns of the trade/ professional directory and/or telephone directory/website.
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REFERENCES FROM FOREIGN COUNCILS United Kingdom Standard 3: Honest promotion of your services. 3.1 You are expected to promote your professional services in a truthful and responsible manner. 3.2 In advertising and promoting your professional services you should comply with the codes and principles applying to advertising generally. These include those of the Advertising Standards Authority or any other body having oversight of advertising standards in various media.
Singapore BOARD OF ARCHITECTS, SINGAPORE Architects Act 1991 The Schedule (Code of Professional Conduct and Ethics) (Act 22 of 1991, Section 38, The Schedule) - Part I & II CPCEII Rule 1 - Media participation and their conduct (1) An architect may: (a) Contribute articles for publication in any publication or journal on any matter of architectural interest; (b) Receive remuneration for any contribution in any seminar or conference or the like by way of written papers or participation other than as a member of the audience; and (c) Receive remuneration for his contribution to the publication of any book or other literature. (2) An architect may: (a) Participate in forums; or (b) Be interviewed through the media, in a manner not otherwise prohibited by this Schedule, where the object of such forum or interview is to promote interest in architecture or in the profession. (3) An architect shall be at liberty to attend and participate in any function or ceremony which is held in connection with any building project.
CPCEI Rule 5 - Advertising (1) An architect may, subject to this paragraph, publicize his practice or allow his employees or agents to do so. 5(e) Where the publicity makes any direct or indirect mention of any building project, he shall state his specific involvement in that project and give due credit to any other architect involved in that project. (7) It shall be the responsibility of every architect to ensure that any publicity relating to his practice complies with this paragraph, whether such publicity is conducted by him or any other person on his behalf. Inference A wide spectrum of possibility for exposure of architects is enabled by the rules set by Board of Architects, Singapore under Architects Act, 1991. Under Section 38, Rule 1 gives freedom of media participation of different forms. These include: -Allows contribution to publication, conferences, seminars, forums, interviews and any other ceremony related to the discipline (Section 38, Rule 1, (1), (2)), and -Allows to receive remuneration for the same.(Section 38, Rule 1, (1)c) Under Section 38, Rule 5 gives freedom of advertising by different means: -Allows agents to advertise for the architect (Section 38, Rule 5, (1)) -Allows employees to advertise for the architect (Section 38, Rule 5, (1)) -Allows an architect to publicize his works and past projects. (Section 38, Rule 5, (5)(e)) -Allows any other person to publicize on the architectâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s behalf. (Section 38, Rule 5, (7)such appearances.
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CONCLUSIONS The following forms of advertisement derived from foreign councils will help in promotion of Indian Architects: The signs: Sign boards in front of buildings designed by the architect while under construction, helps promote the architect publicly and expose to potential clients. As James shares, “If you put a sign in front of your project when it’s being built, especially if it’s on a main road, or even if it’s on a quiet road, people will see your name…” (Butterworth, 2014). Advertising in local magazines: Giving logo and information on type of work done by the architect, also include some sample projects dealt by the firm. Web presence: Taking a place in lead-generating websites, which are trusted websites by the mass help the architect to surface among others. Creating a website to promote your services. Little postcard leaflet: Such postcards also help advertising the work of the architect to a certain extent and drive relevant projects. The UK based architect shares, “so, when I’m going to a site or if I’m out and about, I’ll walk down the street and put it through the letter boxes, and I get a bit of work through there” (Butterworth, 2014). Referral partners in similar disciplines: Making referral partners, especially those who have a strong base of clients for themselves and are well established, are good source for advertising. Any recommendation by such established company is trusted by the clients and gives the architect an opportunity to serve a new client. Reference Forms: these are somewhat similar to a feedback form which the architect gets after the project is complete. This helps both in improving the work done by the firm (as per the client’s feedback) and maintain a rich collection of projects done by the architect in the past, along with a satisfaction report by the client.
ARCHITECTS IN THE HOUSE Source: http://media.shelter. org.uk/__data/assets/ image/0009/355293/ Shelter_AITH_cmyk_ logo_2009.jpg
Efforts by professional bodies: In Britain we’ve got something called “Architect in the House,” which is a joint initiative by RIBA, and a housing charity called Shelter. Every year, they do a campaign to put architects in touch with homeowners who want to extend or modify. They bring them together and the homeowner gives a small sum to the homeless charity for the initial consultation and after that it becomes a regular fee based work for the rest of the design work of the project. This process runs well in Britain as James share his experience, “So, the charity gets something out of it, and the client got an architect who was a registered architect with the RIBA. They felt they got someone that they could trust and I got the project out of it.” (Butterworth, 2014) ARCHI-CHAKKAR 242
REFERENCES Anon, (2016). [Online] Available at: https://www.quora.com/What-are-the-prosand-cons-of-a-Limited-Liability-Partnership-LLP-registration-versus-a-PrivateLimited-registration-for-Indian-startups [Accessed 10 Oct. 2016]. Aravena, A. (2016). Alejandro Aravena's Pritzker Prize Acceptance Speech. [Online] ArchDaily. Available at: http://www.archdaily.com/786226/alejandro-aravenaspritzker-prize-acceptance-speech [Accessed 18 Sep. 2016]. ArchDaily. (2013). The 100 Largest Architecture Firms In the World. [Online] Available at:http://www.archdaily.com/330759/the-100-largest-architecturefirms-in-the-world [Accessed 9 Oct. 2016]. Architects Bill 2010 (Amendment). (2010). Architects Registration Board, United Kingdom, (2009). Architects Code: Standards of Conduct and Practice. London: ARB, pp.Standard 3,4. Associates, Z. &., 2012. Limited Partnership (LP) & Limited Liability Partnership (LLP). [Online] Available at: http://www.hooyou.com/business-entities/lp-llp.html [Accessed 13 Oct 2016]. Board of Architects, Singapore, (1991). The Architect's Act. Singapore: Board of Architects, p.Section 38. Butterworth, J. (2014). Direct Advertising Methods for Architects. Business of Architecture. (2011). Is It Unethical For Architects To Market Or Advertise Their Firm?. [Online] Available at: https://www.businessofarchitecture. com/architect-marketing/is-marketing-against-your-ethics/ [Accessed 2 Oct. 2016]. Ccba.in. (2016). CCBA - Christopher Charles Benninger Architects. [Online] Available at: http://www.ccba.in/public/index.php/about [Accessed 24 Sep. 2016] Kukreja, C. (2016). C P Kukreja Associates - One of the Top 100 Architectural Firms. [Online] C P Kukreja Architects. Available at: http://www.cpkukreja.com/ [Accessed 5 Oct. 2016]. Lord.ca. (2012). BIHAR MUSEUM ARCHITECT ANNOUNCEMENT. [Online] Available at: http://www.lord.ca/Media/2012.02.16.bihar-museum-architectselection-press-release.htm [Accessed 4 Oct. 2016]. Morrow, S., 2009. Partnerships: Pros and Cons. [Online] Available at: https://www. legalzoom.com/articles/partnerships-pros-and-cons [Accessed 13 October 2016]. N64lx2lq95u2imp6vfzubo69.wpengine.netdna-cdn.com. (2016). [Online] Available at: http://n64lx2lq95u2imp6vfzubo69.wpengine.netdna-cdn.com/wpcontent/uploads/2014/10/Client-Satisfaction.jpg [Accessed 14 Oct. 2016]. South African Council for the Architectural Profession, (2009). The Code of Professional Conduct. Durban: SACAP, p.Rule 3. Suri, D., 2015. What is the best legal entity for your business?. [Online] Available at: https://yourstory.com/2015/03/business-legal-entity/ [Accessed 13 Oct 2016] ACT ON THE ACT 243
HALF BAKED Himanshu Singh Yadav | Prithvi Aravind | Mipham Namgyal | Sneh Prakash Guides: Ar. Sudhir Vohra Chairperson: Prof. Manoj Mathur
ABSTRACT As an architecture student we are constantly questioning and critiquing what we learn in our studios. We often wonder how all of this will manifest in our future, and so we stumbled upon the question of “Does Architectural Education prepares us for Practice?” This seminar investigates into the gaps between our education and the practice of architecture by conducting research on this topic as well as surveys and interviews of students and graduates of School of Planning and Architecture, New Delhi. The area of study is focused on the 5 years of architectural course that we are pursuing. The study is to understand what our education achieves to teach us, as well as understand how prepared graduates feel after their education. The research focuses on graduates of the past 8-10 years from the institute who are still, or have recently experienced any disconnect between their education and starting a practice. With surplus supply of architects and a low demand we need to address the issue of significance we are facing. The study shows results from the surveys conducted, and identifies the major flaws in the system. It also recommends changes that can be brought in the system to make it more efficient and take a step towards making the field of architecture more significant in today’s time.
INTRODUCTION Background There comes a point in every architecture students’ life, during their course of study, where they question their education, and also question, “Why am I putting myself through these 5 years?” In today’s time, architecture and architectural education has seen a shift in paradigm in India. The role of an architect in the society was much different 25 years ago, but today the profession itself is being questioned. Today’s architects are not the protagonists in shaping the way a city looks. Other professionals like PMCs, design consultants, and structural engineers and building contractors are all involved in shaping the image of a city, thus, degrading importance of architects. Due to the change in perception of this profession, the field of education needs to be addressed as well. In our education we get so caught up in the romanticism of architecture, that we experience a disconnect with the reality of practice. With advancements in technology, architectural practice has reached new heights, and our education is not able to match up to these advancements. We also realised that we don’t feel confident to start our own practice at the end of 5 years. This has brought us to this research. If at the end of 5 years we do not realise our role in society as professionals and the importance of this field, then our education has failed. Education is the foundation of practice. Thus the standard of practice reflects the standard of our education. If the architecture of the city is seeing new lows, the problem needs to be identified at the root. Hence, we would like to understand the flaws in our education and the disconnect between education and practice.
Area of Study The area of study is focused on the 5 years of architectural course that we are pursuing. The study is to understand what our education achieves to teach us, as well as understand how prepared graduates feel after their education. Our main focus is graduates of School of Planning and Architecture for the past 8-10 years who are practicing or are employed by firms. This strategy is to make our research more focused. The reason for choosing this audience was to understand the problems that graduates need to face when they are in the field, since they do not have any real experience. Hence they are novices to trying to make the link between education and practice.
Need For Enquiry Being in our 9th semester of college, post-internship we realised some things cannot be taught to us in studio and can only be learnt in the field. So what does our studio achieve to teach us that can prepare us for Practice? A professional course means educating students to become professionals. Architecture is one among the many professional courses in our country. After doing a background study of architectural education in India, we observed that with 420+ colleges for architecture there are 24000+ students graduating as architects at the end of a 5 year course, of which only about 30% of the graduates are registered under the COA. So, what happens to the rest of the 70% of qualified professionals? ARCHI-CHAKKAR 246
Methodology Chart A literature survey was done to understand the evolution of architectural education in India, organizations/institutions responsible for regulating the quality of education, their goals and philosophies, and relationship between education and practice of architects. After the literature study a hypothesis was formulated:
“There exists a gap between Architectural Education and Architectural Practice in our country.” To prove the hypothesis i.e. to find the gaps between the two realms of education and practice and to find the skills needed to become an architect, we focused the research towards the area of study i.e. SPA Delhi. Apart from the literature study, a questionnaire-based survey was conducted. Structured and empirical questionnaires were prepared for practicing architects and students of architecture. The aim of the survey was to find out the skills, knowledge and values expected in the architectural practice. They were also asked about the knowledge, skills and values gained during their architectural education. The questionnaire was sent to 85 architects (SPA alumni), 52 of them replied back. Only the students who had completed their practical training of 4 months were chosen for students’ questionnaire. This questionnaire was sent to 70 students out of which 45 sent their replies. After collecting all the survey results, they were analysed in an empirical and graphical method. Then, the conclusions were drawn on the basis of the analysis.
METHODOLOGY CHART Source: Author
LITERATURE SURVEY “Let us not forget, that, if there is good education then only professional excellence is possible, and if the profession is strong then only education is relevant”- Ar. Ashutosh Kr. Agarwal (IIA, 2014) Architecture is no longer a standalone profession. An architect needs to work with other professionals on large projects. Thus students should be given knowledge about architectural as well as construction management, financial management with the changing scenario of construction. HALF BAKED 247
“I believe that architects are people of learning first and people of commerce second. We used to be the learned men and women, so people would come to us for our counsel, and then offer us remuneration when they were content with the counsel,” he muses, “The biggest problems architects face these days is that people don’t recognize us anymore and we are only needed for creating drawings at most. So unless we come to that position where we can demonstrate to the public that we are beneficial to the society, we will become increasingly irrelevant.”(M.N.Ashish Ganju, 2016) Architect Ashish Ganju describes his understanding of the disconnect between the field of education in architecture and the field of architecture as the lack of a reality check in our education system. In our five years of bachelors we are taught subjects in studios as well as given theoretical knowledge but we fail to understand the implications of this knowledge in the real world. For example, he says that increasing the F.A.R according to patterns without an understanding of the how F.A.R relates with the congestion in the city, does not help in improving the quality of life in the city and reducing the congestion. Having textbook knowledge of certain subjects does not prepare us to tackle it in reality because we have not identified or understood the real problem. If there are 9 colleges of Architecture in Delhi, producing around 600 graduates trained in architecture every year, for the past 5-10 years, why does our city still look like this? Should we not have the short-term benefits of the having so many educated professionals in the city? Are we not responsible for the degrading relevance of the architect in the society? Is our education to be blamed for the lack of urge to make the city our responsibility?
“There is a true gharana of architecture in action here, like a nuclear ball of fire growing larger and larger, as it expands outwards and onwards.” (Professor Christopher Charles Benninger, 2014) Professor Benninger talks about this energy that we produce every year, and questions if the energy is growing out of control. A positive result needs to come out of the education that is being offered to so many students, and in turn affect the society positively. Over the past 20 years the scene of architectural education has dramatically changed. There are so many colleges in the country offering architectural education, and every year we have so many graduate architects. If all of the graduates understand the nature of practice in our country or specific to their respective regions, a true reform can be brought about in the field of architecture. This may require us to actually redefine and reinvent the role of architects in the country. In his message for the seminar - “Architectural Education: Turmoil, Opportunities and Future Course”, Ar. Ashutosh Agarwal says - “the notion of expendability of ‘architect’ can only be fought by setting high examples of professional services in the true sense; not in exceptions but in majority cases… Perception, in the mind of the society, therefore needs to be changed, by means of act and examples, from architect as seen as an expense, to, Architect as an essential investment. This means, the society needs competence in architects, right from the time of graduation.” (IIA,2014) Architectural education is a professional subject which deals with the combination of science an art. Unlike other professional courses which have a science orientation, there are some intangible aspects of this kind of education. As design isn’t a theory which is right or wrong or can act as a universal truth, some designs work better than other set in a particular period of time. This dynamism of architecture reflects in the education as well. The diverse nature of design makes architecture a difficult subject to be taught. One agenda that the education must have is to inspire students and discipline them to strive towards a better practice, and understand ARCHI-CHAKKAR 248
their role as professionals, and take their profession more seriously to uplift the current situation of the profession. Students these days take their education as a means of just attaining a degree, and possibly getting a job in the field. Most of the students coming into this field are also not genuinely interested in the field. Pressuring students with marks, submission, and attendance shouldnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t be the aim of the education, challenging them to think innovatively and creating design solutions and not just painting a pretty picture must be the aim from the very first year of the course. Students these days do not work like in the past. The access to technology has become so easy that we depend highly on software and Internet as tools for our work. This is not necessarily a bad thing. Production of work is made easier with such tools. But our education system still follows and teaches obsolete methods in the various subjects taught in school. Teaching methods need to be updated to match the levels that practice has attained as well as the understanding of students these days. According to educationists and practitioners there is a major lack of seriousness that students show towards their education and the field of architecture, thus to ensure this seriousness of professionals towards this field, educationists must take necessary measures. Critical thinking and solution finding are essential factors to our profession. Students learn to critically think about the subject through their education but this thinking is not always applied to finding the best solution. Educationists must find solutions to the problems in our teaching system and professionals must also support the cause by involving themselves in the education field. There needs to be greater interaction between the fields of education and practice to ensure that each is aware of how they function. Educationists must realize that students are not meant to be suppressed and made as factory workers, but enable them to construct arguments for issues in the subjects like design, history, art, anthropology, structures, construction, etc. Some architects feel that vernacular architecture or traditional architecture should be a formalized subject in the curriculum of architecture. Understanding the traditional architecture of a particular region is important. But most students do not practice within the same city of the institute. India having such diverse topography, culture, climate and traditions, having a holistic knowledge of traditional architecture of all the regions within the five years of architecture is quite a task. Inculcating the practice of responding to context within the students for all the projects in their education is a better strategy for students to understand the traditional architecture and how to respect it.
RESEARCH STUDY AREA Understanding the Bigger Picture The Council of Architecture (COA) is a body of the Government of India under the provisions of the Architects Act, 1972, enacted by the Parliament of India, which came into force on 1 September 1972. This Act empowers the COA in registration of Architects, standards of education, recognized qualifications and standards of practice to be fulfilled with by the practising architects. The Council of Architecture is charged with the responsibility to regulate the education and practice of professionals in India and also maintains the registration of architects. According to the COA website - â&#x20AC;&#x153;There are about 423 institutions, which impart architectural education in India. The standards of education being imparted in HALF BAKED 249
these institutions (constituent colleges/departments of universities, deemed universities, affiliated colleges/schools, IITs, NITs and autonomous institutions) is governed by Council of Architecture (Minimum Standards of Architectural Education) Regulations, 1983, which set forth the requirement of eligibility for admission, course duration, standards of staff & accommodation, course content, examination etc.” “It is important that each graduating Planner and Architect is clear of purpose, accepting of responsibility and practitioner of skills.” (Neeraj Manchanda, IIA, 2014)
NUMBER OF INSTITUTES IN VARIOUS STATES Source: www.coa.gov.in
RATIO OF THE NUMBER OF GRADUATES AND NUMBER OF REGISTERED ARCHITECTS IN 2015 Source: www.coa.gov.in
The above table shows that only 7000 graduates out of a total of 24,000 registered themselves with the COA. The huge gap raises a question that where are the rest of the 17,000 graduates? This means that the educational institutes are not able to produce fully finished “plug-and-play products” for the profession.
NUMBER OF ARCHITECTS IN VARIOUS CITES Source: www.coa.gov.in ARCHI-CHAKKAR 250
UNDERSTANDING THE SMALLER PICTURE (SPA, DELHI) The graduates of the past 6 years are listed down with the information about their location and their current job.
Graduates of the Year 2012
GRADUATES OF 2012, CURRENT LOCATION AND JOB Source: Author
GRADUATES OF 2012, CURRENT LOCATION AND JOB Source: Author HALF BAKED 251
Graduates of the Year 2014
GRADUATES OF 2014, CURRENT LOCATION AND JOB Source: Author
Graduates of the Year 2015
GRADUATES OF 2015, CURRENT LOCATION AND JOB Source: Author
Graduates of the Year 2016
The following chart is the percentage of how many graduates with their job description.
From the above chart, it is clear that only 22.5 % of the graduates have successfully started their own practice whereas 50% of them are working in other architectural firm as employee. This again reflects that our college is not producing fully finished “plug-and-play products” professionals.
PERCENTAGE OF NUMBER OF GRADUATES AS PER THEIR JOB DESCRIPTION Source: Author HALF BAKED 253
RESEARCH DATA Survey Questionnaire The following questionnaire were sent out to the students of 5th Year.
Student Name: _________________________________ Year: _________________________________ 1. Why did you select this particular discipline? i. Didnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t want to pursue engineering/medical ii. Got a better rank/college (in AIEEE) as compared to engineering iii. Genuine interest in architecture iv. Good in sketching/painting v. Family background of builder, civil engineer, architects vi. Others 2. Do you feel that itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s a poor utilisation of long 5 years? i. Yes ii. No 3. Are you satisfied with your course structure of the subjects you are being taught? i. Yes ii. No 4. Do you feel that there is: i. Lack of technology linkage and also ii. A lack of new technology in your course curriculum? 5. What is your opinion about internship? a) Should it be taken for i. 4 months ii. More than 4 months iii. More than 12 months
b) Should it be taken? i. Whenever possible ii. Every year iii. Final Year iv. After graduation 6. Is there any need to rethink training? i. Yes
7. Do you feel that there is a lack of variety exposure? i. Yes
8. Does the course enrich you as a person? i. Yes
9. How do you arrange the following five subjects as per their relevance? Arch. Design, Bldg. Services, Bldg. Materials & Bldg. Construction, Structures 10. Are you satisfied with the teaching contents and teaching methodology? i. Yes
11. Are you satisfied with communication and instruction techniques? i. Yes
12. The distribution of total class hours between theory classes and studio classes are alright? i. Yes
13. Do you feel that teachers are lacking in broad perspective of architectural exposure? i. Yes
14. Do you feel teachers are lacking in expertise in relevant papers? i. Yes
15. Do you feel teachers are lacking in practical experience or field experience, who are teaching only with bookish knowledge? i. Yes
16. Are teachers with practical experience/field exposure better? i. Yes
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SAMPLE RESPONSE, PAGE 1 Source: Author ARCHI-CHAKKAR 256
SAMPLE RESPONSE, PAGE 2 Source: Author HALF BAKED 257
SURVEY RESULTS AND ANALYSIS Education 1. Why did you select this particular discipline?
2. Do you feel this is a proper utilisation of 5 years?
3. Are you satisfied with the course structure of subjects being taught?
4. Internship should be taken for?
5. Is there any need to rethink the internship?
6. Do you think there is enough exposure to the field?
7. Does the course enrich you as a person?
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8. Are you satisfied with the teaching content and methodology?
9. Are you satisfied with the communication and instruction technique?
10. Do you feel the teachers have a broader perspective of architectural practice?
11. Are teachers with better practical experience / exposure to the field?
12. Are you happy with the teaching aids used in school?
• • • • • •
There is a major problem in the selection criteria of students to the Institute as only 10% of the students in the college had opted for architecture through genuine interest. The students are not satisfied with the structure of the course, and the training received through the 5 years. The students have an overall learning as individuals through the pursuit of this course in this particular institution. Most of the students are not happy with the teaching technique and the teaching aids used in the college. Despite the low number of genuinely interested students, when they enter the college, there is large number of students pursuing architecture, once they graduate out of college. About 50% of the students get into employment while only 20% of the students strive to practice on their own.
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PRACTICE 1. On a scale of 1 to 5, how important are each of the following subjects for architectural practice?
2. On a scale of 1 to 5, how well did the college teach each of the following subjects?
3. On a scale of 1 to 5, how important are each of the following skills for architectural practice?
4. On a scale of 1 to 5, how well were you taught the following skills in college?
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5a. What is your opinion about the duration of the internship?
5b. Should/Can there be an alternative route to architecture such as apprenticeship?
6. In your opinion, how long should a graduate work as an employee before starting oneâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s own practice?
7. In your opinion, how important is specialisation/masters for practice? Rate on a scale of 1 to 5
8. Architectural practice is directly linked to a market which is constantly changing. How well were you exposed to the following market challenges during your education? Rate on a scale of 1 to 5.
9. How well (on a scale of 0 to 5) do you find yourself prepared for handling contractual/ technical/ legal/ ethical issues?
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CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS Conclusions • There is a clear gap between what the practice demands and what the education supplies. • There are mixed opinions about starting a practice of their own after doing 5 years of architecture. A large percentage is not confident about starting a practice right after the graduation, which means work experience is required before starting one’s own practice. • The exposure to the technicality of practice in our education is quite low. • The market is constantly changing, and revisions in the syllabus and curriculum is required. Education is not up to date with the advancements of the market. • Education is seen as a separate entity which gives knowledge about the field of architecture and just as a means of achieving a degree. • The education does not give enough practical training and it is assumed that the practical knowledge can only be gained through work experience. • Some of them also felt that an alternative route to architecture such as apprenticeship can also be taken. • Apart from the knowledge, running a practice also requires skills like communication skills, HR management skills, writing skills. The education fails in training students in those skills. • There is a major problem in the selection criteria of students to the institute as only 10% of the students in the college had opted for architecture through genuine interest. • The students are not satisfied with the structure of the course, and the training received through the 5 years. • The students receive an overall learning through the pursuit of this course in this particular institution. • Most of the students are not happy with the teaching technique and the teaching aids used in the college. • Despite the low number of genuinely interested students, when they enter the college, there is large number of students pursuing architecture, once they graduate out of college. • About 50% of the students get into employment while only 20% of the students strive to practice on their own.
• • • • • • • •
The course must lay greater emphasis on field training, to provide a concrete and more pragmatic base to the graduate architect. Attempts should be made to communicate to the student the importance of structures, building management and services and to awaken the students’ fascination for these subjects. There is a major need to change the selection criteria. The selection criteria shouldn’t end at a written examination and should include a personal interview, group discussions and aptitude tests. The institutional consultancy must be part of the education curriculum, so students can also be part of the practice of architecture within their controlled environment of education. Hand drafting is no longer required in the practice and so software training should get more importance in the colleges. As computers are used extensively today, it is necessary to be generally exposed to it. Our building construction studios need to have a practical approach by introducing hands-on workshops. Updating the syllabus, replacing outdated contents with the new ones, reorientating architectural education is required in order to prepare architects who will be able to live up to the expectations of practice. Certain subjects like art appreciation and theory of design do not have a formalised content and they need to be taught well with respect to the field.
REFERENCES D.A.Schon, 1984, “The Reflective Practitioner”, Basic Books Dr.M.Chakraborty, 2015, “Designing Better Architecture Education”. Copal Publishing Group, New Delhi. http://www.posts.architecturelive.in/architects-are-very-fundamental-toourliving-especially-to-urban-living-m-n-ashish-ganju/- accessed on 8th September 2016, posted on 6th September ‘16 http://www.posts.architecturelive.in/the-future-of-architecturaleducation-inindia-the-crises-and-challenge/ - accessed on 7th September 2016, posted on 25th February 2014 IIA, 2014, “Architecture Education: Turmoil, Oppurtunities, Future Course” , Seminar brief, Northern Chapter
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देसी या ‘िव’देसी Arghya Mandal | Charu Kumari | Sargam Sindhu Guides: Prof. Anil Dewan | Ar. Sudhir Vohra | Ar. Abhishek Bij | Ar. Amritha Ballal Chairperson: Ar. Uttiya Bhattacharya
ABSTRACT In recent time, India faced manifold increase of the presence of foreign architectural practices taking up projects in India. This influx has certainly an impact on the Indian architectural practices as the projects are going to the foreign players. There is positive side of it too as this makes way for knowledge transfer from foreign partner to local partner, if collaborated. In this paper we try to analyse the impact of this influx on Indian architecture and the local architectural community. To do the same, few architectural competitions and large projects done by foreign architects were analysed. The study concluded that there is a significant need to revise the process of selection of the architect.
INTRODUCTION The boom in the construction industry since a few decades has attracted several foreign architectural firms to work in India. The cheap labor cost and the opportunity to experiment extensively are the main factors behind the influx of these international firms. This scenario has completely transformed the face of architectural profession and practice. This influx is also a by-product of Globalization. Globalization has encouraged us to hire foreign architects, so our buildings compete in the global competitive market. Today both the government and private developers are hiring foreign architects either by organising competition or appointing directly, for all kinds of projects, from airport design to township planning. Developers do so to make their buildings more popular and sellable, whereas the motive for the government to hire them is to get global standard buildings. As per the Architects Act of 1972, foreign firms need proper permission from the Council of Architecture to practice in India. Collaboration is also a way in which they are finding their way to the India architectural industry. There are several examples of projects done by the successful collaboration of the foreign firm with local partners. This research intends to investigate what is the impact of this influx on the architectural practices and architecture itself of the country and whether it is positive or negative impact by analysing competitions and private projects involving foreign architects. The hypothesis assumed for the research is that the impact of influx is positive, only if delivering good design is the motive behind selecting the foreign architect.
GLOBALIZATION: THE ROOT OF EVERYTHING! After independence the country was going through lot of changes. With rebuilding of the country, in the years following 1990, India, due to bankruptcy and influence from the western trends decided to change its economic policy by economic liberalization, privatization and globalization. This act invited direct foreign investment to the country which affected it both positively and negatively. It helped it evolve as a developing nation, but also encouraged people to follow the western ideas. Many foreign architects who are taking projects in India say that, Indiaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s strongest theoretical advantages in the global market for professional services are the widespread use of English as the language of professional training and communication. In other words in some cases where the globalization has affected us negatively is when we simply designing context-less buildings which can be fitted anywhere in the world if needed. The architecture which is made without sympathizing with the context would not last long and wonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t be timeless. Whereas the positive effect is globalization are also there and should not be underestimated: a. Transfer of knowledge b. Exchange of culture and services c. By getting the privilege of hiring foreign architects (which is due to globalization), we have a choice to select the best and most efficient design
GLOBALIZATION LEADING TO THE FOREIGN FIRMS COMING TO INDIA Globalization and Liberalization, both being very different phenomena are still interlinked. After the economic liberalization that took place in 1990, when the Indian economy started to embrace the “forces of globalization”. Wide investment in infrastructure took place and in early 2000s the globalization touched upon the architecture in the country. (Mehrotra, 2011) As mentioned before, since globalization made best possible services available due to which the culture of outsourcing started. Consequently, we started to outsource the design services to the western firms (as they were more capable and experience in global buildings) to meet the international standards. This culture of outsourcing placed them on the front foot by controlling the design and the Indian firms became unable to develop their design capabilities.
PRIME MINISTER MANMOHAN SINGH SIGNING THE BUDGET Source: http://images. indianexpress.com
ARCHITECTS ACT OF 1972 - THE RULEBOOK OF ARCHITECTURAL PRACTICE IN INDIA The Architect’s Act of 1972 is the basis of practice in India. The act was made to protect the rights and the identity of the architect. According to the act, no person is prohibited from giving advice or practicing consultancy on architectural related works. The only restriction being that the person is not entitled to use the title and style of ‘architect’ unless registered with the COA, as per the Act. The act also clarifies that a foreign architect or consultant, who is not registered with COA, cannot be appointed for architectural works without following the prescribed procedure. (Seshadri, 2013) As per Section 37 of the Act, no foreign architect may practice in India without permission from the Central Government. Additionally in many cases the foreign architects are emailing the drawings to the builders, which are then signed by the Indian counterparts who are finally represented as the only architects of the project and get approvals from development authorities. In other cases while the Indian architects are designing the project, the foreign architects are paid for letting the builder use their brand as international standards.
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FOREIGN ARCHITECTURAL FIRMS IN INDIA The booming economy and the burgeoning middle class has prompted developers to bring in foreign architects with foreign fees to design everything from airports to residential and office towers and bungalows and resorts. Countries like the USA and UK, who reached a point of saturation, do not get a chance to experiment on wide ground. Therefore the foreign firms looked for developing countries like India to test and apply their capabilities. Also the statistics say that the largest number of foreign architectural firms in India, either belong to the USA or the UK. As per Perkins (2009) who is Chairman and CEO of Perkins Eastman Firm there are several reasons to practice in India a. â&#x20AC;&#x153;India has a population of over 1,235,000,000, which is rapidly urbanizing, and which makes most major cities hot development markets. b. English is the language of business and the only common language among the business elite. c. Affordable craftsmanship and cheap labour. d. India provides them with wide experimenting ground, where they can experiment as well as do extensive creative work. This brings us to the nature of practice adopted by the foreign practices. There are 4 general types to this:
NATURE OF PRACTICE BY FOREIGN ARCHITECTS Source: Author
WHY DO INDIAN CLIENTS HIRE FOREIGN ARCHITECTS? The Managing Director of the Hiranandani Group says that the foreign firms are more sensitive and empathetic to the clients’ needs and aspirations, which makes a greater difference between them and the Indian architectural firms. He also feels that, “they find a solution which is required for a particular site, location and land. They are also more in-tune with the landuse demand. They are more open to new ideas. On the other hand, Indian firms have a trial and error approach to design and planning. They also try to impose their ideas on the developers.” One more reason why the developers hire foreign firms is because the customers fancy the work done by them, which is good for the developer from a marketing point of view. Some clients only hire foreign firms when masterplanning needs to be done because they feel that it’s more affordable to hire when there is such a kind of requirement. Time is also a factor in choosing between Indian and Foreign firms. As per Anil Sharma of Amrapali Group, “time is never an issue of concern with them, they keep their words.” (Sarthak, 2000)
HIRANANDANI GARDENS, POWAI Source: Author
NOT EXCLUSIVE TO INDIA However, the impacts of globalization are not exclusive to India. Countries like China, Sri Lanka, Brazil etc. are not beyond the reach of these foreign architects. Brazil who hosted the latest global Olympics games has generated a handful of projects for architectural firms around the world; for example, Populous is responsible for conceptual design of a stadium in the city of Natal. In China, the client demands foreign architects to involve local architects, manufacturers in all the important processes as there is a possibility of knowledge transfer. On the other hand, Malaysia has opened 30% of FDI in the service industry. Foreign professionals can practice in Malaysia with several conditions, including after interview and examination to determine they qualify and understand local practices.
IMPACT OF GLOBALIZATION Source: Online News Database
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To prove the hypothesis and to answer the question the research will look specifically at open competitions and large scale projects done by foreign architects, for which an architect is hired. In case of competitions, an architect/firm is selected out of several entries, whereas another way of hiring an architect is to appoint them without conducting any competition. The research will look at the case studies of both ways and try to answer the questions by analysing them based on the following criteria. The findings of this analysis will be supported by the perception and views of office holders and interferences from the interview conducted.
METHODOLOGY Source: Author
CASE STUDIES Open Competitions:
1.Indira Gandhi National Centre for Arts Competition, 1986
2.Global Architectural Design Competition for Indian National War Museum, 2016
3.Redevelopment of Pragati Maidan Convention Center, 2016
4.Mumbai City Museum North Wing Design Competition, December 2013
5.Competition for Patna Museum, Bihar, 2011
Large Scale Projects:
1.TATA Housing, Amantra, Kalyan- HOK
2.Mahindra World City, Chennai- HOK
3.Lavasa Township, Pune- HOK
4.Sunshine Hills, Bangalore- BDP ltd.
Invited Design Competition: ARCHI-CHAKKAR 274
1.Chennai Airport, Chennai- Frederic Schwartz Architects & Gensler, USA with Creative Group, Delhi
1. Indira Gandhi National Centre for Arts Competition, 1986 Indira Gandhi National Centre for Arts, which was allotted 25 acres of prime land along the lush India Gate Lawns in Delhi. It plunged into controversy over its International Architectural Design Competition for the Centre. 1. Number of participants and ratio of Indian and foreign entries-It received 926 applications, out of which 620 applications from 36 overseas nations. Finally 194 submitted detailed designs for assessment. 2. Pre-Qualification - The competition was open to all the architects globally who are registered in their respective countries. Due to the competition requirements of lavish models and sheets, the average architects were already filtered out. 3. The result - The first prize of Rs. 10 lakhs went to Ralph Lerner, director of graduate studies at Princeton University, New Jersey, USA who was also awarded the Rs 60 crore contract for the design and supervision of the centre. 4. The second prize of Rs 5 lakh went to Gautam Bhatia of India, and the third, of Rs 3 lakh, was shared equally between Francoise-Helene Jourda of Lyons, France, Alexandres Tombazis of Athens, and David Jeremy of London. 5. Issue - The fact that four of the five prize winners are foreigners invited fumes and said that the foreign architects have been chosen over Indian counterparts, even though the building has to depict Indian culture. 6. The facts presented to support the issue were: a. That the jury did not include some of the best Indian architects: Charles Correa who was initially involved in the project was inexplicably dropped. b. That the competition did not draw the better known names in Indian and international architecture. c. That the jury’s decision was influenced greatly by the superior materials used in the display models of foreign entries. d. That the competition was restricted only to the affluent. e. The competition was a 1 stage competition, but if there were four clear stages of screening, it would have saved a lot of money if display models and expensive sheets were not needed. 7. Facts presented against the issue was that, the Prime Minister selected the names Achyut Kanvinde and Balkrishna Doshi as the Indian architects in the Jury panel. 8. Why Ralph Lerner got the first prize: a. His absorption of the vision that Edwin Lutyens had in mind when he designed New Delhi. b. The design drew its styles from various forms of traditional and historical architecture in India.
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9. As per the competition rules - If the first prize winner is unable, for reasons of distance or inexperience, to satisfy the jury of his ability to carry out the work, the jury may require him to collaborate with another architect of their approval. And should the architect fail to abide by the provisions of the contract, the promoter reserves the right. Final Result: Since architect Ralph Lerner had not made any real building in the past, he was asked to collaborate with Jaswir Sawhney architects for the construction of the project. Inferences: The foreign architects entering the Indian market have been beneficial to Indian practices in this case because: a. As the selection criterion implies that the chosen design was the best from all. And since the jury contained Indian architects, the result must have been fair and best to their ability. b. Indian architectural practices did learn from the winning design. c. Since the winner collaborated with Indian architectural firm, the Indian practice also benefited from it both in terms of money and design.
2. Global Architectural Design Competition for Indian National War Museum, 2016 This open International design competition has been proposed by the Ministry of defence of India to select an architect for the design and construction of the Museum on 10.71 acres land in Princess Park, New Delhi. The competition started on 15th August 2016 with call notice for the architects and the results of stage 1 to be announced on 15th October. 1. Number of Participants and ratio of Indian and foreign entries - Since it is an open international level competition, a large number of foreign architects took part in it. The ratio canâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t be predicted as the government has not disclosed the information of the participants. 2. Pre-Qualification - The competition was open to all architects registered in respective countries and multi-disciplinary teams led by a registered architect. 3. The Issue - The concern here is also quite similar to the IGNCA competition, which is that why the competition was open at global level when our own architects can design cheaper and maybe better. 4. Facts against the issue - People are arguing that the competition should not be open at global level because the building will be representing Indian heritage and culture, and Indian architects are more familiar with it.
5. Facts with the issue - Supporting the idea of global level competition, one can argue that the only selection criterion here is good, responsive and contextual design. Also this is a 2 stage competition. At the end of the first stage the jury selected 9 entries with best concepts and those 9 entries will move to second stage where they’ll submit design. Thus this competition is fairer in nature. INFERENCES - the only significant inference from this competition is that the foreign firms taking part in the design competitions of India and getting the contract is advantageous as long as the selection criterion is based on the quality of design, because we can always learn and get inspired from good design.
3. Redevelopment of Pragati Maidan Convention Center, 2016 The competition aimed for selection of an architect for the redevelopment of Pragati Maidan complex development of 3,26,065 sqm. of built up area in 2 phases. The redevelopment can facilitate in making Delhi NCR a globally competitive meetings, conventions and exhibition destination. 1. Entries - The international level competition attracted entries from all over the world. Several Indian and foreign architects participated and submitted their design. 2. Pre-Qualification - The competition has number of pre-qualification selection criteria: a. They must have experience of successfully completed similar works during the last 10 years. b. Their average annual financial turnover should not be less than 5.26 crore during the immediate last 3 consecutive financial year. c. If the architect is participating as joint venture, number of members in a joint venture shall not be more than two. d. If the contract is awarded to a joint venture firm, both parties should be liable to the NBCC.
POPULOUS WEBSITEMASTERPLAN OF THE PROJECT Source: http://populous.com
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3. Results - Populous which is the branch of one of the Americaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s largest firm HOK, won the competition and has been awarded the contract. 4. The Issue - the problem came up when the contract was awarded to a foreign architectural firm called Populous. 5. Facts against the issue - Both COA and IIA raised valid concerns against organizing the competition on global level and awarding the contract to a foreign firm. They also sent letters to the government objecting the process of selection. a. The letter sent by COA states that the tender privileges financial statement of the bidders with less emphasis on design. b. IIA said that the competition of this scale should have a more transparent way of selection so itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s fairer and based on design. c. The selection process was also as per the COA guidelines in the provision of architectsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; act of 1972, argues architect Vijay Garg. d. IIA clearly established that the focus was on the lowest bid, which is not ideal. 6. Facts with the issue - The fact presented against the objection made was that the contract was awarded to Populous because they fulfilled the pre-selection criteria and have a varied experience in similar kind of projects all over the world. Inferences: a. It is definitely not advantageous to our architectural firms that the government is bringing in foreign players for designing such projectswhich will be the image of the city and must represent the India heritage (being close to Lutyens Delhi). b. Also this design does not require much technical expertise (in which the foreign firms specialize), thus it could have been given to an Indian architect. c. The project of this scale will easily involve Rs. 2,000 crores of public money and choosing the lowest bid over the good design is completely unfair to the Indian architects.
4. Mumbai City Museum North Wing Design Competition, December 2013 The competition invited architects around the world to design the expansion of the Mumbai City Museum also known as Dr Bhau Daji Lad Museum (125,000 sq ft). The competition was organized by Malcolm Reading Consultants on behalf of the Museum with the combination of international standards for architectural competitions and Council of Architecture (India) guidelines. It was a 2-stage competition, in which the first stage was the open call for the participation through EOI and the second stage required the submission of final designs by the shortlisted entries. 1. Number of participants and ratio of Indian and foreign entries - The competition received more than 100 expressions of interest from renowned national and international firms at the first stage of the competition. Out of which 8 teams were shortlisted to present their final designs to a panel of eminent jury members. Studio Mumbai led by Architect Bijoy Jain was the only shortlisted Indian architectural firm. 2. Pre-Qualifications - For participation in the competition it required the teams to be governed by a lead consultant, by whose name the submissions would be identified. The teams should: - Appropriate in size and skills - Have strong sense of originality, contemporary and conceptual design - Have creative approach with modernisation and sustainability - Understand and reflect in the design- the creativity of museums - Expertise within the parameters- design, quality, budget, programme and site constraints. - Pre-Qualification Questionnaire- This consisted of questions to gather general information and details about the firm and the lead consultantfrom the basic information to the details of past projects. - For foreign firms the collaboration with local architects was also encouraged. 3. The Result - The contract was awarded to the Steven Holl architects based in New York, who collaborated with the local partner Opolis based in Mumbai. Inferences: However the ratio of Indian to foreign shortlisted entries was low, the competition followed the COA regulations and there were only design specific prequalification criteria. Also the winning entry collaborated with the local partner; hence the foreign firm designing the buildings is not doing any harm to the Indian practices.
MUMBAI CITY MUSEUMSTEVEN HOLL ARCHITECTS
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5. Competition for Patna Museum, Bihar, 2011 The global level competition for Patna Museum was organized by State Government of Bihar to design an international standard museum in order to store the precious artefacts. The museum is being built at a prime location in the heart of the city at Bailey Road, beside the Patna High Court in area of 13.5 acres. The competition drew several renowned architects from around the world. 1. Number of Participants and ratio of Indian and foreign entries - 26 design entries were received by the government at the first stage. 5 entries were then shortlisted, which were also displayed at Patna Museum for public viewing. These entries were foreign firms with collaboration of local partners. 2. Pre-Qualification - The competition was open to global architectural firms each with their Indian architect partner. The competition required the participants to have the following expertise:
• Graphic Design
• Electrical and Mechanical
• Image Procurement
• Historian, Art and other experts
3. Results - Maki and associates, based in Japan in collaboration with Mumbai based firm Opolis were awarded with the contract of the 380 crores project. Inferences- As per the jury, all the 5 shortlisted entries were equally competitive. The second placed entry quoted 30 percent of the building cost whereas the winning entry- Maki and Associates + Opolis only quoted half of it. In this case although the lowest bid was chosen, it was still the primary concern. Additionally the foreign firm entered the competition with the local partner- therefor followed the regulations of Architects Act of 1972 as well.
PATNA MUSEUM BY MAKI AND ASSOCIATES + OPOLIS Source:http://www.maki-andassociates.co ARCHI-CHAKKAR 280
ANALYSIS Analyzing the case studies in similar manner a matrix showing the various parameters of the buildings was achieved at the end.
INFORMATION MATRIXCOMPETITIONS Source: Author
Conclusions The influx of foreign firms is beneficial to Indian architectural practices as long as the design is the only criterion for selection of the architect. The IGNCA competition encouraged the culture of collaboration thus benefited both the foreign and Indian architectural counterparts. In the case of Patna and Mumbai Museum, the quality of design was the primary preference. Also the collaboration with the local partners enhanced the architecture in terms of culture and context. Lastly, the Pragati Maidan Convention Center competition was not as ideal as others only because the financial bid was given priority instead of the design quality. Therefore, In order to enhance the architecture of the city, selection of the architect for a particular project should solely be based on the capability of the architect to deliver the appropriate design. Whether the architect selected is foreign or Indian should not be the priority while selecting.
देसी या ‘िव’देसी
INFORMATION MATRIXProjects Source: Author
Conclusion The private large scale projects who also hired foreign architects have been successful both in terms of returns and user reviews where the developer and the project had special requirement for hiring the foreign architect. For example the TATA Amantra, Mahindra World City and Lavasa Township. Whereas the projects, where the idea of branding and salability becomes the primary concern and design is somewhat placed on the backfoot, the success rate drops.
IMPACTS Positive Impacts 1. TRANSFER OF KNOWLEDGE- The design solutions provided by foreign architects are well integrated with the high end technologies, which is what the local partners can learn from. 2. EXCHANGE OF CULTURE- When designing the building in India, the foreign architect brings with him his own culture and understanding of the program which is visible in his buildings. Therefore making the project and itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s neighbourhood more diverse and rich. 3. OPTIONS TO CHOOSE FROM- By having the options (both foreign and local architects), the Indian clients have a privilege to select the best and most efficient design from a good number of options.
Negative Impacts 1. UNEQUAL COMPETITION- The foreign practices challenge the Indian firms at the pre-qualification level in terms of turnover, the experience of the kind of projects etc. 2. INCOMPARABLE FEES- The foreign practices charge huge fees which are very high as compared to Indian architects. This also increases the project cost. ARCHI-CHAKKAR 282
REFLECTIONS Some initiatives which can be taken to ensure that the foreign architectural practices in India have a positive impact on the local architecture and practice:
REFLECTIONS TOWARDS BETTER MUTUAL LEARNING Source: Author
Towards the end the focus should be on the intention behind discussing all these aspects of practice in India, which is for the betterment of the architecture of the city and in this process, betterment of architectural practice as a profession in India would mean:
REFLECTIONS TOWARDS BETTER ‘ARCHITECTURE’ Source: Author
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REFERENCES Poiesz,P, Scholte, G. J, Gandhi, S. V,2013, Learning from Mumbai: Practicing architecture in Urban India, Mapin Publishing Bablan,M,2014 , Discuss the impact of globalization on contemporary architecture of India Mehrotra,R ,2011, Architecture since 1990 Kaur, P, 2008, ‘Study of contemporary architectural firms in India’, viewed on 20th August 2016 http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search? cache:http:// shodhbhagirathi.iitr.ac.in:8081/xmlui/handle/12456789/510gws_rd crei CPV6yICaG, Seshadri, S, 2013, ‘Successful Architecture: Sustainable Built Environment the Right Confluence of Architectural roles’, viewed on 22 August 2016 http://www. masterbuilder.co.in/data/edata/Articles/October2013/54.pdf Re: CoA v/s “Foreign Architects” Developers flaunting names of foreign architects to sell housing projects could be violating legal norms’ 2015, Architexturez Reddy, 2015, New Andhra Pradesh capital faces designer block by architects, Deccan Chronicles Database, 6 January Sharma, J. P., 2015. Developers flaunting names of foreign architects to sell housing projects could be violating legal norms. Hindustan Times, 12 May. Perkins, B, 2009,’Why India’, http://www.di.net/articles/why-india/ Sarthak, 2000, ’Developers hire foreign architects’ ET Bureau Raaj,N ,2008, ‘Foreign hands building India’, TOI database, 15 June Mortice, Z, 2011, ‘India: The Next Big Market’, February 03, Architect Magazine, http://www.architectmagazine.com/aia-architect/aiapractice/india-the-next-bigmarket_o Kumar,M ,2006,’ Foreign architects build Indian dreams’, TOI Database, 25 June http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/articleshow/1677014.cms?prtpage=1 Sarkar, P, 2000, Global architects dot India’s housing landscape Building design- Who is accountable, 2015 <http://www.indianhousingprojects.com/1000005 0674b loga boutb uilding_ design_who_is_accountable.aspx#.V9Cxh_l97IV)>
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THE RIGHT TO KNOW WRONG Arnab Majumdar | Geetika Khatri | Karan Singh | Rijul Singh | Shweta Sundar Guides: Prof. Anil Dewan | Ar. Sudhir Vohra | Ar. Abhishek Bij | Ar. Amritha Ballal Chairperson: Ar. Neeraj Manchanda
ABSTRACT The seminar ‘The Right to Know Wrong’ exposes the current issues concerning public procurement of architectural projects, which in many cases has also caused the quality of design in architecture to be compromised. It begins with a brief explanation of why procurement of projects for architects have become so important in the current times, and why the procurement processes of ‘public’ projects require most attention today. The report focuses on two important ways of procuring projects in the public sector, discussing the flaws within. It simultaneously shines light upon current loopholes in the legal system that gives way for illegal entities to practice in India. The report however, introduces procurement methods practiced in the past, which are considered desirable be the authors. Finally, it touches upon the position of young aspiring architects amidst the complexities.
INTRODUCTION “Though the definition varies in the development circles, an architect is the one, an individual or a group, who works for job satisfaction rather than money and in response to his/her inner calling and social consciousness rather than the academic qualification; who respects tradition, culture, `people skills’ and knowledge and believes in and practices participatory methods; who is committed to low cost and appropriate technology and ‘local’ wisdom and context; who is sensitive to psychological aspects of people’s living and to socio-cultural dimensions of habitat development; who respects climate and environment, is sensitive to concerns and is committed to sustainable construction and development; whose creative struggle is confined not so much to inventing new forms and designing daring and bold structures but doing more with less, and seeing big in small; whose clients are not only individuals, groups and communities but the `class’ (the ‘poor’, the ‘disaster victim’, the ‘homeless’); who works’ with’ rather than ‘for ‘people; whose concern is up-scaling and whose dreams and fantasies are changing the system, establishment and set perceptions and practices.” (Shah, 2009) When the Architect’s Act was drafted back in the year 1972, architecture and business were mutually exclusive grounds. Architects back then didn’t have to sell themselves in order to procure projects; they were appointed solely based on their meritorious performances in various fields of development. 1960s and 70s in India saw a rise in iconic and contextually sound structures built by a young generation of architects selected purely on the basis of design like Tara Apartments, Pragati Maidan, India International Centre etc. Financial assurance and experience of the his/her architectural practice were not stressed upon and design was given the driver’s seat. With architects clamouring to get projects in whichever way possible, there has been an overall reduction in the architectural fees and a subsequent drop in the quality of design which is very evident in the recent projects. Architects are finding methods to gain maximum economic benefits off projects by investing minimum time, effort and manpower. This essentially goes against their ethics as they are not giving as much attention to the project as it deserves, and most of the time the social benefits of the projects are not reaped. However idealistic the code of conduct sounds, these ethical boundaries tend to blur in this money crazy, commercially-driven capitalist society. There is still no legal structure governing these unethical practices since ethics is ‘subjective’ in nature.
WHY PUBLIC SECTOR? Architecture in India makes headlines more often for its financial scandals than the quality of design. Kathputli colony redevelopment, Yamuna bank Development projects, Kidwai Nagar Redevelopment, amongst others, are recent examples which question the procedure followed by the government for conceptualization and implementation of the projects. Ten to twelve digit figures, which people find hard to quantify, are being spent on development projects all over the country, to bring India at par with the rest of the developed world. A tax payer would want to know where is this money being invested, and as would-be architects, we question the lack of justifiable quality when such capital is involved. If it’s not the lack of capital, what hinders the development of architecturally sound infrastructure? Since public sector projects are often the largest in scale, they tend define the style of architecture of that urban centre. So if a city feels cluttered or devoid of character with identical blocks repeated unceremoniously, it is a comment on the public architecture or the loose bye-laws of that city. Once we start questioning the legitimacy of the end product of architecture, we must first question the sequence of processes leading up to it. And the chain of events starts with the procurement of the project in question. When a prospective client wants something built, he ensures that the project falls in the most deserving hands. How does the government ensure the same amongst thousands of architects being produced every year? As a means of a fair system of selection, the government should try to approach as many architects as possible to make informed choices.
Public Procurement 80 percent of all construction in this country happens under the public sector. Public procurement is the process through which the government hires professionals to do these projects. Then it makes a lot of sense to understand how public procurement works in our country. So, what should a public procurement process do? • Firstly, ensure that the best design is selected, thus enhancing the image of the city. • Guarantee fair and easy access to all interested parties, so that everyone is provided with a common platform to present their ideas. • Set an example for the private sector, in terms of transparency and quality. The private sector first expects the public sector to be 100 percent compliant with the law before its own activities are questioned. • Lastly, the responsible use of tax payers’ money.
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ILLUSTRATION OF PUBLIC PROCUREMENT Source: Nounproject
The most common methods of public procurement are Tenders and Competitions Tender is a process of making a bid or a proposal in response to the governmentâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s requirement for a project. The tender is ideally formulated by the specialists in the respective fields along with government officials. A public notice of the tender is circulated in all official gazettes to which all interested parties must respond within the given time limit. Each interested party is required to submit its financial documents along with a bid and a basic design idea. They are evaluated and selected on the basis of pre-qualifications mentioned in the tender document. Many of you might have been present for a seminar which has already discussed competitions but we will briefly go over it once more. An architectural competition is a simpler process where designs, proposed by interested parties, are evaluated by a jury that comprises of professionals in the required fields. The brief is prepared, ideally by government officials and architects. It consists of a list of design deliverables that the applicant must address within a given time frame. The announcement of the competition is not as widely publicized as that of tenders. A single stage competition is one where designers must submit their work without any financial compensation and a winner is selected in one go. However, in a two-stage competition, the first round produces a set of selected entries which receive a financial compensation, after which the final winner is selected in the second round. When it comes to building a city, a tax payer would want to know where his money is being invested, and as would-be architects, we question the lack of justifiable quality when such capital is involved. If itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s not the lack of capital, what hinders the development of architecturally sound infrastructure?
Once we start questioning the legitimacy of the end product of architecture, we must first question the sequence of processes leading up to it. And the chain of events starts with the procurement of the project in question. When a prospective client wants, something built, he ensures that the project falls in the most deserving hands. How does the government ensure the same amongst thousands of architects?
Issues with Public Procurement The following points will shed light on some primary issues in the selection process in reference to the annexures present at the end of this report. • Preference for financial stability over the design sense of the applicant (Refer to Appendix 20) When importance is given to finances, it is very easy for an already wellestablished firm to dominate the market. This, by default, reduces the variety in designs that we would have otherwise received through competitions. Would you, as a firm, bother to spend time on designs when the weightage of marks is just 30%? • Combining architectural and construction services (Refer to Appendix 11) This results in forcing architects or architectural firms to adhere to the norms which should have been only followed by engineering & construction firms/ companies. This kind of tender receives entries from either construction companies in joint ventures with architects, or construction companies alone that provide architectural services as well. The latter often leads to compromises in design. Such tenders also provide an avenue for architectural companies, which are illegal according to section 37 of the architect’s act. • Design is asked upfront Due compensation is often not provided to parties who spend a huge amount of resources in sending a proposal for a competition or tender and finally not winning it. An office that barely keeps itself afloat with paid projects, is in no position to devote resources for competitions that demand detailed entries rather than conceptual designs. A well-established firm however, is more equipped to participate in such competitions. • Turnover Requirements (Refer to Appendix 11) Appendix 23 shows tenders with high turnover requirements. Archdaily released an article in 2013, listing the 100 largest architectural firms in the world based on their turnovers and number of employees. In this list, there are just 3 Indian firms. With the turnover requirements shown earlier, how does the government expect Indian firms to match up to them? This opens a gateway for foreign architects to step into the services sector. The issue of turnover was also observed in competitions briefs. Although the evaluation criterion still prioritises design, architects are filtered due to this issue. (Refer to Appendix 19)
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• Similar Projects as a Pre- Qualification Criteria (Refer to Appendix 11) Similar Projects are synonymous with experience. These tenders and competitions (Appendix 24) demand at least 3 similar projects from the applicants. Though the intent is fair, several firms, young or old, who want to try a hand at new types of projects, are knocked out of the race. Such a prequalification may ensure a reliable output, but should be an added benefit instead of a mandate. Due to such a stringent process, again, the best design is not ensured. • Same Pre-Qualification Criteria for different Projects (Refer to Appendix 11) Appendix 11(Page 2 & 4) shows tenders for three diverse projects which require completely different skill sets and experiences, yet have the same prequalification. A hospital, a cricket stadium or even a master plan development, cannot possibly demand the same resources and effort from an architect. • Invitation Based Competition for flagship public Project (Refer to Appendix 19) The government hosted a competition for development of the capital complex Amravati for which 2 foreign firms and 1 Indian firm were invited. This ill representation of Indian firms resulted in an outcry from the architecture community. The foreign firms were invited because they are established in their home countries and have gained experience through similar projects. How will an Indian firm gain similar experience to be able to practice outside India, if not in their home country? • Major Public Projects are procured through Tenders. (Refer to Appendix 11 & 21) Pragati Maidan redevelopment, and national airports like Guwahati, Trichy and Lucknow are important government projects which have the potential of being a part of the city’s architectural image. They deserve to be selected from a pool of good designs. But all of these projects have been chosen through tenders, even though competitions pose as a better method. There seems to be an obvious flaw in the selection criteria. A clear disconnect between what the procurement processes are ideally supposed to accomplish and what they actually do. Creativity seems to have taken the back seat, with design being added as an after-thought requirement. Large scale public projects have a definitive impact on the city skyline. Between competition and tender, the former gives higher preference to design as seen in its pre-qualifications. It is the responsibility of the government to deliver sensible and sound design solutions to the city. According to the Masterplan, Delhi is going to get a handful of re-development projects in the coming future, which makes the choice of procurement methods even more important.
PROCUREMENT METHODS SUPPORTING ILLEGAL ENTITIES Real life scenarios of the issues mentioned above elaborate the ease with which the existence of illegal entities is sustained within the practice of architecture. The central and state governments and public sector undertakings (PSU) are hiring foreign establishments to work as architects for projects in India through the process of tenders. Section 37 (1) (b) of the Architectâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Act 1972 states that the foreigner must be an architect registered in his or her own country, by the legal norms of that country. Secondly, if this architect is to perform any professional work in India, he/ she need to take permission from the Central Government, before he/ she starts work on a particular project. Hence a foreign architect violating the law is a common practice in India. Also, real estate developers are inviting foreign bodies to work as an architect for Indian projects. The second instance provides an open gateway for foreign architects to enter the practice, eventually entering the public sector. Developers in India are aware of the fact that housing projects sell better when buyers come to know that the project is designed by foreign architects, because the buyers believe that foreign intervention means international standards and thus, better value. Therefore, many developers advertise their projects using names of international architects. This is a clear violation of law because the Act states that, for a foreign architect to work for a particular project in India, he/ she have to take permission from the Central Government prior to the initiation of the project (Sharma, 2015). The Council of Architecture published a notice which has stated the summary of the above as illegal practices (Appendix 10). Law is violated when architects who are settled and working in firms outside India are invited to design Indian projects, but it is also illegal when foreign companies set up private limited companies in India. Their Memorandum of Association (MoA) lists architectural services. However according to the circular released by CoA (appendix 3) no company, Indian or foreign, is allowed to practice architectural services (as defined by the CoA). Besides disobedience of the law, the practice of foreign architects in India has more implications. Firstly, when a foreign architect or a foreign entity is hired by government bodies or private developers without registering with the Council of Architecture, they are not bound by legalities of the Indian government. Since he/ she is not a resident of India, any architect of an outside country cannot be held liable for any of the consequences that his/her practice may lead to. Due to the foreign architects and legal bodies being engaged in activities pertaining to India, the professionals may be providing services here, but are paying foreign tax, thereby strengthening the economy of the foreign country. (Govt of India)
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ON A POSITIVE NOTE: IDEAL PROCUREMENT PROCEDURES With respect to the deliverables of an ideal procurement method, we looked for competitions that seem to hold to those aspects. The global design competition for the National War Memorial and Museum, conducted by the Ministry of Defence, launched on 30th August, 2016 seems to be one such instance. It is an international competition held for the design, planning, and implementation of the project. We have chosen this example to illustrate our point for the following reasons: • The brief demands no registration fees. • It has no financial criteria for selection. • The project is a building of national importance, hence the need for a fair competition. • It was launched through both an online portal and a press release. • There was sufficient time given between the launch and closing date of the competitions, allowing for both quantity and quality in entries. • The competition is being conducted in 2 stages, first stage just demanding a maximum of 10 A3 sheets presenting the design idea. 2nd stage asking for detailed design drawings and 3Ds. Entries shortlisted for the 2nd stage to receive financial compensation. • Submission was online and offline enabling easy access to the competition. This has resulted in 269 entries for the museum and 427 entries for the memorial, far higher numbers than usual. • The competition is open to all designers in India and abroad. Multi-disciplinary teams led by designers were also allowed if they have at least one registered architect (in their respective countries). • 1st stage to be evaluated by a jury of 11 ie. 5 members are government and 6 professionals of the field. • On the other hand, we also realized that not every government project can be a competition. Tenders do play an important role in helping our government select a suitable candidate. They are based on more objective grounds, making the process quicker. Based on our understanding and analysis of the shortcomings in the current tender process, we recommend these changes be incorporated to compose an ideal tender.
• If turnovers are to be used for pre-qualification, more scientific methods of arriving at those numbers ought to be employed that reflect on the actual turnovers that Indian firms make. Factors like the type of project and bid predicted by the government should generate project specific turnover expectations. Financial criteria are meant not to shortlist the biggest firms but to eliminate firms that are unlikely to deliver. • Similar project history to be made a value addition to an entry instead of a prequalification that would eliminate applicants. • Tenders need to provide longer time periods if a detailed set of drawings is expected. If that is not possible, a 2 stage tender process similar to competitions can be adopted. • Issue project specific criteria such as joint ventures with expert consultants relevant to the project and important drawings necessary to evaluate design performance/viability.
ILLUSTRATION OF AN ARCHITECT, WHO IS SURROUNDED BY OTHER PROFESSIONS RELATED TO BUILDING INDUSTRY Source: Noun Project
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WHERE DOES THE YOUNG ARCHITECT STAND AMIDST ALL THIS? When one thinks of a young architect, the mind instantly makes association with phrases like, ‘no signs of complacency’, ‘fire in the belly’, ‘zeal to change the world’, ‘nothing to lose’, and most frequently ‘fresh approach towards designing’. These can easily be recipes for good, thought provoking architecture, irrespective of the fact that the term ‘good architecture’ can be so subjective. But what is stopping the young talent from turning into architects of famous public buildings if not famous public personalities (because fame of the architect is usually limited to the spheres of the architectural fraternity). One might suggest that the reason might be the lack of capital, lack of experience and/or lack of contacts. This means that if there existed a method for evaluation of an architect’s work that took into consideration only the strength of his/her design, the young architect would stand a chance at making it big. The answer to all these woes of a young architect are architectural competitions (obviously only if conducted keeping in mind the guidelines set by the COA). Competitions have been a stepping stone to success for young architects throughout the world. Public works are one sector where young firms can get a foot in the door. This is true for most parts of the world but not entirely accurate in the Indian context. This could be one sector where architects can be judged simply for their design capabilities. Abilities to socialize and form connections can take a backseat for once. But what’s happening in our country? Our public buildings are being designed by the lowest bidders in tender invitations that give designs as complimentary add-ons as the design is not even a criterion for evaluation. These tenders almost always bundle architectural design services with structural and construction services. This along with the PQs for participation in these tenders are absolutely capable of putting an end to chances of any young firm’s or architect’s aspirations of bagging any such public project. In cases where an architectural design competition is announced for an important public project, sometimes the pre-qualification criteria are demanding enough, in terms of financial state and work experience, to squash any chances of young guns going out blazing. Then what does the young architect do? He is left with the option of either fighting it out in the private sector for petty projects in the hope of gradually climbing the ladder or to start working with one of these big companies that keep on bagging all the public projects. The truth is that because of the corrupt state of affairs in this country, the young Indian architect is helping the big fish grow even bigger when he/she could have instead gone out and made it big him/herself if he/she had got a fair chance in the public works sector.
But all hope is not lost. There are people who have been constantly fighting against these practices that allow for the young architect to get crushed. The government has knowingly or unknowingly taken a few steps to rectify this problem. An example of this is the recently launched competitions on ‘mygov.in’ which is a government website. On this website, the government posted 240 competitions last week, almost 40 percent of which were architectural competitions for the design of buildings of different scales and complexities. What is good about these is that almost all of these are devoid of any financial or experience based PQs and provide a level ground for competition. Also clearly mentioned are the evaluation and selection criteria. Since most of these aren’t projects of a magnitude that can help an architect make a mark or help him get recognised in the fraternity, there is still a long way to go, even if we’ve started moving in the right direction.
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REFERENCES Shah, Kirtee. “Architects and Architectural Practice in India: Some Imperatives.” Bali, 2009. Available on http://architexturez.net/doc/az-cf-166148. Viewed on: 14.10.2016 Shirode Er. Avinash. D., August 12 1986, LEGAL POSITION OF ENGINEERS vis-àvis ARCHITECTS Under Architects Act 1972 Hopkins, Owen, why is ethics such an important issue for architects? 26th November, 2015, The Architectural Review, Available on https://www.architectural-review. com/archive/why-is-ethics-such-an-important-issue-for-architects/8692460. article. Viewed on 13th October, 2016. Government of India, D. o. IMG Agenda for Architectural Services. New Delhi. Sharma, J. P. (2015). Developers flaunting names of foreign architects. Hindustan Times, 2. British Columbia Laws. (2016, 10 14). Retrieved from http://www.bclaws.ca/civix/ document/id/complete/statreg/96017_01#section2 Peter Piven, B. P. (10, 02 05). AIA Best Practices. Legal Structure of Architecture Firms, pp.04.
APPENDIX 1. Ministry of Commerce & Industry, Department of Commerce (Trade Policy Division). Subject: Meeting of IMG on Architectural Services on 12th May,2015. 2. Architects Keep Foreign Players Out | Surojit Gupta & Sidhartha, TNN, October 3, 2013. 3. Council of Architecture – Public notice – Architects, Registrar of Companies/ LLPs, Foreign Architects/Consultants, Govt. Departments and all Concerned. TOI – 24th May,2013. 4. Council of Architecture – Ref No. CA/28/2016/AOA(NBCC) – Letter from CoA to NBCC regarding the Procurement method for Redevelopment of Pragati Maidan on behalf of ITPO. 5. List of Foreign Companies (Architectural) in India 6. Ministry of Corporate Affairs – Registration of Companies or LLPs which have one of their objectives to do business of Architect. Date – 10.10.2011 7. Ministry of Human Resource Development, Dept. of Higher Education. – Engagement of M/s Canon Designs, USA to undertake function as Designer to Design building for Housing the Hospital for treatment of Cancer in IndiaRegarding Permission. 8. Ministry of Corporate Affairs- Registration of Companies or LLPs which have one of their object is to carry on the profession of Chartered Accountant, Cost Accountant, Architect, Company Secretary etc. 9. Council of Architecture – Appointment of M/s BDP Architecture Design Engineering Pvt. Ltd. For providing inter alia Architectural Services. 10. Foreign hands in Indian Buildings | Neelam Raj, TNN, June 15, 2008. 11. Compilation of Tenders 12. International Design Competition Brief for National War Memorial. 13. Council of Architecture – Public notice – Architects, Real Estate Developers, Foreign Architects, Govt. Departments and all Concerned. Dated: 16.02.2015 14. The Architect’s Act 1972 15. Draft Amendments to Architects Act 1972 proposed by CoA 16. Council of Architecture – Ref No. CA/28/2015/AE – Misrepresentation as an Architect and misuse of the title and style of Architect in violation of Sections 36 and 37 of the Architect Act. 17. Competition Guidelines prescribed by CoA. 18. Architects (Professional Conduct) regulation Act 1989. 19. Competition Briefs 20. Preference for financial stability over the Design sense of the applicant THE RIGHT TO KNOW WRONG 299
Department of Architecture School of Planning and Architecture 6-Block-B, Indraprastha Estate, New Delhi - 110002