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Industrial Pollution and Public Health: An Impact Evaluation

Redaction: Erwan SOLA JA ! Justiça Ambiental Rua Marconi, n°110, 1° Andar Tel : (+258)21-496-668


Industrial Pollution and Public Health: An Impact Evaluation

INDEX

I - Introduction ............................................................................................ 4 II - Methodology .......................................................................................... 4 III – Enquiries .............................................................................................. 5 1.

Households ....................................................................................................................... 5 1.1

Neighbourhood Analysis ............................................................................................. 6

1.2

Global Analysis........................................................................................................... 6

1.3

Comparative Analysis ................................................................................................. 7

2.

Health Instances................................................................................................................ 8

3.

Industries.......................................................................................................................... 9

4.

Conclusion ........................................................................................................................ 9

VI - Biomedical Facts ................................................................................. 10 1.

Statistics of diseases occurrence....................................................................................... 10

2.

Pollutant-Effect Database................................................................................................. 12

3.

2.1

Air Pollutants ........................................................................................................... 12

2.2

Water Pollutants ...................................................................................................... 13

Environmental Quality Analyses ....................................................................................... 13 3.1

Air Quality:............................................................................................................... 13

3.1.1

Methodology.................................................................................................... 13

3.1.2

Equipment........................................................................................................ 14

3.1.3

Location ........................................................................................................... 14

3.1.4

Results ............................................................................................................. 15

3.1.5

Discussion ........................................................................................................ 15

3.1.6

Conclusion........................................................................................................ 16

3.2

Water Quality .......................................................................................................... 17

3.2.1

Location ........................................................................................................... 17

3.2.2

Methodology.................................................................................................... 18

3.2.3

Results ............................................................................................................. 19

3.2.4

Discussion ........................................................................................................ 19

3.2.5

Conclusion........................................................................................................ 20

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Industrial Pollution and Public Health: An Impact Evaluation

V - Mapping ............................................................................................... 21 1.

Emission sources ............................................................................................................. 21

2.

Interviews ....................................................................................................................... 22

3.

Sampling......................................................................................................................... 23

VI – Conclusions ........................................................................................ 24 VII - Way Forward .................................................................................... 24 References .................................................................................................. 25 List of Abreviations.................................................................................... 25

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Industrial Pollution and Public Health: An Impact Evaluation

Industrial Pollution and P ublic Hea lth: An Impact Evaluation

I - Introduction

Mozambique is a 22 million inhabitant developing country of southeast Africa with a growth rate of 7%. Like most of southern countries, its economy is mostly based on Industrial activities. Indeed, the industrial sector by itself represents about a third of the national volume of business. Also, economical activity is strongly centralized in the Maputo Province and more precisely Maputo City (respectively 12,000 BMT and 30,000 BMT of the 66,000 BMT volume of business). Subsequently, the area has the highest inhabitant concentration (2.3 billions of inhabitants). Therefore, the region of Maputo has seen its industrial park expand considerably in the last decades as a large variety of National and International investments have been done in this sector. Although heavy industry is indispensable for developing countries to grow, it is crucial that legislation are implemented and complied with for the industrial sector to be sustainable. Indeed, there is a quantity of negative impact industrialization can have on the environmental, social and therefore economical point of view, especially on the long term. Objective: Evaluate the level of information/awareness about industrial pollution. Determine the presence/level of industrial pollution in the study area.

II - Methodology The idea is to establish:

   

What are the industries present in the study area and what kind of pollutant they emit ? What are the effects of those pollutants on human beings? How many people are exposed to those pollutants and in which proportions? What is the occurrence of pollution related diseases?

To do so, this work has been divided in three major perspectives: 

Social perspective

Bio- medical perspective

Geographical perspective 4


Industrial Pollution and Public Health: An Impact Evaluation

Social Perspective: 

 

It consists in a series of interviews within the communities to measure people‟s personal opinion on the situation to get an overall vision of the issue from the point of view of the inhabitants. It aims to define the level of information communities have access to, their awareness of what is going on. Their feeling about the evolution of sub-urban area. The interviews will be conducted with households and the neighbourhood health structures as well as in hospital.

Bio-medical Perspective:   

Establish a data base relating pollutants to their effect on human health. Analyze medical statistics to see the frequency of respiratory; gastro- intestinal; skin diseases. Proceeding to Air and Water sampling to assess the actual concentrations of toxic pollutants people are exposed to.

Geographical Pers pective:    

Locate the emission sources for the different pollutants considered. Consider the distribution of population Indicate the interview and sampling points Analyse the occurrence of health problems depending on the zone

III – Enquiries

1. Households By making interviews to households (HH) living close to the industries, the objective is to obtain a vision of the problem from within. It constitutes an interesting tool to measure directly the impact of pollution on the everyday life of the people living next to emission sources. Out of the 24 questions figuring on the enquiry, the 6 most relevant in terms of public health were taken in consideration for an objective statistical analyse. The chosen questions were: numbers 2; 9; 13; 15; 17; 21.

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Industrial Pollution and Public Health: An Impact Evaluation

Belulane Matola A Matola B Matola F Matola Rio Machava Celula J Machava Sede Trevo Total

1.1

9 68 27 5 27 15 10 36 197

197 household chefs were enquired in 8 different neighbourhoods, with the following distribution. The locations are represented in figure 2 (p21)

Table 1: Distribution of the enquiries.

Neighbourhood Analysis

For each neighbourhood, the count of the most frequent answers for each question was inserted in a table (Table 1- Annex 1) as percentage. For example, Tab 1shows that, in Matola B, 71% of the 27 enquired HH chefs answered “yes” to question n°15: “Do you feel your family’s health and yours could be affected by the presence of industries?”

This table allows comparing the points of view from one neighbourhood to another. Although there naturally are divergences on some points, it is clear there is a strong concordance of opinion between the different neighbourhoods.

1.2

Global Analysis

For each question, the number of answers obtained in the totality of processed interviews, regardless to neighbourhood, was introduced in Table 2 (Annex 1).

Table 2-Annex1 shows:

The majority of families have been living in their neighbourhood for more than 20 years.

72% of the enquired HH feel they are not informed about environmental problems related to pollution. 6


Industrial Pollution and Public Health: An Impact Evaluation

The most desired kind of information is: Health of the population and dispersion of pollutants in the environment.

About ¾ of the HH think the health of their family might be affected by the presence of industry.

60% noticed the most frequent affections to occur are respiratory conditions and diseases.

Finally, about half of the HH find industries have very little regard about their environmental impact in the region.

1.3

Comparative Analysis

The deductions made in the previous chapter are the reflection of an incontestable reality. But since 72% of the HH feel they are not informed about pollution-related environmental problems, their answers turn out to be subjective in a way and their reliability might be compromised. For these reasons, an intersection was done. We focused on the answers of the HH who felt to be informed about environmental issues. In order to compare their point of view with the numbers obtained in Table 2 (Annex 1). For each neighbourhood, enquiries where the answer to question 9 (Do you feel informed about environmental problems related to industrial pollution?) was “informed” (bb) or well “informed” (bc). Those interviews and the respective frequencies of each answer were introduced in an independent table (Table3-Annex 1). In result of Table 3, we can deduce, for example, that out of the 15% of the enquired HH who feel informed, 80% think the industrial activity affects their family‟s health. In other words, 12.2% of all the HH feel informed and preoccupied about the presence of industry in their backyards. The similarity between Table 2 and 3 (Annex 1) takes us to think that, whatever the level of the HH, the opinion and concerns remain sensibly the same. Therefore, it seems the “information” factor is not so relevant to make conclusions about the global vision of population in relation to environmental issues induced by industr ial activity in their neighbourhood. In conclusion, even though most of people feel their knowledge is limited. The concern that industry might affect human health is shared by all the communities. 7


Industrial Pollution and Public Health: An Impact Evaluation

2. Health Instances

This time, we tried to evaluate the health condition of the populations living around the industrial zone according to the health instances (HI) based in that same area. Doing so, we wanted to have a more objective vision of the matter as this time, the inquired individuals being professionals, the answers would be more accurate. Thereafter, compare the opinion of the HH and the HI and check for concordance between the two, which would support the deductions made above. The first surprise is to find out 3 of 5 enquired HI (60%) claims, just like the population, they don‟t feel to have access to information about the danger of industrial activity- induced pollutants for human health. When HI were expected to have a better notion on these issues, it turns out they are just as poorly informed as local populations about the effects of industrial pollution on public health. There were different questionnaires for the HH and HI, but three questions were common to both. The obtained answers are identical from one another. Indeed, The majority of the HI as well as the HH feel: 

They do not have access to information

Industrial activity in the region has a negative impact on public health

The diseases with the higher occurrence are respiratory diseases and conditions.

Though, only air sampling will provide quantitative data and help confirm these allegations, the concordance of opinion between HH and HI show they are well founded.

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Industrial Pollution and Public Health: An Impact Evaluation

3. Industries

A questionnaire was elaborated and addressed to industrial companies through which they could explain their activities and impact on the environment and how they manage the wastes resulting from the different production processes. This survey constitutes tool to evaluate the measures taken by industries to reduce/mitigate the impact of their activity on environment and public health. It was in this context that the enquiry was conducted in six major industrial companies. The results can be found in Table 4-Annex 1. It is disappointing to see how companies usually give vague answer to questions. The nature of the answers is more qualitative (type of pollutant) than quantitative (amount released) as it would be more relevant. For example, when ask how they deal with waste, some companies say it is sold to other industries for re- use or treated in a “machine” without any more details. Nevertheless, some interesting conclusions arise from this analysis. A particular behavior was observed in many occasions: some companies consider out of their responsibility the becoming of the wastes they sell to other. In the mean time t hey are still contributing indirectly to the introduction of these substances into the environment.

4. Conclusion

The global vision obtained through these enquiries reflects the reality of the inhabitants in the study area. It reveals an expected yet alarming situation. It shows, indeed, the lack of awareness about environmental risk related to industrial pollution. The population does not know: 

What pollutants are being released by the different industries.

How these substances can affect their health.

What is the distribution and amounts of contaminants in the environment.

Where to turn to get information or to report situation of pollution they might witness.

As a matter of facts, most of this information does not even exist due to the lack of monitoring and survey. When it eventually does, it is poorly divulgated or accessible, thus the need of information offices and divulgation media. 9


Industrial Pollution and Public Health: An Impact Evaluation

VI - Biomedical Facts

1. Statistics of diseases occurrence The Belulane Health Centre is situated in the industrial park. It is mostly frequented by people living in the surrounding neighbourhoods. The table below shows statistics of entries from June to September (2009 and 2010) regarding respiratory affections and dermatitis. The most relevant are the respiratory conditions (more precisely asthma) and allergic dermatitis. Indeed, this diseases can be as a result of exposure to pollutants that can cause skin and mucosa (epithelium) irritation.

June Respiratory Conditions

UAI BPN/PN Asthma

Dermatitis

Allergic Varicella Mycosis Scabiose Tinea Eczema PV Pyoderma "Dipper" H. Zoster Pruridos Seborreica L.M.

2009 72 34 8 11 5 0 2 1 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0

July 2010 215 84 22 20 16 26 10 26 4 2 16 8 5 4

2009 36 46 9 5 3 1 7 5 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0

2010 102 36 22 20 36 38 12 26 4 6 22 1 5 1 1 1

August 2009 2010 264 156 200 54 30 22 18 46 10 44 34 30 26 13 15 34 0 3 0 3 22 13 0 3 1 5 0 0 0 1

September 2009 2010 294 138 104 70 15 32 15 30 15 59 15 26 8 12 11 71 0 5 0 1 15 33 0 0 2 11 1 3 0 4 0 0

UAI : Upper airway infections ; BPN/PN : broncho /pneumonie ; PV : Phtiriase versicolore ; LM : Laru migrans (skin)

Table 2: Number of patients treated for respiratory affections and dermatitis from June to September in 2009 and 2010

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Industrial Pollution and Public Health: An Impact Evaluation

BPN/PN 200

GRAPH 1:

150 100 50

BPN/PN

June

2010

2009

2010

2009

2010

2009

2010

2009

0

Comparative graphic of the number of entries for broncho/pneumonia registered in 2009 and 2010.

July AugustSetember

ASTHMA 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0

GRAPH 2:

June

July

2010

2009

2010

2009

2010

2009

2010

2009

Athsma

Comparative graphic of the number of the entries for asthma registered in 2009-2010.

August Setember

UAI GRAPH 3:

UAI

72

36

102

Comparative graphic of the number of the entries for Upper Airway Infection registered in 2009-2010.

294

264

215

156

138

2009 2010 2009 2010 2009 2010 2009 2010 June

July

August

Setember

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Industrial Pollution and Public Health: An Impact Evaluation

2. Pollutant-Effect Database

2.1

Air Pollutants Pollutant

Effect on Human Health

Tropos pheric Ozone (O3) Originated by the reaction of molecular o xygen with chemicals emitted fro m hu man activity (car exhausts; industry). Nitrogen Di oxi de (NO2) Mostly originated from o xidation of NO produced by the burning of fossil fuels . Sulphur Dioxi de (SO2) Fossil fuel co mbustion, industrial processes, smelt ing, volcanic activ ity... Carbone Monoxi de (CO) Sources are exhaust, industry, organic combustion, incineration... reduces the dioxygen intake by the body due to the formation of carboxyhemoglobin in the blood stream. Particul ate Matter (PM)

Irritation of eyes and respiratory mucosa. Alteration of the lung function/capacity. Increase of asthmatics sensibility to allergens. Inflammation of airways .

Vol atile Organic Compounds (VOC's) Present in a variety of man made chemicals such as house hold and construction materials, industrial solvents, paints, fuels... Hydrogen Fl uori de Hydrogen fluoride is predominantly used in the production of aluminiu m and chlorofluorocarbons, also used for separating uranium isotopes, as a catalyst in the petroleum industry, and in stainless steel pickling, glass etching, electronic, and chemical industries.

Alteration of the lung function/capacity. Increase of sensibility to infections. Bronchial hyper-reactivity in asthmatics. Bronchial vasoconstriction in asthmatics. Increase of respiratory acute symptoms in adults. Alteration of the lung capacity in children. At low concentration: fatigue; chest pain. Higher concentrations: Headaches, nausea, dizziness, vision and coordination impairment, confusion. Can be fatal at high concentration. Bronchial hyper-reactivity. Irritation of mucosa Allerg ies. Increase of pre-existing pathologies. Contains polycyclic aro matic hydrocarbons which can be carcinogen or mutagenic Effects vary a lot depending on: VOC nature; amount, time of exposure. They can be: Irritation of eyes, nose, throat Headaches, nausea, nerve problems Increase the risk of certain cancers. Severe respiratory damage, including severe irritation and pulmonary oedema. Irritation of the eyes, nose, and upper and lower respiratory tract, lacrimation, sore throat, cough, chest tightness, ocular irritation and dermal burns, Damage to the lungs, liver, and kidneys, Increased bone density.

Source: EPA (US Environment Protection Agency) Table 3: Pollutants and their effect on human health.

This is a none-exhaustive list of the most common air pollutant. They are air pollution indicator. Their presence point out to the existence of other harmful substances in the air. There is an important list of hazardous air pollutant that can be tested when indicators are found to exceed certain levels.

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Industrial Pollution and Public Health: An Impact Evaluation

2.2

Wate r Pollutants Pollutant/Determinant

Turbi di ty

Coliforms

Effect on Human Health Higher turb idity levels are often associated with higher levels of disease-causing microorganis ms such as viruses, parasites and some bacteria. These organisms can cause symptoms such as nausea, cramps, diarrhea, and associated headaches. Not a health threat in itself; it is used to indicate whether other potentially harmful bacteria may be present

Chlori des Fluori des

Nitrates/Nitrites

Lead

Eye/nose irritation; stomach discomfort Bone disease (pain and tenderness of the bones); Children may get mottled teeth Infants below the age of six months who drink water containing nitrate in excess could become seriously ill and, if untreated, may die. Sy mpto ms include shortness of breath and blue-baby syndrome. Infants and chil dren: Delays in physical or mental development; children could show slight deficits in attention span and learning abilit ies . Adults: Kidney problems; high blood pressure

Table 4: Water contaminants and their respective effect on the human organism. 3. Environmental Quality Analyses

3.1

Air Quality:

3.1.1

Methodology

In order to assess whether air pollution is existing in study area and if yes, to what extent, we have proceed to a series of air sampling and established the concentration of certain pollutants. Due to costs reasons, we could not analyse a broad spectrum of toxic substance. Therefore, we have chosen to test principally for one of the 6 common indicators that are used to evaluate air pollution, namely, particulate matter. Particulate Matter: It is any solid particle with an aerodynamic diameter smaller than 10Âľm. It is originated by industrial processes; combustion of fossil fuel, organic compounds and biomass; as well as reaction between primary air pollutants. For example, gases like sulphur oxides can agglomerate into fine particles when reacting with the moisture encountered in the air. Because they are so small, PM can penetrate deeply into airways and have adverse on health such as the following: Bronchial hyper-reactivity, irritation of mucosa, allergies, bronchus obstruction, increase of pre-existing respiratory pathologies, contains HAP which can be carcinogen or mutagenic. There are two types of particulates: Coarse particles (2.5 to 10 Âľm) and fine particles (less than 2.5Âľm). PM2.5 are more dangerous as they can penetrate down to lower airways. 13


Industrial Pollution and Public Health: An Impact Evaluation

3.1.2

Equipment

The sampling was conducted using a Mini Vol Air Sampler (MVAS) where PTFE membrane filters were placed. This device is designed to suck air at chosen rate and period, then capturing selectively particles of desired diameter, coarse or fine particles (respectively and PM2.5 ). The weight of dust collected and its composition is then established by a specialized laboratory. In the present case, the device was set to pump air at a rate during 4.78h a day during a 5 days week (from midnight to 4h48min). So it was possible to determine the concentration of PM 2.5 for a time weighted average of 24h.

3.1.3

Location

One of the most important factors for the decision of the sampling sites was the security as the MVAS had to stay on location for several days. The wind predominance and topography was also taken in consideration. Finally, the sites had to cover widely the study area (SA) and be representative the different urban patterns. Three sites were designated. Description of Site 1 Open flat area situated Northwest of the SA Recent moderately urbanized zone undergoing fast development About 1 km Southwest from Mozal aluminium smelter

Description of Site 2 Flat area. South of the SA Densely urbanized zone About 2.5 km E from Cimentos de Moรงambique

Description of Site 3 Flat area. North of the SA Dense sub- urban zone Next to EN4

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Industrial Pollution and Public Health: An Impact Evaluation

3.1.4

Results

The Oil Teflon membrane filters were sent to South Africa at Talbot&Talbot Laboratory for analyses. The PM2.5 concentration and metal composition of the samples are exposed in the Annex 2.

3.1.5

Discussion

Concerning the conce ntrations in PM 2.5 : The three samples show significant presence of particulate matter in the air. All the values are above WHO Guide Lines Standards. Fact is WHO recommends, to prevent adverse effect human health, a maximum PM2.5 concentration of 25 µg/m3. This reveals an intensive industrial activity in the area and despite the legislation and the effort made by industrial companies to reduce emissions; it is clear that particulate pollution is not controlled. Sites 1 and 3 show both 31 µg/m3 of PM2.5 on a 24h TWA. This might be representative of a global average for the entire study area. Yet, Site 2 presents a concentration more than three times higher than the other points (PM 2.5 concentration of 110 µg/m3). Cement factories are known to be a major source of particulate pollution as fine dusts are among the principal wastes from the production process of cement. The predominant winds in this area are by far Est. Site 2 situated 2.5 km West from Mozambique‟s biggest cement factory. Therefore, it seems accurate to state that the presence of CM is responsible for the important increase of fine particles in the air at site 2 compared to the rest of the study area. Estimating PM 10 concentration: Mozambican legislation sets an Air Quality standard for Total Suspended Particles (TSP=PM10 +PM2.5 ) of 200μg/m3. The actual study only measured the air concentration of PM2.5 . Thus it is necessity of assessing PM10 concentrations. Some scientific publications have shown it is possible, under certain condition, to estimate the concentration in PM10 from PM2.5 readings. In the Vaal industrial area (South Africa), applicable multiplier ranges from 0.4 to 0.6 (PM2.5 /PM10 ratio). Using the 0.4 ratio on the Site 2 Sample:

<=> <=> => TSP = 110+275 = 385 μg/m3

<=> 15


Industrial Pollution and Public Health: An Impact Evaluation

Using the 0.6 ratio:

=> TSP = 293.33 μg/m3

<=>

Although these multipliers are experimental which makes the extrapolation from PM2.5 to PM10 difficult, this reasoning shows one thing for sure: in a sample, the PM 10 fraction is always more important than the PM2.5 so in the case of Site 2, the sum of both fractions is undoubtedly higher than 200 μg/m3 (ranging from 293 to 385 μg/m3). We can therefore affirm that the Particulate Matter concentration for Site 2 exceeds by far the Mozambican legislation as well as international and WHO guidelines values. At Sites 1 and 3 where the PM2.5 readings were 31 μg/m3 , so we can estimate the TSP concentration to be between 82.67 and 108.5 μg/m3 using the same reasoning.

Concerning the metal composition: Most of the metals found cannot be compared to legislation because there isn't any existing one. Yet the mere presence of aluminium, lead, iron, copper and others are indicative of industrial pollution. In addition to the dust concentration found on the Teflon filters, analyses were carried to determine the metal composition and amount present in these dusts. The aluminium peak for Site 1 is obvious, considering the nearby presence of Mozal aluminium smelter. Especially because dominant wind is from east, and Site 1 is situated west from the factory. The ambient air concentration of lead is also very high (1.5 ppb = 12 μg/m3 ) for every sites.

3.1.6

Conclusion

According to the analyses of the air sample, the air quality in the study area is compromised. The fine particles concentration is higher than recommendable by WHO guidelines. The TSP concentration is above Mozambican standards at Site 2. Therefore, public health is endangered and an increased risk of developing respiratory diseases in exposed population is high. Especially for children, to who chronicle exposure to negative heath factors during growth can have repercussions over the rest of their lives. Also, PM is only one of many air pollutants and its high concentration in the air reveals the presence of a large variety of other TAP. Thus the need of conducting additional sampling campaigns to verify the extent of the situation by measuring parameters like SOx, NOx, CO, VOC‟s and heavy metal compounds. In conclusion, it is necessary to pursue the objective of this programme, which is to assess the industrial pollution level in Matola-Maputo and the level of information of the interested community. It means to establish the actual level for broad spectrum of toxic substances and then implementing a monitoring network. This will provide the community and institutions with consistent, reliable and updated information. As well as a database that will be useful to over watch the evolution of the matter over time and support future cases and studies. 16


Industrial Pollution and Public Health: An Impact Evaluation

3.2

Wate r Quality

The quality of the water is a key element that affects public health and the livelihood of people as well as the environment. Contaminated water body induce a range of negative consequence over environment; health and livelihood. For example, health will be affect by polluted drinking water; irrigation water; fishing. Ecosystems are endangered when pollutants are introduced into the food chain, which will also affect human health at one point. Finally, crops productivity can be decreased if irrigated by improper water, having an impact health and livelihood. Therefore it is important to assess the impact of industrial pollution on the water quality in the study area.

3.2.1

Location

It was necessary to designate a water body that would be relevant for this study. It means one which is important by its size; much frequented; eventually used as waters for irrigation or drinking water; where people fish or bath and that have significant ecosystems. In sum, a water body on which a lot of people rely on as part of their livelihood in many ways and which humans have contact with. We have chosen the Matola River. 

The Matola River is the third largest river that flows into Maputo Bay.

This important watercourse crosses the study area on a North-South, axis passing through 3 „postos administrativos‟ (Machava; Matola Sede; Matola Rio) and a quantity of „bairros‟ of the SA.

It shelters wildlife in swampy ecosystem (including mangrove; flamingos, shrimps).

People use it for fishing to improve their livelihood.

Lots of people live on the banks and have crops which they irrigate with the water of the river. The cattle also drink its water. Children use it has recreational water.

Many communities have contact with the river and are sub-consequently highly exposed to any pollutant contained in the water by numerous exposure routes (livestock watering; irrigation; recreational water; fishing; drinking water).

In addition, a lot of industries are settled along the Matola River and drain residual waters into its stream.

For all these reasons, the Matola River is a sensible watercourse that undergoes strong pressure from anthropogenic activities and it makes it a relevant subject of study for this project.

17


Industrial Pollution and Public Health: An Impact Evaluation

3.2.2

Methodology

A series of water testing in Matola River has been performed to establish the concentration of different pollution factors. Target Substances: The parameters considered aimed to evaluate water quality according to environmental and health standards. They have been selected in reason of their potential negative effect when present in high concentration. They can affect human health when water is drunk are fish is eaten. These substances can also endanger aquatic wildlife ecosystems. Industrial effluents are part of the anthropogenic sources. The range of substance measured is the following:

Category

Determinant Faecal coli forms

Microbiological parameters Total coli forms

Physical parameters

Chemical parameters

Turbidity Conductivity pH Odour Nitrates Nitrites Ammonium Hardness Chlorides Organic compounds Sodium Potassium Fluorides Total solids BOD Total iron Alkalinity

These substances are common indicators for evaluate the water quality. They are originated by diverse sources as the result of different industrial processes. Hence, pointing out to the presence of industrial pollution when found in high concentrations.

Their negative impact on the one human health and environment are well documented.

Table 5: Tested Water Contaminants.

Sampling: A total of six sampling points were considered where water was collected from shore according to laboratory protocol and then submitted to LNHAA for analyses. The points were distributed over 20 km of river at approximately intervals ranging between 2.5 and 5km, depending on accessibility, from the Mozal zone down to the river mouth.

18


Industrial Pollution and Public Health: An Impact Evaluation

Point 1 2 3 4 5 6

Coordinates 25.911600°S 32.419096°E 25.916961°S 32.432637°E 25.951344°S 32.442030°E 25.975402°S 32.437779°E 25.986108°S 32.456488°E 25.961191°S 32.498426°E

Distance from point 1 (km) 0 2.5 7.5 12 14.5 20

Table 6: Coordinates of the sampling sites. The samples were collected at lowering tide, when chemical are being washed away toward the river mouth and so that sea water reflux does not interfere with the findings. This protocol results in an overall picture of the water composition along the stream of the river.

3.2.3

Results

The concentrations of the different substances considered are presented in the Annex 3. Excepted for a few determinants, the concentration of each one is very var iable along the course of the river. The location 1 is actually situated in effluent evacuation duct of Mozal. It constitutes an example of mega industrial complex effluent for the present study. It allows observing the fate of chemical released into the water along the stream of the river from its source to the river mouth. 3.2.4

Discussion

The analyses have revealed considerable levels of the tested determinants. Some of these substances are most significant as their adverse effect on human health and aquatic wildlife are proven and quality standards existent. Therefore, we will point them out and take a closer look at the results. A special attention must be given to the following: Turbidity; Nitrates; Chlorides; Iron and Fluorides. These factors have in common their adverse effects on human health and aquatic life (described in table). They were found in particularly high concentration, exceeding the International Water Quality Standards at almost every sampling site. Chlorides: One of the most alarming findings in the Matola River is that the concentration of chlorides in the water at every sampling site is impressively above the WQS. Indeed, the DWS and AWS are respectively 150 and 600 mg/L but the samples show concentration ranging from 512.5 to 22510.75 mg/L. In addition to be a threat to aquatic wildlife, it turns the water inappropriate for any type use (drinking, bathing, fishing, livestock watering, irrigation…). Yet, due to the lifestyle of the communities, numbers of people are exposed to high chlorides level through these very exposure routes. 19


Industrial Pollution and Public Health: An Impact Evaluation

Nitrates: They can have serious consequences on infant health (even death) and the DWS is 10 mg/L. Though analyses mostly show tolerable levels, the sampling site 6 presents a nitrate concentration close to 12 mg/L. The reasons for such an increase can be multiple; presence of sewage discharge nearby; leaching from septic tank; existence of fertilizers manufacture or storage. The existence of obsolete pesticides facility (Boror) in the area points out to the last possibility.

Iron: For Sites 1 to 5, iron level or below detection threshold (< 0.2mg/L). But for the Site 6, the iron concentration is 2.38 mg/L, almost three times the AWS (1 mg/L). Site 6 happens to be situated in the middle of the maritime terminals complex (Mozal; Stema; Coal) it was also used as fuel terminal and metal terminal. It could be a logical explanation for the increase in iron concentration at that precise location.

Fluorides: Residuals from aluminum and fertilizer manufacturing, the effect of fluorides on human health are severe and even greater on aquatic wildlife. US EPA sets a 1.5 mg/L DWS and 0.2 mg/L AWS. Samples analyses reveal excess of fluorides in the Matola River (more than 1.5mg/L). The highest concentration was found on site 2 and decrease with distance (S3; S4; S5). S6 presents a slight increase. It seems obvious the aluminum smelter (Mozal) is responsible for the high concentration at Site 2 (1.83mg/L). As it is diluted along the stream, concentration drops to reach 1.41 mg/L at Site 5. Since fluorides also result from fertilizer manufacture, the slight increase at Site 6 would match with the deduction made for nitrates at the same location. Some of the organic and microbiological contaminants can also be as a result o f domestic waste waters discharge. Fact is, there are no functional water treatment plants in Mozambique. Sewage often ends up in the environment without any form of treatment. It is difficult to quantify what is the respective contribution of sewage and industrial wastes to the level of organic and biological contaminants in the water.

3.2.5

Conclusion

The most alarming findings about Water Quality in Matola River are the high concentration of chlorides and fluorides of the analyzed samples. These substances, along with other, constitute a direct threat to aquatic wildlife and human health. The Water Quality is highly compromised and consumption of the water can be dangerous. In addition, parameter such as high turbidity, hardness, organic compounds and coliforms are indicative of the presence of other hazardous substances and microorganisms. We can therefore conclude that the river presents an important level of water pollution. Additional analyses for a broader spectrum of contaminants and frequent monito ring is strongly required.

20


Industrial Pollution and Public Health: An Impact Evaluation

V - Mapping

1. Emission sources In this section, the objective is to identify the major sources of emission. The differences between the samples collected at different sites are usually explainable by considering the position of the principal sources of emission and meteorological patterns.

Fig.1 : Major Emission Sources LEGEND 1. Mozal (Aluminum Smelter) 2. Beluluane Industrial Parc 3. Unilever (soap) 4. Poliplasticos (plastic products) 5. Maeva (Alimentar Oil&Soap) 6. Cimentos de Moรงambique 7. ENH-Empresa nacional de Hidrocarbonetos (Oil&Fuel)

21

8. CFM (railroad industry) 9. Glass Factory 10. Coca-Cola Company 11. Cerveja de Moรงambique (Beer Brewery) 12. Pala-Pala (matches factory) 13-20. Unidentified


Industrial Pollution and Public Health: An Impact Evaluation

2. Inte rvie ws Here are indicated the location where interview have taken place. A distinction is made between the households and health centres.

Fig.2 : Enquire d household

Fig. 3 : Enquire d Health Centres 22


Industrial Pollution and Public Health: An Impact Evaluation

3. Sampling At every sampling site, GPS coordinates have been registered. The points are represented on the following map.

Fig. 4 : Air Sampling Sites

Fig. 5 : Water Sampling Sites

23


Industrial Pollution and Public Health: An Impact Evaluation

VI â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Conclusions The main objectives of this study were to assess what the extent of industrial pollution issue in Matola/Maputo and the related awareness of the affected population. The aim was to evaluate in a qualitative way more than quantitative, the quality of the environment people live in and how it affects their health and, in parallel, the level of information they have access to. As the study reveals, the quality of air and water of the SA do not comply fully with local legislations as well as guidelines established by the WHO in order to protect public health, including the most vulnerable people (ex: asthmatics; infants). In the mean time, people and institution feel they have little or no idea what kind of contaminants are being introduced into their environment; in which quantities and how may affect are not the wellbeing of their families. Neither do they know where to turn to request reliable information or to report abnormal situation. Anyhow, there is little available information. Indeed, there barely are any records of Ambient Air and Water quality measurements and emission levels data from the industry, when existent, are not made accessible to the main public. In conclusion, the problem of industrial pollution in the activity zone of Matola/Maputo is undeniable yet poorly documented and the population unaware. The population of the district of Matola Cidade (that includes Machave; Infulene; Matola Sede) is approximately 671,000 of inhabitants, to which must be added the population of Matola Rio (35,000). A total of 706,000 people, including 280,000 infants below 15 years old are living with an increased risk of contracting pollution related diseases.

VII - Way Forward In the fight against industrial pollution, the importance of access to factual information is primordial. Unfortunately, the present report reveals haw scarce this resource is. Nevertheless, this is not a fatality and there are wa ys to fill in the gap and remedy this situation. Assessment, Divulgation, Transparency and Monitoring are the key element in bringing awareness and power of action to the affect citizens. Step 1: Assess industrial pollution levels in a more detailed way. Resort to an independent environmental audit which will provide qualitative and quantitative information for a wide area around the sensible zone. Step 2: Efficiently divulgate the outcomes. Make sure it reaches all the spheres of society by conducting informational campaigns in schools; workplaces; neighbourhoods; health centres... Thereafter, insure the information stays accessible at anytime by anyone. Step 3: Implement a monitoring network. Pursue with the effort over time by assessing pollution levels on a regular basis. Creating records for Ambient Air and Water Quality will allow following up closely the evolution of the industrial pollution and its impacts through time. 24


Industrial Pollution and Public Health: An Impact Evaluation

References

SERRA, C. (2007), Colectânea de Legislação Ambiental, Centro de formação juridica, Ministério da Justiça. ALBIANO, N., F., Toxicologia Laboral, Criterios para la vigilancia de los trabajadores expuestos a substancias quimicas perigosas. WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (2005), “Air quality guidelines”, WHO US Environmental Protection Agency: www.epa.gov Enviropedia: www.air-quality.org.uk Companhia Ambiental do Estado de São Paulo-Secretária de Estado do Meio Ambiente: www.cetesb.sp.gov.br Instituto Nacional de Estatísticas : ine.gov.mz Québec, ministère du Développement durable, de l‟Environnement et des Parcs : www.mddpe.gouv.qc.ca

List of Abreviations

AQS: Air Quality Standards AWS: Aquatic Wildlife Standards BMT: Billion of Meticais DWS: Drinking Water Standards EPA: Environment Protection Agency HH: Housholds HI: Health Instances LNHAA: Laboratório Nacional de Higiene de Alimentos e Águas SA: Study Area TWA: Time Weighted Average WHO: World Health Organization WQS: Water Quality standards 25


Pollution & Public Health  
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