Sport Nutrition For Judokas

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SPORTS NUTRITION FOR JUDOKAS


Athletes eat and train, they don’t diet and exercise.

Don’t start a diet that has an expiration date. Focus on a lifestyle that will last forever. ~ Unknown


A word from the author Judo is a complex sport that requires a combination of speed, strength, a strong anaerobic capacity and endurance. Added to these unique physiological requirements is the challenge to compete in a specific weight class. Most judoka compete in a weight class that is less than their normal body weight, which is the weight they are able to maintain without doing any sacrifices or what they would call a “diet”. To achieve the competition weight, most athletes undergo a number of methods to significantly reduce body weight in a short period of time. It is assumed that athletes believe that, by competing in a lighter weight class, they will get some competitive advantage against lighter, smaller and weaker opponents. Sometimes they do, but it’s not always the case. Some athletes call it “the fight before the fight”. I have seen judokas suffer to make weight to the point that they couldn’t focus on their performance. Indeed, all they could think about was the number on the scale or what they would eat after making weight. Perhaps a little bit of nutrition education could help ! This book is designed for judokas to get the basics right about nutrition and hydration around training as well as how to prepare efficiently for competition. Always consider to work with a sports dietitian to help you understand your weight and nutrition needs to perform at your best. Nutrition is not a one-sizefits-all approach and is very individual when it comes to body composition, recovery strategies and food preferences. I hope you enjoy it !


THE 5 STEPS FOR OPTIMAL JUDO PERFORMANCES p. 6

p. 9

p. 22

p. 29

p. 31

WEIGHT MANAGEMENT Understanding weight & body composition Training and competing weight Normal weight variations Weight class charts and 5% limit FUELING FOR OPTIMAL TRAINING SESSIONS Calculate your daily needs of energy, protein, carbohydrate and fat Fueling before training Recovery, hydration and sleep Good portion sizes PREPARE FOR WEIGH-IN: ACUTE WEIGHT LOSS Manipulate gut content Manipulate fluid balance Low fibre / residue diet The day of weigh-in RECOVERY AFTER WEIGH-IN Optimal re-fueling and re-hydration strategies Fluids, electrolytes and carbohydrate needs Plan your ideal recovery strategy

COMPETITION DAY Travelling nutrition and hydration Breakfast choices before the first match Fueling and hydration between matches A few words about supplements


WEIGHT MANAGEMENT AND BODY COMPOSITION What is weight? It consists of different body compartments, such as fat-free mass (muscle, bone, organs, glycogen stores and body water) and fat mass. Water and glycogen stores (energy stored in muscles and liver) are components that vary the most from day to day, where fat mass and fat-free mass will take more time to lose or gain overtime. Body weight is usually at the highest at the beginning of the week and after a few days resting (without training) and will be at the lowest near the end of a training week. Because weight can fluctuate very quickly, it is important to recognize these normal variations and learn how your weight fluctuates during training, competing and resting days.

BODY WEIGHT

Bone mass Skeleton Teeth

Organs Blood cells Hormones

What is the ideal weight of a judoka ? It is recommended for most judo athletes to sit naturally (fully hydrated, no food restrictions, without trying to lose body weight) no more than 5-8% of their weight category. Optimal Zone for athletes all year around and close to competition. Attention Zone, a little heavy, especially if close to competition.

Muscle mass Glycogen

Subcutaneous and Visceral fat

Calculate your weight fluctuation zone by using this chart. See p.8 for specific judo weight class charts. Weight class : ______ kg / lbs 1% (x 1.01) =

_______ kg / lbs

2% (x 1.02) = _______ kg / lbs 3% (x 1.03) = _______ kg / lbs 4% (x 1.04) = _______ kg / lbs 5% (x 1.05) = _______ kg / lbs 6% (x 1.06) = _______ kg / lbs 7% (x 1.07) =

Danger Zone, healthy eating habits education, fat loss program and/or weight class change should be considered.

Water Blood and plasma

_______ kg / lbs

8% (x 1.08) = _______ kg / lbs 9% (x 1.09) = _______ kg / lbs 10% (x 1.1) =

_______ kg / lbs


WEIGHT MANAGEMENT AND BODY COMPOSITION There are multiple techniques to measure body composition (skinfolds with ISAK method, bio-electrical impedance, DXA scan, etc.) It’s important to plan measurements at optimal times throughout the year to have a better understanding of how your weight fluctuates (training, competing, off time, weight training, etc.)

What is the ideal body composition for a judoka ? The ideal body composition (fat mass, fat-free mass) should be individualized for each athlete. It is not a one size fits all recommendation. It should also be determined as the lowest body fat mass athletes can reach without disrupting their mental state and hormonal levels to the point that their performance decreases. Men will have a lower body fat and a higher muscle mass then women. This body fat range (on the right) can be used for planning optimal training and competing weight, but needs to be individualized and monitored frequently.

7-13% body fat

15-26% body fat

Why does my weight vary so much from day to day?

Weight varies from day to day. Many factors can affect weight: energy stores, hydration status, sleep, stress, recovery sessions, muscle soreness, fatigue, menstrual cycle in women, etc. Monitoring and comparing weight at the same time of the day and week is important. Variations are normal!

WEIGHT

Morning weight is usually the lightest weight of the day. Fasting during sleep and lower morning energy stores and hydration status explain a lower body weight. Once you eat, weight will increase naturally with foods and liquids entering the digestive tract. That’s normal! (and it’s a good thing).

SUN MON TUE WED THU FRI

SAT


WEIGHT CLASS CHARTS Based on a traffic light system, these charts should help you determine an optimal weight variation zone. The green zone is optimal at all time and especially the week leading up to competition. The orange zone relates to a time where there are no upcoming competitions or if you are coming back from a break or some time off training (and didn’t really pay attention to your nutrition). If you are in the red zone, some nutrition education is highly suggested or you should consider moving to the upper weight class. -44 kg

-48 kg

-52 kg

-57 kg

-63 kg

-70 kg

-78 kg

1%

44.4

48.5

52.5

57.6

63.6

70.7

78.8

2%

44.9

49.0

53.0

58.1

64.3

71.4

79.6

3%

45.3

49.4

53.6

58.7

64.9

72.1

80.3

4%

45.8

49.9

54.1

59.3

65.5

72.8

81.1

5%

46.2

50.4

54.6

59.9

66.2

73.5

81.9

6%

46.6

50.9

55.1

60.4

66.8

74.2

82.7

7%

47.1

51.4

55.6

61.0

67.4

74.9

83.5

8%

47.5

51.8

56.2

61.6

68.0

75.6

84.2

9%

48.0

52.3

56.7

62.1

68.7

76.3

85.0

10%

48.4

52.8

57.2

62.7

69.3

77.0

85.8

11%

48.8

53.3

57.7

63.3

69.9

77.7

86.6

12%

49.3

53.8

58.2

63.8

70.6

78.4

87.4

-55 kg

-60 kg

-66 kg

-73 kg

-81 kg

1%

55.6

60.6

66.7

73.7

81.8

-90 kg -100 kg 90.9

101.0

2%

56.1

61.2

67.3

74.5

82.6

91.8

102.0

3%

56.7

61.8

68.0

75.2

83.4

92.7

103.0

4%

57.2

62.4

68.6

75.9

84.2

93.6

104.0

5%

57.8

63.0

69.3

76.7

85.1

94.5

105.0

6%

58.3

63.6

70.0

77.4

85.9

95.4

106.0

7%

58.9

64.2

70.6

78.1

86.7

96.3

107.0

8%

59.4

64.8

71.3

78.8

87.5

97.2

108.0

9%

60.0

65.4

71.9

79.6

88.3

98.1

109.0

10%

60.5

66.0

72.6

80.3

89.1

99.0

110.0

11%

61.1

66.6

73.3

81.0

89.9

99.9

111.0

12%

62.2

67.2

73.9

81.8

90.7

100.8

112.0


FUELING FOR OPTIMAL TRAINING SESSIONS An optimal balance of energy intake, carbohydrate, protein and fat is important because it supports the physiological needs for training on a dayto-day basis, helps to improve body composition and weight management.

How much energy do you need per day ? It is possible to estimate energy needs based on your body weight. This is a simple calculation and should be adapted, based on individual intake (some athletes might need to eat more or less). Maintain weight : 35-45 kcal / kg of body weight Lose weight (body fat) : 30-35 kcal / kg of body weight Gain weight (fat-free mass) : >45 kcal / kg of body weight

Protein Protein requirements for judo athletes are higher than the general population, as the body is under increased stress due to training sessions and the need to adapt, heal and create new body proteins to deal with the next training session. Judo athletes should consume about 1.5 to 2 g of protein per kg of body weight per day (sometimes more). Protein should represent about 15-30% of total energy intake. When preparing to make weight or times of food restrictions, protein intake should remain high to avoid increased muscle breakdown (ideally, 2-2.5 g / kg). Protein helps to feel full and has a satiety effect during meals. Eating protein at every meal is a must!

Calculate your daily protein needs: 1.5 g/kg body weight ______ 2.0 g/kg body weight ______

Milk 250 mL 8g

Egg 1x 7g

Lean meat 100g 25-30g

Nuts 1/4 cup 6g

Cheese 30g 8g

Yogurt 3/4 cup 8g

Tofu 100g 12g

Peanut butter 30 mL 6g

Lentils 125 mL 8g


FUELING FOR OPTIMAL TRAINING SESSIONS Carbohydrate Carbohydrate intake should be periodized depending on the training intensity and volume over time. Carbohydrates should make up the majority of your diet : around 50% of the total energy intake. While fat stores can be used as fuel for many cells in the body and at low exercise intensities, glucose is the preferred energy source for the brain and muscles during periods of high intensity exercise, such as judo. Your body stores carbohydrates in two energy storage sites (the liver and muscles). These energy stores are limited and used quickly during high intensity exercise. It is therefore important to fuel properly every day (with carbohydrates) to recover from every training and get ready for the next one.

Bread 1 slice 15g

Cereals 3/4 cup 30g

Bagel 1x 45g

Pasta 1/2 cup 15g

Rice 1/3 cup 15g

Potato 1 medium 30g

Oats 1/2 cup 30g

Fresh Fruits 1 cup 30g

Berries 1 cup 15g

Milk 1 cup 12g

Yogurt 3/4 cup 15-30g

Beans 1 cup 30g

For optimum performances, here are the amount of carbohydrates recommended based on training volume. (these are general guidelines and should be adapted individually) Training Volume (Hours/Day) 1 hour per day

Carbohydrate needs (g / kg of body weight / day)

Calculate your daily carbohydrate needs

3-5 g

g / day

2 hours per day

6g

g / day

3 hours per day

7g

g / day

4 hours per day

8g

g / day

5 hours per day

9g

g / day

> 5 hours per day

10 g

g / day


FUELING FOR OPTIMAL TRAINING SESSIONS Fat Anywhere between 20 to 35 percent of the total energy in your diet should come from fat. It’s also important to choose the right fats during each meals and avoid as much as possible the “bad” fats. It’s also a good habit to make sure to eat full meals and wholesome foods when eating. This will help you to feel full for a longer time and avoid being hungry too quickly after a meal. It will also prevent the “fat attacks” that might push you to overeat chips, cookies or other fatty foods that are tempting and suddenly appealing.

High fat diets ? There has been a lot of interest in the high fat diets lately for elite performance and weight loss (such as fat adaptation or ketogenic diets). Fats can be used as fuel during training and some studies have shown that you can adapt the body to use more fat as a fuel on a short term when you increase your fat intake. This is true when you exercise at a low intensity (about 55% VO2max or less). But to be able to perform and win a fight, you need to work at a much higher intensity and for that, you need carbohydrates! If you are looking to improve your diet and lose weight, high fat diets are not the best way to go. A balanced intake of all nutrients are the key to success.

Monounsaturated fats eat more often

Avocado 1/2 15g

Nut butter 30 mL 15g

Oil; Canola, Olive: 15 mL 15g

Nuts 1/4 cup 20-30g

Olives 10 large 10g

Dressing 2 tbsp 10g

Polyunsaturated fats eat more often

Flax or Chia seeds 2 tbsp 8g

Oil: corn, sunflower 15 mL 15g

Fatty fish (ex.salmon) 150g 10-15g

Saturated fats eat with moderation

Butter 1 tbsp 15g

Chocolate chip cookies (2) 10g

Bacon 6 strips 20g

Sausage, Beef (65g) 25g

Croissant 1 small 15g

Chocolate 30g 15g

Most athletes need ~ 1.0 g of fat / kg of body weight. Some athletes might eat more or less, based on energy needs and individual goals. 1.0 g of fat / kg of body weight : _____________ g of fat per day


A GOOD BREAKFAST The body and the brain work better when they get adequate morning fuel. Yet, many athletes push their bodies through training on an empty stomach. Result? low energy, tiredness, cravings for sugary foods, and often undesired weight gain. There’s no doubt in my mind: Breakfast is the most important meal of the day and one of the best strategies for weight management.

Here are a few suggestions to get the day going and make sure energy stores are fully loaded before training. Adapt breakfast choices in regards of appetite, individual needs, training intensity and length. Make sure to eat at least 1-3 hours before training to ensure enough time to digest.

BREAKFAST CEREALS? A bowl of cereal might not keep you full enough for the morning. They are usually low in protein and fibre. Make sure you pick high fibre choices (>4g per portion) or mix different kinds together. FRESH FRUITS OR JUICES? You should always eat fresh fruits rather than drinking it’s juice. Fresh fruits have more fibre and will provide more nutritious elements. If you still can’t live without your favorite juice, make sure it is 100% pure and not made with concentrated juice. Avoid cocktails and fruit blends. WHAT ABOUT COFFEE? YES, Coffee is good for you ! And it doesn’t increase dehydration, unless you exaggerate. Coffee will increase alertness, stimulate your morning and improve your training performance. Avoid adding too much sugar and cream.

1-2 slices of bread Peanut butter Banana Orange juice

Bagel or english muffin 1-2 eggs Fruit salad Low fat yogurt

Oatmeal, cooked in milk or water Dried fruits Mix of nuts Maple syrup

Plain or greek yogurt 1-2% fat Berries Muesli / Granola Hard boiled egg Low fat cheese

NOT VERY HUNGRY IN THE MORNING? Make sure you still eat a little something on your way to training. Smoothie with milk and berries Low fat yogurt Homemade muffin Banana bread


OPTIMAL PORTION SIZES

Regular training : 1 to 3 hours of training per day

What you put in your plate highly depends on how much energy you burn on a daily basis.

Protein: 1 palm of hand 100-150g cooked

Carbohydrate and vegetables: 1 fist or more, approx 1 cup (250 mL) cooked

This plate represents the ideal proportions of food from different groups to eat for a regular training day of about 1 to 3 hours of training. Carbohydrates need to fill approximately 1/3 of your plate. If you don’t eat enough carbohydrates, you might notice some fatigue and might not have enough energy to train. Choose dark color vegetables (green, red, orange, etc.), which contain more vitamins, minerals, fibre and antioxydants. Depending on your appetite, finish your meals with fresh fruits and/or yogurt. Drink water as much as possible and avoid soft drinks and fruit juices, unless you have difficulties to maintain your weight.