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The Twenty-One Books of Engineering and Machines of Juanelo Turriano

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The Twenty-One Books of Engineering and Machines of Juanelo Turriano A traslation o/ the manuscript The Twenty-One Books o/ Engineering and Machines o/ Juanelo Turriano in the Biblioteca Nacional, Madrid, by ALEXANDER K ELLER

with Prologue by PEDRO L A1N ENTRALGO

and Introduction by ] OSÉ A NTONIO G ARCÍA-D IEGO

Volume II

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Consultative committee BEGOÑA GARdA-DIEGO y

ORTíz

Lurs CERVERA VERA ÁNGEL DEL CAMPO FRANCÉS JAVIER GOICOLEA ZALA

IGNACIO GONZÁLEZ TASCÓN

Transcription

RosA GARcfA CALvo

© Introduction: Herederos de José Antonio García-Diego. © Transcription: Fundación Juanelo Turriano. © Manuscript: Biblioteca Nacional. Madrid. Ministerio de Cultura. © Of the present edition: Fundación Juanelo Turriano and Ediciones Doce Calles, S.L.

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ISBN Complete work: 84-87111-97-7. ISBN Facsímile. Volume I: 84-87111-92-0. ISBN Facsimile. Volume II: 84-87111-93-9. ISBN Facsimile. Volume III: 84-87111-94-7. ISBN Facsímile. Volume IV: 84-87111-95-5. ISBN Facsimile. Volume V: 84-87111-96-3. ISBN Transcription. Volume 1: 84-87111-90-4. ISBN Transcription. Volume II: 84-87111-91-2. D. L.: M-44.460-1996. Editorial Coordination: Concha Aguilera. Editorial Productíon: Ediciones Doce Calles, S.L. Photography: Pablo Linés Viñuales.

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The three books The three books of the third volume which the Catholic King Philip II commanded his Chief Engineer Juanelo to write and explain

Dedicated to his Catholic Majesty by his Major Domo, Juan Gomez de Mora.

THIRD VoLUME

The Eleventh Book deals with various kinds of Milis, and Donkey-mills. The Twelfth Book deals with ways of Belting flour The Thirteenth Book deals with Milis, Fulling-Mills, Oil-Presses and various kinds of devices of the same type for Drawing Water, for rnaking Alurn and Saltpetre, and Washing Wool and Cloths.

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ELEVENTH BOOK Introductz贸n Book of milis The three books of the third volume deal with water as a source of power. In the course of the Middle Ages, watermills which had probably appeared in the first century BC but remained relatively rare in Imperial times, spread throughout Europe and where there was water enough, the Middle East. Their main function, supplemented in sorne regions by wind power, was to grind the grain for daily bread, although by the fourteenth century many other uses, where simple rotating or reciprocating movements could be mechanised, had been introduced. However, the flourmili remained pre-eminent, and as such is the subject of the eleventh 'libro' . Since Vitruvius himself had given instructions on how to make a watermili, the subject was evidently architecturally respectable, but only just. Alberti, for instance, does not have a chapter on milis. Although mili designs and sketches are scattered in great number through the notebooks of Leonardo da Vinci, he never drew up a book of milis like this. Francesco di Giorgio did devore several pages of his treatise on buildings to milis and machinery, but he rings the changes on as many gear arrangements as he could imagine, rather than set out an ordered guide to the millwright's task, as we have here. Similarly, later theatres of machines either offer just a few basic types or a variety of ingenious gear and transmission systems. This is the most famous of the books, therefore, for it provides the best account of the construction and design of milis to have come clown to us befare the eighteenth century. In effect it is divided into two substantial sections, each the equivalent of a libro in itself. The fust part deals with the structure of watermills, according to the two basic types, those whose wheel is vertical, and those where it l铆es in a horizontal plane. This first section then is an invaluable account of good practice, which explains to us how the intelligent millwright worked. The author does indeed suggest his own improvements and tries to make bis point by a crude geometrical analysis- crude, but for all that one of the first attempts to show how such techniques may be applied in an early attempt at a mathematised technology. This enables him to define optimum conditions for a good mili: the relative position of the nozzle and blade of the wheel; [315]

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che curvature of the blade; at what angle and what clistance water should strike che blade; and how the shroud could reduce loss through splash. The account of horizontal waterwheels is more detailed, and follows che author's regular practice of showing first the basíc type and then a number of ever more ingeníous and elaborare variants. Hadan engineer from any other part ofEurope compiled this book he would probably have concentrated on the vertical wheel, described by Vitruvius, since by the sixteenth century this type drove nearly all industrial milis and most flourmills. The horizontal watermili had apparently retreated to highland valleys and the more backward comers of westem Europe. Vertical milis were regarded as more efficíent and able to exploit larger streams and lower heads; whether undershot or overshot they were bigger and better. In any country where timber was stili cheap, the horizontal milis depicted here would have been relatively expensive so much of their structure is of stone. Although the author does open his discussion with che vertical milis, he devotes much more space to the horizontal. Nowhere in Europe but in eastern Spaín would he have seen the milis that appear on these pages, because they are largely confined to lands which are or have been Moslem. These are milis for a land where water is at a premium. The cylíndrical penstock with its tapered conical nozzle conserves water better than the horizontal milis of the rest of Europe, ensuring the water goes only where the milier wants it. Less power ís lost through splash or movement in the flume, while loss through friction is at least reduced. A constant head of water can more easily be maintained and, as our author notes, water leaves the tapered nozzle at relatively hígh velocity. They evidently understood that forcing a given quancity of water through a narrower space would increase its speed, and therefore the force delivered by its impact, even if their theoretical mechanics had no explanation. Turbulence could cause clifficultíes but that would be true of other types, too.

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He then adds bis own proposals to get even more work for the same power, although he is aware of the climinution as water falls through a succession of miliwheels. Nevertheless this is not just che author's fantasy. Francisco Lobato's book includes a horizontal watermili comparable with those shown here. His advantage for us is that he provides dates and location for all his milis, often even the miliwrights' names; the clisadvantage is that he does not give such a vatiety as is presented here. Besides, his rough sketches are much less helpful for the identifícation of details. In the 1590s a mili driving two pairs of stones similar to these <<molinos de cubo» was installed to grind the grain for King Philip's monastery-palace of the Escorial; plan and elevation have survived. A Flemish soldier attached to the Court rernarks on the novelty of the mili, which may mean only that the type was new co him, or that he saw an innovatíve design of penstock and nozzle, which perhaps owed something to a geometrical approach like our author's. So, in Spain there was stili much interest in using and improvíng the local horizontal watermilis. And it was they, not the vertical milis, partícularly in the forro of the 'swirl-back' milis, the «molinos de regolfo» which were to be the immedíate ancestors of che turbines of the nineteenth century, soon the prime means to exploit water power. The second section opens [306v-307r] with a list of fifteen dífferent types of mili, beginning with those which are not driven by water. Each type is then described in detail, wíth notes on the particular circumstances of their use, for instance where they are only economic in fortified places; the dangers of possible siege are, he suggests, also a motive for employíng pontoon milis. Two of his list are not described, for chey presumably only differ in minor features from others which are. One is omitted altogether, the mili 'which goes by itself' in still water. This would have been a perpetua! motion mili, such as appears in sorne contemporary books of mechanics:

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let us suppose that the author thought better of it. The vertical and horizontal milis are described again, according to their types, culminating in the 'swirl-back' «regolfo» mili. Nine features of the ideal mili follow, with advice on the optimum forro of the various components, from the blades of the wheel, shown in plan and section, through the main axletree to the millstones- resumíng an account given earlier- and the components that control delivery of the grain to the milistones, and its subsequent storage and removal. Pontoon, or barge milis, make up his list, leaving room for notes on machinery to raise and lower vertical wheels to suit river levels, and on the trough to take water from a leat to the wheel.

Book of milis. Notes on terminology As the watermilis of English-speaking lands almost all had vertical wheels, the «molinos de cubo» present dífficulties for a translator. Where possible the terms used here have been taken from Wilson (1960); they are Scottish for the most pru.t. Of course, Wilson has no equivalents for the 'cubo' (literally, tank) or 'cubete' (literally, tub), nor are these structures much like the 'tub-mills' of the highlands of the eastern USA. The Hebrew term 'arubah' has been widely accepted since the pioneering work of Avitzur, but it would probably be safest to use the English word 'penstock' even if the penstocks of English milis were never like this. Por sorne terms, such as 'egolfo' I have just had to invent my own words to convey the sense. With the 'molinos de sangre' a similar problem arises. Animal-powered mills were in Spanísh commonly 'taona', a word derived from Arabic, and I have normally translated this as donkey-mill except where the author uses thís word for the hopper. Since 'molinos de sangre' seems to include all milis whose motor is anímate, animal or human, I have called them muscle milis. But he was himself apparently aware that the same word might be used for different things. Sometimes he uses «temperador» (temperer) as synonymous with 'levador' (lifter- the sole-tree), and sometimes with 'torcedor' (twister- the crookstring). As he states clearly that he will use the words in use in Aragon as a rule, he certainly realised that there wou.ld be variants from one region to another.

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The eleventh book deals with various kinds o/ mills

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ilis are very ancient among the nations, since the grinding of corn and other seeds is so very common: in antiquity men ground with great labour because they had to do it with the power of their hands. So their need made them look for new ways to avoid that bodily labour, and they have invented and thought up artífices and engines with which they might be able to grind theír seeds so they could eat them. That is why milis are almost one of the most necessary of inventions to help support human life. For we see that even among the barbarians- as it used to be in the West Indies- they did not have milis to grind their maize, but had invented little instruments (like those for grinding mustard) to grind theír seeds. How much more then have dvilised peoples invented various kinds of milis; the cause is necessity, and also because in sorne regions there are few rivers, and neither streams nor springs. We frequently see that towns lack this commodity of grinding within their boundaries on account of the shortage of water; many more towns have sorne water but it is too little to drive a mili. There are other towns whlch have plenty of water, but it leaves their territory wíthout their being able to exploit it, because it goes very low, or deep clown, or it passes between rocks, so there is no place where they can use it. Therefore I say that whereas milis have been so essential and so powerful, yet sorne towns lack water, Ido not say for grinding but evento drink- all the more then to drive milis- they drink no other water than what falls from heaven as rainso need has caused them to seek out various inventions or machines for milis. They have fitted the artífice to the amount of water, and also in respect of the disposition of the site, and the fall of the rivers or conduits for which these structures are supposed to be installed. They are made in various ways as will be seen in the course of thls subject. Many are the inventions; information will be given about them all on their mode of construction and their names, although in each province every kind of mili has its own name. But I will take the names that are usual in these kingdoms of Aragon, Catalonia and Valencia, although most of the names will be Aragonese. The first kind of mili, the most common and universal, is the open channel mill1. [!fol. 288v] Although it grinds well this mili is of no great ingenuity. All 1 The vertical, 'Vitruvian' wheel is treated first as the dominant waterwheel of Europe. Two types. are discussed. The first, «open channel mili» (de canal abierta) is the most basic. Little is

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Eleventh Book the artífice and dexterity in it consists in knowing how to site the channel so that the water strikes the buckets of the wheel in such a manner, ín order that it will not brake the wheel instead of making it go. It could be placed in such a position that the wheel will go at a very great speed; and at other times in such fashion that it will not m ove at all. So it is very important to understand that. Yet there are so many milis made in this form that rationally the proper disposition ín which they should be erected, should have been discovered. But índeed there are as many opinions to be found as there are millers- the cause being that most of them are men of very little intelligence and less reflection. The wheel then is the cause why the mili grinds a large or a small amount, as it receives the impact of the water from the channel. The channel is to be sited in this manner... Illustration 176

Let us suppose that from where the channel starts to receive the water to where it discharges it, :B to strike the wheel, the channel should be so sited, as- suppose we take a perfect square, and we wish to divide it into two equal parts from corner to cerner, by the diagonal, as is here indicated. The angles of the square are A B e D. The diagonal is A D, so the channel should (Illustration 176) be sited like the line A D which divides the square C into two parts- A e D, A B D. Mter having sited the channel, care should also be taken in siting the wheel. There would be very little advantage to have sited the chan.Ílel well, if the wheel should not be sited in proportion to it. For it could be placed so far from the channel that when the water struck the wheel it would have no force to turn it. Or it could be so close that the water would have no effect. Or it could be so low clown, or so high that it did not correspond to the channel. Let it be neither too near nor too far, but to one side. (Illustration 177) No certain rule can be given for this. But let the spokes of the wheel be lettered E F G H I K L M N; so the water m ay descend from A D to strike at letter E on the arm of the wheel, which crosses the wheel in a straight line. The wheel should have the sides of the buckets enclosed, so that the water can have greater force in moving the wheel, for it will then not flow out to waste as it strikes the wheel [!fol. 289r].

Illustration 177

c.

said about its construction however; the reader's attention is directed to the need to r~late t~e various parts of the mili so it may work in .the most e~cient manner. Unfortun~tdy, Anstotehan mechanics gave little guidance on the relanon of vd.ocl~Y t.o p~wer. The S~amsh w~rd used, «ligero» can mean light as well as fast, and the amb1gU1ty 1s evtdently also m the mmd of the author.

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After siting the wheel: the wheel should be large, because the greater its circumference, the greater the speed it will go, since it will turn more easily. Here below I shall set down sorne differences in the way the water strikes the wheel, from which it will be plain to see on which of them the water exerts greater force, and on which it exerts less. atlustration 178) Differences which the water makes when striking the wheels, in accordance with their position, close or far: it may clearly be seen that all the channels are sited in the same way and on the same line and likewise that the wheels are of the same circumference and on the same line. It may be seen that the channel A B e D trikes wheel N at arm E, the line which crosses the wheel N at ríght angles. The channel B e D E strikes wheel O. Other demonstrations may be made about the wheels which the water strikes on arm K, which will have greater effect, and more head be obtained because the wheel is sited much hígher and the water makes no stop on the wheeF. If the wheel can be fixed in such a way that the water strikes it on the ríght, ít should do so between the arms E. M. at that mid-point between the two letters, with more strength or force than in any other place; although there is a difference whether the water is made to strike on one side or the other; and also more advantage is obtained in the position of the wheel. Illustrotion 178

On arm M it strikes the wheel in such a way as to turn it to one side or the other. So the contrast between the two is quite recognisable, one wheel being near, the other far from the channel. From this the cause of the wheel's motion may be understood from the effect it produces, given that with the same quantity of water and the same situation and the same site and with the wheel the same size, the wheel produces a great variation according to whether it is fixed near or far. The same may be seen in the channel e D E F which strikes wheel P. Thís channel strikes the wheel P in the space between M and L, [!fol. 289v] but at that point the water is not sufficient to turn the wheel; rather I say that if such a wheel should have any other motion the water that strikes it at that point should help to stop the said wheel P, by reason of the point where it strikes; so it can be understood how it effects more the stopping than the motion of the wheel. But 2

The diagramme is confusing, since from the text the water impacts wheel O at I K and not M as appears drawn: both O and P are overshot wheels. Wheel Q would be undershot, and this does seem to be his preference.

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Eleventh Book I say that if it should strike arm L ít would cause greater motion at that poínt than does the water of the channels C and F. To drag out the discussion of thís subject any further is, I think, superfluous, since our eyes and our íntelligence will fi.nd it out very clearly. These demonstrations are set clown only in arder to show the difference that comes from fixing the wheels near the channels or far from them. The channel D E F G is str{.¡ck by the water coming from the line D G upon wheel Q. This water strikes the arm F. Thís arm ís well below the rniddle of the wheel toward the gro un d. It will be seen that the water exerts a great force on the wheel Q, and thís does not come from the channel nor yet from the water, because all these channels are set in the same line and to the same design, so this force can only be caused by the situation of the wheel, in that it is placed at such a point where it will receive the full force of the water, which gives more lightness to the wheel whose motion is then much easier. So much for the position of the wheels, whether they should be near or far from the channels through which comes the water, which causes the motion. After the channels and the wheels have been sited at a suitable distance, care needs to be taken that after the water has left the channel it should deliver its full impact on the bucket- all the water; and not at the angle between the bucket and the wheel, because if it does impact at that angle, it does not exert so much force on the wheel, as it would by stri.kíng the bucket. And this is a very important matter, although many do not understand it, nor do they even notice it: and it is most important because, when the water strikes the angle between the bucket and the wheel it turns the wheel much more heavily; but when it strikes in the middle of the bucket, then it turns the wheel more lightly. And this poínt can be understood from the steelyard which, when the same weight is hung or suspended from it, when the load is nearer the weight, it does not go clown, but rather turns back upwards. But when they move it further from the point where the weight is hung, then the load goes clown with the greatest ease: and by the same token the mili grinds much more with the same quantity of water [!fol. 290r]. There will be no other with such a quantity of water by reason of this drawback of which I have spoken, although it is true that there are other particular features, whích affect how much it will grind, yet this ís the principal. But it is also bound up wíth the way it is set up, which helps the grindíng a lot, for when a mili is not set up properly that is in great part the cause why ít does not grind as much as it would if the iron axle which turns the upper milistone had been fixed as vertically as it should. I leave aside countless details which occur in setting up milis on account of their being as common as milis are among the nations. There is another kínd of mili which they call flume-mill, which ís quite different from those described3. It has its channel entirely enclosed. This kínd > 'There is another kind of mili they call flume mili' ... this flume mili (de bomba) is the simplest type of horizontal wheel mili, in which water is directed clown a wooden trough to strike the blades. This may have been the earliest type of watermili: it is certainly the most widespread, occurring across Europe, many parts of the Middle East, the Himalayas and China. lt requires only a modest supply of water and is quite efficient, but its output is rdativdy modest. So a household may well bdieve it worth while to put up their own mill, and the horizontal . mili survived longest in hill country where farms were too scattered, and too far from the valley bottom to justify a large vertical mili. If timber and a convenient rili were available, a local carpenter could erect one. In Spain, such milis were once common in the north of the. coun.try, in the Cantabrian mountains, for instance. The curved blades shown here would reqUire a litcle

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of mili grinds much more than the undershot vertical mili or leat-mili because the water goes much more concentrated, although its channel is placed much flatter, because the stroke is to be made in the hollow or on the wheel: so it is fixed differently from the other type: since it is flat, while the other goes like the wheels of a cart. Beside that, in addition to lying flat, this wheel does not have spokes like the other, nor yet buckets, but in this case what the water moves is altogether quite different. The channel of this mili can be used for the other invention which has been illustrated before this, because the channel for this type of wheel too should be erected much flatter. The square whereby (Illustration 179) the rule of siting this channel is derived, is ABe D, such that it may be divided into three equal parts, and two of them given to the channel which is A E Y. At E this channel pours the water onto the Illustrotion 179

A

C'------~ D

curved blades of the wheel, which are twenty four in number. This type of wheel is to be of ten palms in diameter because the greater its diameter the greater its velocity and the smaller they are the less they grind; so even though they may have the same quantity of water, the big wheel will always grind much more than the small one. This channel of the flume-mili is very different too, because the nearer it approaches the wheel the narrower it gets, so that where the water is discharged it is no more than half a palm square in width. The outlet of the water is of the shape as here illustrated; where the water enters is A, [!fol. 290v] atlustration 180) where it is discharged, B: and the water which strikes blade e of the wheel D goes through the broad orĂ­fice E. If the water does not come more skill, but appear in other illustrations (e.g. those of the Escorial mili and even in Belidor's 'Architecture Hydraulique' and elsewhere in mountainous regions of southern Europe), but not usually shrouded as here. As with the overshot vertical wheel, a geometrical diagramme shows the optimum angle at which the jet is to strike the blade.

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Eleventh Book Itlustration 180

32 palms in

length

out above the wheel D it would make the movement very heavy. But even as it makes its impact on the blade it falls. In this kind of wheel there ís no need of a lantern gear to make the millstone go, (Illustration 181) but in the axle of the wheel goes a very thick íron shaft which is held fast with iron bands, and the millstone goes upon this shaft. This waterwheel should be fixed quite vertical because if it ís not the millstones waste away and it does not grind much. In this inventíon there are no more wheels and lanterns at all, as there are in the preceding channel-mill, only care should be taken to fix this wheel in such a manner that the water comes flat onto the blade C which will catch it fully. Illustration 181

These blades are to be very curved in the part where the water is going to fall, and the deeper they are, the better do they perform their duty. Care should also be taken to erect the waterwheel first, before fixing the bedstone or lower millstone, in order to see first how the water strikes the waterwheel; because once fixed, it could not be set to rights, if it needed to be brought somewhat closer or further from the nozzle. That ís why the wheel should be fíxed first, and not the bedstone. Sometimes it will be necessary to raise the wheel and if the bedstone should be fíxed ít likewise could not be adjusted, or lowered, nor could the iron axle or gudgeon be shortened, because of the motion, which no other wheel makes to aid and help but that alone; and for this reason this type of waterwheel used to be made of several píeces. Now they are usually made differently, out of just two píeces of holm-oak only, from which the blades are hollowed, and then an iron band is fitted on to keep two píeces joined together for a longer time. A mast of the same kind of oak ís mounted on ít: which has been turned on the lathe, except where it is to be fixed to the wheel; on that section it is left square; where it stands on the ground an iron band is placed, with íts gudgeon very well steeled, and even tempered, [!fol. 291r] so that ít should not be worn away with the continual motion. It ís mounted upon a socket of bell-metal so that it will be much stronger and last much longer, although I would really like this socket to be of well tempered steel. The axle tree of the wheel, or mast, ought to be eight palms high, a little more or less according to the situation. The shaft which is placed inside the axle tree or mast should be squared off: ít should be six palms and go two palms into the oaken axle tree, a little more or less according to the needs of the site and its height. The wheel or waterwheel should be at least eight palms, although it would be much better of ten than of eight- although ít does not depend so much on the greater width of the wheel as [323]

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on the quantity of water whether a mili grinds a lot or a little. A small quantity may do it, if it goes through an enclosed channel for it then will hold the water much more concentrated than in an open channel, and therefore when enclosed it conveys the water much better to strike the wheel. So then, this kind of flume-mill should have a much more level channel as has been said many times. If it should be mounted quite upright along the diagonal of its square, the wheel would go very heavily because it would be struck from on top downwards. So the water should come to strike the wheel obliquely, as can be understood by rules of geometry and also of philosophy, because in these matters sorne little practica! imagination will make its contribution. Yet it should be known what effect the lines produce when they strike on one part rather than another, and conformably, how the thing is to be fixed or sited, whether it is striking a wheellike a cartwheel or one laid like a millstone. So then, there are various methods, positions or locations for the wheels Ă­ust as in the location or place where the thing is to be put. Therefore, to fĂ­x things straight, in this as in anything else, use a little imagination especially for the waterwheel and the shaft. The covered channel which they call flume should be much wider where the water enters than at the other end where it pours out . At the wide end it should be four parts and where it is narrower, it is to be but one of those parts in width; it is to be at least thirty palms long because the longer the channel, the greater the force carried by the water. This flume should be made in proportion and with ingenuity. [!fol. 291v] Consider if there is plenty of water or but little, because the channel must be made large or small according to the quantity of water. so the same rule will hold which has been given in general for channels; they should be thirty-two palms long, and four palms at the mouth and one palm in the base, not wider nor larger because much water may go through one palm; although I would wish that the flume be narrower and deeper in the part where the water is discharged so that it may strike the blades more broadly. Yet the quantity of water should not be too deep, as if we were to say that the water should be not more than one and a half palms in width and half a palm in depth. In this way the water will have much more force than a palm square on all four sides. When these channels have a small quantity of water they should be placed more vertically than when they have a large quantity of water. Here I shall set clown a few types of channels in order that my ideas in this matter of the channels may be better understood; and this is to be understood of oak as of stone and of any other kind of nozzles or of channels, covered or open. These are different; here below are the variations according to the amount of water. allustratt'on 182) Illustration 182

Less Equal More

D

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Eleventh Book

These are the channels4 where the water has to descend ro strike the wheels because a certain amount of reflection should be used in erecting them. The ' channel in the square A B e D is less in its diagonal, from A to e, for there are twelve and from e to E no more than nine, since it does not reach the angle D, as it should for the proportion of the lines on the two sides to be equal; as can be understood from the numbers of each one of them. Its · perpendicular from the side of íts square, A to e and to the base of the square, e D, strikes the water atE; that is 3, from twelve to nine.

[!fol. 292r] The second channel whose square is F G H I, which square has its perpendicular, whích is twelve, that is from F to H, and from H to I has the same twelve at the base; so the diagonal of the square, which is F I, is the channel; and that channel has a greater quantity of water than the first had. Illustration 183

Mu eh More

The third channel or flume or nozzle whose square is K L M N, whose perpendicular is twelve and its base fifteen, that is M N; ( its base is three more than its mál height. Thís causes the diagonal of the parallelogram to hold much more water than the second. The fourth and last ~ 11. Q_ channel is the parallelogram square O P Q R, whose IS' ~ t8 '7 • ~ .. J J. 1'2. perpendicular is twelve and its base Q R is eighteen, so that its diagonal O R has a much greater quantity of water. The mili wíth thís type of channel will grind much more than any of the others. Here many more positions could be set clown, but in the end it would just be too lengthy to set clown any more. Here the perpendicular of the parallelogram (Illustratzón 183) square is twelve, and its base is eighteen, which is the longest and most level of these mili channels.

p

'3 o

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.

1

It is usual to make a pond for these channels; that is done to keep the water in the channels so that they have plenty. But they also make these ponds in order that with their weight above ü: they will make the water fall with greater fury through the channels and so these milis will grind somewhat more than they would otherwíse. These figures show the difference between the variety of channel mountingsI have set clown these four only, in order not to confuse the judgement and understanding of those who may read this material. I say then the square A B e D has a channel marked in it whích is not its diagonal from angle to angle of the square, but is less by a quarter, as can be seen. This channel, as it is more steeply inclined than its diagonal, therefore I say that the water would descend much heavíer through the line of this channel, than through any other line: that the more the line approaches the perpendicular to the centre of the world, the greater and heavíer any body becomes. 4 'these are the channels'. As elsewhere, instead of measurements in angles, he uses diagonals drawn across rectangles of varying base/side ratíos.

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So, the more it approaches this perpendicular, the heavier such a body is, and therefore I say that in the mili whose flume or channel falls vertically, that is, one whose water falls from A to B is much slower-5 than in any of the other three. Therefore where there is little water, the channels should be made very steeply inclined, so that the water which descends by them may produce a greater effect, as it is heavier, [/fol. 292v) and what it lacks through its lightness it makes up in gravity, and thus it grinds abundantly. I say that a weighty or heavy body in its descent shall be so much the weightier or heavier as its motion shall be heavier, that is as much as it shall go more directly to the centre of the world. That this matter may be understood and Illustration 184 A verified, let us suppose that A is a weighty or heavy body, and its descent is from A to B as we said above, which is the straightest line of all, through the centre of the world. I say that such a body is heavier at B than the same body would be at C, and will be lighter from Ato D, and lightest from Ato E. (lllustration 184) The more lines are made diagonal or hypotenusal, the lighter such a body would be, starting from A. So the further such a weighty or heavy body is removed B D Ji from the perpendicular, the lighter it will be, in as much as it becomes faster on these lines: and so it gets faster in its descent, the less acute is the angle and the briefer will such a body be in its descent in that line. So the less acute the angle the lighter will the: body be. This is to be understood by lightness, that it consumes less time in the passage or distance which it travels on that line E than on any of the others; do not understand by this that the body is diminished in the quantity of its weight which it possesses. It has the same weight at C as it has at B, and the same at D. But the body's becoming light is to be understood as a continua! gain in lightness or speed from one line to the other because it takes less time to pass through that distance or space. So that the more acute the angle such a body makes, the heavier it will be, and on the contrary, the more obtuse the angle, the lighter it will be as it travels its obligue course or line, and by so much the briefer as has been said. Por this reason any mill will grind much more if it has its channels extended as in the figure O P Q R, which is a square and a half in width, that is, more on this line than any of the others by reason of the great lightness and speed which the body produces in that place; hence all the other lines can be understood as far as concerns this subject.

e

If we wish to tackle this subject in another manner, we shall realise that what has been stated is a very great truth. Let us suppose two bodies which are equal in quantity [/fol. 293r] and of the same form and material. These two have free play in the same manner, but one body has a longer arm where it has free play than the other. These two bodies or weights are raised on high, and then released, so they 5

'is much slower' ... sic!- but this is justa slip for 'faster'. Following Aristotelian mechanics, again, with the same attempt to overcome the ambiguity in the Spanish word 'ligero', even introducing the geometry of the lever to make sense of it.

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Eleventh Book Illustration 185

F

can descend; I say that one will be weightier or heavier than the other; the body with the longer arm will have a greater impact than the other with the shorter one; and this may be A A demonstrated with this sam'e figure. e D The figures are; this weight e which has in the rniddle of its shaft B and at the end (lllustratt'on 185) of it A: and other body D has a very much the A longer arm which also has B in the rniddle and A at the end, and raising HA the two together on high, as in the two lines C and A, and letting the two descend in the same time, I say that D will be heavier in its descent than C. And the cause is the big circle whích the body D makes, since the body e makes a smaller circle, and for this reason has less force, although they be of the same weight and quantity. Hence it comes about that the more the line is extended, the more impact it has in striking with greater force than it would have if it were shorter or had a smaller circle, and its motion causes less resistance in the thing that it strikes. When it comes from high up, it makes a greater impact, so that the force of D is greater than that of e in its descent and in its motion. So this figure demonstrates what has been said in the other matter of the lines; although sorne may think that the one matter contradices the other, because in one place it was said that that body becomes lighter, and here it is stated that it is heavier in striking. I say that this is the truth, but it is to be considered that the greater the circle made by the body D the faster is its descent in travelling that distance F to H. It is very much faster than body e in its descent from E to G, so this body e takes more time than D does. It is then very clear and manifest that it ís lighter in its motion or movement, and heavier in striking. It is true that if it were a heavy body ít would not make its travel as fast as it did; and hence it is plain to see that the body D ís very much lighter in its descent than body C. For the same reason I say that the longer the nozzle of a mill shall be, the faster will the water be, and being faster, will strike with greater impact; then, that being so, these two things are needed in any mill for it to grind a large amount. Hence it comes about that it strikes with greater force on this line than on any other; which is what we want to demonstrate in this matter, in order to investigare and conclude this subject. D '

l t remains for us [!fol. 293v] to discuss sorne things which are very necessary, and even most important for this subject of milis; considering that in sorne parts they have given over making mills because of their having little water, and they do not think that a little water can make a mill go. I say that anywhere there is running water, a mili can be made to go with however little water, provided that the little water there is has enough head to remedy what it lacks in the quantity of water. So if but a teja of running water be found, a mill can be made which will grind six cayzes of corn a day. With this water two tankfuls can be made, day and night, which will take three hours to empty and will fill in twelve. Each one will grind a cayz, so that with two tankfuls six cayzes will be ground. If you know how to fit the penstock and the rest, it will be able to grind much more than what I have said, if you know how to fit the nozzle right and the many other [327]

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details in this matter of milis. The nozzle should have at least thirty palms of head, and the more head it has, the more it will grind. Two or three penstocks could be made, one after the other, and so with this invention the lack of water can be made up, provided that there is enough head so you can make these tanks. The higher these tanks are- although they may be very narrow, because the great weight of water is what does the grinding, yet in d1e tanks inventions should be used to make them produce a much greater effect. Where there is a modicum of running water, a penstock mili wili go so as to grind one cayz an hour while the water lasts in it, and with this quantity of water three tankfuls can be made between day and night, so asto grind twelve cayzes of corn within the twenty-four hours, because each tankful will grind four cayzes as it empties over three to four hours; and more than a cayz can be ground per hour while the water lasts in the penstock. The secret of the penstocks made of stone, is·that they are six palms in diameter: and thirty palms high at the least, if they can be made higher, that will be much better. A mili which has abundance of water, I mean a very great quantity of it: let the water in the milipond be fifteen palms or eighteen in depth. The nozzle will be five palms deep and two wide. This is to be understood of swirling milis; and if the millpond should rise to eight or nine palms above the nozzle in a swirl mili, it will grind one cayz an hour, and even more, and if there be ten palms of water above the nozzle ít will grind three cayzes an hour, and if there be fourteen to fúteen, it will grind four cayzes a hour, and if there be sixteen to eighteen, it will grind- if it is a swirl mili- five cayzes an hour. [!fol. 294r] A little water needs a great head and a great quantity of water a little head, and this rule is universal in every kind of mili. Whoever shall take note of this matter, here are set clown rules of the greatest irnportance for anyone who understands them. Where a great quantity of water is to be found, two milis can be fitted, having a large head one above the other. When an outlet is opened, the water from one penstock will enter the other, and so they will grind a large amount, as shall be demonstrated, in its place with the method of all kinds of milis, and their many varíations, as can be seen in the discussion of the subject. There is another kind of channel mill6 but it is very different from those described, in the placing of its channel. These channels fall straight clown toward the centre of the world, and are enclosed on all sides. Where the water begins to enter, they are four palms wide, and in the part where the water is discharged they are a palm and a half square in width and they are made of thick wood and apart from that bound in wood all round, because of the very great weight of the water in them. These flumes are not used in any other kind of wheel, save in the noria. This latter wheel goes li.ke cartwheels. In the form that follows the penstock (Illustration 186) or channel of wood is A, where the water enters, which is mounted firmly on a beam B. The frame M binds the channel tight. The wheel is D. Its axle, which is twelve palms in diameter, has twenty four paddles in the circumference. On the same axle there is another wheel with sorne wooden teeth, the wheel being E and the teeth F. The lantern Gis mounted on a pivot [!fol. 294v] which is fixed toa very thick long iron shaft H which goes up to the millstone I, passing through 6

'another kind of channel mili' ... the other type of vertical waterwheel, overshot, with a vertical pentrough.

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Eleventh Book Illustration 186

the middle of the millstone K. This type of channel grínds less than any other, although many believe that much more is ground with his kind of channel or flw11e. It is true that this channel attracts much more water than any other kind. This type of mili has a large wheellike the first channel mili set clown here. (Illustration 187) Thís ís to show where the flume is to be fixed, and also the wheel. The flume is A, the water is díscharged at B, and the water strikes from e to D, which is under the diagonal of the square, so that the water is collected by that eighth of the wheel from E to and is in contact with the paddles more or less according as the water reaches them. And let that be enough for the flume mili.

e

Another wheel is fixed to the axle at one end; which wheel is not as thick as the one which receives the water, it is half as big as the wheel with the paddles. This wheel has in the circumference sorne points, or teeth of holm-oak wood, which engage with a wooden lantern. This lantern is held .6.rm with an iron bar, which is inserted into the upper millstone, and so makes the millstone go. The wheel should be so adjusted, I mean the teeth with the lantern so that when the wheel has made one revolution, the lantern shall have made at least three revolutions; and if it be so adjusted that there are four, it will grind much more; and so if the lantern will make fíve revolutíons while the wheel makes one, it will grind much more than ít will by making only two; so that, to conclude, the more revolutions the lantern makes, the more the mili will grind, and that is a point it is very important to know. [329]

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Iliustration 187

The mili which uses milipond and penstock7; which will grind much more than undershot or flume milis do. These milis have a horizontal waterwhed and not a big wheel; it lies level and not upright. They grind much grain because of the great amount of water hdd by the milipond and the penstock, and therefore they are usually made in this manner; where there is little water, it accumulates in the penstock, and when it is full, [!fol. 295r] they open it, and the mili grinds while the water lasts.

Accordíng to the amount of water, so does it grind. Let it be stated what a penstock will grind and how long it takes for the penstock to fili up, and with what quantity of water, and how much they usually grind with each tankful. The penstocks are round stone vessds. Sorne of them are made as wide below at the base as above at the mouth, and they are made at least twenty palms in height and eight in diameter. Others are made wide at the mouth and narrow at the base, so that if it has twelve palms at the mouth, it is eight in the middle, and four at the base. There is another kínd of penstock, which is square, but becomes narrower toward the base, in such manner that it dies away into a point. The penstock should be very smooth in its motion. This one has one side which goes clown straight as far as the nozzle and the other three die away at that same place. There is another kínd of penstock which is round, and becomes narrower at the bottom in the manner of a funnd, which has to be very smooth on the inside; and this kind will grind much more, for an equal height and amount of water, than any other: except the square which is almost the same as this. Observe once more that penstocks for milis must be as high as possible, and as much depth must be allowed as width, because the water will have much greater force if it is compact than if dissipated, for the united virtue has the greater force. (Illustration 188) The penstock A is to be made of hewn stone, and is ten palms wide and twenty high. Its walls are each the fourth part of the hollow space of the 7

'the mili which uses millpond and penstock' ... this 'balsa y cubo' is the stone penstock or 'arubah' so prominent in the rest of the book, and then so common in eastern Spain.

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Eleventh Book Illustration 188

tank; that is enough for the construction made in the ground, asto the part to be made in the air, the walls should be a half of its width; they are E and the base is B. It should have a very good foundation by reason of its great weight, and the stones should be well jointed in every part of the tank so that the water does not escape; e is the nozzle and D is the outlet. The nozzle should be built as far clown as possible, and the base of the penstock should be made somewhat sloping like the nozzle. [/fol. 295v] This kind of penstock is one of the most common made.

This shape H is very different from the preceding. (lllustration 189) A Bis at the top and e D at the bottom of the square, so that the ciphers of the numbers on the top D as in the lower part show clearly how wide it is; with the lower part, two thirds less than the upper part. A line should be drawn from A to E, and from B to F on the other side, and these lines come out at number three and four at the bottom. This invention is much better than the preceding with regard to the penstock. Its height is ten, which is a fair proportion for the shape because it narrows so much toward the bottom. That is the only part to be left empty. Por an equal amount of water the mili which has a penstock of this shape will grind much more because the water is not stopped or checked on a base as wide as it is in the upper part. The reason is that, as there is a greater quantity of water in th e part A B than there is in the lower part, th.at weight of water up above keeps pushing the Itlustration 189 water below; so it weighs upon it 4 and strikes it, to make room as it tries to pass in that place; and as the space is much less than in the upper part it exerts all the force it can in order to pass; so the water must needs come out of the outlet with very great fury, to give room to what is coming after. (Illustration 190) The method of making the walls: if it be within the ground, they will be of the thickness of the place I, and if this penstock be made outside in the open air the wall should be as thick as G I and e E. This penstock H illustrated below, is the same as the one abo ve except e__, D - -!:-_;___ยก__---:::!---'--"''-that it has walls, and has the same

H ...

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Iliustration 190

lii

letters, and to this is added the nozzle K, which is to go on the base of the penstock, the lower line, and is to slope downward; and this is the second kind. The third kind of penstock [!fol. 296r] is as follows: (Illustratt'on 191) it Ă­s square, and the mouth or upper part is M N O P, and the lower part Q. This is a new kind which will drive a mill with very great speed, the waterwheel wili go, and the water wili have so much force, almost as if it were at the very bottom of the penstock, becaus~ all the water accumulates in that angle Q. Por any water exerts very great force on that which is under it. And as the water gets narrower, the more force it exerts to escape from that imprisonment in which it finds itself. Por this reason the mili grinds a very great deal.

You shall see such an invention of a penstock, although I have never seen one of this kind, but I think that in this form it would grind or go with very great speed, considering that the nozzles of milis are made wide where the water enters, and very narrow where it comes out, and a mili grinds much more if its nozzles are well made, so for the same reason this penstock will have the same effect. Moreover, I see that all the channels made for milis are made narrower where they discharge their water and much wider where they receive it; and their narrowing in that former part is so Illustration 191 that the water may exert much greater force upon the wheel or waterwheel; so the water which comes out of the tank on to the horizontal wheel shall do the same. (Illustration 192)

{/fol. 296v] I have set clown these three plans and elevations in perspective, in order that my conceptions should be better understood; and since the fourth wall of the tank is not inclined like the other three, for this reason I wanted to demonstrate it in a manner which should not be difficult to understand. In the last plan it may clearly be seen why no more is demonstrated of the three inclined walls. (Illustration 193) This one is somewhat variant, for the reason that the walls go [332]

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Illustration 192

z

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.....,_ ••T.

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[1 d }-

1-

1-,-...........,._

o

PP

I/lustration 193

clown straight for a space, as far as the micldle of the penstock, ancl from here on clown it has a batter like the one before. The tank A B C is rouncl, it has a batter from the beginning to the encl at D. It has plenty of space at the beginning, ancl then it gets narrower in such a way that when water reaches the miclclle of the penstock, it is so furious where it comes out at D that you can not imagine how great a fury it bears. In this way it clrives the horizontal wheel with such great speecl that it seems thought coulcl not be faster; ancl for that reason a mili will grincl a great cleal with a penstock like this. The penstock E F G is almost like the previous one, although it varíes in sorne ways, but not in everything, because the lower half is the same type, although from the micldle up the walls are straight, ancl only in this is there any variation in this type. It holcls a greater quantity of water than penstock A. (Illustration 194) I have then set clown [!fol. 297r] the diversity of the shapes of penstocks, now · I want to clemonstrate how with them two milis can be clriven at the same time with a single penstock, ancl both of them will grincl the same quantity of grain. [333]

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Illustration 194

A

D

H

Todo that there should be a great quanrity of water, because this is the muscle and the force of these artifices or machines. So to do that, the penstock should be made to have two nozzles in the base. Let them be very far apart, as much as possible, the one to be on one side of the penstock and the other on the other, not so much for the division of the water, as to fit in the millstones, so that they do not obstruct one another, and to leave sorne room between them to fit the flour bins. This is the one illustrated below, in plan and elevation. The plan of a penstock with two nozzles is A, and its circumference is B. The nozzles are and D. (Illustration 195) These are as far apart from one another as is the whole expanse of the circumference of the penstock on the outside in order to make the nozzles broader; they are placed at the two corners so as to be very far apart, to fit in the millstones.

e

The two horizontal wheels struck by the water of the two nozzles. The nozzle strikes wheel E and the nozzle D strikes F. These wheels go in opposite direcrions to one another, but they can also both be driven in the one direcrion; it matters very little whether they go one way or the other. The raised penstock is the elevarion, so that the plan corresponds to the elevation, and the elevation to the plan; this has been done so that you can the better understand the shapes of the subject we are discussing.

e

[!fol. 297v] In another manner two millstones can be driven with a single penstock, but in a different way from the invention for driving two millstones as demonstrated. The penstock should have sorne depth to it, and will have two nozzles, one five palms higher than the other, so that it will have one at the base and the other five palms or more higher up, according to the height of the [334]

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Illustration 195

penstock. Care should be taken not to put them in a straight line, because of the movement of the millstones. allustration 196) The method of fitting the nozzles is as follows, here a cutaway shows the centre, A and the rotundity, B. The first nozzle, C, is much higher than nozzle D. Its water strikes the horĂ­zontal wheel E, and this nozzle or waterwheel does not grind as much as wheel F, which grinds much more because of the great weight of the water, whose load bears downward so as to drive the waterwheel F at a greater speed, than does C in striking E. This is well verified: for every heavy thing descends, and every light thing goes up, so in this it may clearly be seen that the higher up a heavy or weighty thing comes from, the greater impact it will have, the greater the brevity with which it will descend, while that which descends a lesser distance has less impact and is slower in its descent, as everyday experience shows- all the more because all those who [335]

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lii

Illustration 196

treat of philosophy, specially in matters of mathematics, hold it so commonplace. Meanwhile, to prove things of thís type, no account has been made of the waterwheels, because it was only my intention to demonstrate the invention, and not to give proportions for the waterwheel with íts penstock, nor yet with the nozzle, only the method of fixing the nozzles and the waterwheels. A penstock can be made for a mili, {/fol. 298r] to grind three millstones, all three at the same time, and by a single nozzle8• This invention should have a great abundance of water to drive so many wheels, because without that it is worthless, however many artífices may be made, if there is no water for them. The plan of the penstock which with a single nozzle drives three waterwheels is as the figure demonstrates: A is the water in the penstock, B is the circumference of the penstock B, that ís the wall which surrounds it. C is its nozzle. atlustration 197) This is a single one, but there is a very great difference in the quantity of the grinding, for one of these wheels grinds much more than any of the others. This wheel E grinds much more than D or F; and the cause is that the nozzle H is more direct than the others G, l. These two grind in the same way, without missing a single detall of the other, but the nozzle H ordinarily grinds a quarter more than any of the others; and therefore I made the elevation in order that its form should 8

'by a single nozzle' ... but with three orífices.

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Illustration 197

Illustration 198

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be seen better. Alrhough they are three, rhey are no more than one alone because no more rhan one leaves rhe penstock, as the figure demonstrates. Since the other two at the side go in an obligue line, in that extension rhey lose much of their force, all the more as experience demonstrates to us that rhe former grinds much more rhan the others aforesaid- yet in true reality there is but a single nozzle.

[!fol. 298v] Two millstones can be driven with a single waterwheel, which is an invention very pretty and very beneficテュal. This invention requires considerable force of water to produce its effect, because a single wheel is to move so great a weight. This invention is of this fashion; all round the wheel are fixed teeth like those made for the wheels that move lantern gears. This wheel is fixed in the usual way, in front of its nozzle, and two lantern gears are fitted at the two sides, well proportioned to the teeth of the wheel which receives the impact of the water. The teeth are to go in the middle of the circumference, and the lanterns are mounted in very thick iron shafts, which engage with the millstones. That this may be the better understood; the horizontal wheel is A, its teeth are B, (lllustration 198) the lantern on the right is C and the millstones above are H I. The staves of the lantern are E. The lantern D has its staves where the teeth engage at F, and the millstones above, which it drives, are K L. The nozzle in the pit is M. With this invention two millstones may be driven by a single horizontal wheel. Three or four penstocks can be fitted in a row together, and all four grind together, provided there be such a quantity of water as may be sufficient to drive all four wheels. They are filled from a conduit which begins by entering the first, then the second, third and fourth, so they usually finish by filling all four. In these penstocks there is quite a difference in their grinding, one doing more than another, because the first one to fill always grinds much more than any of the others [/fol. 299r]. This is caused by the force of the water, which enters the first with greater vigour than the second; and the second grinds more than the third and fourth. The water causes this in two ways: firstly, the great vigour which it brings, the second, the diminution of the water, because the first receives more than the second, and the second more than the third, and the third more rhan the fourth. The conduit which fills these penstocks is A, and the wall 1/lustration 199

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that endoses them, B. atlustration 199) So penstock C is the first to be filled up through its orífice G and since it gets the whole impact of the water, it grinds the most. The second is D, filled through orífice H. This one does not grind as much as C. Penstock E is the third, filled at I. It does not grind as much as D. And F is filled at K. This one grinds less th an E . Their nozzles are L M N O. These penstocks are made in the manner of wells, except that they are filled with water by conduits, and also empty at the base. Each of them is filled through a square orífice two palms wide, and one and a half palms high. The nozzles of the penstocks, where they disch arge the water, are one palm wide because of the great abundan ce of water which they hold, and not more than two palms in height, b ut ordinarily each nozzle should be no more than half a palm wide, because the narrower the place through which the water comes out, the greater the force with which it does its duty, and the greater the ímpetus to move the wheel. I have seen a nozzle which was no wider than a playing-card and yet a fair-sized conduit of water passed through it, whereby it ground each hour more than a cayz. The way the water enters the tanks is very important, [!fol. 299v] because the same amount of water will grind much more one way than another: many think this matters little, and yet it is quite important. The water should enter the penstock in the middle, because if it enters in the middle, the water goes straight through to stri.ke the other end of the penstock, so that it does not have the space to eddy about inside, and as it does not form eddies, the water makes no stoppage in the penstock. But when ít enters at the side it foliows the curve Illustration 200

\

J turnrl!c.. •

Rynd

f.

F

Spindle

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of the penstock, and íf it follows the circumference, it can in no way avoid eddying about. When it does that, it is impossible for one eddy to avoid knocking against another, and so causing sorne stoppage in the water. Thereby it helps to produce sorne obstruction when the water strikes the wheel; and I thought I should not pass this over in silence. In the penstock A the water enters at the rniddle, and in penstock B it enters at the side. allustrattón 200) This is the way the horizontal wheel is fixed inside the pit, and how it has its rnillstones up above. A is the water in the penstock, the nozzle is C and the wall of the penstock B. [!fol. 300r] D is the pit, where the wheel is rnounted; the vault of the pit is E, the bench where the rnillstones are rnounted F, the bed or lower rnillstone G and the runner rnillstone H is fitted to the rynd, which is mounted upon that iron bar they call spindle, which is I. The axletree of the horizontal wheel is K, in which the spindle is inserted at the upper end, and at the lower end the wheel L with its blades is attached. This horizontal wheel has a thick iron band all round, three fingers wide: and a metal bearing half a palm high is placed under the axletree and this is rnounted u pon a piece of wood they call the sole-tree, which piece is fitted in such a way that when it is required to raise the rnillstone, so as to grind the grain thicker or finer, with this sole-tree the wheel is raised or lowered somewhat, in conforrnity with what is needed. At the side the rynd is illustrated, and the spindle and the axletree, the wheel being mounted at A. This is placed at the bottom, with its wedges, or quoins, so that it will be quite firrn. I have thought of an inventíon of a mili which will grind four rnillstones at the sarne time with a single penstock. There will have to be plenty of head to work this invention, because the rnillstones are to be very different frorn the inventions now rnade- províded that the space will allow it. If so rnany rnillstones are to be installed, the site needs to be vertical, because that will have a great head; and this invention is for where there is líttle water. The rnethod to be followed: let it be supposed that a spring rises high up on sorne mountain. This spring has a very small quantity of water and the need is great, because of the great labour of having to go so far to grind: to avoid the líke labour, the level should be taken on the highest part of such a mountain or hill, that it has so much fall or declínation. Let us suppose that this rnountain is one hundred and fifty palms in declínation, and here it is to be considered how many millstones could be installed with this head or height of the rnountain. Let us suppose that it is required to put in four rnillstones. Out of all this quantity of height, sorne has to be subtracted to make a penstock, which shall be fifty palms high; a hundred palms rernain, and we have to divide these hundred palms in four, which will come to twenty five each, for each mili. This penstock should be rnade of a new design, to produce much greater effect. It should be made in the fashion of a hopper, [!fol. 300v] where the corn is placed to be ground as the grain falls inside the rnillstone, and it does not matter whether they be rnade square rather than round. Then let this invention of a penstock be rnade properly- it will be found where I have demonstrated the varíety of their shapes: the one built with a base that comes to a point; for the better understanding of it, its delíneation or dimension shall be set down here. This penstock is to be twenty five palms from nozzle to where the water falls on the wheel, and to the pit. This water goes to strike the wheel; then, on leaving the wheel there is to be another nozzle twenty five palrns long, so, on leaving the first wheel, it then falls through the second [340]

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nozzle, and so on by stages, as far as the penstock without the water stopping at all.

In thís way we are going to suggest that the whole distance or head of water is as if ít were to pass through just one nozzle from one end to the other- except that tiny little space taken up by the water wheel, whích might be up to five palms each- but these spaces take nothing away from the head of water. With this invention, as many millstones can grind as can be fitted provided the place will allow many to be fítted; according to the head of water, as many as you wísh. But I would like to gíve a warning of one thing, that the fírst millstone will grind much more than any of the others; the water itself will cause that, since it has much greater force in the fírst nozzle than in any of the others, even though this invention is all one nozzle from one end to the other. The cause will be the great quantity of water in the penstock, which the rest of the nozzles do not have. The more this water continues on its course through this nozzle, the more its fury and force will dinúnish, compared to what it had in the beginning, when ít started to come out of the first nozzle. The cause of this is, that the further it is removed from the place where ít began to come out, the greater the angle it makes, and for that reason it continually acquires greater velocity, through that travel or distance or path, than it will have in any other mills. This may be clearly shown: any heavy object, the further it is removed from the beginning of its first movement, keeps travelling wíth greater speed. But I want to prove something it would be idle to prove, a thing so clear and well known among learned men, and a matter so well understood by any person of judgement. It is known very clearly that when two bodies fall which are of the same quality and the same weight and the same shape, the body of weight which falls from higher up makes a greater impact and takes less time to go through that travel or path than the other which falls from a lesser height.

[!fol. 301r] That may be verified, but what has been said seems to contradict what was said before, that the millstone nearest to the penstock will grind more than any of the others. That is so: but the reason is this; with a thing which falls from on high, the longer the fall in which it does not meet with anything on its passage to interrupt its motion, the greater the force it will acquire. And here on the contrary, the longer the path, the less force it acquires because of the interruption whích the water makes to this path, for it breaks its natural motionwhich is to keep descending- into so many parts. And it strikes against so many wheels on its path, that it must needs make sorne stoppage, since it strikes in so many places, asto brake its motion in its descent toward the centre of the world. Now I said that such a body would be lighter in the last part of its path than in the beginning, and that is so, because if it were not, what descends through less space, would make less impact. It follows that the water strikes the last wheel with less force than it does on the first millstone by reason of the very great force it makes as ít comes out of the first nozzle, and for this reason the first will grind much more than the last, because it has become much heavier and much slower for the reasons stated. There is another reason whích demonstrates it very clearly: the weight of the water in the penstock is the principal cause of this force, since, after the water carne away from the first wheel, it contained nothing that would cause such great violence as thís water had at the time it carne out of the first nozzle; but that great quantity of water in the penstock above the nozzle caused this great force. That will be seen very manifesdy when a great part of the water in the penstock has emptied, for the millstone [341]

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will rhen grind much less than in the beginning, when the penstock was full of water; thereby the cause of its grinding more is confirmed from this reason of the time, which no other will have, while: it holds much water within it. The way to construct this building9 and place the millstones and horizontal wheels: the invention is set down below, illustrated in a sketch. The penstock for this purpose is A and the thickness of the walls B. It should be fifty palms deep, and if it be round, let it be twelve palms in diameter, and if it be square, let it be fifteen palms wide, and let it be a perfect square; [!fol. 301v] (Illustratíon 201) with a batter on three sides, so that the wall where the nozzle is to go, should be vertical and is to be the half the penstock's width in thickness; its nozzle is to be twenty five palms long by the diagonal. The horizontal wheel is D, its millstone,

e

Illustration 201

E. F ís the floor of the mili, and G the wall of the nozzle of wheel I, and its millstone H. On the wall a ladder should be made, to go down into the pit to repair the wheel and for other things needed. K is the nozzle of the wheel M, and its millstone L, so that all the walls have their nozzles, that is N to wheel P and the millstone O, so that it might be suggested that from the tank to the last 9 'the way to construct this building' ... curiously reminiscent of such flights of milis as the famous late Reman structure at Barbegal. On 302v is a geometrical idealisaúon of the series of milis. The author understands that much of the energy will be lost to the flow of water, in driving the milis.

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wheel is as if one nozzle. All these nozzles are to be somewhat less than half a palm wide and one high, because the smaller they are the more force the water will have as it strikes the wheel. Certainly thls is one of the prettiest inventions that could be thought of, for a place of little water. These milis would be much better of the swirl-back or pit kind, although thls kind of mili will grind much grain, while the water lasts, because it is ground by penstock units much more in this kind of mili than with any other arrangement. When the water has accumulated in the penstock, it will take four h'ours to empty, or more, according to the size of the penstock, and in that time a millstone will grind on average a cayz or more but the first millstone will grind two cayzes an hour, if made swirl-back. The other millstones will grind on average a cayz. The last millstone will not grind a cayz because the water has less force by then. Filling the penstock will take eight to ten or twelve hours, so that there will not be more than two penstocksful a day, which will not be too litde to grind twenty cayzes a day, or even twenty four or more. When two thlrds of the water has emptied from the penstock, [!fol. 302r] it will not grind as much as it did when it held those two thirds; it will grind so much the less form here on by Illustration 202 reason of the small amount of water there will be in the penstock. And that is enough of that subject. This invention beside being of J great benefit, it not very expensive, because there is in it only the one penstock; therefore it does not D present any great costs, and all the nozzles serve as penstocks since they are very wide at the F mouth, and very narrow at the outlet. Because they have a greater content of water, that is, because they have much water within them, it is to be no more than one palm bottom the nozzle will grind much more. At the high, and a half wide; and at the beginning of the nozzle, it will be from four to five palrns wide. The outlets should be closed until the nozzles are seen to be full of water, for after allustration 202) they are once full, they will always stay full although the water keeps running out. A is the first nozzle, B is where the cistern should be. The second is C and its waterwheel D: the third is E, and the waterwheel F. The fourth is G, and the waterwheel H. This has not been set down according to its measurements because it is the smallest form in which due measure can be kept. So the two thirds of the tank under the line where the water is to descend, which should be a diagonalline, such as to divide a square into two equal parts at the angles, because everything vertical has much more force than in any other hypotenusalline, as may be verified by questions of mathematics; so the water, lacking force, lacks also that violence on the waterwheel, which was the principal cause of its grinding much grain- so when the water comes to be two thirds empty it does not grind nearly as much as it did before it reached that diminution of the water. From this it [34.3 ]

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can be inferred that the same will happen with the other milistones, although their grinding but litde will not be so markedly noticeable as in the first milistone. Let us now discuss another kind of mili, called a half -swirl- mili, which takes half the water necessary to drive a swirl mili. This will usually have its nozzle one and a half palms high at the bottom. So the half -swirl- back mili has to have a nozzle of only three quarters of a palm, [!fol. 302v) where the water ís discharged. The nozzle ís twenty four minutes, for the half of twenty four is twelve, which is to be the height of the nozzle of the half-swírl mili. At the sides of the Iliustration 203 half-swirl-back shroud, like the whole swirl-back, two hales should be made, square or round, to fit a sole-tree. These are put there in arder to raise or lower the milistones, so as to make the flour fine or coarse. The shroud is made of stone, round, four palms wide, and six to eight high; the higher it ís, the better, so that the water may not leap over at the top; (lllustration 203) and it is mounted upon four squared stones. The empty space within the tank is A. Its thickness B, the stones are C and the waterwheel goes in the middle with five to six blades, D; E is where the water descends to meet the waterwheel. G is where the water enters the shroud and strikes the blades. H H are the hales at the side of the shroud, to fit the sole-tree. So much for the shroud. The axletree which carries the waterwheel goes through the centre of it and is placed on a metal socket and thereby has play above, as will be seen from the previous material. The shroud, whether of half swirl or of whole swirl should be very round and very smooth inside so as not to have any mark or thíng cut in ít for that would partly interrupt the movement of the water and thus this shroud would not grind so much. It should be square on the outsíde, and of stone whích is good for water. A thick beam should cross over in front of the nozzles, which should pass through the míddle, whích beam holds the metal socket where the gudgeon of the waterwheel is made firm. And this beam should project more than two palms on each side at H H , which is to be in the same straight line. When the waterwheel of the swirl-back or half-swirl-back mili is to be put in, it should be placed in the axletree from below upwards, on its gudgeon. When the waterwheel is to be placed for the pit mili, it should be placed from above downwards, and in this there ís a difference between these two kinds of waterwheels. When the nozzle is ordinarily full of water, [/ol303r) there should be a square or round hale in the space between the outlet and the shroud, so that the air may breathe. H thís hale were not there, that would help to burst the shroud and everything else in that part, through the aír being so vehement that the whole channel from the outlet to the shroud would be entirely destroyed, because of the great narrowness where the water passes: that causes so much air to come together, that if it had not [344]

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Eleventh Book somewhere to breathe ít would burst through that part of the rnill. When a shroud ís high at the sides, then the water does not leave the grincling. The water will be seen to stand in the aír, around the shroud, wíthout touching the gudgeon or the shaft. This standing of the water in the aír ís caused by the very great velocíty of the motion of the waterwheel, which does not allow the water to come clown and touch the gudgeon. The lid placed u pon the shroud ís put there because the water flows with such great fury that it may rise up and escape over the shroud, and if it does escape over the top, it will not grind as much as when it has the lid on top. So ít should be of such a kind that the water cannot rise up. It could happen that a mili will be set up in such a place that the millstones can not be carried there10 because of the ruggedness of the site, or because no bed of stone may be foun d from which whole millstones can be cut properly, or because of the bad route there. The millstones should then be brought in pieces, and should be made in five pieces so that they can be carried, or at least in four pieces; and with this inventíon I think that they can serve as well as if they were of a whole piece. It is true that they are never so firm as one piece; and that is remedied by p·u tting an iron band on them, which is to be four fingers wide; or with two bands joined together. Illustration 204

D

The way these pieces are to be joined. The millstone is A, that is the middle piece. The other pieces which ít carries round are B e D E. These píeces are to revolve (lllustratt.on 204) to the left in order to grind; and ít has much more force in this way, [!fol. 303v] for the píeces are much more secure than they would be if the points were in the front- because then there would be a danger of their getting broken, but being in this form, each one of them rests agaínst two pieces, except the míddle one A. So, the point of B rests against it, and the middle on A, and e along the square; and the others are held firm in the same way. The millstone D whích is made in the fashion of a triangle- the top píece ís A and the left-hand one B. The third ís C. This millstone has less píeces than A, which has five píeces; thís millstone D has n~ more than four píeces. eertaínly I would advíse the pieces be made to carry millstone A, LO 'in such a place that the millstones can not be carried there' ... a section dealing with the manufacture of millstones.

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Iltustration 205

D

C

because it is so much more secure with so many pieces, than is D which is an equilateral triangle; for since this triangle has such acute angles, they are in great danger of getting broken, · more easily than in millstone A, which is square and has much greater strength than D. The bands of these m.illstones should be thick, because of the great labour that it undergoes as it revolves, and the very great force that the millstones exert upon one another.

It may happen that a milistone has been badly dressed so that when it grinds, whole grains will come out unground amid the flour. It should be remedied with this invention, especially when the millstone is dressed for a swirl-back mili or half-swirl mill, for with these the dressings are done in furrows one finger deep, with a space of two fingers or more between furrows. T o remedy this fault another groove is cut, as may be seen in the figure. If this dressing were like those made in the millstones of channel or pit milis, that is no deeper than the back of a knife, it would be easily remedied. But who is going to leave two fingers' depth over the whole millstone, and then have Ít to dress another time- and so many channels all of the same depth? allustration 205) The millstone which had not been dressed well was from A to e and from e to B. So in order to remedy it, another dressing should be made, as from Ato D, and from D to B. But it will not be dressed as wide or as deep as the furrow E; and with this invention this fault in the millstone will be remedied. :B

[!fol. 304r] To know if a penstock is leaking11 : it should be filled up with water, and a large piece of bark put inside. The piece of bark will go to the part where it is leaking. Only, the water in the penstock needs to discharge by stages until the place is seen very clearly, because the bark will appear to move round all the time until the water has gone clown from the place if there is a fault in the side; or if it were in the base, the bark will always stand in the direction of the place where the water is leaking. It could happen that water is found when digging to make the foundations of a penstock. So we want to remedy this, we want to raise the water, that is impossible, then we want to lower it but there is no room, because where that little was found, much more would be found- there is no remedy. eare should be taken to collect it in the middle of the foundations, I mean in the middle of the space in the centre of the foundations. To raise the walls of the penstock it will be necessary to leave a vent-hole in one side of the walls, in such a way that it can be closed precisely with a single ashlar, so that just by cementing in it may be sufficient to close this hole. But care should be taken that an ashlar can be placed in the interior of the penstock, as it will have to be adjusted and fixed. 11 this section deals with other problems such as leakage, which lead him on to the best setting for the nozzle; again the original comparison is demonstrated geometrically in diagrammatic form (306v).

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Eleventh Book But I think it will be necessary to use another invention if there be much water路 let a hole be left large enough for all the water to escape by it, and in this same' work on the wall a recess should be made on the inside, dovetailed so that a beam can be placed over the upper part of the penstock, which could close the hole where the water had an outlet. I see well that someone could contradict me by saying that in the penstock a nozzle has to be made, for to what purpose was it necessary to make the nozzle- what need is there of another hole? 1 say that is very true, but in order to be able to site the nozzle properly, [!fol. 304v] as it should be done much better than any other part, the water should be diverted by another way, because the whole force of the penstock lies in the nozzle being fixed well, much more than anywhere else, since the water exerts much greater force there than elsewhere and since all the water travels to that part; and for that reason this hole is made elsewhere. It could happen when working a mili penstock, that after the whole depth had been constructed, sorne water was seeping through the base; and so the work could not possibly be either firm or secure and the water inside the penstock would constantly be lost there. This remedy should be used: when this annoyance is found, then after the foundations of the walls have been laid, laya grout of lime and fine sand- I mean that the grains of sand should be no bigger than nutsand after this grout has been laid it should be pounded with a beetle like the one used by street pavers, who after they have laid a paving, pound it to seat the stones evenly. That is the way this grout is to be pounded. After this has been done, another floor should be made of grit with lime, and pounded very evenly like the grout was made. After having laid this floor, another floor should be made of powdered clay, laid very evenly, and then pounded, like adobe walls are made. This clay is what is used in fulling-mills to cleanse the cloth, and it is to be made of an even consistency. The first layer of the grout should be one anda half palms thick, the layer of grit should be two palms thick, and the layer of fuller 's earth should be three palms' high. And if it is very well stamped, this earth wi11 be as smooth as either of the two layers made of lime. The higher the shrouds of swirl-back mills are at the sides, the better they will be, [/fol. 305r] because if they are high, the water can not reach the lid, and when it does not reach it, there is no interruption or stoppage in the water or the waterwheel, nor can the water escape over the top. lt should be placed on top of the shroud, and braced in such a way that the water can not touch it, and in case it does touch it, can not shift it at every moment. (lllustration 206) Since this annoyance exists the way this tank should be covered should be demonstrated. A is the shaft of the waterwheel, and the cover or lid is B, which is in two pieces, although there are no braces in it to hold it firm. Under the shroud is C which is round, although it would be much better and firmer if it were square, because there is much more stone in those comers, for there is nothing of this strength in the round penstock, where it is mounted upon four stones D D D D, and the beam where the socket is fixed, on wh铆ch the waterwheel goes- which beam they call the sole-tree, because when they want to lower or raise the millstone they lower or lift it a little, and this is called the tenter. So, bar F has at the end an iron hook, and also has a point to lower or lift it with this hook, and in this way they adjust the millstone. I think that it should be demonstrated how this waterwheel sits in the shroud and how the water enters, although in the plan I have demonstrated the waterwheel and the nozzle through which the water enters the shroud B. [347]

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Illustration 206

{/fol. 305v] It is square: and its circuit is to be four palms in diameter, and six, or at least five high, and the nozzle C is where the water enters. This nozzle is two palms from the mouth of the shroud. It is not to be in the middle of the shroud, but to one side in order to strike the waterwheel. The demonstration of this will be given below. The waterwheel of the shroud can not be shown because I have to display the way the shroud should líe.

In fixing the nozzle, of pit as of swirl-back milis, great care needs to be taken that water strikes the waterwheel normally, and it should come downwards from above, because it is better when the water does not come in a straight line; because then it does not strike the waterwheel with any force- since all the water goes away, it is converted into air. When it falls from above, I mean diagonally, it strikes with great force because it catches the paddles fully on, so none of the water, which comes obliquely like this, is lost at all, all of it reaches the paddles of the waterwheel, which then revolves with greater force than when the water comes in a straight line. This water strikes the edge of the waterwheel paddle in such a manner that it tries to push it backwards. Also if it does strike on the edge of the waterwheel, it goes upwards, and falls again, and interrupts the movement of the waterwheel; and for these reasons, it is much more convenient and natural, that it should descend from above. Do not suppose that the water is to fall clown from above vertically, as if it fell perpendicularly from a tower, that is not my meaning, because then it would be trying to sink the waterwheel into the ground rather than driving it round. So a demonstrating of the difference between these lines should be made. The water which comes out of the nozzle is A; it is going to srike the waterwheel B, (lllustratz"on 207) and it strikes the blade C. This water goes so horizontally that it must needs touch the edge of the waterwheel E first, before ít strikes the blade C. [348]

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Eleventh Book ~ence ít ís plain to see that_ the opíníon of many men ín thís trade of making milis

1s contrary to all the reasorung of good geometry, [/fol. 306r] and also agaínst all the opíníons of philosophy. Illustration 207

There is more to it- although this waterwheel would consume much more water it would grind much less than waterwheel G , and thís ís shown clearly by the lines, and by many reasons, that are drawn through it in various places. The nozzle, or rather the water which comes out of the nozzle, should strike the waterwheel obliquely, at I, for it has much greater force at I than has the water which comes out of nozzle A to strike blade C, because it necessarily touches the edge of its waterwheel B, at E. (Illustration 208) This ís a thing so contrary to reason- because it should necessarily be fitted in such a way that it does not touch at all, for if it touches, it will never go well, nor with that speed it should have in its revolution, because the blades are inclined in such a manner that the water will rise upwards sooner than strike the blade C firmly, as it would if the blade should líe with its straight side vertical, as it does on the back where there is the hale for the water to fall. (Illustration 209) Illustration 208

These three different sorts of nozzles, although the two prevíous enes are for the pit-mill and even the flume-mill but can also be used for the shroud-mill. But nozzle A is not worth anything in striking the waterwheel- only to know the difference of it, to recognise the truth- so the nozzle F is much better than A and nozzle L is much better than F, for the reason that it strikes more directly [349]

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Itlurtration 209

\ ~

into the curve of the blade N. lt avoids the edge of the waterwheel M at P wonderlully: and this waterwheel M stands fi.nnly upon R, [1/oL 306v] which is the socket where that pivot of the axletree O has free play, and the penstock is Q. I have set this down in order to show how this waterwheel stands in the tank and how the waterwheel fits the shroud exactly; so thĂ­s nozzle is the best, and strikes the blade N with greater force than any of the others. (Illustration 210) But to show the effect of the water striking the waterwheels more clearly, whatever kind of mili they may be for this invention should be used; so that the nozzle S strikes the blade T in the rniddle; thereby the water can not leap up before it slides off by the part Z: and that will cause it to turn very much quicker. The nozFe X strikes the blade 3. This water strikes the edge of the blade in such a way that instead of being useful it does harrn, because the water leaps up and does not turn part 3. The water which comes out of the nozzle C, strikes the blade G, but much lower down, so that the water turns towards the 4, and so makes the waterwheel turn more easily. That is enough of this subject of nozzles and of water, although part of this material has been set down in the chapter on the difference in the lines of nozzles, but the effect of them was not there demonstrated as has been done here, with these waterwheels. Illurtration 21 0

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Eleventh Book I think that befare carrying on with this material on milis, we should discuss their names, so that it may be known what kind of mili we are discussing, and what names they have. l. The first kind of mili is the beast mili, driven by an animal, which many are accustomed to call muscle mili: and this kind of mili grinds much less than any other. This type can be installed anywhere it may be requíred to set up these milis- they are usually made in fortresses, more than anywhere else.

[!fol. 307r] 2. Another kind of muscle mili, carríed by aman. This too has very little ingenuity, and grinds very litde, even less than the beast mili. 3. Another kind of mili, which turns with the wind, and is very different in many points from other milis, for that reason. 4. Another kind of mili, which is driven as clocks are, with counterweights, and these milis grind more, but they are tiresome because they are frequendy out of arder.

5. Another kind of mili, which is called vertical or channel-mili, and this is a very ordinary and common kind of mili, more than any other. 6. Another kind of mili which is called flume mill, which has a covered channel and a waterwheel which líes flat, like that of bowlmakers or potters. 7. Another kind of mili which they call pond and penstock mili which has a pond, and a penstock after the pond. 8. Another kind of mili which they call pond mili, which has just the pond. 9. Another kind of mili which they call flume mili, which has a pond and the flume which falls vertically- which is a channel of wood- and it has a wheel like the channel mili. 10. Another fashion of mili which they call transfer mili, which has a pond and after the pond has a counter-pond and a horizontal wheel. 11. Another kind of mili which has been called half swirl-back and has a pond and shroud. 12. Another species of mili, which they call swirl-back mili, which has a pond and shroud. 13. A.nother type of mili on barges, of three kinds. 14. A mili which within a pond of stili water goes by itself. 15. A mili, which grinds while a cart goes; and this is for when an army is on the march; when it stops the mili does not grind.

[!fol. 307v] Here I have made a list of all the kinds of milis that have cometo my notice, and certainly I believe that if there be sorne mili different from those set clown here, whatever they are there must be very few of them. Although all are milis, yet each one of them has different things to move it or drive it, for each one has its peculiarities, different from the others. Certainly it is true that my intention was not to have so many types of milis but I was carried away by [351]

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the desire to benefit those who do not know, and so I was led on to pass the limits of my intention, because my intention had been to discuss not more than five or six kinds of milis, the most usual ones, but then I overstepped the order in the one, and we might as well do so in the other, specially in knowing how to take advamage when with the same thing great improvements can be made- I mean that with the same penstock two or three millstones can be driven, as the method can be seen in the discussion of the work. The improvement of the penstock is when there is a good quantity of water, enough for it to drive two milistones together; and this can be done in various ways. A penstock which is made in the manner of a hopper12 as they are usually called when the corn is placed inside, to fall into the millstone; it will grind much more than any other kind of penstock mili. A penstock which is very high, even though not very wide, will grind much more than any other of the same construction, with an equal amount of water: it is to be understood here, that we are taking a penstock wider than the one of which we have been speaking, but not so deep; and it shall draw the same quantity of water in both cases. Then the higher one will grind much more although it may not be very wide; and the mili wlúch is very wide and not very deep will not grind so much. A mili with a penstock with two nozzles will grind more than another with one only, having the same amount of water in both cases. This may seem to be impossible, but anyone who is a good philosopher in mathematics will indeed confess that what I have said is the truth. So one mill will grind more than another, with the same quantity of water in both cases, and that without the intervention of any artífice in the one more than the other, [!fol. 308r] for the water itself will be the cause, one water will have more spirit than the other, for the reason that one comes from mountains, and this comes very swiftly, and the other comes very gently, so it seems like still water; or else, the one has more head than the other, and for these two reasons one will grind more than the other. A mili will also grind more than another with the same quantity of water, through being in a different position- they will differ not in form, but in artífice, the one being better fitted than the other. (lllustration 211) The differences between milis have now been set clown, and that in words. Now we should set clown equally the forms of each one. This is a beast or muscle mili U, as the common people call it, which is driven by an animal. A is the shaft of the wheel B which has its teeth C, which turn the lantern D: whose axle is E, which holds the wheel F, and its gear-teeth are G which move the lantern; its shaft of iron is I, which moves the t:nillstone Q [1/ol. 308v] upon the millstone P; these 12 'a penstock which is made in the manner of a hopper' ... thís passage (to the míddle of 308v) seems to be a resumé of the account of differenr rypes of «cubo» given 295r- 298r. Three different terms are given for hopper in the opening sentence: «taona», «gruen~a» and <<tolva>>. lJ 'this is a beast or musde mili', type 1 in the list-a «taona» in the sense of a mili powered by flesh and blood, that is by musde. A very common type differing only in the species of draught animal used, but found everywhere that adequate sources of water were unavailable. Lobato shows three built between 1547-1557 which vary slightly from che «tal1ona comun» (Lobato, p. 85). Occasionally such milis have large overhead spur-wheels engaging directly with the lantern of the main shaft; possibly tlús is intended by the spur-whccl and lantern inset at lower Ieft, whose axle, like the main one in the drawing, is letterkeyed A.

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Illustration 211

are on the bench O. S is the hopper, its shoe V and the crookstring, T. The clapper is X. The axle E is firmly mounted at K, and the shaft of the millstone is firmly mounted at L. M is the animal which moves the shaft of the big wheel. N is the wooden bar which turns as the animal pulls. And that is a muscle mili. (Illustration 212) This vessel also serves for grinding, instead of a mili, to grind like this, by hand. The vessel is A which rises as the lower rnillstone B. The hole is where what is ground comes out. The upper millstone is D and its hole where the grain falls, E; and the handle F drives it round by hand. The hand-mill, which men drive14 , at least two but sometimes one. This kind of mili grinds very little. The runner millstone is A, the hopper B. The crookstring C, the shoe D. The clapper or damsel is E. F is the box to collect the flour, [!fol. 309r] Gis the frame upon which the millstones are mounted. I is the iron 14 'the hand-mill which men drive' ... type 2. Unlike the treadmill depicted by Lobato, this device resembles more one in Ramelli 148, appearing earlier in Franceso di Giorgio; such devices were recommended for use in fortresses. The lead ball is to serve as a flywheel.

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Illustration 212

bar which turns the millstones, and N a ball on the crankshaft H. It is of lead so that it may turn more easily. K is the iron bar which drives the handle which they call a crank. The men who drive the mili are L and the rynd on the iron crank is M. (Illustration 213) This invention of a mili is by wind 15 : that is, this manner of mili is driven by the wind; these milis are not used in Spain nor yet in Italy because the winds are not regular, and moreover, when the winds that prevail in those regions do blow, they are most furious. But these milis are used in Flanders, in Germany and in France, because those regions have very kindly winds, not furious, but very '' 'another kind, which tums with the wind' ... type 3. The text implies that windmills were unknown in Spain. Lobato however shows three (Lobato, pp. 75 -70): a postmili, as used 'in Spain and Flanders' and two tower milis, one ÂŤinvented in FlandersÂť, the other erected at Almagro in 1556 by 'Gas par Rotrilo, German'. Although the author seems to have known of windmilis only by hearsay or from sorne brief written account, which accounts for the peculiar set of those funny little sails, wind power had already made its entry into Spain, even if at first perhaps through the work of northem engineers. This does raise the question whether the famous milis which knocked poor Don Quixote over were indeed symbols of the everyday. Or were they

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Illustration 213

moderate. For these reasons they can not be maintained here because of the very great fury of the wind, which would carry it off so that all would be broken. For this kind of mili is driven by the air in such a manner that the sails are their penstock and the air their water. The sails are A, mounted on a very thick and very long shaft B, which passes from one side of the cabin in which it is fixed to the other. The wheel with its gear-teeth is C, and the teeth D; and they turn a lantern whose shaft is E. F is the lantern which moves a wheel G which has all round gear-teeth H. And the teeth move lantern I, whose shaft K moves the millstone L. M is the hopper, N the shoe, O the crookstring. The chest to collect the flour is P, with the scoop Q. These milis are made in such a way that they can be turned round to catch the wind, so they are fixed on two bases; [!fol. 309v] and on the very top of the roof stands a kind of bed canopy16â&#x20AC;˘ (Illustration 214) The mili which goes with a counterweight17 , like a dock; but the wheels should be made much larger because of the exertions they make, as they go with such great fury and such speed. Very large counterweights should be fitted for it to grind; and since this mili is more a matter for clockmakers than rather something novel, advance guard of the modern world, a machine that dwarfed and dominated its human makers, wbo served it as the humans serve their cranes and hoists in Brueghel's Tower of Babel? l6 'a kind of bed canopy' ... probably intends a conical covering drawn up toa point like a pavilion of the day- or like the conical roofs of Lobaro's windmills- rather than the curved caps of most later tower milis, but it is not illustrated. 17 'the mili which goes with a counterweight' .. . type 4, probably never more than a fanciful notion; none have survived and none are shown in Lobato. But there are two in Ramelli (130-1) and others in Su¡ada's collection. This device belongs rather to the imaginative side of the Italian tradition in technology rather than to the practical world of the watermill.

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I//ustration 214

Illustration 215

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Eleventh Book architecture, it will ?e enough to note that, although the millstones are not marked, they are to be mounted upon O , that the lantern M moves the millstone, and the wheel L moves this lantem M. L has its teeth around its circumference, and is moved by the lantem K, which is driven by the wheel I, driven in turn by the lantern H [!fol. 310r] which is driven by the wheel E which has another smaller wheel marked F. G is to stop the mili and the wheel e serves to brake the cord of the counterweight, and another counterweight has to go on the wheel B, such that these four wheels are all mounted in the one axle. And let that be enough for the counterweight mili. (Illustration 215) The mili which is mounted on a cart 18 the mili grinds as it goes, by reason of the motion of the wheels. This mili invention is only used so that an anny, which takes it along while en route or on the march, may have flour to maintain its supply of food. So A is the shaft of the cart, and the two wheels B B: and in the nave of one wheel are placed some wooden teeth C. They turn the lantern D. In the same axle as this lantern is a large wheel E. It has some teeth along the side, which move a lantem F, whose axle is inserted into the milistone G : and it has its hopper on top and the flour box at l. With this invention you can grind, although it does grind very Iittle, it will do five sacks of grain, but the animals should be changed because of the weight of the work they are bearing; and also while sorne eat, the others go, and that way they will grind conveniently. [!fol. 310v] The undershot vertical mill 19, although it was dealt with elsewhere in detall, I think it good to deal with it in general, so I have here set clown the invention. The channel is A- although the quality and the way they are to be fixed have been set clown. B is the wheel, e is where the gudgeon is fixed. The axle of the paddle-wheel has another wheel with teeth along the circumference of the wheel, which turns the lantern F. This turns the milistone G. H is the hopper, G the flour box. K is the board by which the water is regulated and L is the pole with which they lower or lift it. Sometimes they make a milipond before the channel in these milis, although usually they do not, only the conduit and channel near where the water enters the channel. (lllustration 216) [!fol. 311r] A is the pond; but this is two leaves further back. (Illustration 217)

This invention or plan does not belong2° in this place, it is a swirl-back mili, which is two leaves further back. This kind of mili may be either pit-mili or channel-mili, open or closed. Since this type has very little ingenuity- no more than just the channel and the millwheel and the millstones, neither gear-wheels nor even lantems are involved in it. So here is the plan and the elevation, and as there is so little skill in it, I have not troubled to set clown either the hoppers or the other minar details, which have no importance; and so I think it best to let this be enough as regards these two types of mili. 18 'the mili ... mounted on a cart' ... type 15, out of order. Another !tallan notion. Similar devices were used by the Spanish army in the Netherlands, and Zonca (berween pp. 88-9) depicts one designed by the Roman engineer Pompeo Targone in 1606. This one is more ambitious, since the teeth on the axle mesh with a lantern so as to grind while the mili is being hauled along, on the march. 19 ' the undershot, vertical mili' ... type 5, which indeed already appeared in the general discussion (283v). 20 'this invention or plan does not belong' ... in fact it seems to relate to the mill on 313.-314, two pages further on. 'this kind of mili' ... perhaps intended to correspond to type 6; a baste horizontal wheel mili, and so not iliustrated.

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Illustration 21 6

The plan is: the channels are ABe D, the waterwheels are E F G H . And that is that for the plan. Two go on one side and two on the other, [!fol. 311v] although they could all go on the one side. The elevation: the millstones are I K L. The waterwheels are M N O. They all go in their vaults, as the plan demonstrates. Each of the waterwheels has its sole-tree and its pivot; and lĂ­kewise each channel has its sluice to stop the water getting into it. Besides, each waterwheel has its deflector to keep the water away from the waterwheel so that even though it may come down the channel, it will not strike the wheel. And let that be enough for these two types of mill, flume as well as pit and beast-mill. The pond and penstock mill21 . This kind of mili grinds much more than the previous one. In this mili the water in the penstock has great force because of the pond, which normally keeps the penstocks full. This mili bears very little ingenuity, because it has a horizontal wheel. A is the pond and B the penstock. is the waterwheel and D the millstone. E is the hopper, where the wheat is placed, F is the little shoe through which the wheat falls into the millstone, and

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'the pond and penstock mili' ... type 7. The eastern penstock or arubah reappears.

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Itlustration 217

A

B

G

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Illustration 218

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G the crookstring. H the flourbox, the nozzle, l. In this type of mili there is no invention bcyond addíng the pond. (Illustration 218)

[!fol. 312r] Tbis kind of mili with a pond is an invention of the ancients 22 , not the ancient Romans, for in comparison with the ancients it is modem, but in comparison with the moderns, it is ancient. lt is made as you wish: they grind little in comparison with the modem ones, so even in the case that the pond holds plenty of water they grind very little. The pond should ordinarily be at least eight palms deep in arder to grind a large amount. So A is the pond and B the leat supplying the water. The two inlets are C D , because there have to be two in arder that when the millstone is being dressed or something else is being repaired, the mili should not stop. The waterwheel is E. Gis the hopper, H the crookstring, to make the grain fall into the milistone either very fast or spaced out, and the shoe guides the grain into the milistone. 1 is the flourbox, where the ground flour is collected. And that is that, for this kind of mili. (Illustration 219) Iilustration 219

The mili which they call transfer-mili23 is an invention very different from every other type because it has a pond anda counterpond. [!fol. 312v] Very few mills are to be found of this construction. l t is called transfer because it attracts so much water and as it transfers so much water, that is why it is known by that name. This is a very new invention quite different from the others, so 1 think it is not to be found in all of Spain. lt grinds a large amount- a cayz and a half each hour, and 'this kind ... is an inventíon of the ancients' ... the author needs a word for medieval! 'the mili which they call transfer-mill' ... type 10: type 9 presumably corresponds to that depicted at 294, and is not repeated. This one is called «carreo», apparently because water is transferred from the upper, sloping pond ro the lower, in order to maintain a constant head in the lower which is presumably meant to be less turbulent. Whatever may be the reason, the author thinks it very productive, and very rare. 22

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Illustration 220 The plan which follows is of a swirlback mili, which has many more special features than other milis have

N

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this invention grinds umil it holds but a drop of water in the counterpond, and the whole of the nozzle is visible, and still it will keep on grinding. For the rest, the outlet, pít and horizontal wheel, it ís not clifferent at all from other penstock milis. A is the pond which is one end, the water enters at B. It is ten palms deep. And at e it is twelve to fourteen. The counterpond is twelve palms in breadth and sixteen high. The wall of the nozzle is fifteen palms thick. The counterpond serves as a penstock. eertainly it was a very pretty thought, that counterpond. So, D is the height of the counterpond and E is the width of it. It is altogether as the figure demonstrates, the pond A is a hundred and twenty palms wide and sixty broad; the length is with the counterpond. So the pond is to be up to fourteen palms from the base to the highest level of the water. The counterpond; the base of it is sixteen palms lower than the base of the pond. This .invention is drawn in conformity with how it should be. The inlets are F. There are to be three, because the whole strength of this invention líes in having plenty of water, and it is worth little if there is no water to make it go. It is true the invention is always useful when there is a shortage of water, apart from the other special features- since I have dealt with it so extensively in the discussion on the working of milis of this kind, in such a way that anyone could be quite satisfíed about this profession of making milis; many things beside grinding flour can be fitted in a mililike this.

[!fol. 313v) (Illustration 220) [!fol. 313r]The plan of the swirl-back mili24 is; the pond A, which is a hundred and twenty palms, and forty wide. The walls of the pond are B. The pond is ten to twelve palms where the water enters and is fourteen palms where it enters the nozzles so that it can get up a head. The nozzles are three, e e C. The wall D D D is eighteen palms thick to the sluices E E E and from the vent-holes G G G to the shrouds the thickness is three palms. The shrouds F F F are four palms in breadth, where the waterwheel goes. Inside, the nozzles are to strike from the side of the shroud although they go in to the middle. H H H are the vent-holes of the shrouds: they are one palm \vide. The four I I I I are four staircases at the corners. They are four palms wide. The walls K K K K are of certain vaults, where L L Lis water, which is all open. Where M M M M go there are flagstones, three palms wide, so you can go down. The two N N are the doors of the mili, which are ten palms. Q is five palms wide, at P are walls with arches which are twelve palms wide. O O O is where the water comes out. The whole building is 64 palms wide by ninety palms broad- the whole mili as far as the pond. atlustration 221)

[!fol. 314r] This is the side of the swirl-back mill from which it can be understood by the characters of the letters in the plan where everything goes. (Illustration 222) 24 'The plan of the swirl-back mili' ... type 12- this is the famous 'molino de regolfo', which operated at least partially by reaction. (How type 11, the mili 'de medio regolfo' differed is not made very clear, for there is no separare illustration). Evidently the author found this his favourite, even more than the transfer mili; it was the peak of Spanish mili building achievement. When well made, these milis were probably more efficient than any other then in existence. Following a discussion with Wulff (Reti 1965, Wulff 1966), Reti argued for 'an overall efficiency of 0.25', which would compare favourably with anything of the sort until well into the nineteenth century. (Reti 1967). Lobato also refers ro these milis, and the one at the Escorial was apparencly of the same type. Thc drawing on 313r shows the mili in plan; those on 313v-314r are elevations in section and externally, with a detail of the tail-race. lt is clear that the wheel was ro operate submerged, with mínimum tolerance between wheel and shroud, so that both should be carefully machined- 'turned on the lathe'. On 317v the author speculates on how he imagines these swirl-back wheels may have been invented, comparing them to swallow-holes.

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Illustration 221 Plan of the swirl-back mill from the side 14 palms in

height 46 palms in length

[!fol. 314v] The two elevaĂşons are of the same swirl-back mili, so I shall not trouble to keep remarking on any special features, more than has been said already, because of the letters which mark the places on the plan, I shall only go into sorne details which have not been indicated, so they can be understood. Where the shaft of the waterwheel goes up to take the millstone, all is level from end to end, for the vaults go no further than is marked. The wall K, the descend floor above the vaults, reaches the walls of the doors N. The stairways at the corners and what goes above Q is to be flat, like the millstone floor; where the hoppers go on the wall R there should be stairs on both sides- which are S Sto go up and put the grain in the hoppers. The other wall T is the rear part, where the water leaves the mili. This mili and the half swirl-back mili have the same structure but the half does not take so much water as the whole swirl.

m

The ingenuity of this milllies in many things. The first consists in having a pond which is wide and deep and broad, with a great quantity of water to come to it. It should have an incline from the beginning to the end, which is to give on to the nozzle. That is done in arder that the water may have greater force as it goes clown the nozzle, and the pond should have a good floor so that nothing seeps through, and the side walls should be very firm. And we have stated the quanĂşty which it is to hold. The second, that the wall of the mili which fronts on the pond should be very strong because of the nozzles. They should be at least five varas in extent, and are to be of hewn stone, and should be well made and fitted well so that the water will not seep through the joints of the ashlars; and I would even wish that it be cemented from end to end. Let the stones of the nozzles be very smooth so that the water will not find anywhere to beat against or penetrate. Because if it is prevented from penetrating the water never rests from motion, seeking a place where it may do so, because water is of such a nature that it always endeavours to penetrate, and to try and fill every empty space [!fol. 315r] where it may find rest. These walls should have very good cements, so that they may be firm and safe. [363]

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Illustration 222

AU the imerior part of the mili. Rear parr of rhe mili from ourside.

The third is installing the nozzles which are to cross the entire wall from one side to the other. On the pond síde the nozzles should be eíght palms wide at the mouth and four hígh, and at the end one wide and one and a half palms hígh. They should be made flat rather than vertical, from their orígin to where the water is díscharged, whích is the line closest to the floor of the pond. Fourth, the water whích comes to strike the waterwheel inside the shroud, should enter at the side, as is sketched here (although the nozzle is from the chapter above, the thírd one). A is the shroud, D the water, which strikes the waterwheel B, which is in the place where the water can exert a greater force on the wheel C. The shroud should be in one piece; that is better than two. The inside should be as smooth as it can be. But I say that if it be possible for the inner part to be turned on the lathe that would be better, because there would be no scratches or holes, since if there were any scratch cut into the stone of the [364]

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Illustration 223

n shroud, it would not let the mili grind as much as it would without it. It is to be four palms high, up to four and a half at the most, from the floor of the mill to the bottom of the shroud, for in the floor a stone is laid, in which the socket is fixed. This socket is of metal; and there the waterwheel is mounted. (Illustration 223) Fifth, the waterwheel is to be made so as to fit exactly into the shroud, so the circumference of thé wheel almost touches it, without leaving any space between them. [!fol. 315v] And if the waterwheel can be turned on the lathe, that too would be much better, because it would fit so much more exactly; and let it be made of a single piece. This waterwheel is to have six blades, which are curved, as if you wanted to make them circles within a circle. These blades should have their curves oblique where the water strikes them, but on the back they should go straight down. There is a hole one palm long and two fingers wide, where the water comes down. W aterwheels have been illustrated in different places but as the case requires it and the material demands it, I will illustrate it here below, both the ríght side and the back of the waterwheel, as this construction of the waterwheel is a subject not very clear in many aspects. This is the waterwheel. A goes into the shaft or axletree; (lllustration 224) B the blades hollowed out into curves as figure B shows in the waterwheel A. ís the height, as figure 3 shows.

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Illustration 224

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VowMEIII D is the back of the waterwheel of figure 2, which is where the water falls after havíng fallen onto the whed. Figure 1 shows how it is to go. The whole ingenuity of this waterwhed lies in knowing how to make the curves of the blades, which begin in the round part of A and go clown as far as D where that part is very thin, next to the hole D , while the side is quite thick. These waterwheds are at least one jeme high and the lip which runs all round is two fingers wide. The waterwhed is four palms wide in diameter. If there is plenty of water, no more than five blades are made, or six at the most.

e

The shaft or axletree should be of a very good strong wood, either of holm oak or service tree, [!fol. 316r] which makes very strong timber; and is to be twdve to thirteen palms in breadth, and about a palm thick- sometimes it is made broader according to the requirements of the site. It is made round, but in the part where the waterwheel is to be mounted, it should be left square. This is three palms from the thickest part. It is made like a spindle, and an iron band is fixed at the bottom with a plate on the base, with a steel peg upon which it may have free play. In the upper part a channd is made inside this axletree, in order to place within it an iron bar which is then inserted in the iron rynd which turns the millstone. This iron bar is five or six palms wide according to the site. The axletree is here illustrated. It is to be made firm on the ground atA, on a square metal (lllustration 225) socket half a palm high. Illustration 225

e

B is where the waterwheel is to be mounted. is the axletree, D sorne iron bands which hold the iron bar E; this is the shaft. F is the handle and when the rod is inserted, sorne wadding of holm oak is inserted with it, so that it will stay in the middle of the shaft. Seventhly, the stones of the millstones for these milis are to be large- they are to be at least eight palms in diameter, they should not be small ones, because they have much to grind, and the larger they are the more they grind, more than when there are little millstones, that is of seven palms- those of middle size are seven anda half. With that extra palm's width, it grinds much more than a millstone of seven palms. The best millstones produced are from near Barcdona, because that is the best quality of stone found for grinding flour. The part of a millstone which grinds most is the palm nearest to the edge of the millstone; all the rest grinds very little The quantity ground depends on the dressing of the stone. It ís very important to know how to dress them so that the whole stone will grind without leavíng any part ídle, [!fol. 316v] because if any part is left, it can not grind much, and besides the millers who do dress the millstone in this way, do so in order to avail themselves of what they grind; for they cornmonly leave more than an almud of corn for each one they grind- that is a barefaced robbery which sorne millers

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Illustration 226

take. Anyone who wants to dress a millstone should have very good tools, and a very fine straight rule that is at least as long as the width of the millstone· and should have a level to see if the ' millstone is lower at one end than at the other. This may be seen by laying the rule upon the millstone; and so he will see where the furrow should be made lower or higher.... and besides, the level will serve to mount the stones evenly, so they are not laid askew, because it is of great importance that they lie flat; and the same with dressing them evenly. The furrows should be curved round like the blades of the waterwheel. Towards the edge of the millstone, they are to be a big thumb wide, but as they approach the centre point of the millstone they get narrower. As much space is to be left between one furrow and the next as is the width of the groove of the furrow. This is the order to be observed in dressing the millstones of swirl milis, as illustrated here. The millstone A. (Illustration 226) The grooves of the millstone- there is no fixed number, but they may be made as you will. In truth the flat parts which remain between each groove should not be very wide, for if they are, the grain is often left intact. The groove should be made small, as elsewhere the method to be observed in this has been discussed, when there is sorne flaw in the stones of

swirl milis. Eighthly, above the stones there is to be a hopper of wood into which the wheat or other grain is put in order to be ground, and from this it falls into the millstones. [/fol. 317r] This hopper is to be wide in the upper part and narrow in the lower part. At the mouth it is at least four palms wide, in a perfect square, and up to five palms high. The base is one palm wide, square, and has a base open at one side about four fingers square. Below it there is a shoe which is inserted into the base of the hopper. This shoe is suspended by cords from the sides of the hopper, and has a cord tied to the front, with which the fall of the wheat is regulated, so it will fall spaced out or rapidly, according as the flour is required to be fine or coarse. This crookstring is twisted when it is to be raised or lowered. When it is raised the grain falls very gradually, and when it is lowered, it falls very rapidly, and so the shoe guides the grain into the eye of the millstone. And at the side of this shoe is a rod suspended from a cord, which is dragged over the stone, and with this movement makes the grain fall into the millstone. It is by the people called 'damsel'. In order that the flour should not fly away and be lost, a tun should be made all round, of wood. It is to be high enough at the sides to rise above the two millstones. Nothing should be left open in it, except a hale in the middle through which the flour may fall into the flourbox, which is a large wooden box, containing two or three cayzes of flour, or more, according to the frequency of the milling. This flourbox is as bread as the two millstones; and it is four to five palms high, and as wide as it is high. In addition, a wooden scoop should be kept in the flourbox: it is three palms broad and one wide, and is to put the flour into sacks. There [367]

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Itlustration 227

should be a broom to sweep round the millstones and the flourbox. A is the hopper, B the crookstring, C the shoe, D the darnsel. E is the tun. lt ís made octagonal, but others are round. F is the flourbox, G the scoop. H is the broom and K, at the back of the hopper, where the grain ís put into ít. There should be a good level space, wide enough for a beast laden with a sack to pass, so it can be unloaded into the hopper itself, without any hindrance nor trouble, either to the beast or to the man who brings the sack to be emptied. The hopper should be so adjusted that when the sack ís on the beast, what is required can be emptied into the hopper very easily. [!fol. 317v] Such milis usually grind much more than any others that grind with artífice of water. (Illustration 227) Ninthly, in each of these milis three stones should be installed, because ordinarily two are grinding, and one is always ready for when there is need of it. That ís on account of dressing the millstones, since a whole day is needed to dress a stone to be good for these milis. For this reason it is always necessary to have one stone available, even though this way of dressing lasts many days before it wears down, at least six days. So, the order whereby this invention has been born may be understood- it was sorne philosopher who 1 believe found this invention by chance, more than through theoretical reasoning. Either he was looking at sorne river, how the water gets into boles in the rocks, in river beds- and when the water enters these boles, ít ordinarily goes round those boles, without anythíng to check ít, at so great a speed that thought ítself could not be faster; and the same thing happens to the things the water carries with it, which revolve so rapidly in these holes. Or else this invention was discovered in a vessel of water [!fol. 318r] as it often happens when you hold a vessel of water in front of you and stand a thin stick in the water, and then begin to make the water go round, stirring the water by a slight movement made by the rod; so it seems as if the water contains a spirit so light and swift and fast that after the stick has been taken from the vessel, the water continues for [368]

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Eleventh Book sorne while without ceasing its circular movement, which it makes by reason of the vessel's round shape, nor does it become still, because it finds no place that interrupts its rotary movement; nor yet is anything interposed that might hinder it in its motion. The milis m ade in rivers, on barges2', are made in different ways, even though all are erected on barges. The reasons for making milis on barges are of two kinds. The first is when the rivers go through flat country, where there is no place to draw leats on which to build, because you can not have the head for the water to act with any force on the wheels. In truth, water could be drawn from these rivers by a leat which carríed it for such a distance that a head was obtained, but it would be a great expense, and very inconvenient having to go a great space of time in order to grind, and besides, when a leat is wide, there is always something to repair, which gives rise to great expense and much bother. The other reason is where there is fear of war, in case the enemy should break the leats and so the grain can not be ground: it is very important for a city besieged by enemies, to be able to grind for its needs, for if it could not, that would be very troublesome anda harmful business, and would put great heart into its enemies, so they will stand firm in the siege; and thus without striking a blow its need will be the cause of its surrender. However someone could answer me, that in such a case you could make muscle-mills on which I have gíven instructions in the book of milis driven by anímals. [!fol. 318v] Floating milis then are made in three ways. The first is when milis are built on rivers with one barge only; the second way is when a mili is erected on two barges in the middle of a river; the third is a mili upon three barges. So I shall proceed to explain below in detall how each one is erected, and the differences in their construction. Illustration 228

2~ 'the milis made in rivers, on barges' ...type 13. As mentioned o~ the last, t~e author conceives of three variants which differ in the nurnber of barges used. Such milis were qu1te common wherever a larg; dver flowed through plains, and appear in many traveller's relations. [369]

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The mili mounted upon a single barge- which is made much broader than is normal practice with navigation barges. H is the barge. A the prow, B the stern, C the mounting for the mili upon the beams which are secured to the barge on both sides. And on the one side they are made to project to a distance equal to the breadth- or rather length- of the barge, and are placed so far apart from one another as may equal the width of the wheel which goes inside this frame. This wheel D is not very broad, not more than six palms, and it is ten in diameter. And another wheel E on the same axle as this wheel D goes inside the barge. E has wooden teeth which engage the lantern F, (Illustration 228) which turns the rnillstone G. As this barge is entirely covered over, it looks as though another barge has been laid on top of the one which is in the water, upside clown, so that it looks like two barges laid face to face. These milis are provided with cables, so the river can not move them; and two of these cables are employed, one which goes from the barge to the land, and the other forward, secured to Illustration 229

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anything that will hold it fast. [!fol. 319r] These milis are entered by means of thick planks which serve as bridges and with this kind of mili the grain is carried in on the backs of men, and taking it away likewise. I have said that they are made entirely covered over, which is the truth: I thought that it would be done much better in this way, with that little space at the bow of the barge, because of many things which happen when the rivers rise- although I have seen sorne of this same construction. I shall not trouble to set clown any more details, since these milis do not differ in the least from the others, that are set up on dry land, save that the one type is stationary, and these are movable. To brake these milis a wooden cutwater is place forward, and as the surface of the water flows against it, so it checks it by projecting into the water one and a half palms. (Illustration 229) This is the second kind of pontoon mili: this one has two barges to support it. These, like the others, are erected entirely upon beams, which cross from barge to barge; these beams fasten the two barges together, so that they do not drift apart. And one of these two barges is much larger than the other. That is because the barge which only supports the wheel is very much smaller, since it has hardly any weight to bear beside the wheel, whereas the other barge, on which the cabin is built, [!fol. 319v] has to be much bigger, because it supports a great weight, namely the great wheel, the little one, the lantern that turns the milistone, and all the rest of the mili structure. There should be space for the sacks, and room for the miller to stand. This cabin is made of boards, both floor and sides, and the roof, the boards of the roof being caulked, and overlapping to keep out the rain-water. It has already been stated in the one-barge-mili, how these milis are made fast on the river. When the river rises, the milis are drawn into land, and when the river waters fall, they are taken out to where the water is flowing strongly. So, in order to enter them, at times you have to cross over planks which are laid upon quite hĂ­gh stanchions, for at times five lengths of board must be crossed, which begin to move in a high wind because of the way they are balanced. The men have somewhere to cross over them with sacks on their backs, as I said above in the one-barge-mill. The arrangement of the stakes by which the milis are entered I shall iliustrate below, as I have seen them in various parts of Italy. Illustration 230

They are of the following construction: A is secured to the ground, B is fixed to the two legs F G and in the same way at the end of plank B are its legs H I, and the plank C is inserted in the legs H I, and reaches to the middle of the river. The two legs K L are where the plank is inserted, which is secured to the barge E, and by this arrangement they proceed from stage to stage, reaching as far as may be necessary. (Illustration 230) [371]

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IllustratiOit 231

The mili of three barges26 is as follows: this method I have seen in Italy in countless places, where there are milis of this model, for the cities which have milis of this construction in their rivers are almost in the majority.

[!fol. 320r] (Illustration 231) The mili mounted on three barges, which are very different in their form from barges for cargo and navigation. There is little ingenuity in their construction, but as they are different I thought I should include one, so that it may be better understood. It is made like a square box, except in the part whích faces the current, where it is slanting, as if you were to cut a square form angle to angle, so that as the water beats against it, it will have no resístance nor force to push the barge along: this is the bow A; B is the stern of very thick wood. The beams which cross this barge are C D and E. They are the frame which holds this barge together. Three more are laid on the floor, and three more beams are placed at the corners, pointed at the top, so that there will be room to drive in the nails of the planks, at front and back. On these barges the mili is erected, as the figure iliustrates. None of these milis has any more ingenuity than another, [!fol. 320v] neíther in the wheels nor in the lanterns, nor in the millstones, nor the hopper, nor in any other detail. Asto their grínding, it is certaín that there ís more construction and work in the mili which has two barges, than in that of one, and 26 'the mili of three barges' ... it is worth noting that this type is referred to the author's stay in Italy; here the barges which carry the mili are real pontoons, and the wheel too is different from an ordinary vertical waterwheel, being so much broader, it has boards in place of paddles.

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likewise more in three barges than in two. As for the cabins, let each man erect them in his own way, although all must be put up on beams which cross the barges, to hold them fast to one another; ít ís the same when there is just the one barge, as with two and likewise with three, all have beams which secure the barges to one another. All have very thick chains, by which they are secured, so that the river does not carry them off when in spate, or by collísíon with other objects, such as rivers bear along with them as they rise.

If we wanted to partícularise every detail, we would never finish. The two barges on which the cabin is erected are not close together, but separated by the width of a barge, that ís seven palms. The third, which is on the outside, has only the wheel and nothing else: this barge is separated from the others by the width of the wheel which is carried in between, upon beams. The axle bears it as I have drawn it, that is the part I, and the other end of the axle is secured to the middle barge, on the side of the barge A, so the gear-wheel that turns the lantern goes in the centre of the middle barge. And the lantern has to be mounted almost at the edge of the middle barge- so the cabin G is mounted high up, because of the gear, so that it will have room to revolve; and likewise with a floor to support the milistones and all the rest that is necessary for this mill. They climb up on a ladder which is held firm on the deck D. This deck passes from one barge to the other, so there is a floor for the whole width of the mili cabin. There is also a passage to cross to the third barge, but that is a small matter. The cabin is all of wood, with a ridged roof of boards, as demonstrated in the figure at G. The timbers K L are very broad and thick and fasten the three barges together at M N: and the whole of this machíne is carried upon them. These barges are from twenty-eight to thirty palms in length, eight in width and eight in height. The boards of the barges are to be three fingers thick. The barges are not caulked except at the joints and underneath the lower deck. These milis are made with very thick chains for each barge, so that the two may be joined as one, [!fol. 321r] and the same at P and at R. The rest can be understood from the figures. Illustration 232

. o·.

.' .. ~ .

These mills are entered by that gang-way iliustrated before the mill. To brake the mills, a sluice-gate is erected, with the width of two boards, as broad as the great wheel. This wheel is ten palms wide, and as many in diameter. Sometimes they are made twelve in width, or even more, according to the quantity of water borne by the river. This sluice gate has the shape portrayed below: A goes into the water and B C is where it is provided with pegs (Illustration 232) to hold it firm in the posítion required. [373]

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Illustration 233

The wheels of barge milis are very different from those of all other milis, since they are very broad and hígh, because all other wheels have the water guided to fall upon them vertically, that is from above downward, whereas these have nothing of the sort, just the water flo"l.ving against the boards C. And as it does not fall vertically, it does not have such great force as the water which falls from a height and is tapered by something which keeps it compact, and so exerts its full force. But here the water strikes the wheel at its own sweet will, [!fol. 321v] allustration 233) without having anything that will give it the force to strike with greater impact. As the water movcs in this way, and is so wide, the wheel should be very broad for the river to tum it, so that whatever it does not get in height, may be gained in breadth. These are the reasons why the wheels are made so broad in these barge milis, which anyway do not grind much, because the water has no head, as has been noted. They normally grind ten to twelve cayzes over a day and a night; that is the most they grind, any that do more will have sorne head of water from a sluiceor when the rivers are in spate, then they grind much more than usual. The milis they call of muscle. These milis are adopted where there are no rivers or water to make a mili; and because of this deficiency, the Maker of all things has provided men with intelligence, so they can remedy their human needs, specially in the grinding of corn for man's sustenance. Yet where the element fails, animals make up for it to remedy the lack of water. Muscle milis are usually driven by animals, and that is the reason why they are called so, although in many parts they are called donkey milis. They are for the most part employed in fortresses, although they are customary in many other places too, particularly in Seville. I have been given to understand that in the whole city they do not grind with any other type of mili but these donkey milis, even though I understand that in Sevilie there is a very great river, called Guadalquivir, which passes very close; and I am assured there is no mili on it- I am quite astounded. To make these milis there is more ingenuity than there is in those on rivers, only in these the milistones are much smaller. Although I have previously set clown a muscle mili27 it seems to 'although I have previously set down a muscle mili' ... such mulúple purpose milis o&en appear in the literature, and sorne at least were installed- the astronomer Tycho Brahe had one which was to pulp rags for paper and beat hides for tanning, as well as grinding his grain, so he could mechanise the producúon of bis books. However, they were usually meam to be powered by water or wind, not by one poor donkey. Even in alternate shifts, a single animal could hardly turn the two crown-wheels which drive the polishing wheels and the stamps, just because all were worked from a single shaft. But the mechanics of the day did not appreciate that each task would require an energy input. 17

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me that one of these milis could be equipped with a much greater complement of various devices, which would go with less work than if it only ground wheat or other grains. So I believe I ought not to fail to set clown this invention, since with a single animal yo u can grind, and polish arms, and beat powder, and that with less work than each task would involve by itself. Only with this mili [!fol. 322r] the milistones should be much smaller than in watermills, as we often see when animals are employed instead of water. Two animals should be kept for one of these milis, so when one is tired out, let the other be used in order that the mili should not I!lustration 234

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stop. While the first animal ís resting, let the other work, for a single animal could not stand up to the work. Even though driven by two animals, these milis grind very little, and their deficiency in grinding has to be made up by having a great quantity of them. The elevation is as follows: Gllustration 234) [!fol. 322v] A is the topmost wheel, for crushing powder, its gear-teeth B, axle C. This wheel turns the lantern E, which is held firmly on the stand D. F is the axle of lantern E, and drives stamps, which beat in the mortars G H I, through the wipers which move L M N O P Q. This is a violent movement and so with very little work much powder is ground, because of the great motion produced by the wipersthere are two stamps for each mortar. Wheel Bis employed to move the lantern F, which drive the three wheels for cleaning arms. Wheel G is the most likely to break: the second H, is less likely. Wheel I is bound all round in Cordovan leather, and is for burníshing arms. When they are brought to this wheel they are already quite clean, and here the anns take a fine lustre... As for the commili, there is nothing to recall here, as it has been set down elsewhere, although my intention was to deal with no other material in this work of mine but the busil1ess of water. Although with this last invention I have broken the thread of my material, it was for the reason that it carne appositely to my purpose. Also I took leave to do so, as I had promised to give the method and arrangement of every type of mili, even though I have set down another mili which has this arrangement, and grinds with animals. It seemed to me that there was no reason to pass over this invention in silence, as it could serve so many functions and give so much benefit from the work of just one animal, with a single movement; and hereby opportunity can be found for many other things that would give great benefit. Although this invention looks very heavy, as if it would be impossible for a single animal to move such a great machine, or if it could move it, then only very laboriously- rather it is quite the contrary, the three wheels are driven with less work than a single one, because the whole of this movement is on a single axle: if it were done in any other way, certainly this device could not be driven by a single animal. However as the movement turns on a pivot, it goes much more lightly than each one would by itself. This kind of mili should be erected where there are many stories, one upon the other, since the floors have to be pierced, because the axletree which carries the three wheels attains a great height, so as to fulfil its function better, in order that the commill should not obstruct the cleaning of arms, [!fol. 323r] and that each thing should have its proper place .This shaft should be much heavier close to the wheel A. This invention can be operated where there is water, without leaving out or adding anything beside what has been sketched here. As my intention was only to deal with matters of water, I mean devices that are driven by water, I thought I should not leave out anything connected with milis, although sorne may think that this material is fruitless, as it deals with a subject so well known and plain to every sort of nation that there ís no call to write about it. Truly, I believe that this material was plain enough in the time of Vitruvius, since there were so many nations who made use of milis to grind their com, but Vitruvius did not disdain to write instructions on how to make undershot milis; but he taught only one type of mili. Since a roan as celebrated [376]

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as Vitruvius wrote on this subject, for all that ir_ was so commonplace as the making of undershot mills how much more may I, who am a mere nothing by comparison with Vitruvius, who was so skilled in architecture- yet he was not criticised for doing so, but rather has received much praise and fame from those who carne after him. So, returning to our subject, I say that when you have to make a mili in a river, rivers normally rise in due season, as most rivers do in winter, and at the time when the snows melt. To make this mili grind all the time28, without the spate stopping it, the method and arrangement shall be given for it to do so; let the rise be as great as can be, so that no-one should fail to enjoy such a necessary utility. Indeed this mili wili grind much more at the spate than when the water is at its ordinary level. The invention can be made in two ways. B.ecause you may see milis that have been lost and abandoned, through ígnorance of the proper remedy to be applied, to keep ít grinding; and the spate should cause it no harm either in its operation or in the protectíon of the said mili, so that the river might not damage or break the millwheel, with that great fury which it bears in its spate. Let us suppose that we wanted to make a mili standing on the pier of a stone bridge [!fol. 323v] but after the mill had been made, the ríver rose, and the mili lacked this remedy: since no-one would be so rash as to stop doing a thing so necessary as the grinding of corn, and since the whole disadvantage of this mili líes in the method of raising the wheel, here at the end I shall set clown the method of making the mill and the device for the wheels, in two ways, or even more, when it may be necessary to do so. Another wall should be made, of stone or wood, which will be used with the wall of the pier to support the wheels. This invention ís made in the manner illustrated below. First, it should be settled where the wheels are to be mounted, for they are to be set up in a safe place, where they will hold fast. After the wheel A has been made, which has its paddles Con its axle B, another, much smaller, wheel is to be mounted, half the size of wheel A. And this wheel D has around its circumference teeth E which drive the lantern F, which should be very high, in order that when the river is in spate, the wheels can be raised as high as the water rises. There is no need to move the lantern, because the spate can not cause it any damage, however much it may ríse- although it could be raised too, like the wheels. The two ends or gudgeons of the axle B should be fíxed in the two posts K L, which are inserted in two other posts, here H I, and should be tenoned so that they can not be forced out of position by the water. These two posts K L should have iron bands on top. An iron ring should be fíxed on each one, to take hold of it and raise it when needed, at time of spate. A wooden windlass with two pulleys is erected on those two posts K L. These pulleys have each a good rope made fast to them at O and T. And each rope has an iron hook, N and V, with their rings; and so they take hold of the rings M and X; and spokes Q are fíxed in the middle of the shaft P which holds the two pulleys: these spokes forma cross, and are to be round, [/fol. 324r] so that you 28 'to make this mili grind all the time' ... Given the changing levels of rivers through the year, devices to adjust the height of the waterwheel were used; but at chis time they do not seem to have been universal: Ramelli specifies them (Ramelli 117), and Scamozzi (Scamozzi, p. 370) makes a point of descdbing those he had seen. Two versions appear here, one with winch, the other with a screw. In both cases details of fastenings show how inserted components are to hold.

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Illustration 235

can take bold of tbem better, to exert force on them, and raise the posts wbere the two ends of axle B are fixed. At K L tbick iron pegs, 3 a, sbould be passed tbrougb boles, as illustrated. Tbese pegs will support tbe posts in tbe two boles in tbe floor of tbe mili. With tbis device it can be lifted and lowered as mucb as may be needed for ~t to grind, with a litde water or with plenty., (Illustration 235) [378]


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Illustration 236 This post H is very different from part I, and in order that rhe difference may be seen, I have put them close together

~

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1

[/fol. 324v] The other method of raising these wheels is very different from this, as I shall illustrate in a figure, although this axle also has the two pulleys for raising it. (Illustration 236) This second axle has at each end the bars to be grasped by whoever wishes to raise the wheels, and on the pulley I a rope with two rings attached, at 2. These iron parts are to raise the fixture 3, which holds d1e gudgeons of the axle of the great wheel, in order not to have to raise such a great weight as those two posts. To make them fast, the two iron parts holding the fixture can be made much broader, and they can be made fast with iron pegs, passed through the rings attached to the ropes and through the posts where fixture 3 has free play. These are 4. They can be held firm through the holes. This invention can be employed for a sinĂşlar purpose, and will equally raise the fixtures. Two men can raise the wheels with the greatest of ease. [!fol. 325r] This is the third method of raising the wheels of a mili which is erected or mounted in a river. This invention is better than either of those preceding. The wheel A does not have any other wheel mounted in its axle B, but itself has teeth all round its circumference, in such a way that the paddles are on top and the teeth at the side. atlustration 237) They move the lantern D, which is very high since the wheel has to be raised because of the spate. An iron bar is inserted in the upper part of this lantern; [!fol. 325v] this is tighdy secured because it is to turn the millstone. To raise the wheel A, which is mounted on two posts provided with iron pipes- from these pipes goes another iron piece, attached to the others, which revolves with the screws E F. These can move freely in their nuts I K, which are mounted in the two frames G H. On top of the two shafts or screws, these two lanterns are mounted in which are inserted b ars to turn the screws, and so raise or lower the

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Itlustration 23 7

wheel A. These lanterns areL M as the figure inclicates. N O, the great lantern, stands on beams D. Bra.king these milis demands very little ingenuity, for simply by using a piece of board somewhat wider than the paddles e, and letting it fall one palm·into the water, that will brake the wheel. Much more inforrnation could be given about this, but let what has been set clown suffice: with good judgement you will be able to consider varíous ideas that could serve this purpose. The timber that is to be used for the shafts or screws ought to be of servicewood or elm, although the service is better because of the wet. The nuts through which the screws pass would be good in holm-oak or in service, being a wood that is very solid and has very few pores. If the screw threads were to be turned on the lathe they would rotate much more smoothly- by that it is not to be understood that the posts should be rounded off, I mean that the turns of the thread should be worked on the lathe. They should be three quarters of a palm in thickness. The two lanterns L M should be one palm hígh, from one to the other, and the staves around the discs of the lanterns should be held in two iron bands, [380)

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Il/ustration 238

o

e .~

nailed clown fast, quite thick and t\Vo fingers wide. Tiúck square iron bands should be fitted around the screws at the bottom. [!fol. 326r] In the same way the screws should also be square at the bottom ends. The iron parts which are to go on the bottom of the screws shoula be of the construction here illustrated. These iron parts should be like those in the weights of oil-mills, where they are attached to the screws of the press which expresses the oil. These iron parts should b e thick, with boles to nail them clown p roperly at M and 0: (Illustration 238) the peg N should h ave quite a thick wide head; and the rest, too. Where the pin P goes in, it needs to be quite large. With this invention the screws can be turned through their nuts and will raise and lower the wheels. This other invention has the same use, except that there is a greater quantity of iron parts. A is the shank of the screw; B bread strips of iron, nailed clown; C is an iron part, very thick because of the weight it has to raise. There should be a hole in the middle through which the iron pin can pass, so as to have free play, when the screw is turned. The wooden part D has on both sides the tenons which sorne call the tengue. These go inside the posts which hold the screw in the middle: and at the top, it goes through the nut or female screw. 1 shall not trouble with the method of braking these wheels, as ít is such an easy thing to do that there is no call to tire myself out with it, as I have stated in so many words how it may be done properly.

[!fol. 326v] With these river mills, certain pentroughs are made to guide the water into them, to strike the wheel, so it will have somewhat more force and the wheel will turn more vigorously. These pentroughs are made of boards, and the interstices between the boards must be filled in with small stones, to prevent there being any empty spaces, and also to strengthen it. By these means the water is raised somewhat. It is plain to see that when the water flows agaínst the cutwaters of stone bridges, it will rise there much more than in any other part of the river. And it will be the same with this barrier, the water will pile up against the wheel. And the broader and wider it will be where the water enters, the better it will be, and the narrower the outlet, the better: because it will have the advantage of grinding much more than it would without this barrier or collector of the water, as the water will strike the wheel with greater force: and this needs no proving beyond what has been said about the píers. So let this alone be enough, for proof of what has been said, as experience makes plain to us. 327 r & v blank. [381]

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TWELFTH BOOK Introduction The bolting machine Mosc of this short book is devoted to a single device, as a supplement to the book of milis, being a new and useful accessory to the grinding of flour by automatically sifting and grading it. As the mechanism shakes the damsd to keep a steady flow of grain into the eye of the mill, it also agitates the crape which sorts the flour by weight and size of grains. Although there are no mentions before the sixteenth century, the early history of this bolter is obscure. Our author supposes it was invented in ltaly. Leonardo da Vind's notebooks include a sketch; the first reference in print is in Cardano's De Subtilitate (p. 72), with a little woodcut diagramme, much less informative than this neat drawing. At least one of Ramelli's milis (119) is equipped with a bolter, but in his plate, too, it looks so small that details are indistinct. So, who it was that first thought of replacing a paír of hands by machinery linked to the main system, and where and when, remain a mystery. But probably it was somewhere in Italy. The device must have spread quite rapidly through Europe, for Shakespeare mentions it, having bis Prince Ha! cal! Falstaff «that boulting-hutch of b eastlinesse». · From 329v a new topic is brought in; how to turna horizontal shaft from a horizontal waterwheel, through crown whed, lantern and crank. This subject may be intended to serve as a preliminary to the industrial milis of Book Thirteen, which were normal!y driven off vertical wheds. He may have wanted to show that che horizontal wheels he preferred were just as versatile. Perhaps too the crank of che bolter inspired him to think of other potencial applications of this element. (The description of a fulling-mill, after the crank linkage, really does belong to the next Book.)

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s so many inventions and types of mili have been discussed, I think that it would not be irrelevant to discuss how the flour can be bolted after it has been ground- and more than that, how the fl.our can be bolted while the grinding is going on, for this belting device is driven by the same movement of the wheel that drives the millstone. [/fol. 328r] By this means four kinds of flour can be bolted at the same time, all quite different, for one will be very fine, the second not so much so, the third much coarser, and after these three fl.ours, the bran will be separated from the pollard, as they call what is removed from the bran. This device can be fitted in any cornmili, or else the instrument can be made to bolt fl.our by itself, when water makes it work and bolt and separate the flours. Each one of these- and all together- is bolted by the same thing, without any division. This is a sleeve five palms in breadth, of crape or of straining-cloths. There should be four of these straining-doths, so attached that they make a sleeve five or six palms in breadth. This is the «burato», for so they call it in Italy, where this invention to bolt flour was invented, where much work of kneading is done. It is an instrument of great profit and very restful for anyone can bolt without paying any further attention to it, for this same instrument does its duty and there is no need to look if it is belting or not. After making the sleeve, two pieces of thick linen should be placed at the ends, being a palm in breadth and the same width as the sleeve. This linen is tied at the two ends. A chest of wood should be made for the instrument: it is to be eight or nine palms in length, six in height and five in width, with wooden legs to raise ita palm or more off the ground [!fol. 328v].

A

¡

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This machine should have doors to open and shut the chest in three places, to remove the flour, when wanted, as it may be needed. A hopper should be fitted in the box, like those used in milis, where it is the practice to have one to supply the grain for grinding; and this one should be neither larger nor smaller than those in milis. It is to be fitted at one end of the box, and at the same end at the head, a wooden shaft is to be inserted, with its crank to turn it round. This rod strikes sorne broad rods or bars, which are placed on both sides of the belting sleeve. These bars are attached to the belting sleeve, and suspended in the air from cords at their four ends. They are to be hung higher up by the outlet of the hopper, where the flour falls on to the sleeve, just as it falls from the trough of the hopper into the eye of the millstone. Thus this instrument can be fitted in a mili in such a

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way that as soon as the grinding is finished, the bolting of che flour finishes too. (Illus tratz'on 23 9) The box is D, [!fol. 329r] the hopper A; Bis where che flour falls to be bolted, C the mounting where the hopper is fixed; E is the sleeve or burato which receives the flour ro be bolted; F the two rods to which che sleeve is attached; G the two cords from which the two rods are hung or suspended; when these two rods are moved, they dance up and down with the sleeve and so the flour is bolted. They are moved by the shaft M whose crank is N. This shaft is to be fixed in something firm. H is the end of the sleeve, which is to be secured at least a palm and a half lower than the part where the sleeve receives the flour, so that it may bolt the better especially when the bran comes out, for it comes out by itself, as it is separated from the flour. Inside the chest, divisions should be made to grade the different kinds of flour, as shown by the letters under the sleeve. At O the finest flour is collected; P is not so fine; Q is much coarser; at R the pollard is collected; and S is for che bran, which is so worthless that nothing is left but the husks of grain. And all these grades of flour come out. The cords from which the rods of che sleeve or burato are hung, are K L I I. They are to be hung somewhat at a slant. H this machine were to be driven by the actual movement of the wheels, it would be fĂ­tted to a crank, as illustrated by the side of the box. It has a rod which goes from one crank to che other; and by chis movement it will bolt as it grinds. This device should be fixed in the flour-box, for as the flour falls from the millstones so it will fall onto this sleeve; and so the bolting will finish with the grinding of the flour. The method of making it is: the rod V, of iron or wood, is inserted into [385]

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the crank N, and soto the aforesaid crank X of the wheel Z. [!fol. 329v] The two cranks should be equal, because otherwise nothing would go well, the whole thing would break if one was larger than the other. Since not all milis go with vertical wheels like those of carts, and since many milis have flat wheels, I think that I should set clown the way it will go with any type of wheel, including those that are flat and those in a shroud. (Illustration 240) And since there are many who, although the way to do something may be laid open before them, yet if you do not demonstrate everything to them precisely, they do not know how to make use of it by themselves, I have set clown these two inventions so that no-one can be in any doubt as to how to make one in a pit or shroud, since sorne will suppose that it is a very difficult matter, when the wheellies flat. Thus the wheel will be fitted in the pit, having its axle B, and the wheel A, as it is toothed on the upper side, so it should have teeth undemeath as well, so that the lantem will go under the teeth of one wheel A. The lantem is e and its iron crank D. When these handles or cranks are cu.rved like this, they tum at a greater speed than the straight ones. They are put in that rod E. Whether this is of wood or iron matters little. Hit be of wood, [!fol. 330r] there should be two iron rings through which are inserted the cranks D F, which are the handle of the shaft for the bolting. Since in the shrouded mili neither teeth nor lantem can be fitted on the waterwheel, for fear of obstructing the movement of the water in the shroud, which would cause great loss; nor yet can the lantern be fitted in the shroud A, because teeth can not be fitted in the waterwheel B, so a gearwheel, toothed underneath, should be mounted on the axletree or shaft of the waterwheel. These teeth should mesh with the lantern D . This gearwheel is e, its shaft E, the iron part which links the two shafts is F, secured atE H; and H is the crank of the shaft that moves the bolter. [386]

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Havíng dealt wíth milis for grinding grain, there still remain sorne other types of mili, such as fulling-mills, to strengthen and cleanse woollen cloth. They too go with wheel and water, and are very necessary in any community, for without them we would not use woollen clothes without a great labour. So they are quite as necessary in their own fashion, as the others that grind grain. Fulling-mills are made in those places where there is a quantity of water suffident to move a wheel, wíth all the rest that is involved. This construction contains very little ingenuity, although it is very profitable in states where the wool industry is carried on. This type of mili can not be employed without water, nor would it be of any use without it, since the cloth normally goes into the water, if it is to be strengthened and cleansed of the oil which it contains. So, to make a fulling-mill, timber should be had, and the convenience of a head of water looked for, since if there is no head, nothing can be done. A wooden trough should be fitted, and a wooden wheel installed, with its axle, which is to be five palms in length, that is, five palms . or more away from the wheel. In this space two cams should be inserted, which are arms to lift the harnmers; and as they fall, so they beat the cloth; and so on alternatively.

[!fol. 330v] lt does not need a great quantity of water to move this weight, which is no more than the two harnmers which strike the cloth. This device is in the form represented in the sketch here.

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THIRTEENTH BOOK Introduction Water in industry Inspired perhaps by the conversion of one rotating motion to another parallel to it, or to one at right angles to the waterwhed's rotation, the author now turns to other applications of water power, besides the production of flour. Water was the major source of energy for industry, more common by far than windmills, and in many regions more important than the muscles of draught animals: water drove such a variety of dillerent machines that sorne historians of the Middle Ages have claimed chis as the first industrial revolution. It is true that only those operations could be mechanised which required a simple revolution or a reciprocating action, which usually meant one stroke was motivated by gravity, unless crank and connecting rod controlled both 'to' and 'fro' actions. Still, this limitation did allow the machine to enter a number of trades, where water almost always provided more power than beast or man. Our author, however, is far from covering all the industries that exploited water power at that time. There is nothing here on metallurgy, although water had driven tilt-hammers tripped by cams since the twelfth century; if the forge bellows had taken longer, they too were so powered by 1500, at least in many places. As such Biringuccio mentions them, and Ramelli pictures a grand version- perhaps too grand- with no less than four bellows. Indeed, the contemporary Valckenborgh family specialised in painting proto-industrial scenes of iron and copper works, in which these water-powered forges figure prominently. But there are no such scenes here. Nor is there a sawmill, nor a papermill, both known from the thirteenth century, if not earlier; nor a tannery, which míght have used harnmers rather like those shown here. Instead, sorne trades which other authors barely touch are here gíven fuller treatment, such as the extraction of olive oil, the refining of cane sugar, or che manufacture of starch. Curíously enough, a few of these do appear in another conremporary set of illustrations of new discoveries and inventions, the «Nova Reperta» of Stradanus. This 'libro' like severa! others can be treated as three more or less independent sections, which flow on as the author's train of thought took him from one subject to another. After his account of a fulling mili, which he takes as an archetype, he then suggests the versatility of its mechanism. With only a change in the position of sorne components, it could become a powdermill, or could hull rice or barley. In sorne long established

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crafts, which be finds are still employing only animal power as a rule, he claims that a waterwbeel could substitute, as in the oil-press and wax-press. A shaft carrying dĂ­fferent grindstones comes under the same beading. Whether sorne of these were already powered by water elsewhere is another question. He even tries to show how one source of water could drive altemating wbeels, and so presumably two machines. Water was also used in solutions intended to purify various substances, sometimes in tbe forro of a lye. This affords him an opportunity to describe refining processes, in sugar manufacture and raw materials whicb were coming to be regarded as cognate: alum, vitriol, saltpetre, common salt. The third section of this 'libro' is independent and might logically have been expected to appear much earlier, because pumps and other instrwnents to raise water surely belong to the water supply chapters. He starts with bis reading of Vitruvius as the oldest source of information known to him and follows Vitruvius' order, since be can find out there about the tympanum and the Archimedean screw and the chain of pots, to which he adds a rag and chain pump, certainly a more recent variant. To finish, we have a force pump, attributed toan Ancient inventor, but probably modified from the original to convert it in part into an early phase suction pump.

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Book o/ mills) Fulling mills) oil mills and various types o/ device o/ the same /ashzón) to draw water; to make alum and saltpetre and to wash wool and cloth

A

is1 the channel which brings the water to the wheel, B the wheel, the paddles C, the axle of the wheel D. The two cams E E are inserted in it. They raise the hammers F F at the bottom. Under the hammer is the haft, which projects somewhat, so as to make a place for the cam to strike. Care should be taken that the hammers do not drag against the tub, either where they go in or when they come out because the doth would break if it was touched too strongly. They should clear the tub by four fingers, and when they strike the cloth, they should clear the base by a hand's breadth. Gis the tub, and H the base: and the hammers go in front of the tub. Above the tub the water falls on to the cloth at K. Lis the cloth. Pegs hold the tub. The frames are where those hammers like bell clappers are mounted; they are suspended at M N. R is the stand of the comer of the tub. The hammers O P should be eight palms in length and made of hol.tn-oak; and the rest of good timber. lt seems tome that a device could be made, to pound musket-powder simply by removing the hammers, and turning them to líe in a different position. And that is so necessary in affairs of war, [!fol. 331v] I believe that I should not pass it over 1 'fulling-mills to strengthen and deanse woollen cloth' ... (the text in Book 12, the pícture and letterkey in Book 13). Fulling was the first process in the manufacture of textiles to be mechanísed, perhaps as early as the twelfth century. In effect the hammers replace the trampling feet of men and women, which is why fulling was sometimes called the walking of cloth; hence one old name for the fulling-stocks was walk-mill and in Italy- as if brought in from across the Alps- <<gualchiera». Woven doths were placed in tubs or troughs, here little more than a washing board, to be beaten and turned in fuller's earth, so as to dean the doth, but more than that to thicken ít. This type depicted here was known as 'hanging-stocks'; Zonca (p. 43) shows a similar machine, except that the bammer-heads are heavier and are tripped at the hafts projecting below the heads, rather than along the base of the head, as here. Similar machinery survived until quite recently in parts of eastern Europe-Hunter photographed a fulling mili the brorher of this in Bulgaria, in 1963 (Hunrer 1967). 2 'to pound musket-powder' ... («polvora de escopeta>>). According to Biringuccio (Bk.X,ch.2), a different mixture, richer in saltpetre, was used for «arquebuses and pistols». The switch to tripping the other end of the haft, would allow a longer fall to the hammer. Usually powdermills, common enough at this time, employed stamps dropping vertically, as illustrated in Zonca (pp. 85-7) and indeed in the multi-purpose mili of Book 11 .

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Il/ustration 241

in silence, although these matters are so widely known among the common people, that it almost seems an insult to have to write about it allustration 241). But I shall do so, as it is a question of water, and it must profit those who take pleasure in ingenious things, for the more a man sees, it helps him to invent much more by himself, through his seeing various different forms. In this machine 1 have not troubled to put in the construction of the walls, in arder not to confuse those who may wish to know the way how to make a device of this kind- so it will be easy to understand. A is the trough which carries the water, B the wheel, whose paddles are enclosed on both sides where the water strikes, so that shaft C will turn more rapidly. In this axle are inserted cams D E F which drive rockers in which are inserted the hafts of the hammers L M N [!fol. 332r]. These rockingbeams are H 1 K. The hammers hit into the centre of the mortars to beat the powder O P Q. The cams in the axle of the wheel B (Illustration 242) should be fixed in such a way that the hammers keep striking and rising altemately, as demonstrated by the figure; N is striking the mortar, at the point of impact, M is just about to make its impact, and L is rising in arder to make it. So the hammers should be very heavy, and should be made long so that they will reach down into the mortar. And they need to be round, so they will not lift up a lump of the powder while it is being pounded. Two wheels can be driven by a single leat3, so asto keep many more hammers crushing: with this invention they can be used to clean rice, [!fol. 332v] by simply adding a little trough, into which water keeps falling a little at a time. The same ' 'two wheels can be driven by a single leat' ... if broad enough, so that the paddles do not obstruct one another. The extra water ís to wash the ríce ro be hulled, i.e. to remove the husk. To make pearl barley too, the husk has to be stripped off.

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Illustration 242

Illustration 243

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Volume III 1/lustration 244 This is che device of the oil-mill

can be done with barley, for in our parts the grinding of it is practised as much as that of corn and rice. Even wheat is prepared in the same way, as these cereals are eaten just like corn and rice. (Illustration 243) To show the way how two wheels can be fitted, so asto be driven from a single leat: and they can be used for any function: and these two wheels will go in opposite directions. One tums one way, the other with a contrary movement; both are going simultaneously, and each one can fulfil a different function; but there should be quite a large quantity of water for a device like this.

[!fol. 333r] lt is the practice to crush olives by water-4 in many places, so it will not be irrelevant to deal with it here. The method they use to extract the oil after they have crushed them is this: in Catalonia after they have crushed the olives till 4 'it is the practice to crush olives by water' ... the first pulping of the olives had certaĂ­nly been carried out in these edge-runner presses since Antiquicy, most often no doubt worked by a donkey, or ox- or even camel. The description of the drawing suggests that the human treading stage is omitted; we move direcdy from pulping in the edge-runner to expressing the oil in the screw presses. Horizontal waterwheels are shown as replacements for the donkeys; over the page (334 v) an unkeyed sketch offers a vertical wheel as a third choice.

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Thirteenth Book they form a lump, they put this paste inside a very thick bag. Then they take it, and put the bag in a vat, of wood or stone, as each man thinks best, and then pour hot water on it. And so the oil begins to come out, and then a man gets into the vat and begins to trample on the bag, which is made of something strong and tough. On their feet they wear wooden clogs, studded with many nails in the sole of the clog; and by continually trampling on the bag and pouring water over it, they extract the oil from the olives. Then one man goes round with a very thin vessel collecting the oil, and afterwards they pass a flat copper vessel over the top of the water. They keep doing this until the olives give no more oil. Then they put what is left in the bag into containers made of esparto grass, and then they crush it again. Next they put what has been crushed in round baskets of esparto grass. The.n three doze.n of these baskets are laid one above the other in a press, and then pressed, and thus the oil is extracted, which was left in the crushed olives. Although it was not my intention to teach how oil is made, but only to demonstrate the way to crush olives- and this because it is driven by water, although in many places olives are crushed by animals: but as it belongs to milis, both methods will be demonstrated, as I promised in the beginning of the milis to demonstrate every type of mili, and it seems to me that I would not be complying with m y promise, if I did not set clown this mili with the rest; whether driven by water or beast. Thus olives are crushed, [!fol. 333v] and afterwards the oil is extracted by pressing: and after this has been done once, they are crushed a second time, then pressed again, and the oil removed again, although it is very little, and not so good or so fatty as befare. And this is done with this hook to collect it better and faster. (Illustration 244)

[!fol. 334r] This is the device of the oil-mili, the invention for extracting oil, as has been stated. It is very well designed for its purpose. Although this instrument is very simple to understand, as it is so useful, I have set it clown here because this oil- whim or mili (properly it should be called a mili, since the olives have to be crushed first, befare their oil is extracted) is so well constructed for its function of extracting oil. The exposition applies to water or beast as the figure shows, with the letters in their places. A is the first wheel, B the second, C the third. The bin where the olives are stored is D; they are being crushed at E F G H, and put in at E. The runners or milistones are I K L, their axles M N 0: the tubs P Q R, the weights S T. The tubs receive the oil, and it is placed clean, separated from the water in V Y Z X. So V X are the tubs which receive the oil when it flows out of the baskets. 10, 11 are the screws, or axles, with their weights; the clamps are where the weights are placed in the ground. U is a level space between the two presses. R is the boiler where the water is heated, and I its chimney. As for the rest, it can be understood from the letters or numbers marked on each object. (lllustration 245)

[!fol. 334v] Since I have dealt with various kinds of milis, and how rice is cleaned, and various other things, I think that it would not be irrelevant to deal with the process of making starch', as it is all done with water- and it is also a new method of extracting the flour from wheat, with greater delicacy because ' 'the process of making starch' ... Ped<ham (1986, P·. 18) ~as pointed out how ~ttle t~is industry has been studied; its prime purpose at this time was to stiffen linen, a pro~table ~usmess m that age of the ruff and the cuff, without benefit of machinery. Human feet still dtd the ¡ob, but, as ts explained, «a great quantity of wateD> was involved.

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Illustration 245

the bran is never mixed with what comes out. So we can call this process a mili, although it does not extract so great a quantity, nor so quickly as is done by grinding. The starch is made of very dean wheat, which is put to soak in a large vessel in a great quantity of water and left in the water until the grain begins to burst by itself. Then it is taken a little at a time into a big wooden vat, like the ones used for treading grapes; and then a man gets in to trample it with bis feet. This vat has a hole at one end. So they keep on trampling it and pouring on water; and this water pours into another clean vessel, with the finest flour extracted from the wheat. Thus the flour settles in this third vessel, and after it is full, it is left to lie, until all the flour has gone to the bottom, and the water remains dean. Then the vessel is decanted, the water being emptied little by little, until only the flour is left. (Illustration 246) When the flour is too thick to be handled, sorne of the flour is taken and laid on clean tables like pats of butter. [!fol. 335r] After the flour is dry, it is put in wooden vessels: as it has todo with water I have set it clown here. It is dried in the sun and so becomes much whiter. A is the wheat, or vessel containing the wheat. It is trampled at B. The water with the flour is received at C. D is the vessel for decanting, which holds the starch flour. E is where it dries in the sun. I believe that it would not be out of place to include the device for milling sugar canĂŠ; my intention is not to teach you how to make sugar, or anything like 6 'the device for milling sugar cane' ... this is the earliest attempt at illustrating a sugar mili and refinery. The edge-runner shows us d1at the author is describing what Daniels & Daniels (1988) call

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Illustration 246

that; but my subject draws me into it, for the device can not be made at all, if it is not stated what function it is to serve. Sugar then is made from canes, which are not hollow like pipes, but fulllike the stalks of millet. They do not grow very high, and the highest do not exceed five palms. After they have been harvested, they are cut into small pieces, and then crushed with a very large stone edge-runner, which is at least nine palms high and one palm thick, and is to be of a very strong stone. Thus they are crushed like olives. But the runner is driven by animals, and it occurs to me that this process could be carried out with less work, íf the cane were cut and crushed by water, either each stage separately, or the two together, at the same time. That has been my intention in describing this subject with this device. After the cane has been crushed, it is put in baskets of esparto and pressed like olives. The juice whích comes out is boiled in very large cauldrons, and after being boiled, it ís put in moulds, so that it forms loaves: the more often the sugar is boiled, the finer and whiter it becomes. In arder that the device may work to the purpose stated, ít should be set up on sorne ríver or leat, and ít should be built according to the amount of water that comes there. The wheel A should be erected having a long axle B which rises very high. [!fol. 335v] At the top is mounted the lantern O. This moves the wheel D which is toothed all round, and by its axle drives the runner E which crushes the cut cane. At the bottom of the axle of the runner, there is a curved piece of iron to keep the cane under the runner so it will be crushed. Teeth are set in the wheel Ato drive the lantern G, which has a double crank H, which is inserted through a ring. This has a rod, which raises a knife I. «the Mediterranean technology>>: sugar cane cultivation like rice having been introduced to the Mediterranean basin by Arab farmers in the Middle Ages, the crop survived the retreat of the Moors in Sicily and eastem Spain; from there it was carried to the Atlantic islands and the New World. This muscovado sugar was still being produced in Andalusia at the time this book was written, although the industry was already in decline (Galloway, 1977). However the vertical roller milis which were later such a feature of the sugar business only appear in the seventeenth century, probably inspired by Chinese technology. The idea of driving a crankshaft off the toothed rim of the waterwheel, and so operating a cutter to save human labour would seem to be the author's. Unfortunately, as drawn, K will function as a rocking-beam, and instead of the scissors action envisaged, blade I and fork L will go up and clown together, so the fork will not present the cane to be cut by the descending blade. The only other contemporary picture of sugar production is in Stradanus, who in1plausibly has me cane crushed between the stones of an ordinary mili. Otber processes are in his plate all carried out by hand. I can find no other reference ro the must (i.e. grape juíce) process, whích did not catch on- probably it seemed a dreadful waste of good \Vine.

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Illustration 247

There is another rod L, which has at the end a fork, which keeps pushing up the cane to be cut. When the rod L goes clown, it retreats a little to push the canes, which are tied in sheaves or bundles a little further forward. From here they take them and put them under the runner, and after they have been crushed, they are put in vessels; from there they are put in baskets of esparto, almost like those used for crushed (Illustration 247) olives. [!fol. 336r] Then they press them in the same way as olives, and the juice that comes out, which they call honey of sugar, is put in very large cauldrons. Then they boíl it, and when it reaches a certain point, it is removed and put in earthenware moulds. So it forms loaves, large or small, and as it cools, it curdles: this is the syrupy sugar. To refine it further, they break up these loaves again, and put them again in different cauldrons, and it is boiled again once more. In this way they keep on refining it, and make little loaves, but to bring it to this strength, it is re-boiled three times, until it is very white. In ltaly I was assured that someone has discovered an invention of making sugar from must; this sugar is excellent, although it is not so white, but all those who understand natural questions say that it is very mild, and of more virtue. I believe that different things could be fitted to instruments that are driven· by water. I have been considering the great toil and labour those who make arms undergo7 in Spain, in burnishing and polishing them, and so seeing the labour 7 'the great toil and labour those who make arms undergo' ... if in Spaín these gríndstones were still turned by hand, elsewhere water power was already in regular use. In Stradanus the shaft, driven off a waterwheel in an underloft, carried five grindstones. Zonca (pp. 34-41) has three methods, employing horse, man and water, but makes it clear that water is the most powerful and does not tire like flesh and blood. In Jan Brueghel's paintíng of 'Pire', the grindstones are apparently driven by a vertical waterwheel, although in a ratheJ strange position; another such wheel works the bellows and hammer. Presumably by then this set up was normal.

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they endure in turning the wheel by hand- and it is necessary for a man to be always at the wheel, and also a beast, that has to serve all the time for this aloneit is a powerful business. So it has occurred to me that it would not be out of order to give a way they could leave their labour and entrust it to the water. 1bis can be done with great ease by two methods, one with a vertical wheel, and one with a flat wheel. So I will demonstrate how both wheels are to be fixed so as to have their proper effect. The vertical wheel is A. The other wheels driven by this wheel A are to polish the arms.

[!fol. 336v] The first is B, where they begin the polishing, and after that they go to wheel C, which is somewhat gender. Mter the scores made by the first wheel are no more to be seen, they go on to the third, D, which is furbished with leather all round; with that they give the arms a lustre, putting powdered lime on the pieces, to polish them more. Wheel E can be removed and put back for it to work, and for that reason it has the aperture where the axle of the grindstone can be inserted- the grindstone serves to plane and remove the marks of the hammer-blows on the arms. The flat waterwheel B can produce the same effect, as teeth are fitted to it, to turn wheel C- I mean the lantern- whose axle D is to have the wheels mounted on it. As the lantern moves, so the three wheels will go, together with the grindstone, as is portrayed in the first figure. (Illustration 248) Illustration 248

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[!fol. 337r] Washing wool is such an easy thing8 that it almost seems insulting to talk about it, as it is a business of such little ingenuity- and then there is nowhere where people do not know how wool is washed. But although there is so little apparatus, it does not fail to have always sorne nicety about it, specially where it is practised on a large scale. Since I have seen how the workers perform great labour to draw water from the river, and then to draw it from the boilers, to pour it into tubs to heat the wool- these are of wood ... It is a business wholly of water, both cold and hot. So, to draw water, a hale should be made in the river bank, and through it water will regularly go in and out. Then make a pump, and erect it so as to touch the bottom. Inside this pump a plunger needs to be mounted, in such a manner that it has free play within the pipe. It is to be fixed with wooden pieces to keep it straight, as demonstrated in the figure- it will be found in the book of stone bridges how to make this pump. After it has been set up straight and firm, a channel should be made to collect the water drawn by the pump, and carry it to the boiler or boilers. Make a very thick stone wall around the boiler in arder to conserve the heat in it, so that all that fuel is not wasted. The boiler should be very large, although a wooden boiler could be made, provided the base was copper. Two boilers could be fitted together; provided there is one mouth for the two boilers they could be heated with the fuel needed for one only. After these two boilers have been erected, a pump should be installed inside each of them.

[!fol. 337v] So it draws now from one side, now from the other, to discharge into the tubs for scalding the wool, so as to remove all the dirt it contains. After it has been washed, and dried, and put in sacks, it is pressed down with the feet; the sacks being then hung up in the air, and marked accorcling to the kind of wool. So the device of the wool-washer is as set down here: A is the pump, B the channel, C the plunger of the pump, D and F the boilers, G their chimney. F is the pump of the boiler, whereby the man who is to draw water with the pump may also draw water from the boilers, without changing his position. Between the two boilers is the way up to both the pumps from the river and those from the boilers; and the channel for the tub H where the water is poured to scald the wool. The sacks of dirty wool are I, the men washing the wool, K; the washed wool L, and the wool to be washed M, N is the man who fires the boilers; P those who scald the wool; Q is the fence to protect the wool that comes out of the panniers, so that the water is not lost underneath. (lllustration 249)

[!fol. 338r] It is the practice of dyers, after they have dyed their cloths the colour required, to wash the cloths where there is a large quantity of water, so that they do not stain the hands of those who wear them when made up into clothes. Seeing that those who carry out this process are not men who take much interest in it, I believe it would not be unprofitable to set out a method how it can be done with great neatness and ingenuity. Let nobody suppose that I want to teach hirn how to dye cloths, but only the washing of them after they have been dyed. T ake a piece of cloth folded over and carry it to the river where it is 'washing wool is such an easy thing' ... here the innovation proposed is the use of two pumps instead of drawing water from a stream by hand; in the second washing process, although the text presents sorne difficulties, it seems that all the author wants is to use a raft, with a clothes-horse mounted on it, instead of wading into the stream. 8

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proposed to wash it. For this a very large wooden device should be made, in the form I shall illustrate here. Take seven pieces of timber, not too big nor too thick, and make a wooden frame, at least twenty-four palms. The part toward the river should be very spacious, and should be as long as it is wide, or even more. It should be erected in this manner: in the part which is toward the middle of the river, one wooden post should be erected lengthwise to the river, with two joined to the upper part, two more to the lower part, and two more on the other side, opposite the single post. But they should all be well apart, at least twelve palms, and there should be two traversing members, of this same width. After the ends have been properly assembled, two legs should be set up, which rise at least six palms at the top. Then the twelve palms should be covered with planks, quite thick, and then over them two pieces of timber. A wooden bar should be placed to cross from one leg to the other (which is called a horse), to put the cloths after they have been washed. A is the entry, B a chain which holds it fast; the horse with the cloth on it is C, the base of the raft is D; E F the men washing the cloth, and G the cloth they are washing. H is another raft made of planks nailed to two half planks. This serves to finish drawing the dye from the cloth, for it is suspended from the raft H, and is then immersed in the water- [!fol. 338v] but not entirelyfor the men who take the cloth hold it in such a way that they can strike it with large rods on alternate sides, until they have taken out all the dirt. Then they hold the cloth again, folded in two, and beat it out again on the other side, until they have removed everything a second time. Once this is done, they take hold of it again, and so it stays completely clean, with the colour of the dye, so that after drying it will never dirty anyone who handles it: this applies to any colour whatsoever. (Illustration 250) Since I have dealt with rather unrewarding material, it will be well if I should deal now with a subject of great profit: and since my intention is to deal with [401]

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9

matters of water, I believe it would not be inappropriate to deal with the alum ore , since it ís so necessary for dying, for medicine, and for countless other things, whích I shallleave asíde, as I do not intend to deal with medicine or other matters of that kind. There are severa! sorts of alum ore- but essentially only three sorts. The first is of stone, the second a material whích is neither stone nor earth, but a mixture whích shares in both. The third species is earth, so that when it is required to work this kind of mine, water is needed to extract the substance of the material; without water it is fruitless, for the alum is a material which is wholly water.

[/fol. 339r] To process thís alum ore, there must be an abundance of water to steep the alum stone. After it has been calcined like lime, and taken out of the kiln, this alum stone is then prepared as if one wanted to make a wall. Thís done, water should be poured over it twice a day, morning and evening, until it has become as pliable as lime when it is well slaked, tha,t is, as pliable as butter. This is done on a level threshing floor. All the water whích drains from the stone in the last days of this process must be put in a receptacle where it is stored. Much more water is needed to steep thís stone than for lime, and it also requires more time, because lime is slaked in three or four days, while alum stone needs six, eight, or ten days. Channels are laid to keep ít watered and when ít begins to soften, the water is collected in wooden vessels. When the stone is pliable, sorne of ít is taken and put in wooden vats or vessels. One thírd of each vessel contains thís material, and then it ís filled up with water. These vessels are linked by channels whích go from one vessel ro another, so that all the water goes to a single receptacle. 9 'the alum ore' ... alum was then used as an asrringent in medicine, but more importantly as a mordant in fixing dyes, which may be why after the previous section on dyeing alum ushers in the various mineral refining processes. Of the three rypes of ore, the stone is presumably alunite (hydrous aluminium-potassium sulphate), which Biringuccio understood to be mined in those days in eastem Spain, at Mazarrón near Cartagena, although overshadowed by the famous ltalian deposits at Tolfa, while the 'sheets ... ncither earth nor stone' («tablachinas») must be the shales from which alum was also extracted. The roasting served to hasten the process of decomposition; the ore is then hydrated, weathered and eventually leached until it crystallised. Both Agrícola, De Re Metallica (Book Xll) and Biringuccio (Book II, ch. 6) give more detail and recognise even more varieties. But here we have by far the first detailed plan, among the eadiest plans of industrial plant, together with an elevation (with two walls and roof removed). The Hoovers (Agrícola, 1912, pp. 564-72, n.lO) and Multhauf (1966, pp. 338-40) describe the vadous stages in the process, and their history.

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Illustration 251

A wall of calcined stone. The water which runs off the stone is collected at B. There are sorne who in order not to keep watching the stone after it has been calcined, crush it in this way: (Illustration 251) In this rnethod the alum stone is crushed in the sarne way as gypsum. As it is necessary to have water in order to carry out this process, if there were a great quantity of water, it would be possible to avoid the expense of [!fol. 339v] the horses which tum the runner to crush the stone: the device illustrated could be used to drive the runner. There is another type of stone which does not need to be calcined but only to be crushed. The ore in sheets, which is neither stone (lllustratt"on 252) nor earth, has to be burnt. There is another, whĂ­ch only has to be piled up, and in the course of time it will burn by itself. The alum ore of earth rnust be piled up into big heaps after it has been extracted frorn the mine, and in the space of six rnonths it will be burnt. But it should be tumed over every rnonth, specially when rain has fallen on it, so that it Illustration 252 rnay burn the better. There is another type of alurn earth which should be burnt in arder to get the fruits of it: each species of ore requires its own particular treatrnent. Once all this care has been taken to extract the fruits of thern, lyes should be rnade for thern, of various kinds. Sorne are of lime, sorne a salty ash, others of holm-oak ash, so that as many inventions have to be found for them as there are species of alum. lt is the same with cooking the alum waters, sorne should be very well cooked, and others not. And there are sorne whose virtue evaporates if they are long cooked, and thus nothing of any value can be extracted frorn thern. The rnethod of the kilns, and of the whole workshop. (Illustration 253) [403]

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I/tustration 253

There should be a vertical wheel [!fol. 340r] to draw water from river, conduit or well: chis is A. A channel or conduit of stone or wood is to be made, to carry che water to operate the mine. This channel is B. Kilns are to be made in the manner sketched, with small arches of brick- not more than one palm's distance between the arches- where the earth is put to be calcined. The kilns are C, the little arches D, with the fuel supplied at E, the earth brought to be calcined is F; and G is what has already been calcined. After it has been calcined, it is put in vats made of stone, H. There is a conduit which comes from the vertical wheel and fills the vats containing che earth: I is where each one is filled. After it has given the earth its substance, the water drains through boles in each vat at K. The water enters a stone channel, which runs right along the vats, and this again enters a wide pool, the channel being L and the pool M. This latter is very large, twenty palms long and as many broad. Then there is another room N. The cauldrons P are in O. Although I have not put in more than three, as many can be installed as may be needed. At Q are the chimneys of each cauldron, and R the furnaces to heat the cauldrons. S is a shed to keep the fuel, and the firing for che furnaces; and T and V are rooms for the master who (Illustration 254) directs the work. [!fol. 340v] X is the main door of the workshop: Z a stable for the purpose of keeping the animals which bring the fuel: U is the courtyard where the fuel is unloaded: 2 is a large room to keep the vats for congealing the alum water; 4 are wooden vats for the cooked water of alum. 5 is a channel coming from the cauldrons and passing by the pillars. This takes the water to the vats, 6 being individual channels to each vat. 3 is a staircase to climb up to a flat roof, where the alum is put to dry after congealing, 8 is the roof itself, 7 is a kitchen for the workforce, and over it there is a pantry to keep the kitchen things. Many more workrooms are needed for the process of making alum; the whole plant is in the illustration. At Y there are drains, where the water from the boilers can be emptied into the master pipe. There is also another channel which crosses the door of the room S, to guide the alum water to the boilers. A pump should be fitted in the pool M, and also in the cauldrons, as illustrated in the section on washing wool. This pump for the cauldrons should be mobile, so that it can be changed to serve each cauldron when needed. As I have begun to demonstrate how it is necessary to employ instruments in every process, although they are processes widely diffused among the common [404]

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Illustration 254

people; but the way to fit them properly is not so commonly known: and besides I have promised to deal with all the processes which work by water. As I have begun to deal with mining matters, it occurs to me that vitriol or copperas 10 is a mineral which is made by means of water. It is raised by extracting the substance from earth by water, for usually, where a mine of alum is found, vitriol or copperas will be found there too. And they are worked in almost the same way, although with sorne variatíon. And the ore is almost the same as that of alum, [!fol. 341r] so that the earth is treated in the same way as with alum; for after the earth has been extracted for vítriol, it is made into big heaps on flat threshing-floors, and left so for four, five or six months, being turned over every fortnight, or every month, until it has burnt by itself, and so from being black it comes out like ash. When it is well burnt, it is put in wooden vessels like chests, and a channel is made to go from one chest to the next, right to the end. These chests are arranged in two ranks, and once they are full of earth, they are filled with water. As the water is the agent here, there should be a supply, &om a river, conduit, spring or well. (Illustration 255) So, as water is involved, a way must be found to draw it with greater ease and less work [!fol. 341v]. The instrument for this must be suited to the situation, because if the river is deep, one thing will be needed, if it is a conduit, or a spring, something else, and if it is a well, that is 10 'vitriol or copperas' ... vitriol, here iron sulphate, is more common than aluminium sulphate, and often found m association with the latter. Here, too, the account is briefer and sirnpler than Agrícola, De Re Metallica (pp. 572-8) and Birmguccio (Book II, ch. 5). The process is agairl a kind of artificial weathermg followed by leachirlg and crystallisation. In Agrícola there are separare woodcuts for each of the processes that appear here as stages in one succession. Vitriol was a blackening agent, much m demand for inks and dyes, but above all to blacken leather for boots, a major Spanish mdustry.

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more difficult, but somehow what has to be done is done, for in the end it is all one whether water has to be carried up or clown. Bu.t when water is to be had so conveniently that it can be used without any instrument, that is a great advantage. H there should be none, sorne of the instruments in this work made for similar purposes could be installed- but made in such a way that their employment involves little skill, for they are to be employed by men of little ingenuity. So the buckets are A, B the wheel, C the receptacle for the water, and D the channel which fills the boxes E. F is the channel to receive the lye, G the receptacle for the lye, where it is purged of the impurities it carries with it. The channel I fills the cauldrons H; there the lye is boiled. Normally the cauldrons are made of lead, but sorne make them with a metal base and the rest of wood. This metal is like that used for bells. Sorne there are, who are very original in casting these cauldrons like bells are cast, so that they willlast a long time without developing hales, for copperas or vitriol is very corrosive. The channel I fills the cauldrons: this channel is movable for ít also fills the chests, whích have green branches inside, in arder that when the chests are full of the boiled lye the congealing may take place more quickly. Thus the water or alum clings to the branches, in little pieces, like ice. The water which remains in the chests is boiled again with fresh lye, and when it no longer gives off íts substance cakes are made of the sedíment whích remains. This is used as a black dye, and called Seville earth. A sedíment like salt is usually left inside the cauldrons; the water which does not congeal is good when míxed with it, [!fol. 342r] and used for the same purpose. (Illustration 256) [406]

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.,.r·-

. ll ~·

(. )

~

1

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DDITJD D0 D

T o make a great quantity of saltpetre 11 , water must be drawn with some device, in order to fill the troughs. A wheel A should be installed to draw the water, or instead of a wheel, if the water is not to be raised very high, let a pump be erected, which will have the same effect. D is the channel to fill the chests, going from one to the other, through which they are to flow. The chests or troughs are C, E is the receptacle or vat which receives the lye from the channels, and F the second receptacle linked to the tank E; it is to hold the lye G which is left in the congealing vats L. The cauldrons are I and the chimneys K. The vat H is to put the froth which is drawn from the cauldrons. [!fol. 342v] After it has congealed, it ís put on boards to dry, in a dry place because íf it is in a clamp place it would deteriorate, because it would get fatty- and when it does that, it has not so much strength. This process is carried on at all times of the year, 11 'w make a great quantity of saltpetre' ... the description of the manufacture comes after the extraction of salt. The natural saltpetre and the saltpetre found in buildings are really both calcium nitrate produced by organic decomposition. The «large wooden chests» (343v) are intended for what were called saltpetre plantations; but the author has omitted the addition of a wood-ash lye. There are much fuller accounts in Agrícola (ib. pp. 561-4); the various processes can be recognised from Agricola's woodcut, although the layout is much clearer here. Birínguccio's account is much more detailed (Book X, ch. 1; briefly Book II, ch. 8).

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as opposed to the extraction of salt from water, which can only be done in the summer because of the great heat, for it is impossible during the winter because of the rain. It is the opposite with copperas and alum and saltpetre, for the colder it gets, the better it congeals. The reason is that the waters of these minerals contain more substance than the water used for making salt. Salt is made 12 from two kinds of water; either from sea-water or from sorne salt springs or wells; but mostly from wells, or from certain rivers. Wherever the water may be, let it be the sea or a well, a device has to be found to convey it into a place suitable for the pans, if it is by the sea. It is very seldom that suitable places can be found, and if they can, there may be difficulty in bringing the water there. Sorne instrument is needed to convey it to the pans, so that it can congeal under a strong sun. Most of the saltworks that I have seen have little ingenuity abour them, and it is the same with almost all waters drawn from wells. So then, the pans are made, as fl.at as possible, so as not to have any fall in any part. They are not very big, the largest being thirty p·alms square, and have a surround of tiles laid edgewise, or of stone, or boards, according to the availability of material in that place. Many of these pans are made, and channels laid between them, so that they can be filled with water, without disturbing what has already congealed, or is beginning to do so. [!fol. 343r] The water congeals in three or four days, according to the strength of the sun. A.fterwards it is collected and put in things they have at the end of the fl.oor, made of withies, so that the water which was touching it may finish running off. It is not to be supposed that all the water congeals, for if it were so, a great deal would be made forro very little water: it ís only what is on the surface of the water that congeals. Saltpetre is another, very different material; there are two kínds, one of which is the natural saltpetre. There is another, made artificially, much of which is made for gunpowder. It is made in almost the same way as vitriol, except that their earths are very different, but in everything else the method is the same. The earth used fo r saltpetre accumulates in two forros . One earth is to be found in the fields, in saline places, and where this earth is required, it may be recognísed very easily in summer, because where thís earth is, the ground turns white; and ít may be collected for saltpetre. There is another earth which is very good for thís purpose. It is in places under the ground, and in old houses, and on walls, and where there is filth of men or animals, for instance where there are pigs, or the night-soil from chamberpots which is taken from houses. When a quantity of this earth has b€en collected, take vessels made of earthenware, like jars whose mouths are much wider than their bellies: they are laid out in a row, and filled with the earth. A.fter they are full, water is put in, as much as they can contain. Then the earth is left to líe in the water, and then they unstop certain boles around the base. A cloth is used so that the water can percolate without any earth escaping. Vessels of the same construction are laid in the ground to serve as a receptacle for the lye. From here it is taken and put in cauldrons to boíl. After it has boiled, the lye is put to cool in vessels, and so ít congeals in little pieces like salt. 12 'salt is made' ... here only salt-pans are described in a summary way, with no mention of boiling the brine, or mines of mineral salt, sorne of which, such as at Wieliczka in Poland, were already famous. There are still salt-pans near the mouth of the Ebro.

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[!fol. 343v] But those who make it in large quantities make two dozen large wooden chests, and lay them in an orderly row, and fill them with earth, and then with water, and make a channel to connect them right to the end. In each one they put a doth for the water to percolate at the bottom. Thus the water from the chests goes to a very large wooden vat, which is buried in the ground, having a hole at the bottom which delivers the water to another wooden vat. From there it is put in cauldrons to boíl, and then left to cool, or put in other wooden vessels, and so it congeals. A much greater quantity of it is produced by putting it in these other vessels, than by leaving it to congeal in the same cauldrons- and much more rapidly.

[!fol. 344r] Other inventions can be made to raise water13 by another method, naú1ely norias or waterwheels, which are driven by the movement of the very water in which they are erected. They are operated either by making that movement, or by making sorne kind of sluice, or by making a sluice on purpose, and installing two or three wheels, or more. These latter should be very large, as high as can be fitted, as to raise water very high, to irrigate a great amount of land. And they should have a device whereby they can work in safety and spates can not do them any damage. All the construction of the walls should be of masonry. And if there should not be height enough to receive the water, to convey it by conduits, a wall should be made to carry it as high as may be needed, where the water will reach level ground under its own weight, without losing any of its head, as it travels in its path. Another device will have to be made, to fit two other wheels smaller than the first two, in size as well as height, and in the quantity of water they raise. The water raised by the larger wheels goes to the small ones, which are fitted in such a way that the water so strikes them as to set them in motion, as they must raise the water. So the buckets in these wheels will also have to be much smaller than those of the large wheels driven by the river, in order that as it falls through its conduits or sluices, it may drive the second norias with the water as it strikes them: and so they may raise the water high enough to be received and dispatched through its conduit as high as may be needed, until it reaches the ground, as was done with the first conduits. And in this way other wheels may be installed, much smaller than the second ones. So with this device we can proceed until we attain our desired objective.

[!fol. 344v] The large wheels should be made in pieces in order to reach the proper height. The arms of the wheels are to be made along their spokes, as we demonstrate in the illustration below. 13 'other inventions can be made to raise water' ... these are, as is acknowledged, basically the water-raising instruments described by Vitruvius in Book X, and illustrated in most printed editions. The Arabic name 'noria' has stuck to the fust cype, by Vitruvius called 'tympanum', a waterwheel that probably preceded the invention of watermills, which Vitruvius himself treats in the same chapter. There were two main types; those whose compartments were segmenta!, receiving water through board slots round the circumference, and delivering it thro~gh or~ces aroun? the centre, just above the axle (interior and exterior views at 347r); and those which recetve and deliver through circumferential boxes (347v). Both forms were certainly known since Antiquity, but still interested the engineers of the sixteenth century. Vitruvius notes that if the current is strong enough, the wheel can be driven by the river which supplies the water. Otherwise man or beast will have to be employedhere (348r-v) the ubiquitous donkey. First the author gives informatiou on the coostruction. He then shows how water can be raised through a successíon of norias of diminis hing radíus. But his advice on reducing later wheels is sadly flawed , for he seems to assume that the ratio of diagonal to side of a square ís predsely 2: 1. As the Pythagoreans found to their chagrín two thousand years before, that is not the case. As drawn the ratio of the cü-cles is roughly 4:3:2:1, within approximately 0.2.

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Il/ustration 257

The axle of the noria wheel is A. The spokes are to be inserted at B: there are to be two only passing through the axle A and forming a perfect cross. Additional spokes e are inserted between these spokes B. (Illustratt'on 257) This is done in order not to detract from the strength of the axle A, for the members B are to be as long as possible. A circle of pieces F is placed at the end of these spokes B, in which the pieces D can be fixed. This circumference is made not quite a circle, in order that it may be given greater strength, by letting the first section on the end overlap the last piece F. The end of it is H, and the beginning G. In this way these pieces go to make up the spokes, and fasten them properly. By this procedure the noria wheel is made as high as may be desired. (Illustration 258)

e

Il/ustration 258

The way to reduce the wheels in due order and proportion. A is the large wheel, and D E F G its square. B is the second wheel, being half of square A; and its square is H I K L, The third wheel e, is a quarter of the large square, and half the wheel B; [!fol. 345r] its square is M N O P. So if there have to be more wheels, the same order is preserved in reducing them, for if this rule is kept, they will always maintain the same proportion in reduction. Let us suppose that wheel A is a hundred palms high in diameter. Then wheel B will be fifty and wheel twenty-five, and if there has to be another, its diameter will only be twelve and a half. In this proportion the water raised by noria A will be able to drĂ­ve noria B, and similarly the water raised by B will drive C. The water of wheel will do the same for any other that may be fitted, following the rule that has been given that is 1 2 .3 4, albeit the fourth is not shown by a square with letters; let it suffice that it is the fourth wheel.

e

e

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Illustration 259

e

To install these water-raising wheels one above the other, they should be placed in the manner we illustrate below, in the proper order. So the first wheels erected in the river are A, and the second, driven by the water of the fi.rst, (Illustration 259) are B, [!fol. 345v] and thence it goes through the conduits to the thírd wheels C, and then on for irrigation, branching out through the properties it has to irrigate. Tanks are prepared for it on the principie of one tank for each noria, to hold a good quantity of water. The second and third should have their basins. Also, you can irrigate from each one of them, as at D and likewise E. So everything, whether it is mountaín or plaín can be irrigated from each noria. When the quantity of land is so great that three or four wheels together will have to be installed to raíse an adequate quantity of water- now I have seen a single noria raise enough water to irrigate a piece of land a league in length and a quarter in breadth, so how much greater quantities would be drawn by two norias. Let us suppose that the first wheels or norias are eighty palms in height. The water which enters the wheel has to be raised higher than it is poured out. So it loses about twenty palms, and actually raises the water sixty palms. The second wheels are forty in height, of which at least twelve are lost, leavíng twenty-eight and sixty, that is eighty-eight and the third wheels are twenty, of which six or seven palms are lost, the remaínder being thirteen; so that in all the water is raised a hundred and one palms, which is quite a height, for with such a height a great amount of land can be irrigated by this invention. The reduction of the wheels is not made at random: the reason of the reduction is because the second wheels can not be driven with the same force as is exerted by the water in the river; and the third wheels can not go if they are as big as the second ones, because the water that comes from the second norias must have so much less force. [!fol. 346r] For this reason they must be smaller than the former, and therefore great care should be taken in this question of the movements. The forces should be measured, so that as they dimínish, the quantity of the weight of water should be diminished in proportion. If this water is to be taken in sorne mountainous district (1 mean where these wheels or norias are installed), then teeth can be fitted to the maín wheels, to engage lanterns, which drive the second wheels; in this way the water will be raised with greater force, and also much [411]

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Il!ustration 260

higher than it would have been without these lanterns to help it turn- although the lanterns are to be set at sorne distance from one another. (Illustration 260)

[!fol. 346v] Since I have dealt with various subjects connected with water, I want now to discuss sorne machines which are used to draw water from rivers and wells, either for irrigation or for human conswnption. Irrigation is a necessity, but in certain territories the commodity of water is not available for irrigation as required, because of various obstacles which prevent it. Sometimes this is because the rivers are very deep, sometimes there are great rocks along the river banks, so countless drawbacks may cause a hindrance to irrigation. Thus in most cases we can not have water at hand to serve us unaided in irrigating what we require, and even though we make dikes and devices, we still can not bring it where we want. So it has been necessary to invent different instruments; and at various times all the existing kinds of machines have been invented for this purpose. I believe that it would not be irrelevant to discuss them, since it all has todo with the subject of water, with the various structures and inventions that are driven by water, and used with water, or for water, or which go through water, or which lift water. Although these inventions are very ancient, as we fĂ­nd them described in Vitruvius, that does not detract from their continuing in use to perform their function of drawing water from rivers, wells, and the rest, namely pools, lakes and ponds. Although Vitruvius deals with them in his tenth book, it is in a confused way, and with very little explanation, nor does he give the method of construction, but only the forro. To start off, we shall begin with the easiest machines, which are tympanum wheels- others call them enclosed wheels. This wheel is of this kind: it is made as you please, I mean with its diameter large or small, as may be needed for it to be of use. In this wheel an axle is inserted of a thickness proportionate to the weight to be supported. Hit be very high, it will have to have many spokes or partitions in it, to divide the water into di:fferent portions and distribute the weight better, [/fol. 347r] both as it fills up and as it empties. For when they are very wide the divisions take more time to fill up, and for this reason the compartments are closely spaced. This wheel has two coverings of boards, on the two sides, and on the circwnference; in the middle, [412)

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Illustration 261

openings are made to receive the water; and the outlet is made underneath, by the axle, so the water pours out to discharge the wheel during only half a revolution. This machine lifts less water than any of the others. This is the tympanum wheel, (Illustration 261) or enclosed wheel. A is the open wheel, and B the spokes or partitions. C is the circumference. It receives the water at E. D is the paddle struck by the water of the river. At G the water is delivered. This wheel should be very high- or have a large circumference- to raise the water to a good height, and the reason for this is, that it does not lift the water further than above the axle. So it should be noted that when che water has to be raised twenty palms, the wheel should be more than forty palms in diameter. Besides, the river must be examined to see íf it has enough force to move such a wheel, after it has been properly erected. H is its axle, and I where the water is delivered [!fol. 347v]. It is enclosed and will have to be erected properly and supplied wíth a receptacle, where the water falls, to be conveyed where it ís needed. If this wheel be erected in a river, the water ítself will drive ít. If ít be in a well, there is no need of paddles, because in such a place, the water no longer moves ít, and it is necessary for an animal to do so. When it is to be dríven by an animal, a wheel should be fitted, morticed to a shaft, with a lantern, or the tympanum Illustration 262 wheel should have teeth fítted, for one to move the other. There are two d.ifferent types. This wheel can also be turned by the feet of whoever is drawing the water. All thís is demonstrated in the figure. This wheel has the same function as the tympanum wheel, although it is somewhat different, only in so far as it is not entirely enclosed, since it has its partitions on the rim of the wheel, whereas the previous one had its delívery in the centre. (Illustration 262) [413]

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Illustration 263

Well

1bis is the machine to draw water, an invention used in two ways; the first, when the water is drawn by an animal, and the second where the man draws it with his feet, treading the lantern to turn it- [!fol. 348r] (Illustratz"on 263) provided it is not very deep. The animal turns shaft A, in which is inserted cross-bar B, to which traces are attached at the end B; they are also attached to the collar of the animal C, which thus drives the wheel D. This has teeth E, which engage the lantern F, which drives wheel H, which draws water from the well M. And the wheel delivers the water at I, above the axle K. And L is the receptacle. Although this next is the same invention, it works in a different way, because the wheel has (Illustration 264) teeth in the centre, where it takes in the water, and also has its lantern above, where the previous one had it in the same axle. Also the wheel P works from well above the ground and the cross-bar is below the gear-teeth Q.

[!fol. 348v] This is another way of fitting this machine, with the lantern applied in a different way from those which have preceded it, in that it has its gear-teeth alongside the tympanum wheel, as shown in the figure. As it is so clear, it will not be necessary to identify the details with letters, as we have done with the others.

allustration 265) Waterwheels, or «cenias» as the common people call them, which others call norias. These machines are usually installed for irrigation, to draw water from wells for drinking, or for watering gardens, although properly speaking, norias are only those which rivers drive by themselves: but as for these other inventíons, each man may call them by whatever name seems right to him. Thus all those which are driven by ~nimals may be called muscle wheels; although we have dealt elsewhere wíth the subject of drawing water by means of river norias, we have not dealt wíth these norias driven by animals, which I call muscle wheels [!fol. 349r]. Of these [414]

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Illustration 264

there are many inventions, constructed in various ways, but I shall here set down only three of them, although there are many others: but I think that will be enough. To draw water from a well which is very deep, it is necessary to employ an invention that may lift it much higher14 than the previous one, which raises it very Illustration 265

14 'an inventĂ­on that may lift it higher' ... mentioned cursorily by Vitruvius (X.iv.4), this type of bucket-chain probably goes back at least to Hellenistic times, and was widespread in Europe and the Middle East- the Arabic name sakieh is often used.

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Volume III Illustration 266 This ís the muscle wheel called a noria wíth its buckets, which may be of different shapes. They are made of copper, wood, or earthenware

!mlL I

~:"

..

~.. ~ . ,~. ~~

---

.

little. For this invention, a wheel should be fitted over the well, in the form of a lantern, but it is to be large and have bars across the circumference from one side to the other, where the chain goes, with the buckets that raise the water. (Illustration 266) The buckets may be doubled by using two chains together, so long as they are the distance of a bucket's width from one another, in order not to impede one another.

[/fol. 349v) This is the muscle wheel called a noria, with its buckets, which may be of clifferent shapes. They are made of copper, wood, or earthenware, but the best are of copper, and after that of wood, while those of earthenware are the weakest and break most often. When you can afford the expense, it is better to make them of copper rather than any other material. This machine can be made without a lantern, but it will be hard work to move it, while tbe lantern it will go quite easily: the more lanterns are employed, the easier it will go. Chains should be fitted, for they are better than ropes. Whatever material they may be made of, chains .last much better, although there is a little more weight. The wheel should be made as A, and the larger it is, the easier it will go. The buckets are B; the chains, F; the wooden roller G has free play to turn in two píeces of timber which are fixed inside the well. D is the lantern fixed in the same axle as the wheel A, moved by the wheel E. The teeth of wheel E should be of ho.lm-oak. The axle or shaft which holds wheel E is to be square. To it is fixed [416]

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a cross-bar which has two iron rings, to which are attached two traces to be fastened to the collar of the animal in order that as it pulls, so it moves the wheel. With the same artífice of wheels 15 , water can be drawn from a well, but the method of pumping will be different, and so will the mechanism. A round wooden pipe should be fitted in the well, just touching the water, and held absolutely firm between two pieces of timber above and below. Then a wooden roller should be placed somewhat lower, the two ends having completely free play. [!fol. 350r] Then take a rope or chain, and attach to the rope ball~ of such a size that they fit into the circumference of the pipe erected vertically in the well. The balls have to be fitted with precision, so that they can not m ove from their place. Then one end of the rope-must be passed through the inside of the pipe, and under the roller, and attached to the other end over the wheel. So, as the wheel turns with the balls, it will draw up water. But I ought to give a warning that the pipe should come out above the well, because where the pipe ends, the water begins to come out. So it should be large enough to raise the water the height of the well. allustratíon 267) This pipe is D. The balls have to go up through the pipe, for otherwise it would be no good. Wheel Bis to turn towards I. G is the roller under which the balls go, and H the framework on which it stands: the two ends have free play. The balls pass under those two beams which hold the pipe D at E. F is the receptacle which receives the water pumped by the balls. This invention willlift the water toa great height. Toothed lantem and wheel should be fitted. The lantern is to be fixed in the axle C. An iron chain could be used in place of the rope K.

[!fol. 350v] The water is raised by expulsion; that is plain to see, for the balls keep pushing it upwards. But part of the pumping is done by attraction, so that this is a compound movement, which shares in both attraction and expulsion. The balls can be made of copper, which willlast much better than if they were to be of wood. As well as round balls, they could be made half-round; but in this case the movement would be somewh at heavier, and the half-balls should be rounded on the upper side. These half-balls exert a greater attractíon than the other kind because the balls take up mu ch more air. There is another machine to draw water from a well or river, an invention of Pythagoras. It is called the screw or cochlea16, and is different from all the other inventions for drawing water. But it does not raise it very high, because it is erected on its side, after the fashion of the diagonal of a square, supposing that it is erected 1' 'with the same artifice of wheels' ... this is a rag-and-chain pump; first illustrated by fifteenth century ltalian mechanicians such as Taccola, who calls ita «Tatar» pump. Agrícola shows no less than six variants (Agricola, pp. 188-97, Book VI) and the «gteat height» to wbich these pumps were capable of lifting water made them popular in mines. As the author points out, water moves into the pipe partly by «attracúon», i.e. atrnospheric pressure. By <<half-balls», be means hemispherical. 16 'another machine ... called the screw or cochlea' ... modern scholarship (e.g. Oleson (1984) concurs with the tradiúonal attribuúon of the screw-pump to Archimedes; so it is puzzling to find it given here to Pythagoras. Vitruvius does menúon the Pythagorean right angled triangle when giving dimensions for the screw, and that is the only explanaúon I can think of. Here, as in the next section the author uses Vitn1vius' own terms such as «cochlea», «modiolo», «embolo», which suggests that if he used an Italian translation, as is likely, it was that of Lutio Durantino, published in 1524, rather than the superior, but expensive Barbaro version. These screw-pumps enjoyed a certain vogue when revived in the sixteenth century perhaps because of their association with the great mathematicians of Antiquity. The tower of four screws (352r) is similar to sorne in Ramelli (particularly 48), and may be based on accounts of the water-tower at Augsburg.

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(Illustration 268) in the form shown here. With this invention the water is raised as it turns round, eíther with an animal to dríve it, or a wheel moved by the ríver. There are to be four ascending grooves (1 mean screw threads) which wind round the shaft or core. Care should be taken in the construction of this machine, to ensure that if the axle is twenty palms in length, it shall be twenty fingers thick; that is, it must be as many fingers in thickness as it is palms in length, or [!fol. 351r] more or less than what we have suggested. l t should be entirely marked out in equallines, from one end to the other, all the lines being parallel and equidistant. When the axle has been divided all around from top to bottom, ít is necessary to draw diagonallines, equal to one another and also marked out from top to bottom, delineated as may be understood from the figures:- (!llustratz"on 269) The circle A shows the divisions of the cochlea; the circle B, the core, and where the channels between the threads must be left empty. The core is to be [4 18)

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twelve parts and the thread two parts on each side, so that in all there will be sixteen divisions for the depth of the channel up which the water is to be raised.

Illustration 268

Figure C is the form and method of tracing the channels of the cochlea round the shaft. Figure D shows how much empty space is to be left between the threads. I believe that nothing should be omitted of the method to be followed in making the cochlea in any aspect. If it is to be erected in a river, the wheel is to be mounted at the bottom, with its paddles, so that the water may drive it. But if it is to be installed in a well, the wheel should be mounted at the top; and the bigger the wheel will be, the more water will be drawn by the (Illustration 270) cochlea from river or well. A lantern could be inserted round the cochlea, [!fol. 351v] above or below, according to where it is being installed in river or in well. Iilustration 269 V I! ./ / / I/ / I!V V / V I/ VIl 1/i/ 17 V V V V11 l/1/ V / 1/ V VIl 1// / / V / /V ' / 7/ V / / V

VI / / !/ / IV V/ / / / / /1

A is the cochlea, the gudgeon B, the water is delivered at C. D is the lantern and the water enters at F with its gudgeon E. G is the wheel that turns the cochlea, and H its teeth. The paddles are I, where the water strikes. This invention raises plenty of water, although it does not lift it very high. But it does raise a greater quantity of water than any other such instrument. Several cochleas could be employed to raise the water much higher, in this way. Three or four cochleas could be fitted one above the other, drawing the water from one to the next. An axle or shaft is to be erected, driving the cochleas by wheels, [!fol. 352r] operating each one independently, as we demonstrate below. It can be seen from the figure how the cochleas are to be joined together. (Illustration 271) Each one should have a trough to receive the water which it raises. The fust is A, delivering at B; it is then conveyed for delivery at D. The third cochlea E takes water at D, and delivers it at F, where it is taken by the fourth cochlea G, whĂ­ch delivers it at H. Each should be fitted with a lantern, while the four wheels on the shaft N engage with the four lanterns, and are driven by the wheel P, with its paddles Q, where the water strikes. The wheels on the shaft are M L K l. All four m ove together, and if you know how to make wheels in the right ratios to the lanterns, their movement will produce a great effect. [419]

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Iltustration 2 70

[!fol. 352v] There is another machine, which was an invention of the philosopher Ctesibius 17 . It raises the water very high, although only in small quantities. This machine is called «Ctesibica>>. It was certainly a marvellous invention, displaying great ingenuity. It is constructed as follows: the instrument is to be installed in a well orina river to pump water for human consumption as drinking water, or it may be to water flowers in a garden, or sorne similar purpose. H this invention were made to raise a great quantity of water, it would not raise it so high, the cause being the great weight of the same. The outlet of the pipe should be no wider than just one real, for the less weight it has, the higher it will raise water. This can be understood by comparing it to a man who can not carry a great weight, but if on the contrary it is only a small ene, he will carry it with the greatest of ease. It is the same with raising water, for with a small quantity in the pipe, it is much easier to raise it. Thus instruments whose motion is violent, lift against great resistance. So then, a wooden pipe should be erected in the well. This pipe is constructed of two pieces joined together tightly, and at the bottom a wooden box should be fixed in such a way that the bottom of the pipe does not touch the base of the box. This latter has two holes, one on each side, with the two cylinders alongside the box, bored out, and inserted into two pipes which termínate inside the box. In the cylinders there are to be two peles turned on the lathe, called plungers, which go 17 'there is another machine, which was an invenúon of the philosopher Ctesibius' ... «Cresipo» must be Ctesibius, to whom this is attributed by Vitruvius (X.vü). Ancient plunger pwnps were all force pumps, which worked submerged, so that water was pushed into the chamber by the weight of water around it. In this case the chamber is shown just above the surface, and the reference to «attraction>> assumes that suction- i.e. atmospheric pressure- also played sorne part. Unlike the pumps in the sketch of washing wool (337v), this pump has a rising pipe, up which water is forced by the downstroke of the plunger, so that it remains effectually a traditional force pump, whereas those were meant for suction pumps. The crankshaft, and the details of the chamber make the two drawings nevertheless of considerable historícal interest.

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Illustration 2 71

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Illustration 273

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up and down alternately. These plungers are linked to two rods which descend into the well.

[!fol. 353r] They are attached toa crank, in an axle which also holds a lantern, which is turned by a wheel driven by an animal. For many reasons, it is easier, and less work and also less expense, if it is erected in a river and not in a well. (Illustration 272). [!fol. 353v] We have given the method and arrangement of this machine in the preceding chapter, but now, for the sake of better understanding, I believe it would be well to provide it with letters, so that the subject may be more intelligible. Wheel A is fixed on axle B, and is toothed below at R. The teeth move lantern e, which moves the two iron rods E F, which have play round the crank D, and are inserted into the two wooden poles, called plungers, G K; which have play alternately in H L. The valves are I M. They are to be made of two metal plates, with holes all around, where the water can enter, and over them two pieces of cow's leather adhering to the plates so that they can not move position, except to be raised and lowered like the lid of a box. It does not matter whether the two pipes connecting the cylinders H L to the pipe N be round or square. These are P Q. On the inside, next to the pipe N, there are to be two more valves, made in the same way, with plates of metal, or some other material, and leathers, as stated in the case of the other two. And the pipe N delivers the water through pipe Oto the receptacle S. And if you know how to fit everything in the right proportions, this machine will perform what is required of it and raise the water very high. The movement of this invention can be adapted in various ways, but it seems to me that they are more difficult, in as much as it is very hard work to understand them. For this reason I believe that the simpler the shape, the easier to understand, while those machines that raise water by expulsion or attraction are especially hard to understand, [!fol. 354r] the more so because they have to preserve the right proportion for great care has to be taken not to make anything too small (Illustration 273) or too large. The cylinders are A; B, the valve-leather, e the metal part, the water entering at D . The plunger G goes into A, reaching to just above the leather B, and forcing the water to enter pipe H, through valve M. Then it enters N inside the box, and likewise the valve K L admits the water to the box N.

{/fol. 354v] Here the whole operation of this machine may be understood,

with all the movement of the valves. The metal plates are e L M. They are to be held firm, while the leathers are to be fastened at one end only, so that they can be raised and lowered, as the plungers go up and down. Por when they go up, the valves open, and when they go down, they close, while the valves inside the box N open when they go down, as those of the cylinders close, and so on alternately; so that when one is open the other is shut. Since I have dealt with the process of extracting olive-oil, it occurs to me that Ă­t would not be unreasonable or irrelevant to deal with the engine or device for the extraction of wax18, as that is a material so necessary for many purposes. First you 18 'the engine or device for the extraction of wax' ... Just possibly the wax press is placed here because like the force pump it has a two-throw crankshaft. Otherwise, as the author acknowledges, it would go naturally with the oil press. There do not seem to be any other such presses in the mechanlcalliterature of the sixteenth century. Indeed even the barest accounts of how wax was made are very rare, although in that candle-lit era large quantities must have been consumed, quite apart from its use as a seal, or in moulding. The hammer-wedge-combination to express

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Thirteenth Book

must have a block of bolm-oak, very thick, at least twelve palms in length. This piece of timber A sbould bave a round cavity B hollowed out in the middle, two palms wide and three higb. Undemeatb, a bole C should be made in tbe base of the wood, through wbich the wax can flow when it is expressed. Then two boards D E are inserted in tbe block A, one eacb end. They are to be one palm in thickness and two or more in wĂ­dtb, and are to be pierced to allow a board F to be inserted; this is adjustable and can be raised or lowered in tbe place wbere it is fitted. Tbe bole sbould be square, at least tbree palms in deptb and half in widtb. Above this board tbere is another G, wbicb projects two palms outside tbe beads of tbe two boards D E, on each side; tbis board bolds the wbole press firm. [!fol. 355r] Tbe ends of this board sbould be bollowed out in tbe middle, for the insertion of two bammers, tbat will drive in the two wedges, which apply pressure downward on tbe board F. This is inserted in the ram, which enters the cavity where the wax is placed to be extracted. The bammers are H I, beld firm in two iron members K L, on wbich they are mounted. Tbese again have square boles at one end,.M N, and in these square boles are set two rods O P, like axe-belves, four palms in length. In tbese helves or rods, there are rapes to lift the bammers, so as to strike tbe two wedges Q R. These are tben gradually driven in through the boles wbere board F is. Then a square cavity B is made in earth or stone, wbere the wax is collected, wben it comes from tbe press A. Then there is another, also square, T; a bole is made which passes from the square cavity S to cavity T, where the wax is removed, to be put in moulds, and afterwards removed in cakes, large or small according to wbat you prefer. Tben a small furnace V is made, in which are built Illustration 274

fluids from pulped raw material was employed in a number of. crafts, an? later often wind-: or wacer-powered, somecimes through cranks as here. But che aru~c yec agam had probl.ems Wl~ the illustration: the connecting rods from the crankshaft are behind beam G, buc are sunply pmned to the rods that swivel about the rectangular pivots, although these are in /ront of the beam. Presumably the rectangular pivot is mounted on a fur~er rod to wor~ che hammer. If however it is shown inset just below head of hammer H , what LS that elbow domg?

[425]

fUNDACIĂ&#x201C;J\ Jt.;A:--IELO TURR!Al\0


Volume III

1/lustrotion 275

two cauldrons X X, each containing six cantaras of water. This furnace has a chimney to receive the smoke made by the fire under the cauldrons X X. One of these cauldrons should be kept hot all the time so that there is no need to keep watching for the water to heat: and when one is finished it is refilled and reheated, while the one which is now hot is used: and so proceed steadily until it is finished. This hot water is poured over the wax to make it soft, so that it can be pressed. In the pressing, the honeycomb is arranged in layers, with little mats of woven esparto, {/fol. 355v] two palms in width between each layer. To drive this engine by water, a large wooden wheel should be made, like vertical millwheels, with paddles where the water can strike. A spindle is fitted to the axle Y of this wheel; it is shaped as I have sketched it below, to give a better idea of what we are discussing. [426]

fUNDACIĂ&#x201C;1\ Jt.:A~ELO

TURR!Al\0


Thirteenth Book The ropes I spoke of are fitted to the spindle or crank, and fastened to two collars or rings, so asto have play round the crank of the wheel. Two rods of wood or iron would have the same effect, provided they allowed free play to the two ends through the crank, to wheel and hammers 19. (Illustration 274) [/fol. 356r] lt would be possible to find many other invenĂşons which have the same effect as the crank, to drive the two hammers. (Illustration 275)

[/fol. 257v]

t9 Fol. 357 recto is blank and there are severa! unnumbered blan~s following. On them pencil sketches of machinery, probably added later, by another hand. The fust represents ~and pressmg of sorne kind of material, possibly wax, with aid of hot water. Next sketches for a mili powered by a horizontal water-wheel and keyed plans.

[427)

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fUNDACIĂ&#x201C;1\ Jt..;A).IELO TL'RRIAJ\0


Volume IIl

[!fol. 358v]. So far there are thirteen. Here there are three. Expense:

51 Jusepe

60 Mateo 20 Bias

36 Mateo 24 Blas 31 Gypsum 18 Bartolomé 16 Labourers 20 Locksrnith

15 Pegs and nails

(Illustration 276) A: Lantern in the axle of the mili. 4 balacutres. Diameter 3/4. B: Toothed wheel, three palms in diarneter

C: T oothed wheel 3 palms in diameter D: Lantern which engages with the strainer, and drives it 2 palms in diameter.

Illustration 276

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[428]

fUNDACIÓJ\ JüA)IELO TURRIAJ\0


Thirteenth Book

[fol. 359v] A twelgth at 8, bolted at 15 between two cloths at 14 stripper at 13 crossing-piece

[429]

fUNDACIĂ&#x201C;l'\ Jt.;A~ELO

TURRIAKO


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fUNDACIÓJ\ Jl.iA)IELO TURRJAJ\0


21_BOOKS_ENGINEERING_MACHINES_EnglishTranslation_PartIII