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ALCOHOL & DRUGS (Josh McDowell research 2005 and prior)

“ALARM SOUNDED OVER BINGE DRINKING” “Almost half of all college students are binge drinkers-meaning when they drink, they consume four to five alcoholic beverages or more in an hour.” (Charles R. MiVille. “Alarm Sounded Over Binge Drinking.” Family News In Focus, September 7, 2001 www.family.org/cforum/fnif/news/A0017557.html) _______________________ “ALCOHOLISM AND ALCOHOL-RELATED PROBLEMS” 

“Alcohol, the most widely used psychoactive drug in the United States, has unique pharmacological effects on the person drinking it (Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration {SAMHSA}. National Household Survey on Drugs Abuse: Main Findings 1992, US Department of Health and Human Services {USDHHS}, 1/95, p.2; National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism {NIAAA}, Eighth Special Report to US Congress on Alcohol and Health, 9/93, p.129).”

“Alcohol contributes to 100,000 deaths annually, making it the third leading cause of preventable mortality in the US, after tobacco and diet/activity patterns (J McGinnis & W Foege, ‘Actual Causes of Death in the United States,’ Journal of the American Medical Association {JAMA}, Vol. 270, No. 18, 11/10/93, p.2208).”

“Among 9,216 deaths attributed to non-medical use of other drugs in 1995, 39% also involved alcohol (SAMHSA, Annual Medical Examiner Data 1995, 5/97, p.iii).”

“In 1992, more than seven percent of the population ages 18 years and older—nearly 13.8 million Americans—had problems with drinking, including 8.1 million people who are alcoholic. Almost three times as many men (9.8 Million) as women (3.9 million) were problem drinkers, and prevalence was highest for both sexes in the 18-29-years-old age group (NIAAA, Alcohol Health & Research World {AHRW}, Vol. 18, NO. 3, 1994, pp.243, 245).”

“About 43% of US Adults—76 million people—have been exposed to alcoholism in the family: they grew up with or married an alcoholic or a problem drinker or had a blood relative who was ever an alcoholic or problem drinker (National Center For Health Statistics {NCHS}, Advance Data, USDHHS, No. 205, 9/30/91, p. 1).”

“64% of high school seniors report that they have been drunk; more than 31% say that have had five or more drinks in a row during the last two weeks (LD Johnston, et.al., Monitoring the Future Study, Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan, 12/97). [For more information, see NCADD’s ‘Youth, Alcohol and Other Drugs’ facts.]”

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“People who begin drinking before age 15 are four times more likely to develop alcoholism than those who begin at age 21 (NIAAA news release, 1/14/98).”

“From 1985 to 1990, the economic cost of alcoholism and alcohol-related problems rose 40% to $98.6 billion. Reduced or lost productivity and premature death accounted for 71% of this cost; medical care for more than 10% and crime for nearly 6% (NIAAA, AHRW, Vol. 17, No.2, 1993, p. 133)”

“Nearly one-fourth of all persons admitted to general hospitals have alcohol problems or are undiagnosed alcoholics being treated for the consequences of their drinking (NIAAA, Eighth Special Report, op. cit.,p. xi).”

“On average, untreated alcoholics incur general health care costs at least 100% higher than those of nonalcoholics, and this disparity may exist as long as 10 years before entry into treatment (Ibid., p. 259).”

“Based on victim reports, each year 183,000 (37%) rapes and sexual assaults involve alcohol use by the offender, as do just over 197,000 (15%) of robberies, about 661,000 (27%) aggravated assaults, and nearly 1.7 million (25%) simple assaults (US Department of Justice, Alcohol and Crime: An Analysis of National Data on the Prevalence of Alcohol Involvement in Crime, 4/98).”

“Alcohol is typically found in the offender, victim or both in about half of all homicides and serious assaults, as well as in a high percentage of sex-related crimes, robberies, and incidents of domestic violence, and alcohol-related problems are disproportionately found among both juvenile and adult criminal offenders (NIAAA, Eight special Report, op. cit. p. xi).”

“Environmental Influences”  “Parenting practices, parental alcohol use, and peer drinking can influence a person’s alcohol use and the associated problems that can stem from drinking (Ibid., p. xxv).” 

“Content analyses of alcohol advertisements on television show that the ads link drinking with highly valued personal attributes such as scalability, elegance, and physical attractiveness, and with desirable outcomes such as success, relaxation, romance, and adventure (NIAAA, AHRW, Vol. 17, No. 1, 1993, p. 63).”

“Alcohol advertising may influence adolescents to be more favorably predisposed to drinking (NIAAA, Alcohol Alert, No. 37, 7/97, p.3.)”

“Negative Consequences: On Health”  “The regular consumption of large amounts of alcohol (defined as more than three drinks per day) is undesirable from the standpoint of health for almost all people and drinking low-to-moderate amounts can be desirable or undesirable, depending on individual characteristics (G Friedman & A Klatsky, ‘Editorial: Is Alcohol Good For Your Health?,’ New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 329, No. 25, 12/16/93, p. 1883).”

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“Although there are fewer deaths from alcohol-related causes than from cancer or heart disease, alcohol-related deaths tend to occur at much younger ages ( NIAAA, Eighth Special Report, op. cit., p. 16).”

“Studies of suicide victims in the general population show that about 20% of such suicide victims are alcoholic (NIAAA, AHRW, Vol. 17, No. 2, 1993, p. 133).”

“Heavy and chronic drinking”

“Can harm virtually every organ and system in the body (IBID., p. xxvii).”

“Is the single most important cause of illness and death from liver disease (alcoholic hepatitis and cirrhosis) (Ibid., p. 172).”

“Is associated with cardiovascular diseases such as cardiomyopathy, hypertension, arrhythmias, and stroke (Ibid., p.172).”

“Contributes to approximately 65% of all cases of pancreatitis (IBID., p. 171).”

“Depresses the immune system and results in a predisposition to infectious diseases, including respiratory infections, pneumonia, and tuberculosis (Ibid., p. 176).”

“Inreases risk for cancer, with an estimated 2-4% of all cancer cases thought to be caused either directly or indirectly by alcohol. The strongest link between alcohol and cancer involves cancers of the upper digestive tract, including the esophagus, the mouth, the pharynx, and the larynx. Less consistent data link alcohol consumption and cancers of the liver, breast and colon (NIAAA, Alcohol Alert, No. 26, 11/95).”

“Can lead to inadequate functioning of the tests and ovaries, resulting in hormonal deficiencies, sexual dysfunction and infertility (NIAAA , Alcohol Alert, No. 26, 11/95).”

“Is related to a higher rate of early menopause and a higher frequency of menstrual irregularities (duration, flow, or both) in women (NIAAA, Eighth Special Report, op. cit., p. 179).”

“Each year 4,000 to 12,000 babies are born with the physical signs and intellectual disabilities associated with FAS, and thousands more experience the somewhat lesser disabilities of fetal alcohol effects (SAMHSA, Center for Substance Abuse Prevention, Toward Preventing Perinatal Abuse of Alcohol, Tobacco and Other Drugs, USDHHS, Technical Report, No. 9, 1993, p. 1). [For more information, see NCADD’s ‘Alcohol and Other Drug Related Birth Defects’ facts.]”

“An association has been established in both homosexual and heterosexual populations between alcohol use, drug use and behavior that increases the risk for contracting HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases, but underlying processes and mechanisms that explain this relationship have not been definitively identified (NIAAA, Eighth Special Report, op. cit., p. 245).”

“On the Family:”

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“Separated and divorced men and women were three times as likely as married men and women to say they had been married to an alcoholic or problem drinker (NCHS, Advance Data, op. cit., p. 6).”

“An estimated 6.6 million children under the age of 18 years live in households with at least one alcoholic parent (NIAAA, Alcohol Alert, No. 9, 7/90, p.1)”

“Unintentional Deaths and Injuries:”  “41% of all traffic fatalities (the leading cause of accidental death) are alcohol-related (National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, Traffic Safety Facts, 1996); alcoholics are nearly five times more likely than others to die in motor vehicle crashes (NIAAA, Eighth Special Report, op. cit., p. 233)” 

“One Study showed that half of all boating fatalities had a blood alcohol content (BAC) of .04; BAC’s of .10 or more were found in 31% of the fatalities (US Department of Transportation, United States Coast Guard, Boating Statistics 1994, 9/95).”

“Alcoholics are 16 times more likely than others to die in falls, and 10 times more likely to become fire or burn victims (Ibid).”

“Estimates suggest that alcohol is associated with between 47% and 65% of adult drownings (Ibid., p. 243).”

“Up to 40% of industrial fatalities and 47% of industrial injuries can be linked to alcohol consumption and alcoholism (M Bernstein & JJ Mahoney, ‘Management Perspectives on Alcoholism: The Employer’s Stake in Alcoholism Treatment,’ Occupational Medicine, Vol. 4, No. 2, 1989, pp. 223232). [For more information, see NCADD’s ‘Alcohol and Other Drugs in the Workplace’ facts.]”

“Consumption:”  “Annual per capita consumption of alcohol in the US declined 1.8% from 1993 to 1994 to 2.21 gallons, the lowest it has been since 1964 (NIAAA, Apparent Per Capita Alcohol Consumption: National, State and Regional Trends, 1977-94, Surveillance Report #39, 12/96, p. 12.)” 

“Two-thirds of the population drink, but 10% of all drinkers (those who drink most heavily) drink half of all alcohol consumed (NIAAA, Sixth Special Report to US Congress on Alcohol and Health, USDHHS, 1/87, p. 3).”

“Gender Differences”  “Study findings suggest that women metabolize alcohol less efficiently than men, a difference that leads to higher blood concentrations in women over a shorter period of time. This difference may make women more vulnerable than men to alcohol-induced liver damage (NIAAA, Eighth Special Report, op. cit., p. xxvi). [For more information, see NCADD’s &quotUse of Alcohol and Other Drugs Among Women” facts.]” 

“Alcohol-related problems more prominent for women than men include serious reproductive and sexual dysfunctions; rapid development of dependence; more serious liver disease among those who are patients; victimization by others, particularly spouses; and sexual victimization (Ibid., p. 275).”

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“Youth, Alcohol and Other Drugs: An Overview”  “About 9.5 million American between ages 12-20 had at least one drink last month; of these 4.4 million were “binge” drinkers (consuming five or more drinks in a row on a single occasion) including 1.9 million heavy drinkers (consuming five or more drinks on the same occasion on at least five different days) (National Institute on Drug Abuse {NIDA}, 1996 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse).” 

“The highest rates of illicit drug use are found among youth ages 16-17 (15.6%) and ages 18-20 (20%) with marijuana the most connonly used illicit drug (NIDA, 1996 National Household Survey on Dugs Abuse).”

“82% of high school seniors have used alcohol; in comparison, 65% have smoked cigarettes; 50% have used marijuana; and 9% have used cocaine (NIDA, 1997 Monitoring the Future Study, Secondary School Students).”

“Purchase and Public possession of alcohol by people under the age of 21 is illegal in all 50 states (Office of the Inspector General {OIG}, US Department of Health and Human Services {HHS}, ‘Youth and Alcohol: Law Enforcement: Is the 21-Year-Old Drinking Age a Myth?,’ 10/91).”

“Approximately 2/3 of teenagers who drink report that they can buy their own alcoholic beverages (OIG, HHS, ‘Youth and Alcohol: A National Survey. Drinking Habits, Access, Attitudes, and Knowledge,’ Washington, DC 6/91).”

“Use of alcohol and other drugs is associated with the leading causes of death and injury (e.g., motorvehicle crashes, homicides, and suicides) among teenagers and young adults (Centers for Disease Control {CDC}, ‘Alcohol and Other Drug Use Among High School Students—United States, 1990,’ Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report {MMWR}, 11/91 p. 776).”

“Use of alcohol or other drugs at an early age is an indicator of future alcohol or drug problems (J Hawkins, R Catalano, ‘Risk and Protective Factors for Alcohol and Other Drug Problems in Adolescence and Early Adulthood: Implications for Substance Abuse Prevention, 1989, p. 78); people who begin drinking before age 15 are four times more likely to develop alcoholism than those who begin at 21 (National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism new release, 1/14/98).”

“Usage Rates and Patterns”  “First use of alcohol typically begins around the age 13; marijuana around 14 (NIDA, Drug Use Among Racial/Ethnic Minorities, 1995, p.31).” 

“Among high school seniors, current use of alcohol is higher for whites and Hispanics than blacks; the same is true for marijuana, but with greater similarity in the rates of use (NIDA, Drug Use Among Racial/Ethnic Minorities, 1995, pp. 32,34).”

“Approximately 8% of the nation’s eighth graders; 22% of tenth graders; and 34% of twelfth graders have been drunk during the last month; 13%, 23% and 26%, respectively, have used an illicit drug (NIDA, 1997 Monitoring the Future Study, Secondary Students).” “Among teenagers who binge drink, 39% say they drink alone; 58% drink when they are upset; 30% drink when they are bored; and 37% drink to feel high (OIG, HHS, ‘Drinking Habits, etc.’).”

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“Junior/middle and senior high school students drink 35% of all wine coolers sold in the United States; they also consume 1.1 billion cans of beer (Ibid).”

“38% of college students have ‘binged’ on alcohol during the past two weeks (NIDA, 1996 Monitoring the Future Study, College Students and Young Adults).”

“Among college students in one survey, rates of binge drinking were highest among Caucasians, 43.3% for males and 24.4% for females; among African-Americans the rates were 24.8% for males and 5.4% for females; and among Asians, 32% for males and 20% for females (‘Alcohol and Drugs on Virginia College Campuses,’ State Council of Higher Education for Virginia, 3/93, p.11).”

“Young adults ages 18-25 are most likely to binge or drink heavily. About half of the drinkers in this age group binge and about one in five are heavy drinkers (NIDA, 1996 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse.)”

“Negative Consequences”  “Drivers under the age of 25 were more likely than those 25 or older to be intoxicated in a fatal crash (CDC, ‘Alcohol-Related Traffic Fatalities Among Youth and Young Adults-United States, 19821989,’ MMWR, 3/91, p.179).” 

“Drivers ages 21-24 had the highest intoxication rates (27%) for fatal crashes in 1996 (National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, ‘Traffic Safety Facts 1996’)”

“In 1995, 21.5% (262,112) of the clients admitted to alcohol or other drug treatment programs were under age 24, including 18,194 under age 15 (Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, National Admissions to Substance Abuse Treatment Services, Advance Report No. 12, 2/97, p.30).” “A clear relationship exists between alcohol use and grade-point average among college students: students with GPAs of D or F drink three times as much as those who earn As (C Presley and P Meilman, ‘Alcohol and Drugs on American College Campuses,’ Student Health Program Wellness Center, Southern Illinois University, 7/92).”

“31.9% of youth under 18 in long-term, state-operated juvenile institutions in 1987 were under the influence of alcohol at the time of the arrest (U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of Justice Statistics, ‘Survey of Youth in Custody, 1987. Bureau of Justice Statistics Special Report, 9/88).”

“Almost half of college students who were victims of campus crimes said they were drinking or using other drugs when they were victimized (CR Bausell et al, ‘The Links Among Drugs, Alcohol and Campus Crime,’ Towson State University Center for Study and Prevention of Campus Violence, MD, 1990).”

“Researchers estimate that alcohol use is implicated in one-to two-thirds of sexual assault and acquaintance or ‘date’ rape cases among teens and college students (OIG, HHS, ‘Youth and Alcohol: Dangerous and Deadly Consequences,’ Washington, DC, 4/92).”

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“Among sexually active teens, those who average five or more drinks daily were nearly three times less likely to use condoms, thus placing them at greater risk for HIV infection. Among all teen who drink, 16% use condoms less often after drinking (RW Hingson, L Strunin,et al, ‘Beliefs About AIDS, Use of Alcohol and Drugs, and Unprotected Sex Among Massachusetts Adolescents.’ American Journal of Public Health, 3/90, p. 295-299).”

“Attitudes, Perceptions and Influences”  “80% of teenagers don’t know that a 12oz. Can of beer has the same amount of alcohol as a shot of whiskey; similarly, 55% don’t know that a 5 oz. Glass of wine and a 12 oz. Can of beer have the same amount of alcohol (OIG, HHS, ‘Drinking Habits, etc’).” 

“56% of students in grades 5 to 12 say that alcohol advertising encourages them to drink (The scholastic/ CNN Newsroom Survey on Student Attitudes About Drug and Substance Abuse, 2/90).”

“30% of children in grades four though six report that they have received ‘a lot’ of pressure from their classmates to drink beer; 31% to try marijuana; and 34% to try cigarettes.”

(NCADD-“Alcoholism and Alcohol-Related Problems.” www.ncadd.org/problems.html) _______________________ BINGE DRINKING AND THE COLLEGE ENVIRONMENT” “The key findings include these: An increase in the prevalence of frequent binge drinking (from 5.3% in 1993 to 11.9% in 2001) among women enrolled in all women’s college and a lesser, but still significant, increase of the same behavior for women in coeducational schools.” (Richard P. Keeling, MD, “Binge Drinking and the College Environment.” Journal of American College Health, Vol. 50, n.5, p.197)) _______________________ BINGE DRINKING: SHORT-TERM RISK – LONG-TERM CONSEQUENCES” “Nearly 20% of 12-20 year olds are now considered binge drinkers. According to the 2000 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, this represents approximately seven million kids under the age of 21.” “Students who frequently binge drink are 21 times more likely than non-binge drinkers to:”       

“Be injured” “Drive while drunk” “Experience trouble with campus/local police” “Engage in unplanned, unprotected sex” “Damage property” “Fall behind in coursework” “Miss class”

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“Impact on Brain Development” “It may come as a surprise to those who believe in the resiliency of youth, but binge drinking can seriously damage the adolescent brain and produce a wide range of long-term social and health problems.” “Adolescents under the age of 20, are still undergoing brain development. Up until age 16, new connections and pathways for processing information are being formed.” “From 16-20, the brain continues to mature requiring a healthy body to support the maturation process.” “Alcohol disrupts the development process, and the damage it can cause can be long-term and irreversible. Adolescent drinkers perform worse in school, and more likely to fall behind and have an increased risk of social problems, depression, suicidal thoughts and violence. The American Medical Association recently reported two key findings that provide insight into what happens to a teenager’s body when significant amounts of alcohol are consumed. Heavy adolescent drinkers have a 10% small hippocampus. This portion of the brain controls memory and learning. In addition, the frontal lobe of the brain, which undergoes the most change during adolescence, is damaged as well. The frontal lobe helps to control reasoning, speech, movement, emotions and problem-solving, and therefore plays a key role in the formation of personality.” “While binging can clearly have a dramatic effect on brain development, even moderate drinking can affect memory and learning among teens. Studies have shown that teens who use alcohol have lower scores on memory and vocabulary tests than non-drinkers.” “In 2000, 30% of drivers ages 15-20 who died in motor vehicle crashes had been drinking alcohol.” (“Binge Drinking,” The Youth Connection, July/August/2003, pg. 3-4) _______________________ “EAT WITH YOUR KIDS; KEEP THEM OFF DRUGS” “Researchers who have studied patterns of teenage substance abuse say there is one simple way parents can reduce their children's risk: eat dinner together as a family on a regular basis.” “According to statistics from The National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University:” •

“Teenagers whose families rarely eat dinner together are 72 percent more likely than the average teen to use illegal drugs, cigarettes and alcohol.”

“Teens in families who regularly eat dinner together are 31 percent less likely to use illegal drugs, cigarettes and alcohol.”

“Teens whose families eat dinner together at least five times per week are 50 percent less likely to try alcohol than their peers in families that eat dinner together two nights a week or less.”

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“In an annual effort to promote family dining, Monday has been designated by President Bush as national ‘Family Day — A Day to Eat Dinner with Your Children.’” “The National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse created the event in 2001. It is held each year on the fourth Monday in September.” “The Linn County Commission on Children and Families is promoting the event in the mid-valley.” ‘“Certainly it is not the only thing, but it helps,’ said commission coordinator Dar Merrill.” “Greg Roe, executive director of the United Way of Linn County, is a member of the Commission on Children and Families and a supporter of ‘Family Day.’” “‘With parents working two jobs and all the activities families do throughout the week, it's important not to lose sight of the fact that families need to spend time together,’ Roe said. ‘When families are spending time together, parents are able to see the issues their children are facing.’” 

“Without meaning to, families can get too busy and disconnected, Roe said, opening the door to a wide range of problems.”

“Tips for Families” 

“Every Sunday, schedule several nights in the coming week for the family to eat together. Do your best to keep the schedule.”

“Encourage your children to take part in planning and preparing the meals.”

“During the meal, turn off the television and the phone.”

“Talk about events in everyone's day at work and school, as well as about current events.”

“Establish a routine for the beginning and ending of meals, such as lighting candles, saying grace or telling a story.”

“Keep conversations positive and make sure everyone gets the chance to talk.”

(Les Gehrett, “Eat with your kids; keep them off drugs,” Albany Democrat-Herald, October 6, 2004, http://www.dhonline.com/articles/2004/09/26/news/local/news07.prt) _______________________ FAMILY STRUCTURE, FATHER CLOSENESS, AND DRUG ABUSE” “The thesis of this study is that children and adolescents who grow up in intact families are generally less likely to smoke, to drink, or to try illegal drugs than children and adolescents who grow up in non-intact families, which, for the purposes of this paper, are defined as single-parent families, blended or stepfamilies, and no-parent families.” Alcohol & Drugs – Research 2005 and prior

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“Some of the significant findings are as follows:”  “In the initial bivariate test between family structure and drug abuse, it was found that in nearly all cases, family structure was a statistically significant predictor of drug use. In addition, the hypothesized pattern of drug use for different types of family structures was verified – specifically, the levels of risk for drug use run, from highest to lowest, as follows: no-parent, single-parent, blended, and intact.” 

“To control for extraneous and potentially confounding variables, and to begin to infer causation between family structure and delinquency (not just correlation), a multiple regression was run to control for factors such as age, IQ, sex, race/ethnicity, parental occupation, parental education, and church attendance. The results of the bivariate test were replicated, confirming the hypothesis further.”

“To begin testing the independent effects of father closeness, another multiple regression was run, adding both father closeness and the number of friends who use drugs as independent variables. Family structure still had direct effects, except in the case of inhalants. Father closeness was a statistically significant predictor of all four categories of drug use, as was the ‘friends variable.”

“To further clarify the importance of father closeness, mother closeness was added as an independent variable on top of the previous regression to test if the effects of father closeness were simply a function of mother closeness, which is frequently assumed. Here the hypothesis was strongly confirmed, as father closeness remained significant for every category except hard drugs, and mother closeness was not statistically significant in any of the categories. ‘Friends’ was still strongly significant in all categories.”

“Specifically, there is a chain of causation from independent variable (family structure) to intervening variable (father or mother closeness) to dependent variable (adolescent drug use). Intact families, on average provide more father and mother closeness and more protection from negative peer influences that do non-intact families. Since peer influences and father and mother closeness have direct effects on adolescent drug use, family structure plays a crucial indirect role in preventing adolescent drug use.”

“Father closeness is independent in its effects. When controlling for all other variables including mother closeness and family structure, father closeness has statistically significant, independent effects on adolescent drug use. Specifically, for smoking, drinking, and the use of inhalants, father closeness is a statistically significant and robust predictor. Interestingly, the variable for mother closeness, when controlling for all other variables including father closeness and family structure, is statistically significant only for drinking (but in the wrong direction, implying there is no real relationship), and its not statistically significant for smoking, hard drugs, and inhalants. Most importantly, however, the study finds that in intact families there are consistently higher levels of father closeness. Therefore, intact families are the best avenue with which to ensure that adolescents benefit from the powerful, unique, and irreplaceable effects of fathers.”

“Intact families have another indirect influence in preventing drug use: adolescents in intact families have fewer friends who use drugs. The study shows that for all types of drugs the relationship between usage and number of friends using is strongly statistically significant. Children in intact families are closer to both their mothers and fathers. Therefore, they have less need to seek affirming relationship outside the family, and tend to have fewer peers who are involved in risky behavior. Thus, adolescent

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from intact families have closer relationship with their parents and have fewer negative peer influences, both significant predictors of lower levels of drug use.” (“Family Structure, Father Closeness, & Drug Abuse,” A Report from National Fatherhood Initiative, http://www.fatherhood.org/) _______________________ “DESPITE IMPROVEMENTS, MANY HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS STILL ENGAGING IN RISKY HEALTH BEHAVIORS” “The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention released the results of its 2003 nationwide survey of 15,214 9th-12th grade students. Some of the findings:” 

“In the past 30 days 30.2% of students said they rode in the car with a driver who had been drinking.”

“In the past 30 days 12.1% of students said they drove a vehicle after drinking.”

“In the past 12 months 8.9% of students said they had been hit, slapped, or physically abused by a boy/girlfriend.”

“9.0% of students said they have been forced to have sexual intercourse.”

“In the past year, 8.5% of students attempted suicide (11.5% female and 5.4% male)”

“58.4% of students have tried smoking cigarettes, and 21.9% are current smokers (26.2% male and 22.1% female)”

“6.7% of students reported use of smokeless tobacco in the past 30 days”

“44.9% of students are current alcohol users (1 or more drinks in the past 30 days)”

“40.2% of students have tried marijuana at least once; 22.4% are current users.”

“8.7% of students have tried cocaine at least once.”

“6.1% of students have used steroids at least once.”

“11.1% of students have taken ecstasy at least once.”

“46.7% of students have had sexual intercourse; 7.4% before age 13.”

(“Despite Improvements, Many High School Students Still Engaging in Risky Health Behaviors”, Centers For Disease Control and Prevention, (May 20, 2004) www.cdc.gov/healthyyouth/yrbs/) _______________________

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WHAT REALLY KEEPS KIDS DRUG-FREE” “Not long ago the National Academy of Sciences created a big stir when it released a new study on underage drinking that slaps a $53 billion price tag on the problem (including $19 billion for auto accidents alone). That’s an amount ‘far exceeding the cost of youthful use of illegal drugs,’ according to the study report.” “So it’s a big problem, and lots of people think they have the ‘silver bullet’ that’ll kill it. Here’s a rundown of what really works, and what doesn’t.” WHAT DOESN’T

WHAT WORKS 

“Teenagers who have ‘an active spiritual life’ are half  as likely to try illicit drugs, or to end up as alcoholics or drug addicts. The finding is true only for kids who make a personal choice to pursue a spiritual life, not those who are forced by their parents to go to church, for example.” “Some young people are genetically predisposed to  binge drinking, according to a new study. So researchers are developing a strategy that would include giving kids prone to heavy drinking a drug that mutes the desire. “The National Center on Addiction and Substance  Abuse (CASA) says kids are in danger of becoming substance abusers if they’re highly stressed, frequently bored, or have too much spending money. CASA chairman Joseph Califano Jr. says parents should treat their kids’ complaints of frequent boredom as a red flag, help them find alternate ways to relieve stress, and curtail the amount of money they give them.”

“Students who go to schools that test them for illicit drug use are likelier to use drugs than students who don’t.”

“Education programs aimed at reducing drinking among college students may actually encourage more drinking.” “The prevalent thinking among abusefighters in the last decade was that the best way to attack the problem is to cut off the supply through stepped-up enforcement against drug suppliers. But now those experts who believe this tactic works are in the minority.”

(“What Really Keeps Kids Drug-Free,” Group Magazine, November 12, 2003, pg. 18) _______________________ “YOUTH RISK BEHAVIOR SURVEILLANCE” “Nationwide, 44.9% of students had had one or more drinks of alcohol on > 1 of the 30 days preceding the survey (i.e., current alcohol use).” “Hispanic male (42.7%) students.” “Overall, the prevalence of current alcohol use was higher among white (47.1%) and Hispanic (45.6%) than black (37.4%) students.” Alcohol & Drugs – Research 2005 and prior

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“Episodic Heavy Drinking” “Nationwide, 28.3% of students had had > 5 drinks of alcohol in a row (i.e., within a couple of hours) on >1 of the 30 days preceding the survey.” “Lifetime Marijuana Use” “Nationwide, 40.2% of students had used marijuana one or more times during their lifetime.” “Lifetime Cocaine Use” “Nationwide, 8.7% of students had used a form of cocaine.” “Lifetime Inhalant Use” “Nationwide, 12.1% of student had sniffed glue, breathed the contents of aerosol spray cans, or inhaled any paints or sprays to get high one or more times during their lifetime.” “Alcohol Use Before Age 13 Years” “Nationwide, 27.8% of students had drunk alcohol (other than a few sips) for the first time before age 13 years.” “Marijuana Use Before Age 13 Years” “One tenth (9.9%) of students nationwide had tried marijuana for the first time before age 13 years.” “Alcohol Or Drug Use Before Last Sexual Intercourse” “Among the 34.3% of currently sexually active students nationwide, 25.4% had drunk alcohol or used drugs before last sexual intercourse.” (Jo Anne Grunbaum, Laura Kann, Steve Kinchen, James Ross, Joseph Hawkins, Richard Lowry, William A. Harris, Tim McManus, David Chyen, Janet Collins, “Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance,” Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 53, no. SS-2 (May 21, 2004): 12-14, 16.) _______________________ “STUDY: COLLEGE DRINKING IN 1,400 DEATHS” “An estimated 1,400 college students are killed every year in alcohol-related accidents, according to a study released Tuesday—a study that researchers call the most comprehensive look ever at the consequences of student drinking.” “An estimated 1,400 college students are killed every year in alcohol-related accidents, according to a study released Tuesday—a study that researchers call the most comprehensive look ever at the consequences of student drinking.” “The study by the federally supported Task Force on College Drinking estimated that drinking by college students contributes to 500,000 injuries and 70,000 cases of sexual assault or date rape. Also, 400,000 students between 18 and 24 years old reported having had unprotected sex as a result of drinking.” “Chief researcher Ralph Hingson of the Boston University School of Public Health said he believes the estimates are more likely to be too conservative than overstated.” Alcohol & Drugs – Research 2005 and prior

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(“Study: College drinking in 1,400 deaths.” CNNfyi.com www.cnn.com/2002/fyi/teachers.ednews/04/09/us.college.drinking.ap/index.html) _______________________ “COLLEGE DRINKING” “Highlights of a new report on alcohol use by U.S. college students, ages 18 to 24:” Deaths: Injuries: Assaults: Sexual assaults: Sex: Driving:

1,400 500,000 600,000 students assaulted by student who had been drinking 70,000 victims of alcohol-related sexual assault or date rape 100,000 said they were too drunk to know if they had consented to having sex 2.1 million drove under the influence of alcohol”

“A 2000 Department of Health and Human Services survey found that 41 percent of full-time students aged 18-22 reported that, within a month of the survey, they had had five or more drinks on at least one occasion. That figure was 35.9 percent for non-students or part-time students.” “The same survey found 62 percent of full-time college students had a drink in the previous month, compared to 50.8 percent of their peers who were not full-time students.” “The task force-composed of researchers, college presidents and students-was convened in 1998 by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Part of the National Institutes of Health.” “Chief researcher Ralph Hingson of the Boston University School of Public Health thinks the estimates are probably too conservative rather than overstated.” (Ken Guggenheim. “Alcohol kills 1,400 college students each year.” The Advocate, Baton Rouge, Louisiana. April 10, 2002. A2A.) _______________________ “DANGEROUS DRINKING” “More than a third of sexually active teens and young adults in a new survey admit that alcohol and drugs have influenced their decisions about sex. Nearly a quarter say they have had unprotected sex while under the influence. The lesson for young people, says Joseph Califano, head of the National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse, is that ‘drinking and sex is as dangerous as drinking and driving.’” (Time, February 18/Youthworker, May/June 2002, pg. 13) _______________________ “DID YOU KNOW?”

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“Teens who drink to excess may be destroying significantly greater mental capacity than older drinkers.”

“Adolescent heavy drinkers and binge drinkers are more than twice as likely as nondrinkers to say they deliberately try to hurt or kill themselves, and more than twice as likely to say they contemplate suicide.”

“Researchers have found relationships between marijuana and schizophrenia, psychosis and depression.”

“High school girls who smoke or drink are nearly twice as likely to report feeling depressed as those who have never smoked. Those who use marijuana are likelier to report feeling sad or hopeless than those who have never used marijuana.”

“Up to 75% of all incarcerated juveniles have a diagnosable mental health disorder compared with 20% of all 9- to 17-year olds.”

(“Did You Know?” The National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University, from flyer for Casa Conference – “Double Jeopardy: Substance Abuse and Co-Occurring Mental Health Disorders in Young People”) _______________________ “DRUG ABUSE AND TEEN BOYS” “More than 11 million teens in America have tried illegal drugs. The good news is that overall use is down.” “Recent annual studies on teen drug abuse show that overall teen drug abuse has stabilized. Among the youngest age group (12-13), there has been a decline in overall drug use (3.9% in 1999 to 3.0% in 2000).” “Now The Bad News” “Increases have been seen in ecstasy (8th — 12th grades), steroids (12th grade), and prescription drug abuse (among 16-17 year olds). Use of ‘psychotherapeutics’ (prescription drugs) non-medically increased among youths aged 16 and 17 between 1999 and 2000, from 3.4% to 4.3%. Drugs in this category include Xanax, Vicodin, Ritalin, and Oxycontin. Girls have been shown to have a bit more of a tendency to abuse psychotherapeutics. It is not uncommon for teens to mix these prescription drugs with alcohol and illicit drugs, increasing the dangers to this trend. Regarding over-the-counter drugs, the numbers are not available, but there is an increase of abuse of Dextromethorphan (a cough suppressant), acetaminophen, decongestants and antihistamines.” “Interestingly enough, girls have caught up with boys in the past decade in terms of drug initiation and drug use.” “Is Drug Abuse Due To Boredom?” “Yes, boredom is a common complaint. However, in some treatment centers, kids cite “curiosity” and “thinking it was cool” as their greatest reasons. These reasons tie into boredom and, in the big picture, a Alcohol & Drugs – Research 2005 and prior

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lack of structured extracurricular time. Kids are at greatest risk for using drugs during times when they are unsupervised. Parents should be aware of this.” “Parents should be aware that significant changes in drug awareness take place between ages 12 and 13. Thirteen-year-olds are 3 times more likely than 12-year-olds to know where to obtain marijuana or know someone who uses drugs.” (Dr. Terry Horton, “Drug abuse and teen boys.” MSNBC Today, www.msnbc.com/news/742488.asp?cp1+1) _______________________ “DRUGS AND CRIME GO TOGETHER” “The following material was taken from ‘Behind Bars: Substance Abuse and America’s Prison Population,’ a study conducted for The National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University, January 1998.” “80% of inmates—1.4 million—have histories with substance involvement. (In other words, they have violated drug or alcohol laws, they were high when they committed their crimes, they stole property to buy drugs, and/or they have histories of drug/alcohol abuse and addiction).” “Among the 1.4 million substance-involved inmates are parents of 2.4 million children, many of them minors.” “One of every 144 American adults is behind bars for a crime in which drugs and/or alcohol were involved.” “By the year 2000, if current trends continue, the nation will break the $100 million-a-day barrier in spending to incarcerate individuals with serious drug and alcohol problems.” “74% of drug-experienced inmates used drugs regularly in the one-month periods prior to their most recent arrests.” “81% of those charged with selling drugs were using drugs at the time of their most recent arrests.” “49% of state inmates convicted of violent crimes were under the influence of drugs and/or alcohol during their crimes.” “51% of state inmates convicted of property crimes were under the influence of drugs and or alcohol during their crimes.” “32% of state inmates have parents who were regular drug users.” “63% of all state inmates were regular drug users before their incarcerations.” (“Drugs and Crime Go Together.” Family Research Council, In Focus, www.frc.org IF98A5CR) Alcohol & Drugs – Research 2005 and prior

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_______________________ “LIKE ONE OF THE GUYS” “The Gender Gap that once existed in teen alcohol use is closing, according to a study by the National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University. In 1991, 31% of boys and 22% of girls in 10th grade engaged in Binge Drinking, defined as having five or more drinks in a row. In 1999, 34% of boys and 31% of girls were binge drinkers. Though an early, eye-popping stat from the study— that underage drinkers consume 25% of all the nation’s alcohol—turned out to be overstated (it’s actually only half that), the problem is still huge: more than 5 million High School Students are binge drinkers.” (Time Magazine, March 11, 2002, p. 17) _______________________ -“MORE AMERICANS USED ILLEGAL DRUGS IN 2001, U.S. STUDY SAYS” “The rates of drug use among younger people rose significantly. In 2000, 9.7% of teenagers and 15.9% of young adults 18-25 said they used a drug in the month before the survey, vs. 10.8% of teens and 18.8% of young adults in 2001.” (Kolchik, Svetalana, “More Americans Used Illegal Drugs in 2001, U.S. Study Says”, USA Today, September 6, 2002, p. 2A) _______________________ “MORE MEN DRINK TO EXCESS”

18-24 25-44 25-64 65 +

Men Women 24.1% 8.6% 19.3% 4.8% 12.7% 2.0% 2.9% 0.4%

“1-Definded as having had 12 or more alcoholic drinks at any time in their lifetime and consumed 5 or more drinks on one occasion at lease 12 times the past 12 months.” (“More men drink to excess,” USA TODAY, Snapshots, 4/12/02, 1) _______________________ “NEW SURVEY REVEALS ALARMING DATA ON MOMS, DAUGHTERS AND UNDERAGE DRINKING” “Mothers significantly underestimate daughter’s experience with alcohol” • “16% of 13-15 year old girls say they drink with friends, only 5% of their mothers think their daughters are drinking;” Alcohol & Drugs – Research 2005 and prior

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• “30% of 16-18 year old girls say they drink with friends, only 9% of their mothers think their daughters are drinking;” • “51% of 19-21 year old girls say they drink with friends and only 32% of their mothers thought they were drinking.” “Alarmingly, mothers say underage drinking is acceptable” • “Nearly half (49%) of mothers of teenage girls say it is okay for their daughters to drink;” • “38% of mothers say it is okay for their daughters to drink on special occasions;” • “21% of mothers say it is okay to drink under parental supervision at home;” • “20% of mothers say drinking alcohol is a natural part of growing up.” “These data show that mothers start out viewing underage alcohol consumption as a serious problem, yet as their daughters grow older mothers switch their message from “don’t do it” to “be safe”; this illustrates a disturbing misperception among moms about the seriousness of problems associated with alcohol consumption by their teenage daughters,” said Century Council Chairman, Susan Molinari.” (“New Survey Reveals Alarming Data On Moms, Daughters And Underage Drinking,” The Century Council, December 12, 2005, http://www.centurycouncil.org/press/2005/pr2005-12-12.html) _______________________ NEWSWEEK, OCTOBER 25TH, 1993” “Drink-the abuse of it, the abuses that occur because of it-is key. In up to 70 percent of acquaintance rapes, alcohol plays a role, says Manhattan sex-crimes prosecutor Linda Fairstein, author of “Sexual Violence: Our War Against Rape.” And because alcohol poses such a powerful problem, it is the rule at almost every school (and the law in most states) that “consent is not meaningful” if given while under the influence of alcohol, drugs or prescription medication.” “ ‘The Scope of Rape’ indicates that one in four college-age students has been the victim of a rape or an attempted rape. In those numbers Koss includes women who have been coerced into having sex while intoxicated.” (Title/Author unknown, Newsweek October 25, 1993. page 54) _______________________ PROTECTING TEENS: BEYOND RACE, INCOME, AND FAMILY STRUCTURE” “Over two-thirds (71.1%) of the final sample identified themselves as White (non-Hispanic); 12.6% identified themselves as Hispanic and 16.3% said they were Black.” (6 – PT (protecting teens) Alcohol & Drugs – Research 2005 and prior

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“Just under one-third (31.1%) of students reported that they had one resident parent, while over two thirds (68.9%) reported living in two-parent families. Although youth living in intact two-parent families are at lower risk than youth living in step, adoptive, or foster two-parent families, this report clusters all twoparent families together. (When we ran the data separating two-parent biological families from others, we saw no significant differences from how we analyzed the data initially). (7-PT) “For instance, while nearly two thirds (65.2%) of adolescents in the lowest income group came from single parent families, only 6.4% of those in the upper income group came from single-parent homes.” (8 –PT) “Cigarette Use. Over half (55%) of the 7th to 12th graders in the study said they had never smoked a full cigarette. Only quarter of the sample (27%), representing 5.4 million American teenagers, reported having smoked in the past 30 days. The remaining youth (18%) were former smokers. The prevalence of smoking nearly doubled between middle school and high school, rising from 19% in the 7th-8th grade to 37% in the 11th-12th grade. “White youth smoked more than Black or Hispanic teens;”   

“Youth from wealthier families smoked less than youth from poorer families regardless of race, gender or family structure;” “Teens from single parent homes were at increased risk for smoking regardless of grade, income or gender.” “There were no gender differences in cigarette smoking at either younger or older grades.” (10-11 PT)

“Alcohol use. Only half (53%) of the 7th to 12th grade youth reported that they have not had a glass of beer, wine or liquor in the past year. Over one-quarter of the sample (29%), representing 5.8 million youth nationwide, said they drank between once a year and once a month. Another 8% representing 1.6 million youth, drank 2-3 days per month. The final 10%, representing 2.0 million youth, drank weekly. The prevalence of alcohol use more than doubled between middle school and high school, from 28% in the 7th-8th grade to 63% in the 11th-12th grade.” “White youth use alcohol more than Hispanic youth and much more than Black youth regardless of gender.” “Black teens reported drinking less than either White or Hispanic youth. Among 9th-12th graders, Hispanic teens reported drinking less than White youth as well. This finding challenges previous findings that Hispanic youth are at especially high risk for alcohol abuse.” “Among 9th to 12th graders, youth from wealthier families reported more drinking than their lower income peers.” “Teens in single parent families were more likely to drink than those in two-parent families.” “Older adolescent females use alcohol less frequently than same age boys. There were no gender differences in drinking among younger teens.” (Dr. Richard Blum, “Protecting Teens: Beyond Race, Income, And Family Structure.” Center for Adolescent Health, University of Minnesota, December 2000) Alcohol & Drugs – Research 2005 and prior

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(This monograph was prepared by Trisha Beuring, PhD., Robert Wm. Blum, MD, MPH, PhD, and Peggy Mann Rinehart of the Center for Adolescent Health, University of Minnesota. It is based on an analysis of Add Health data and reported in the American Journal of Public Health, December 2000.) _______________________ “REDUCING THE RISK: CONNECTIONS THAT MAKE A DIFFERENCE IN THE LIVES OF YOUTH” “The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) is the first national study of adolescent health designed to measure the social settings of adolescent lives, the way s in which adolescents connect to their social world, and the influence of these social settings and connections on health.” (4 – RR (Reducing the Risk) “Add Health surveys were conducted in two phases. In the first phase, some 90,000 students in grades 7 through 12 attending 145 schools around the United States answered brief questionnaires about their lives, including their health, friendships, self-esteem and expectations for the future.” (7-RR) “In the second phase, with written consent of both the parent and adolescent, over 20,000 in-home interviews of students were conducted between April and December of 1995 (Wave I). No paper questionnaires were used. Instead, all data were recorded on lap-top computers. A followup (Wave II) of 15,000 adolescents, interviewed again at home, was conducted between April and August of 1996.” (7RR) “A little over 9% of girls and 10% of boys smoke six or more cigarettes a day.” (12 – RR) “17.9% say they drink alcohol (including beer and wine) more than monthly, while nearly 10% admit to drinking at least one day a week. The highest levels of alcohol use are found among youth living in the suburbs: nearly one in five suburban teens report drinking more than once a month.” (12-RR) “One quarter of all young people (25.2%) report having smoked marijuana at least once in their lives; 12.7% say they have smoked at least once during the previous month. About 6% of all students indicate use four or more times in the past month.” (13- RR) (Dr. R.W. Blum and P.M. Rinehart, “Reducing The Risk: Connections That Make A Difference In The Lives Of Youth,” Division of General Pediatrics and Adolescent Health, University of Minnesota) (This research is based on data from the Add Health project, a program project designed by J.Richard Udry (PI) and Peter Bearman, and funded by grand #P01-HD31921 from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development to the Carolina Population Center) (It is based on the first analysis of Add health data, “Protecting adolescents from harm: Findings from the National Longitudinal Study on Adolescent Health,” published in the Sept. 10, 1997 issue of the JAMA, Journal of the American Medical Association) _______________________ “REDUCING THE RISK: CONNECTIONS THAT MAKE A DIFFERENCE IN THE LIVES OF YOUTH” Alcohol & Drugs – Research 2005 and prior

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“90,000 students in grades 7 through 12 attending 145 schools around the United States answered brief questionnaires about their lives, including their health, friendships, self-esteem, and expectations for the future. 20,000 in-home interviews of students were conducted between April and December of 1995. A follow-up (Wave II) of 15,000 adolescents, interviewed again at home, was conducted between April and August 1996.” (p.7) “Just over one in four adolescents report being a current smoker. A little over 9 percent of girls and 10 percent of boys smoke six or more cigarettes a day.” (p. 12) “17.9 percent say they drink alcolol (including beer and wine) more than monthly, while nearly 10 percent admit to drinking at least one day a week. The highest levels of alcohol use are found among youth living in the suburbs: nearly one in five suburban teens report drinking more than once a month. One quarter of all young people (25.2 percent) report having smoked marijuana at least once in their lives.” (p. 12-13) “6.9% of 7th-8th graders report using marijuana at least once in the past month compared with 15.7% of 9th-12th graders. 13.5% of males report using marijuana at least once in the past month compared to 11.9% of females.” (p. 13) “For both younger and older youth, personal importance placed on religion and prayer is associated with decreased frequency of cigarettes smoking and drinking.” (p. 28) “Teens in grades 9 through 12 use cigarettes, alcohol and marijuana more frequently when they work 20 or more hours a week in a job for pay.”(p. 29) (Blum, R.W. Rinehart, P.M. “Reducing the risk: Connection that make a difference in the lives of youth.” Division of General Pediatrics and Adolescent Health, University of Minnesota, Box 721, 420 Delaware St., S.E., Minneapolis, MN 55455. Preparation of this report was assisted by a grant from The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, Princeton, New Jersey. Printed by the University of Minnesota Printing Services.) _______________________ “EXCERPTS FROM UNDERAGE DRINKING: A COLLECTIVE RESPONSIBILITY, INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE 2004.” 2000, 36.6 percent of youths (under age 21) traffic fatalities involved alcohol    

2000, 36.6 percent of youths (under age 21) traffic fatalities involved alcohol In 2000, 69 percent of youths who died in alcohol-related traffic fatalities involved young drinking drivers. While onl 7 percent of licensed drivers in 2000 were aged 15 to 20, they represented .approximately 13 percent of drivers invo veo in ata cras es w o as seen drinking (National Highway Tra Fc~a ety Administration, 2002b) Alcohol-related traffic fatalities constituted.akoor&37 percent of all fatal y qut~ traffic fatalities (NationafTfighway-Traffic Safety Administration, 2002b)

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       

      

More 19-yearolds died in alcohol-related crashes with relatively low BAC levels than any other age (National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, 2002b). In 1999, nearly 40 percent of people under age 21 who were victims of drownings, burns, and falls tested positive for alcohol. Youth constituted 7 percent of nonfatal and 30 percent of fatal alcoholrelated drownings And (Levy et al., 1999). Alcohol has been .reported to be involved in 36 percent of homicides, 12 percent of male suicides, and 8 percent of female suicides involving people under 21—a total of about 1,500 homicides and 300 suicides in 2000. it is estimated that 50 percent of violent crime is alcohol-related (Harwood et al., 1998). on college campuses 95 percent of all violent crime and 90 percent of college rapes involve the use of alcohol more than 70,000 students aged 18 to 24 are victims of alcohol-related sexual assault or date rape. 44 percent of the men had been drinking when they committed a sexual assault (Abbey et al., 1996). Youth who begin drinking before the age of 15 have a 41 percent chance of future alcohol depcndenLe, compared with a 10 percent chance for those who begin after the legal drinking age (Grant and Dawson, 1997). Analyses of the 1999 Harvard School of Public Health National College Icohol Survey of students age 19 or older, after controlling for a variety of factors, found that the earlier they had first drunk to intoxication, the more likely they were to experience alcohol dependence and frequent heavy drinking in college (Gruber et al., 1996). The financial costs of underage drinking approach $53 billion in accidents, drowning, burns violent crime, suicide attempts, fetal alcohol syndrome, -alcohol poisoning and emergency medical care. of high school students who have ever been drunk, 83.3 percent--more than _s two million teens-are still getting drunk in twelfth grade. Alcohol is a contributing factor in the four leading causes of death among children ages 12 to 18: accidents (including motor vehicle traffic fatalities and drowning), homicide, and suicide. Thirty percept of 15- to 20-year old drivers who were killed in automobile accidents had been drinking and 21 percent of drivers in this age accidents-were l4gally intoxicated. 14.9 percent of heavy drinkers and 11.7 of binge drinkers vs. 4.4 percent of nondrinkers); and more than twice as likely to say they think about killing themselves. In one study of suicide among adolescents, 70 percent of young people who attempted suicide frequently used alcohol and/or other drugs In 2000, 16,653 people were killed in alcohol-related automobile accidents. Thirty percent of 15to 20- year old drivers who were killed in auto accidents have been drinking. Twenty-one percent of drivers in this age group who were killed in crashes were legally intoxicated. Alcohol-related motor vehicle fatality rates are nearly twice as great for 18-, 19- and 20-year olds as for the population over 21. The costs associated with teen alcohol-related traffic accidents totatled $19.5 billion dollars in 1998.

(Excerpts from Reducing Underage Drinking: A Collective Responsibility, Institute of Medicine. 2004.) _______________________ “SIGNIFICANT NUMBERS OF RELIGIOUSLY ACTIVE TEENAGES ARE INVOLVED IN SERIOUS RISK BEHAVIORS INVOLVING ALCOHOL AND DRUGS”

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“Religious and American Adolscent Delinquency, Risk Behaviors and Constructive Social Activities report. The report uses data from Monitoring the Future (MTF), a nationally representative survey of U.S. high school students.” “When it comes to alcohol abuse, for example, nearly 21 percent of U.S. 12th graders who attend religious services weekly or more had gotten drunk by the ninth grade. Twenty-three percent of 12th graders who say their faith is ‘very important’ in their lives had done the same. Of U.S. 12th graders who attend religious services weekly or more, 31 percent of them drink enough alcohol to ‘feel pretty high’ at least half of the time that they drink, as do 27 percent of 12th graders who say that their faith is ‘very important’ in their lives.” “Alcohol Abuse Among Religious 12th Graders in the U.S. Percent of Those Who Attend Religious Services Weekly or More Who Got Drunk by Ninth Grade

26.8 30.8

Percent of Those Who Attend Religious Services Weekly or More Who Say They Drink Enough to “Feel Pretty High” at Least Half the Time that They Drink

23 20.8 0

10

20

Percent of Those to Whom Faith is “Very Important” Who Got Drunk by Ninth Grade

30

Percent of Those to Whom Faith is “Very Important” Who Say They Drink Enough to “Feel Pretty High” at Least Half the Time that They Drink 40

Source: Monitoring the Future, 1996

“When it comes to drugs, nearly 39 percent of U.S. 12th grades who attend religious services weekly or more had used illegal drugs in the previous year, 31 percent had smoked marijuana in the previous year and 20 percent had used hard drugs in the previous year. For those who said their faith was ‘very important’ in their lives, nearly 40 percent had used illegal drugs, 32 percent had smoked marijuana and 21 percent had used hard drugs in the previous year. Furthermore, 11 percent of 12th graders who attend religious services weekly or more and roughly 13 percent of those who say religious faith is ‘very important’ in their lives had tried marijuana or hashish by the ninth grade.” “Drug Abuse Among Religious 12th Graders in the U.S.”

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Percent of Those Who Attend Religious Services Weekly or More Who:

Used Illegal Drugs in the Previous Year

38.5 31.1

Smoked Marijuana in the Previous Year Used Hard Drugs in the Previous Year

19.8 11

Tried Marijuana by Ninth Grader

Percent of Those to Whom Faith is Very Important Who: 39.7

Used Illegal Drugs in the Previous Year

31.6

Smoked Marijuana in the Previous Year

21

Used Hard Drugs in the Previous Year

12.6

0

10

Tried Marijuana by Ninth Grade 20

30

40

Source: Monitoring the Future, 1996

“But the relative stability of youth religious practices means the vast majority of these youth likely were getting drunk and taking drugs while they were also religiously very active. The numbers are most certainly significantly lower for teenagers below 12th grade. And research shows that they are significantly higher—by 15 percent to 25 percent—for non-religious 12th graders. Even so, parents, religious communities, and other youth-serving organizations should take note that, of the most religious active 12th graders in the U.S., about 20 percent to 30 percent are drinking early and excessively and 20 percent to 40 percent are taking drugs.” “The National Study of Youth and Religion is a four-year research project funded by Lilly Endowment Inc.” (The Monitoring the Future (MTF) survey is administered to eighth, 10th and 12th graders since 1975. This analysis focused on 12th graders. By design, MTF data does not include school dropouts and homeschooled youth. The questions regarding religion analyzed here are 1) “How often do you attend religious services?” and 2) “How important is religion in your life?”) (Bachman, Jerald G., Lloyd D. Johnston, and Patrick M. O’Malley. MONITORING THE FUTURE: A CONTINUING STUDY OF AMERICAN YOUTH (12TH-GRADE SURVEY), 1996 [Computer file]. Conducted by University of Michigan Survey Research Center. ICPSR ed. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [producer and distributor], 1999. the original collector of the data, ICPSR, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.) _______________________ Alcohol & Drugs-“SNAPSTATS” 

“Teen Drug Use” o “Percentage of teens who say they have ever tried drugs:”  ’99: 48%  ’00: 48%

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’01:

48%

o “Teens who say they have ever tried Ecstasy:”  ’99: 7%  ’00: 10%  ’01: 12% o “Teens in 2001 who say they have:”  drank alcohol in past year:  smoked cigarettes in past month: 28%

53%

o “Teens in 2001 who say they have ever tried:”  Marijuana: 41%  Inhalants: 18%  Ecstasy: 12%  Methamphetamine: 11%  LSD: 10%  Cocaine/crack: 9%  Heroin: 4% (Partnership for a Drug-Free America survey, May-June 2001/Youthworker, May/June 2002, pg. 11) _______________________ Alcohol & Drugs-“SNAPSTATS” “20% of all students are frequent bingers, who consume an average of 18 drinks a week. The study shows that the ‘kind of drinking going on today is very different from what parents might remember when they attended high school or college….These binge drinkers are drinking not to get silly but to pass out.’ The writer concluded that if parents truly want to combat binge drinking and the problems kids are facing, then, “try offering portions of you…a different [study] of 2000 teenagers…shows a direct relationship between teen substance abuse and the lack of close familial connections…especially between children and their fathers.” (Time, September 13, 1999, p85) _______________________ “SOCIETAL CONSEQUENCES OF ILLICIT DRUG USE” “14,000 Americans die each year in illicit drug-related episodes.” “3.6 million chronic drug users disproportionately spread infectious diseases like hepatitis, tuberculosis and HIV.” “In 1995, there was a record high of 531,800 drug-related hospital emergency episodes.” Alcohol & Drugs – Research 2005 and prior

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“6% of pregnant women are using illegal drugs and putting their children at risk. A study in the state of Washington showed a much higher infant mortality rate among children born to substance-abusing mothers.” “Children born to drug-abusing women are 2.5 times more likely to die from sudden infant death syndrome.” “Nearly 4 million women give birth each year and many smoke cigarettes, drink alcohol, and use illicit drugs during pregnancy. These behaviors significantly boost the delivery and care costs. Hospital charges for infants exposed to illicit drugs are four times greater than those for drug-free infants.” “71% of illegal drug users aged 18 and older are employed. Drug use decreases workplace productivity. Drug-using workers experience higher absenteeism, use more health benefits, require more discipline, and turnover at higher rates than drug-free people.” “15-20 percent of welfare recipients have alcohol and drug problems. Recipients with substance abuse histories tend to stay on government welfare longer than substance-free people.” “Between 24-90 percent of all child maltreatment involves substance abuse.” “In 1995, a majority of arrestees tested positive for drug use. An estimated 12 million property crimes and 2 million violent crimes committed each year are drug-related.” “In 1995, Americans spent $ 57 billion purchasing illegal drugs.” (“Societal Consequences Of Illicit Drug Use.” Family Research Council, In Focus. www.frc.org IF98B5DR) _______________________

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STATS WATCH - YOUNG DRINKERS: Percent of youth who are current drinkers*, by age and gender, 2001. 60% 50% 40% 42.20% Boys

30%

40% Girls

46.90% Boys

43.50% Girls

53.60% Boys

56.60% Boys

45.10% Girls

53.90% Girls

11th grade

12th grade

49.20% Boys

45% Girls

20% 10% 0% 9th grade

10th grade

Total

*Current drinkers are defined as having consumed alcohol at least once in the past month. (Source: “Prevention Alert,” U.S. Center for Substance Abuse Prevention, and Youth Risk Behavior Survey 2001, U.S. Centers for Disease Control. Contact: Prevention Alert, (301) 443-0375, www.health.org/) _______________________ “TEENS MAKING HEALTHIER DECISIONS, INCLUDING LESS ILLEGAL DRUG USE, HHS REPORT INDICATES” “June 28 issue of the CDC’s Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, Reuters Health reports. “June 28 issue of the CDC’s Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, Reuters Health reports. The report, based on data from the ‘Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System’ study, which surveyed about 13,600 high school students in grades 9 through 12 in 34 states and 18 major cities between 1991 and 2001” “The report found:” 

“The percentage of students who reported current cigarette use increased from 28% to 36% between 1991 and 1997, then decreased to 29% between 1997 and 2001. In addition, the percentage of students reporting frequent cigarette use increased from 13% to 17% between 1992 and 1997 and then decreased to 14% between 1997 and 2001.”

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“The rate of teens who said that they have used marijuana in their lifetime increased from 31% to 47% between 1991 and 1997, but then decreased to 42% in 2001. About 24% of teens in 2001 said that they had used marijuana in the past 30 days, an increase from 15% in 1991 (HHS release, 6/27).”

“The rate of teens who said that they have used cocaine in their lifetime increased from 5.9% in 1991 to 9.4% in 2001; about 4.2% of teens in 2001 said that they had used cocaine in the past 30 days, an increase from 1.7% in 1991.”

“About 46% of teens in 2001 said that they had had sex in their lifetime, a decrease from 54% in 1991; 58% of sexually active teens in 2001 said that they had used a condom, an increase from 46% in 1991.”

“The rate of teens who said that they rode with a driver who had consumed alcohol decreased from 39.9% in 1991 to 30.7% in 2001.” “The rate of teens who said that they participated in a daily physical education class decreased from 41.6% in 1991 to 32.2% in 2001 (Los Angeles Times, 6/28).”

(www.kaisernetwork.org/daily_reports/print_report.cfm?DR_ID=11971&dr_cat=3, 10/30/02) _______________________ “TEENS TOO SOON” “About 12 percent of eighth-graders (age 13) are regular smokers.” “Although experimenting with illicit drugs seems to have leveled off or even decreased among preteens, alcohol consumption remains alarmingly high.” “A University of Michigan survey of 44,000 students in 2001 found that nearly a quarter of the eighth-graders has used alcohol the previous year.” “According to the Department of Health and Human Services, more than 100,000 12 and 13 year-olds binge drink every month. Preteen sex is also on the rise. While sex rates among teens are dropping, that is not so for those under 15.” “A report last year in the American Psychological Asociation’s Journal of Personality and Social Psychology concluded that today’s “normal” children between 9 and 17 are more anxious than those treated for psychiatric disorders 40 years ago. And while the suicide rate for the general population has been stable since the 1950s, the rate for 10-14 year-olds more than tripled between 1980 and 1992.” (Carol Lynn Mithers, “Teens too soon.” Ladies’ Home Journal, March 2002, p. 60,62) _______________________ “THE SKINNY OF TEEN SMOKING”

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“The American Lung Assn. (ALA) estimates that, every day, 4,800 teens take their first drag—and of those, about 2,000 go on to become addicted to cigarettes. Most disturbingly, teen smoking rates steadily increased throughout the 1990s, after declining in the ‘80s.” “Given that 80% of adult smokers develop their habit before age 18, researchers are increasingly focusing on the reason kids start. Their main discovery: Nicotine’s proven ability to suppress appetite and speed up metabolism has made it a popular diet tool for girls and women. Studies by the University of Michigan’s Monitoring the Future project found that 14-year-old girls are twice as likely to try smoking as boys, primarily because of concerns about weight. Numerous surveys have found that 30% of teenage girls and adult women cite weight control as the main reason they smoke, far greater than any other justification.” (Business Week, December 2, 2002, pg. 51) _______________________ “OFFICIALS: TEEN DRINKING RISING IN AFFLUENT NYC SUBURBS” “The government’s Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration estimated underage drinkers account for 11.4 percent of all alcohol consumed in the United States.” (www.cnn.com/202/HEALTH/parenting/11/15/teen.drinking.ap/index.html) 11/16/2002 _______________________ “Tobacco, Alcohol and Drugs:” “Smoking and most illegal drug use is declining among American teens, a survey by University of Michigan’s Institute for Social Research reported, but the results for alcohol and marijuana use were not as positive from the survey of 44,300 students nationwide in grades 8, 10, and 12.” “Smoking:”   

“12th graders: 29.5% had smoked in the past month, down from 31.4% in 2000. The peak in the ‘90s came in 1997 at 36.5%.” “10th graders: 21.3% had smoked in the last 30 days, down from 23.9% the year before and peak of 30.4%, in 1996.” “8th graders: 12.2% of 8th graders reported smoking in the past 30 days, down from 14.6% the year before. Their peak in the ‘90s was 21.0% in 1996.”

“Alcohol:” “Alcohol remains the most popular drug with teens, through a slight reduction was reported in 2001.”  

“12th graders: 79.7% said they had used alcohol at some point, down from 80.3% the year before. But the share who admitted to having been drunk at some time rose from 62.3%-63.9%.” “10th graders: 70.1% admitted some alcohol use, down from 71.4%. The share who said they had been drunk fell from 49.3% to 48.2%.”

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“8th graders: 50.5% had had a drink, down from 51.7% and those who had been drunk declined from 25.1% to 23.4%.”

“Marijuana:”   

“12th graders: 49.0% had used it at some time, up from 48.8% the year before.” “10th grade: 40.1%, down from 40.3%.” “8th grade: 20.4%, up from 20.3%.”

“Inhalants:”   

“12th grade: 13.0%, down from 14.2%.” “10th grade: 15.2%, down from 16.6%.” “8th grade: 17.1%, down from 17.9%.”

“Hallucinogens:”   

“12th grade: 12.8%, down from 13.0%.” “10th grade: 7.8%, down from 8.9%.” “8th grade: 4.0%, down from 4.6%.”

“LSD:”   

“12th grade: 10.9%, down from 11.1%.” “10th grade: 6.3%, down from 7.6%.” “8th grade: 3.4%, down from 3.9%.”

“Cocaine:”   

“12th grade: 8.2%, down from 8.6%.” “10th grade: 5.7%, down from 6.9%.” “8th grade: 4.3%, down from 4.5%.”

“Heroin:”   

“12th grade: 1.8%, down from 2.4%.” “10th grade: 1.7%, down from 2.2%.” “8th grade: 1.8%, down from 1.9%.”

(AP News Service, December 19) (Youthworker, March/April 2002, pg. 11) _______________________ “TRENDS IN COLLEGE BINGE DRINKING DURING A PERIOD OF INCREASED PREVENTION EFFORTS” Alcohol & Drugs – Research 2005 and prior

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“Abstract. The 2001 Harvard School of Public Health College Alcohol Study surveyed students at 119 4-year colleges that participated in the 1993, 1997, and 1999 studies. Responses in the 4 survey years were compared to determine trends in heavy alcohol use, alcohol-related problems, and encounters with college and community prevention efforts. In 2001, approximately 2 in 5 (44.4%) college students reported binge drinking, a rate almost identical to rates in the previous 3 surveys. Very little change in overall binge drinking occurred at the individual college level. The percentages of abstainers and frequent binge drinkers increased, a polarization of drinking behavior first noted among students attending allwomen’s colleges. Other significant changes included increase in immoderate drinking and hard among drinkers.” (Henry Wechsler, “Trends in College Binge Drinking During a Period of Increased Prevention Efforts.” Journal of American College Health, Vol. 50, No.5, Page 203) http://www.usatoday.com/news/healthscience/health/child/2002-04-23-teen-sex.htm _______________________ “UNDERAGE DRINKING CALLED AN ‘EPIDEMIC’” 

“Teens now drink a quarter of all the alcohol consumed in the United States.”

“Nearly a third of high school students say they binge drink at least once a month.”

“The gender gap for drinking is disappearing. Female ninth-graders were just as likely to be drinkers as male ninth-graders. 81% of high school students have consumed alcohol, compared with 70% who have smoked cigarettes and 47% who have used marijuana. Most teens who experiment with alcohol continue using it. Among high school seniors who’d tried alcohol, 91.3% were still drinking in the 12th grade.”

(Associated Press, February 26/Youthworker, May/June 2002, pg. 12) _______________________ “VIGILANT PARENTS REDUCE LIKELIHOOD OF TEEN DRUG USE” “Teenagers whose parents consistently set rules and monitor their children’s behavior are less likely than average teenagers to smoke and use alcohol and other drugs, according to a new study.” “The researchers found that only 27 percent of teenagers-about 1 in 4- have hands-on parents, while 18 percent-nearly 1 in 5- have parents who are hands-off. Teenagers with hands-on parents are at one-fourth the risk of abusing substances as teenagers with hands-off parents.” “Teenagers with hands-on parents also were more likely to say they have an excellent relationship with their parents”.” “For 6 years, CASA has surveyed teenagers about risk factors fro substance abuse. However, this is the first time researchers have systematically measured parent actions and their impact on their children’s drug use.”

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“One troubling trend emerged. In 1999, 60 percent said they expected never to try an illegal drug. In 2000, that number dropped to 51 percent.” “Patricia Simmons, M.D., a pediatrician specializing in adolescent medicine at Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn., says: ”Day-today decisions adolescents make determine their health and well-being. Parents are hungry to know how they can influence those critical decisions, which are usually made when they are not around. Though there is no magic remedy to protect our children from using illegal drugs, parents who are involved in their teenagers’ lives and who set expectations for their behavior play a key role in reducing their risk of using drugs.” (Patricia Helgerson, “Vigilant Parents Reduce Likelihood Of Teen Drug Use,” January, 2002, www.Mayohealth.Org/Home?Id=Ne00234) _______________________ “WOMAN ON A BINGE” “Since 1993, women’s colleges have seen a 125% increase in frequent binge drinking” “We’re seeing a real role shift going on here” “At the University of Vermont, for instance, [the average blood-alcohol level of drunken women treated at the hospital is now .20-10% higher than that of intoxicated men and more than twice the legal limit of .08.] Counselors at Stanford University have observed an uptick in woman who had ‘regretted sex’ while drunk. And at Georgetown University there has been a 35% rise in women sanctioned for alcohol violations over the past three years. ‘Here on the front lines, we’re very worried about this,’ says Patrick Kilcarr, the director of Georgetown’s Center for Personal Development. ‘Women are not just drinking more; they’re drinking ferociously.’” “Published this week in the Journal of American College Health, the research, by Henry Wechsler of the Harvard School of Public Health, shows that between 1993 and 2001, all-woman colleges saw a 125% increase in frequent binge drinking, defined as consuming four or more drinks in a row, three or more times in the past two weeks. Wechsler has also found that during those same years, there was a threefold increase in the number of women who reported being drunk on 10 or more occasions in the previous month. Among women who drank, there was a 150% increase in ‘unplanned’ sexual activities, date rape and sexual assault. To be sure, women at single-sex schools still drink less than those on coed campuses, and both populations drink less than men. But, says Wechsler, ‘by drinking heavily, these women are definitely putting themselves at greater risk.” “Perhaps most troubling, evidence is mounting that girls who begin drinking in their early teens have a greater chance than boys do of eventually becoming alcoholics.” “A ninth-grader from Richmond, Va.: Girls drink, she says, so they can ‘do stupid slutty things and hook up with as many guys as they want.’” “A study of high school alcohol-dependent students published this month by the Pittsburgh Adolescent Alcohol Research Center found that 1 in 5 girls was infected with the herpes virus. Druken women also

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suffer disproportionately from rape and sexual assault. ‘[Women] walking back to campus intoxicated wear a neon sign on their back: Mug me, Victimize me.’ Says Georgetown’s Kilcarr.” (Jodie Morse, “Women On A Binge.” TIME Magazine. April 1, 2002, pp. 58-60) _______________________ “ADOLESCENTS AND YOUNG ADULTS WITH ALCOHOL-USE DISORDERS HAVE A SMALLER PREFRONTAL CORTEX” “Previous research has shown that alcohol-use disorders (AUDs) are associated with abnormalities of the prefrontal cortex, thalamus and the cerebella hemispheres in adults. These same brain structures are known to be actively maturing during adolescence. An examination of adolescents and young adults with AUDs has found that a smaller prefrontal cortex is associated with early-onset drinking. Results are published in the September issue of Alcoholism: Clinical & Experimental Research.” “‘Studies on adults with alcoholism have generally shown smaller brain sizes, but this is after many years of very heavy drinking,’ added Susan Tapert, associate professor of psychiatry at the University of California at San Diego. ‘Before this study, it really wasn't clear that adolescents, with briefer drinking histories, would show any differences in brain size. However, with nearly one in three high-school seniors binge drinking at least once per month, it is critical that we understand precisely how drinking affects the brain of these young people.’” (Anandhi Narasimhan, Dawn L. Thatcher, Matcheri S. Keshavan, and Paul Soloff, “Prefrontal Cortex, Thalamus and Cerebella Volumes in Adolescents and Young Adults with Adolescent Onset Alcohol Use Disorders and Co-Morbid Mental Disorders,” Alcoholism: Clinical & Experimental Research (ACER), Vol. 29, No 9, September 2005, http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2005/09/050916080920.htm _______________________ “ALCOHOL AND DRUGS” 

“5.1 million teens say they binge drink (downing 5 or more drinks at a setting)”

“Marijuana use among eighth graders increased more than 100% from 1991 to 1998”

“One in three high school girls report thinking about suicide at least once in a two-week period”

“The rate of increase in girl crime out paces that of boys”

“America has the highest rate of sexually transmitted diseases in the developed world with 3 million teenagers infected each year. As a result, the healthcare costs are enormous - $10 billion a year.”

(www.bestfriendsfoundation.org, “Message from the President”)2005 _______________________ “BOOZE NATION” Alcohol & Drugs – Research 2005 and prior

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“Teenagers voted Abercrombie & Fitch the third most popular brand (behind Nike and Hummer) in a market research survey, so it’s no surprise that the same clothing company that’s been blasted for using sex to sell its T-shirts is now under fire for the slogans that adorn them, including: ‘If you can read this you need another cocktail’ and ‘Sotally Tober.” “Abercrombie knows how to ‘preach to the choir.’ Alcohol is the #1 drug among teenagers – more than 8 million senior highers use it, and more than 5 million of them admit to binge drinking at least once a month.” “Other factoids from a reader survey by Teen People:” 

“Almost two-thirds of respondents say they’ve tried alcohol, but only 15% say they drink ‘at least every weekend.’”

“One out of 10 say they’ve driven a car while drunk.”

“A third (32%) say they’ve ‘gone further sexually’ than they would have if they were sober.”

“Almost two-thirds (59%) say their parents don’t know that they drink.”

“A third (33%) say they’ve done something they regret while they were drinking.”

“Abercrombie has plenty of co-conspirators in its unofficial ‘just get drunk’ campaign – teenagers see a mountain of alcohol advertising compared to the molehill of ‘don’t drink’ messages. On average, they sit through 779 TV commercials hawking alcohol compared to just nine ads discouraging underage drinking. So how do underage teenagers typically snag their booze? Two-thirds of them (66%) say their parents or other adults get it for them.” (“Booze Nation,” Group Magazine, September/October 2005, p15) _______________________ “DRINKING AMONG 13-YEAR-OLDS DOUBLES” “A study of 23,000 youngsters in Scotland shows that rates of alcohol consumption among 13-year-olds have doubled in little more than ten years. More than 20 per cent admitted that they drank alcohol in the week before they were questioned, compared to 10 per cent in 1990.” “And 17 percent of 13-year-olds said that they drank alcohol once a week. Jack Law, the chief executive of Alcohol Focus Scotland, expressed concern over the latest findings and said that young people were switched on to buying drinks with higher alcohol content to get drunk as quickly as possible.” “He said: ‘Getting drunk is synonymous with having a good time in Scotland and for some reason this seems to be acceptable behavior. Is it any wonder that teenage drinking is on the increase?’” Alcohol & Drugs – Research 2005 and prior

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“‘Why is the alcohol message not getting through to teenagers? Young people need to participate in developing communications so they will be relevant to the audience and more likely to respond.’” “The Scottish Schools’ Adolescent Lifestyle and Substance Use Survey found that there had been little change in drug misuse since 1998, with 23 per cent of 15-year-olds and 8 per cent of 13-year-olds admitting to using drugs in the month prior to being questioned. However, while smoking rates among 15-year-old boys have gone down from 25 per cent to 16 per cent in five years, there was no such improvement among the girls. The latest study also shows that almost a quarter of 15-year-old girls smoke regularly.” “Among 13-year-olds, 9 per cent of girls and 6 per cent of boys were regular smokers.” (Tara Womersley, “Drinking Among 13-Year-Olds Doubles”, Scotman - Scotland’s National Newspaper Online-, November 23, 2003, http://thescotsman.scotsman.com/scotland.cfm?id=1310152003) _______________________ “GIRLS LEAD IN TEEN ALCOHOL USE” “Estimates of alcohol use among teenagers have ebbed and flowed over the years. The number of highschool seniors who said they had taken five or more drinks in a row during the past two weeks, for example, fell from about 37 percent in 1975 to 28 percent in 1993, but edged back up to 29 percent in 2002, according to Monitoring the Future at the University of Michigan at Ann Arbor.” “In a shift since 2002, girls now outnumber boys in using alcohol. The group Leadership to Keep Children Alcohol Free, for example, cites 2002 research showing that 38.5 percent of ninth-grade girls reported drinking in the past month, versus 34 percent of boys.” “Some 21 percent of girls and 19 percent of boys reported binge drinking. Until that year, girls had reported consuming alcohol at rates less than or nearly equal to boys.” (Elizabeth Armstrong and Christina McCaroll, “Girls Lead in Teen Alcohol Use”, The Seattle times, August 14, 2004, http://seattletimes.nwsource.com/html/living/2002004619_girlsdrinking14.html) _______________________ “KEY AREAS OF BRAIN SMALLER IN ALCOHOLIC TEENS” “Regions of the brain involved in complex thinking and emotional control are smaller in teens who abuse alcohol than in those who do not, according to a new study in the September issue of Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research.” “Researchers found significant volume differences in the prefrontal cortex, with an average volume of 157 ml for alcoholic teens and 176 ml for non-alcoholic teen controls. Average volume of prefrontal white matter was 50 ml for alcoholic teens and 61 ml for controls. (Five ml equals about one teaspoon.) Average volume measurements for the thalamus and cerebellum did not show significant differences for the two groups.” Alcohol & Drugs – Research 2005 and prior

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“Scientists do not yet understand if the smaller size of those brain areas is a cause of alcohol abuse or an effect of it.” “‘Adults have to drink for many years to sustain any brain damage,’ says lead researcher Michael De Bellis, M.D, a professor of psychiatry and behavioral sciences at Duke University Medical Center. ‘We don’t know exactly how alcohol affects brain development in adolescence but that is a very active time for such development, especially in areas that govern thinking, planning and emotional regulation. The adolescent brain might be much more vulnerable.’” (Milly Dawson, “Key Areas of Brain Smaller in Alcoholic Teens,” Center for the Advancement of Health, September 14, 2005, http://www.cfah.org/hbns/getDocument.cfm?documentID=1125) _______________________ “NEW AD CAMPAIGN FOR AFRICAN AMERICAN PARENTS AIMS TO REDUCE TEEN DRUG USE”. “Ads Highlight the Importance of Parental Monitoring” “Love. The Anti-Drug” by Carol H. Williams Advertising in partnership with the Partnership for a DrugFree America (PDFA) and ONDCP. “Overall, African American youth have substantially lower rates of use of legal and illegal drugs than their white counterparts. However, according to a Partnership Attitude Tracking Study (PATS, 2003), while marijuana use is declining among whites, its remains unchanged among Black and Hispanic youth. And among African American youth ages 12 to 17, one out of six (17.8%) reported using marijuana at least once in their lifetime (National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2003). According to research, marijuana is addictive and more kids enter treatment for marijuana than for all other illicit drugs combined. In fact, marijuana is the primary drug being used by 72 percent of all African American youth admitted for drug treatment.” “‘Parents are the strongest line of defense in reducing teen drug use,’ added Warlene Gary, CEO, National PTA.” (“New Ad Campaign for African American Parents Aims to Reduce Teen Drug Use,” Press Release from Office of National Drug Control Policy, December 7, 2004, http://www.whitehousedrugpolicy.gov/news/press04/120704.html) _______________________ “Researches compared teens who reported at least half their friends are sexually active with those who said none of their friends are.” “Researches compared teens who reported at least half their friends are sexually active with those who said none of their friends are. About one in four teens reported at least half their friends are sexually active; about four in ten said none are.” “The study found that the first group is:” 

“More likely to have tried alcohol, 66 percent vs. 10 percent of those whose friends don’t have sex.”

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“More likely to have gotten drunk at least once in the past month, 31 percent vs. 1 percent.”

“More likely to have tried marijuana, 45 percent vs. 2 percent.”

“More likely to have tried cigarettes, 45 percent vs. 8 percent”

“The survey also found that the more time teens spend with their boyfriends or girlfriends, the more likely they are to smoke, drink and use drugs.” “No mater what their behavior, teens said that smoking, using illegal drugs and getting drunk are not cool. More that 80 percent said each of these activities make a teenager ‘seem like a loser.’ About 10 percent said the activities make him or her ‘seem cool.’” “The telephone survey of 1,000 teenagers was conducted between April 16 and May 16, 2004. The margin of error is plus or minus three percentage points for the entire group, large for subgroups.” (“Survey Examines Teens and Drugs”, The New York Times, August 19, 2004) _______________________ “SEX AND DRUG USE LINKED TO SUICIDE RISK” “Teenagers who have sex and use drugs have an increased suicide risk, says a study in the current issue of the American Journal of Preventive Medicine.” “Researchers analyzed data from a survey of nearly 19,000 American teens in grades 7 to 12 conducted in the mid-1990s. They found that levels of depression, suicidal thoughts, and suicide attempts were highest among teens who engaged in high-risk behaviors involving sex and drugs.” “Teens who abstained from sex and drugs had the lowest levels. Teens who dabbled in sex, drugs, alcohol, and tobacco were in the middle.” (“Sex and Drug Use Linked to Suicide Risk,” Health Day News, September 16, 2004, http://www.healthday.com/printer.cfm?id=521152) _______________________ “SEXUALLY ACTIVE FRIENDS AND DATING PRACTICES CAN SIGNAL INCREASE IN A TEEN’S SUBSTANCE ABUSE RISK”. “Girls Who Date Boys Two or More Years Older Likelier to Smoke, Drink, Get Drunk, and Use Illegal Drugs” “The more sexually active friends a teen has and the more time a teen spends with a boyfriend or girlfriend, the greater the risk that teen will smoke, drink, get drunk or use illegal drugs, according to the National Survey of American Attitudes on Substance Abuse IX: Teen Dating Practices and Sexual Activity, an annual back-to-school survey conducted by The National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse (CASA*) at Columbia University.” Alcohol & Drugs – Research 2005 and prior

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“This ninth annual CASA survey found:” 

“Compared to teens with no sexually active friends, teens who report half or more of their friends are sexually active are more than six and one-half times likelier to drink; 31 times likelier to get drunk; 22.5 times likelier to have tried marijuana; and more than five and one-half times likelier to smoke.”

“Teens who spend 25 or more hours a week with a boyfriend/girlfriend are two and one-half times likelier to drink; five times likelier to get drunk; 4.5 times likelier to have tried marijuana; and more than 2.5 times likelier to smoke than teens who spend less than 10 hours a week with a boyfriend/girlfriend.”

“Girls with boyfriends two or more years older are more than twice as likely to drink; almost six times likelier to get drunk; six times likelier to have tried marijuana; and four and one-half times likelier to smoke than girls whose boyfriends are less than two years older or who do not have a boyfriend.”

“Other striking findings in this year’s survey:” 

“Teens, half or more of whose friends regularly view and download Internet pornography, are more than three times likelier to smoke, drink or use illegal drugs, compared to teens who have no friends who engage in such behavior.”

“Forty-four percent of high school students think that boys at their school often or sometimes “’push girls to drink alcohol or take drugs in order to get the girls to have sex or do other sexual things.’”

(Casa 2004 Teen Survey, “Sexually Active Friends and Dating Practices Can Signal Increase in a Teen’s Substance Abuse Risk” The National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University, August 19, 2004, casacolumbia.org) _______________________ “STUDY FINDS OLDER BOYS ARE BAD INFLUENCE” “The National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University said.” “The study found that 58 percent of girls who had boyfriends two years or older drank alcohol, compared to 25 percent of the girls who dated boys their own age or not at all.” “Fifty percent of the girls who went for older boys or men smoked marijuana, compared to 8 percent of the other girls, and 65 percent of these girls who preferred to date someone older than themselves smoked, compared to 14 percent girls who stuck to younger boys.” “The survey found that 45 percent of the teens said they had been to parties where alcohol was available, 30 percent had been to at least one party where marijuana was available and nine percent where cocaine or Ecstasy was available.” “But teens welcome their parents’ guidance on these issues, the survey found.”

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“Asked in the telephone survey what they wished they could “honestly discuss with parents at dinner,” 42 percent said dating and 30 percent said substance abuse. The survey had a margin of error of three points.” “The National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University said.” (Reuters, “Study Finds Older Boys are Bad Influence,” MSNBC.com, August 19, 2004, http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/5760443) _______________________ “TACKLING AMERICA’S NO. 1 YOUTH HEALTH CRISIS”.“Underage Drinking Needs More Public Attention” “There is too much at stake to allow misconceptions to go unchallenged. Alcohol is the leading factor in the three main causes of death among teen-agers—accidents, homicide and suicide. Traffic crashes cause one-third of all deaths for people aged 15-20, and one-third of them are alcohol-related. College administrators have declared alcohol abuse the No. 1 problem on their campuses, citing proven links with academic problems, violence, criminal assault, vandalism and sexual victimization. National surveys indicate that almost one-third of high school seniors have binged on alcohol in the last 30 days, a rate that represents little change over the past decade.” “Some assert that since overall underage drinking has lessened, the issue is not as important as it once was. But despite incremental improvements, research shows that each year underage drinking still leads to more than 3,000 deaths, nearly 1 million injuries, over 1 million property crimes and nearly 400,000 incidents of high-risk sex by youth. To those victims and their families, the story of this continuing tragedy is very real. And so is the societal cost—almost $62 billion a year.” (“Tackling America’s No. 1 Youth Health Crisis”, Statement by Aidan Moore, President of the National Liquor Law Enforcement Association, August 25, 2004) _______________________ TEEN DRINKING “Teens now drink a quarter of all the alcohol consumed in the United States. “Nearly a third of high school students say they binge drink at least once a month.” (Associated Press, February 26/Youthworker, May/June 2002, pg. 12) _______________________ “UNDERAGE DRINKING IN THE UNITED STATES: A STATUS REPORT, 2004”

“Monitoring the Future (MTF) reported that in 2004 nearly one in five eighth-graders had a drink in the past month, as well as more than one in three 10th-graders and nearly one in two 12th-graders.4”

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“The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) reported that in 2003 approximately 10.9 million underage youth, ages 12 to 20, used alcohol in the month prior to the survey. Nearly 7.2 million underage youth also reported binge drinking, i.e., drinking five or more drinks on a single occasion at least once in the past 30 days.5”

“According to a September 2004 analysis by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA), 7,000 young people under 16 have their first drink of alcohol every day.6”

“In May 2004, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) released survey data from 2003 showing that the gender gap among younger drinkers has closed, although other federal surveys show that the gap widens again by 12th grade.7 According to the CDC, more ninth- and 10th-grade girls currently drink than ninth- and 10th-grade boys. Ninth-grade girls are more likely than their male peers to binge drink as well.8”

“According to MTF, 55.8% of high school seniors reported using "alcopops" in 2004, a level that is virtually unchanged from 2003. Among current drinkers, 78.5% of eighth-graders, 71.3% of 10thgraders, and 64.8% of 12th-graders reported drinking "alcopops" in the past month.9”

“The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) released in September 2004 a new annual estimate on the number of underage deaths due to excessive alcohol use: 4,554.12”

“Brain researchers, using brain scanning technology, have identified how they believe alcohol use may cause loss of memory and other skills in adolescents.13”

References: 4.

5. 6. 7.

8. 9.

12. 13.

L.D. Johnston, P. M. O'Malley, J.G. Bachman, and J.E. Schulenberg, Overall teen use continues gradual decline; but use of inhalants rises (Ann Arbor, Mich: University of Michigan News and Information Services, December 21, 2004), table 3. (Cited 25 January 2005). Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Overview of Findings from the 2003 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (Rockville, MD: Office of Applied Studies, 2004), 14. (cited 25 January 2005). Calculated using the 2003 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. J. Gfroerer of the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, e-mail to David H. Jernigan, PhD, 14 September 2004.” L.D. Johnston, P.M. O'Malley, J.G. Bachman, and J.E. Schulenberg, Monitoring the Future National Survey Results on Drug Use, 1975-2003: Volume I, Secondary School Students (Bethesda, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse, 2004), 106, 110, 114. (Cited 25 January 2005).” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Youth Online: Comprehensive Results, using the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System. (Cited 25 January 2005).” L.D. Johnston, P. M. O'Malley, J.G. Bachman, and J.E. Schulenberg, Overall teen use continues gradual decline; but use of inhalants rises (Ann Arbor, Mich: University of Michigan News and Information Services, December 21, 2004), tables 3 and 18. (Cited 25 January 2005).” L.T. Midanik et al., "Alcohol-Attributable Deaths and Years of Potential Life Lost—United States, 2001," MMWR Weekly 53, no. 37 (24 Sept 2004): 866-870.” S.A. Brown and S.F. Tapert, "Health Consequences of Adolescent Alcohol Involvement," in Reducing Underage Drinking: A Collective Responsibility, Background Papers [CD-ROM] (Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 2004), 383-401.”

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(“Underage Drinking in the United States: A Status Report, 2004” The Center of Alcohol Marketing and Youth, February 2005, http://camy.org/research/underage2004) _______________________ “YOUTH SURVEY: ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE AMONG TEENS”

“In response to a Gallup Youth Survey conducted between Jan. 22 and March 9, one in five teenagers (20%) said they have tried marijuana (79% said they have not), and about 3 in 10 (27%) said they have used alcohol (72% said they have not). These percentages are similar to those found last year; according to the January-February 2003 Gallup Youth Survey, 20% of teens said they had used marijuana and 30% said they had used alcohol.” “Seventy-two percent of teens characterize abuse of illegal drugs such as marijuana and cocaine as either a “very serious” (52%) or “somewhat serious” (20%) health issue among their teenaged friends, and 74% feels that alcohol abuse is a very serious (42%) or somewhat serious (32%) problem. On addition, about half of teens (52%) see abuse of legal, over-the-counter remedies such as cold medicine, recently identified as a growing trend among teens, as a very serious (28%) or somewhat serious (25%) health issue wrong their peers.” (Coleen McMurray, “Youth Survey: Alcohol and Drug Use Among Teens,” The Gallup Organization, April 6, 2004; www.gallup.com/content/print.aspx?ci=11236) _______________________ DRUG ABUSE AND TEEN BOYS”

“According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), most students (78%) in grades 9-12 report having experimented with alcohol at least once; 42 percent report having experimented with marijuana at least one time. Use of other drugs is not as common among high school students, but is still significant—9 percent report having used cocaine, 15 percent report use of inhalants, 3 percent report heroin use, and 10 percent report using methamphetamines at least once.” (Kaiser Family) “More than 11 million teens in America have tried illegal drugs. The good news is that overall use is down.” (Dr. Terry Horton, “Drug abuse and teen boys.” MSNBC Today www.msnbc.com/news/742488.asp?cp1+1) _______________________

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