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東亞泉志

2018 年 04 月 April 2018 第 10 期 總第 28 期 No. 10 Issue 28

THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS 中英雙語 電子季刊 Bilingual (English - Chinese) Digital Quarterly

耿愛德 Eduard Kann

霍華德·佛蘭克林·包克 Howard F. Bowker

本期專題 Features

霍華德·佛蘭克林·包克和耿愛德 1939-1949 年間往來書信 Howard F. Bowker – Eduard Kann Correspondence 1939 – 1949

新中國銅合金流通硬幣的研製開發

Copper Alloy Circulating Coins of People's Republic of China

孫克勤談中國現代流通硬幣收藏與研究

Sun Keqin Discusses the Collecting and Research of Modern Chinese Circulating Coins


東亞泉志

THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS 中英雙語 電子季刊 Bilingual (English - Chinese) Digital Quarterly

Advisor

Che-lu Tseng

顧問 

曾澤祿 Hans-Henning Goehrum 漢斯·亨甯·格魯姆

Technical Advisor

Gu Jun

技術顧問 

顧軍

Publisher & Editor in-Chief

Michael H. Chou

出版人、總編輯

周邁可

Senior Editor

Bruce W. Smith

高級編輯

史博祿

Chinese Editor

Yuan Shuiqing

中文主編

袁水清

US Correspondent

J. Matthew Brotherton

美國通訊員

馬修·布拉澤頓

Advertising & Circulation Manager

Jane Wang

廣告與發行經理

王真

Design Director

Chen Lin

美術設計

陳琳

歡迎投稿 ! You're welcome to contribute articles.

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Foreword Welcome to the 10th edition of the Journal of East Asian Numismatics. Our mission is to promote numismatic exchanges between East and West. In this issue we will start a summary of a series of letters between Howard Franklin Bowker and Eduard Kann, two titans of Chinese numismatics. These letters reflect some of the most important topics in Chinese numismatics and offer insight into the history of these coins. We also welcome a guest article from Mr. Zhang Jun, former Vice Principle Engineer for China’s Shanghai Mint. The article is entitled The Research and Development of Copper Alloy Coins in China. Our North American correspondent, Matthew Brotherton, has submitted an article about the Florida United Numismatic Annual Show. An attorney at law and former Assistant to the Governor of Tennessee Mr. Brotherton also has experience working with the grading experts at Numismatic Guaranty Corporation and Heritage Auctions. We look forward to his regular reports on numismatic markets and important shows. Mr. Yuan Shui Qing, our Chinese editor, has submitted an article in which he interviewed writer and collector of modern Chinese coins Mr. Sun Ke-qing. Mr. Sun’s Book on modern Chinese coinage is an important addition to Chinese numismatics.

This issue our senior editor Bruce Smith submitted an article about chopmarked coins which follows our series on chopmark coins by Colin Gullberg. We also have an article by Steve Feller on United States Proof Coins from the Philippines. Mr. Feller is the former editor of the International Bank Note Society Journal. We are very excited to be a partner of the 2018 Coin of The Year Award Ceremony at the World Money Fair in Berlin. Representatives from the People’s Bank of China in Europe accepted the award for the best circulation coin with the 2016 year of the monkey 10 Yuan, its first win since 2006. We hope you enjoy these interesting, well-researched articles! Michael Chou Publisher and Editor in Chief


前 言 歡迎閱讀第 10 期《東亞泉志》,我們的任務是推動東 西方之間的錢幣文化交流。

我們非常高興能成為柏林世界錢幣展 2018 世界硬幣大 獎的協辦者。來自中國人民銀行歐洲分部的代表接受了為 2016 年中國丙申(猴)年普通紀念幣頒發的“最佳流通幣”

從本期開始,我們將陸續刊登總結兩位中國錢幣學大 師——霍華德 • 佛蘭克林 • 包克和耿愛德之間的往來信件。

大獎。這是繼 2006 年之後,中國硬幣又一次斬獲世界硬幣 大獎的殊榮。

這些信件不僅反映了一些最有分量的中國錢幣學方面的主 題,還讓我們可以對信中提到的這些錢幣一窺究竟。此外, 我們還邀請到上海造幣有限公司前副總工程師章軍先生為

希望諸位讀者能夠喜歡這些生動有趣且研究透徹的文 章。

我們撰寫了一篇題為《新中國銅合金流通硬幣的研製開發》 的文章。 我刊北美通訊員馬修 • 布拉澤頓為我們發來了一篇關於 弗羅裡達美國錢幣年會的文章。作為一名律師及田納西州 前州長助理,布拉澤頓先生還曾有過在 NGC 及海瑞德拍賣 那裡與評級專家共事的經歷。我們期待他能定期為我們發 來關於錢幣市場與重要展會的相關報道。 中文主編袁水清先生貢獻了一篇對中國現代幣方面的 作者兼收藏大家孫克勤先生的專訪稿。孫克勤先生關於中 國現代幣方面的著作為中國錢幣學研究添上了濃墨重彩的 一筆。 雜誌高級編輯史博祿在科林 • 古勒伯格的戳記幣系列之 後又為我們帶來了一篇關於戳記幣方面的文章。此外,曾 任《國際紙幣學會期刊》編輯的史蒂夫 • 費勒則撰寫了一篇 關於來自菲律賓的美國精製硬幣的文章。

《東亞泉志》總編兼出版人:周邁可


CONTENTS Features Howard F. Bowker – Eduard Kann Correspondence 1939 – 1949

Bruce W. Smith

29

Copper Alloy Circulating Coins of People's Republic of China

Zhang Jun

45

Sun Keqin Discusses the Collecting and Research of Modern Chinese Circulating Coins Yuan Shuiqing

56

Departments JEAN News

Bruce W. Smith

5

JEAN Reviews

Bruce W. Smith

17

2017 Winter FUN Show Experiences Cold Weather but Offers a Promising Warm Numismatic Market for the Upcoming Year

J. Matthew Brotherton

25

Updated Report on the 2018 Hong Kong International Greater China Coin and Stamp Expo

Yu Guoxin

27

CHOPMARKS – An Introductio And Some First Hand Accounts

Bruce W. Smith

68

An Introduction to Siam Gambling Tokens

Bruce W. Smith

79

Development of the Central Mint

Jian H. Chen

90

United States Proof Coins for the Philippines 1903-1908

Steve Feller

102

Chinese Books in the Library of the American Numismatic Society

Howard F. Bowker

105

Column


目錄  專題 霍華德·佛蘭克林·包克和耿愛德 1939-1949 年間往來書信

史博祿

37

新中國銅合金流通硬幣的研製開發

章軍

51

孫克勤談中國現代流通硬幣收藏與研究

袁水清

62

《東亞泉志》新聞

史博祿

11

《東亞泉志》書評

史博祿

21

2017 冬季展會遭遇了寒冷天氣 然來年錢幣市場卻前景看好

馬修·布拉澤頓

26

2018 香港大中華國際錢幣郵票博覽會後續報道

余國欣

28

戳記略談及相關第一手資料

史博祿

74

暹羅賭博代幣

史博祿

85

中央造幣廠的發展歷程

陳行

96

1903-1908 年間美屬菲律賓的新鑄樣幣

史蒂夫·費勒

美國錢幣學會圖書館裏的中國書籍

霍華德·佛蘭克林·包克 107

 部門

 專欄

103


Departments 部門

JEAN News Bruce W. Smith (USA)

Century Old Postcards Depicting Coins A hundred years ago, the collecting of picture postcards was a very popular hobby in Europe and the United States. Picture post cards first appeared in the 1890's. At that time they were not sold singly, but in sets, usually ten in a set on the same subject. Regardless of where in the world they were sold, most were actually printed in Austria or Germany. In the early 20th century there were postcard clubs throughout the world. Collectors exchanged cards sold in their area with collectors in other states or countries. Special albums were sold in which to mount the cards. Though some were actually inscribed and sent through the mail, many were mailed inside an envelope to prevent damage to the card. The hobby declined and nearly died when World War I cut off the supply of cards to collectors. But because collecting was so widespread before the war, vast numbers of old picture postcards are available today both used and unused. Shown here are some cards showing coins of China and Japan. The most commonly seen card with Chinese coins shows dragon coins in values of 10, 20, 50 cents and

dollar from the Hupeh and Kwangtung mints; two cash coins; a Hupeh 10 cash; and a gold ingot. Such cards may be printed with flags or exchange rates, and may be inscribed in English, French or German. One of the Chinese cards shown was mailed within England in 1912 and was undoubtedly purchased there. There is more variety in postcards showing Japanese coins. Some depict only silver or only gold coins, while others depict only copper and nickel coins. Other cards are available depicting coins from other Asian countries and from Europe and the Americas. For East Asia, cards are known showing coins from China, Japan, Siam, the Netherlands East Indies, and the Straits Settlements and Hong Kong. Some sets were even sold bound in a book. Single cards today usually sell for around US $10 to $30 each. The coin cards are usually printed in color and the coins are usually embossed (raised up from the surface of the card). Other cards exist showing postage stamps from various countries. Coin and stamp postcards can usually be found for sale on Ebay.

Chinese postcards

Japanese postcards

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A postcard Japanese

A postcard of the Netherlands East Indies

A postcard of Siam

A postcard of the Straits Settlements and Hong Kong

IBNS Website Postings The International Bank Note Society, founded in the early 1960's, in addition to its quarterly magazine, also publishes articles and news items online at its website. Among recent postings is a note by Fabrizio Raponi about a book published in connection with an exhibition held in the Kanagawa Prefectural Museum of Cultural History in April 2016, celebrating the banknotes issued by the Yokohama Specie Bank. The setting for the exhibition was appropriate as the museum is located in the old headquarters building of the bank. The 144 page, soft cover book is titled: "Banknotes of Yokohama Specie Bank". According to Raponi: "Although the text is in Japanese, it is quite straight forward to figure out denominations, blocks, order dates and quantities of banknotes distributed by the various bank branches in China." A virtual museum may be explored online at: http://ch.kanagawa-museum.jp/dm/syoukin ... siryo. html.

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《東亞泉志》第 10 期

Another posting on the IBNS website concerns an exhibit on the centennial of the Bank of China Hong Kong Branch. David Tang reports on a poorly promoted exhibit at the bank in Hong Kong in late 2017. Tang reports that nearly a hundred archival documents, photos, and notes were on display. Among these was an uncut sheet of $100 notes dated November 2017. Tang calls attention to a 1940 Chinese bond denominated US Dollars 5000 also on display, to which is attached an unrecorded 5000 yuan Chinese revenue stamp. Tang posted a number of images to the IBNS Forum. They may be viewed at: www. theIBNS.org but you must be a member to view them.


Departments 部門

Bowker Donation to Smithsonian As reported in JEAN 2016 #3, in May 2016 Michael Chou, publisher of JEAN, met with Ellen R. Feingold, curator of the National Numismatic Collection at the Smithsonian Museum in Washington, D.C. to discuss the possibility of donating some coins from the Howard F. Bowker collection to the Smithsonian. A post dated 8 November 2017 on the Smithsonian website, "From the Collections", written by Ms. Feingold, confirms that the Bowker family did donate 380 coins from the Bowker collection, selected by Ms. Feingold, to the Smithsonian. Among these were an ancient Ch'i (Qi) knife coin, a Taiwan Old Man Dollar, a 500 Cash struck coin attributed to Honan, and a set of Szechuan dragon coins in gilt copper, made by the Ferracute Machine Company in the United States in 1897. A selection of the donated coins are on display in the museum. Ms. Feingold states that all of the museum's 10,000 East Asian coins and notes will soon be digitized and available for study online. Also mentioned in the Smithsonian press release below, is the creation of the Howard F. Bowker Research Room at the museum. To read Ellen R. Feingold's blog visit: americanhistory.si.edu/blog/ east-asia-bowker-collection.

R. B. White Collection of Chinese Copper Coins Found During the 1970's and 1980's the most active collector of Chinese copper coins in the United States was R. B. White. He and his wife traveled all over America and the world looking for coins to add to his collection. Over the years he bought the Chinese copper coin collections of Edgar Mandel (who published a study of Kirin copper coins); Irving Goodman (noted for his collection of Chinese gold and silver coins); Jim Center (a San Diego collector); and Clifford Hewitt (an American mint technician who set up the Manila Mint in 1920 and the Shanghai Mint in the 1930's). In 1972 White and his wife spent five and a half weeks looking for coins in Singapore, Hong Kong, Taiwan and Japan. During November 1974 he spent two weeks in Europe where he bought a collection of cash coins weighing 138 pounds -- about 7700 coins, of which 3,000 were Korean. Following this, White became a major collector of Korean cash coins. In 1990 White narrowed his collecting focus to machine struck Chinese copper coins. His collection of Chinese and Annamese cash coins was consigned to Taisei and sold in their February 1991 sale. The same sale contained several large lots of Korean cash, arranged by mint, totaling about 2,500 pieces. Though not marked as such, this was probably the sad end of White's Korean collection. His reference books, except for those on struck copper coins, were consigned to numismatic book dealer, George Kolbe,

and sold in 1990. The fate of his collection of Chinese struck copper coins, reputed to be the best in the world, was unknown for nearly 20 years. Early in 2018 StacksBowers announced they would be selling the Q. David Bowers / R. B. White Collection of Chinese Copper Coins. Roby Byron White was born on 13 April 1919 and died 30 January 2006. He was a mechanical engineer by profession. From the early 1970's he lived in Sheldonville, Massachusetts, till 1994 when he moved to Strafford, New Hampshire. In addition to coins, he also collected old cars and model cars. His first contribution to numismatic literature was a 1972 article published in the India Asiatic Numismatic Society newsletter, reporting a newly discovered Sinkiang 3 Mace dragon coin dated AH 1307 (1890), similar to Kann 1040 (L & M 810). In 1975 he published a listing of six die varieties of the large size Fengtien 10 cash copper coin with center hole (Y81; CCC 319; Duan 2169-2175) in the journal T'ung Pao. In 1982 he contributed to East Asia Journal a list of revisions for Edgar Mandel's catalog of Korean cash coins, and a list of the rarest of Korean cash. White also authored an important article in The Numismatist March 1974 about a proof example of the American 20 cent coin of 1875 made at the San Francisco Mint. Only three examples of this coin were known to exist at that time.

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Departments 部門

White's first book and surely the most useful for cash coin collectors came out in 1976 under the title: "A Comprehensive Finding List of Chinese Cash - From T'ang to the Republic 618 - 1912." The most important and the rarest work produced by R. Byron White was certainly: "The Vatican Collection of Chinese Coins (Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana Medagliere)" which was published in 1976 as an 811 page, three volume boxed set. The first volume consists of the text and index (in Italian or Latin); the second volume contains plates of Chinese coins; while the third volume has plates of amulets and coins from nearby countries. White obtain during his 1974 trip to Italy, a set of 8x11 inch photographs, originally made in the 1950's, depicting the text and the coins. These he offered to reproduce and bind and sell for $100 a set -but only by subscription and only if he received at least 10 subscriptions. This would be the only published record of the Vatican's collection -- which consisted mostly of cast coinage but also contained some silver coins and struck copper coins. Where this collection came from and who laid it out and wrote the descriptions is unknown. And sadly only twelve copies of this catalog were printed -- two for the Library of Congress to secure the copyright, nine for subscribers, and one copy for White himself. White consigned his copy to the Kolbe sale, but it did not reach the minimum bid in 1990, and was put aside for sale at later time. One set of this work did sell in auction in 2017 for US$ 1600. As early as 1971, R. B. White had already begun work on his own catalog of Chinese struck copper coins. He had approached Robert Saiber, a Plainfield, NJ coin dealer who specialized in Asian coins, for financial assistance on the book, but Bob was unable to help him. White then turned to Ward D. Smith, who had recently published books on world paper money, on Philippine coins and tokens, and Smith's own masterwork "Chinese Banknotes". White wanted Smith to help in organizing, proof reading, and supplying Chinese characters to be used in the text. In those days, text was typed on a manual typewriter and Chinese characters were written in my hand where needed. Work on the book progressed slowly through 1976 and 1977, then Smith seems to have lost interest in the project. Ward Smith died in 1984. It was then that the writer obtained Smith's archive of papers, including an early draft of White's book. At that time it was written, partly by typewriter and partly by hand, on paper of various sizes and color. However letters received from White in the early and mid 1990's indicate he had nearly finished converting the text of the book to digital form on a computer. A 1995 letter to the writer says that White had filled 40 binders with photographs intended to go into the book.

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《東亞泉志》第 10 期

Interestingly in June 1976, White had hired Canadian James Haxby, well known collector and writer on Canadian coins and tokens and North American paper money, to photograph his collection of Chinese copper coins. A set of prints was purchased by Krause Publications for use in its "Standard Catalog of World Coins," but after they arrived at the Krause office, a secretary cut the strips of prints apart and dumped them into a large box -- more than 1,700 photos. I don't know whether Krause ever used any of those photos due to the time and trouble required to re-assemble them correctly. Many years later in 2009 the writer contacted the photographer and was able to purchase the original negatives of White's coins along with the rights to them. I estimate there are closer to 2,000 negatives. White's plan was to photograph obverse dies and reverse dies, then assemble them in the known combinations, producing perhaps 4,000 coins. It is unknown at this time whether Q. David Bowers obtained the White manuscript or the 40 albums of photos of the collection. In August 1997, Michael Chou of Champion Auctions Hong Kong asked me to accompany him as an advisor for the purpose of visiting R. B. White at his New Hampshire home, to negotiate the purchase of White's Chinese copper coin collection. We looked over the collection for 15 hours and noticed a few things right away. First, some of the coins had been in a flood recently and were turning green, being now damaged, the grade written on the cardboard holder had little meaning. Second, many coins were clearly overgraded, which we felt was probably due to the seller's poor eyesight rather than an attempt to over value the coins. Byron had prepared two copies of a printed inventory of the collection, giving one to Michael and one to the writer. During the examination, I wrote many notes in the margin of my copy of the inventory. When we had finished looking at the coins, Michael made a very strong six figure offer for the collection. At that time, Chinese copper coins were not bringing the wild prices Chinese silver coins could bring. The negotiation was short, a price was agreed on, then Michael and I returned to our motel to arrange payment. But first, White made me hand back the inventory list he gave me. Byron wanted to be paid in gold, so Michael was on the phone arranging to have the gold delivered to this remote place in New Hampshire. When all the arrangements were in place and we were preparing to leave, during some casual chatting, Mike mentioned that the timing was great because he would have time to display the coins in Hong Kong. But for some reasons,this deal was cancelled.


Departments 部門

Treasures of the Bowers / White Collection of Chinese Copper Coins The following listing has the prices realize, including buyer's fee, shown in brackets. Chingkiang 20 Cash 1906 [$504,000]. Among the top three selling coins in the sale was the Chingkiang 20 Cash 1906 with Huai mintmark raised in the field. This may be the first time an example of this coin has appeared in a public auction. In a Stacks Hong Kong sale in August 2011, an otherwise unknown Chingkiang 20 Cash with incuse mintmark appeared, misidentified as an ordinary Kiangsu 20 Cash. Szechuan 30 Cash Facing Dragon [$504,000]. Szechuan was the only province to consider a 30 Cash denomination. This value also comes with a flying dragon. Why the 30 Cash was chosen and why two different designs were produced, all patterns, is a mystery. Yuan Shih-kai Portrait 10 Cash with Large Medal [$288,000]. Lot 40301. This handsome coin, produced at the Wuchang Mint about 1913, also exists struck from a different die in which Yuan is wearing a smaller medal. The large medal variety was not approved and is the rarer of the two. General Issue 1 Wen Pattern Round Center Hole [$36,000]. Lot 40279. This pattern 1 Cash, even in damaged condition, still sold for over $30,000. General Issue 1 Wen Pattern Dragon Obverse No Hole [$28,800]. Lot 40280. Yuan Shih-kai 1914 Dragon & Phoenix 20 Cent in Copper [$24,000]. Lot 40307. Described as a mint sport, this piece might actually be a pattern coin made in 1914. As mentioned before in JEAN, the dragon and phoenix design was produced by Luigi Giorgi in 1914, but was not used for circulating coins until 1923 and again in 1926.

Shanghai Mint 6 Blanks Lot 40309 [$9600]. Lot 40309. Not very attractive but exceedingly rare, a group of about 95 blank planchets of various sizes and composition, made for use in the Shanghai Mint. This group came from the estate of Clifford Hewitt, the American mint technician who set up the Shanghai Mint. Though the catalog dates these planchets to 1920-1934, they must date to 1930-1936. Though Hewitt was replaced in 1933, he may have received later planchets from his successor, Robert J. Grant. Some of these planchets may have been made at the U.S. Mint in Philadelphia, but those with grooved edges were probably produced by the Royal Mint in London. A similar group of planchets, sample coins and correspondence, also from the Hewitt estate, was donated to the ANS in New York. The lot offered in this auction was a once-in-a-lifetime chance to acquire Shanghai Mint planchets. Anhwei 5 Cash Uncircled Dragon [$40,800]. Lot 40068. Anhwei 10 Cash with Center Hole [$52,800]. Lot 40067. Anhwei 10 Cash Rosette Flanking Flying Dragon [$40,800]. Lot 40069. Anhwei 10 Cash Star Flanking Flying Dragon [$84,000]. Lot 40070. Anhwei 10 Cash Award Medal with Denomination [$13,200]. Lot 40078. Anhwei 10 Cash Award Medal No Denomination [$19,000]. Lot 40079. Peiyang Arsenal Tokens 1 Tael [$8400] 1 Mace [$9600] 1 Fen Mule [$3360]. Lots 40099-40102. The White Collection sale contained six Peiyang Arsenal tokens, all but one of them being mules with two reverses. The 1 Mace value is exceedingly rare, but the 1 Fen value is a new discovery, having never been seen before. Chekiang 10 Cash in White Metal [$60,000]. Lot 40090. A common coin struck in a rare metal. One of perhaps two known, the other example sold in the Norman Jacobs sale in 2008. Honan "Hou-nan" 10 Cash [$1,023]. Lot 40133. This coin is bent and graded VF but still sold for over a thousand dollars.

Tientsin 1 Fen 1936 [$18,000]. Lot 40303. One of a series of pattern coins made at the Tientsin Mint in 1936 under orders of separatist General Sung Che-yuan.

Honan 500 Cash [$75,000]. Lot 40137. A well known rarity, but this writer doubts it was struck in Honan.

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Departments 部門

The quality of the coin suggests it was more likely made at Wuchang, Nanking, Tientsin or the Shanghai Mint. Never issued for circulation, this was China's only 500 Cash coin, and is thought to have been struck in the early 1930's.

Shantung 10 Cash Star Beside Dragon [$13,200]. Lot 40223.

Hunan 10 Cash 1906 Short Face Dragon [$57,600]. Lot 40143.

Sinkiang Struck Cash Otto Beh Dies [$12,000]. Lot 40226. Until recently, who produced this coin, when and where were all mysteries. Some believed this was a fantasy. Then in 2011 a set of Chinese dies and punches turned up in a German auction. We now know that the dies for this coin were produced in the late 1890's by engraver Otto Beh on behalf of the German firm of L. Schuler, which was to supply minting equipment for a mint in Sinkiang.

Hunan 10 Cash 1906 Long Face Dragon [$48,000]. Lot 40144. Unexpectedly high prices for 10 Cash coins of the T'ai Ch'ing Ti Kuo series. Hupei Struck Cash in Aluminum [$12,000]. Lot 40153. Struck in what was an exotic metal in the 1890's, this piece must have been produced in New Jersey by the Ferracute Machine Company (which supplied the machinery to the Wuchang Mint to make the coin) or at the Philadelphia Mint (where the dies were engraved). This coin struck in aluminum was unknown until the sale of the Arthur Cox collection in April 2014. Hupeh 10 Cash with Chekiang Dragon [$22,800]. Lot 40158. This type is unlisted in Woodward, but the Duan catalog shows this die combination struck in copper, brass and white metal. Kiangnan 5 Cash 1906 Incuse Mintmark [$21,000]. Lot 40167.

Shantung 20 Cash 1933 [$84,000]. Lot 40225. A well known rarity.

Szechuan Flying Dragon 5 Cash [$45,600]. Lot 40243. Szechuan Cash Errors Lots 40236-40240 [$1500 $5500]. Undoubtedly obtained from the Ferracute Machine Company in New Jersey or one of its former employees. These are mis-struck or unfinished examples of the square hole one cash coin planned for Szechuan, but never produced because of the incorrect mintmark. Szechuan 2 Cent 1930 [$26,400]. Lot 40261. Not well known and seldom seen, inscribed below the wreath we see: "19. R. C" meaning 19th Year Republic of China. Some forgeries of this coin, apparently copied from a poor photograph, have instead "1930" below the wreath.

Kiangnan 5 Cash 1906 Raised Mintmark [$24,000]. Lot 40168.

Lot of 51Anhwei coins [$21,600]. Lot 40335.

Kiangsee 10 Cash Circled Dragon [$43,200]. Lot 40177.

Lot of 46 Fengtien coins [$32,400]. Lot 40337.

Kiangsi 10 Cash Flying Dragon [$13,200] and [$14,400]. Lots 40179 & 40180. It is unclear why this mint used three different kinds of dragons and two different English spellings.

Lot of 200 Kirin coins [$28,800]. Lot 40345. Lot of 76 Sinkiang coins [$14,400]. Lot 40347. Lot of 200 Szechuan coins [$24,000]. Lot 40348.

Kwangsi Flying Dragon 10 Cash [$22,800]. Lot 40210. A well known rarity, more often seen with a Hunan Chinese side and Kwangsi dragon side. Though Kann and Woodward claim a modern mint opened in Kwangsi in 1905, there is no evidence for the operation of a mint in the province till 1919. A modern mint had been planned since at least 1898, but for some reason it never opened. Kwangtung 1936 Five Goats Coin [ $48,000]. Lot 40216. Another well known rarity, issued by a short lived separatist government at Canton. Shantung 10 Cash Comet Beside Dragon [20,400]. Lot40222.

10 《東亞泉志》第 10 期

Lot of 66 Mixed Provinces coins [$25,200]. Lot 40349. Lot of 200 Mixed Provinces coins [$31,200]. Lot 40350. Lot of 54 Chinese Tokens and small medals [$9,000]. Lot 40353.


Departments 部門

《東亞泉志》新聞 史博祿(美國)

世紀歷史硬幣明信片 幾百年前,在歐洲和美國,人們一直流行愛好收藏明

幣廠,面值是七分二釐、一錢四分四釐、三錢六分以及七

信片。圖片明信片最早出現在 19 世紀 90 年代。那個時候,

錢二分 ; 兩枚銅板;湖北 10 文;和 1 個金錠。這些卡片上

明信片不單獨出售,通常是同一個主題一套 10 張成套出售。

印有國旗或交易匯率,用英語、法語或德語書寫。其中一

世界各地賣的明信片,大多數都是在奧地利或德國印刷的。

張中國明信片是在 1912 年從英國寄出的,毫無疑問也是在

20 世紀早期,世界各地都有明信片俱樂部。收藏家們收藏

那裡購買的。

當地明信片與其他國家或地區的收藏家進行交易。有一些 特別的專輯會夾在卡片裡銷售。雖然實際上明信片可以署

更多的明信片印有日本硬幣,有些印着銀幣或金幣,有

名並直接郵寄,但很多人為了避免損壞明信片,都把明信

些只印着銅幣和鎳幣。還有一些卡片展示的是來自其他亞

片裝在信封裡郵寄。自一戰時對收藏家的明信片供應鏈被

洲國家、歐洲或美洲的硬幣。在東亞,常見的有來自中國、

切斷後,人們的這個愛好就減少甚至消失了。但是由於收

日本、暹羅、荷屬東印度群島、海峽殖民地和香港的硬幣

藏明信片在戰前如此普遍,不管用過的還是沒用過的明信

明信片。有些明信片還會被裝訂成書售賣。單張卡通常售

片,今天仍然能夠找到很多。

價在 10 美元到 30 美元。硬幣明信片通常是用彩色印刷的, 硬幣通常是有浮雕紋樣的(從卡片的表面凸起)。還有些

這裡展示的是一些印有中國和日本硬幣的明信片。常見 的一些有印中國的龍幣的明信片,龍幣產自湖北和廣東鑄

卡片上印有不同國家的郵票。這些硬幣和郵票明信片你可 以在 Ebay 買到。

中國的硬幣明信片

日本的硬幣明信片

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日本的硬幣明信片

荷屬東印度群島的硬幣明信片

暹羅的硬幣明信片

海峽殖民地和香港的硬幣明信片

IBNS 網站發帖 國際紙幣學會成立於 20 世紀 60 年代早期,這個學會

另有一篇帖子講的是紀念中國銀行香港分行百年的一

除了發行季刊外,也在其網站上發佈文章和新聞。在最近

個展覽,2017 年底,David Tang 報道了這場不太知名的展

的帖子中,有一篇法布裡齊奧 • 拉帕尼寫的文章,提到一本

覽,報道上說有近百份檔案檔、照片和筆記都在展出。其

書講的一場在神奈川文化歷史博物館舉辦的展覽,這場展

中有一張未刪節的 100 美元紙幣標注日期為 2017 年 11 月。

覽在 2016 年 4 月舉行,來慶祝横濱正金銀行發行紙幣。博

他注意到有一張 1940 年中國債券發行的 5000 美元展出,

物館坐落在銀行的舊總部大樓裡,用來舉辦展覽再合適不

並附帶 5000 元面值中國印花稅票同時展出。Tang 在 IBNS

過。這本 144 頁的軟封面書的標題是:“横濱正金銀行鈔

論壇上發佈了許多圖片。想看到這些圖片你可以登錄 www.

票”。根據拉帕尼的說法:“雖然鈔票上印的是日文,但

theIBNS.org 註冊會員後查看。

能很直接地認出中國各銀行分支機搆發行的面額、區域、 訂單日期和數量。”你可以在網上虛擬博物館瞭解相關資 訊,網址為: http://ch.kanagawa-museum.jp/dm/syoukin ... siryo.html。

12 《東亞泉志》第 10 期


Departments 部門

美國國家歷史博物館東亞錢幣展 2016 年第 3 期《東亞泉志》披露過本雜誌總編、出版 人周邁可先生曾與華盛頓史密森尼國立歷史博物館國家錢 幣收藏館館長艾倫·R·費恩高德見面,並商討向史密森學 會捐贈霍華德·佛蘭克林·包克錢幣藏品一事。在史密森 學會網站 2017 年 11 月 8 日發表的一篇由費恩高德撰寫的 題為“From the Collections”的報道中,作者講包克家族 的確從包克藏品中捐贈了 380 枚錢幣給史密森學會,這些 錢幣都是由費恩高德本人挑選。這批贈品中包括一枚齊國 刀幣、一枚臺灣老公銀、一枚湖南 500 文機鑄幣以及一套 1987 年美國漢立克納浦造幣廠出產的一套四川鍍銅龍幣。 博物館挑選了一些捐贈的錢幣用於展覽。費恩高德提到博 物館館藏的所有的 1 萬枚東亞硬幣及紙幣很快就會以電子 版的方式出現在網站上供人們查閱研究。另外,在下面的 這篇史密森學會刊登的文章中還提到了霍華德·佛蘭克林·包 克研究室的設立。詳情請參閱艾倫·R·費恩高德的博客: americanhistory.si.edu/blog/east-asia-bowker-collection.

R.B 懷特中國銅幣藏品面世 R.B 懷特是 20 世紀七八十年代美國最活躍的中國銅幣

到 1994 年,才搬到新罕布什爾州的斯特拉福德。除了硬幣

藏家。他和妻子走遍美國和世界的每一個角落搜尋錢幣藏

之外,他還收集了舊車和模型車。他在錢幣學文獻方面貢

品。多年間,他購得了愛德格 • 曼德爾(曾出版過《吉林銅

獻的第一篇文章是 1972 年在《印度亞洲錢幣學會通訊》

幣研究》一書)、歐文 • 古德曼(知名的中國金銀幣藏家)、

上發表的一篇文章,報道了新發現的一枚年代標記為回曆

吉米 • 森特(一位聖地牙哥藏家)以及柯利弗德 • 赫維特(一

1307 年(1890 年)的新疆 3 錢龍幣,與耿愛德 1040 號幣

位美國造幣廠技師,1920 年在馬尼拉造幣廠任職,20 世紀

(L&M 810)類似。1975 年,他在《通寶》雜誌上發表了

30 年代成為上海造幣廠技師)等人的中國銅幣藏品。1972

一篇文章,列出了 6 個大規格中心帶孔的奉天 10 文銅幣的

年,懷特夫婦用了五周半的時間,到新加坡、香港、臺灣

模具品種,(Y81;CCC 319;段 2169-2175)。1982 年,

和日本搜尋錢幣。1974 年 11 月,他用了兩周,在歐洲購

他為《東亞泉志》撰寫了愛德格 • 曼德爾的韓國古幣目錄的

得了一共重 138 磅的古幣,約有 7700 枚錢幣,其中 3000

修訂清單和韓國最稀有古幣名單。懷特還在 1974 年 3 月的

枚為朝鮮錢幣。因此,懷特就成為了朝鮮古幣領域的一位

《錢幣學家》上撰寫了一篇關於 1875 年在三藩市造幣廠製

重量級藏家。

造的美國 20 美分精製樣幣的重要文章。當時僅知只有三枚 此種樣幣存世。

1990 年,懷特將自己的收藏範圍縮小到中國機鑄銅幣。 他的中國和安南古幣被委託給泰星公司在其 1991 年 2 月

懷特的第一本當然也是對古幣藏家最有用的一本書就

份的拍賣會上售出。同樣賣出的還有一些大面值的朝鮮古

是在 1976 年出版的《中國古幣綜合檢索表 - 從唐代至民

幣,共計約 2500 枚。儘管未明確記錄,但這也許就是懷特

國,618-1912 年》。而 R • 拜倫 • 懷特的最重要也是最罕

朝鮮錢幣藏品的遺憾結局。除機製銅幣方面的書籍外,懷

見的一部作品當然要數《梵蒂岡中國錢幣藏品(Biblioteca

特的參考書籍都被委託給了錢幣學書籍方面的書商喬治 • 科

Apostolica Vaticana Medagliere)》,出版於 1976 年,共

爾伯,並在 1990 年賣出。而他被譽為“世界最好”的中國

811 頁,三卷盒裝。第一卷由文本和索引(意大利語或拉丁

機鑄幣藏品在近 20 年間一直下落不明。直到 2018 年初,

語)組成;第二卷包含中國錢幣範本;而第三卷則記載了

Stack & Bowers 宣佈將出售 Q • 大衛 • 鮑爾斯與 R • B 懷特

中國壓勝錢範本以及中國鄰國的硬幣範本。懷特 1974 年訪

的中國銅幣藏品。

問意大利期間獲得了一套 8×11 英寸的照片最初拍攝於 20 世紀 50 年代,記錄了錢幣及其文字敘述。他提出以重新製

羅 比 • 拜 倫 • 懷 特, 生 於 1919 年 4 月 13 日, 並 於

作和銷售這套書,售價為 100 美元,但只能接收訂購,並

2006 年 1 月 30 日 去 世。 他 是 一 位 職 業 機 械 工 程 師。 從

且至少收到 10 份定購申請才會出售。這可能是關於梵蒂岡

1970 年代初開始,他在麻塞諸塞州的謝爾登維爾居住,直

錢幣藏品的唯一公開的紀錄, 這批藏品主要為鍛造幣,但

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也有一些銀幣和機鑄銅幣。這批來自何方,是誰留存並撰

斯辦公室後,一名秘書切開捆紮照片的帶子,並將 1700 多

寫描述的目前仍是未知。遺憾的是,當時這版目錄只印刷

張照片倒入了一個大盒子中。我不知道克勞斯出版社是否

了 12 份——其中兩份交由國會圖書館以保護版權,9 份為

曾經使用過這些照片,因為重新將這些照片整理排序需要

顧客定購,懷特本人還存留了 1 份。懷特把他存留的這份

大量時間和精力。多年之後,到 2009 年,筆者聯繫了攝影師,

交給科爾伯出售,但在 1990 年拍賣时未能達到底價,於是

並買下了懷特這批硬幣的原始底片及其使用權利。我估計

被擱置以待之後的拍賣。其中一套書曾在 2017 年的拍賣會

這些底片約有近 2000 張。懷特當時的計劃是拍攝錢幣正、

上以 1600 美元的價格成交。

背面的模具,然後將它們組合起來,製作成大約 4000 枚硬 幣。目前尚不清楚,Q. 大衛 • 鮑爾斯是否獲得了懷特的手

早在 1971 年,R.B. 懷特便已經開始創作自己的中國銅

稿或者他的 40 卷藏品照片。

元目錄。他曾與新澤西州普萊恩菲爾德的一位專門從事亞 洲錢幣經銷的幣商羅伯特 • 薩伯接洽,希望他能為該書提供

1997 年 8 月,香港冠軍拍賣總裁周邁可邀我以顧問的

經濟援助,但鮑勃對此無能為力。然後,懷特轉向沃德 D. 史

身份陪他到懷特在新罕布什爾州的家中拜訪他,並商談購

密斯尋求幫助,沃德當時新出版了關於世界紙幣、菲律賓

買他收藏的中國銅幣。我們花了 15 個小時檢查這些藏品,

硬幣和代幣以及他自己的一部關於“中國紙幣”的傑作。

並很快就意識到了一些事情。首先,一些硬幣最近因遭受

懷特希望史密斯能幫他組織整理、校對並提供在書籍文字

淹水而變成了綠色,現在已經損壞,所以硬紙板上標注的

部分使用的漢字。當時,文本需使用手動打字機進行輸入,

品相等級沒有多大意義。其次,許多硬幣品相顯然評級過高,

而需要漢字的時候則需要親手書寫。1976 年至 1977 年間,

我們認為這可能是由於賣方視力欠佳,而並非是想要抬高

這本書的工作進展緩慢,史密斯似乎對這個項目失去了興

硬幣價格。拜倫準備了兩本列印的藏品清單,一份給周邁可,

趣。沃德 • 史密斯於 1984 年去世。當時,筆者得到了史密

一份給筆者。在檢視期間,我在自己那本清單的邊上做了

斯的文章檔案,這其中就包括懷特這本書的早期書稿。當時,

很多標注。當我們看完硬幣時,邁可為這批藏品提供了一

書稿部分由打字機列印、部分由手工書寫而成,並使用了

份非常豐厚的六位數的報價。當時中國的銅幣的價格還沒

大小及顏色各異的紙張。然而,在 20 世紀 90 年代早期和

有中國銀幣那樣瘋狂的價格。我們短暫交談了一番,就價

中期從懷特那裡收到的信件表明,他幾乎就快完成將書上

格問題達成一致。之後,邁可和我回到汽車旅館安排付款

的文本在電腦上轉換為電子版的工作。1995 年筆者收到的

事宜。不過,懷特先是讓筆者把清單交回來。後又希望以

一封信上說,懷特已經在 40 本文件夾裡塞上了照片,並打

黃金支付,所以邁可打電話安排人把黃金送到新罕布夏這

算將這些照片收錄到這本書中。

個偏遠的地方。當一切都安排妥當,而我們也準備離開的 時候,邁可在閒談中提到現在時機正好,因為他可以在香

有趣的是,1976 年 6 月,懷特雇傭了著名加拿大錢幣、 代幣及北美紙幣收藏家兼作家詹姆斯 • 哈克斯比來拍攝自己

港展覽這些硬幣。不過後來由於一些特殊的原因,這筆交 易取消了。

的中國銅幣藏品。一套印刷的照片被克勞斯出版社買去用 於《世界硬幣標準目錄》的編纂,但當這些照片抵達克勞

Q •大衛• 鮑爾斯與 R•B 懷特的中國銅幣珍品 以下是這場拍賣的成交價格表,括弧內為買家價格。 1906 年 清 江 浦 當 20 文(50 萬 零 4 千美元)。拍賣成交價最高的

有飛龍銅幣。至於為什麼會選擇 30 文這一面值以及為什麼 會生產兩種不同設計的銅幣至今仍是一個謎。

三 枚 錢 幣 中 就 有 這 枚 1906 年 清 江浦“淮”字(陽文)銅元。這

袁 像 10 文 大 面(28 萬 8 千 美

可能是這種銅元洋幣首次出現在

元),Lot40301。 這 枚 精 美 的 銅

公開的拍賣會上。2011 年 8 月份的

幣約是 1913 年武昌造幣廠所鑄,

Stacks 香港拍賣上,另一枚未知的帶陰

另有不同幣模鑄造的袁像小面。

紋廠記的清江浦 20 文本錯認作了一

大面的種類當時未經確認證實,比

枚普通的江蘇 20 文。

小面稀有。

四 川 當 30 水 龍(50 萬 零 4

試打 1 文圓孔樣幣(3 萬 6 千美元),Lot 40279. 這枚

千美元)。四川是唯一一個發行

1 文樣幣即便有損壞,但還是拍出了超過 3 萬美元的價格。

過當 30 面值的省份,同一面值的還

14 《東亞泉志》第 10 期


Departments 部門

試打 1 文正面龍樣幣,無孔(2 萬 8 千 8 百美元), Lot 40280。

浙江當十銅鎳樣幣(6 萬美元),Lot40090。這是一枚 用稀有金屬鑄造的普通錢幣,可能是已知僅存的兩枚銅鎳 樣幣中的一枚。另一枚樣幣曾在 2008 年諾爾曼 • 雅各的拍

1914 年袁世凱龍鳳二十文銅幣(2 萬 4 千美元)。Lot

賣會上售出。

40307。這枚錢幣被描述為一枚試打幣,可能是 1914 年鑄 造的一枚樣幣。此前《東亞泉志》曾提到過,龍鳳的設計

河南光緒元寶 10 文(1 千零 23 美元),Lot 40133。

是 1914 年出自路易 • 喬治之手,但只在 1923 年之後才用

這枚幣有彎曲,且評分為 VF,但仍賣出了 1000 多美元的

在流通幣上,並於 1926 再次用於製造流通幣。

價格。

1936 年天津 1 分(1 萬 8 千美元),Lot 40279。這是

河南 500 文(7 萬 5 千美元),Lot 40137。知名的珍

1936 年天津造幣廠奉主張割據主義的宋哲元將軍之命生產

稀品,但筆者懷疑這枚幣是否鑄造于河南,其品質顯示這

的一套樣幣中的一枚。

枚幣更有可能是武昌、南京、天津或者上海造幣廠的產品。 未發行流通,是中國唯一一種 500 文面值的銅幣,被認為

上海造幣廠胚餅,Lot 40309(9 千 6 百美元)。雖然

是鑄造於 20 世紀 30 年代早期。

並不是很吸引人,但卻極為罕見,是一批約為 95 塊不同大 小和材質的胚餅中的一部分,這批胚餅是為供上海造幣廠 使用而製造的。胚餅來自美國技工柯利弗德 • 赫維特,他

1906 年湖南當製錢十文,短面龍(5 萬 7 千 600 美元) Lot 40143。

曾在上海造幣廠任職過。儘管目錄顯示這些胚餅的製作於 1920-1934 年期間,但其實際的年份應為 1930-1936 年。 儘管 1933 年,赫維特的工作被人取代,但他可能還是從他

1906 年湖南當製錢十文,長面龍(4 萬 8 千美元), Lot 40144。大清當十銅元中意外拍出如此高價。

的繼任者羅伯特 • J• 格蘭特那裡收到了胚餅。其中一些胚餅 或為美國費城造幣廠所製造,但邊緣帶有凹槽的那些胚餅

湖北鋁質機製幣(1 萬 2 千美元),Lot 40153。這是

可能出自倫敦皇家造幣廠。類似的一批來自赫維特的胚餅、

一枚 19 世紀 80 年代使用一種異域金屬鑄造的機製幣,可

樣幣以及信件被捐贈給了紐約美國錢幣學會。本次拍賣的

能是新澤西漢立克納普廠(曾為武昌造幣廠提供鑄幣機器)

這枚拍品是獲得上幣胚餅的一次難得的機會,機不可失。

或者費城造幣廠(錢幣幣模製造於此)的產品。直到 2014 年 4 約亞瑟 • 庫克斯藏品拍賣會之後,這種鋁質機鑄幣才

安 徽 5 文 未 流 通 龍 幣,(4 萬 零 800 美 元 ),Lot

為人所知。

40068。 湖北浙江龍 10 文(2 萬 2 千 800 美元),Lot 40153, 安 徽 10 文, 中 心 孔(5 萬 2 千 800 美 元 ),Lot 40067。 安徽 10 文,飛龍(4 萬零 800 美元),Lot 40069。

伍德沃德德書裡沒有列出這枚幣,但段的目錄中顯示這枚 幣的幣模是由紅銅、黃銅及銅鎳合金鑄造而成。 1906 年江南 5 文,陰文廠記(2 萬 1 萬千美元),Lot 40167。

安 徽 10 文, 米 字 星 飛 龍,(8 萬 4 千 美 元 ),Lot 40070。

1906 年 江 南 5 文, 陽 文 廠 記(2 萬 4 千 美 元),Lot 40168。

安徽“獎”字 10 文銅元,有面值(1 萬 3 千 200 美元), Lot 40078。

江 西 光 緒 元 寶 10 文(4 萬 3 千 200 美 元 ),Lot 40177。

安徽“獎”字 10 文銅元,無面值(1 萬 9 千美元), Lot 40079。

江 西 飛 龍 當 十 銅 元(1 萬 3 千 200 美 元 及 1 萬 4 千 400 美元),Lot 40179&40180。不確定為何造幣廠會使用

北 洋 機 器 局 代 幣,1 兩(8 千 400 美 元 )、1 錢(9

三種不同的龍面設計與兩種不同的英文拼寫。

千 600 美 元) 及 1 分 騾 幣(3 千 360 美 元),Lot 4009940102。懷特有 6 枚北洋機器局代幣,但一枚兩面均為反面

廣 西 飛 龍 1 文 樣 幣(2 萬 2 千 800 美 元 ),Lot

圖案的騾幣。其中面值為 1 錢的銅幣極為罕見,但 1 分的

40210。知名稀有品,常見有刻有湖南的中文一面和帶有廣

銅元卻是新近發現的,此前從未出現過。

西的龍面。儘管耿愛德和伍德沃德都提到 1905 年廣西開辦

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了一家現代造幣廠,但沒有證據顯示廣西在 1919 年之前有 造幣廠進行過生產。至少從 1898 年開始江西就計劃興辦現

66 枚 多 省 銅 幣 一 組(2 萬 5 千 200 美 元 ),Lot 40349。

代造幣廠,但出於某些原因,造幣廠並未開廠生產。 200 枚 多 省 銅 幣 一 組(3 萬 1 千 200 美 元 ),Lot 1936 年 廣 東 五 羊 樣 幣(4 萬 8000 美 元 ),Lot

40350。

40216。另一知名珍稀品,由廣州短暫存在的割據政府發行。 54 枚中國代幣及小獎章等雜項一組(9 千美元),Lot 山 東 四 芒 星 龍 當 製 錢 十 文(2 萬 零 400 美 元),Lot 40222。 山東五角星龍當製錢十文(1 萬 3 千 200 美元),Lot 40223。 1933 年山東 20 文(8 萬 4 千美元),Lot 40225,知 名稀有品。 奧托 • 拜赫幣模新疆機鑄 10 文(1 萬 2 千美元),Lot 40226. 直到最近,這枚幣的生產者、生產時間及生產地點 都還是一個謎。有些人認為這是一枚臆造幣。2011 年,一 套中國幣模及沖頭在德國拍賣會上出現。我們現在知道, 這枚幣的幣模是 19 世紀 90 年代奧托 • 拜赫代表舒勒公司 生產,舒勒公司曾為新疆造幣廠提供過鑄幣機器。 四川飛龍 5 文(4 萬 5 千 600 美元),Lot 40243。 四川 1 文錯版幣,Lot 40236-40240(1 千 500 美元至 5 千 500 美元)。毫無疑問,這些錯版幣是由新澤西漢立 克納普廠或其前員工鑄造而成。這是幾枚錯打或未完成的 四川方孔 1 文樣幣,但因廠記錯誤而未能投入生產。 1930 年四川 2 分(2 萬 6 千 400 美元),Lot 40261。 不知名,罕見,幣邊下面刻有“中華民國十九年”,而一 些顯然是依靠模糊照片製作的偽造品則刻的是“1930 年”。 51 枚 安 徽 銅 幣 一 組(2 萬 1 千 600 美 元 ),Lot 40335。 46 枚 奉 天 銅 幣 一 組(3 萬 2 千 零 400 美 元 ),Lot 40337。 200 枚 吉 林 銅 幣 一 組(2 萬 8 千 800 美 元 ),Lot 40345。 76 枚 新 疆 銅 幣 一 組(1 萬 4 千 400 美 元 ),Lot 40347。 200 枚四川銅幣一組(2 萬 4 千美元),Lot 40348。

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JEAN Reviews Bruce W. Smith (USA) Seventy Talks of Ancient [ Japanese] Currencies (Kokahei 70 Wa)

By Toshimitsu Mitsuo, Japan 2002, 307 pages, black & white photos plus 16 color plates, Japanese text. ISBN 4766409493. Small hard cover.

A collection of 70 essays on Japanese coins and paper money (plus one on Taiwan local coins and one on Sung and Yuan Dynasty sycee). Professor Toshimitsu (19272009), also known as Mitsuo Riko, was at one time president of the Japan Numismatic Association. There is a Wikipedia Japan page about his career.

Catalog of Chinese Souvenir Notes By Ge Zukang, Shanghai 2017, 171 pages, color photos. Chinese text. Small soft cover.

This unusual book is an illustrated, priced catalog of "Souvenir Notes" - high quality printings in the size and shape of banknotes, but issued without denomination for commemorative purposes. The earliest such item listed was issued in 1993 by the Shanghai Pudong Development Bank, illustrating the bank building on the front, and a view of the Shanghai Bund on the back. The remaining "notes" in the book were issued from the year 2000 through 2017. Some of these items were issued by (or claim to have been issued by) the China Banknote Printing and Minting Corporation. Others were issued by the Chengdu Banknote Printing Complex, the China Banknote Ink Company Ltd., the Beijing Banknote Printing Corporation, the Xian Banknote Printing Corporation, the Guanghua Printing Company Ltd., or the Shanghai Banknote Printing Plant.

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Coin of the Year: Celebrating Three Decades of the Best in Coin Design and Craftsmanship By Donald Scarinci, Iola, Wisconsin 2015, 144 pages, color photos, English text. ISBN 9781440244766. Large hard cover.

Chinese version, Beijing 2017, 208 pages, color photos, Chinese text. ISBN 9787504992178. Small soft cover. Thirty years ago Krause Publications in Iola, Wisconsin began an annual award program for the best international coin designs. In the first year of the program, China's 1982 Year of the Dog 20 Yuan won the award for best crown size silver coin. In the second year, three of China's coins won awards. In the years that followed China won five more awards. Awards have also been earned by coins from Japan, Mongolia and Singapore. The Chinese version was produced through the cooperation of Krause Publications and Champion Auctions / iAsure Company.

Yearbook of Chinese Precious Metal Coins and Medals

By Ge Zukang, Beijing 2015, 108 pages, not illustrated, Chinese text. ISBN 9787514209990. Small soft cover.

Chinese version, Beijing 2017, 208 pages, color photos, Chinese text. ISBN 9787504992178. Small soft cover. This is a quick reference, easy to carry guide to the gold and silver coins and medals issued in China from 1979 to 2015, arranged by year. The book consists entirely of tables showing statistical details on 2,300 coins and medals, including denomination, size, weight, mint, mintage amount and current value.

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Chairman Mao Badges: Symbols and Slogans of the Cultural Revolution By Helen Wang, British Museum 2008, 207 pages including 48 color plates, English text. ISBN 9780861591695. Large size soft cover. Though a number of books and catalogs have been published in China, this is the first and so far the only book in English on Mao badges issued during the Cultural Revolution (1966-1976). Most of the book is a study of the background of Mao badges -- the symbols and slogans of the period -- and how the badges were produced, worn, packaged and eventually recalled for recycling. The last part of the book consists of color plates illustrating the British Museum's collection of 350 Mao badges. As Helen Wang notes in the introduction, the number of different badges numbers in the thousands; the largest collections have over 10,000 different. This catalog is, however, a great introduction to the subject and depicts representative examples of the badges. Helen Wang is a curator in the numismatic department of the British Museum and writes blog post titled: Chinese Money Matters.

Collected Writings of Dong Liangyi By Dong Liangyi, Weifang, Shandong 2017, 368 pages, color photos and rubbings, Chinese text. Large soft cover. A collection of about 100 numismatic articles by Shandong collector Dong Liangyi (pen name: Fang Yuan). Most of the articles are on cast coinage, from ancient times into the Qing dynasty. Dong's articles have appeared in 15 different journals, from 2005 to 2017, including: Zhongguo Qianbi (China Numismatics), Anhui Qianbi (Anhwei Numismatics), Jiangsu Qianbi (Kiangsu Numismatics), Qilu Qianbi (Shantung Numismatics), Xibu Jinrong - Qianbi Yanjiu (Western Regions Numismatics), and Shoucang (Collection).

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Currency of Macau - A Complete Reference (Banknotes) & Currency of Macau - A Complete Reference (Coins)

Edited by C. H. Tang and David Chio, Macau 2017, 700 pages, color photographs, Chinese and English text throughout. ISBN 9789996593888. Large size soft cover. Weight 6 pounds.

Edited by C. H. Tang and David Chi, Macau 2017, 200 pages, color photos, Chinese and English text. ISBN 9789996533808. Large soft cover.

As the subtitle says, this two volume set is a complete listing of coins and paper money of Macau. It is also meticulously detailed and lavishly illustrated. The coin volume records not only the weight, size and composition of each coin, but also the mint which produced it and the mintage figure. Medals issued by the Macau Numismatic Society are also recorded. The massive paper money volume covers all the government issued paper money of Macau from the first issues in 1905 up to the present. Signature varieties are listed and identified, along with serial number prefixes. Specimen notes are recorded as well as notes sold in sheets and sets. The only improvements which can be suggested would be a listing of privately issued notes and a listing of casino tokens and chips.

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《東亞泉志》書評 史博祿(美國) 《古貨幣七十話》

《古貨幣七十話》,利光三津夫著,日本,2002,307 頁, 黑白插圖加 16 頁彩圖,日文。 ISBN:4766409493,小版 硬皮封面。

本書收錄了 70 篇關於日本硬幣與紙幣的文章(另有一 篇關於臺灣本地硬幣與一篇關於宋元銀錠的文章)。 利光 教授(1927-2009)曾任日本錢幣協會會長,其生平可在日 文維琪百科中查到。

《中國鈔版紀念券圖錄》

《中國鈔版紀念券圖錄》,葛祖康著,上海,2017,171 頁, 彩圖,中文,小版軟皮封面。

這本非比尋常的著作是一本“紀念券”價格圖錄,書中 紀念券的大小及形狀的印刷品質高,但收錄的都是用做紀 念且無面值的鈔券。上海浦發銀行 1993 年發行的紀念券是 書中年代最早的鈔券,正面為浦發銀行大廈,背面是上海 灘風光。剩下的“鈔券”的發行時間為 2000 年至 2017 年。 其中一些是由中國印鈔造幣總公司發行(或聲稱曾發行過) 的。其餘的則是由成都印鈔公司、中鈔油墨廠、北京印鈔廠、 西安印鈔廠、光華印製公司或者上海印鈔廠生產發行的。

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《世界硬幣大獎賽:紀念硬幣設計與工藝的黃金三十年》 《世界硬幣大獎賽:紀念硬幣設計與工藝的黃金三十年》, 唐納德 • 斯卡林奇著,威斯康辛州艾奧拉,2015,144 頁, 彩圖,英文。ISBN 9781440244766, 大版硬皮封面。

該書的中文版本於 2017 年在北京出版,208 頁,彩圖, 中文。ISBN 9787504992178, 小版軟皮封面。 30 年前,位於威斯康辛州艾奧拉克勞斯出版社開始舉 辦一年一度的最佳硬幣設計大獎的評選。在該獎項舉辦的 第一年,來自中國的 1982 年壬戌狗年 20 元生肖紀念銀幣 獲得了最佳銀幣獎。第二年,又有 3 枚中國錢幣獲獎。之後, 又陸續有 5 枚以上的中國硬幣獲此殊榮。來自日本、蒙古 及新加坡的硬幣也曾有所斬獲。該書的中文版由克勞斯出 版社與冠軍拍賣愛秀公司合作出版面世。

《澳門發行流通鈔票大全》《澳門發行硬幣大全》

《澳門發行流通鈔票大全)》,鄧浚曉、趙康池合著,

《澳門發行硬幣大全》, 鄧浚曉、趙康池合著,澳

澳門,2017 出版,700 頁,彩圖,中英雙語。ISBN

門,2017 年出版, 200 頁,彩圖,中英雙語。 ISBN

9789996593888,大版軟皮封面,重 6 磅。

9789996533808,大版軟皮封面。

正如副標題所示,這兩本書是一份完整的澳門紙幣與硬幣清單。書中細節詳盡,插圖豐富。硬幣一卷除重量、規格及 成分之外還記載了硬幣的鑄造機構與鑄造量,澳門錢幣學會發行的紀念章也被收錄其中。大部頭的紙幣卷則涵蓋了 1905 年至今所有政府發行的澳門紙幣。簽名鈔也被羅列並識別了出來,並附上了首碼序號。此外,書中還收錄了各種樣幣及成 批或成套發行的紙幣。書中應該增加上私人發行的紙幣及賭場代幣或籌碼,這是本書唯一一點需要改進的地方。

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《2015 中國現代貴金屬幣章年鑒》

《2015 中國現代貴金屬幣章年鑒》,葛祖康著,北京, 2015,108 頁,無插圖,中文。ISBN 9787514209990, 小版軟皮封面。

本書是一本便於攜帶的參考指南,可方便快速查閱中國 1979 至 2015 年間發行的金銀幣章,書中內容按年份進行 排序整理,完整收錄了 2300 枚幣章的細節資料圖表,表中 的內容包括錢幣的面值、規格、重量、鑄造單位、鑄造量 以及當前市價。

《毛主席紀念章:文革的象徵與標語》 《毛主席紀念章:文革的象徵與標語》,海倫 • 王著, 2008 年大英博物館出版,207 頁,包含 48 頁彩圖,英文。 ISBN 9780861591695,大版軟皮封面。

儘管中國出版了很多錢幣書籍與目錄,但這是第一本 也是迄今唯一一本以英文撰寫的關於文革時期(1966-1976 年)發行的毛澤東紀念章的一部著作。書中大部分內容是 對毛澤東紀念章背景的研究 —— 即將其作為一種文革的象 徵與標語 —— 以及這些獎章從製作到磨損包裝以及最後到 回收的過程。書本的最後一部分是彩色插圖,展示了大英 博物館館藏的 350 枚毛澤東紀念章的照片。正如作者海倫 • 王在序言中提到的那樣,這些各異的獎章的數量達數千種, 最多的收藏則有一萬多種。然而,這本目錄非常出色地介 紹了這一主題,並展示了其中比較有代表性的幾種獎章。 海倫 • 王是大英博物館錢幣館館長,並在其博客登載了《舉 足輕重的中國錢幣》一文。

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《錢幣文集》

《錢幣文集》,作者董良義,山東濰坊,2017 年,368 頁, 彩色插圖及拓本,中文。大版軟皮封面。

本書收錄了約 100 篇山東藏家董良義(筆名方圓)的 錢幣學方面的文章。 多數文章是關於清代以前的古幣的內 容。2005 到 2017 年間,董良義的文章曾先後在《中國錢幣》 《安徽錢幣》《江蘇錢幣》《齊魯錢幣》《西部金融 • 錢幣 研究》以及《收藏》等 15 本不同的雜誌上刊載過。

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2017 Winter FUN Show Experiences Cold Weather

but Offers a Promising Warm Numismatic Market for the Upcoming Year James Matthew Brotherton (USA) The 63rd Annual Florida United Numismatists Winter “FUN” Show was held from January 4-7, 2018 at the Tampa Convention Center in Tampa, Florida during a massive cold weather front covering most of Florida and the United States. Although the Winter weather was unusually frigid for the Sunshine State, numismatic sales sizzled at the annual bellwether numismatic show, providing much optimism for dealers and professionals in the coin industry for the upcoming 2018 season. Rick Stelzer and Jerica Rogers, my business partners at Estate Collectibles Group out of Sarasota, Florida, and myself all made the comment once the Winter FUN Show concluded on how this was one of the best FUN shows in recent history. By all accounts, the over 1,500 coin and currency dealers at the show for the most part were extremely pleased with the activity of sales, and experienced over approximately 15,000 customers in attendance over the course of the 4 day show. With a strong start to 2018, the FUN show is a strong indicator for good things in the numismatic industry, both in the United States and internationally, this year. For those readers not familiar with the Winter FUN Show, this event is traditionally one of the largest coin shows in the United States and is held right after the beginning of the new year in January, thus setting the tone for that particular year in the numismatic industry. With over 1,500 dealers, numerous exhibits, grading service appraisals, educational seminars, auctions, collectors meeting, the young numismatists & scout merit badge programs, and more, the Winter FUN Show should be on every coin and currency collectors’ wish list of “must attend” events. Not only are there dealers present for U.S. coins and currency, but there are also many dealers dealing in international coins and currency, tokens, medals, precious metals / bullion, jewelry and other various collectibles throughout the bourse floor. Highlights of the Winter FUN Signature Auction / conducted by Heritage Auctions /included a rare $4 Gold “Flowing Hair” Stella (graded PR-67 Cameo by NGC) / that sold for $750,000 US dollars and a 1943-S Lincoln Cent Error coin struck on a bronze planchet (graded AU53 by NGC) / that sold for $228,000 US dollars. The $4 Flowing Hair Stella is a rare U.S. prototype gold coin / that is highly sought after, and the 1943-S Lincoln Cents were mainly struck on steel planchets, thus making one struck on a bronze planchet a true rarity and one of the best known errors in American numismatics.

The numerous exhibits and world-class educational seminars /conducted at the 2018 Winter FUN Show are a draw /for many. Highlighting this year’s exhibits was “The Mystery of the D.B. Cooper Notes” displayed by Ethan Thomaston. D.B. Cooper was the infamous alias of the skyjacker + who hijacked a plane going from Portland, Oregon to Seattle, Washington in 1971, and demanded $200,000 in ransom money /after declaring he had a bomb on board the flight. After receiving the demand money, D.B. Cooper supposedly parachuted out of the plane with the money, and to this day remains the only unsolved air piracy case in U.S. history. D. B. Cooper was never found, however three bundles of his ransom money was as confirmed/ by the FBI from matching the serial numbers used /to pay the ransom. The notes displayed are an amazing part of one of the most puzzling unsolved mysteries in U.S. history. In addition to the “D.B. Cooper” exhibit, there were several numismatic seminars / focused on specific US coin types, varieties and coin series /that included “A Serious Collector’s Analysis of the Walking Liberty Half Dollar Series” by Dr. Gregg Wagner, “Barber’s Silver Coinage” by Ray Herz, “Hidden Gems in the Lincoln Cent Series” by Dr. David Elliot, "An Overview of the Liberty Seated Quarter Series", by Gerry Fortin and the “Annual VAM Thing” by the Society of Silver Dollar Collectors. Also, for individuals wishing to become numismatic third-party graders, Bill Fivaz of NLG (Numismatic Literary Guild) and co-author of the “Cherrypicker’s Guide to Rare Die Varieties of United States Coins” conducted a seminar “So You Want to be a Third-Party Grader” and PMG (Paper Money Guaranty) / hosted a contest / for individuals to grade varihous pieces of currency, with the winner to receive a $1,000 cash prize. Various coin, currency, and token societies also use the Winter Fun Show to hold meetings for their members. By all accounts, this year’s Winter FUN Show was a success for both dealers and hobbyists alike despite the cooler temperatures. It appears that the numismatic industry is off to strong start in 2018, and this is a welcomed site to many. e it truly is an amazing overall experience for the avid numismatic enthusiast. In conclusion, I want to wish everyone a Happy New Year, and I look forward to seeing my good friends, Michael Chou, Jeffrey Wai, Dr. Frank Laiacona and others at the Champion Coin and Currency Auction in Hong Kong on the weekenIf you ever get the chance, make attending a Winter FUN Show in Florida a must do on your numismatic checklist, becausd of April 7-8th.

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2017 冬季展會遭遇了寒冷天氣 然來年錢幣市場卻前景看好 馬修·布拉澤頓(美國)

第 63 屆年度冬季貨幣展會於 2018 年 1 月 4 日至 7 日

研討會吸引了眾多錢幣愛好者,其亮點就是由伊森湯瑪斯

在佛羅里達州的坦帕會展中心舉行,在此期間,一場酷寒

頓揭露的 D.B. 庫柏的秘密。D.B. 庫柏是一個臭名昭著的劫

襲擊佛羅里達和美國的大部分地區。儘管對於有“陽光之城”

機者,他在 1971 年劫持了一架從波特蘭到西雅圖的飛機,

的佛羅里達來說,這個冬天異常寒冷,但錢幣銷售卻在每

他聲稱自己登機時攜帶了炸彈,並且勒索 20 萬的贖金。庫

年一度的頂級貨幣展上大放光彩,錢幣行業的經銷商和專

柏收到了錢之後帶着這些錢跳了傘,直到如今,這仍然是

業人士非常看好即將到來的 2018 年首季度的貨幣銷售季。

美國歷史上未解決的空襲事件。然而,D.B. 庫柏從未被找到,

我和在佛羅裡達薩拉索塔的交易夥伴 —— 瑞克施特爾策和

即便是 FBI 匹配贖金的序號。這個筆記,對於美國歷史上

羅傑斯都認為此次冬季展會是近幾年舉辦的最好展會之一。

最令人疑惑的未解決的秘密來說,是一個振奮人心的發現。

據了解,超過 1500 名貨幣經銷商對此次銷售活動感到特別

展會上除了披露有關 D.B. 庫柏事件的發現之外,還有幾場

滿意,並且大約超過 1.5 萬名顧客參加了此次為期 4 天的

關於美國硬幣類型、品種和硬幣系列的研討會 —— 一位知

展會。作為 2018 年的強勢開始,無論是在美國和國際上,

名收藏家對葛列格瓦格恩博士著作《Walking Liberty 半美

此次展會是在錢幣行業的一個重要標誌。

元硬幣》的分析、雷赫茲的巴伯銀幣、大衛艾略特博士的 林肯美分系列中的隱藏寶石、傑瑞福廷的坐姿自由女神,

那些不熟悉此次冬季展會的讀者可能不知道,這次展

以及由銀幣收藏家協會舉行的年度 VAM。對於那些 想成為

會就是美國的最大貨幣展之一,在新的一年的 1 月份舉行,

錢幣的協力廠商評分者的個人來說,錢幣學著作協會的比

這就意味着 2018 年對於貨幣市場來說是特別的一年。超過

爾菲瓦,美國硬幣罕見種類指導的聯合作者,一起舉辦了“成

1500 家的經銷商,眾多的展品,加上分級服務評估、教育

為協力廠商評分者”和紙幣保證競賽,這是為了那些想要

研討會、拍賣、收藏會議等活動,吸引了年輕的錢幣收藏

成為評分者的個人所進行的一場競爭,勝出者將獲得 1000

家紛至沓來,而且此次盛會也被每一個貨幣收藏者認為是

美元的獎勵。各種硬幣、貨幣和代幣協會也利用此次冬季

必須參加的。不僅包括美國硬幣和貨幣的經銷商,而且還

展會為其成員舉行會議。

有許多國際硬幣和紙幣、代幣、獎章、貴重金屬、珠寶和 其他收藏品的商人。 此次冬季拍賣的亮點包括被拍賣到 75

這次展會顯示了錢幣行業在 2018 年有了強勢的開始,

萬美元的斯特拉和被拍賣到 22.8 萬美元的 1943-s 版的錯

受到了很多人的歡迎。如果你有機會參加此次冬季展會,

版林肯硬幣。斯特拉是一個備受追捧的罕見的美國原型的

你必須做一個錢幣一覽表,因為這對於狂熱的貨幣愛好者

金幣,1943-s 林肯硬幣主要是由鋅覆鋼打製而成,因此製

來說真的是一個很好的體驗。總之,祝大家新年快樂,我

作一個青銅圓片是很少見的,並且這也成為美國錢幣中出

也希望在 4 月 7 日至 8 日可以在香港貨幣拍賣會上見到我

現的最有名的失誤。

的好朋友分析師周邁可、傑佛瑞、弗蘭克拉亞科納博士和 其他人。

2018 年年初舉行的此次盛大展會以及世界級的連續性

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Updated Report on the 2018 Hong Kong International Greater China Coin and Stamp Expo Yu Guoxin (Hong Kong)

The Hong Kong International Arts & Collectibles Expo 2018, incorporating the Hong Kong International Greater China Coins & Stamps Expo (hosted by GCHKCA and Hong Kong Ocean Gold Coins Culture Co., Ltd.) ended on April 15, 2018. The exposition has left a lasting impression on visitors. The exposition lasted for three days and attracted tens of thousands of visitors, including some well-known collectors such as King L. Chan and Chi Zhen Nan as well as some new collectors (see pictures). Many people found what they wanted and talked and shared experiences with dealers in a cheerful atmosphere. Seminars were held during the exposition to provide a platform for visitors to learn and communicate with each other. The most surprising thing was a Venezuelan 50 bolivar, a gift from the host on the last day. The gift not only attracted many visitors but accurately expressed the theme of collection. Host GCHKCA and Hong Kong Ocean Gold Coins Culture Co., Ltd. combined coins with art and showed them to the public in a nontraditional way. Through this bold and meaningful attempt, GCHKCA hoped that more art lovers would be interested in coin and stamp collecting and gave dealers and coin lovers a chance to have a good look at all exquisite collections at the exhibition. Organizers have been seeking such a chance of hosting an exposition to flourish the market and attract more people to be involved in coin collecting. Organizers said there will be more activities, like coin auctions and more discussion areas at the next show. I am sure everyone is looking forward to the next brilliant exposition. Anything can be collected and anyone can be a collector. As a collector, you can collect more than one type of things you are interested in. This is the inclusiveness and the unfailing charm of collecting.

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2018 香港大中華國際錢幣郵票博覽會後續報道 余國欣(香港)

香港國際藝術及收藏品博覽會 2018 暨 2018 香港大中華國際錢 幣郵票博覽會(錢博會由 GCHKCA 與大洋金幣舉辦)已於 2018 年 4 月 15 日圓滿閉幕,但展會的迴響仍縈繞梁上。 為期三天的展銷會人潮湧動,吸引了約數萬名觀眾入場參觀, 其中不乏陳景林、遲振南等收藏大家及收藏愛好者、初始接觸收藏 的人等等(見圖)。許多人在這裡相中了心儀之物,也在這裡與錢 幣商相談甚歡,共用收藏趣味。展會期間舉行了多場關於錢幣及不 同收藏藝術的講座以供給廣大觀眾學習交流。最令人驚喜的是,展 會第三天主辦方化身“財神”隨機派錢——委內瑞拉 50 元。如此巧 妙的活動一方面吸引了觀眾,另一方面也貼切地表達了我們的錢幣 收藏。 本次展會主辦方突破傳統,將錢幣與藝術品相結合一起呈現於 大家面前。這是一次大膽又極具意義的嘗試,大會希望能吸引更多 藝術喜愛者進入郵幣卡領域,發掘郵幣卡的收藏趣味;與此同時, 錢幣商和錢幣愛好者也能一睹各類精緻的收藏品。 大會主辦方一直致力於尋求舉辦展銷會的機會,希望能夠通過 這種形式令錢幣收藏市場活躍,錢幣商能做到生意,能夠給予更多 人認識錢幣收藏的管道,同時也通過不定期的展會讓更多收藏的新 鮮血液湧入收藏大流中。大會主辦方在後續採訪中也對下次展會提 出了一些新的想法,如加入拍賣環節,如開放更多討論區等一系列 活動。讓我們一起期待下一次展會的精彩紛呈! 不論何種物品都能被收藏;不論何時何地進入收藏圈子都為時 不晚;不論你是什麼階層、身份都能喜愛收藏並盡興收藏;不論你 本身是收藏何物都可以盡情地接受或進軍其他收藏……這便是收藏 的包容性與經久不衰的魅力所在!

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Howard F. Bowker – Eduard Kann Correspondence 1939 – 1949

Summary with notes by Bruce W. Smith (USA) Howard F. Bowker

Eduard Kann

Bowker - Kann Letters Introduction From the 1930's until his death in 1970, Howard F. Bowker carried on an active correspondence with dozens of collectors and researchers of East Asian coins and paper money. Fortunately for us, he kept carbon copies of his letters filed with the letters he received from others; an archive containing over 2,000 pages. Among Bowker's correspondents were: Arthur B. Coole (1900-1978), Eduard Kann (1880-1962), Don C. Keefer (1899-1954), Kozono Hitoshi (1900-1988), Kalgan Shih (1896-1975), G. Duncan Raeburn (1899-1962), John A. Novak (1931-2004), Alan D. Craig (1930-1999), Ward D. Smith (1919-1984), Brian E. Matravers (1931-1986), Frederic E. Hodge (1877-1954), Michael A. Powills (19071986), Walter M. Loeb (1920-1969), Hans M. F. Schulman (1913-1990), Albert Quast (? - 1979), Ch'en Cho-wei, A. A. Remmelts, Mati Titus, and others, plus a dozen or more collectors of Chinese stamps. Through the kindness of Bowker's granddaughter, Marilyn Dorman, I have received copies of these letters and have begun writing commentaries on the letters. The first of these commentaries to be published are between Howard Bowker and Eduard Kann during the years 1939 to 1961. Unfortunately, Kann passed away the following year. Among other topics, these letters mention some makers of counterfeit coins in Shanghai; contain a list of rare coins Kann obtained from the famous A. M. Tracey Woodward collection and how he obtained them 15 years after Woodward's death. There is the story of how part of Kann's collection was stolen at sea, and how Bowker ended up owning some of the stolen coins. It is also clear from the letters that Kann had finished his catalog and had photographs ready in 1949, but decided to postpone publication due to the outbreak of the Korean War. In the early 1950's Bowker had convinced Kann that the Changchow Dollars were actually made in the 1840's -- not in 1865 as Kann stated in his catalog. Apparently the type had already been set and Kann did not change the Changchow story. If the Kann correspondence proves interesting enough to our readers, we will continue with letters from other collectors, such as Don C. Keefer (who was twice sent to prison in the 1940's) or Ward Smith & Brian Matravers, coauthors of "Chinese Banknotes", a comprehensive catalog published in 1970 and still used today. Other possible candidates for publication include the Quast letters. Albert Quast was a famous German collector of world stamps, an expert on those of Latin America, who also owned a large collection of Chinese cast coinage assembled in China in the 1800's by O. H. Anz. Quast asked Bowker to catalog the 10,000 piece collection. The project began in 1957. Bowker had a 140 page catalog with three photo plates prepared by 1962, but continued to study the collection, which was still in Bowker's possession when he died in 1970. Please enjoy the Eduard Kann - Howard Bowker Correspondence.

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1939 31 March 1939 Bowker to Kann 1 page. To 941 Ave. Foch, Shanghai; Bowker signs as Chief Pay Clerk, U.S.N. Bowker sends Kann a copy of his monograph on the Foochow Bisect stamp, which Kann had asked for when they met in Shanghai. On Kann’s recommendation, Bowker has purchased from a shop on Szechuan Road, three types of sycee. Bowker asks Kann to help him acquire North China provisional stamps. Bowker mentions that while in Japan he bought Hsien Feng notes in values of 10,000 and 100,000 cash. Says he still lacks the 5 and 50 tael notes and would like a better 3 tael. Bowker was in Shanghai in February 1939, as shown by a copy of the first edition of his “Currencies of China” inscribed by Kann “To Mr. H. F. Bowker at the occasion of his visit of Shanghai in the midst of troublesome times. With the compliments of E. Kann, Shanghai 23 Feby. 1939” (now in the author's library). It is unclear why Bowker was in China at that time, when he was in the active navy, stationed at Guam. The United States was not at war at that time, but China and Japan had been at war since 1937. His visit to Japan may have been part of that same trip.

2 July 1939 Kann to Bowker 1 page 491 Ave. Foch Kann states that he does not collect Chinese paper money [and so cannot help Bowker with his collection]. Says he does collect Chinese coins, but it is unsafe to send them through the mail [due to wartime conditions]. Mentions a new Chinese catalog had been published in Shanghai but that Raeburn says it is not of much importance [probably the Tsiang catalog]. Also mentions the start of a monthly stamp journal, the Asia Stamp Journal. In his obituary for Kann, Bowker suggests Kann was the financial supporter of the journal. Kann says he has heard Bowker will pass through Shanghai in August and would like to see him again. It is unclear whether Bowker made such a trip in August.

3 December 1939 Bowker to Kann 2 pages, USS Seattle, Brooklyn, NY to 941 Ave. Foch, Shanghai Bowker had spent some time in hospital with a leg infection. Had been reading Kann’s series on Chinese coins published in China Journal [probably the History of Minting in China], and asks for set of reprints of same, which he will have bound. Says he has subscribed to Asia Stamp Journal. Asks Kann to obtain for him a copy of Chin Tai Ch’uan Pi T’o Pen by C. M. Shu and a copy of his other work, Chin Tai Ch’uan Pi T’o Pen Pu Yi. C. M. Shu, also known as K. C. Hsu, was Hsu Chi-ch’ing (born 1880), who had been managing director of National Commercial Bank, Deputy Governor of the Central Bank of China, and Director of the Shanghai Mint (1932). Kann’s letter of March 1941 says the book is no good. Bowker asks Kann’s help in obtaining Chinese coins, especially from Tibet, Sinkiang, Kansu, Yunnan and other interior provinces. Says coins can be safely sent to him through the U.S. Navy Purchasing Office in Shanghai.

1940 No letters found.

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1941 19 January 1941 Bowker to Kann 3 pages USS Seattle, Brooklyn, NY to 941 Avenue Foch, Shanghai. Bowker says it has been over a year since he has heard from Kann, other than a reference Kann made to him in an article in Coin Collectors Journal. Referring to his work on a bibliography on Chinese numismatics, Bowker sent Kann a 2 page list (present) of works by Kann and asks for any corrections or additions. Congratulates Kann on election as president of the Chinese Numismatic Society. Bowker sent subscription to Raeburn, but had received no reply. Raeburn mentioned here and in Kann’s July 1939 letter, was G. Duncan Raeburn (1899-1962), best known for his listing of Chinese fantasy coins - Coins That Never Were. Two of the items on the list of works by Kann are articles on Chinese paper money which appeared in Finance and Commerce. This was the Shanghai publication (full title: China & Far Eastern Finance & Commerce), not the one published in the United States nor the one published in England, and is very difficult to find.

25 March 1941, Kann to Bowker 2 pages, 941 Ave. Foch. Kann says Raeburn was working on a catalog of Chinese Republican coins which was to be published in installments in China Journal. Unfortunately, this work was never published. “My own collection of Chinese silver coins is now large. Unfortunately every piece I have not to acquire costs thousands of dollars. So, for instance, had I to pay $2,500 yesterday for a Chinese 1 dollar coin of about 1898 issue, inscribed CHEKIANG Province, instead of CHEH-KIANG. So far I only know of three specimens.” “Regarding Shanghai’s emergency money I have seen two requests from you, one of which was addressed to the Russian dealer in Avenue Road [probably Katkoff, mentioned below]. From your letter it is not clear whether you are seeking paper or metal money, but I advised him to send both to you. He is the only person who has accumulated more than 200 paper emergency (private) notes of 10 and 20 cents, almost all of which are out of issue. I do believe

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such a collection is worth having. I also asked him to save for you all the metal 10 and 20 cent pieces he can find here, issued by bars, theatres, etc.” Bowker eventually assembled the largest known collection of Shanghai emergency notes – more than a thousand pieces – but the collection has disappeared. It was not with his coin collection, found in 2008 by Bruce W. Smith and Michael Chou. Bowker published the only listing of Chinese encased postage stamp tokens, and he owned what may be the only known examples of such tokens, though these, too, have disappeared. “Here prices have gone up tremendously. Personally I am specializing in Kirin. If you can find rare silver coins of Kirin over there, I shall be obliged if you will please buy same for me. For instance, (see Wayte Raymond catalog, 1st edition) Kirin $1 No. 71 (with 11 in center), [priced at $12.50] I can pay $25 for same. No. 70 cataloged at U.S. $3.50 I can pay $20. Or Fukien province $1 No. 33 (U.S. $2.50) I could pay $18. If you find these in genuine specimens, please buy and hold for me; I shall promptly remit.” “From your letter to Katkoff [A. A. Katkoff, a coin and stamp dealer, at 1413 Avenue Road in 1940], I saw that you want Mr. Hsu’s book of rubbings in 3 volumes. I told Katkoff not to bother about it. The position is this. Mr. Hsu is a collector (very medium) and the books represent the rubbings from coins contained in his own collection. These are not arranged to suit any system. Then there are forgeries and bogus coins amongst same. He is a banker and does not sell the books, which have to be made by hand and to order costing more than they are worth today. On the other hand, if you want to spend U.S. $10 to $12 you can get a valuable work in this line, either from Mr. Tsiang, the publisher of the only catalogue we have, or from a Mr. Zin, who has issued 11 volumes, depicting his excellent collection. Tsiang’s are on loose leaves, but all are hand-made in Chinese ink rubbings. These are really of value. They would have to be ordered, as they are not on sale in stores.” Regarding the Hsu book, see Bowker’s letter of 3 December 1939. Mr. Zin is Ch'in Tse-wei; see letter of 4 August 1948. “Herewith I am returning to you the list of publications made by myself. I have made some annotations. [Annotated list not found]. Besides I have written hundreds of other articles in connection with Chinese numismatics, or rather paragraphs in my weekly contribution to Finance & Commerce. But I have not kept track of same. Probably they are not worth it. During the current season I am also chairman of the Shanghai Philatelic Society. So you see that my hobbies keep me busy.”

No letters have been found between 1942 and 1948.

1942 - 1947 1948

17 January 1948 Kann to Bowker 1 page Sir Francis Drake Hotel San Francisco. Kann thanks Bowker for his hospitality during a recent visit. Kann was about to return to China.

19 January 1948 Bowker to Harry Lindquist (publisher) 1 page Bowker at 1716 Gouldin Road, Oakland. Bowker asks Lindquist to consider publishing Kann’s catalog on Chinese gold and silver coins. Apparently Kann already had a manuscript in hand, but as becomes apparent, the manuscript needed to be revised over the next few years due to new discoveries. 22 January 1948 Lindquist to Bowker 1 page. Lindquist declines to publish Kann’s book because that is not his field. Lindquist Publications mainly published philatelic material.

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22 February 1948 Bowker to Kann 1 page. Discussing ideas for obtaining Chinese type for printing books and articles containing Chinese characters. 28 February 1948 Kann to Bowker 2 pages. Kann writing on stationery of Hotel Cameron in New York City. Kann says: “It is now the fifth week that I am staying here, and I must say I like it.” Unclear whether he means he likes the hotel or he likes New York. He goes on: “All the officials at the Numismatic Society [ANS] were very friendly and obliging, and I joined up as a member, of course. Thank you for having announced me there. They certainly have excellent coin collections, though China needs completion. On the other hand, I found that they had a duplicate of the very rare (proof only) of the 1 tael Kirin, 8th year of Kuang-hsu, and I therefore suggested that they should sell it to me. And as I offered a very good price for it, I did obtain the coin. Otherwise I found very little here suitable to my collection.” The coin he refers to, Kann 914, is not pictured in his catalog – at least not as a genuine coin. According to his catalog, no genuine examples of K914 in silver are known to exist. So either ANS had two forgeries, one of which Kann bought, or they had two copper specimens. Kann’s catalog doesn’t illustrate either, just a drawing. The coin he purchased from the ANS must be the forgery shown in his catalog as F914. While in New York, Kann visited Lindquist, Wayte Raymond and Ed May (at Stack's). He did not ask any of them to publish his book but they did discuss its publication. Kann also visited the New York Public Library looking for information, but found it too big and too time consuming to use. “We have just applied for an extension of our visitors visas. Ordinarily this is more or less a routine matter. But just at this juncture, when Czechoslovakia is in the limelight, we might have to encounter difficulties which might possibly result in a negative decision. I plan in all events to return to China in April or May, but my wife would like to stay on, at least till August, when the summer heat of Shanghai is terminating.” When Kann and his wife were born, Czechoslovakia did not exist. Their birthplace in what became Czechoslovakia was then in Austria. By 1948 Czechoslovakia had fallen into the Soviet sphere and Kann feared his application might not be approved.

20 May 1948 Kann to Bowker 1 page. Kann’s address: 1995 North Sycamore Avenue, Los Angeles. Kann writes: “About 6 weeks ago I returned from a pleasant trip to New York, Washington, etc. I am about to return to China and am scheduled to leave San Francisco on May 28 by SS “Marchen Maersk”. I plan to come with my wife (who will stay on for a little while yet at Los Angeles) to Frisco late on May 25. I plan to phone you and trust to have the pleasure of seeing you and Mrs. Bowker again.” They apparently did meet. See next two letters.

4 August 1948 Kann to Bowker 1 page. Kann in Shanghai. “After a 33 days trip via Philippine Islands, traveling on a mirror-like sea, I arrived here [Shanghai] on June 30.” Kann says he will send to Bowker, by an acquaintance passing through the USA, a three volume set of rubbings of Chinese modern coins in the collection of a Mr. Hsu. He also intended to send a similar set of rubbings from the Ching Tse-wei collection, but realized he had already given that set to the local numismatic society library. See letters of 3 December 1939 and 25 March 1941. Ching Tse-wei, also known as Zin Tzu-wei, is more correctly Ch'in Tse-wei, a prominent collector of Chinese silver and gold coins in the 1930’s and 1940’s. An exhibition of his collection was held in Hong Kong in 1941. Two 8 volume catalogs of rubbings of such a collection were published in 1940, but under different names. Neither

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has any text. One is titled the collection of “Chung Ch’uan” (a pen name); the other claims to be the collection of Shanghai coin dealer, C. C. Tsiang. Perhaps Tsiang was the patron who paid to have the collection published. See Coole 600 (215A). A 12 volume set, said to be the same collection, was sold in a Cheng Xuan sale in May 2012. Mentioned in many letters from Howard Bowker, who was in contact with him in 1949 and a few years later. Bowker helped arrange his visit to the United States in 1949-1950. “I am also sending you No. 1 of Vol. 1 being a journal about banknotes. The one referred to deals with all the notes issued until February 1948 by the Central Bank of China. I doubt that No. 2 will ever make its appearance.” Two journals on Chinese paper money were published briefly in Shanghai during 1948-1949. They are rarely seen today. “I mentioned to you that out of 5 silver coins bought from Mr. Hodges in Washington for $380, four were forgeries. Since then I found that all five were imitations. So I overpaid $377.50.” It is interesting that as late as 1948 Kann was still sometimes deceived by forgeries.

28 August 1948 Bowker to Kann 1 page. Letterhead missing. Bowker writes: “The issue of the Chinese Paper Money Monthly is very interesting, and I have arranged with a Chinese lady, the wife of a stamp collector friend, to translate the paragraphs of the text on the paper currency of former dynasties. If it turns out at all well I will send you a copy. It seems too bad that such a venture as this monthly periodical should turn out so poorly supported by collectors that it should die with its first issue, and I for one, am certainly hopeful that it will continue to be issued and will eventually cover the entire field of the paper currency.” This journal is probably: "Chung Kuo Chih Pi Mu Lu", the first issue of which is dated March 1948, published by Liu Hsing-fang. “The volume of the 20th Century Coins of the World, for which I arranged the China section, has come out …. I will be glad to send you a copy.” This was the catalog published by coin dealer Wayte Raymond. “I am attaching a rubbing of a curious piece in silver, with five bats above the portrait of Yuan Shih-kai. The portrait and the reverse are identical with the regularly issued coins. Do you happen to know the origin or the significance of this piece? It is not an altered piece, but is struck from a regularly prepared die. Anything you can tell me about it will be greatly appreciated.” This piece is generally considered to be a fantasy – the five bats representing happiness. It has been assumed that such pieces were altered by hand from genuine Yuan Shih-kai dollars, but here Bowker says his piece is die struck. The question then is – was this piece privately produced as a souvenir or gift, or was it actually made at one of the mints, and if so for what purpose?

15 September 1948 Kann to Bowker 2 pages. From 941 Chung Cheng Road, Central “Meanwhile a pleasing change has occurred in as much as I decided to re-take the (about) 10 volumes rubbings of the Ching Tse-wei collection from the Numismatic Society of China, seeing that the latter is dormant, i.e. probably non-existent. And, of course, earmarking it for you. As soon as I find a reliable and obliging party, I shall send it along in its indigo-blue Chinese overcoat.” Kann had earlier donated this set of rubbings of Chinese silver and gold coins to the society, but as the communists approached Shanghai and foreigners left the country, societies and libraries established by westerners were often abandoned. Kann writes that he had planned to send some silver and nickel coins to Bowker but Chinese customs would not let them out of the country. In an earlier letter Bowker had asked about a Yuan Shih-kai dollar with bats above the portrait. Kann writes: “The Yuan Shi-kai dollar with the 5 bats is a cleverly made concoction; we saw it here more than 2 years ago and consider it a bad joke without value, apart from the silver.” Bowker says his piece was not altered but was die struck.

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“Enclosed please find a good rubbings of a Chinese tael coin which I possess in brilliant condition. I believe I am the only one [who possesses the coin]. But I do not know its history. Kalgan Shih tells me that you possess the relevant literature. If so, may I ask you to kindly type the story out for me and send it along?” Unfortunately the rubbing is not present, so we do not know what coin Kann was asking about. Kann then discusses his collection and the manuscript for his catalog. “Some time ago I bought a large Chinese coin collection which I am now busy to classify and add to my own. As a result nobody here doubts that now I am No. 1 as regards my numismatic collection of China. I own quite a number of coins which are unique, i.e. of which nobody else has a copy, so for instance, the Shantung tael [Kann 923]. I thought my manuscript for the catalogue is ready for the printer. But actually I discover every day new specimens or new varieties, all of which must be embodied. In this way the catalogue will be double as voluminous as I thought two months ago.” Kann then refers to his important article on the Shanghai Mint in Coin Collectors Journal, published by New York coin dealer, Wayte Raymond. “When I saw Mr. Wayte Raymond in New York, I wished to pay 2 years subscription to his journal in advance. However, he declined to take my money, saying that I often was of service to him and that it was understood that the journal would come to me. He requested me to write for him an article about the Central Mint in Shanghai; I did this while still in USA. Besides, I sent him sketches of the mint building as soon as I returned to China. But I never heard from him, nor did I receive his journal or his new catalogue [of world coins].” Kann concludes this letter with the statement: “Business here is moribund, and the new currency “reform” is on trial.” This refers to the “Gold Yuan” currency introduced in 1948.

10 October 1948 Bowker to Kann 2 pages. Regarding the tael coin which Kann could not identify, Bowker responds that an imitation of the coin was published in Commencini’s “Coins of the Modern World” (London 1937), but the only literature he knows of about the coin, now called the Haikwan Tael (Kann 925) , is a 1940 four page monograph by H. T. Chow of Shanghai, who was seeking to sell his example of the pattern. This monograph has not been identified. According to Chow, the tael (the highest value in a set of similar patterns) coins were made at the “English Mint” sometime in the 1850’s. Others believed the coins were made in the 1880’s or 1890’s, and many believed they were actually Korean coins. The mystery is still not completely resolved, but the publication of an article by Richard Wright in 1980 and the 1987 publication of "Money In The Bank" by Joe Cribb, suggest the obverse die (dragon side) was made at the Royal Mint in London, and the coin was struck at the Hong Kong Mint in 1867. It is interesting that as late as 1948 this coin was unknown to Kann. Bowker also notes that Kann’s example of this coin was not the same piece which belonged to H. T. Chow – the two coins have edge nicks in different locations. With this letter Bowker sent an English summary of the monograph by H. T. Chow, which suggests, as Kann later did, that the Kwan Ping pieces were made in the 1850's. Bowker writes that he had ordered and received from London a second example of a Yakub Beg gold tilla coin as Kann had requested. Regarding problems getting coins out of China, Bowker says: “A Navy collector friend of mine is returning to the United States next month from Shanghai, and as I know he is bringing a lot of coins with him of his own, I think he would be glad to bring a few from you to me. His name is Anthony Buccelli, and being a navy man traveling on a navy ship, he would not have any difficulties with the Chinese customs authorities …..”

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20 December 1948 Kann to Bowker 1 page. Dated at Shanghai. Kann thanks Bowker for his letters of 8 and 11 October, but no such letters have been found. He may have meant the 10 October letter and the transcript of the H. T. Chow pamphlet. Referring to his immigration worries Kann writes: “Though having applied for immigration into USA, I cancelled my application, because I might have to wait 3 or 4 years until my number is being called. Instead I took a visitor’s visa and plan to proceed to America once more as a guest; possibly leaving here in 6 – 8 weeks time.” Kann had referred to his immigration problems in his letter of 28 February 1948. “Mr. Buccelli never would have called as your deputy. I met him by chance and he willingly took a bundle of coins for you and also a package of banknotes, which I ask you to accept with my compliments and in accordance with my promise. He is due in Frisco ere this letter arrives there and may have called upon you already. As per his request I gave him a selection of Chinese silver coins for sale on consignment there; Buccelli intends to become a coin dealer. So he shortly ought to have on my account the $26 needed for the Sinkiang gold coin which you kindly agreed to hold on my behalf. Continue doing so until I call for same.” Regarding Bowker’s information on the Haikwan tael, Kann writes: “Thanks for the available explanation re the Haikwan tael coin. Unfortunately it is not convincing or authentic. Meanwhile I obtained the only existing half tael piece to match.” Kann expressed his concern about the deteriorating situation in China: “I am ….. over busy in the midst of the Chinese worries …. My Chinese collection today is the largest extant. I only trust that I shall not have to lose or abandon it here …. While not nervous or afraid, I do not overlook the risks one assumes with a wild mob when let loose. But let us hope for the best.”

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霍華德·佛蘭克林·包克和耿愛德 1939 -1949 年間往來書信 史博祿(美國)整理標注 霍華德·佛蘭克林·包克

耿愛德

包克 - 耿愛德往來書信介紹 從 20 世紀 30 年代起,霍華德·佛籣克林·包克與幾十名東亞硬幣與紙幣收藏家和研究家保持了頻繁的書信往來,直

到他 1970 年去世。幸運的是,他保留了自己的書信副本,並將之與從他人那裡收到的信件整理歸檔,檔案共計超過 2000 頁。同他有過書信往來的人包括:邱文明(Arthur B. Coole,1900-1978),愛德華· 耿愛德(1880-1962),唐·C· 基

弗(1899-1954)、 小 園 齊(1900-1988)、 施 嘉 幹(Kalgan Shih,1896-1975)、G· 鄧 肯· 雷 本(1899-1962)、 約 翰·A.·諾瓦克(1931-2004)、阿蘭· D·克雷格 (1930-1999)、沃德· D·史密斯(1919-1984)布萊恩· E·馬特 拉弗斯(1931-1986)、弗萊德里奇·E·霍奇(1877-1954)、邁克爾·A·鮑威爾斯(1907-1986),沃爾特· M·洛布

(1920-1969)、漢斯·MF·舒爾曼(1913-1990)、阿爾伯特·誇斯特(? - 1979)、秦子偉、 AA Remmelts、馬蒂·泰 特斯等,以及數十名或者更多的中國郵票收藏家。

多虧了包克的孫女瑪麗蓮·杜曼的善意,我收到了這些信件的影本,並開始為其撰寫總結評論。第一批即將發表的評 論是關於在 1939 年至 1961 年間霍華德·包克和愛德華·耿愛德之間來往書信的內容。遺憾的是,耿愛德在那之後一年就 去世了。這些信件的話題中還涉及了上海的一些假幣製造商、耿愛德從著名的 A·M·特雷西·伍德沃德藏品中獲得的稀

有金幣清單,以及他是如何在伍德沃德去世 15 年後獲得這些錢幣的。另外還有關於耿愛德的一部分藏品在海上失竊、以及

包克最終如何得到了其中一些被盜的錢幣的故事。這些書信明確地顯示,1949 年耿愛德已經完成了錢幣目錄的撰寫工作, 照片也都準備就緒。但由於朝鮮戰爭的爆發,他決定推遲發表這本目錄。在 20 世紀 50 年代早期,包克說服耿愛德相信漳 州錢幣實際的鑄造年代為 19 世紀 40 年代,而不是像他目錄中所說的那樣鑄造於 1865 年。但顯然這種說法已經固定了, 耿愛德並沒有在其書中對漳州的故事做出修改。

如果諸位讀者對耿愛德的書信抱有足夠的興趣,我們將繼續刊登其他藏家——如唐·C·基弗(曾於 20 世紀 40 年代

兩度入獄)或沃德·史密斯與布萊恩·馬特拉弗斯等人的信件,後者二人合著了《中國紙鈔》一書,這是一本於 1970 年 出版的綜合性目錄,至今仍為世人所使用。 其他可能出版的還有誇斯特的書信。 阿爾伯特·誇斯特是德國著名的世界郵票

收藏家及拉美郵票專家,此外,他還擁有大量 19 世紀 O·H·Anz 在中國所收藏的中國鑄造幣。誇斯特曾要求包克為這 1 萬件藏品編纂目錄。該專案開始於 1957 年,包克完成了一份 140 頁的目錄,其中有三張 1962 年拍攝的照片插圖。但包克

此後並未停止對這些藏品的研究,在他 1970 年去世後,這些研究內容還能在他的所有物品中找到。 敬請諸位欣賞這些愛德華·耿愛德和霍華德·包克之間的書信。

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1939 年

Bowker to Eduard 1939 年 3 月 31 日,包克寫給耿愛德,一頁,寄往上海福煦路 941 號,包克簽名為 USN 出納主任。 包克向耿愛德寄去了自己的一份關於福州對剖平分郵票的專著,二人在上海見面時耿愛德曾 向他索要過這本書。在耿愛德的推薦下,包克從四川路上的一家商店購買了三種銀錠。他要求 耿愛德幫他獲得華北臨時郵票。包克說自己在日本時買到面值 10 000 文(準足制錢拾千文)和 100,000 文(準足制錢百千文)的咸豐寶鈔,但還是缺少面值為 5 兩和 50 兩的官銀票,並且也 想要品相更好一點的 3 兩官銀票。 1939 年 2 月,包克來到上海,這一訊息在耿愛德的一本第一 版《中國貨幣》上有簽字記述,書上寫有耿愛德的題字:“致意包克先生 ; 時值此多事之秋來訪 上海,特贈與此書,耿愛德敬贈,1939 年 2 月。(此書現藏于筆者的書庫)。目前尚不清楚為 什麼包克當時會出現在中國,因為他當時任職的美國海軍正規軍正駐紮在關島。美國當時並不處 於戰爭狀態,但中國和日本自 1937 年以來一直戰爭不斷。他當時對日本的訪問可能也是本次旅 行的一部分。

Eduard to Bowker 1939 年 7 月 2 日,耿愛德寫給包克,一頁,福煦路 491 號。 耿愛德說自己不收藏中國紙鈔(因此沒辦法幫助包克尋找藏品)。他說自己收藏中國硬幣, 但這些東西郵寄起來不安全(因為當時處於戰爭狀態)。他提到了上海新出版了一本目錄,但是 雷本說這本書無足輕重(可能指的是蔣仲川寫的那本)。另外,耿愛德還提到一本郵票月刊—— Asia Stamp Journal 開始發行。在為耿愛德寫的訃告中,包克提及耿愛德曾經是這本雜誌的資助 人。耿愛德在信上還說自己聽說包克將於八月途徑上海,自己很期待再次與他會面。包克當年八 月是否真的有一次上海之旅我們不得而知。

Bowker to Eduard 1939 年 12 月 2 日,包克寫給耿愛德,兩頁,美國西雅圖紐約布魯克林寄往上海福煦路 941 號。 由於腿部感染包克在醫院住了一段時間。他閱讀了耿愛德發表在《中國雜誌》上的關於中國 貨幣的系列文章(可能是《中國造幣史》一書)並索要了一套為日後使用的重印版。他在信中說 自己已經訂閱了《亞細亞郵刊》雜誌,並請求耿愛德給自己一本 C.M. 徐撰寫的《清代泉幣圖本》, 以及另一本同作者的《清代泉幣圖本·溥儀》。這兩本書的作者又名徐寄癲,曾任國家商業銀行 常務董事。中國中央銀行副行長以及上海造幣廠廠長(1932 年)。耿愛德於 1941 年 3 月的信 中表示這本書並非佳作。包克請求耿愛德為其尋找一些中國錢幣,尤其是西藏、新疆、甘肅、雲 南以及其他中國內陸省份的錢幣。他表示這些錢幣可以通過上海的美國海軍採購處安全地寄到自 己的手中。

1940 年 未見書信往來。

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1941 年

Bowker to Eduard 1941 年 1 月 19 日,包克寫給耿愛德,三頁,美國海軍西雅圖號軍艦 , 紐約布魯克林寄往上 海福煦路 941 號。 包克說自己除了耿愛德在《錢幣藏家》雜誌上的一篇文章中提到的訊息之外已經一年多未收 到耿愛德的回信了。提到自己關於中國錢幣學參考書目的作品,包克寄了兩頁(當時)的耿愛德 自己的撰寫的作品清單請他指正及添加。他在信裡對耿愛德當選為中國錢幣學會會長表示了祝賀。 包克將錢幣學會會刊的訂閱費寄給了雷本,但是並未收到回復。本次信中及 1939 年 7 月耿愛德 的信中提到的雷本是 G. 杜坎·雷本(1899-1962 年),他最重要的作品是羅列了中國臆造幣的 書籍《不存在的錢幣》。包克清單中的兩部耿愛德關於中國紙鈔的文章在《金融與商業》中出現 過。該書在上海出版(全名:《中國和遠東:金融與商業》),而不是在美國或英國出版的那兩版, 現不易尋找得到。

Eduard to Bowker 1941 年 3 月 25,耿愛德寫給包克,兩頁,941 福煦路。 耿愛德說雷本正在撰寫一本關於中華民國錢幣的目錄,這本書將分期發表在《中國雜誌》上面。 遺憾的是,這部作品未能出版。 “我現在收藏了大量的中國銀 元。遺憾的是,所有我沒必要購買 的錢幣品種都要花費數千元。比如 昨天,我不得不花費了 2500 美元 才買到了一枚約為 1898 年的一元 銀幣,這枚幣上面的省份刻的是浙 江 CHE-KIANG” 而 不 是 CHEHKIANG。我目前只知道有三枚這樣 的樣幣存世。

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Eduard to Bowker “說到你兩次索要的上海臨時兌換券,其中一份索要的信函寄給了愛文義路上的一位俄國商 人(可能是卡塔科夫,下面會提及此人)。你的信裡沒有明確說明你現在搜集的是紙券還是金属 代幣。我建議他把兩種都寄給你。他是唯一一位收集了 200 多張面值為一角和兩角臨時兌換券(私 人)的人,這些兌換券幾乎都已退出流通。我堅信這些是值得收藏的。我還讓他為你保留所有他 在這裡能搜羅到的一角和兩角的金屬代幣,這些錢幣的發行地方有酒吧、劇院等等。”最終,包 克收集到了現在已知最大規模的上海臨時兌換券藏品,數量超過 1000 多張,但是這批藏品已經 不見蹤影。2008 年周邁可和史博祿找到的包克藏品中並不包含這批兌換券。包克出版過唯一一 批封存的中國郵票代幣清單,還擁有代幣——可能是現在已知的唯一一批的代用幣,但這些代幣 也同樣不知所蹤。 “這裡的價格上漲的厲害。就我個人來說,我專注于收集吉林幣。如果你那裡能發現並好心 替我買下一些珍貴的吉林銀幣的話,我將不勝感激。比如,第 71 號(編號見韋特·雷蒙德的第 一版目錄)1908 年吉林造戊申庫平七錢二分銀幣(中間刻有數字 11),價格為 12.50 美元,我 願意出 25 美元買下。70 號的價格為 3.5 美元,我可以出價 20 美元。或者福建 1 元銀幣(第 30 號價格為 2.5 美元),我可以出 18 美元買下。如果你能找到這種貨真價實的樣幣,請幫我買下 並保管,屆時我會馬上給你匯款。” “我在你寄給卡塔科夫(A.A 卡塔科夫,一位錢幣與郵票商人,1940 年住在愛文義路 1413 號) 的信中看到你想要許先生的那部三卷的拓本叢書。我告訴卡塔科夫不必費事了。因為許是一位收 藏家(非常平庸),書中的拓片來於他自己收藏的錢幣。這些錢幣並不怎麼正規,其中還有贗品。 他是一位銀行家,自己並不賣書,這些書都得用手工製成,就其如今的價值來看,訂購書本的價 格遠算不上物有所值。另一方面,如果你願意花上 10-12 美元,你就可以從蔣仲川先生或者秦子 幃先生那裡買到非常超值的關於這方面的作品。蔣先生是我們唯一一套錢幣目錄的出版商,而秦 先生則已經出版了 11 卷展示其壯闊藏品的書籍。蔣的書雖然是活頁紙,但都是用中國油墨手工 製成的拓本,真正物有所值。這些書並未在商店裡出售,所以需要訂購。” 包克 1939 年 12 月 3 日的信中提到過許的書。秦先生是秦子幃,1948 年 8 月 4 日的信中有提及。 “我在回信裡附上了我自己出版過的作品清單,並添加了一些注釋(該清單並未找到)。此外, 我還寫了其他幾百篇關於中國錢幣學的文章——準確的來說應該算短文。這些文章都是我每週發 給《金融與商業》的投稿。但我自己並沒有將這些作品留檔,也許也沒這個必要。當下,我還成 為了中國集郵協會的主席。所以說現在我的愛好讓我忙得不可開交。”

1942-1947 年 1942-1947 年間並未發現二人的書信往來。

1948 年

Eduard to Bowker 1948 年 1 月 17,耿愛德寫給包克,一頁,德雷克爵士旅館寄往三藩市。 耿愛德感謝了包克在自己近期到訪時的殷切接待,他即將返回中國。

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Bowker to Harry Lindquist 1948 年 1 月 19 包克寫給哈裡·林奎斯特(出版商),一頁,包克住在奧克蘭 Gouldin 路 1716 號。 包克請林奎斯特考慮出版耿愛德關注中國金銀幣的一本目錄。顯然當時耿愛德手上有這本書 的手稿,但顯而易見的是,由於後來的新發現,這部手稿在接下來的時間裡需要不斷進行修改。

Harry Lindquist to Bowker 1948 年 1 月 22,林奎斯特寫給包克,一頁。 由於並非自己的專業領域,林奎斯特拒絕出版耿愛德的書。林奎斯特出版社主要出版集郵方 面的書籍。

Bowker to Eduard 1948 年 2 月 22,包克寫給耿愛德,一頁。 討論關於印刷帶有中文的中國式書籍和文章的問題。

Eduard to Bowker 1948 年 2 月 28,耿愛德寫給包克,兩頁。信紙來源於紐約卡梅隆旅館。 耿愛德說:“我在這已經待了五個星期了。必須說我很喜歡這裡。”不確定他指的是旅館還 是紐約。他又繼續說:“錢幣學會(ANS)的人都很友好而且直率,當然,我也是成員之一。謝 謝你在那裡替我引薦。他們的藏品非常出色,當然中國部分的藏品還有待完善。另外,我發現他 們有一枚非常珍貴的光緒八年吉林一兩銀幣的重覆品,我向他們表達了想要購買的願望。由於出 價合適,我如願得到了這枚錢幣。除此之外,我在這裡沒找到多少適合我的藏品。” 他提及的這枚幣的編號在耿愛德目錄中的編號為 914 號,書中並未收錄照片,至少是沒有作 為真品幣出現在目錄中。據目錄中記載,現在沒有一枚已知的耿愛德 K914 號銀質樣幣真品存世。 所以要麼是 ANS 有兩枚偽造幣,其中一枚被耿愛德買走,要麼就是他們有兩枚銅質樣幣。耿愛 德的目錄中沒有出現任何一枚樣幣的照片,收錄的僅有一幅錢幣的圖畫。耿愛德從 ANS 買到的 那枚幣一定就是其目錄中編號為 F914 的那枚偽造品。 在紐約的時候,耿愛德訪問了林奎斯特、韋特·雷蒙德以及艾德·梅(在斯坦科鮑爾斯拍賣 會上)。他並未請他們其中任何人出版自己的書,但確實談論了關於出版的事。耿愛德還來到紐 約公共圖書館查找資訊,但發現圖書館太大,查找起來也太花費時間。 “我們剛申請將我們的旅行護照延期。一般情況下這並不算一件難事。但在這個節骨眼上, 捷克斯洛伐克正處於風口浪尖,我們或許得克服很多困難,以免造成什麼不良後果。 我打算儘 量在四月或者五月回到中國,但我太太想要繼續待在這裡,至少要待到八月份。到那時候上海的 暑熱才算消停。” 耿愛德和他太太出生的時候,捷克斯洛伐克還未建國。他們的出生地當時還歸屬於奧地利, 之後才成為捷克斯洛伐克共和國。1948 年,捷克斯洛伐克向蘇聯陣營傾斜,耿愛德當時擔心自 己的護照申請或許不會被批准。

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Eduard to Bowker 1948 年 5 月 20,耿愛德寫給包克,一頁。耿愛德地址:洛杉磯北西克莫大道。 耿愛德寫道:“大約六個星期之前,我結束了這次愉快的華盛頓、紐約等地的旅行。我即將 返回中國並打算於 5 月 28 日乘坐 SS 馬士基前進號離開三藩市。晚一些的時候,我計劃和我的 太太一起于 5 月 25 日出發前往三藩市(她將會在洛杉磯多待一段時間)。我想打電話給你,也 期待能同你和你太太在此見面。”顯然,二人的確進行了這次會面,下面兩封信可以證明這一點。

Eduard to Bowker 1948 年 8 月 4 日,耿愛德寫給包克,一頁,耿愛德在上海 “經歷了 33 天的如鏡般的平靜航海之旅 , 路經菲律賓群島,於 6 月 30 日到達上海。” 耿愛德說他將委託一位路過美國的熟人給包克帶去一套 3 卷關於許先生收藏的中國現代幣拓 片的叢書。他還打算再送去一套類似的收錄了秦子幃藏品拓片的書,但後意識到自己已經將這套 書贈與了當地錢幣學會的圖書館。此事可見 1939 年 12 月 3 日及 1941 年 3 月 25 日的書信。 秦子幃,是 20 世紀三四十年代一位中國金銀幣收藏大家,1941 年,香港曾舉辦過一場秦子 幃藏品展覽。1940 年,有兩部關於這批藏品的八卷拓本目錄出版,但並未使用相同的書名。兩 部書均沒有文字,其中一部書以“Chung Ch'uan”藏品為名;另一部則標注為上海錢幣藏家 C.C 蔣 [ 蔣仲川 ] 的藏品。也許這位元蔣先生是這本藏品目錄的出版贊助人。見科爾 [ 中文名是邱文 明 ]600(215A)。一函十二冊的據說來自秦子幃藏品的集子在 2012 年 5 月的誠軒拍賣會上售出。 包克的許多信中都提及過秦子幃,1949 年以及此後幾年,包克都曾與他保持過聯繫。另外,秦 子幃 1949-1950 年間的訪美之旅也是包克負責安排的。 “我還給你送去一本關於紙幣的第一號第一卷雜誌。雜誌上登載了中國中央銀行 1948 年 2 月前發行的所有紙幣的交易情況。我懷疑這本雜誌的第二號刊是不是還能夠出版。” 1948-1949 年間,上海曾短暫出版過兩本關於中國紙鈔的雜誌,現已很難見到。 “我跟你提到過我花 380 美元從華盛頓的霍吉斯那裡買到的 5 枚銀幣中有 4 枚贗品。之後, 我發現這 5 枚銀幣全部都是仿造的。所以我多花了 377.50 美元來購買這些贗品。”有意思的是, 耿愛德到 1948 年還會上當買到贗品。

Bowker to Eduard 1948 年 8 月 28 包克寫給耿愛德,一頁,信頭遺失。 包克寫道:“一本中國紙鈔月刊雜誌的出版非常有意思。我已經安排了一位中國女士——她 是我的一位集郵同好的妻子來將雜誌上關於中國古代紙鈔的內容段落翻譯出來。如果一切順利, 我會給你發去一份。這樣一份月刊雜誌如果沒能得到足夠的支持而只出了一期就胎死腹中的話也 未免太遺憾了。就我自己來說,我非常希望這本雜誌能夠繼續出版,並最終將其刊載的內容擴展 到紙鈔的全部領域。”這本雜誌可能是《中國紙幣目錄》,第一期於 1948 年 2 月出版,出版商 為劉行方。 “我安排登載了中國部分內容的《20 世紀世界硬幣》已經出版了……我很樂意給你寄去一本。” 這本目錄的出版商為幣商韋特·雷蒙德。

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Bowker to Eduard “我現在正在拓印一枚非常有趣的銀幣,銀幣上的袁世凱頭像上面刻有五隻蝙蝠。袁像及背 面圖案與其他正常發行的銀幣別無二致。你是否知道這枚硬幣的起源或者是涵義所在?這枚幣並 非變造幣,但其是使用正常規格的模具製作而成的。若能告知任何資訊我將不勝感激。” 這枚幣現普遍被認為是一枚臆造幣,五隻蝙蝠意味着“五福”。這種幣據推測是由真正的袁 世凱銀幣經過手工改製而成,但包克在信中卻說這枚幣是模具壓製而成。現在的問題是這枚幣究 竟是私人製作的紀念品或者禮品還是實際上是出自於哪家造幣廠的產品呢?如果是後者,那又是 出自何種理由而將這枚幣製作出來的呢?

Eduard to Bowker 1948 年 9 月 15,耿愛德寫給包克,兩頁,中正中路(上海)。 “同時,發生了一件愉快的事。我從中國錢幣學會那裡拿回了 10 卷(約數)的秦子幃藏品 的拓本,因為學會已經暫停活動,而且可能以後不復存在了。當然,這些拓本是給你的。只要我 找到願意幫忙的可靠物件,我就將這套拓本連同外面靛藍色的中式封面一併送到你那裡。” 耿 愛德之前曾把這套中國金銀幣的拓本捐贈給中國錢幣學會,但後來隨着解放軍進駐上海,此地的 外國人紛紛離開中國,之前由西方人成立的學會和圖書館等組織機構也多數被廢棄。 耿愛德在信中說自己原本打算給包克寄去一些銀、鎳幣,但是中國海關沒有批准這批錢幣出 境。早些的信中,包克還曾索要過袁世凱五蝠銀元。耿愛德寫道:“袁世凱五蝠銀元是巧妙混合 製作品。我們在兩年多以前就見過這種銀元,但都認為除去其本身的白銀材質外,這種銀幣就是 個笑話,沒有什麼價值。” 包克說自己的那一枚五蝠銀元不是改製而是用模具壓製而成的產品。 “隨函附上的還有一張中國一兩銀元的拓片。這枚錢幣被我保存的非常好,我確信自己是唯 一一個(擁有這種錢幣的人)。但是我並不知道這枚幣的歷史來歷,我聽施嘉幹說你有關於這枚 幣的相關資料。如果是真的話,不知道可不可以請你將相關故事列印出來寄給我?” 遺憾的是, 這張拓片已經遺失了,所以我們並不知道耿愛德詢問的到底是哪枚錢幣。之後,他又在信裡討論 了一些關於自己的收藏和目錄手稿的事。 “此前我購買了大量的中國錢幣藏品,現在,我正忙着將這些錢幣分類整理到自己的收藏中。 因此,現在我的中國錢幣藏品就是世界第一 , 這一點沒人懷疑。我有許多別人都沒有的獨一無二 的錢幣,山東一兩銀幣(耿愛德 923)就是其中之一。我本來覺得自己的目錄手稿已經可以準備 付梓出版了,但實際上我每天都會發現新的樣幣和錢幣種類,這些錢幣也都得收錄到書中。正因 如此,目錄的內容可能是我兩個月前預計內容的兩倍。” 耿愛德接下來又提到了自己在《錢幣藏家》雜誌上發表的關於上海造幣廠的重要文章,該雜 誌由紐約幣商韋特·雷蒙德創辦。“我在紐約見到韋特·雷蒙德先生的時候,我想要提前向他支 付兩年雜誌的預訂費用。但他拒絕收我的錢,說我一直幫他的忙,他理應把雜誌送給我。他讓我 替他寫一篇關於上海中央造幣廠的文章,這篇文章我在美國的時候就已經寫好了。另外,我一回 到中國就把造幣廠的建築草圖發給他了,但是卻沒再收到他的回信。他的雜誌和新目錄(世界硬 幣目錄)也沒有寄給我。” 耿愛德在信尾總結說:“這裡的經濟瀕臨崩潰,新的貨幣‘改革’正在試行中。”這裡指的 是 1948 年發行的金圓券。

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Bowker to Eduard 1948 年 10 月 10 日,包克寫給耿愛德,兩頁。 關於耿愛德無法識別的那枚幣,包克 回復說此枚幣的仿製品曾發表在科曼奇尼 的《當代世界硬幣》上(倫敦,1937 年), 但是關於這枚幣 —— 也就是現在被稱之為 “海關兩”(耿愛德 925)銀幣的資訊, 他只知道在 1940 年上海 H.T. 周所寫的一 篇四頁的文章中出現過,這位周先生當時 是打算賣掉他自己的那枚樣幣。這篇文章未經證實。據周表示,這枚銀幣(是類似一套樣幣中價 值最高的)是一家英國造幣廠生產的,時間大概在 19 世紀 50 年代左右。也有人說這些錢幣的實 際鑄造時間為 19 世紀 80 或 90 年代,另外還有很多人認為這些實際上是朝鮮的錢幣。這一謎題 到現在也未能完全解開。但是理查·賴特在 1980 年出版的文章及喬·克裡布 1978 年出版的《銀 行貨幣》顯示這枚幣正面的模具(龍面)出自倫敦皇家造幣廠,而這枚幣則是 1867 年由香港造 幣廠鑄造而成。有趣的是,到 1948 年耿愛德都還不知道這枚幣的來歷。包克還提到耿愛德的這 枚幣和 H.T. 周的那一枚並不是同一枚幣,這兩枚幣邊緣傷痕的位置不同。包克把 H.T. 周的文章 用英文總結出來並附在了信中。按照這篇文章的說法——之後耿愛德也同意了這個說法 , 關平兩 的鑄造時間為 19 世紀 50 年代。 包克說自己按耿愛德的要求從倫敦訂購並收到了第二枚阿古柏金幣。至於將幣帶出中國的問 題,包克說:“我有一位在海軍任職的朋友是一位收藏家下個月準備從上海返回美國,我知道他 自己就要帶走很多錢幣,我覺得他會樂意幫我帶幾枚幣給你。這位朋友的名字叫安東尼·布切利, 是一位海軍,隨着海軍船隊四處周遊。他不會在中國海關當局那裡遇到什麼難題。”

Eduard to Bowker 1948 年 12 月 20 日,耿愛德寫給包克,一頁,時間是在上海的時候。 耿愛德感謝了包克 10 月 8 日和 11 日寫的信,但這兩封信都沒有找到。他也許指的是 10 月 10 日的信和 H.T. 周的那份手稿。 耿愛德在信中提到了自己對移民問題的擔心:“儘管已經申請移民美國,但考慮到我可能得等 上三四年之後才會收到回復,我還是取消了申請。我拿到了旅行簽證,計劃再次以遊客的身份前往 美國,有可能會在那裡待上 6 到 8 周。”耿愛德在 1948 年 2 月 28 日的信中就提到過移民的問題。 “布切利先生本不會成為你的代理人。我碰巧遇見了他,他也樂意為你帶去一批硬幣和一袋 子紙幣,我誠摯的希望你收下這些東西,這也是我此前做出的承諾。他應該比這封信更早到達三 藩市,或許此時已經與你見面。按照他的要求,我給他一批中國銀元,讓他托運過去出售。布切 利打算當一名幣商。他應該很快就會把我的 26 美元帶去,這些錢用於支付之前你好心同意代我 保留的新疆金幣。請繼續為我留意錢幣,如有變數當另行通知。”關於包克寄來的海關銀兩的資 訊資料,耿愛德寫道:“感謝寄來的解釋海關銀的資料。遺憾的是,這些資料既沒有說服力而且 也不夠權威。另外,我又買到了與之相配的另一枚僅存的半兩銀幣。” 耿愛德表達了對中國不斷惡化形勢的擔憂“我現在……滿腦子都是對中國問題的擔心……如 今我的中國錢幣藏品是現存最多的。我堅信自己不會將這些藏品丟失或遺棄在這裡……儘管沒有 感到焦慮或擔心,我也沒有輕視待在一群放任自流的亂民中間可能造成的風險。但是,還是讓我 們保持樂觀吧!”

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Copper Alloy Circulating Coins of People's Republic of China Zhang Jun (Shanghai) First - Start to work On October 1, 1949, Mao Zedong announced the foundation of the People’s Republic of China on the Tiananmen rostrum (He actually announced the establishment of the Central Government of the People’s Republic of China in his original words). The first set of money which was issued when the PRC was just founded was a series of banknotes. It was not until December 1, 1957, aluminum-magnesium coins in denominations of 1 cent, 2 cents and 5 cents were released. Twenty-three years later, another set of coins in denominations of 1, 2, 5 jiao and 1 yuan were released (in 1980). The set of coins issued from 1953 to 1957 was the only series of coins in denominations of 1, 2 and 5 cents issued since the foundation of the Peoples Republic of China. In fact, the preparation and design work of the coins started in 1950. In 1950, at the Conference on the Preparation and Research of Fractional Coin Production hosted in Beijing from February 16 to March 2, 1950, attendees had a discussion about the types, sizes and materials of coins. The demand for circulating coins was huge at that time due to China’s large population. The problems of minting so many coins were not just technical. China’s mints needed to design some metal coins which both met the demand of the market and conformed to China’s conditions for circulating coins. It has always been the target of Chinese mint makers to improve Chinese circulating coin series. Since the 1950s, they have been studying and exploring new materials for coins. In 1957, some Soviet professional coin makers and a metallurgist arrived in China. One of their most important tasks when they stayed in the state-owned Factory No. 615 (the former Shenyang Mint Co., Ltd) and the state-owned Factory No. 614 (the former Shanghai Mint Co., Ltd) was to help Chinese coin makers to study alloy materials for coin making. However, China’s mints were unable to use heavier metals to produce coins in the following 20 years. The Third Plenary Session of the Eleventh Central Committee of the CPC was held from December 18 to 22 in 1978. During the session, the major task of the CPC and the attention of all Chinese people was transformed to the task of realizing socialist modernization. One after another new projects emerged after this strategic decision was made. Also thanks to this decision, the first set of

Pic 1 The Beijing Scenery Gold Commemorative Medal Set Chinese coins (in denominations of one yuan and one jiao) was able to be produced and later issued. Actually, there was some sort of relationship between the first set of coins and the precious metal commemorative coins (or medals) and circulating commemorative coins designed and released in China. In the late 1970s, profound changes took place in the domestic and international minting environment. With the increase of international exchanges, top managers in the Chinese minting industry were exposed to many advanced techniques, equipment and newly emerging types of foreign coins. The Bureau of Engraving and Printing under the People’s Bank of China, Shenyang Mint and Shanghai Mint all wanted to develop new products and improve the coin-producing technology in China with their own efforts. A year after Chairman Mao passed away, in 1977, the Bureau of Engraving and Printing under the People’s Bank of China and the Shanghai Mint planned to produce a commemorative coin in remembrance of the first anniversary of Mao Zedong’s death to honor the founder of the PRC. Earlier, in the late 1960s and early 1970s, the Shanghai Mint had once raised the idea of producing

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commemorative coins and organized technicians to carry out research. Only aluminum-magnesium circulating coins had been issued after the foundation of the PRC. At that time no commemorative coins or medals had ever been made in China. First, some Mao Zedong commemorative samples were produced in accordance with the standards of silver coins made by Britain’s Royal Mint and then were reported to the Bureau of Engraving and Printing of the People’s Bank of China. For many reasons, this report failed to be approved in the end. In 1978, the production of samples of the first anniversary of Mao Zedong’s death silver commemorative medal was finished. In the same year, on April 13, the samples were sent from Shanghai Mint to the Beijing Bureau of Engraving and Printing. On the morning of April 17, nine people, including Geng Daoming, then the vice president of People’s Bank of China, Cao Chengan, the deputy manager of Hang Kong Po Sang Bank and other experts of international gold and silver coins gathered together to discuss the research and development work of commemorative coins. One important question was raised during the meeting which was: can foreign visitors take commemorative coins with Chinese themes when they leave China? In the meeting, attendees agreed that there was a strong need for the PRC to have some commemorative coins as gifts for diplomatic activities. Cao Chengan introduced Hong Kong’s experience of releasing commemorative coins. At that time Hong Kong released commemorative coins picturing the twelve Chinese zodiac signs. As 1978 was the year of horse, the commemorative coin released in that year depicted the image of Ma Ta Fei Yan (a famous statue called the Flying Horse of Gansu which is of a galloping horse treading on a flying swallow) on one side and the portrait of Queen Elizabeth II on the other. Before, portraits of great men had never been allowed by the central government to be used on any money. For historical reasons, RMB was not allowed to be taken out of China in accordance with relevant provisions. Therefore, attendees of the meeting made a decision of first making gold commemorative medals with the topic of “Beijing Scenery”. The Shanghai Mint was chosen to take on this task. Workers in the Shanghai Mint worked hard for more than half a year and overcame the many problems of precious metal melting, crushing, stamping, providing the surface treatment of the blanks, finished product stamping, and design and mold making. Finally, the first set of gold commemorative medals of the PRC- Beijing Scenery - came into being.

46 《東亞泉志》第 10 期

In January 1979, the People’s Bank of China appointed Hong Kong Po Sang Bank to be their exclusive distributor in Hong Kong. The Scenery series was first released there. After the news was announced, customers lined up overnight before the day of release. The first 1,500 sets of Beijing Scenery medals were sold out within several hours. Not long after, lots of letters and calls asking to buy or sell Chinese circulating coins came from many foreign coin dealers. On July 4, 1979, the People’s Bank of China submitted a report to the State Council and requested permission to produce and release circulating coins in denominations of 1 jiao, 2jiao, 5 jiao and 1 yuan in international markets. The report said: “We have kept receiving calls and letters from foreign dealers, especially from American coin dealers, this year. They have asked to buy circulating coins of our country and sell them to foreign coin collectors.” “For the sale of RMB coins in international markets, we plan to produce four types of coins in denominations of 1 jiao, 2 jiao, 5 jiao and 1 yuan. Along with the three coins in denominations of 1 cent, 2 cents and 5 cents we already have, there will be seven types of coins sold internationally. We are designing images and studying alloy materials for new coins. Once the design is finished, we will send another report for approval. If the State Council approves it, we will be able to make a small number of finished products by the end of this year and release these coins at the beginning of next year. The new coins will be mainly sold abroad. Only a few will be distributed for the domestic market.” On July 11, 1979, the report of the People’s Bank of China asking to produce circulating coins in denominations of 1 jiao, 2 jiao, 5 jiao and 1 yuan was approved by the State Council. Before, although aluminum-magnesium cent coins had been released, the research of making the jiao coins with alloy materials had never stopped. However, the alloy material for making these coins had not been determined. The time for producing cent and jiao coins set by the State Council was very limited. It is not hard to imagine how difficult it was to make trial products in such a short time.


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Second - Design

2. Material

1. The determination of the images

On June 15, 1979, the Bureau of Engraving and Printing of the People’s Bank of China passed on the instruction of People’s Bank of China and demanded the Sheng yang Mint and the Shanghai Mint to plan to produce circulating metal coins, including coins in denominations of 1 cent, 2 cents and 5 cents that had been issued and other four types of coins in denominations of 1 jiao, 2 jiao, 5 jiao and 1 yuan which were going to be released. Seven types of coins in different denominations would be composed into a “Chinese Coins” series.

On June 15, 1979, the Shenyang Mint accepted the task of designing and producing coins in denominations of 1 jiao, 2 jiao, 5 jiao and 1 yuan. The mold making department was responsible for all processes, including information collection, the design of new images, master die making, mold making, the production of samples, report submitting, etcetera. On November 12, 1979, the Shenyang Mint submitted a plan of making samples in denominations of 1 jiao, 2 jiao, 5 jiao and 1 yuan to People’s Bank of China: the obverse depicts the national emblem of China and seven Chinese words - Zhong Hua Ren Min Gong He Guo (the People’s Republic of China). The three coins in denominations of 1 jiao, 2 jiao and 5 jiao bear the image of wheat ears, a gear, Chinese words showing the coin’s face value and the date 1979. A symbol of the worker-peasant alliance was pictured on the reverse. The image on the reverse of the 1 yuan is the Great Wall. On December 6, the plan was approved. The design of the cent coins was used on coins in the jiao denominations. On the obverse was pictured the national emblem on the top, and in Chinese “the People’s Republic of China” was engraved at the bottom. The reverse had the numbers and characters (1 jiao, 2 jiao and 5 jiao) showing the face value surrounded by wheat ears, a gear and the date 1979 in the center. The image on the reverse is different from that on the back side of the cent coins: there is a gear instead of colored ribbons in the crossed position of the wheat ears. Three characters “Hua” “Guo” and “Er”(two) are in simplified Chinese characters. The 1 yuan coin is engraved with the national emblem on the obverse. Characters referring to the People’s Republic of China and the date 1979 located under the national emblem. The Great Wall and the face value - Yi Yuan (1 yuan) - are engraved on the reverse. The image of the Great Wall was designed by Song Jinmin, the designer of the Shenyang Mint. The technology of shallow relief was used to make coins. It had already been a hard task of showing the greatness of the Great Wall with a three-dimensional effect through sculpture techniques, not to say the image of the Great Wall had to satisfy the restrictions of mass production. Technicians from the Shenyang Mint tried many times to change the thickness of the image on the 1 yuan coin in the process of trial production and finally found the appropriate thickness.

This set of coins was planned to be mainly sold in international markets. At home, only a few sets would be domestically distributed. Therefore, there were more choices of material. To be distinguished from the cent coins in color, it was decided that the 1 jiao, 2 jiao and 5 jiao coins were would be made in a brass-like color while the 1 yuan coins would be made of a copper-nickel alloy. Considering reserves of copper in China, cost of producing, security design, techniques and the usage of alloy in the international coin-making industry, H70 copper-zinc alloy (mainly composed of zinc and copper, with a golden color) was finally determined to be used produce coins to give a color of brass. Whereas B19 copper-nickel alloy (mainly composed of nickel and copper, with the whitish color of nickel) would be used to produce the 1 yuan coins. This set of coins is durable and corrosion-resistant. The 1 yuan coin will not rust or change color. 3. Trial Production Gold and silver are called precious metals by economists while copper and iron are regarded as cheap metals as they are commonly found and cost little to extract and smelt. Copper is one of the first metals found and used by humans and has long been used to make coins in China. However, ancient Chinese coins were mainly produced by the technology of molding. Workers poured molten metal into the coin mold to make coins. Procedures and techniques of producing these ancient coins were quite different from that of machine-made coins in the west. Therefore, there was little information that was available in China as a reference. On the eve of liberation, mints and money-printing factories in Beijing and Shanghai were well protected under the leadership of the CPC. The KMT government failed to remove all instruments and equipment to Taiwan. However, a large number of important machines, materials (like gold

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and silver) technical documents and technicians were taken to Taiwan when the KMT government fled from the mainland. The Central Mint was totally empty. Only aluminum alloy coins were made in over 30 years after the foundation of the PRC. Although there was research in producing copper-alloy machine-made coins, such coins had never been mass produced. Genuine knowledge comes from practice. In early 1980, as the Shanghai Mint had the heavy task of producing commemorative coins, the Shenyang Mint had the tasks of making industrial gold and silver products. It gathered manpower and material resources and the staff worked hard to study copper-alloy coin materials. In order to reduce costs, the Shenyang Mint gave up purchasing plates and chose to use self-made copper alloy plates. In the second half of the same year, when the work was transferred to mass production, the Shenyang Mint decided to focus on blank production and coin stamping. In order to insure the quality of the plates they asked for assistance from outside. According to the request of the Bureau of Engraving and Printing (later becomes China Banknote Printing and Minting Corporation), the Shenyang Mint signed technical agreements with outsourcing factories. After a period of experimental studies and exploration, they accumulated some experience in copper alloy coin production. In July 1980, the Shanghai Mint accepted the task of

Thrid Production On December 6, 1979, the State Council officially allowed copper alloy coins to be produced and issued. This was the only set of copper alloy coins in jiao and yuan denominations issued in China after the foundation of the PRC. The Shenyang Mint first started to produce coins in 1980. In October 1980, the Shanghai Mint began production. Just like commemorative coins, these four types of copper alloy coins in jiao and yuan denominations were designed as a set of coins. Aluminum alloy coins in denominations of 1 cent, 2 cents, and 5 cents were made struck as proof coins. All these seven types of coins composed the “Chinese Coins” series and were sold abroad (the 1 yuan coin with the image of the Great Wall was the “leader” of this series, “Chinese Coins” is also known as “the Great Wall Coins”).These circulating coins in jiao and yuan denominations were by and large

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making copper alloy coins. As the time was limited, instrument and skilled workers insufficient, the Shanghai Mint was facing very heavy preparatory work and was under a lot pressure. To overcome these difficulties, the Shanghai Mint quickly organized a dozen personnel to be responsible for technology and production management and to learn the necessary technology, knowledge of digital management and quality control in the Shenyang Mint. I was a member of the group led by Bao Qiyuan, the deputy director of the Shanghai Mint. After studying, those who were responsible for technology and production management gained basic knowledge of copper alloy coin production. As physical properties of copper and aluminum are different, there are some major differences in the technology treating those two metals. To get a better understanding of the skill of producing copper alloy coins as quickly as possible, technicians and managers responsible for the quality of production in the Shanghai Mint tried their best, overcame many difficulties and finally finished the trial production of the copper alloy coins in August after much investigation and many tests of the necessary techniques (the die used to make working dies was supplied by the Shenyang Mint). At the same time, the Shanghai Mint improved its equipment and successfully produced a small batch of qualified coins itself. Later, with the improvement of technology and equipment, coins were mass produced.

not released at home. For this reason, coins issued at home were mostly collected by private collectors and did not circulate in the market. Technically, these coins in denominations of 1 jiao, 2 jiao, 5 jiao and 1 yuan are not what was defined as “jiao coins” at the Conference on the Preparation and Research of Fractional Coin Production hosted in 1950. This unique set of copper alloy coins was decently designed with clear images and a well-organized layout. They were engraved with advanced technology and strongly showed the improvement of Chinese moneymaking techniques. The 1 yuan coin is quite different from jiao coins in material, color, design and image. “Zhong Huan Ren Min Gong He Guo” (the PRC) were in simplified Chinese characters. All these coins in denominations of yuan, jiao, and cent are a complete series of early modern circulating coins with Chinese themes.


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Main technical data of 1 jiao, 2 jiao, 5 jiao, and 1 yuan coins that have been taken out of circulation Types

Obverse

Reverse

Diameter (mm) Thickness (mm) Weight(g)

1 jiao 2 jiao

The name and the emblem Wheat ears, gear of the PRC face value and date

5 jiao 1 yuan

The name , the emblem and date

The Great Wall and value

Number of reedings on the edge

20.00

1.30

2.62

110

23.00

1.50

4.18

125

26.00

1.70

6.02

140

30.00

1.90

9.32

166

Pic 2 1 jiao, 2 jiao, 5 jiao, and 1 yuan coins that have been taken out of circulation

The production of this set of coins was stopped in 1987. On December 10, 1999, the People’s Bank of China released a public announcement declaring the deadline of exchanging the third series of RMB. The deadline was from January 1 to June 30, 2000. Since July 1, 2000 the third series of RMB, including coins in denominations of 1 jiao, 2 jiao, 5 jiao and 1 yuan issued from 1980 to 1986 was taken out of circulation. Therefore, this is the only set of circulating coins that has been removed out of circulation. This set of circulating coins in jiao and yuan denominations were made in 1980, 1981 and 1985 (2 jiao coins were not produced in 1985). Proof ones were made in 1981, 1982, 1983, 1984, 1985 and 1986 (the Shanghai Mint produced proof coins in 1980, 1981 and 1985, the Shenyang Mint in 1982, 1983, 1984 and 1986). Here are characteristics of this set of copper alloy coins: The 1 jiao coin: copper-zinc alloy; golden color; round; 20mm in diameter; 1.3mm in thickness; 2.62 gram in

weight. Obverse: the emblem of the People’s Republic of China (on the top); the name of China – ‘Zhong Hua Ren Min Gong He Guo’ (at the bottom, written horizontally). Reverse: two characters “Yi Jiao” (1 jiao, in the center) are surrounded by wheat ears; a gear and colored ribbons located in the crossed position of the wheat ears; the number “1” is on the top while the date in engraved at the bottom; there is a tooth-shaped circle along the reeded edge. The 2 jiao coin: copper-zinc alloy; golden color; round; 23mm in diameter; 1.5mm in thickness; 4.18 gram in weight. Obverse: the emblem of the People’s Republic of China (on the top); the name of China – ‘Zhong Hua Ren Min Gong He Guo’ (at the bottom, written horizontally). Reverse: two characters “Er Jiao” (2 jiao, in the center) are surrounded by wheat ears; a gear and colored ribbons located in the crossed position of wheat ears; the number 2 is on the top while the date in engraved at the bottom; there is a tooth-shaped circle along the reeded edge.

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The set of 1985 proof coins in jiao and yuan denominations

The 2 jiao coin: copper-zinc alloy; golden color; round; 23mm in diameter; 1.5mm in thickness; 4.18 gram in weight. Obverse: the emblem of the People’s Republic of China (on the top); the name of China - ‘Zhong Hua Ren Min Gong He Guo’ (at the bottom, written horizontally). Reverse: two characters “Er Jiao” (2 jiao, in the center) are surrounded by wheat ears; a gear and colored ribbons located in the crossed position of wheat ears; the number 2 is on the top while the date in engraved at the bottom; there is a tooth-shaped circle along the reeded edge. The 1 yuan coin: copper-nickel alloy; nickel white color; round; 30mm in diameter; 1.9mm in thickness; 9.32 gram in weight. Obverse: the emblem of the People’s Republic of China (on the top); the name of China – ‘Zhong Hua Ren Min Gong He Guo’ (at the bottom, written horizontally). Reverse: the Great Wall; two Chinese characters “Yi Yuan” (1 yuan) located at the bottom; there is a tooth-shaped circle along the reeded edge.

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This set of copper alloy coins is the first and the only series of circulating coins made of copper alloy. Since then the Chinese money-making industry began to produce proof circulating coins. The 2 jiao coin in this series is the only Chinese circulating coin in the denomination of 2 jiao. Therefore, this set of copper alloy coins has a special place in history and has a significance which collectors should not ignore. (The author is the former assistant chief engineer of the Shanghai Mint Co., Ltd.)


Features 專題

新中國銅合金流通硬幣的研製開發 章軍 ( 上海 )

一 啟動 1949 年 10 月 1 日,毛澤東主席在天安門城樓上向全 世界莊嚴宣告中華人民共和國成立!新中國成立初使用的 是第一套人民幣紙幣,直到 1957 年 12 月 1 日起,才發行 了壹分、貳分、伍分鋁鎂合金流通硬分幣。在這套硬幣發 行後的第 23 年即 1980 年 4 月 15 日起,又發行了壹角、 貳角、伍角、壹圓四種流通硬幣,這也是新中國成立後唯 一的一套 1、2、5 制的流通硬幣。實際上,對於金屬角幣、 分幣的籌備和設計早在 1950 年就提出來了,在 1950 年 2 月 16 日至 3 月 2 日在北京召開的“輔幣計劃準備研究會議” 上就同時討論了分幣和角幣的種類、規格和材質。因為中 國人口基數很大,對流通硬幣的需求量非常大,初步方案 中設定的重金屬材質怎樣才能符合國情和市場流通等需要 是橫亙於中國造幣行業面前的難題,這個難題不僅僅是一 個技術層面上的問題。 完善中國的流通硬幣系列一直是新中國造幣工作者的 追求,自 20 世紀 50 年代開始的近 30 年時間裡,新中國 造幣工作者一直沒有放棄在角幣材料方面的研究和探索。 1957 年,蘇聯造幣和金屬冶金專家來華援助,他們在國營 六一五廠(即瀋陽造幣有限公司的前身)、國營六一四廠(即 上海造幣有限公司的前身)的一個重要工作就是幫助新中 國造幣工作者研究製造用於角幣鑄造的合金材料。然而, 在隨後的 20 多年時間裡,新中國造幣事業在發展過程中依 然沒有實力來解決採用重金屬材料鑄造流通角幣的問題。

圖 1“北京風景”金質紀念章,一套 4 枚 幣工藝技術。

1977 年,毛主席逝世一周年時,為了紀念中華人民共 和國的締造者,中國人民銀行印製管理局和上海造幣廠計 劃鑄造“毛澤東逝世一周年”銀質紀念章。60 年代末 70 年代初,上海造幣廠曾提出研製紀念幣(章)的想法,並 組織技術力量實施了研發工作。新中國成立后只發行過鋁 鎂合金流通硬分幣,沒有鑄造和發行過紀念幣,或者紀念章。

1978 年 12 月 18-22 日,中國共產黨第十一屆三中全

當初,“毛主席紀念幣”是參照英國皇家造幣廠鑄造的硬

會作出了要“把全黨工作的着重點和全國人民的注意力轉

幣(銀幣)的品質標準試製出樣品,上報中國人民銀行印

移到社會主義現代化建設上來”的戰略決策。這個戰略決

製管理局,但是由於種種原因,最終沒有能夠獲得批准。

策促成新生事物的不斷出現,不可否認新中國第一組金屬

1978 年, “毛澤東逝世一周年”銀質紀念章樣品製作完成後,

元、角幣的鑄造發行離不開這個戰略決策。事實上,新中

於 1978 年 4 月 13 日,上海造幣廠派員到北京印製管理局

國成立後的第一組金屬元、角幣的面世與新中國研製開發

報送毛主席銀質紀念章樣品,4 月 17 日上午,時任中國人

貴金屬紀念幣(章)、流通紀念硬幣(現改稱為普通紀念

民銀行副行長耿道明、香港寶生銀行副總經理曹成安以及

硬幣)有着千絲萬縷的聯繫。

研究國外金銀流通幣的專家等九人開會討論研發紀念幣的 事情,其中一個重要議題是外賓到中國來訪問,能否帶回

20 世紀 70 年代後期,國內外形勢發生了很大的變化,

具有中國特色的紀念幣?為此,會議提出:新中國非常需

中國對外交流逐年增多,中國的造幣生產管理高層看到了國

要有紀念幣作為外事活動中的一種外交禮品。會議中曹成

外許多先進的造幣工藝技術、造幣設備和不斷湧現的硬幣新

安副總經理介紹了香港紀念幣的發行情況:香港當時發行

品種,因此中國人民銀行印製管理局和瀋陽造幣廠、上海造

了十二生肖紀念幣,1978 年是馬年,當年的紀念幣一面是

幣廠都殷切希望通過自身的努力研發新產品來提高中國的造

英國女王伊利莎白二世的肖像,另外一面是“馬踏飛燕”。

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Features 專題

而且,由於歷史的原因,按照以往的有關規定,人民幣 是不能出口的。因此,會議決定首先鑄造金質紀念章,題材 就選用“北京風景”。上海造幣廠有幸承擔了這個任務。經 過上海造幣廠造幣工作者半年多時間的努力工作,克服了貴 金屬熔鑄、輾片、衝壓、坯餅表面處理、成品壓印以及設計 製模等重重困難,新中國的第一套金質紀念章“北京風景” 終於成功面世(圖 1)。 1979 年 1 月,中國人民銀行委託香港寶生銀行作為香 港地區的總經銷,在香港地區首次發行“北京風景”金質紀 念章。資訊發佈後,在發售前一晚,顧客已通宵達旦排起了 長隊,首批發售的 1500 套“北京風景”紀念金章在幾個小 時內就銷售一空。此後不久,國外許多錢幣經銷商頻繁來函 來電表達要求購買經銷中國現行流通人民幣硬幣的需求。 1979 年 7 月 4 日,中國人民銀行向國務院提出鑄造並 向國外發售一、二、五角及一元流通硬幣的請示報告。文中 請示:

今年以來,不斷接到外商,特別是美國錢幣商來函來電, 要求購買我現行流通的人民幣,以供國外貨幣收藏者儲藏。 為開展向國外銷售人民幣的業務,擬增加鑄造一、二、 五角和一元四種硬幣。連同目前流通的一、二、五分幣,硬 幣品種即可達到七種,作為第一批向國外銷售。新硬幣的圖 案及合金,正在通過調查研究着手設計,一待設計完成當另 行報批。如國務院原則批准,預計今年年底可以鑄出少量成 品,明年年初可以公佈發行。新硬幣主要是為滿足對外銷售, 國內只是象徵性地少量發行。 1979 年 7 月 11 日,國務院批准了中國人民銀行鑄造壹 角、貳角、伍角及壹元流通硬幣的報告。 此前,雖然在鋁鎂合金分幣發行流通後,關於角幣的合 金試驗一直在進行,但是元、角幣的合金材質並沒能確定下 來。這次批准鑄造元、角幣的任務對時間進度的要求非常緊, 為此產品試製的時間是很短暫的,困難可想而知。

二 設計 1. 圖案的確定

硬幣雕刻工藝屬於薄浮雕,要在非常有限的厚度裡,通 過雕刻塑型呈現出立體的效果來表現出“長城”的雄偉壯麗

瀋陽造幣廠於 1979 年 6 月 15 日接受了設計製造壹角、

場景及其中賦予的深刻含義,這本來就是非常艱巨的任務,

貳角、伍角、壹元流通硬幣的任務後,收集資料、設計新圖案、

尤其是還要滿足造幣大生產的要求,難度是很高的。為此,

試製塑雕原型、制模、試製樣品、報批等各項工作由該廠制

瀋陽造幣廠的技術人員在試製過程中,多次反復調整壹元硬

模車間負責落實。1979 年 11 月 12 日,瀋陽造幣廠向中國

幣的圖案花紋高度,功夫不負有心人,最後終於取得了成功。

人民銀行上報的壹角、貳角、伍角、壹元硬幣樣品方案為: 正面圖案統一用“國徽”和“中華人民共和國”字樣。三種 角幣的背面圖案統一用“麥穗齒輪” “面值” “1979 年” 年號(象徵工農聯盟)。壹元幣背面圖案採用“中國長城”圖。

2. 材質 1979 年 6 月 15 日,中國人民銀行印製管理局傳達中 國人民銀行黨組指示,要求瀋陽造幣廠、上海造幣廠立即

同年 12 月 6 日,這套方案獲得批准,角幣的圖案沿用

着手有計劃地鑄造一批流通金屬硬幣,包含已發行的壹分、

了硬分幣圖案中的設計項目,正面上方圖案為國徽,下方為

貳分、伍分和要研製發行的壹角、貳角、伍角和壹元,共 7

國名“中華人民共和國”,背面中間圖案分別是表示面值的

枚硬幣組成系列“中國硬幣”。

“壹角” “貳角” “伍角”二字和“1” “2” “5”阿拉 伯數字,文字周圍為麥穗、齒輪和“1979”年號。背面圖 案與硬分幣的差別是下方麥穗交叉部位是齒輪而不是纏繞 的彩帶,國名中的“華” “國”和面額“貳”字均改成了 簡化字。壹元幣的正面圖案為國徽,國徽下方為國名“中華

由於這組硬幣主要是對外銷售,國內只是象徵性地少量 發行,因此在合金的選擇上少了很多局限性。為了與鋁合金 分幣有所區分,色澤上決定角幣採用黃銅色,元幣採用白銅 色。

人民共和國”和“1979”年號;背面圖案為“長城”和大

這組元、角幣的合金色澤,根據中國銅金屬的資源、經

寫面額“壹圓”。“長城”圖案的設計者是瀋陽造幣廠的設

濟上的合理性、加工成本、防偽造性能及加工工藝,參考國

計師宋津民先生。

際造幣行業使用合金的習慣,最後確定下來角幣採用 H70

52 《東亞泉志》第 10 期


Features 專題

銅鋅合金,主要成分為鋅、銅,色澤為金黃色;元幣採用

製研究。當時,為了降低元、角幣的生產成本,瀋陽造幣廠

B19 銅鎳合金,主要成分為鎳、銅,色澤為鎳白色,該組

起先改計劃外購銅合金板材為自製板材,下半年轉入大批量

流通硬幣的合金特點是較耐磨損、耐腐蝕,特別是壹元硬

生產後,為確保造幣板材的品質,自己的技術力量重點做好

幣耐生銹、耐變色。

坯餅製造和硬幣壓印工作,於是按印製管理局的要求尋找外

3. 試製 金銀銅鐵這四種金屬,經濟學家稱金銀為貴金屬,稱 銅鐵為賤金屬。由於在自然界中銅和鐵的儲藏量相當豐富, 開發冶煉耗費的勞動成本較少,價值相應較低,故被稱為 賤金屬。銅也是人類認識和使用最早的金屬之一,在中國 被選用為鑄錢材料的歷史雖然相當悠久,但中國古代的鑄 錢工藝多採用範鑄法,即把熔融的金屬液體澆注入錢範的 方法獲得錢幣,其鑄造工藝、技術特性有別於西方用機器 壓印的機製幣,可以參考借鑒的文獻資料很少。解放前夕, 在中共地下党的領導下,北京、上海的印鈔造幣工廠護廠

協,與外協廠家簽訂了技術協議。經過一段時間的探索試驗 後,逐漸積累了一些銅合金硬幣的生產經驗。 1980 年 7 月,上海造幣廠也接受了鑄造銅合金元角幣 的生產任務,由於時間緊、任務急,又面臨生產場地緊張、 生產設備沒有到位、工藝技術人員有待培訓的諸多困難,各 項準備工作非常繁重,壓力可想而知。上海造幣廠立即組織 技術品質、生產管理人員十多人,本人作為技術人員也是這 次赴瀋學習的一員,由時任上海造幣廠副廠長包啟元的帶領 下前往瀋陽造幣廠學習瞭解元、角幣生產的工藝技術、數字 管理、品質管制,使技術、生產、品質管制人員對銅合金流 通硬幣的生產有了初步的感性認識和理性認識。

運動搞得相對較好,有效地阻止了潰敗的國民黨政府將全 部設備搬遷至臺灣,但是國民黨政府逃跑時,畢竟還是將

因為銅與鋁的物理性質不同,兩者加工工藝存在較大的

大批重要的造幣設備、物資(如黃金白銀)、工藝技術資

差異。為了更快更好地掌握這組銅合金為材質的元、角幣的

料及技術人員帶往臺灣,致使當時的國民政府的中央造幣

鑄造工藝技術,在上海造幣廠技術、品質、生產管理人員的

廠庫房空空如也。新中國成立後的 30 多年時間裡,中國造

共同努力下,群策群力,克服了許多困難,經過了多次調研

幣行業又僅僅鑄造鋁合金硬分幣,局限性很大,對於銅合

和工藝試驗,終於於同年 8 月完成了銅合金硬幣的試製工

金機制幣的鑄造雖然有些探索,卻沒有大批量生產的經驗。

作(製作工作印模的二原模由瀋陽造幣廠提供),同時調整、 配備了相應的造幣設備,依靠自身的力量成功地鑄造出了合

實踐出真知。1980 年初,上海造幣廠的紀念幣生產任 務比較飽滿,瀋陽造幣廠的工業金銀材生產任務減少,於

格的元、角流通硬幣,投入了小批量生產,以後又不斷總結 完善,最終使鑄造元、角幣生產工作過渡到了大批量生產。

是瀋陽造幣廠組織人力物力加班加點開展銅合金材料的試

三 生產 1979 年 12 月 6 日,國務院正式批准這組銅合金元、 角幣投產並發行。這也是新中國至今唯一的一組銅合金流通

格意義上講,這一組壹角、貳角、伍角、壹元幣並不等同於 1950 年召開的“輔幣計劃準備研究會議”上所定義的“角幣”。

元、角幣,由瀋陽造幣廠正式開始鑄造,始鑄年號為“1980”。 1980 年 10 月,上海造幣廠也正式投產。這四枚銅合金元、 角幣參照紀念幣的生產工藝,裝幀成套裝幣,並採取精製幣 的生產工藝,製作壹分、貳分、伍分鋁合金分幣與壹元、貳角、 伍角、壹元銅合金硬幣組成“中國硬幣”的系列產品,裝幀 成冊銷往海外(在民間這套“中國硬幣”也被稱為“長城幣”, 因為以“長城”為主題圖案的壹元幣是這組流通硬幣的領頭 羊)。而這組元、角流通硬幣在國內只是象徵性地少量發行,

這組銅合金流通元、角幣設計莊重大方,圖紋細膩清晰, 佈局合理、緊湊勻稱、工藝精湛,雕刻技術高超,獨樹一幟, 充分顯示了中國造幣工藝技術的進步。元幣與角幣材質不 同,色澤區分明顯,設計風格、主題圖案明顯不同。幣面上 鐫刻的“中華人民共和國”採用了簡化漢字,這組元、角幣 與壹分、貳分、伍分硬幣組合起來形成了具有中國特色的當 代早期流通硬幣的完整系列。

實際上基本都在民間沉澱收藏,並沒有真正流通起來。從嚴

The Tenth Issue of JEAN

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Features 專題

已退出流通的壹角、貳角、伍角、壹元流通硬幣主要技術參數 幣別

正面圖案

背面圖案

直徑 (mm)

邊厚 (mm)

單枚品質 (g)

齒數 ( 根 )

壹角幣

國名與國徽

麥穗、齒輪、幣值、年號

貳角幣

國名與國徽

麥穗、齒輪、幣值、年號

20.00

1.30

2.62

110

伍角幣

國名與國徽

麥穗、齒輪、幣值、年號

壹圓幣

國名、國徽、年號

長城、幣值

1.70

6.02

140

23.00

1.50

30.00

1.90

26.00

4.18 9.32

125 166

圖 2 1980 年壹圓、伍角、貳角、壹角流通硬幣(正、背),角幣正面圖案相同 這組銅合金流通元、角幣於 1987 年停止鑄造。中國人 民銀行於 1999 年 12 月 10 日發佈公告,第三套人民幣限期 兌換,兌換時間為 2000 年 1 月 1 日至 6 月 30 日,自 2000 年 7 月 1 日起停止第三套人民幣流通,其中也包括了 1980 年 -1986 年版壹角、貳角、伍角和壹元硬幣,為此,這組 硬幣是迄今為止唯一一組退出流通領域的流通硬幣。

齒輪和纏繞的絲帶,上部有阿拉伯數字“1”,下部為鑄造 年號,幣面清邊內鐫有齒圈,邊部側面為連續絲齒。 貳角幣,銅鋅合金,色澤金黃,圓形,直徑 23 毫米, 邊部厚度 1.5 毫米,單枚重量 4.18 克,正面圖案:上部“中 華人民共和國國徽”,下部橫寫“中華人民共和國”國名; 背面圖案:中部“貳角”二字,周圍是麥穗,麥穗交叉處為

這組普製流通元、角硬幣的版別年號分別為 1980(圖 2)、 1981、1985(其中貳角幣未生產“1985”年號),精製裝 幀幣的版別年號分別為 1981、1982、1983、1984、1985(圖 3)、1986( 其 中 上 海 造 幣 廠 鑄 造 的 年 號 有 1980、1981 和 1985,瀋陽造幣廠鑄造的年號有 1982、1983、1984、 1986)。

齒輪和纏繞的絲帶,上部有阿拉伯數字“2”,下部為鑄造 年號,幣面清邊內鐫有齒圈,邊部側面為連續絲齒。 伍角幣,黃銅合金,色澤金黃,圓形,直徑 26 毫米, 邊部厚度 1.7 毫米,單枚重量 6.02 克,正面圖案:上部“中 華人民共和國國徽”,下部橫寫“中華人民共和國”國名; 背面圖案:中部“伍角”二字,周圍是麥穗,麥穗交叉處為

這組銅合金元、角幣的各自形制特點是這樣的: 壹角幣,銅鋅合金,色澤金黃,圓形,直徑 20 毫米, 邊部厚度 1.3 毫米,單枚重量 2.62 克,正面圖案:上部“中

齒輪和纏繞的絲帶,上部有阿拉伯數字“5”,下部為鑄造 年號,幣面清邊內鐫有齒圈,邊部側面為連續絲齒。 壹元硬幣,銅鎳合金,色澤鎳白,圓形,直徑 30 毫米,

華人民共和國國徽”,下部橫寫“中華人民共和國”國名;

邊部厚度 1.9 毫米,單枚重量 9.32 克,正面圖案:上部“中

背面圖案:中部“壹角”二字,周圍是麥穗,麥穗交叉處為

華人民共和國國徽”,下部橫寫“中華人民共和國”國名;

54 《東亞泉志》第 10 期


Features 專題

1985 年精製裝幀元角硬幣

背面圖案:“中國長城”,下部橫寫“壹圓”二字,幣面清

為“貳角”的流通硬幣,在此以後的流通硬幣系列中再也沒

邊內鐫有齒圈,邊部側面為連續絲齒。

有出現“貳角”幣,因此,此組銅合金元、角幣在中國的造 幣史上有着其獨特的歷史地位和現實意義,廣大集幣愛好者

時至今日,這組銅合金元、角幣亦是我國首次、也是唯

可千萬不要輕視這組銅合金元、角幣哦。

一的一組銅合金系列流通硬幣,從此開始,中國的造幣行 業開始走上了鑄造精製流通硬幣的道路,而這組銅合金元、

(本文作者為上海造幣有限公司原副總工程師)

角幣中的“貳角”幣,也是中國硬幣系列中唯一的一枚面值

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EXCLUSIVE INTERVIEW

Sun Keqin Discusses the Collecting and Research of Modern Chinese Circulating Coins Yuan Shuiqing (Xi’an)

Sun Keqing is one of the best collectors and researchers of modern Chinese circulating coins, especially proof circulating coins. It was in the early spring of 2009, I first heard of him and received his signed book. Then, at the Macau International Numismatic Forum Dinner hosted on December 5, 2015, I first met him in person and got another book written and signed by him. He left me a very deep impression. In my mind, Sun Keqin is a handsome and calm scholar who can be very humble and vigorous at the same time. On August 8, 2016 I went to Beijing to attend the release conference of A Brief History of Chines Coins and interviewed Sun Keqin at the scene (Pic 2).

First, Mr Sun, Chinese modern currency often refers to notes and coins issued in the Chinese mainland after the foundation of the People’s Bank of China in 1948. Currencies released in Hong Kong, Macau or Taiwan by the Bank of China, the Bank of Hong Kong, the Bank of Macau and the the Bank of Taiwan are not included. The RMB includes banknote and coin which can be further classified into circulating coin and non-circulating coin of precious metal. As a collector and scholar in this field, when did you start the study of Chinese modern circulating coins and how many types and varieties of modern circulating coins are now known by the public till 2015? Sun Keqin: I started to collect modern commemorative coins in 1990. Later, ancient coins, machine-made coins, banknotes and modern gold and silver coins all enter into my collection. In 2006, a kind of proof commemorative coins drew my attention. I learned from the certificate that only 20,000 pieces of such delicate coins had been produced. The price of these coins were almost the same as common proof-like coins. After collecting a large amount of such coins, I gradually realized that the amount of early proof coins was much less than 20,000 which was recorded in their certificates. Actually, only several thousands and even 1,000 pieces of these coins were released. Besides, early proof commemorative coins were not released to the public but just as presents of the head office of the Bank of China and were not easy to find. Since then, I began to focus on collecting and studying different varieties of common commemorative coins. Modern Chinese circulating coin include circulating coin and commemorative coin. Till the end of 2015, a total

56 《東亞泉志》第 10 期

Sun Keqin,born in Rongcheng county, Hebei province in 1963, is living in Beijing. He is a bachelor graduate and has been engaged in the business of chemical fertilizer and packaging for years. In his spare time he would travelled around to search for rare modern coins or write books. Sun is the standing director of Beijing Numismatic Society, professional adviser of PCGS, the founder of coin001 website, the counselor of North Korean Coin Collecting and Studying Society and the CEO of Beijing Tian Cheng Cultural Development Co., Ltd (Pic 1). He is now focusing on the study of Chinese silver coins, Chinese circulating coins, the 1st , 2nd and the 3rd series of banknotes issued by the People’s Bank of China as well as coins of North Korea and has published five relevant books. Pic 1 Sun Keqin (this photo was taken in 2013)

Pic 2 The photo of the author (right) and Sun Keqin (left), taken on August 8, 2016 in Beijing


Features 專題

of 331types, 634 versions of circulating coins had been released in China, including four sets of circulating coins (the 1955 cent coin, the 1980 Great Wall coin, the 1991 peony coin and the 1999 chrysanthemum coin)and some specimens (227 types, 344 versions in total) and 104 types,290 versions of commemorative coins(released from 1984). The study of varieties of circulating coins has just started. New types are continuing to be found in these years. Second, can you make a definition for proof coin, sample and proof-sample coin and introduce your experience of collecting these coins? Sun Keqin: There are four types of Chinese modern circulating coins: proof-like coin,proof coin, sample and proof sample which can be further classified into several versions. Proof-like coins are released by the Bank of China for circulation or to commemorate some events. Circulating proof coins share the same designs and materials with proof-like coins but are made from different molds. These coins with mirror-like surfaces are produced by sandblast technology and will be checked and packed piece by piece after the production is finished. Although can be used to circulate, proof coins are mostly regarded as gifts or collections. Samples are working coins specially produced by the People’s Bank of China and other banks to identify counterfeits. Early proof samples are used as gifts while later proof samples serve as working coins in the banking system. Common proof-like coins are easy to get from markets or websites. But proof coins,samples and proof samples can only be found on special websites or at auctions. As a professional platform of circulating coin sales, the modern numismatic website(coin001 website) holds auctions for selling proof coins and samples every day. You can also buy these coins at auctions organized by professional auction companies such as the Champion Auction and Beijing Cheng Xuan Auction. Third, rare coins have always been targets of collectors. I know you have picked a list of “five most precious coins and eight very rare coins ” according to their amount, quality and value of research. Can you give a brief introduction of these coins? Is there anyone who has collected all of these coins? Sun Keqin: In my Catalog of Chinese Modern Circulating Coins (the second edition), I recorded13 types of proof coins and samples. Proof-like coins produced after 2005 are also very precious but I didn’t add them into this list. These 13 types of coins and samples include:

The 40th anniversary of the founding of the Republic of China commemorative proof coin; mintage 1000 pieces; present coin of the Head Office of the People’s Bank of China; uncirculated. I had only seen a 40th anniversary coin before 2006. As prices rise, more and more 40th anniversary coins have entered the market. I think there should be less than 30 pieces that can be found in the market, about 150,000 yuan each (Pic 3). The 70th anniversary of the founding of the Communist Party of China proof sample; 1000 sets were minted; present coin of the Head Office of the People’s Bank of China; uncirculated. Less than 50 sets are available, about 120,000 yuan each. The First Women’s World Football Championship commemorative proof sample; 1000 sets were minted; present coin of the Head Office of the People’s Bank of China; uncirculated. Less than 40 sets are available, about 120,000 yuan each. The 1986 Great Wall proof set; a total of 660 sets were released for foreigners and Chinese nationals overseas to earn foreign exchange. Almost all were released to the market. This famous and valuable set contains seven coins and a medal and is worth of 150,000 yuan. A wellpreserved set can be sold at the price of 200,000 yuan. The 40th Anniversary of the founding of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region proof coin, 1000 pieces were minted; present coin of the Head Office of the People’s Bank of China; uncirculated. Less than 80 piece are available. This is one of the most exquisite proof coins and is very popular among collectors. The price of each is about 90,000 yuan. The 50th Anniversary of the Victory of Chinese AntiJapan War and the World Anti-Fascism War proof coin; 2000 pieces were minted; present coin of the Head Office of the People’s Bank of China; uncirculated. Less than 100 piece are available, the price of each is about 45,000 yuan.

Pic 3 The 40th Anniversary of the founding of the PRC proof sample (obverse and reverse)

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The 50th Anniversary of the founding of United Nations proof coin,2000 pieces were minted; present coin of the Head Office of the People’s Bank of China; uncirculated. Less than 100 piece are available, the price of each is about 45,000 yuan. The 4th Women's Conference of the United Nations commemorative proof coin; 2000 pieces were minted; present coin of the Head Office of the People’s Bank of China; uncirculated. Less than 100 piece are available, the price of each is about 45,000 yuan. The 10th Anniversary of the Constitution proof sample; 1000 pieces were minted; present coin of the Head Office of the People’s Bank of China; uncirculated. Only very few are available. As there are proof coins of the same series, this sample is not very popular among collectors. It’s price is about 100,000 yuan. The Special proof commemorative panda sample; 1000 pieces were minted; present coin of the Head Office of the People’s Bank of China; uncirculated. Only about 10 pieces are available. As there are proof coins of the same series, this sample is not very popular among collectors. It’s price is about 100,000 yuan. The 100th Anniversary of the Birth of Chairman Mao commemorative proof sample; 1000 pieces were minted; present coin of the Head Office of the People’s Bank of China; uncirculated. It was not until 2014, did we know the existence of these coins. Only less than 10 pieces are available. As there are proof coins of the same series, this sample is not very popular among collectors. It’s price is about 100,000 yuan. The 100th Anniversary of the Birth of Song Qingling commemorative

58 《東亞泉志》第 10 期

Pic 4 Tho types of 1969 sacred place of revolution series (1 cent, 2 cent and 5 cent) proof sample; 2000 pieces were minted; present coin of the Head Office of the People’s Bank of China; uncirculated. Only less than 20 pieces are available. As there are proof coins of the same series, this sample is not very popular among collectors. It’s price is about 80,000 yuan. The 35th Anniversary of the founding of People Republic of China proof commemorative coins (the Shanghai version ), firstly found in 2007, uncirculated. Less than 50 sets are estimated to be put into the market. Each set sells at the price of 50,000 yuan. As far as I know, no one has collected a complete set of these coins mentioned above. Even if I was wrong, there will be less than 5 people who are able to collect them all. Fourth, including those coins unreleased during the Cultural Reform, how many modern coins have appeared at major auctions? Can you introduce three pieces which had been sold at the highest prices before May, 2016? Sun Keqin: During the Cultural Reform, some samples were

designed, produced but failed to be released. In recent years, some of these coins, like the 1969 sacred place of revolution series (1 cent, 2 cent and 5 cent, Pic 4), the 1975 workers and peasants series (1 cent, 2 cent and 5 cent), and the 1975 crops series (1 cent, 2 cent and 5 cent) have been sold at auctions. Collectors are becoming more and more interested in Cultural Reform samples, which has driven up the prices of these coins. The prices of some Cultural Reform coins even reached record high at auctions held in May, 2016. For example: Two sets of 1975 workers and peasants samples (1 cent, 2 cent and 5 cent, in a wooden box) were sold for 2,530,000 yuan (Pic 5). A set of 1975 crops samples (1 cent, 2 cent and 5 cent, in a wooden box) was concluded at the price of 1,030,000 yuan (Pic 6). A piece of 1969 Mao Zedong 5 cent sample (with scratches) was sold at the price of 200,000 yuan (Pic 7). Fifth, I learned from the Internet that you have edited five books: Illustrated Catalog of Chinese Proof Commemorative Coins (2006, unpublished); Illustrated Catalog of


Features 專題

Precious Chinese Commemorative Coins (published in October, 2008); Standard Catalog of Chinese Modern Circulating Coins (published in October, 2012 ); Numismatic Collection and Investment of People’s Republic of China (co-edited with Yang Songlin,Li Haoyu and Xue Wei, published in October, 2014) and Catalog of Chinese Modern Circulating Coins (the second edition, published in September 2015, Pic 8). Can you introduce the contents, the writing causes and publication processes of these books to us? Sun Keqin: It was not difficult to find proof coins produced after 1996 when I started collecting in 2006. But proof coins made before 1995 were very rare and couldn’t be found neither in the market nor on the internet. I didn’t know how many types of such coins had been released, how precious they are and what’s their prices. There was even no relevant materials that I could check. It was then that I decided to edit a reference book for proof coin collectors who were facing with the same problem. Regardless of cost, I managed to collect almost all types of modern proof coins. My idea got support from some collectors. Huang Yihe, one of my proof coin fellow, specially went to Beijing to help me arrange files from Inner Mongolia. Some friends took photos and reviewed articles for me. With their help I spent only one month to finish this book. I didn’t publish this book but asked a Beijing printing house to print 1000 copies for me. As there was not many collectors of proof coins, it took two years to sell out these 1000 copies. In 2008, my friend Cheng Jizhong, the member of National Cultural Relics Appraisement Commission and Chinese Numismatic Society

Pic 5 Two sets of 1975 workers and peasants samples (1 cent, 2 cent and 5 cent, in a wooden box)

Pic 6 A set of 1975 crops samples (1 cent, 2 cent and 5 cent)

Pic 7 A piece of 1969 Mao Zedong 5 cent sample (with scratches) Academic Board and a collector of ancient coins, sycees and modern commemorative coins recommended Li Lijun, the editor of Beijing Educational Publishing House to me. When we talked about the publication of my book, Study of Chinese Commemorative Coins Versions, Li Lijun suggested me use Illustrated Catalog of Precious Chinese Commemorative Coins as the name of this book as the word “Study” was not very attractive to readers. Li lijun is the member of Beijing Numismatic Society and knows very much about collection. After roughly reading this book, he said: let’s frankly discuss the way

of cooperation. Finally, I chose to authorize the publishing house to be responsible for the distribution , which was a good way to enlarge marketing channels. A total of 5,000 copies were sold out in two years. In 2010, all these 5,000 copies were sold out. I communicated Li Lijun to reprint more books but was told that Mr Li had retired. The new editor he recommended didn’t know much about collection and suggested me to be responsible for exclusive sales. I rejected his suggestion and dropped this idea. As there was no replaceable books in the market, duplicates and digital editions of

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Illustrated Catalog of Precious Chinese Commemorative Coins started to be sold on the internet. In 2012, Li Zhen of Shanghai Science and Technology Press communicated me on my blog and asked me to write a book about circulating coins. He offered three methods of cooperation to me. I chose to authorize the press to be responsible for sales and earn royalties according to sales. The book, Standard Catalog of Chinese Modern Circulating Coins recording all circulating coins released after the founding of the PRC, was published in October, 2012. A total of 4,250 copies were printed. As this book is very popular among readers, we reprinted another 2,200 copies half a year later in April, 2013. But pirated books had been printed and sold very well before the we reprinted new books in March, 2013. These cheap pirated books were sold in many numismatic markets and more than 200 Taobao shops, which hurt the sales of legitimate version. With the development of modern coin website (www. coin001.com), I and three other moderators decided to write a book to introduce the collection of circulating coins, banknotes, silver and gold coins and copper medals. I, as the chief editor, Yang Songlin, Xue Wei and Li Haoyu as deputy chief editors, co-authored this Numismatic Collection and Investment of People’s Republic of China. The press regarded this book as a supplement to the Standard Catalog of Chinese Modern Circulating Coins and believed it would sell very well. In October,2014 Standard Catalog of Chinese Modern Circulating Coins was published by the Shanghai Science and Technology Press. A total of 4,700 copies were printed and later in July 2016 more 1,200 copies were reprinted. In the same year, on October 7 the Yi Chui Ding Yin program of CCTV 2 invited me to introduce how to collect modern coins (Pic 9). As more achievements had been made in the study of modern circulating coins and the first edition of Standard Catalog of Chinese Modern Circulating Coins had been sold out, the Shanghai Science and Technology Press decided to publish and print 5,200 copies of the revised second edition in 2005. Sixth, Chinese modern coin is a new ground needed to be developed. What’s your opinion on the development of modern coin collection and investment? Sun Keqin: You are right. I still think the research of modern coins remains a fledgling opportunity waiting to be exploited after involving myself in this field for ten years. The time, efforts and energy we invest in this field

60 《東亞泉志》第 10 期

Pic 8 Books edited by Sun Keqin

Pic 9 Sun Keqing introduced the collection of modern coins on Yi Chui Ding Yin program of CCTV 2 on October 7, 2014 are far less than that put in ancient coins, machine-made coins, the 1st, 2nd and 3rd set of banknotes and modern gold and silver coins. With more and more versions kept being found, the potential opportunity for modern coin investment and collecting is huge. Some collectors who have not read my books might think modern circulating coins are very common and have no value for collection. This is not true. There are indeed many precious and exquisite modern circulating coins in China. Sixty years have passed since the first modern coin was released in 1955 (Editor’s note: this article was written in 2016). The big family of modern Chinese coins has played an significant role in the economic construction of the PRC and in people’s daily commodity exchanges. I believe that more and more people will realize modern Chinese coin is a very important item for collection. Seventh, in 2010, you founded the modern coin website (www.coin001.com) which has become the largest platform for sales of graded coins and graded banknotes


Features ĺ°ˆéĄŒ

and has gathered many top experts of modern Chinese coins and banknotes. How did you found and operate this website and are prices of items sold on this website real? Sun Keqin: My original intention as a passionate amateur of coin collection, was to provide a platform for collectors to communicate and trade. I invested money and found this website with the help of some friends. We did this just for fun and passion at first. Then, with the increase of subscribers, the requirement for the website became higher and higher. Facing with the increasing criticism, I decided to make a professional numismatic website. We hired professional computer programmers and customer service workers and has now established a team of more than ten members. The spending of this website mainly provided by my own company. Early in 2009, I had accepted the idea of coin grading. I believe grading coins is a good way to promote online transaction of coins,especially circulating coins of different varieties. For example, different people will have different opinions on the rarity of a 1955 1 cent. Only by grading it, will we know whether this is a 64 or 68 coin. Coin grading issued by third party companies has been accepted by most collectors and has rapidly developed in recent years. 90% coins and banknotes sold on our website are graded. Seldom will people doubt the condition of these coins. Numerous collectors of modern coins and the 1st, 2nd and 3rd sets of RMB banknotes have gathered on our website. These coins and notes, especially highly-graded ones can be sold at very good prices. We have professional moderators to check photos and descriptions of coins and notes and staff to supervise the auction process to ensure all bid prices are real. Eighth, Can you give some examples to explain the changes of coin prices in 2017 and 2018 spring markets? Sun Keqin: The price of circulating coins has been rising sharply in recent two years. Auctions hosted by www. coin001.com attract plenty of senior coin collectors. Take the 1986 the Great Wall series as an example, this set of coins listed at 150,000 yuan when we had the first interview was sold for 210,000 yuan at the 2016 autumn auction. The price of more than 200,000 makes circulating coins win popularity. At the 2017 summer auction, another set of 1986 the Great Wall coins was sold at the price of 290,000 yuan. The hummer price was raised to 430,000 yuan in the 2018 spring auction. The price has almost tripled in just two years. Similar situations have also happened in the price of proof coins

Pic 10 Sun Keqin delivered a speech in Long Beach, US on September 18, 2015. to honor the 40 anniversary of the founding of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. The price which was 90,000 yuan in 2016 has more than doubled to 220,000 yuan in 2018. Under the influence of these rare coins, prices of almost all circulating coins have increased by different margins. Ninth, another irrelevant question, I have heard you are also studying coins of North Korea, when did you start this research? As the consultant of North Korean Coin Collecting and Studying Society, can you give an introduction of this society and the prospect of collecting North Korean coins? Sun Keqin: I have been abroad several times in recent years and gradually become interested in foreign coins (Pic 10). I found some very cheap coins of North Korea on modern coin website in 2015. A set of circulating sample was listed for only a few dozen yuan and a sample made of precious metal was sold for several hundred yuan. Out of curiosity I bought a complete series of North Korean coins and started to study and collect these coins. As our neighbour, North Korea shares a historical bond of Confucian culture and the same social system of socialism with China. Therefore, their numismatic culture is similar to ours. It is of high value to study coins of North Korea from the prospective of Chinese numismatic scholars. North Korea is still isolated from the outside world with less than 1,000 dollar of GDP per capita. It would be a meaning topic of research to study and collect currencies of such a poor and backward country. North Korean Coin Collecting and Studying Society is a subsidiary of North Korean Central Bank. Zheng Shilong and Song Gang are presidents of the society. Wang Biao and I served as consultants. As the number of North Korean coin collectors is very limited, our society has only about 30 members, most are Chinese.

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名家專訪

孫克勤談中國現代流通硬幣收藏與研究 袁水清(西安)

對於中國現代流通硬幣特別是精製流通硬幣的收藏與研究,孫克勤先生首屈一指,獨領風騷。結識孫克勤, 是在 2009 年初春;第一次見到孫克勤,是在冠軍拍賣公司 2015 年 12 月 5 日澳門國際錢幣論壇邀請晚宴上。兩 次均源於他贈送的簽名新著。這位“情托方孔,趣在精製”的研究型收藏家第一次見面留給我印象很深:帥氣、 沉穩,深藏若虛,豪放不羈。 2016 年 8 月 8 日,筆者赴京參加“中國貨幣史話”系列圖書新書發佈會暨中國貨幣文化學術座談會,當天下 午對孫克勤先生進行了專訪(圖 2)。2018 年 3 月下旬,筆者又就流通硬幣精品 2017 年和 2018 年春季拍賣等 情況電話採訪了孫先生,瞭解到流通幣價格發生了巨大變化。今整理如下,與同好分享。

一 孫先生,我們知道,中國現代貨幣一般指中國人民 銀行於 1948 年成立後,在中國大陸發行的各種貨幣,亦稱

孫克勤,1963 年生,河北省容城縣人,大學本科學歷。

人民幣。不包括中國銀行、香港銀行、澳門銀行、臺灣銀

現定居北京。多年在化肥貿易和包裝行業闖蕩,並抽空奔

行等在港澳臺地區發行的現代貨幣。人民幣分紙幣和硬幣

波於山南海北,收集稀缺的現代錢幣,著書立說。閒暇喜

兩大類,硬幣又分為流通硬幣和不參與流通的貴金屬幣。

歡打高爾夫球。他現在是北京市錢幣學會常務理事,美國

您是中國現代流通硬幣的著名收藏家和研究學者,請問您

PCGS 中國專家顧問,現代錢幣網創始

從何時開始專注研究這一領域?中國現代流通硬幣分為哪 幾類?至 2015 年年底,各類幣分別發行了多少種?發現了 多少版別?

人,世界紙鈔網顧問,朝鮮錢幣收藏

研究會顧問,北京天成文化發展有限

公司總經理(圖 1)。目前收藏研究方向: 中國機製銀幣,中國流通硬

孫克勤:袁老師不愧為錢幣研究學者,提的問題非常

幣,中國人民銀行一、二、

專業。我 1990 年開始收藏錢幣,是從普通紀念幣開始的,

三套紙幣,朝鮮錢幣。

當初叫流通紀念幣,後來開始收藏古錢幣、機製幣、紙幣、

著有5部錢幣圖書,

現代金銀幣。2006 年,我發現了精製普通紀念幣,從證書

研究成果頗豐。

上看,發行量只有 2 萬枚,工藝非常精美,價格和普製幣 差不多,就開始系統收藏,慢慢瞭解到早期精製普通紀念 幣的發行量不是 2 萬枚,有的只有幾千枚,最少的才 1000 枚,

圖 1 孫克勤 攝於 2013 年

並且早期精製普通紀念幣不是公開發行的,是總行禮品幣, 進入收藏領域的數量極少,收藏難度很大,於是就開始專 注於普通紀念幣的版別收藏與研究。 中國現代流通硬幣分兩大類,一類是普通流通幣,一 類是普通紀念幣。截至 2015 年底,共發行了 331 種,634 個版別,其中: 普通流通幣共發行了四套,分別是 1955 版硬分幣、 1980 版長城幣、1991 版牡丹幣和 1999 版菊花幣,另外還 有未發行的呈樣幣,共發行了 227 種,344 個版別;普通 紀念幣從 1984 年開始,共發行了 104 種,290 個版別。

圖 2 作者採訪孫克勤(左) 2016 年 8 月 8 日於北京

流通硬幣的版別研究還在起步中,幾乎每年都能發現 多個版別,隨後經過多位頂尖級藏家論證,達成共識。

62 《東亞泉志》第 10 期


Features 專題

二 收集中國現代流通硬幣的重點,是其中的精製幣、 樣幣或精製樣幣,請給這些幣種做出科學定義,並根據您

1000 套,總行禮品幣,未公開發行,估計進入收藏領域的 數量不超 50 套,市場價 12 萬元 / 套左右。

的經驗,就如何收集作以簡要介紹。 第一屆世界女子足球錦標賽紀念幣精製樣幣,鑄造量 孫克勤:中國現代流通硬幣從大的版別分,共分為四 個版別:普製幣、精製幣、樣幣和精製樣幣,每一個大的版別,

1000 套,總行禮品幣,未公開發行,估計進入收藏領域的 數量不超 40 套,市場價 12 萬元 / 套左右。

由於工作模的不同,有的還分若干個小版別。普製幣是參 與流通用的錢幣,人民銀行發行的目的,一是流通,二是

1986 年精製長城幣套幣,鑄造量 660 套,當年面向國

紀念或者宣傳發行主題。精製幣也屬於流通幣,計入當年

外和華僑發行,目的是出口創匯,為四個現代化積累資金,

人民銀行貨幣發行總量,和普製幣採用相同的規格、圖案、

660 套幾乎全部進入收藏領域,由於含 7 枚幣和一枚章,

材質,但工作模不同,採用鏡面與噴砂工藝,產品壓印採

自發行以來就名氣很大,價格較高,市場價 15 萬元 / 套左右,

用單枚多次壓印,成品品質進行逐枚檢查,產品包裝採用

好品每套超過了 20 萬元。

單枚包裝方式,其用途可以用作流通,但主要是用於收藏 與禮品。樣幣是特別製造的由人民銀行和各商業銀行存檔

內 蒙 古 自 治 區 成 立 40 周 年 紀 念 幣 精 製 幣, 鑄 造 量

的樣品幣,是銀行系統的工作幣,主要用於人民幣反假的

2000 枚,總行禮品幣,未公開發行,估計進入收藏領域的

對照幣。精製樣幣是用精製幣工藝生產的樣幣,早期精製

數量不超 80 枚,此枚幣在精製幣中,鑄造工藝最為精美,

樣幣主要用作禮品,後期精製樣幣是銀行系統的工作幣,

深受藏家喜愛,市場價 9 萬元 / 枚左右。

和普通樣幣職能相同。 中國抗日戰爭和世界反法西斯戰爭勝利 50 周年紀念幣 普製幣收藏相對容易,全國各地的錢幣市場都可以 買得到,各種錢幣網站也都可以購買。精製幣、樣幣、精

精製幣,鑄造量 2000 枚,總行禮品幣,未公開發行,估計 進入收藏領域的數量不超 100 枚,市場價 4.5 萬元 / 枚左右。

製樣幣由於數量較少,一般只能在專業的錢幣網站或者拍 賣會上購買,現代錢幣網是流通硬幣專業網站,精製幣、

聯合國成立 50 周年紀念幣精製幣,鑄造量 2000 枚,

樣幣和精製樣幣每天都有拍賣,品種很多。冠軍拍賣、誠

總行禮品幣,未公開發行,估計進入收藏領域的數量不超

軒拍賣等專業拍賣公司,每次大拍都有精製幣和樣幣上拍。

100 枚,市場價 4.5 萬元 / 枚左右。

三 珍稀幣是每位錢幣收藏家經年苦苦尋覓乃至終生追

聯合國第四次世屆婦女大會紀念幣精製幣,鑄造量

求的目標,也是收藏之樂趣所在。中國現代流通硬幣珍稀

2000 枚,總行禮品幣,未公開發行,估計進入收藏領域的

品眾多,收藏的難度相對較大。據說您對中國現代流通硬

數量不超 100 枚,市場價 4.5 萬元 / 枚左右。

幣按照珍稀程度、學術地位、精美度,排出“五大珍”和“八 小珍”,請分別介紹其名稱、市場周轉量及價格,已集齊 這些珍稀幣的收藏家有多少?

憲法頒佈 10 周年紀念幣精製樣幣,鑄造量 1000 枚, 總行禮品幣,未公開發行,估計進入收藏領域的數量為個 位數,但由於該品種有對應的精製幣,因此對精製幣愛好

孫克勤:我在《中國現代流通硬幣標準目錄》第二版

者的吸引力較小,價格不高,市場價 10 萬元 / 枚左右。

一書中,將珍品分為“五大珍”和“八小珍”,這 13 套珍 品都是精製幣或精製樣幣,並未包含普製樣幣,其實 2005

大熊貓特種紀念幣精製樣幣,鑄造量 1000 枚,總行禮

年以後的普製樣幣都是珍品,人民銀行在 2005 年以後強化 了管理,市場根本見不到。以下我逐一介紹一下這 13 套珍 品錢幣的情況,市場價以人民幣計。 中華人民共和國成立 40 周年紀念幣精製幣,鑄造量 1000 枚,總行禮品幣,未公開發行,2006 年之前只見到 一枚裸幣,隨着價格的逐步提高,不斷進入收藏領域,估 計現在進入收藏領域的數量不超 30 枚,市場價在 15 萬元 / 枚左右(圖 3)。 中 國 共 產 黨 成 立 70 周 年 紀 念 幣 精 製 樣 幣, 鑄 造 量

圖 3 中華人民共和國成立 40 周年紀念幣精製樣幣(正、反)

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Features 專題

品幣,未公開發行,估計進入收藏領 域的數量為 10 枚左右,但由於該品種 有對應的精製幣,因此對精製幣愛好 者的吸引力較小,價格不高,市場價 10 萬元 / 枚左右。 毛澤東誕辰 100 周年紀念幣精製 樣幣,鑄造量 1000 枚,總行禮品幣, 未公開發行,2014 年首次公開露面, 我們才知道有這個品種版別,估計進 入收藏領域的數量為個位數,但由於 該品種有對應的精製幣,因此對精製 幣愛好者的吸引力較小,價格不高, 市場價 10 萬元 / 枚左右。

圖 4 1969 年革命聖地 1 分、2 分、5 分未發行硬幣呈樣幣 2 種

宋慶齡誕辰 100 周年紀念幣精製 樣幣,鑄造量 2000 枚,總行禮品幣, 未公開發行,估計進入收藏領域的數 量不超過 20 枚,但由於該品種有對應 的精製幣,因此對精製幣愛好者的吸 引力較小,價格不高,市場價 8 萬元 / 枚左右。 建 國 35 周 年 紀 念 幣 精 製 幣 上 海 版,2007 年首次發現,未公開發行, 估計進入收藏領域的數量不超 50 套, 市場價 5 萬元 / 套左右。

圖 5 1975 年工農學 1 分、2 分、5 分未發行硬幣呈樣幣 2 種

關於您問有多少藏家集齊這些珍 稀幣,據我瞭解,還沒有別人集齊, 但是很多中國人喜歡藏而不露,也許 別人集齊了我不知道,我覺得最多不 會超過 5 個人。 四 據您所知,中國現代流通硬幣 中,有哪些品種包括 “文革”中未發 行的幣種在大型拍賣會出現過?請介 紹一下至 2016 年 5 月創拍賣成交最 高價前三名者及其人民幣價格?

圖 6 1975 年農作物壹分、貳分、伍分未發行硬幣呈樣幣 1 分、2 分、5 分 呈 樣 硬 幣,1975 年

253 萬元成交(圖 5);

農作物壹分、貳分、伍分呈樣硬幣等。 最近兩年,由於流通幣樣幣開始受到

1975 年農作物壹分、貳分、伍分

孫克勤:在“文革”期間,我國

收藏者重視,價格不斷提高,在 2016

呈樣硬幣一套 3 枚,103 萬元成交(圖

曾設計並鑄造、印製了一些貨幣樣幣、

年 5 月北京春拍上,很多樣幣創造了

6);

樣稿,由於當時的特殊原因,未正式

價格新高,“文革”呈樣幣表現更為

發行,我們統一稱之為呈樣幣。最近

搶眼,引起廣泛關注。如:

比如 1969 年革命聖地 1 分、2 分、5

1975 年 工 農 學 1 分、2 分、5 分

分呈樣硬幣(圖 4)、1975 年工農學

呈樣硬幣,兩套 6 枚置於一個木盒中,

64 《東亞泉志》第 10 期

1969 年毛澤東像伍分呈樣硬幣一 枚,品相有傷痕,20 萬元成交(圖 7)。

幾年,這些呈樣幣在拍賣會有過出現,

五 從網上得知,您編著和主編的


Features 專題

錢幣專著共 5 部:1.《中國精製普通紀念幣圖錄》,2006 年編著,未公開出版。2.《中國普通紀念幣珍品圖錄》, 2008 年 10 月出版。3.《中國現代流通硬幣標準圖錄》, 2012 年 10 月出版。4.《現代錢幣收藏與投資》,您主編, 楊松林、李皞瑜、薛嵬副主編,2014 年 10 月出版。5.《中 國現代流通硬幣標準圖錄(第二版)》,2015 年 9 月出版。 (圖 8)請介紹一下這幾部著作的編著起因、主要內容及發 行情況。 孫克勤:我是 2006 年開始系統收藏精製流通紀念幣的, 那時收藏 1996 年以後的精製幣非常容易,但 1995 年以前

圖 7 1969 年毛澤東像伍分未發行硬幣

的精製幣收藏非常困難,市場和網上都見不到,只知道有 些品種沒有發行精製幣,具體不知道是哪些品種,也不了

2008 年,那時已經認識了程紀中老師,他是中國文物

解珍稀程度,不知道市場價格,於是開始到處搜集精製幣

鑒定委員會委員、中國錢幣學會學術委員會委員,他在收

的書籍和資料,但一無所獲。我想其他收藏者也有此困惑,

藏古錢、銀錠的同時,也收藏現代幣,並對流通紀念幣有

於是就產生了寫一本有關精製普通紀念幣的工具書供收藏

深入的研究,他認識當時北京教育出版社的編輯李利軍老

者參考的想法。我當時收藏精製幣是不計成本的,所以很

師,介紹我去出版社聯繫出版事宜。當時我想把普通紀念

快就收齊了全部品種,並且據瞭解,當時只有我一人把已

幣的四個版別全部寫進去,取名《中國普通紀念幣版別研

知的全部品種收齊了。我把寫書的想法和部分精製幣泉友

究》,後來出版社李利軍老師說如果用“研究”可能不好賣,

交流後,得到了大家的支持。當時內蒙古的黃義和特此來

因為收藏者不太重視理論,需要更為直觀的名字,後來我

北京,幫我整理資料;還有些外地泉友來北京幫我拍攝錢

改為《中國普通紀念幣珍品圖錄》。李利軍老師是北京錢

幣圖片,審核書中內容,大概用了一個多月的時間就把稿

幣學會的會員,很懂收藏,聽到這個名字以及書中內容後說:

子寫完了。這本書沒有公開出版,我在北京找了家印刷廠,

“這本書出版的價值不用討論了,我們直接談合作方式吧。”

印刷廠負責排版,共印刷了 1000 本。我從網上賣了兩年才

我傾向於出版社負責總經銷,這樣可以擴大銷售管道。這

賣完,因為當時精製普通紀念幣的收藏圈子非常小。

本書印刷了 5000 冊,兩年時間賣完。

圖 8 孫克勤編著和主編的錢幣著作

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Features 專題

2010 年,《中國普通紀念幣珍品圖錄》銷售一空,但 收藏者仍有需求,於是我找李利軍老師要求重印或再版, 但李老師已經退休,給我介紹了另一個編輯,新的編輯不 懂收藏,要求作者全部包銷,我不能接受,我沒時間去賣書。 合作沒有談成,市場是需要書的,當時沒有可以代替的書籍, 其他介紹普通紀念幣收藏的書,內容和深度相差甚遠,因 此網上開始賣《中國普通紀念幣珍品圖錄》的各種複印本、 電子版。 2012 年,上海科技出版社勵真老師通過我的博客找到 我,讓我寫一本關於流通硬幣的書,當時他在找頂尖級的 藏家,寫最權威的收藏書籍。合作方式有三種,讓我選擇, 都是由出版社總經銷。我選擇了我非常自信的、版稅與銷

圖 9 孫克勤 2014 年 10 月 7 日在中央二臺講解現代錢幣收 藏知識

售數量掛鉤的合作方式。於是把中華人民共和國成立後所 發行的所有流通硬幣品種都集中起來,寫一本目錄,取名

機製幣、一二三套人民幣紙幣、現代金銀幣來說,無論是

為《中國現代流通硬幣標準目錄》,填補了現代流通幣標

研究時間,還是所投入的人力、物力等都相差甚遠,未解

準目錄的空白,於 2012 年 10 月出版發行,印數 4250 冊,

之謎非常多,新的版別不斷被發現,因此收藏與投資都有

深受讀者歡迎,半年後於 2013 年 4 月第二次印刷了 2200

巨大機會。

本。在第二次印刷之前,盜版者發現本書暢銷,早在出版 社開印之前於 2013 年 3 月印刷了第二版。由於盜版書只賣

現在很多錢幣收藏者,認為現代流通硬幣很簡單,很

18 元,各地錢幣市場都開始改賣盜版書,淘寶 200 多家網

常見,沒有收藏價值,其實看過我的書的人,就能發現事

店同時賣盜版書,嚴重影響了正版第二次印刷的銷售。

實不是這樣的,精品很多。現代流通硬幣從 1955 年發行至 今已經有 60 年了,中國停鑄機製幣以後就開始試製、鑄造

2014 年,現代錢幣網發展壯大,流通幣、紙幣、金銀

現代流通硬幣,與機製幣基本是對接的,已經是一個錢幣

幣、小銅章全面開花結果,網站無論在學術,還是交易方

大家族了,這個大家族,在新中國經濟建設與人民生活中

面,都非常活躍,我和現代錢幣網的三位版主決定共同寫

發揮了巨大作用,在商品交換中充當一般等價物職能,已

一本《現代錢幣收藏與投資》,我任主編,另外三位版主

經留下了歷史的腳印,因此,現代流通硬幣將在中國錢幣

楊松林、李皞瑜、薛嵬任副主編,以收藏家的視角,講述

收藏中佔有重要地位,這個理念會慢慢得到更多人認可的。

這四個板塊的收藏,出版社也認為,《標準目錄》是全面 介紹錢幣知識,《收藏與投資》是講述收藏理念與投資技巧,

七 您不僅在錢幣收藏領域有獨到的眼光,而且勇於開

兩者互為補充,應該深受歡迎。2014 年 10 月,上海科技

拓,2010 年 又 創 辦 了 現 代 錢 幣 網(www.coin001.com),

出版社出版發行《現代錢幣收藏與投資》,印數 4700 冊,

彙集了全球中國現代流通硬幣和紙幣的頂級專家,全面研

2016 年 7 月第二次印刷 1200 冊。同年 10 月 7 日,中央

究和推廣中國現代錢幣。該網站已成為目前評級流通硬幣

二臺財經頻道“一槌定音”欄目播出我講解現代錢幣收藏

和評級一至三套紙幣交易的最大網站。請問您是如何創辦

知識(圖 9)。

和營運這個網站的?網站的拍賣價格能代表評級硬幣和評 級紙幣最為真實的價格嗎?

2015 年,現代流通幣版別研究不斷取得成果,新的成 果應該體現在《中國現代流通硬幣標準目錄》中,正好第

孫克勤:我是一個業餘收藏愛好者,完全是出於對現

一版的兩次印刷都已經賣完,上海科技出版社決定出版第

代錢幣的熱愛,讓玩現代幣的泉友有個可以交流的地方,

二版,印數 5200 冊。

有個可以放心交易的平臺,我來出資,由現代幣泉友一起 建個網站。最早我們本想隨便玩玩,隨着會員不斷增多,

六 中國現代流通硬幣是一塊正在開墾的處女地,在學

對網站要求越來越高,會員不斷對網站服務提出批評。批

術上有很多亟待研究的板塊和品種,在收藏和投資上有巨

評越來越多,我就下決心,要玩就讓大家玩好,於是聘請

大的機會。請您就此作以分析和預測。

程序員,改造硬體環境,還聘請專業客服,這樣就越來越 專業了。現在我們已經有了十幾人的專業團隊,網站經費

孫克勤:袁老師說的對,中國現代流通硬幣儘管我研 究了 10 年,但仍是一塊正在開墾的處女地。相比古錢幣、

66 《東亞泉志》第 10 期

還要依賴我公司主營業務補貼。


Features 專題

我是較早接受現代幣評級的,2009 年就開始送評,我

九 孫先生,我再問您一個主題外的話題,您因何對朝

覺得評級幣有利於網上交易,特別是流通幣,品相千差萬

鮮錢幣產生收藏興趣?您現在是朝鮮錢幣收藏研究會的顧

別,比如一枚 1955 年壹分,有人說八品,有人說原光,還

問,請介紹一下這個研究會的概況。您對收藏朝鮮錢幣前

有人說卷光,其實,即便是原卷拆出的卷光,如果拿去評級,

景有何預測?

有可能 64 分,也有可能 68 分,只有通過評級才能細分出 錢幣品相,並且第三方評級認證能得到大多數藏家的認可,

孫克勤:近年我通過出國參觀、講學開闊了眼界,對

所以現代流通幣評級在最近幾年發展很快,現代錢幣網的

外國錢幣產生興趣(圖 10)。我是 2015 年在現代錢幣網

拍賣 90% 以上都是評級幣,品相爭議很少。

發現有朝鮮樣幣買賣,價格非常低,流通幣樣幣每套幾十元, 貴金屬呈樣幣幾百元一枚,出於好奇,就買了一個大全套,

由於我本身收藏與研究現代流通硬幣、一二三套紙幣,

開始研究和收藏。

所以這兩個版塊的藏家在我們網站彙集得非常多,特別是 高檔評級錢幣,在現代錢幣網都能拍出理想的價格。網站

朝鮮是我國的鄰國,與我們有歷史淵源,他們一直沿

有專業版主審查拍賣,盡可能做到圖片真實、描述準確,

用着我國的儒家思想文化,又同屬社會主義國家,所以錢

同時網站監督拍賣過程,避免托價行為,所以網站的拍賣

幣上的文化、題材與我國有很大的相似性。從中國錢幣的

價格非常真實。

研究視角看待朝鮮錢幣,有很大的研究價值和趣味性。朝 鮮現在還沒有改革開放,非常封閉,人均國民生產總值不

八 請問流通幣 2017 年和 2018 年開春市場發生了哪些 變化?能否舉例說明。

足 1000 美元,屬於貧窮落後的國家,因此我認為朝鮮錢幣 包括朝鮮紙幣都有研究和收藏的價值。

孫克勤:流通幣這兩年價格發生了巨大變化,全面上

朝鮮錢幣研究會是朝鮮中央銀行的下屬組織,由鄭世

漲,主要是現代錢幣網流通幣大拍集中了人氣,吸引了大

龍和宋剛擔任會長,我和王彪是顧問。由於朝鮮人民收藏

批有實力的藏家進入,以 1986 年長城套幣為例,第一次採

錢幣人數極少,目前會員主要是中國人,有 30 多位會員。

訪時價格是 15 萬元,到了 2016 秋拍達到了 21 萬元,令 人精神一振,跨越 20 萬大關非常關鍵,提高了流通幣的名 氣。2017 年夏拍價格到了 29 萬元,2018 年春拍一下子到 了 43 萬元,兩年的時間,上漲了將近兩倍。內蒙古自治區 成立四十周年精製幣也出現了較大漲幅,從 2016 年的 9 萬 元,漲到 2018 年春拍的 22 萬元,增長幅度一倍多。受到 流通幣珍品價格的影響,幾乎所有流通幣價格都有不同幅 度的上漲。

圖 10 孫克勤 2015 年 9 月 18 日在美國長灘講課

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C

HOPMARKS – An Introductio And Some First Hand Accounts Bruce W. Smith (USA)

F

or at least 30 years there has been a small but serious group of collectors interested in coins bearing Chinese chopmarks. A chopmark consists of one or more words or symbols punched into a silver coin by a Chinese merchant or banker to indicate that he had examined it and found it to be genuine. Prior to 1990 a half dozen articles and one book had been published on the subject of chopmarks. Unfortunately the research for these works was shoddy resulting in a collection of misinformation and unverified assumptions. This article will present what little information can be verified and some first hand accounts of chopmarking in China.

We should begin by asking when did the practice of chopmarking begin in China? The earliest known reference to chopmarks in English appears in the records of the British East India Company for 1776. The company’s representative in Canton reported to the London office: “Puankhequa [a Chinese merchant] took the opportunity to acquaint us that though the merchants had settled with us last year that the lately coined Head, or Face, Spanish dollar should be received and paid with two per cent added to the weight, they had now agreed with the foreigners [other Europeans] to receive and pay 72 tales [taels] of those for one hundred dollars without any allowance for their inferior touch [purity]…… Mr. Wood begs leave to observe that were we now to agree to this proposal we should have nothing but Face dollars paid into us for bills [drawn on India or London] as they may be bought at market for two per cent less than chopped money and at least three per cent less than the new milled Mexico [dollars]……” By 1799 the custom of chopping coins was standard in the Canton area as shown by a report to London. The company representatives at Canton were trying to obtain clean dollars to send to Amboyna, an island in the Dutch East Indies recently captured by the British: “…… We apprehend difficulty in procuring even this sum at Macao of dollars that have not been chopped or otherwise mutilated, which alone are said to be current among the Eastern Islands.” Based on this information, it would seem that chopping began in China around the mid 1700’s. However, in the 1970’s a hoard of Spanish-American cobs and fractional cobs was found in Fukien province. Many of the coins, which were minted from 1640 to the 1690’s, were chopped. If this hoard was actually buried around 1700, then chopping must have been practiced at least a seventy-five years earlier than its first mention in the East India Company

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Mexico 1799 MO F.M. 1/2 Reale


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records. The Company had been trading in China since the 1630’s and should have encountered chopped coins long before 1776. In 1988 a group of fractional cobs and 8 real cobs minted in Mexico in the mid 1600’s came on the market in Hong Kong. Nine of these were illustrated in a World Coin News article of 30 May 1989 by Bob Reis. Reis believed these coins did not reach China till the late 1700’s and were chopped at that time, but it is entirely possible the coins reached China in the late 1600’s. Seattle coin dealer Scott Semans later obtained some of these pieces and offered them for sale in his pricelists. The coins contained both large and small chops. Without further information on these two groups of cobs, we can’t be certain when they were buried. They do, however, present the possibility that chopping began in the 1690’s or early 1700’s.

Peru 1696H Lima 4 Reales

The next question we should ask is where in China did chopping begin and where was it practiced? After years of studying this project, my answer is that chopping began in India and was carried to China by the Indian merchants who accompanied the British in the China trade. As its name suggests, the British East India Company was organized to develop the trade with India. Beginning with forts established along the India coast in the 1600’s and 1700’s, by the 19th century the company actually ruled large parts of India. The company’s ports in India served as a base for the China trade because prior to the 19th century the Chinese only allowed foreign traders to enter the country during a specific trading season and did not allow them to stay in the country beyond that trading period. Each year the British East India Company ships going to China took Indians along as part of the crew. As collectors of Indian coins know, silver coins had been chopped there for centuries. In fact the English word “chop” as used in chopmark, comes from the Hindi word “chhap” meaning a seal or official stamp. According to the Oxford Etymological Dictionary, the word first appeared in the English language in the 1600’s (that is, after British trade with India had been established) referring to a seal or stamp giving official approval. In the China trade the word was used with this sense (as in:”the officials put their chop on the document”) and later with the sense of a class or quality of goods. In the early 1800’s tea was classed as “first chop” or “second chop”, meaning first or second quality. Opium and silk was also classed this way for a time. The chopmark put on coins in China not only indicated the quality of the coin (good silver) but was also sometimes similar to a seal used by officials and merchants to sign documents.

Mexico 1659 P 8 Reales

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It is clear that the practice of chopping in China began in Canton. Prior to 1842 this was the only port in China open to foreign trade. While it is true that a small amount of illegal trade was carried on at some other southern coastal cities such as Amoy, Chuanchow and Changchow (all in Fukien) before 1842, most of the trading (perhaps 98%) was done at Carton. Over time, local Chinese officials developed a consortium of several officially appointed merchants to conduct the foreign trade. Known in the west as the cohong system, the arrangement proved advantageous to both sides. Foreign traders took home Chinese commodities such as tea, silk, porcelain, and lacquerware. But during the 1600’s and 1700’s, about the only commodity the Chinese wanted from the west was silver. Ships from England, Spain, Portugal, Netherlands, France, Germany, Denmark and America carried to China tons of silver – most of it produced in the mines of Spanish America.

21 Great Britain ND type II countermark, 5 Shillings

All of this silver entered China through the hands of those few cohong merchants. They probably gave each coin its first chop. Since we know the names of the cohong merchants, it may be possible to attribute a few chops appearing on coins which were chopped before 1842. The problem, of course, is knowing when the coin was chopped. One could focus on coins dated before 1800 or better still, on pillar dollars rather than portrait dollars. Hoards of chopped silver coins which were buried before 1842 would also be very useful in trying to attribute specific chops. It is also clear from accounts written in the 19th century by people who lived in China and witnessed chopping, that not only did the practice begin in Canton, but that it was carried to other parts of China (and perhaps overseas) by Cantonese merchants. More importantly, these eyewitness accounts state repeatedly that chopping was only done in certain areas south of the Yangtze River. In Shanghai and areas to the north, coins were not punched with a chop, but were marked with ink chops. This is why we often find ink chops on coins from the Kiangnan (Nanking) and Peiyang (Tientsin) mints. This is also why we seldom find coins from northern and island mints (such as Peiyang, Szechuan and Yunnan) with punched chopmarks. The coins from Kirin, which is far to the north, are sometimes found with chops because of the soybean (toufu) trade between Kirin and Fukien and other southern ports. Why then are ink chops often found on coins from Kwangtung? In the 1870’s Hong Kong sought to ban chopped coins from use in the colony, but there were too many in circulation and the ban was dropped. Later, in the early

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USA 1799 One Dollar


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years of the 20th century, chopped coins were banned in Hong Kong and merchants there resorted to ink chops. Merchants in Canton might also have turned to ink chops at that time, though I have seen no written evidence of this. Though I have seen no written evidence to support it, it is possible that Indians working with the British may have examined coins being taken to China, and chopped them. This could explain how the practice passed to the Chinese. The only evidence to suggest this (aside from the fact that the Indians had been chopping coins for centuries and that the term “chop” comes from an Indian language) is that many chops are not Chinese characters but are small geometric figures – similar to chops used in India. Such chops are found on early coins, from the 1600’s and 1700’s, and they are also found on 19th century coins, made after the East India Company ceased to operate in China. If these small geometric figure chops were made by Indians, we can explain their presence on 19th century coins by the fact that many Indians settled in Canton and Shanghai (and perhaps other coastal cities) after 1842.

China – Kiangnan Province 1901 1 Mace 4.4 Candareens

The actual testing and chopping of dollars was often done by specialists known in the west as shroffs (which is another word of Indian origin). Banks and other large firms often hired these specialists, the best of whom were said to come from the area around Shuntien, Kwangtung. Because a large counterfeiting operation functioned there for decades during the mid 1800’s, natives of that area were said to be experts in recognizing counterfeit and altered dollars. Large foreign firms and banks which operated in China after 1842 may also have chopped coins, though they might not have known about it. Most foreign firms in China hired a Chinese manager known as a compradore, who acted as intermediary between the foreign merchants and other Chinese. The compradore would make arrangements for supplies, often negotiate deals, and hire the Chinese staff including a shroff if necessary. The compradore was personally responsible for much of the day to day operations of a foreign firm, including the genuiness of dollars which the company took in. It is possible that shroffs hired by compradores acting of behalf of a foreign firm may have chopped coins in the name of the foreign firm. This might explain the western letters sometimes seen chopped on silver coins. However, I have seen no written evidence of this.

Guatemala 1894 One Peso

Some collectors claim that small chops were used in areas outside of China and that big chops are those applied in China. I have never seen a shred of evidence to support this claim, and I have yet to see any written evidence

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that chopping was actually done anywhere outside of China. I suspect that Cantonese merchants who settled in such places as Thailand, Malaya, the Philippines and the East Indies may have chopped coins there, but the evidence is lacking. The following account was written by Lt. Frederick E. Forbes (British Royal Navy) in his book “Five Years In China”, published in 1848. Forbes was in China from 1842 to 1847 (during which time he formed a collection of Chinese coins), and this passage is about a visit to a Chinese bank in Ningpo, Chekiang in early 1846. His friend, an English merchant, wanted to cash a Chinese bank draft of several hundred dollars face value, but only wanted to take 100 dollars at a time. “My friend did not ask in vain to be allowed to take only one hundred dollars at a time, the sum taken being each time marked on the order. As soon as he had specified the quantity required, four men took positions at a small table near a huge iron-studded strong box, which was no sooner opened, than, for a minute or two, each had his employment; one counted, a second cleaned off old marks, a third renewed, with an Indian ink stamp, the seal of the bank, while a fourth, with blotting paper, dried it. The object of stamping was, in the case of any being spurious on being presented with the house stamp thereon, for them to be changed; of course this never happened; while on the other hand, it deterred any artful person from bringing bad money to the bank on pretense that it had been drawn there from.”

Mexico 1879 AS D.L. 8 Reales

This is an important passage, which tells us that chopping not only benefitted the banker (since he wouldn’t have to test a coin again if he could find his chop on it), but also protected the customer, who had the right to return a dollar that later turned out not to be genuine. This account also tells us that ink chops were being used as early as 1846 and that apparently coins weren’t punch chopped in Ningpo, which is in southern China. The next account, written by Frank G. Carpenter, was published in the Boston Sunday Globe and reprinted in Bankers Magazine of October 1894. Carpenter either lived in or visited China several times during the early 1890’s. He describes seeing cash coins being made by machinery at the Nanking mint and also at the Canton mint. About chopping (apparently in Shanghai) he says: “The banker stamps with his private seal every piece of silver he pays out, and even the Mexican dollars are marked thus with India ink. Every big bank or company has a man who takes all of the silver dollars that come in and fits them into holes made in a board, so that when they lie in them their surface

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Spanish Philippines 1897 One Peso


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is just level with the board. He then takes a brush and water and washes them as white and clean as though they had just come from the mint. He now stamps his chop on each of them, and this means that he guarantees their payment.” Quite another type of chopping was reported in the Shanghai newspaper, North China Herald, for 30 October 1896. “A week ago a proclamation which had been sent from Wuchang [Hupeh province] was issued in the city. The information given was to the effect that silver dollars and smaller coins were now to be put into circulation in this city [Nganlufu, Hupeh], and also that a dollar will be of a fixed value, i.e. one thousand cash, as the money is now issued by order of the viceroy, and not any private bank or individual. If, however, a change in the value of silver should take place, the people would be duly informed and the value of the dollar fixed accordingly. The public are duly warned against spurious coins, and if anyone should happen to have any dollars which he suspects as being bad, he may take them to the government office which is to be opened, on the street, and on payment of two cash for each coin, they will be tested and stamped.”

China – Hupeh Province 1895 7 Mace 2 Candareens

The coin this news item refers to is the Hupeh dragon dollar, first minted in 1895. Since the provincial government arranged for this public testing, the stamp might be considered a counterstamp rather than a chop. The Chinese Imperial Maritime Customs annual report for 1910 for the port of Wenchow, Chekiang says that vast numbers of chopped dollars entered that city every year but would not circulate there and were sent away. Only clean (unchopped) Mexican dollars would circulate. This tells us that chopping was not done in this city even though it is in South China. The passage quoted above told us that chopping was not practiced in Ningpo, another important city in Chekiang province. From 1802 onward, and especially after 1842, British consular officials living in various parts of China sent numerous reports on conditions in China back to London. These reports were collected and published in a long series of very large volumes known as the British Parliamentary Papers. The China series fills at least 41 volumes covering the years 1802 to 1899, arranged by general subjects. Volumes 36 through 40 cover trade with China and contain a wealth of information on currency in use there (Chinese coins, Chinese paper money, and foreign coins). Volume 39 page 50 contains a report made in 1856 on counterfeiting methods in China, including the names of various types of chopped or debased dollars. The report mentions both large and small chopmarks, but unfortunately I did not make a copy of the report. I found this set in the library of Washington University in St. Louis, Missouri and it can probably be found in other university libraries. There are other sets of British Parliamentary Papers covering conditions in other countries.

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戳記略談及相關第一手資料 史博祿(美國)

至少三十年來,有一小群嚴謹的錢幣收藏家對帶有中國戳記的錢幣很有興趣。戳記是由一個或者多個字或符 號組成。中國的商人或銀行家將這個戳記加蓋在銀幣上,表明他已鑒定過這枚銀幣為真品。在 1990 年之前,已 經發表了關於戳記的 6 篇文章和一本書。可惜這些作品的研究內容都是粗製濫造的,產生了一批錯誤資訊和未 經證實的假設。本文將介紹僅有的一些被證實的資訊,和一些關於中國錢幣戳記的第一手資料。

首先我們應該問,中國何時開始在錢幣上加蓋戳記?已知最早提到戳記的 英文文獻是 1776 年英國東印度公司的報告。該公司 在廣州的代表處向倫敦辦事處報告: 一名中國商人潘啟官(Puankhequa)有 一次告訴我們,雖然去年商人們已和我們 商量,將最近鑄有面像的西班牙銀元,按 支付時重量增加 2% 的辦法解決。現在他

們和外國人(其他歐洲人)談妥,支付時 100 元作 72 兩算,不需補交低成色補貼……

伍德先生懇請我們注意,“如果我們現在同 意這個提議,我們將毫無所獲,他們可以在市場 購買價值可能低於戳記幣 2%,低於新鑄造的墨西哥

銀元至少 3% 的面相銀元(西班牙銀元)來付還我們的票據(由 印度或倫敦簽發的)……

墨西哥 1799 年 MO F.M. 1/2 裡亞爾銀幣

在向倫敦呈交的一份報告中顯示,到 1799 年在廣州地區銀元加蓋戳記的 習俗已成慣例。英國東印度公司在廣州的代表處設法獲得無戳記的銀元,並運 到荷屬東印度群島(最近被英國人佔領)的安得拿島: ……我們知道,即使在澳門,這些尚未加蓋戳記(否則 就是殘損幣)的銀元也是很難獲得的,據說這些銀元 僅在東部群島流通。 根據這些資訊,大約在 18 世紀中葉,中 國似乎便開始在錢幣上加蓋戳記。然而,在 20 世紀 70 年代,在福建省有一批西屬美洲 的塊幣和輔幣被發現。其中,從 1640 年到 1690 年代鑄造的許多錢幣都有戳記。如果這 批錢幣實際上是在 1700 年左右被埋藏的,那 麼加蓋戳記的時間應該比東印度公司報告中第一次 提到的時間至少早 75 年。從 17 世紀 30 年代以來東印度 公司一直在中國進行貿易,早在 1776 年之前就應該已經見過戳記幣。 17 世紀中葉在墨西哥鑄造的一批 8 裡亞爾大銀幣和銀輔幣於 1988 年出 現在香港的錢幣市場。鮑勃·雷斯(Bob Reis)於 1989 年 5 月 30 日發表在

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秘魯 1696 年利馬四裡亞爾銀幣


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《世界錢幣新聞》雜誌上的一篇文章中描述了其中 9 枚。雷斯認為直到 18 世 紀末這些錢幣才流入中國,並在那時被加蓋戳記,但這些錢幣也完全有可能在 17 世紀末流入中國。西雅圖的錢幣經銷商斯科特·塞曼斯(Scott Semans) 後來獲得其中一些錢幣,並將它們列在他的價目表上出售。這些錢 幣上大小戳記都有。 沒有關於這兩組錢幣的更多資訊,我們不 能確定它們是何時被埋藏的。然而,它們確實 表明了錢幣加蓋戳記始於 17 世紀 90 年代或 18 世紀初的可能性。 我們應該問的下一個問題是,錢幣戳記在 中國哪裡開始,又在哪裡試行?經過多年對戳記 的研究,我的答案是錢幣加蓋戳記是始於印度,並 由隨同英國人前來中國貿易的印度商人帶入中國。顧 名思義,英國東印度公司就是英國為了發展與印度的貿 易而組建起來的。從 17 世紀和 18 世紀在印度沿岸建立的堡壘開始,到 19 世紀, 該公司實際上統治了印度的大部分地區。該公司在印度的港口是對華貿易的基 地,因為在 19 世紀以前,中國人只允許外國商人在特定的貿易季節進入中國,

墨西哥 1659 年 8 裏亞爾銀幣

並且除了貿易季節以外,不允許他們留在中國。每年英國東印度公司駛向中國 的船上部分船員是印度人。正如印度錢幣收藏家所知道的那樣,銀幣在印度被 加蓋戳記已經有好幾個世紀了。 事實上,戳記中使用的英文單詞“chop”來自印地語單詞“chhap”, 意 思 是 印 章 或 公 章。 根 據《 牛 津 詞 源 學 詞 典 》(Oxford Etymological Dictionary),這個詞在 17 世紀首次出現在英語中(也就是英國與印度的貿 易建立之後),指的是印章或官方認可的標誌。在中國 的貿易中,這個詞被用在這個意義上(例如:“官 員在檔上加蓋印章”),後來又表示商品等級 或品質的意義。在 19 世紀初,茶被分為“一 等品”或“二等品”,即一等或二等品質。 有一段時間,鴉片和絲綢也曾被這樣分類。 中國硬幣上的戳記不僅表示硬幣(品相好 的銀幣)的品質,而且有時也與官商簽署檔 的印章相似。 顯然,中國錢幣戳記是在廣州開始的。1842 年以前,這是中國唯一開放的對外貿易港口。儘管在 1842 年以前,在廈門、泉州和漳州等一些其他南方沿海城市(全 部在福建)確實有少量的非法貿易,但大部分(也許 98%)都是在廣州進行 的。隨着時間的推移,中國地方官員正式任命了幾名商人組成財團,辦理對外 貿易業務。在西方被稱為行商體系,這種安排被證明對貿易雙方都有利。外商

大不列顛帝國類型二戳記硬幣 (無日期):5 先令 銀元

將中國的商品如茶葉、絲綢、瓷器和漆器帶回國。但在 17 世紀和 18 世紀年間, 中國人想要的唯一的西方商品就是白銀。來自英國、西班牙、葡萄牙、荷蘭、 法國、德國、丹麥和美國的船舶向中國輸送了數噸的白銀,其中大部分是在西 屬美洲的礦山生產的。

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所有這些銀元都是通過少數行商帶入中國的。他們可能在每個錢幣上加蓋 了第一個戳記。由於我們知道這些行商的名字,錢幣上 1842 年之前加蓋的幾 個戳記有可能就是出自這些行商之手。當然,問題是瞭解這些錢幣何時被加 蓋了戳記?人們可以關注 1800 年以前鑄造的錢幣,如果 能注意到雙柱銀元而不是人像銀元,那就更好了。 1842 年之前埋藏的大量的戳記銀幣對確定特殊 戳記的年代也是非常有用的。 從 19 世紀住在中國並看到加蓋戳記的 人們的記述中也可以瞭解到,加蓋戳記不 僅在廣州開始實行,而且由廣州的商人帶 到中國的其他地方(或許還有海外)。更重 要的是,這些見證者在記述中反復陳述,只 在長江以南的某些地區才在錢幣上加蓋戳記。 在上海和北方的地區,錢幣上不蓋硬戳,而是加蓋 墨戳(軟戳)。這就是為什麼我們經常在江南造幣廠(南京) 和北洋造幣廠(天津)鑄造的錢幣上發現墨戳的原因。這也是為什麼我們很少 從北方和內陸造幣廠(如北洋、四川和雲南) 發現硬戳幣的原因。麒麟集團(Kirin)

1799 年美國 1 圓銀元

位於遙遠的北方,因與福建等南方港口之間有大豆貿易,有時會發現他們的錢 幣上有戳記。 那為什麼廣東的錢幣上經常會出現墨戳呢? 在 19 世紀 70 年代,香港試 圖禁止在該殖民地使用戳記幣,但由於發行量過多,禁令被撤銷。後來在 20 世紀早期,在香港硬戳幣被禁止使用,商人們轉而使用墨戳(軟戳)。當時廣 州的商人也可能轉而使用墨戳,儘管我還沒有看到這方面的書面證據。 雖然我沒有看到任何書面證據支持上述推論,但 與英國人共事的印度人可能已鑒定了帶入中國的 錢幣,並將其加蓋戳記,這是有可能的。這可 以解釋錢幣加蓋戳記這一做法是如何傳給中 國人的。唯一可以證明這一點的證據是(除 了幾個世紀以來印度人一直在錢幣上加蓋 戳記,以及“Chop”這個詞來自於印度語 這一事實),許多戳記並不是中國字,而是 小的幾何圖形——類似於在印度使用的戳記。 這種戳記是在 17 世紀和 18 世紀早期的錢幣上 發現的,而且在東印度公司結束在中國的運營之後, 於 19 世紀鑄造的錢幣上也可以發現。如果這些小小的 幾何圖形戳記是印度人加蓋的,那麼我們可以通過 1842 年以後許多印度人定 居在廣州和上海(或許還有其他沿海城市)的事實來解釋 19 世紀錢幣上出現 的戳記。 西方稱之為貨幣鑒定人(shroffs 印度裔的另一個詞)的專家辨別銀元真 假並加蓋戳記。銀行和其他大公司經常聘請這些專家,據說他們中最資深的一 位來自廣東順田周邊地區。因為在 19 世紀中葉年間,有一個大假幣集團在那 裡經營了數十年,據說該地區的當地人是辨別偽造、變造銀元的專家。

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1901 年江南省造庫平一錢四分四釐銀元


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1842 年之後在中國經營的大型外國公司和銀行也可能有戳記幣,雖然他 們可能還不知道。大多數在中國經營的外國公司都聘請了一位中國的經理人, 被稱為買辦,擔任外商和其他中國商人的中間人。買辦安排供貨,經常洽談生 意,必要時雇傭中國員工,包括貨幣鑒定人。買辦獨自負 責一個外國公司的大部分日常業務,包括對公司所 收取的銀元的真實性鑒定。可能是由買辦聘請的 代表外國公司的貨幣鑒定人以外國公司的名義 給錢幣加蓋了戳記。這也許解釋了人們有時 看到銀元上有西方字母戳記的原因。但是, 我沒有看到這方面的書面證據。 一些收藏家聲稱,在中國以外的地區使 用小戳記,在中國使用的是大戳記。我從來沒 有看到有絲毫證據支持這一說法,而且我還沒有 看到任何書面證據表明戳記實際上是在中國以外的 地方加蓋的。我猜想住在泰國、馬來亞、菲律賓和東印度 等地的廣州商人可能已經在那裡給錢幣加蓋了戳記,但是證據不足。

1984 年危地馬拉 1 比索銀幣

出版於 1848 年的遊記《在中國的五年:1842-1847》一書中,英國皇家 海軍中尉弗雷德里克·E·福布斯(Frederick E. Forbes)寫了下面這段話。 福布斯於 1842 年到 1847 年間在中國(在此期間他收藏了很多中國錢幣), 這段話是關於 1846 年初他去浙江寧波的一家中資銀行的見聞。他的一位英國 商人朋友想要兌現一張面值幾百銀元的中國銀行匯票,但是一次只想拿 100 銀元。 我的朋友沒有再徒勞地請求允許一次只拿一百銀元,每次拿走的銀元數額 都記在一張單子上。他一說明所需的數額,有四名員工 就來到一個小桌子旁,旁邊有一個巨大的釘有鐵 釘的保險箱。這個箱子剛一打開,一兩分鐘內 每個人就有了各自的工作。一個人計數,第 二個人清除舊標記,第三個人用銀行的印章 (印度的墨章)重新加蓋,而第四個人用 吸墨紙將浮在表面的墨水吸幹。這種蓋印 的目的是如果發現有任何偽造的錢幣上蓋 有機構印章,那就要更換。當然這從來沒有 發生過 ; 另一方面它阻止了任何狡猾的人將劣

幣帶到銀行,還假裝這些錢幣是從這裡支取的。 這是一個重要的通行許可辦法,它告訴我們,加蓋戳記不僅有利於銀行家 (因為如果他能在錢幣上找到他加蓋的戳記,就不必再鑒定一次錢幣),而且 保護了客戶,客戶有權退回後來被證明為假幣的錢幣。這個資料還告訴我們,

1879 年墨西哥 8 裡亞爾銀幣

早在 1846 年就有人在使用墨章,而顯然錢幣上的硬戳並不是在中國南方寧波 加蓋的。 下一篇由弗蘭克·G·卡彭特(Frank G. Carpenter)撰寫的論文發表在《波 士頓星期日環球報》上,並在 1894 年 10 月的《銀行家雜誌》上轉載。19 世

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紀 90 年代早期卡彭特曾多次旅居或者訪問過中國。他描述了在南京造幣廠和 廣州造幣廠看到的機製銅錢。關於加蓋戳記(顯然在上海)他說: 銀行家用他的私人印章在其支付的每一枚銀元上蓋上戳 印,甚至在墨西哥銀元上用印度墨章加蓋。每個大銀 行或公司都有一個員工,把所有收進來的銀元都 裝進一個木板的許多孔中,這樣放進去的時候 它們的頂端就和木板平齊。然後,他拿起刷 子和水,把它們清洗得又白又乾淨,好像 剛從造幣廠拿出來一樣。現在他在每個錢 幣上都加蓋戳印,這意味著他擔保這些錢 可以用於支付。 1896 年 10 月 30 日上海《華北先驅報》報 道了完全不同的另一種錢幣戳記。 一周前,武昌(湖北省)發的一個聲明也在此地發表了。所得到的消息, 其大意是,現在銀元和小錢都可以在此地(湖北省安陸府)流通,而且一個銀 元將有固定的價值,即一千文銅錢,因為現在錢是按照總督的命令發行,而不

1897 年西班牙菲律賓 1 比索銀幣

是任何私營銀行或者個人。但是,如果白銀的價值發生變化,那麼會及時通知 人們,新確定的銀元價值。公眾得到適時的警告,要拒絕偽造的銀元,如果任 何人有任何疑是劣質的銀元,都可以把它們帶到街上即將敞開的政府辦公室, 每一枚劣質銀元換兩枚銅錢,而且它們會被鑒定並蓋上戳記。 這個消息中所指的錢幣是 1895 年首次鑄造的湖北龍銀。由省政府安排了 這次公開鑒定,這個戳記被認為可能是二次加蓋的戳記而不是一個戳記。 中國大清皇家海關在 1910 年浙江溫州港口的年 度報告中說,每年流入溫州的大量戳記銀元, 不在這裡流通,都被運走。只有未加蓋戳記 的墨西哥銀元才會被用於流通。這告訴我們, 即使在華南溫州,錢幣也沒有被加蓋戳記。 上面引用的那段話告訴我們,在浙江省的 另一個重要的城市寧波,錢幣也沒有被加 蓋硬戳。 從 1802 年起,特別是 1842 年以後,住在 中國各地的英國領事官員紛紛就中國的情況向倫敦 發回很多報告。這些報告被收集並發表在一部很多卷的長 篇叢書《英國議會檔集》裡。關於中國的篇幅至少有 41 卷,涵蓋了 1802 年 至 1899 年間的一般主題。第 36 至 40 卷涵蓋了英國與中國的貿易,包括在中 國使用的貨幣(中國硬幣、中國紙幣和外國錢幣)的大量資訊。第 39 卷第 50 頁載有一篇 1856 年的關於中國偽造錢幣方法的報告,包括各種類型的戳記幣 或劣質幣的名稱。報告中提到了大小戳記,但可惜的是我沒有這個報告的副本。 我在密蘇里州聖路易斯的華盛頓大學圖書館發現了這套叢書,大概在其他大學 圖書館也可以找到。《英國議會檔集》其餘篇幅報道了其他國家的情況。

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1895 年湖北省造庫平七錢二分銀元


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An Introduction to Siam Gambling Tokens Bruce W. Smith (USA) Most collectors have seen the colorful porcelain gambling tokens used in Thailand. Twenty years ago these tokens were so common and cheap in the United States that they were sold by the hundred, usually for around 25 cents each. Today one seldom finds a dealer with a hundred pieces and renewed collector interest has pushed the price of these tokens up above two dollars each. One reason for the earlier lack of interest in this series was the lack of information about the tokens. Because they were privately issued by gambling houses, there are few if any records concerning the tokens. Even their date of issue and the place of their issue within Thailand is unknown. The only literature on these tokens consists of a couple dozen or so articles, many of them based on hearsay and speculation, and Henry Ramsden’s 1911 catalog, “Siamese Porcelain and Other Tokens”. Ramsden’s introduction to the series, though brief, is fairly good, being based on articles by Haas and

The Issuers The reason for their issue seems clear. First during most of the 19th century the Thai government issued

Schlegel, written while the tokens were still in use or shortly afterward. This article is based on my examination of about 15,000 Siam tokens from which I have recorded about 4,000 different pieces, on first hand information written during the 19th century, and on historical and ethnographic works written during the 20th century. A fuller account of the subject will appear, soon I hope, in my catalog of Siam tokens.

only spherical silver “bullet” coins. When gamblers threw such coins down, they rolled in every direction, disrupting the game. Moreover, the value of the silver coins was too high for most of the gamblers, who were

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ordinary peasants. The answer was a low denomination flat token. Porcelain was probably chosen over metal because metal casting technology, especially for religious purposes, was widely available in Thailand while a porcelain industry did not exist in the country in the early 19th century. Counterfeiting of porcelain tokens would have been more difficult than counterfeiting of metal tokens. This was important because the tokens gradually began to circulate outside the gambling houses and for a time were the real money of everyday use by the common people. To understand who issued these tokens, a few words must be said about the tax farming system in Thailand. As in other East Asian countries, the Thai government in the 19th century often did not collect certain taxes directly but rather appointed or sold the right to collect specific taxes to various individuals. The person who purchased the right to collect a certain tax was obligated to provide a specific predetermined amount of money (or commodity) to the government by the end of his contract period. This was called “farming out the tax collecting” and those who engaged in this activity were called “tax farmers”. The gambling house system in Thailand was one of these tax farms (the lottery was another). Each year (some say every three years) bids were accepted for the right to operate the gambling monopoly for the next period. Although the details are not clear, apparently each town or district was a separate monopoly, and one individual purchased the right to operate all the gambling houses in that place for the period of the contract (or license). The high bidders were always ethnic Chinese who lived in Thailand, which is why nearly all the tokens

Place of Issue Exactly where the tokens were used is not clear. From reading eyewitness accounts, gambling houses apparently existed throughout the country. Of the 4,000 different tokens I have recorded, only one set (consisting of two pieces) has a place name in Thailand. This remarkable token, recorded in Ramsden’s catalog as number 122, has the place name not in Chinese or Thai, but in western letters: NACCONCHAISEI. Ramsden guessed that this was a place name, but didn’t pursue the matter. During the 19th century, Nachonchaisei, located about 30 miles west of Bangkok, was populated mainly by Chinese who controlled the sugar cane business

80 《東亞泉志》第 10 期

are inscribed in Chinese rather than in Thai. Whatever profits the gambling house made above the amount pledged to the government, was the net profit of the tax farmer. The amount of the net profits were kept secret (which would give the current tax farmer an advantage when bidding to retain his “farm”) but were said to have been substantial. Individual tax farmers usually held their farm for several terms and sometimes held farms in two or more places at the same time. The gambling houses were operated under a company name of “hong” name, not under the name of the tax farmer. The word “hong” 行 (pronounced “hang” in standard Chinese, as in “yin hang” meaning “bank”) is a generic term simply meaning a firm or company, but I don’t recall ever seeing used on a token. The term used on the tokens is usually “hong si” 公司 (“kung ssu” in standard Chinese; pinyin “gongsi”) or “chi” 記 (pinyin “ji”), though on most tokens these terms are omitted. Thus a token inscribed “X Y 公司 ” and one inscribed just “X Y”, are different forms of the same name, and were most likely issued by the same firm (especially if the style is similar). So far I have recorded between 500 and 1000 different “hongs” or firm names on the tokens, and this is the only sensible way to catalog them. The term “kong si” has an additional significance and meaning. In Thailand and Malaya the term was used in the names of various secret societies. According to G W. Skinner’s study of the Chinese in Thailand, secret societies there were often able to obtain a gambling farm either by pooling the resources of its members or by terrorizing the other bidders. Whether all the tokens with “kong si” were issued by secret societies, we can not say.

centered there. The tow was largely destroyed during a mid 19th century uprising and has apparently been abandoned. It no longer appears on maps. Ironically, the only Siam token which can be attributed to a place, is from a ghost town. In an 1894 articlw in The Numismatist, John Brudin attributed a token inscribed 達遂 (“Ta Sui” in standard Chinese; “da sui” in pinyin) to an island called Kohsichag in the Gulf of Siam. Unfortunately we don’t know on what basis he made this attribution. This token, which comes in both porcelain and copper, is fairly common today. About a dozen other place names appear on various tokens, but these are all places in China, not Thailan.


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Dating the Tokens Exactly when the tokens were used is also unclear. According to Thai records, shortly before the Burmese army destroyed Ayuthia, the old capitol of Siam in the 1760’s, a special clay token was put into circulation, probably in the capitol. Haas believed this to be the origin of the Thai gambling tokens. Although the gambling tax farm system already existed at that time (the father of Taksin. The Chinese hero who drove the Burmese out of Thailand, held a gambling concession in the old capitol), this clay conage was apparently issued by the government, not the gambling houses. Schlegel dated the first gambling house tokens to the 1820’s based on information from a Mr. Hamel. Accounting to Thai records, in the 1820’s a reform and expansion of the tax farming system took place. It is not clear, however, whether the tokens were introduced at that time or whether they were already in use. Most of the articles published on Siam tokens mention the 1875 government prohibition on them. Some take this date as the end of their use and production, while others, such as Ramsden, state that the tokens circulated long after the prohibition of 1875. There was, in fact, a government prohibition on the circulation of these tokens, but not on their production or use in the gambling houses. The purpose of the government edict was to facilitate the circulation of the government’s first flat coinage introduced in 1962 and again in 1874. The tokens themselves provide some evidence of when they were in use, but that evidence is not entirely clear. There is, for example a porcelain token with no hong name but which copies the Burmese peacock coins of 1852. we can be certain that this token was made no earlier than that year, but there is no way of knowing how much later it was made. The same may be said for a set of tokens which copies the Queen Victoria portrait used on Indian coins from 1862 onward (Ramsden 17 and 18). The Indian coins circulated in Burma and perhaps into Thailand (or perhaps both these tokens are really from Burma). There is also a series of porcelain tokens without hong names which bear the names of Chinese emperors of the Ch’ing dynasty (sometimes copying coins issued by those

rulers). Those with the names of Tao Kuang (ruled 18211850), Hsien Feng (ruled 1851-1861), and T’ung Chih (1862-1874) may well have been issued during the reigns of those emperors. There is, however, a piece for K’ang His who ruled from 1662-1722. It is extremely unlikely that this token was make during those years and the existence of such a piece suggests that others may exist for Shun Chih (ruled 1644-1661), Yung Cheng (17231735), Ch’ien Lung (1736-1795) and Chia Ching (17961820). The last Chinese ruler for whom a token was issued is Kuang Hsu who ruled from 1875 to 1908. this piece suggests that tokens continued to be made after the 1875 ban on their circulation. No token has been found with the name of the last Chinese emperor, Hsuan T’ung (1909-1911), which suggests that by 1909 tokens were no longer being made. Still another series of tokens are actually dated. Unfortunately the dates are given in the characters for the 60 year cycle later used on China’s machine struck coins. Ramsden lists four such pieces (# 8, 85, 237 and 326), though all his dates are off by one year. The problem is that we can’t be sure which cycle the date refers to. Eliminating the 18th century dates, the known dates appearing on the tokens are: 辛酉 Hsin Yu (1801/1861), 壬戌 Jen Hsiu (1802/1862), 甲戌 Chia Hsu (1814/1874), and 丙戌 Ping Hsu (1826/1886). If we accept Schlegel’s contention that the tokens were first issued in the 1820’s, then the first two tokens must have been made in the 1860’s and the third in 1874. The last piece, however, is a real mystery. It could be one of the first tokens issued, or it could be one of the last! The only token that can be dated with any precision is another piece with no hong name, made in imitation of a Chinese cash coin, and inscribed: 光緒元年 “Kuang Hsu Yuan Nien”, meaning “First year of Emperor Kuang Hsu” (1875). Around the turn of the century, the Thai government determined to put an end to the gambling industry and the evils that followed it (poverty and slavery). By government decree, in 1907 gambling was prohibited everywhere in the country except Bangkok. Finally in 1917 gambling was prohibited in Bangkok as well. This was probable the final end of the tokens, if they were still in use.

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Denominations Ramsden’s 1911 catalog has a chart giving ten different denominations which appear on the tokens. In fact one can find about two dozen different denominations expressed on the tokens. Why so many values? The reason is that at least three different monetary systems are involved. The first includes tokens with seemingly high values such as 100, 200 and 400. These represent amounts in cowrie shells, which were the lowest value “currency” in use before the gambling tokens appeared. Sometimes the monetary unit, 巴 “ba”, is also used (as in 四百巴 400 ba). Then there are values such as 5 fen, 2.5 fen, 1.25 fen and 6.25 li (that is, 0.625 fen). These must represent amounts in silver. Some tokens actually have the words “silver” or “gold” as part of the denomination. Some pieces have denominations such as 百文 100 wen or 二百文 200 wen. These may represent amounts of cash coins, and be yet another system. The most

Inscriptions The inscriptions on Siamese gambling tokens usually consist of the name of the hong on one side and the denomination on the other, but there are numerous variations on this plan. The inscriptions may be raised up (and either colored or plain white) or carved into the porcelain (probably using a punch or mold) and then colored or sometimes simply painted on by hand. The usual colors for the inscriptions are blue or black. Red inscriptions are uncommon and most green inscriptions are rare. Sometimes the name of the hong is hidden in the design. One or more of the characters may be abbreviated or written in seal script. Sometimes the denomination appears on the obverse as part of the inscription. Sometimes the reverse is completely blank and sometimes the token contains no hong name at all. Some tokens contain no inscriptions at all aside from the denomination, and sometimes even that is lacking. A few pieces have two different denominations, seemingly indicating the two were equal to each other. One of the most remarkable discoveries concerning the tokens was first published in the 1980’s by the Dutch collector Mr.G.Hollink. He found that a number of different sets actually state the number of pieces which were produced (Ramsden 222)! All but one of these had mintages between 2,000 and 6,000 pieces. The one exception is an amazing piece (Ramsden 295) which

82 《東亞泉志》第 10 期

common denominations used on the tokens, however, are Siamese currency terms such as salung 錢 , fuang 方 , and song pei 宋派 . The salung and fuang are the highest denominations used on the tokens, and they are also the most common denominations seen today. The salung was one fourthof a baht or tica; the fuang was half a salung; and the song pei was half of a fuang. Some of the denominations were written in more than one way. The salung was expressed in at least half a dozen different ways. Sometimes the terms were abbreviated or written in a cursive form. The salung and fuang could also be written symbolicly, by placing the Thai numeral one in one of the four quadrants of a cross. Thai numerals or words were also sometimes used to express the value, and even Chinese commercial numerals were used. The subject of denominations on Siamese tokens is more complex than Ramsden’s chart suggests.

names its place of manufacture (in Kwangtung, China) in addition to its mintage (10,000 pieces). It has long been suspected that most of the porcelain tokens were actually manufactured in China. This piece and a similar piece from a different hong provide the first real evidence to support this belief. Hollink also noted that some tokens have serial numbers, individually painted on by hand (Ramsen 326)! After reading Hollink’s article I recorded the serial numbers on perhaps a hundred tokens from a dozen different hongs. The highest number I found was in the 5100’s, but for most hongs, the numbers were under 3,000. All of this suggests that the usual number of tokens minted was 2,000 to 6,000 pieces. There is a series of tokens or perhaps several series which have no hong name but have instead lines of poetry. These inscriptions usually consist of either four or seven characters. It isn’t known yet whether the different denominations in a set contain different lines of the same poem or whether they each have a line from a poem. These poem tokens tend to be much scarcer than ordinary gambling tokens. Ramsden records a number of these pieces (94, 100-102, 172, 196, 234, 269, 270, 332 and 333). Some tokens contain the word “pi” (Siamese “pee”) in their inscriptions. This word, written in several different ways ( 秘 , 庇 , 鉍 , and also 金比 written as one character), is the Siamese term for these tokens. A few tokens have words written in western letters and one


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has the value in western numbers. The most common tokens with western letters are those issued by the hong T’ai An with “KEE” (Ramsden 148) and those issued by the hong Yu Fa with YOOWHADEKONGSEE above and NACCCONCHAISEI below (Ramsden 122). The upper inscription is simply the name of the firm sounded out in western letters: YOO WHA (must be the local pronunciation of “fa”) DE (a possessive) KONG SEE (kongsi or company). The lower inscription is a town west of Bangkok. There are a few tokens with Thai letters instead of or in addition to Chinese characters. The most commonly seen examples are those issued by Ts’ai Sheng (with hong name only in Thai except for one value which has the Chinese characters as a colorless chop; Ramsden 100-101), those by Ho Hsing (Ramsden 319-321, which have only Thai letters, not words), and those issued by Yuan Ch’ang (Ramsden 96; which has the hong name in Chinese and Thai).

of which is repeated. For hundreds of years this work was memorized by children to expand their vocabulary. Because everyone had memorized it, the characters eventually came to be used as numbers. Examples of this are seen non Korean cash coins (which use these characters as numbers) and Ch’ing dynasty government notes issued during the Taiping rebellion (which use the characters as code words before the serial number). What is particularly banned at the beginning of the K’ang His reign (1662) because it was used in the emperor’s name, and could not be used anywhere in China during the remainder of the Ch’ing dynasty. (it was replaced by the word “yuan” 元 ). This means that either the token was issued after the end of the Ch’ing dynasty (1911) or the ban was ignored in Thailand.

Another unusual set is that inscribed “Yi Pen Wan Li” 一 本萬利 . This isn’t the name of a hong, but rather a good luck wish meaning “beginning with one may you obtain a huge profit”; quite appropriate for a gambling token. Another odd inscription is “T’ien Ti Hsuan Huang” 天地 玄黃 . This too is not the name of a hong though it may indicate a hong controlled by a secret society. These are the first four characters of a work called “Ch’ien Tzu Wen” 千字文 (The Thousand Character Classic), which is p poem exactly one thousand characters long, not one

Two other remarkable inscriptions both contain place names. The first is inscribed simply “Hsien Lo” 暹羅 . This was the Chinese name for Siam! The second has “Kuang Tung Kuo Pao” 廣東國寶 , meaning “National coin of Kwangtung(China)”! It is unlikely that either of these is a hong name. Having noticed these two tokens with place names, I began to look for others and discovered tokens with the names of more than a dozen places in China. This might have been a coincidence, except that all the places are in the vicinity of Swatow, Kwangtung – the area from which most of the Chinese in Thailand originated. Apparently either immigrating Chinese named towns in Thailand after their hometowns in China or the owners of those gambling houses named them after their own hometowns.

Collecting Siam Tokens

collection of about 25 different pieces, some of which are difficult to find.

Having introduced the subject of Siam gambling tokens, a few words should be said on ways to collect them. In the past collectors seem to have had no method or goal to their collecting of the tokens. I would like to suggest two methods. The first is collect them topically. The tokens are known in at least 20 different shapes. One could begin by collecting one of each shape. Round and eight-sided are the most common shapes (eight is a lucky number in the far east), but one can also find oval, square, rectangular, five-sided, six-sided, seven-sided (I know of only one example), scalloped, pillow-shaped, flower-shaped, and in the shapes of a fan, a bottle, a leaf, a peach, a butterfly, a kite, a bird, two fish, a squid, a scroll, a vase, a six or eight pointed star, a diamond or a Chinese cash coin. One could also begin by collecting one token of each denomination. This would produce a

One could also collect animals or plants which appear on the tokens. Animals include a cat, tiger, horse, bat, various types of birds, the fu lion-dog, monkey, chicken, elephant, fish, rabbit, frog, peacock, crab, lizard, shrimp, butterfly, deer, spider, other insects and dragons. Many of these are zodiacal animals. The most commonly used animals are the tiger, crab, and shrimp. The spider and frog (both considered poisonous in China) are some of the rarest. A number of human figures appear on these tokens. Some are mythical characters or gods, others seem to be monks or priests. Identifiable figures include Buddha and Queen Victoria and there is one token said to depict a Thai queen who had either just died or just been installed. There is a token said to have been issued in

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1874 depicting king Chulalongkorn who had just died. There are also a number of tokens depicting various musical instruments. This would be a challenge to collect. Many of the tokens apparently contain religious or magical symbolism. It would be even more challenging to collect and identify these tokens. For those brave enough to try to collect the entire series of Thai gambling tokens, I suggest one start by collecting one token from as many different hongs as possible. This would give one more breadth without getting bogged down trying to complete sets (which is very difficult). There are probably less than 1000 hongs, but there may be as many as 10,000 different tokens. As for the prices of Siam gambling tokens, the minimum price for porcelain now seems to be around $3 with some bringing up to $15 and even $25. The metal tokens start around $15 for copper and $25 for lead. Glass tokens don’t turn up very often so it is difficult to put a price on them. Green and red glass are the colors most often seen and should probably sell for around $15. Other glass colors include milky white, dark blue-green, yellow and clear. Terracotta (unglazed clay) tokens are very scarce but are not very attractive and are not valued as highly by collectors as they should be. Gambling tokens are also said to exist in ivory, silver, gold and sealing wax but I have never seen any of these. The thin mother of pearl pieces which are often sold as Siam gambling tokens are not from Siam and are not related to this series. The mother of pearl pieces were produced in China for use as giving chips in Europe and America. They are actually older than the Siam gambling tokens, some of them having been made in the 1700’s.

84 《東亞泉志》第 10 期

There are a number of factors which add to the value of Siam tokens. Odd shapes, interesting designs and multiple colors certainly increase the desirability of a token. However, such tokens were probably more expensive to produce and thus would have been issued only by the larger gambling houses (and in larger numbers) while simple pieces were probably issued by smaller hongs (and in smaller numbers). Generally speaking the fancy tokens seem to be more abundant than the plain tokens. Most hong names consist of only two characters. There are some which consist of three or four characters (not including the characters “kong si”) and these are generally much scarcer than the two character hong names. Also inscriptions in red or green are much scarcer than those in blue or black. Tokens with Thai inscriptions are much scarcer than ordinary tokens. I would estimate that there are only a dozen or so different sets with Thai inscriptions (other than denominations). Tokens with cyclical dates or with the names of Chinese emperors are quite scarce and desirable, as are those tokens with poems and those with western lettering. Pieces with odd denominations are also more valuable. Some unusual values include 200 ba, 800 and 1600 (cowries ?), 1.25 fen, 6.25 li, 15 (fen ?), 50 (cash ?) and any token with two values expressed. Generally the lowest values in a set are the scarcest. Most of the tokens with Chinese place names are rare. Some of these place names are hai Yang 海陽 , Hui Lai 惠來 , and Jao P’ing 饒平 . They tend to be rather plain, however. Finally there are some tokens which state the name of the manufacturer, such as Ramsden’s 99 and possibly 222. These tokens with the maker’s name are not so rare, but they are interesting and there are not very many of them to collect.


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暹羅賭博代幣 史博祿(美國) 大多數錢幣收藏者都見過色彩斑斕的泰國瓷質賭博代 幣。20 年前,這些代幣在美國隨處可見,價格也非常低廉, 25 美分就能買到 100 個。而現在已很少有經銷商會大量持 有這種代幣了,收藏者重燃的興趣已經把這些幣的價格推 高到 2 美元 1 個。 早年時沒什麼人收藏這種幣主要是由於缺乏資訊。這種 代幣是賭場私下發行的,因此有關於這些代幣的記錄很少。 發行日期和泰國境內的發行地點都無人知曉。關於這些代 幣的文字記錄僅有幾十篇文章,而且其中很多內容都是道

本文是基於我對 4 000 種不同的總數約為 15 000 個暹

聼塗説或臆測的。亨利·拉姆斯登的 1911 年目錄中收錄了

羅代幣的考察撰寫的。考察主要基於 19 世紀和 20 世紀的

一篇他基於哈斯和施萊格爾的文章所作的《暹羅瓷質幣及

歷史學和人類學著作的第一手資料。我希望在不久的將來

其他代幣》,對這種幣做了簡短但相當不錯的介紹。這些

能在我的暹羅代幣目錄中對此有全面的介紹。

文章創作時暹羅瓷質幣還在被使用。

發行者

為普通農民的賭徒而言價值過高。賭徒們需要一種低面值 的平面狀的代幣來取而代之。代幣的材質最終選擇了陶瓷

暹羅代幣的發行目的似乎很明確。首先,幾乎整個 19

而非金屬很可能是由於宗教原因。金屬鑄造技術在當時的

世紀裡,泰國政府只發行球狀的“子彈”銀幣。這些硬幣

泰國非常普及,但泰國在 19 世紀早期還沒有瓷器工業,因

在賭桌上到處亂滾,擾亂賭局。而且這些銀幣對大多數身

此偽造瓷質代幣比偽造金屬代幣在當時要困難得多。這一

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點很重要,代幣逐漸地流通到了賭場外,在某段時間內甚

個地方以上的賭博經營權。

至可以作為貨幣來使用。 這些賭場都是以“行”而不是以“稅務分包商”名字命名。 要弄明白是誰發行了這些代幣,必須要提到泰國的稅收

“行”(在現代漢語中是破音字,一種發音 為“hang”,

分包體系。與其他東亞國家一樣,泰國政府在 19 世紀往往

和銀行“yin hang”中的 hang 相同)在漢語中是對營業機

不直接徵收某些稅賦,而是把這些稅賦的徵收權利指定或

構的統稱,但我記憶中從未看到哪個代幣上有這個字。代

出售給不同的個人。購買了某項稅賦徵收權利的個人則有

幣上使用的一般是“行司”(即現代漢語的“公司”)或“記”

義務在合同到期之前向政府繳納特殊的預定金額(或商品)。

(拼音 ji),不過大多數代幣上這些字眼都省略不用。因此

這就是所謂的“稅務分包”,收稅的人被稱為“稅務分包商”。

一個刻有“XY 公司”的代幣和另一個刻有“XY”的代幣, 只是名稱的形式不一樣,但都很可能是由同一家公司發行

泰國的賭博業就是其中一種稅務分包(彩票業也是其 中一種)。每年(也有說法是每三年)通過競標決定由誰 壟斷經營下一階段的賭博業。雖然不是太清楚具體細節,

的(尤其如果風格相近的話)。目前為止我總共記錄了代 幣上 500 到 1000 個不同的“行”或公司名字,這是對它 們進行編目的唯一可行方式。

但壟斷權是以城鎮或地區劃分的,競得經營權的人在合同 (或牌照)有效期內壟斷當地所有的賭場。出價高的人幾

“公司”這個字眼有額外的意義和重要性。在泰國和

乎都是居住在泰國的華人,這也是為什麼幾乎所有代幣上

馬來西亞,這個字眼也可以指各種秘密社團。據 G·W·斯

的文字使用的是中文而非泰文。賭場所賺取的高於對政府

金納對泰國華人社會的研究,那裡的秘密社團往往可以通

承諾的那部分金額則是“稅務分包商”的淨利潤。“稅務

過聯合其社員的資源或恐嚇其他競標者而獲得賭場的經營

分包商”的淨利潤是保密的(這也是當下的稅務分包者為

權。但我們無法確認是否所有刻有“公司”字眼的代幣都

保留其經營權而競標時的一個優勢),但據說金額相當可觀。

是秘密社團發行的。

稅務分包者通常會連續幾個階段保持一個地方的或同時兩

發行地

控蔗糖業的華人的街道。在 19 世紀中葉的起義中,這條街

這些代幣的具體使用地點並不清楚。根據目擊者的記

唯一能找到歸屬的暹羅代幣卻是來自於一個鬼城。在 1894

錄,賭場遍佈泰國各地。我所記錄的 4000 種不同代幣中,

年的《錢幣學家》雜誌上,約翰·布魯丁(John Brudin)

只有一套(由兩個代幣組成)上有泰國地名。這套不尋常的

認為一枚刻有“達遂”(標準中文為“Ta Sui”,拼音為“da

代幣,在拉姆斯登目錄中編號為 122 號,代幣上的地名既

sui”)的代幣歸於暹羅灣的 Kohsichag 島。不幸的是,我

不是中文也不是泰文,而是西方字母 NACCONCHAISEI。

們無從知曉他是基於什麼做出的結論。這種代幣,既有瓷

拉 姆 斯 登 推 測 這 是 地 名 但 他 沒 有 深 究。 在 19 世 紀,

質的又有銅質的,在今天相當普遍。大約有一打的代幣上

Nachonchaisei 是指一處位於曼谷以西約 30 英里住滿了掌

都刻有地名,但都是中國地名而不是泰國地名。

道被摧毀之後就遭到廢棄,也從地圖上消失了。諷刺的是,

代幣的年代

爾(Hamel)先生提供的消息,施萊格爾(Schlegel)認

這些代幣的使用年代也不清楚。根據泰文記錄,就在

泰國的記錄,稅務分包體制的革新和擴大就發生在 18 世紀

緬甸軍隊摧毀大城(17 世紀 60 年代時暹羅的舊國都)之

20 年代。但目前還不清楚的是,這些代幣是那時候才推出

前沒多久,一種特製的土質代幣很可能在大城中開始流通。

的還是在此前就已經有了。

哈斯認為這就是泰國瓷質代幣的原型。雖然賭博稅務分包 制度在那時已經存在了(塔克辛的父親 —— 把緬甸人趕出 泰國的華人英雄,關閉了舊國都的賭博業),明顯地,這 枚土質代幣是由政府而並非賭場發行的。根據某位元哈梅

86 《東亞泉志》第 10 期

為第一枚賭場發行的代幣可追溯到 18 世紀 20 年代。根據

大多數暹羅時期的文章都提到 1875 年時政府對賭博代 幣的禁止。有些人認為這是泰國賭博代幣使用和生產的終 結時間,而有些人,例如拉姆斯登(Ramsden),則認為


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代幣在 1875 年禁令後的很長時間內依然流通。事實上,當

的。目前為止,還沒發現刻有中國末代皇帝溥儀(1909 年

時的政府禁止的是代幣的流通而不是在賭場中的生產和使

至 1911 年統治)年號“宣統”名字的代幣,這表明 1909

用。這條詔令是為了促使政府於 1874 年和 1962 年首次發

年以後再也沒人製造代幣。

行的平面狀硬幣的流通。 有一個系列的代幣是印有製造日期的。但不巧的是這 代幣本身也提供了它們使用年代的證據,但這個證據

些日期是以 60 年為一週期的中國傳統紀年農曆標記的,同

不完全清楚。例如,有一枚瓷質代幣上沒有標記“行”的

樣的日期標識方式也使用在了日後用機器敲擊出來的中國

名字但複製于 1852 年發行的緬甸孔雀硬幣。可以確信的是

硬幣上。拉姆斯登列舉了 4 枚刻有日期的代幣(8、 85、

這枚代幣的鑄造年代不會早於 1852 年,但它是在那之後哪

237 和 326 號),但所有的日期都是同一年的。問題就在

一年造的還是無從得知。同樣的情況也適用於一套複製了

於我們無法確認代幣上的日期到底是指哪一年。撇開 18 世

1862 年印度發行的維多利亞女王肖像硬幣的代幣(拉姆斯

紀的日期不計,代幣上我們能確知的日期年份是:辛酉年

登 17 和 18)。當時的印度硬幣在緬甸是可流通的,在泰

(1801/1861)、 壬 戌 年 (1802/1862)、 甲 戌 年 (1814/1874)

國也可能是流通的(或者以上這兩種代幣其實是來自於緬

和丙戌年 (1826/1886)。 如果我們接受施萊格爾的觀點,

甸)。

即這些代幣的首次發行是在 18 世紀 20 年代,那麼頭兩枚 一定是 18 世紀 60 年代製造的,第三枚是 1874 年製造的。

還有一系列沒有標記發行公司名字的瓷質代幣上刻有 清代中國皇帝的名字(有時候是複製這些統治者發行的硬 幣)。刻有“道光”(1821 年至 1850 年統治)、 “咸豐” (1851 年至 1861 年統治)和“同治”(1862 年至 1874 年統治) 的代幣很可能是在這些皇帝在位時期發行的。但是,有一 枚刻有“康熙”的代幣極可能不是在康熙統治時期 1662 年 至 1722 年發行的,同樣的情況也可能存在於其他刻有“順

但不論如何,最後一枚的製造年份是一個謎團。它可能是 最早發行的代幣之一,也可能是最後發行的代幣之一!唯 一一枚沒有發行公司名字而精確記錄了日期的代幣是仿製 當時的中國現金硬幣的,上面刻著“光緒元年”,意思是 光緒皇朝第一年(1875 年)。 在世紀之交,泰國政府決定終結賭博業及其伴隨的罪

治”(1644-1661 年 統 治)、“ 胤 禛( 雍 正)”(1723-

惡(貧困和奴役)。根據政府法令,在 1907 年,除了曼谷,

1735 年統治)、“乾隆”(1736-1795 年統治) 和“嘉慶”

全國其他各地都禁止賭博業。終於在 1917 年,曼谷也禁止

(1796-1820 年統治)字樣的代幣上。代幣上刻有中國最

了賭博。這也是代幣的最終下場,如果它們那時仍在使用

後一個封建皇朝統治者的名字是 1875 至 1908 年期間的“光

的話。

緒”。這表明在 1875 年禁令之後還是有人繼續製造代幣

面值 拉姆斯登 1911 年目錄中有一個圖示記載了代幣上 10

有的代幣上刻有“100 文”或“200 文”字樣的面值。 這些可能表示現金硬幣的數量,即另外一種貨幣體系。最 常見的代幣面值以暹羅貨幣單位來表示,比如錢、方、宋派。

種不同的面值。實際上,人們可以在代幣上找到大約 20 種

“錢”和“方”是代幣的最高面值計量單位,時至今日也

不同的面值。為什麼會有這麼多不同的面值?原因在於代

是最常見的面值。 “錢”等值於 1/4 泰銖 (baht) 或提卡;“方”

幣涉及到了三種不同的貨幣體系。第一種貨幣體系囊括了

是 1/2 錢;“宋派”是 1/2 方。

看似面值很高的代幣,比如 100、200 和 400。這些數字代 表的是貝殼數量,是賭博代幣出現之前價值最低的“貨幣”。 有時也使用貨幣單位“泰銖”(如四百巴中的“ba”)。 接下來的面值是 5 分、2.5 分和 6.25 厘(等同於 0.625 分)。 這些數字代表着白銀的數量。一些代幣的面值實際上刻有 “銀”或“金”字樣。

有些面值用不止一種方式書寫。“錢”至少有 6 種表 示方式。有時候貨幣單位也會寫成縮寫或草書。錢和方還 可以用符號表示:把泰國數字寫在十字架四個象限之中一 個上面。有時候也用泰國數位或文字來表示面值,甚至有 時使用中國的數位文字來表示。暹羅代幣面值這個課題遠 比拉姆斯登的圖表複雜得多。

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刻字

T’ai An 和“KEE” ( 拉 姆 斯 登 , 編 號 148) 和 hong Yu

暹羅賭博代幣上的刻字通常一面是發行行的名稱,另

標 YOOWHADEKONGSEE,WHA(當地發音為“fa”),

外一面是面值,但平面的佈局則各式各樣。有的刻字是凸

DE (“的”) KONG SEE 即“公司”,即用西方文字標

出來的(彩色或是純白色的)或(很可能是用打孔器或模具)

注的公司名。下標 NACCCONCHAISEI 為,為曼谷西部一

刻在瓷質表面上後再上色的,也有的字就是直接手繪上去

鎮名。

Fa(拉姆斯登,編號 122)所發行。hong Yu Fa 代用幣上

的。刻字的顏色通常是藍色或黑色。紅色刻字比較少見, 綠色刻字就更是罕見了。有時行的名稱隱藏在設計之中。 一個或多個字元是簡稱或用篆書書寫。有時候面值作為刻 字的一部分出現在幣面上,但有時幣的反面卻是完全空白 的,而有些代幣上根本不體現行的名稱。有些代幣除了面 值以外根本沒有任何刻印,有些代幣甚至連面值都沒有。 一小部分代幣有着兩種不同的面值,似乎意味着兩者是等 值的。 暹羅代幣最引人矚目的發現之一是由荷蘭收藏家 G·霍 林克先生(Mr.G.Hollink)於 20 世紀 80 年代首次公佈的。 他發現代幣上不同的數字串實質上代表了生產數量(拉 姆斯登 222)!除了一枚代幣之外其他所有的代幣鑄造數 量都在 2 000 至 6 000 枚之間。那枚例外的代幣是一件讓 人驚歎的作品(拉姆斯登 295),上面不僅刻有造幣數量 (10 000 枚),還刻有製造地名稱(中國廣東)。長久以來, 人們一直就懷疑大多數代幣其實都是中國製造的。這枚代 幣和另外一枚類似但來自於另一個“行”的代幣首次為這 種猜測提供了證據。霍林克還注意到某些代幣上有手寫的 序號(拉姆斯登 326)。在翻閱了霍林克的文章後,我記 錄了來自十幾個不同“行”的共 100 枚代幣的序號。最大 的數字是 5100,但大多數代幣的這個數字都在 3 000 以下。 所有這些均表明代幣的鑄造數量一般是 2 000 到 6 000 枚。

有幾枚代幣上除了漢字外也刻有泰文字母或全部都是 泰文字母。最常見的例子是 Ts'ai Sheng 代幣(除了一個 數值是無色的中文字元外,其他都是泰語;拉姆斯登 100101),Ho Hsing 代幣(拉姆斯登 319-321,只有不成詞 的泰文字母),以及由 Yuan Ch'ang 發行的代幣(拉姆斯 登 96;上面既用漢字又用泰語刻有“行”的名稱)。 另一個不同尋常之處就是刻有“Yi Pen Wan Li”和“一 本萬利”。這不是“行”的名稱而是一個好運願望,意即“用 極少的本錢獲得巨大利潤”;非常適合寫在賭博代幣上。 另一個奇怪的刻字是“T'ien Ti Hsuan Huang”和“天地玄 黃”。同樣地這也不是“行”的名稱,而可能是操控“行” 的秘密社團的代號。“天地玄黃”取自於《千字文》(由 一千個漢字組成的韻文)的頭四個漢字,《千字文》正好 有一千個漢字而且沒有一個字是重複的。數百年來孩童們 背誦着《千字文》幫助他們擴大詞彙量。因為每個人都背 過,這些漢字最終被當做數字使用。例如,非韓國的現金 硬幣就把這些漢字當做了數字;在太平天國起義期間清朝 政府發行的銀票就把漢字作為序號之前的代碼。在康熙年 間初期(1662 年)是禁止使用的,因為這四個字代表了皇 帝,除了皇帝之外清朝統治下的中國都不能使用 , 後來它被 “yuan”( 元 ) 取代。這意味着要不這種代幣是清朝滅亡(1911 年)之後發行的,要不就是當時的泰國忽視了這條禁令。

有一個或者幾個系列的代幣上沒有“行”名稱,取而 代之的是幾句詩歌。這些詩歌通常包含 4 個或 7 個文字。 我們還不清楚同一系列中不同面值代幣上的詩句是來自於 同一首詩還是不同首詩。這些詩歌代幣較普通的賭博代幣 要罕見很多。拉姆斯登記錄了許多這樣的代幣 (94、100102、 172、 196、 234、 269、270、 332 和 333)。 有些代幣上刻有“p”字(暹羅語的“pee”)。此字

另外兩個令人矚目的刻字都包含地名。第一枚直接刻 着“Hsien Lo”和“暹羅”。這是暹羅的中文名字。第二 枚刻着“Kuang Tung Kuo Pao”和“廣東國寶”,意思是 “廣東(中國)國家硬幣”!兩者都不可能是“行”的名字。 在注意到這兩枚刻有地名的代幣後,我開始搜尋其他代幣 和發現了十幾個中國地名。可能是巧合,但所有的地名都 位於廣東汕頭附近 —— 幾乎所有在泰國的華人都來自于此

有幾種不同寫法 ( 秘、庇、 鉍、或“金比”連寫成一字 ),

地區。顯然地,或者是中國移民以自己家鄉為泰國小鎮命名,

實為代用幣暹羅用語。有少數代用幣上有西方文字,還有

或者是賭場的老闆們以自己家鄉為賭場命名。

一枚有西方數字。最常見的是西方文字。代用幣是 hong

88 《東亞泉志》第 10 期


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收藏暹羅代幣

質代幣最低價是 15 美元左右,鉛質代幣最低價 25 美元左

在介紹過暹羅賭博代幣之後,應該說一下收藏這些代幣

中最常見的顏色,應該可以賣到 15 美元左右。其他玻璃材

的方法。在過去,收藏者們似乎並不知道收藏代幣的方法

質的包括奶白色、深藍綠色、黃色和無色透明。赤土色(未

或缺乏目標。我在此提出兩種方式,第一種是按照局部特

上釉黏土)代幣非常稀有,但喜歡的人不多,因此估價偏低。

徵來收集。暹羅代幣已知的至少有 20 種不同形狀。人們可

據說賭博代幣還有象牙材質、銀質、金質和密封蠟材質的,

以從收集每種形狀中的一種開始。圓形和八邊形(在東方

但我從來沒見過。薄薄的珍珠母代幣經常被當成暹羅賭博

“八”是幸運數字)是最常見的形狀,還有橢圓形、正方形、

代幣出售,但實際上它們不是來自於暹羅也跟暹羅代幣毫

長方形、五邊形、六邊形、七邊形(我所知道的只有一枚)、

無關聯。珍珠母代幣是中國製造的在歐洲和美洲做賭注籌

貝殼形、枕形、花形、扇形、瓶形、葉子形、桃子形、蝴

碼使用的。它們其實比暹羅代幣更古老,其中一些是 17 世

蝶形、風箏形、鳥形、兩條魚形、魷魚形、卷軸形、花瓶形、

紀製造的。

右。玻璃代幣不太常見,很難估價。綠色和紅色玻璃是其

六或八角星形、鑽石形或中國現金硬幣形。人們也可以按 照面值來收集,這將劃分成 25 個集合,而其中的一些面值 很難找到。

很多因素都會增加暹羅代幣的附加價值。奇怪的形狀, 有趣的設計和多彩的顏色自然會讓人更想擁有它們。然而, 這樣的代幣生產成本可能更高,因此也只有較大的賭場才

人們也可以根據代幣上的動物或植物分類收集。動物

會發行(數量也更多),而那些設計簡單的代幣很可能是

包括貓、老虎、馬、蝙蝠、各種類型的鳥、富態獅子狗、猴、

較小賭場發行的(數量也更少)。一般而言,花哨的代幣

雞、大象、魚、兔子、青蛙、孔雀、螃蟹、蜥蜴、蝦、蝴蝶、

在數量上比樸素的代幣更充足。

鹿、蜘蛛,以及其他昆蟲和龍。其中許多是黃道帶動物。 最常用的動物是老虎、螃蟹和蝦。蜘蛛和青蛙(在中國都 被看作毒物)是最罕見的。

大多數“行”名稱只由兩個字元構成。三個或四個字 元(不包括字元“公司”)名字的“行”比兩個字的“行” 稀少得多。還有,紅色或綠色刻字也比藍色或黑色刻字稀

代幣上還出現過眾多人物形象。有些是神話人物或神 仙本身,其他的貌似僧侶或牧師。可以識別出來的人物形

有得多。有泰文刻字的代幣比一般代幣也更罕見。我估計 帶有泰文刻字的代幣系列只有十幾個。

象包括佛陀和維多利亞女王,還有一枚代幣上繪的是一位 剛剛下葬的泰國王后。據說在 1874 年發行的一種代幣上描 繪的是剛剛駕崩的朱拉隆功國王 king Chulalongkorn。 還有許多代幣描繪的是各種各樣的樂器,但以此為特

有天干地支紀年和有帝王年號的代用幣,及詩句和西 方文字的代用幣甚為稀少,也是眾人所求。有奇數面值的 代用幣也比較珍貴。一些不常見的面值,如 200 泰銖,800 和 1600(貝 ?),1.25 分 ,6.25 厘 (li),15(分?),50(錢?)

徵進行收集是富有挑戰性的。許多這些代幣顯然帶有宗教

和同時標有兩個面值的代用幣亦如此。一般說來,一組代

色彩或魔幻象征。收集和識別這些代幣將更具挑戰性。

用幣中面值最小的一枚最為難尋。

對那些勇於嘗試收集泰國全系列賭博代幣的人們,我

刻有中國地名的大部分代幣都很罕見。有些地名是 hai

的建議是先從收集不同“行”的一枚代幣開始。收集全套

Yang 海陽在、Hui Lai 惠來、and Jao P'ing 饒平;然而這

是非常困難的事情,而這將避免他們陷入困境。“行”的

些代幣的設計風格都比較樸實。最後總算有些代幣上刻有

數量很可能不到 1 000 種,但代幣卻多達 10 000 種。

製造商的名字,例如拉姆斯登 99 和 222(可能是)。刻有 製造商名字的代幣並不罕見,但它們都很有趣並且可收集

至於暹羅賭博代幣的價格,瓷質的 1 枚最低價是 3 美

的數量也不是很多。

元,有些炒到了 15 美元甚至 25 美元。金屬代幣裡 1 枚銅

The Tenth Issue of JEAN

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Column 專欄

1931 the Central Mint

DEVELOPMENT OF THE CENTRAL MINT Modern Plant in Shanghai Supplies Country with Uniform Coins Jian H. Chen (Shaoxing) China although not a silver

coins have made their appearance. It

of silver “shoes” was of a great

producing nation, is the largest

may be mentioned to the surprise of

variety and differed in weight and

silver consuming country in the

those who are not acquainted with

fineness from one another according

world, next only to India. Practically

the monetary conditions here that

to locality. Besides, there were

all of the white metal now in

prior to 1933 China had two units

also a number of fictitious taels

circulation in this country was

of silver currency – the tale and the

created merely for the purpose of

directly or indirectly converted from

dollar – in circulation side by side

account keeping. With so many

the imported bar silver. Silver sycee

with each other at the exchange rate

kinds of taels in circulation which

has long been used in China as a

subjected to daily fluctuations.

were all being recognized as legal

medium of exchange, but it was only comparatively recently that silver

90 《東亞泉志》第 10 期

tender currencies, computation The tael currency in the form

of their exchange rates became


Column 專欄

a rather complicated problem in

from one another. And it was not

the construction of the mint, and

mathematics and the money market

an unusual case of seeing the same

to prepare estimates therefore, so

was beset with growing instability.

dollar have different purchasing

that the mint might be established

As a result, the progress of general

power at different times and places.

at an early date. This marked the

business was greatly impeded. In the

Although a number of reasons could

beginning of the Central Mint in

midst of this monetary chaos, it was

be advanced for such a deplorable

1920.

only natural that the general public

state of affairs in China’s money

were looking forward with anxiety to

market, none was comparable in

Following the establishment of the

the timely establishment of a mint,

importance with the absence of a

Preparatory Office, the Currency

so that silver dollars of uniform

centralized and efficiently managed

Bureau was submitted a set of

weight and fineness could be coined

mint to be engaged in the coining

outlines of the plans decided upon,

to replace the sycee tael.

of dollars of uniform weight and

which were given approval in due

fineness.

course of time. The services of Mr.

In response to the public clamor for

Clifford Hewitt, an American, were

the establishment of a mint, Viceroy

In view of the detrimental effects

also engaged as chief engineer.

Chang Chih-tung of Kwangtung and

resulting from the unprecedented

But with depleted treasury, the

Kwangsi in 1887 took the initiative

rise in the value of silver since the

government was not in a position to

to petition the emperor to sanction

outbreak of the World War in 1914,

appropriate such an enormous fund

the coinage of Chinese dollars,

as well as the unsatisfactory state

as required for the establishment

which fortunately met the imperial

of currency due to the existence

of the mint. This apparently left the

approval. The first mint was then

of multifarious dollars, financial

mint authorities no choice but to

established at Canton, the provincial

magnates and bankers in Shanghai

seek financial aid from the banking

capital of Kwangtung, but it was

realized the necessity of establishing

circles, and it was only after repeated

not until 1890 that the silver dollar

a Shanghai mint for the coinage

negotiations that a Chinese banking

coined by the newly erected mint

of new standard silver dollars

syndicate in Shanghai agreed to

made its premier appearance on

which would serve as a basis for

extend them a loan of $2,500,000

the market. The authorities of other

the unification of the national

with treasury notes secured on the

provinces considering the mint as

currency system. The defunct Peking

salt surplus as security.

a promising enterprise hastened to

government, when submitted with

follow suit in the course of years. No

a petition to that effect through

provisions were set forth as to the

Mr. Chow Tsu-chi [Chou Tzu-

standard weight and fineness of the

ch’i 周自齐 1871-1923], the then

silver coins, nor did the government

governor of the Currency Bureau,

exercise the slightest control or

gave approval of it and appointed

supervision over the operations of

Mr. Chung Wen-yao [Chung Wen-

these provincial mints. Obviously

Yueh 钟文耀 1860-?] to be the first

there was a remarkable lack of

Director of the Shanghai Mint. The

uniformity in the fine contents and

preparatory committee, composed

weights of the dollars, more so

of several members mostly from the

because almost all of these mints

banking community, had its office in

were being operated with the object

the Shanghai Bankers’ Association

of raising provincial revenue, and

building and was charged with the

the result was that the dollars varied

duties of drawing up plans for the

considerably in purchasing power

purchase of land and machinery and

Clifford Hewitt

Up To Date Plant Ordered From U.S. With the proceeds of the loan as initial funds, a piece

in order to acquire the best possible result, technical

of land about 103 mow in area, located at the north

experts were invited to design the general plans, in as

end of Ferry Road, on the Chapei bank of the Soochow

much as the construction of the mint building should

Creek, was purchased for the location of the plant. And

require much knowledge on factory management. While

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the machinery of various provincial mints was either

Mr. Lu Hung-nien [Luo Hung-nien 罗鸿年 1881-?]

too obsolete for further use or of too small a capacity

succeeded Mr. Sa as Director of the Mint when the latter

to meet the requirements, the mint authorities, upon

tendered his resignation, but shortly afterwards the

recommendation of the chief engineer, Mr. Clifford

newly appointed Director also resigned because he was

Hewitt, made up their minds to order from America

unable to secure from the Chinese Banking Syndicate

an up-to-date coining plant like that which had been

another loan of $3,400,000. Mr. Chu Yu-chi [Chu Yu-

installed in the Philadelphia Mint of the United States, with a capacity of turning out 400,000 silver dollars

chi (Tso-chou) 朱有济 1886-?], who filled the post left vacant by Mr. Lu, continued the loan negotiations that

daily.

his predecessor had failed to carry out, and attempted to increase the amount to $3,500,000 to be again secured

Upon resignation of Mr. Chung Wen-yao from the post

on the salt surplus. Unfortunately, the negotiations were

of Director of the Shanghai Mint in 1922, Mr. Sah Fa-

once more suspended because the contracting parties

mou [Sa Fu-mao 萨福懋 1873-?] was appointed as his

could not agree to the terms. Under such circumstances,

successor. The new Director continued to carry on the

the Ministry of Finance was compelled to suspend work

work. He made full payment of the land purchased,

on the Shanghai Mint and ordered in August 1924 that

ordered machinery through the American Trading

the affairs of the administration office be wound up.

Company and the Hwa Chang Engineering Works, and

It was also ordered that the entire property including

entered into an agreement with Yao Sing Kee, building

the building, title deed, furniture and equipment be

contractors, for the construction of the building.

all placed under the custody of the Shanghai Bankers

Although it was first thought the construction work

Association, and that all archives and documents be

would be completed within one year and that machinery

transported to the Ministry for safe-keeping. The chief

could be installed on arrival here, the contemplated

engineer, Mr. Clifford Hewitt, whose contract had then

scheme failed to come into realization as the expenses

expired, was also relieved of his duties. For several years

incurred were found to be far in excess of the original

the machinery lay forgotten in a godown and it was not

estimates. Without any funds available for payment,

until after 1927 that the project was revived.

no delivery therefore could be made of the machinery when it reached Shanghai, and everything was then at a standstill.

General Conditions of the Establishment Period Following the establishment of the

made for the transfer of the Mint’s

National Government in 1927, the

previous debts with the Syndicate

Ministry of Finance attempted to

thereto. And a settlement was also

resume operations in the Shanghai

effected with respect to the arrears

Mint and appointed Mr. Tang Shou-

of part of the documentary bills

min [T’ang Shou-min 唐寿民 1891

against the machinery delivered by

?] as Director. While the building

Hwa Chang Engineering Works.

and plant, through Mr. Tang’s

But in the meantime, the National

negotiation, were taken back from

Treasury was too much occupied

the Shanghai Bankers Association,

with the financing of the Northern

the title deed was still kept in the

Punitive Expedition, which

custody of the Banking Syndicate as

required a colossal sum for military

a manifestation of trust on the part of

expenditure, to look after the

the mint authorities. With a view to

progress of the Shanghai Mint.

Kuo Piao

redeeming outstanding obligations borne by the Mint, the Ministry

In 1928 Mr. Kwok Bew [Kuo Piao

the former engineer-in-chief, Mr.

of Finance contracted with the

Clifford Hewitt, who had returned

Shanghai Banking Syndicate another

郭标 , also written Goch Bew], the Managing Director of the Wing On

loan known as the Disbandment

Department Store, was appointed

of his contract with the mint, was

Loan, in the second article of

as successor to Mr. Tang when the

reengaged. The installation of the

which agreement provisions were

latter tendered his resignation, and

plant was completed in 1929. Mr.

92 《東亞泉志》第 10 期

to America in 1924 upon expiration


Column 專欄

Lott H. T. Wei was appointed the

present name, the Central Mint of

hostilities taking place in the Chapei

First Vice Director of the mint and

China, and that the provincial mints

section of this city. Mr. Hsu tendered

a year later Mr. Wang Hsiao-lai was

were ordered to suspend operations

his resignation in March of the same

appointed Second Vice Director. A

one after another for the purpose

year, the Vice Director Mr. Lott H.

supervisory committee, which was

of ultimately attaining a uniform

T. Wei was acting Director from

being organized to attend to the

currency system.

then till September when Mr. Z. U.

important functions in connection

Kwauk [Kuo Ch’eng-en 郭承恩 1884-

with the readjustment of outstanding

In January 1932 Mr. Hsu Chi-chun

?] was appointed Director in the fall.

loans as well as preparations for

[Hsu Chi-ch’ing 徐寄顷 , also known

During Mr. Wei’s acting period, he

the coinage of new currency, was

as C. M. Shu. 1880-?] was appointed

was instructed by Mr. T. V. Soong,

dispensed with in 1929 upon

to succeed Mr. Kwok Bew, who

then Minister of Finance, to make

completion of its assigned work. It

had resigned on account of illness.

preparation for the opening of the

was, however, during Mr. Kwok’s

The affairs of the mint, however,

mint to coin standard silver dollars

tenure of office that the old name

once again came to a standstill in

for the abolition of taels.

of the mint was changed into the

the event of the Sino-Japanese

Tael Abolished, Silver Dollar Made Only Unit Besides an Honorary Committee was appointed in

As to the coinage charges, the committee originally

July 1932 to advise as to procedure in connection with

intended to fix at 1.75 per cent. Later on, it had to be

the then proposed abolition of the sycee tael and the

conceded that this percentage might prove insufficient, so

introduction of a new standard silver dollar as the only

that 2.25 per cent was finally adopted as an appropriate

currency unit of China. The committee met with me

cost. As the coining charges were burdensome for the

in the chair, and consisted of six members, composed

government to bear, it was deemed necessary to lower

equally of Chinese and foreign bankers. After a period of

the fine content of the silver dollar from .890 to .880 and

lengthy deliberations, the committee recommended that

at the same time to reduce the weight slightly. Viewed

the new national dollar to be known as the Yuan, should

in the light of actuality the Shanghai tael parity of the

have a gross weight of 26.6971 grams of silver .880

new dollar inclusive of 2.25 percent minting cost is taels

fine, that is, containing 23.493448 grams of pure silver,

71.50, that figure representing the intrinsic value of the

equivalent to 0.75608 troy ounce.

silver content of the new national dollar, plus 2.5% for the cost of minting.

On the basis of the figures given above, it will not prove difficult to ascertain the ratio between the new dollar and

In the spring of 1933, the national government, however,

the old Shanghai tael, the latter containing 33.599 grams

succeeded with painstaking efforts to introduce the

fine silver. The quotient of dividing 23.493448 by 33.599,

dollar as the standard currency as a substitute for the

i.e. 0.6992305, is the value of the proposed new national

tael and promulgated the Standard Silver Dollar Coinage

dollar expressed in Shanghai taels not inclusive of the

Law, thus bringing about a notable monetary reform in

cost of minting.

China’s history of currency leading towards unification of the legal tender throughout the country. The mint was formally opened on March 1, the same year.

General Conditions Of The Coinage Period In April 1933, the appointment was made of Mr. Lu

and Chung Mou-yin were appointed concurrently

Hsueh-pu to succeed the resigning Director, Mr. Z.

Department Heads, the trio having had practical training

U. Kwauk. It was under his administration that much

in the Philadelphia Mint, U.S.A. And as Mr. Clifford

improvement was made in all operative departments.

Hewitt had returned home, Mr. Robert J. Grant, head

With a view to securing efficiency through division of

of the Denver Mint and director of all mints in the

labor, the Technical Department was replaced by three

United States Department of Treasury, was engaged

new departments, Assaying, Melting and Coining, and

as adviser. Pending his arrival, Mr. Lott H. T. Wei, the

the engineers, Messrs. Wen Ching-yu, Walter F. Wong,

Vice-Director, was appointed by the Ministry of Finance

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to act on his behalf as the engineer-in-chief. Had there been no improvement made by the various engineers, with the co-operation of the American adviser, to the machinery in the way of combining increased efficiency with economy, the Mint would not be able to turn out more than $250,000 in a single working day of ten hours within a short period of half a year. A comparative study of the reports on the work done by the Assaying, Melting and Coining departments submitted from time to time, indeed fills one with surprise at the remarkable

CHINA-REPUBLIC 1932 One Dallor Silver

improvement effected in every respect in the course of a single year. Silver is being supplied exclusively by the Central Bank of China, with which all silver to be converted into legal tender of the country should be first registered. Over 90% of the white metal furnished to the Mint through the Central Bank was in the form of sycee “shoes” held in the vaults of various other banking institutions, Chinese and foreign. Besides sycee, the Mint was also supplied with 12.8 million ounces of fine silver in other forms, such as bullion, demonetized dollars, subsidiary coins, etc.,

CHINA-REPUBLIC 1933 One Dallor Silver

which constitute about 9% of the total amount of silver received. and weighed at the Committee’s laboratory. If it is found Following the abolition of the sycee tael, silver dollars

not to conform to the legal requirements as to fineness

were in great demand. The capacity of the Mint at that

and standard weight, the entire lot is rejected and

time was not in a position to supply dollars enough for

returned to the melter for remelting. But if it passes the

the use of the money market. In response to the demand

test, a certificate of approval is issued and pasted on the

for facilitating the process of clearing among the Chinese,

respective cases and sealed with the seals of the Advisory

foreign and native banks, the Mint, in accordance with

Committee. It is gratifying to point out here that reports

the provisions of the Coinage Law, started to turn out

on check assays made by the Philadelphia Mint and by

.999 fine “Mint Bar A” in September 1933. The issuance

the Bombay Mint illustrate how very close to perfection

of these was discontinued since February 1934, on

are the new standard silver dollars; the first report being

account of the bankers’ preference to the other kind,

made in 1933 by Advisor Robert J. Grant, and the second

an .880 fine “Mint Bar B” which was produced from

by the manager of the Hong Kong and Shanghai Banking

November 1933. The silver content of these mint bars to

Corporation, Shanghai, at the meeting of the Advisory

be of such a weight as to represent exactly the fine silver

Committee held in December 1934.

contained in 1000 new standard dollars. Mr. Lu resigned in August 1934, on account of ill health, In June of 1933 the government created an Advisory

and Vice-Director Lott Wei was again appointed Acting

Committee of the Central Mint, on which Dr. H. H. Kung,

Director until February 1935, when I [Ch’en Hsing;

Minister of Finance, as the ex-officio Chairman, invited a

Ch’en Chien-an 陈行 · 健菴 , 1890-?] was appointed by

number of prominent bankers and businessmen to serve.

Minister Kung as Director of the Mint. In the meantime,

The committee’s main functions were: 1) to recommend

China was on the point of suffering from a shortage

an expert assayer, 2) to audit the books and accounts, 3)

of silver. The silver purchase program adopted by the

to test the dollars and the bars, and 4) to suggest plans

U.S. government in June 1934, whereby the world price

for improvement of the Mint. So before the coins or bars

of silver was being artificially raised, has caused acute

are put into circulation, they have one more test to go

harm to China through the depletion of the silver stock.

through. A member of the Advisory Committee, which

Shanghai silver, in response to the soaring price found

is equipped with its own assay laboratory in the Mint,

its way to foreign countries in enormous quantities. The

selects at random a dollar or bar out of every case in the

outflow of silver since August 1934 was unprecedented.

day’s output. This sample dollar or bar is again assayed

Though it was somewhat checked by the imposition of an

94 《東亞泉志》第 10 期


Column 專欄

export duty and a flexible equalization charge on October 15, 1934, silver exports during the year 1934 amounted to $259,941,414 net. The loss of so much silver within so short a period seriously affected the operation of the Mint. To maintain the Mint as a going concern, silver in forms other than sycee had to be resorted to inasmuch as it was then estimated that sycee stocks in Shanghai were

CHINA-REPUBLIC 1936 20 cents, 10 cents, and 5 cents

only enough for two months’ operation on the basis of a monthly output of nearly $8,000,000. In consequence, mint bars and old coins were ordered to be turned in for coinage.

subsidiary coins of a decimal system. Thereupon the Mint was instructed to strike nickel coins of 20 cents, 10

While the abolition of the tael has already won

cents, and 5 cents and copper coins of 1 cent and half a

nationwide acclamation, Dr. H. H. Kung, Minister of

cent, which made their initial appearance to the general

Finance, was at that time planning with indefatigable

public in February 1936. This has crowned a further step

efforts to further the monetary reform by replacing

in a series of China’s currency reforms with complete

the intricate silver dimes and coppers with standard

success.

This article was originally published in a special issue of the China Press – Silver Jubilee Edition 1936. The article concluded with several tables of statistics, showing the number of silver dollars, nickel coins, copper coins, and mint bars produced each month from February 1933 through July 1936. From the information published in this article and elsewhere, we can construct a table of the Directors of the Shanghai Central Mint: 1. Chung Wen-yueh

1920 – 1922 Note #1

2. Sa Fu-mao

1922

3. Luo Hung-nien

1922

4. Chu Yu-chi

1922 - 1924

5. T’ang Shou-min

1927 – 1928 N. #2

6. Kuo Piao (Kwok Bew)

1928 – Jan. 1932

7. Hsu Chi-ch’ing

Jan. 1932 – March 1932

8. Kuo Ch’eng-en (Z. U. Kwauk)

Sept. 1932 – April 1933 N. #3

9. Lu Hsueh-pu

April 1933 – August 1934

10. Ch’en Hsing (Jian H. Chen)

Feb. 1935 – April 1937 N. #4

11. His Te-ping (T. P. Hsi)

April 1937 – 1943 or later

12 Lott H. T. Wei

In office Jan. 1949. N. #5

Note 1. The China Yearbook 1929 says Fang Chi-fan was the first director of the mint in 1920. This name has not been found in other accounts of the mint’s history. Note 2. Work on the mint was suspended during 1924 – 1927. Note 3. Lott H. T. Wei was Acting Director March 1932 – September 1932. Note 4. Lott H. T. Wei was Acting Director August 1934 – February 1935. Note 5. It is unclear who the Director was from 1943 till 1949. Kann states that Lott Wei was Director of the mint in January 1949 when he visited the mint that month. Later that year, some of the machinery and some of the staff were moved to Taipei where a new Central Mint was established which is still operating today. The old mint building and some of its machinery was used to establish the Shanghai Mint of the Peoples Republic of China. This mint is also still in operation today.

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1931 年的中央造幣廠(即今上海造幣廠)

中央造幣廠的發展歷程 上海的現代化造幣廠為國家提供標準化硬幣 陳行(紹興) 中國雖然不是產銀國,卻是世界

熟悉的人來說,他們可能很驚訝,在

同。除此之外,有大量的仿製銀兩僅

上最大的銀消費國之一,僅次於印度。

1933 年前,中國有兩種銀質貨幣——

僅是為了做賬而造出來的。由於有大

在這個國家,現在所有流通的白銀,

銀兩和銀幣,它們都曾是流通貨幣,

量各式各樣的流通銀兩,且都被視為

幾乎都是從進口的銀條直接或間接地

兌換的匯率依據每日的浮動來定。

法定貨幣,計算它們之間的兌換率也

轉化而成的。銀錠在中國被長期用來

變得越來越複雜 ,同時給貨幣市場帶

作為物質交換的中介,而銀幣相對來

銀兩這種貨幣的形式繁多,根據

來了日益增加的不穩定性。結果,它

說是較晚才出現的。對於貨幣體系不

不同產地,它們的重量和成色各不相

給日常交易流程帶來了很大的阻礙。

96 《東亞泉志》第 10 期


Column 專欄

自然而然,在貨幣系統混亂的這種情

你不難看見同樣的銀幣在不同的

況下,人們迫切地期待着一個鑄幣廠

地方有不同的購買力。雖然中國貨幣

早日成立,使得有標準重量和成色的

市場的這種可悲的狀況,可以有許多

銀元可以替代銀兩和銀錠。

種 解 釋, 但 其 重 要 程 度 都 不 及 這 一 種 —— 那就是當時的中國缺少一個中

為了響應大眾成立鑄幣廠的呼籲, 廣 東 和 廣 西 的 張 之 洞(Chang Chih-

央的、有效管理的鑄幣廠來生產重量 和成色標準化的硬幣。

tung)總督在 1887 年主動向當時的 皇帝申請鑄造中國的硬幣,他很幸運

鑒於 1914 年世界大戰爆發後白銀

地獲得了皇帝的批准。那時,第一個

價格空前上漲,以及五花八門的銀幣

鑄幣廠在廣東的省會廣州成立了,不

造成的不理想的貨幣現狀,上海的金

過,直到 1890 年,這個新成立的鑄

融巨頭和銀行家們認識到建立上海造

幣廠鑄造的銀幣才在市場上首次亮相。

幣廠的重要性,建成之後以其來生產

其他省份的掌權者認為建鑄幣廠是一

新的標準銀幣,成為國家貨幣系統統

個前途光明的事業,在過後的幾年裡,

一的基準。

柯利弗德 • 休伊特 籌備辦公室成立後,他們提交了 一系列的計劃綱要,並等候着恰當時

他們都緊跟廣東的腳步建立起了鑄幣 當時的貨幣局局長周自齊(1871-

機被批准實施。美國人柯利弗德 • 休

1923 年)為此事向北京政府提交了申

伊特(Clifford Hewitt)先生被聘為造

請,並獲得批准。鐘文耀先生(1860-

幣廠的總工程師。但是,在財政枯竭

色設定任何標準,也沒有對這些省級

?) 被指定為上海造幣廠的第一任廠長。

的情況下,政府無力為造幣廠所需要

的鑄幣廠實施一點監控與管制。這些

籌備委員會由幾名主要來自銀行界的

的巨大資金撥款。這顯然讓造幣廠的

銀幣明顯地缺少統一的重量和含量,

成員組成,他們在上海銀行總會大樓

掌權者們別無選擇,只能向銀行界尋

由於它們都是為了提高省級稅收的目

設有辦事處,並且負責制定了購買土

求資金援助,而經過多次談判,上海

的而造的,結果是這些銀幣的購買力

地和機械的計劃以及造幣廠的建設工

的一家中國銀行集團才同意向他們提

參差不齊,各不相同。

作和評估預算,以助造幣廠早日建成。

供 250 萬美元的貸款,並用以鹽做抵

這標誌着 1920 年中央造幣廠的開始。

押的債券做擔保。

廠。 政府沒有給這些銀幣的重量和成

來自美國的現代化的工廠 在擁有了首次貸來的資金後,籌委會在蘇州河沿岸的

廠的工作。他全額還清了購買土地的貸款,通過美國貿易公

渡船路北端購置了一塊約 103 畝的土地作為造幣廠的建廠

司和華昌機械工程公司訂購了器械設備,並與建築承包商姚

基地。為了獲得最好的結果,他們邀請了技術專家進行總

成基簽訂了造幣廠大樓的建造協議。 雖然最初以為建築工

體規劃,因為建造造幣廠大樓需要對工廠管理有很多的瞭

程會在一年內完成,而機器可以在抵達時安裝,但因建廠實

解。

際開支遠遠超出原先預計,所以計劃未能實現。由於沒有任 何可用於支付的資金,預訂的器械設備到達上海後不能完成

然而,各省造幣廠的機器要麼過於陳舊無法投入使用,

交付,結果一切都停滯不前。

要麼產能過小無法滿足生產要求,造幣廠的領導們在總工 程師柯利弗德 • 休伊特先生的建議下,決定從美國訂購設

羅鴻年先生(1881- ?)在薩先生辭職後,接替了他的

備,與美國費城鑄幣廠的設備一樣,日產銀元能力達到 40

職位擔任造幣廠廠長。但不久之後,新任廠長也辭職,因

萬枚。

為他無法從中國銀行公會再貸款 340 萬美元。朱有濟先生 (1886- ?)頂替了羅先生空出來的職位,繼續為前任未能

1922 年,鐘文耀先生辭去上海造幣廠董事職務後,任 命薩福懋先生為他的繼任人。 新接任的廠長繼續展開造幣

談成的貸款而努力,並嘗試將貸款金額增加達到 350 萬美元, 再次以鹽債券做擔保。不幸的是,談判再次被中止,因為締

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約方不能同意這些條款。在這種情況下,財政部不得不暫

案和檔運送到保管部門。造幣廠的主工程師柯利弗德 • 休伊

停上海造幣廠的工作,並於 1924 年 8 月下令清理行政辦公

特,在他的合同到期後也離開了。幾年來,這些器械設備

室的事務。還要求把包括建築物、所有權、傢俱和設備在

被遺忘在一個貨倉裡,直到 1927 年以後,這個項目才得以

內的全部財產置於上海銀行公會的監管之下,並將所有檔

恢復。

造幣廠建立初期的概況 1927 年國民政府成立後,財政部

1924 年與造幣廠合同到期返回美國

試圖恢復在上海造幣廠的業務,並任

的前主工程師柯利弗德·休伊特先生

命唐壽民先生為廠長。雖然通過與上

也重新加入了造幣廠。造幣廠在 1929

海銀行公會的商談,唐先生收回了造

年竣工。韋先生被任命為造幣廠的第

幣廠的大樓和廠房,但造幣廠掌權者

一 副 廠 長, 一 年 後, 王 曉 賴(Wang

為了展現信用,讓上海銀行聯合會依

Hsiao-lai 音)先生被任命為第二副廠

舊保留着造幣廠的業權契據。為了兌

長。造幣廠成立了一個監管委員會,

現造幣廠所承擔的未償還的義務,財

讓他們參與所有調整未償還貸款和籌

政部與上海銀行聯合會簽訂了另一筆

備新貨幣相關的會議,在他們完成了

貸款,稱為解散貸款協定,其中第二

所交付的工作後,在 1929 年被解散。

條規定將造幣廠以前的債權轉讓給銀

不過,在郭先生任職期間,造幣廠的

行聯合會。造幣廠也解決了對華昌機

舊名改成了現在的中國中央造幣廠,

械工程公司交付資金的拖欠問題。但

為了實現統一的貨幣體系這個最終目

與此同時,國家財政庫被迫佔用了巨

的,省級造幣廠被命令暫時中止作業。

郭標 出辭呈,副廠長韋憲章先生從此至 9

額的軍費開支,以至於沒有額外資金 1932 年 1 月,徐寄癲先生(又名 C.

月擔任了代理廠長,在秋天郭承恩先

M. 徐 1880- ?)被任命接替因病而辭

生被任命為造幣廠廠長。他受到時任

1928 年,永安百貨公司的總經理

職的郭先生。 然而,造幣廠的事務因

財政部長宋子文的指示,開設一個製

郭標先生(或稱 Goch Bew)在唐先

為中日在閘北區的敵對活動又再次陷

造標準化銀幣的造幣廠來代替銀兩。

生辭職之後,被任命為他的繼任人。

入了停滯狀態。許先生于同年 3 月提

來協助上海造幣廠的發展。

銀錠廢除,銀幣成為唯一的貨幣單位 1932 年 7 月,一個名譽委員會被任命去就銀錠和銀兩

關於造幣費用,委員會原本打算定在 1.75%。 後來他

的廢除進程和引進新標準的銀幣,並以此作為中國唯一的

們發現不得不承認,這個百分比過低,所以最終 2.25%作

貨幣提出建議。委員會與我會面相坐,他們由六名成員組

為一個適當的成本被採用了。但這對政府來說負擔過重,

成,中外銀行家數量相等。 經過漫長的審議後,委員會建

政府認為有必要將銀幣的含銀量從 89/% 降至 88/%,同時

議將新的國家貨幣稱為元,重量應為 26.6971 克銀,成色

稍微減少它們的重量。從實際情況來看,與老上海銀兩等

為 888.8‰,含 23.493448 克純銀,相當於 0.75608 金衡

價的新元(包括 2.25%的造幣成本)為 71.50 銀兩,這個

盎司。

數字代表新銀元銀含量的內在價值,加上造幣成本的 2.5%。

根據上面的資料,要確定新元和老上海銀兩的比例是

然而,1933 年春,國民政府費了九牛二虎之力後,成

不難的,後者含有 33.599 克的優質白銀。 將 23.493448

功地使銀元替代了舊的銀兩,成為了標準的貨幣,並頒佈

除以 33.599,商為 0.6992305,即是新國幣以老上海銀兩

了《標準銀元鑄造法》,從而實現了中國歷史上一次意義

來衡量的價值,不包括造幣成本。

重大的貨幣改革。全國範圍內有了統一而標準的法定貨幣。 同年 3 月 1 日,造幣廠正式開業。

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造幣階段的概況 1933 年 4 月,在前廠長郭先生辭職後,呂學普先生接 任了他的職務。在他的管理下,所有執行部門都有了很大 的改進。為了通過分工來保證效率,技術部門被新的三個 部門取代,分別是化驗、熔煉和鑄造部門,而工程師溫清玉、 黃華和鐘謀銀被任命同時兼任部門領導,他們三人曾在費

中央造幣廠生產的民國二十一年三鳥幣

城造幣廠有過實際操練。在美國柯利弗德 • 休伊特先生回國 後,丹佛造幣廠領導及美國財政部所屬造幣廠的廠長羅伯 特 •J• 格蘭特先生,被聘為顧問。在他到任之前,副廠長韋 憲章(Lott H. T. Wei)由財政部任命代表他擔任主工程師。 如果各位工程師與美國顧問的合作、器械方面經濟又有效 的結合沒有給原造幣廠的工作帶來一點改進,那麼造幣廠 也就不可能在一天 10 小時的工作時間裡,在半年後日產量 就獲得超過 25 萬枚銀元。對化驗、熔煉和鑄造部門一直以 來的工作分析報告進行比較研究後,我們發現僅僅一年的

中央造幣廠生產的民國二十二年壹圆銀幣

時間造幣廠各方面的改善和進步令人實在非常驚訝。 白銀由中國中央銀行獨家提供,所有需要被轉換為國 家的法定貨幣白銀應當事先登記。

取一些來做測試。這些作為樣本的銀元和銀條會再次在委 員會的實驗室進行測定和稱重。如果發現任何不符合法定 要求的成色和標準重量,這一整批將被拒絕出廠並送返到

90% 以上的通過中央銀行提交給造幣廠的白色金屬,

熔爐重新打造。但是,如果它們通過了測試,委員會就會

是以銀兩的形式儲存在國內和國外的銀行機構保險庫裡的。

發出一張合格證書,貼在對應的盒子上並以諮詢委員會的

除了銀兩之外,還有 1280 萬盎司的純銀是以其他形式提供

印章封好。令人高興的是,費城造幣廠和孟買造幣廠的檢

給造幣廠的,比如銀塊、被廢除的銀元、輔幣等,這些占

測報告顯示新標準銀幣可以說是接近完美的;第一份報告

了整個供銀量的 9% 左右。

是由顧問羅伯特·J·格蘭特(Robert J. Grant)於 1933 年提交,而第二份是由香港上海滙豐銀行有限公司(上海

在取消了銀錠之後,銀元需求量很大。 當時造幣廠受 生產能力所限無法為貨幣市場供應足夠的貨幣。為回應中

分部)的經理在 1934 年 12 月諮詢委員會舉辦的會議上提 交的。

外銀行清算過程的要求,鑄幣廠根據《鑄幣法案》的規定, 於 1933 年 9 月開始生產成色為 999‰ 的“造幣廠銀條 A”。

1934 年 8 月,由於身體抱恙魯先生辭職。韋副廠長再

而這類銀條到 1934 年 2 月就被停發了,銀行家們更偏愛另

次被任命為代理廠長,一直到 1935 年 2 月,接着我(陳

一種類型,成色為 880‰ 的“造幣廠銀條 B”,這類銀條

行,健菴,1890 – 1953 年 ) 由孔部長任命為造幣廠的廠

由 1933 年 11 月開始生產。這類造幣廠銀條的含銀量正好

長。與此同時,中國正處於白銀短缺的狀態。 美國政府於

是 1000 個新標準銀幣中的含銀量。

1934 年 6 月採納的白銀購買計劃,世界白銀價格由此被人 為提高了,白銀存量的緊缺給中國造成了嚴重的危害。上

1933 年 6 月,政府成立了中央造幣廠諮詢委員會,財

海的白銀因價格飛漲而大量湧入到海外。從 1934 年 8 月

政部長孔祥熙博士是前任董事,他邀請了一些著名的銀行

開始的白銀外流的規模是前所未有的。 儘管 1934 年 10 月

家和商人加入。該委員會的主要職能是:1. 推薦專家測評員;

15 日開始徵收的出口稅和靈活的平衡稅讓外流有所放緩,

2. 審計賬簿和賬目;3. 測試銀元和銀條;4. 提出改善造幣

但 1934 年的白銀出口淨額為 259 941 414 美元。在這麼短

廠的計劃。所以在銀元和銀條進入流通前,它們需要通過

的時間內,流失的大量白銀嚴重地影響到了造幣廠的運作。

一個測試。諮詢委員會的成員,在造幣廠裡配有他們自己

為了使造幣廠持續經營,大家不得不去找其他類型的白銀,

的測試實驗室,他們會從一天新造的銀元或銀條裡隨機抽

上海的銀兩儲備僅夠造幣廠以每月近 800 萬美元的產值運

The Tenth Issue of JEAN

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營兩個月。結果,銀條和舊銀幣紛紛被送去造幣廠重新打造。 銀兩的廢除已經贏得了全國的支持,當時財政部長孔 祥熙博士還在孜孜不倦地籌備着貨幣體系更進一步的改革, 他想以十進位的標準輔幣來代替複雜的銀幣和銅板。 於是,鑄幣廠接受指令開始打造 2 角、1 角、5 分的鎳 幣和 1 分、0.5 分的銅幣,它們在 1936 年 2 月首次向公眾

民國二十五年孫中山像布圖二十分、十分、伍分鎳幣

露面。這標誌着中國的一系列貨幣改革取得進一步的成功。 編後語:這篇文章最初發表在《中國新聞 - 二十五周年紀念版》1936 年的一期特刊中。文中總結的數個統計表展示了 自 1933 年 2 月以來到 1936 年 7 月,造幣廠每月製造的銀幣、鎳幣、銅幣和造幣廠銀條產量。 從這篇文章和別處發佈的資訊來看,我們可以建立一個歷屆上海造幣廠廠長的名單: 1. 鐘文耀 1920-1922 年 N. # 1; 2. 薩福懋 1922 年; 3. 羅鴻年 1922 年; 4. 朱有濟 1922 - 1924 年; 5. 唐壽民 1927 - 1928 年 N. # 2; 6. 郭標(Kwok Bew)1928 - 1932 年 1 月; 7. 徐寄癲 1932 年 1 月 - 1932 年 3 月; 8. 郭承恩(Z. U. Kwauk)1932 年 9 月 - 1933 年 4 月 N. # 3; 9. 盧學溥 1933 年 4 月 - 1934 年 8 月; 10. 陳行(Jian H. Chen)1935 年 2 月 - 1937 年 4 月 N. # 4; 11. 席德柄(T. P. Hsi)1937 年 4 月 - 1943 年或更晚; 12. 韋憲章 1949 年 1 月在職 N. # 5。

注 1 1929 年 《中國年鑒》 稱方志凡 (音 Fang Chi-fan)是造幣廠1920 年的第一任廠長。 這個名字尚未在造幣廠其他相關文獻裡找到。

注 2 造幣廠的業務在 1924 - 1927 年間暫停。

注 3 韋憲章 1932 年 3 月至 1932 年 9 月任代理董事。

注 4 韋憲章 1934 年 8 月至 1935 年 2 月任代理主任。

注 5 目前還不清楚1943 年至 1949 年間造幣廠廠長是誰擔任的。 耿愛德稱, 當他在 1949 年1月拜訪造幣廠時韋憲章是當時的廠長。 那年晚些時候,部分器械和工作人員被遷移到了臺北,在那裡有人建立了一個新的中央造幣廠,今天仍在運作。舊的造幣廠大廈及 其部分器械被用來建造中華人民共和國的上海造幣廠。這個造幣廠如今也仍在運作。

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United States Proof Coins for the Philippines 1903-1908 Steve Feller (USA) The Philippines started to be administered by the United States in 1899 after the Spanish-American War that began in 1898. This included the issuance of paper and metal currency. The rate of exchange was 2 Philippine pesos to the United States dollar. Coins were minted by the United States, first at the Philadelphia and San Francisco mints and later at the Manilla mint after the latter opened in 1920. During 194445, as World War II was winding down, Philippine coins were minted at the three mints of the American mainland.

pic. 1 half centavo of 1903, image by Heritage Auctions HA.com

Proofs were struck from 1903 to 1908 and, in general they are somewhat rare. They were all struck at Philadelphia. Shown below are high grade proofs from this period and include the bronze half centavo of 1903 (pic. 1), the 90 % silver one peso of 1904 (pic. 2), and the 90 % silver 50 centavos coins of 1906 (pic. 3). The silver coins changed in silver contents as follows: • 1903-1906, all silver proof coins were struck in 90 % silver and 10 % coper. • 1907-08 all silver proof coins below one peso were struck in 75 % silver and 25 % copper. • 1907-08 silver proof pesos were struck in 80% silver and 20 % copper.

pic. 2 one peso of 1904, image by Heritage Auctions HA.com

pic. 3 50 centavos coins of 1906, image by Heritage Auctions HA.com

100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 1903-1906

1907-1908 (below one peso)

1907-1908

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The following table lists the known mintages of these proofs. The total number of proof coins minted was 37,550. All proofs are scarce and yet all are fairly available with the exception of the 1907 proof peso. The 1907 proof peso is valued at $160,000 in the 2018 Red Book in proof-63; as only 2 of these coins are known. For the most part the proofs coins of the Philippines are

Year 1903

1904

1905

1906

1907 1908

Denomination Half Centavo One Centavo Five Centavos Ten Centavos Twenty Centavos Fifty Centavos One Peso Half Centavo One Centavo Five Centavos Ten Centavos Twenty Centavos Fifty Centavos One Peso Half Centavo One Centavo Five Centavos Ten Centavos Twenty Centavos Fifty Centavos One Peso Half Centavo One Centavo Five Centavos Ten Centavos Twenty Centavos Fifty Centavos One Peso One Peso Half Centavo One Centavo Five Centavos Ten Centavos Twenty Centavos Fifty Centavos One Peso

Mintage 2558 2558 2558 2558 2558 2558 2558 1335 1335 1335 1335 1335 1335 1335 471 471 471 471 471 471 471 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 2 500 500 500 500 500 500 500

Table of Philippine proof coins from 1903 to 1908.

102 《東亞泉志》第 10 期

somewhat rarer than their counterpart regular United States Issues, see Table 2 below for non-gold regular United States Proofs for the corresponding years that the Philippine proofs were struck. and compare with Table 1. Most large shows and many auctions feature the Philippine proofs. They make a great niche for collecting and studying.

Year 1903

1904

1905

1906

1907

1908

Denomination One Cent Five Cents Ten Cents Twenty-Five Cents Fifty Cents One Dollar One Cent Five Cents Ten Cents Twenty-Five Cents Fifty Cents One Dollar One Cent Five Cents Ten Cents Twenty-Five Cents Fifty Cents One Cent Five Cents Ten Cents Twenty-Five Cents Fifty Cents One Cent Five Cents Ten Cents Twenty-Five Cents Fifty Cents One Cent Five Cents Ten Cents Twenty-Five Cents Fifty Cents

Mintage 1790 1790 755 755 755 755 1817 1817 670 670 670 650 2152 2152 727 727 727 1725 1725 675 675 675 1475 1475 575 575 575 1620 1620 545 545 545

Table of United States proof coins from 1903 to 1908.


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1903-1908 年間美屬菲律賓的新鑄樣幣 史蒂夫·費勒(美國)

始於 1898 年的美西戰爭結束之後,菲律賓於 1899 年開始由美國管理。菲律賓的紙幣及金屬貨 幣的發行也受到美國的管轄。美元兌換菲律賓比 索比率為 1:2。 這些錢幣由美國鑄造,首先是在費城和三藩市 的鑄幣廠,1920 年馬尼拉鑄幣廠成立之後便由馬 尼拉鑄幣廠打造。1944 年至 1945 年間,第二次 世界大戰慢慢臨近尾聲,這些菲律賓錢幣就由上 述美國本土的三個造幣廠打造。

圖 1 1903 年半分銅幣樣幣(正、反) 在海瑞德拍賣行拍攝

這些樣幣全都是由費城造幣廠於 1903 年至 1908 年間打造,且一般來說並不常見。 以下顯示的是這一時期的優質樣幣照片,其 中包括 1903 年半分銅幣樣幣(圖 1)、1904 年 1 比索銀幣樣幣(含銀量 90%,圖 2)以及 1906 年 50 分銀幣樣幣 ( 含銀量 90%,圖 3)。

圖 2 1904 年 1 比索銀幣樣幣(正、反) 海瑞德拍賣行拍攝

銀幣含銀量變化如下(圖 4): •

1903 年 至 1906 年 的 銀 質 樣 幣 由 90% 銀 和

10% 銅打造而成。 •

1907 年至 1908 年所有面值 1 比索以下的銀

質樣幣由 75% 銀和 25% 銅打造。 •

1907 年至 1908 年比索樣幣成分是 80% 銀和 圖 3 1906 年 50 分銀幣樣幣(正、反) 海瑞德拍賣行拍攝

20% 銅。

100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 1903-1906 銀質樣幣

圖4

1907-1908 1比索以下 的銀質樣幣

1907-1908 比索樣幣

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以下表格列出了這些已知樣幣的發行量。 1903 至 1908 年間樣幣總數為 37 550 枚,所有樣幣都

一般來說,菲律賓樣幣多多少少要比美國定期發行的

很稀有,除了 1907 年的比索樣幣之外,其他樣幣幾乎都可

同期幣更加珍貴。通過比較表 2 美國的非黃金樣幣與表 1

購得。2018 年紅皮書估價 1907 年比索樣幣(PF 63)高達

菲律賓的同期樣幣的發行量,我們就可得出這一點。絕大

16 萬美元,且僅 2 枚;1907 年比索樣幣鮮為人知。

多數展會和拍賣會都是以菲律賓樣幣為主題,這不失為一 個學習和收藏的好機會。

表 1 1903-1908 年菲律賓樣幣發行量表 年份 1903

1904

1905

1906

1907 1908

面额 半分 一分 五分 十分 二十分 五十分 一比索 半分 一分 五分 十分 二十分 五十分 一比索 半分 一分 五分 十分 二十分 五十分 一比索 半分 一分 五分 十分 二十分 五十分 一比索 一比索 半分 一分 五分 十分 二十分 五十分 一比索

104 《東亞泉志》第 10 期

發行量 (枚) 2 558 2 558 2 558 2 558 2 558 2 558 2 558 1 335 1 335 1 335 1 335 1 335 1 335 1 335 471 471 471 471 471 471 471 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 2 500 500 500 500 500 500 500

表 2 1903 至 1908 年美國樣幣發行量表 年份 1903

1904

1905

1906

1907

1908

面额 1 美分 5 美分 10 美分 25 美分 50 美分 1 美元 1 美分 5 美分 10 美分 25 美分 50 美分 1 美元 1 美分 5 美分 10 美分 25 美分 50 美分 1 美分 5 美分 10 美分 25 美分 50 美分 1 美分 5 美分 10 美分 25 美分 50 美分 1 美分 5 美分 10 美分 25 美分 50 美分

發行量 (枚) 1 790 1 790 755 755 755 755 1 817 1 817 670 670 670 650 2 152 2 152 727 727 727 1 725 1 725 675 675 675 1 475 1 475 575 575 575 1 620 1 620 545 545 545


Column 專欄

Chinese Books in the Library of the American Numismatic Society Howard F. Bowker (USA)

The resources of the library of the American Numismatic Society of New York in the fields of American, European, and Near Eastern coinages are well known to numismatists, but its books on Far Eastern numismatics appear to be terra incognita. Only a few are listed in the index of the library, and it would seem that no one has made a study of this section, particularly the books in Chinese and Japanese. The books on Far Eastern numismatics in European languages are adequately indexed, but the same cannot be said of those in the languages of the Far East. The notes and listing given herewith were made in the course of a general investigation of the resources of the library in the field of Far Eastern numismatics, incidental to the preparation of a bibliography of Chinese

numismatics. No survey of the Japanese publications was attempted, as the writer lacks both the interest and knowledge in that field. The library has numerous numismatic books in Japanese, many of which treat of Chinese numismatics. For hundreds of years the Japanese have considered the coins of China, together with many other objects of Chinese production, such as paintings, bronzes, porcelains and pottery, as objects of vertu for the collector, and this is reflected in the many books and periodicals descriptive of collections of Chinese coins published in Japan. As previously stated, this is outside the preview of his report; but it is hoped that someone more adequately equipped will undertake the cataloging of the Japanese books in the Society’s library.

Carved wood netsuke representing a string of cash. Chinese ink simulating a knife coin. Ivory netsuke reproducing a pile of coins. Sword guard decorated with coin motif. Decorative panel with coins inlaid. Background, cloth with coin design. Most of the volumes pertaining to Far Eastern numismatics in both occidental and oriental languages in the library are from the collection of the late John Reilly, Jr. It appears that his collection was the repository of the

major part' of the library of Henry Alexander Ramsden, after his death in 1915. Mr. Reilly was an omnivorous collector of everything and anything in any way relating to Far Eastern numismatics. In addition to coins and

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books on coins, his collection included objects of all kinds in which the coin motif was used in the design or decoration. These include carved figurines in wood and ivory, netsuke, inro, porcelain and cloisonne dishes, brass and bronze statuettes, pictures, fabrics, and many other objects too numerous to mention. These, thru the gift of his daughter, Miss Francis S. Reilly, are a permanent part of the Society's collection, and are housed in the Reilly Room on the main floor of the Museum. Over a period of many years he made extensive purchases of coins and books on coins in the United States and abroad, in a somewhat narrower field than that included in the interests of John Robinson of Salem, Massachusetts, whose collection of coins and books on oriental numismatics is deposited in the Essex Institute of that city. While Robinson collected the entire continent of Asia and the adjacent islands, Reilly confined his collections to China and the adjoining countries. Ramsden seems to have been the source of much of the material in both collections. He had a system of sending coins first to Robinson, who took his pick and then sent the balance to Howland Wood in New York, who then arranged that Reilly should purchase those which fitted into his collection. This is fully described in a volume of letters emanating from Ramsden addressed to Robinson during the years 1909 to 1914, copies of which are in the libraries of both the Essex Institute and the American Numismatic Society under the title "Notes and Observations on Ancient Chinese Coins.” After Ramsden’s demise it was found that the terms of his will gave the British Museum the first refusal of his extensive collection of Chinese and chinoid coins. When that institution failed to avail itself of this proviso, the coins and books came to the United States:, where they ultimately were absorbed into the Reilly collection. Ramsden had purchased the numismatic books of F. A. de Villard of the Chinese Maritime Customs, and a number of books from this library are in the Salem and New York libraries. De Villard was a collector and student of Chinese coins, and was the designer of the earlier Chinese postage stamps. While the Robinson collection has only a few books in Chinese, Reilly’s library appears to have absorbed everything in this line that was offered, including duplicates. The Salem collection is far richer in books and periodicals in Japanese than in Chinese, while the New York collection has a very presentable showing in both fields.

1

Most of the books in Chinese on numismatics contain many illustrations of coins, which for the most part are arranged in chronological order. Consequently they are useful as keys to the correct arrangement of collections of these coins. Chinese collectors appear to have reveled in the discovery of differences in the manner of forming the characters which almost invariably are found on Chinese coins, and many are the interesting tales told connected with these distinctions. Many of these books are catalogs of renowned collections which may have taken generations in the making. They illustrate many of the minor varieties which are seldom shown in works by western authors, and this feature alone is invaluable because of the well-known adage frequently heard and invariably attributed to the Chinese, that “one picture is worth a thousand words.11 In Chinese numismatic books the “thousand words” are conspicuous principally by their absence, the descriptive matter being usually very meager, but the lack of text is more than offset by the illustrations, which are usually well executed woodcuts or lithographic reproductions taken from rubbings of coins. However, one soon learns to attribute coins correctly and with little loss of time, by the use of the Chinese texts in conjunction with those to be found in English translations. Works on Chinese coins are known to have been written as far back as the Liang dynasty 梁代 2151891 (A.D. 502,557), but no copies of these works have survived. They are known only by references found in later works. The earliest text which has come down without emendation is Ch’uan Chih 泉志 1 by Hung Tsun 洪遵 or 景巖 , who was given the posthumous title of 'Wen-an 文 安 (literary and tranquil), which was originally published in A.D. 1149. This title may be translated as “History of Currency” and of which the library has two editions, the text of which are identic cal but which differ slightly in the pagination of the parts. Both contain fifteen chuan or chapters, the 1874 edition being arranged in four sections, while the other is bound in two volumes. There is also a third copy which is a reprint of the 1874 edition in four sections on inferior paper and without the customary t'ao 套 or cover.

Superior figures refer to A Bibliography on Far Eastern Numismatics by A B Coole, 1940.

106 《東亞泉志》第 10 期


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美國錢幣學會圖書館裏的中國書籍 霍華德·佛蘭克林·包克(美國) 紐約美國錢幣學會圖書館館藏的關於美國、歐洲及近

一本中國錢幣學的參考書目,不過卻未打算對日本的出版

東錢幣的書籍為廣大錢幣學家所熟知,但是館中關於遠東

物進行調查整理,一是因為筆者對這一領域興致缺缺,二

錢幣學的書籍似乎鮮為人知。圖書館的書籍索引中也只列

是自己也缺乏這方面的相關知識。圖書館中擁有大量的日

出了幾本,看起來似乎很少有人去研究遠東錢幣書籍,尤

文錢幣學書籍,其中很多內容都涉及到中國的錢幣。幾百

其是中國和日本錢幣這一領域。以歐洲語言撰寫的遠東錢

年來,日本人一直將中國的錢幣以及中國的其他如書畫、

幣學書籍索引齊全,但以遠東當地語言撰寫的那些書籍卻

青銅器及陶瓷器之類的產品視為頂級藏品,這一點在很多

並非如此。

日本出版的關於中國錢幣的書籍及雜誌中均有體現。如前 所述,這些內容未在報告的概述中有所體現,但筆者還是

此處附上的標注和名單都是在一次對館中遠東錢幣學

希望能有有識之士可以將館中的日本書籍分類整理出來。

書籍的普查中整理而成的。此外,筆者當時還準備整理出

一串錢幣樣式的木質雕花吊墜;刀幣形狀的中國墨;一堆錢幣形狀的象牙吊墜;帶有錢幣紋樣的劍柄;內嵌錢幣的 裝飾品以及布料中有錢幣圖案。 圖書館內大多以西方語言或當地語言撰寫的遠東錢幣

物品,比如木質或象牙制雕刻人像、吊墜、日本根付印籠、

學數目都是來自小約翰·雷利的藏品。雷利於 1915 年去世

瓷器、景泰藍碗碟、黃銅及青銅雕像、字畫、織物以及其

之後,他的藏品成了亨利·亞曆山大·拉姆斯登圖書館儲

他許多物件,在此不再一一贅述。這些藏品,經由其女兒

藏室的主要組成部分。雷利的涉獵廣泛,任何以任何方式

弗朗西斯·S·雷利的捐贈,成為了錢幣學會博物館的永久

與遠東錢幣學有關的物品都是他收藏的對象。除錢幣及錢

藏品,被陳列在博物館主樓層裏的雷利廳裏。

幣書籍以外,他的藏品還包括所有帶有錢幣設計或裝飾的

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多年以前,雷利在美國和國外購買了大量錢幣及錢幣 相關書籍,但範圍沒有馬薩諸塞州塞勒姆的約翰·羅賓遜

中國最早的錢幣書籍可以追溯到梁代(公元 502 年至 557 年),但是當時的作品並未存留下來。

的藏品那麼寬泛。羅賓遜的錢幣及東方錢幣學的書籍藏品 現存於埃塞克斯博物館。羅賓遜的藏品涵蓋亞洲及周邊島

這些作品只能在此後的作品參考書目中尋到蹤影。現

嶼,而雷利的收藏則僅限於中國及其鄰國。二人的許多藏

存未加修訂的最早的關於錢幣的文字作品是洪遵(或景巖)

品似乎都來自於拉姆斯登。他在這方面有自己的一套體系,

撰寫的《泉志》1,出版於公元前 1149 年,作者的諡號為“文

先是把錢幣寄給羅賓遜,等他挑完之後就把剩下的寄給紐

安”。本書的書名被翻譯為 “History of Currency”(錢幣

約的霍蘭德·伍德,然後伍德會將錢幣帶給雷利,讓他從

的歷史),現共有兩個版本藏於美國錢幣學會的圖書館。

中購買適合收藏的藏品。這一套流程被完整的記錄在 1909-

兩個版本的文字部分完全一致,只在頁碼方面略有不同。

1914 年間拉姆斯登寫給羅賓遜的一批書信中。這批信件的

兩本書都分為十五卷,1874 年的版本分為四部,而另一個

複製品現以“中國古幣的評論與注釋”為題藏於埃塞克斯

版本只有兩部。此外還有一本 1894 年版本的複製本,也分

博物館及美國錢幣學會。拉姆斯登去世以後,人們發現他

為四個部分,紙質略差,無傳統使用的書套。

的遺囑授予大英博物館優先購買自己的中國錢幣藏品的權 利。但大英博物館未能利用這一權利,於是這錢幣及書籍 就被運到了美國,並最終被收納到了雷利的藏品裏。拉姆 斯登曾經購買過中國海關 F·A·德·維拉德錢幣學書籍, 一些同一來源的書籍現藏於塞勒姆及紐約的圖書館。德·維 拉德是一位中國錢幣藏家和研究學者,也是中國早期郵票 的設計者之一。羅賓遜收藏的中文書籍不多,但雷利的圖 書館裏這方面的書籍似乎應有盡有,其中還包括書籍的副 本。塞勒姆館藏中的日文書籍與雜誌要遠遠多於中文,而 紐約的藏品中這兩方面的書籍都非常充足。 大多數中文的錢幣學書籍都附有許多錢幣的插圖,這 些插圖又大多以時間順序分類排列。因此,這些插圖在糾 正這些錢幣藏品的時間順序排列方面非常有用。中國錢幣 藏家似乎熱衷於發現錢幣上漢字在書寫形式上的不同之處, 中國錢幣上經常會出現這種差異,其中很多差異後面還存 在有趣的故事。這些書籍很多都是某些知名藏品的目錄, 其編寫整理工作得花費幾代人的時間。他們將很多稀有錢 幣種類製成插圖,這些內容很少在西方作家的作品中出現。 僅僅這個特點本身就非常難能可貴,正如我們經常聽到的 那句中國格言所說:“一圖勝千言”。在中文撰寫的錢幣 學書籍中,文字由於稀少而顯得格外引人注目,敘述性的 表達通常非常貧乏,但插圖的存在大大抵消了這一缺點。 這些插圖通常是製作精美的木刻畫或者錢幣拓片的平版畫 複製品。但是,人們很快學會通過使用中文描敘的文字和 發現的英文譯文正確地將錢幣進行分類整理的方法,而且 不會浪費很多時間。

1

出自 1940 年 A B 庫勒所著的《遠東錢幣學參考書目》

108 《東亞泉志》第 10 期


TOP CHINESE COINS 2nd Edition 《中國近代機製幣精品鑒賞》第二版 Price( 售價 ):US $100 Plus Postage( 不含郵費 )

In June 2010, Top Chinese Coins Vol. 1 was published by iAsure Group and the The Journal of East Asian Numismatics (JEAN). Top Chinese Coins Vol. 1 offers an in-depth summary of the final results from the Top Chinese Coins Survey, a landmark event held in winter 2009 to search for the 10 most valuable Chinese struck coins. Coins submitted for review were judged by their rarity, historical importance, artistic appeal, condition, market value and group identity. The deluxe bound book offered details on the Top Chinese Coins Survey as well as high-quality pictures, price trends, degrees of rarity and historical context of the 60 top Modern Chinese Coins.

Top Chinese Coins , Vol. 1 had a limited print run of 1000, leaving many numismatists and enthusiasts unable to purchase a copy of their own. In response to high demand, iAsure has made certain that the second volume which released in June 2011 will be available to a much wider audience. While Top Chinese Coins Vol. 1 included gold, silver and copper coins, the second volume highlights the great range of silver coins. It will also add summaries from auction sales that list pricing, degree of rarity, pedigree and grades. 2010年6月,愛秀集團和《東亞泉志》出版了《中國

版的基礎上出版第二版。第二版于2011年6月發行,相比

近代機製幣精品鑒賞》第一版。該書對60枚中國最頂級

第一版60枚錢幣囊括金幣、銀幣和銅元,第二版專注於

的近代機製幣進行了全面、深入、係統的研究與展現。

60枚中國近代機製銀幣,定名為《中國近代機製銀幣精

其內容涵蓋高清錢幣圖像、流傳脈絡、拍賣紀錄、市場

品鑒賞•銀幣版》 (簡稱《銀幣鑒賞》)。

趨勢、珍稀度解析和背景故事等,在錢幣業界引起巨大 的轟動和反響,備受讚譽,被譽為“全景式展現中國珍 稀機製幣的重要鑒賞書籍”。

由於頁面所限,第二版刊載60枚中國銀幣精品的重 要資訊,在第一版的基礎上有多方面改進和加強。《銀 幣鑒賞》在最受歡迎和好評的照片拍攝和排版下更多功

儘管因時間蒼促、經驗不足,書中存在一些缺陷和

夫,並提供更多詳細、準確和豐富的近期拍賣成交價格

錯誤,但仍得到讀者的肯定和欣賞。由於該書僅限量印

記錄、歷史評估、珍稀度和譜係說明。所有內容均為中

刷1000本,無法滿足廣大錢幣愛好者的需求。經多位資

英雙語,彩色精裝印刷。第一版中有關錢幣背景的“故

深錢幣專家、學者、收藏家建議,愛秀集團決定在第一

事閱讀”部分將以附件方式另行印刷成冊。

If required, please contact Champion Auction 如果需要請與我們聯繫冠軍拍賣公司 Tel:021-6213 0771 Email: jeanzg@163.com


Chopmarked Coins - A History 《戳記幣簡史》 Colin Gullberg 高林

Price ( 售價 ): US $50 Plus Postage ( 不含郵費 ) The book Chopmarked Coins- A History by Colin Gullberg is funded by iAsure Group. The softcover book is 187 pages in length, 210mm×285mm, fourcolor printing. It covers the history of foreign silver coins that circulated in China from 1600 to 1935 and contains images of some 150 coins. Gullberg includes firstperson accounts, summaries of all modern sources of knowledge on the subject and scans from a shroff’s handbook (circa 1890). It is the first English- language book on the subject since 1990 and only the second English language book on the subject.

愛秀集團贊助出版發行的 戳記幣英文專著《戳記幣簡 史》為軟裝本,正文內容187 頁,開本210mm×285mm, 四色印刷,闡述了1600年至 1935年間中國流通的外國戳記 銀幣概況,作者高林先生採用 第一人稱敘述,總結了現代有 關戳記幣的詳盡知識,並配有 某錢莊的手冊(約1890年)掃 描插圖和150多張戳記幣高清 圖片。本書是1990年之後的第 一本戳記幣英文專著,也是有 史以來的第二本戳記幣英文專 著。

Chinese And Foreign Papermoney Errors 《華洋怪鈔—中外錯體紙幣賞析圖鉴》 David Chio 趙康池 Aguang Chan 陳耀光

Price ( 售價 ):MOP $300; RMB 240; US $30 Plus Postage ( 不含郵費 ) In December 2015, this book was released by Macau Numismatic Society and edited by David Chio and Aguang Chan. A total of 1,000 copies was printed, 200 in hard cover and 800 soft cover. The book is 323 pages of full color A4 size 210×285 mm and features over 300 error notes and 800 photos. Notes from Chin dynasty to modern times and more than 10 countries and region is covered. The books also cover causes of errors, background information on the printing process and authenticity of errors. This is the first book in Chinese to feature this type of information on error notes and its collection.

该书由澳門錢幣學會於2015年 12月出版,趙康池、陳耀光編著。 印行1000冊,其中精裝本200冊, 平裝本800冊。是書全彩精印,小 A4开本,210mm×285mm,323 頁,選錄了中外錯體紙幣300多 種,圖片800多張,涵蓋中國自清 末到現今使用的紙幣,涉及中外十 多個國家和地區。本書對中外錯 體、錯版、變體等紙幣的成因、歷 史背景和辨偽,實事求是地作了係 統的、科學的分析與歸納,並介紹 了印鈔基本步驟和印鈔過程中所產 生的“另類”紙幣,補充了不少紙 幣收藏的基礎知識。可以說,本書 是首本對錯體紙幣進行全方位論述 的著作。

If required, please contact Champion Auction 如果需要請聯繫冠軍拍賣公司 Tel: 021-6213 0771 Email: jeanzg@163.com


Appreciation of Modern Precious Metal Coins in China (Volume 1-5), edited by Wang Shihong, a famous Chinese gold and silver coins collector has been issued recently. This series of books were published by Encyclopedia of China Publishing House (ECPH), supervised by Coin Collection Committee, the branch of China Association of Collectors(CAC), and printed by Shanghai Artron Graphic Arts Company Limited. Ma Delun, former deputy governor of the People’s Bank of China, wrote the forward, and Dai Zhiqiang, the first curator of China Numismatic Museum, wrote a report for this series. When it comes to the main purpose of this book, the chief editor Wang Shihong says, “It is hoped that this series of books can provide relevant knowledge of modern gold and silver coins in China comprehensively and systematically and carry forward the excellent culture of our motherland, so that readers can have a more particular knowledge of the history and connotations of gold and silver coins, and better appreciate their artistic value.” He also hopes to attract more enthusiasts to participate in the investment and collection of gold and silver coins, gradually expand the size of collecting team, improve the brand effect of Chinese gold and silver coins and enhance their influence at home and abroad in order to realize a faster development of Chinese gold and silver coin industry.” Writing this series of books, Appreciation of Modern Precious Metal Coins in China (Volume 1-5), is a systematic project, so we set up the expert advisory committee and the editorial board. It took the Chinese professional elite team more than five years to compile these books. This series of books reveal the development of modern precious metal coins in China through the exclusive interviews with the decision-makers, designers, carvers, and coin collectors, as well as a large number of firsthand information rarely known by the people. This series of books is an encyclopedia of modern precious metal coins in China. With unique academic perspective and simple words, this series gives a full explanation of processes of project selection, design, production and so on, and also

Contact Information (for purchasing purposes): Domestic

Shanghai Hong’an Culture Communication Co. Ltd. Pay before delivery. Payment should be remitted to Hongkou subbranch of Shanghai branch of the Bank of Communications. The post office remittance is also acceptable. Account Number: 310066030018170238495 Contact Person & Phone Number: Luo Fei, 17717536767

International Price: 160USD (without postage)

Contact Person: Champiom Auction Phone Number: 021-62130771 Email: championghka@gmail.com

Appreciation of Modern Precious Metal Coins in China (Volume 1-5)

Wang Shihong, chief editor of Appreciation of Modern Precious Metal Coins in China

make an intensive study of their cultural value, collectiing characteristics of precious metal coins. As a combination of authority, historical events, groovy knowledge, artistry, technicality, and readability, Appreciation of Modern Precious Metal Coins in China, not only serves as references for academic researchers and financial workers, but also as a standard work showing modern precious metal coins in China from an overall perspective for collectors of gold or silver coins. This series is 235mm X 290mm in size, octavo, with, composed of 5 volumes, containing about 2.5 million words and 2,000 pictures which are all exquisitely printed according to the original drawings. All the Chinese modern precious metal coins issued by People’s Bank of China from 1979 to 2014 are included in these books. Besides, related materials, such as the development history of modern precious metal coins in China, comparison table of classified catalog of modern precious metal coins in China, and materials about gold or silver coins, are also recorded in appendix. In order to promote the spread and popularization of professional knowledge of gold or silver coins and to release the readers’ economic burden, the chief editor, Wang Shihong takes the compilation, publication of this series of books as a public welfare undertaking. Expenses, such as compiling and management expenses, all come from selfless devotees who are interested in Chinese gold or silver coins. Therefore, the price of these 5 books is 160 USD (without postage), containing only costs of publication, printing, and issue. At the same time, the brass commemorative medal designed by the famous designer Luo Yonghui for the issue of Appreciation of Modern Precious Metal Coins in China will also be issued at the price of 450RMB for each.


學術性和可讀性於一體,不僅是學術研究者和金融工作者完 整的參考資料,也是金銀幣收藏者全面瞭解中國現代貴金屬 幣全貌的權威著作。 《中國現代貴金屬幣賞析》叢書的尺寸為 235mm X 290mm,8 開,全套共 5 本,約 250 萬字,累計有近兩千餘幅圖片 ( 所 有金銀紀念幣圖譜均按原大精印 )。 《中國現代貴金屬幣賞析》 收錄了 1979——2014 年中國人民銀行發行的所有中國現代貴 金屬紀念幣,而且還在附錄部分刊載了“中國現代貴金屬幣 發展簡史”、中國現代貴金屬幣分類目錄對照表及金銀帀相 關資料等。

《中國現代貴金屬幣賞析》主編王世宏先生 由中國大百科全書出版社出版,中國收藏家協會錢幣收藏委 員會監製,上海雅昌藝術印刷有限公司承印,中國人民銀行 讀後感,中國著名金銀幣收藏家王世宏主編的《中國現代貴 金屬幣賞析》( 第 1—5 冊 ) 已經出版發行。

負擔,王世宏主編把該書的編寫與發行當作一項公益事業來 做,所有編寫費用、管理費用等,全部由熱心中國金銀幣事 業的無私奉獻者捐贈解決,書價只含出版、印刷、發行等費用, 全書五冊定價僅 950 元(國際售價 160 美金,不含郵費)。同時, 還發行由著名設計大師羅永輝設計的《中國現代貴金屬帀賞 析》發行紀念大銅章,每枚定價 450 元。

王世宏主編在談及組織編寫《中國現代貴金屬幣賞析》主要 目的時表示:希望通過本書全面、系統地介紹中國現代金銀 幣的相關知識,弘揚祖國優秀文化,使廣大讀者能進一步瞭 解金銀幣的歷史和內涵,提高大家對其藝術價值的賞析能力, 以吸引更多的愛好者參與金銀幣的投資與收藏,逐步擴大金 銀幣的集藏隊伍,提高中國金銀幣的品牌效應和海內外影響 力,促進中國金銀幣事業的更快發展。 編寫《中國現代貴金屬幣賞析》是一項系統工程,為此,成 立了專家顧問委員會、編輯委員會,由中國專業精英團隊耗 時 5 年多時間精心編著。全書通過對決策者、設計師、雕刻師、 以及錢幣收藏家們的專訪,以大量鮮為人知的第一手資料, 揭示了中國現代貴金屬幣的發展脈絡與軌跡。 《中國現代貴金屬幣賞析》以其獨特的學術視角,樸素的敘 述文字,多角度、全方位地展示了中國現代貴金屬幣的選題 立項、設計雕刻、工藝製作等過程,同時在文化價值、收藏 屬性等方面做了較為深入的探討,是中國現代貴金屬幣資訊 資料的百科大全。

國內 欲購者請與上海宏盎文化傳播有限公司聯繫,款到發貨 書款請匯交通銀行上海分行虹口支行或郵局匯付 賬號 310066030018170238495 聯絡人:駱 飛 電話:17717536767 國外

售價:160 美元(不包含郵費) 欲購者請與冠軍拍賣上海辦事處聯繫 電話:15000120957 郵箱:championghka@gmail.com

冊)發行 1—5

原副行長馬德倫作序,中國錢幣博物館首任館長戴志強撰寫

為了利於金銀帀專業知識的傳播和普及,降低廣大讀者經濟

《中國現代貴金屬幣賞析》 第 (

《中國現代貴金屬幣賞析》集權威性、史料性、知識性、藝術性、


Shanxi Sycee 《陝西銀錠》 By Li Jiong

作者:李炯 Price (售價):RMB ¥398

Shanxi Sycee was published by Shanxi Media Group’s Sanqin Press in July 2015. It was written by Mr. Li Jiong, a collector and researcher of Shanxi sycee from Yulin, Shanxi. Mr. Li collected 600 varieties of Shanxi sycee over a ten–year period and after comparing and analyzing many collections of Shanxi sycee, he decided that there was a need for a professionally researched book on the subject.

the silver currency of Shanxi Province. Mr. Dai remarked that “This book is a professional work of research of Shanxi sycee. Mr. Li has taken advantage of local sources in his research and has made a great achievement in numismatic research. It covers all development stages of Shanxi sycee including its infancy, development, widespread adoption and its final discontinuation.”

Mr. Li has classified Shanxi sycee into six categories: 50 taels boat-shaped ingots, officially minted sycee, commercially minted sycee, Shanxi stamp remittance ingots from other provinces, odd-shaped sycee, and a sixth ‘other’ group of sycee. This book comprehensively shows the conditions of the circulation of Shanxi silver currency in the late Qing Dynasty and early Republic Period. This book also examines the social conditions including politics, economics, culture, and customs of that period. The president of the Xi’an Branch of The People’s Bank China Guo Xinming and prominent collector Dai Zhiqiang both wrote prefaces for this book. They remarked that this book was a masterpiece of Shanxi numismatics and filled a space in the research of

The book is A4 size and is 260 pages long with two additional trifold pages. It is printed in full-color and is illustrated with good quality graphics of Shanxi sycee. It was published by Shanxi Media Group’s Sanqin Press in July 2015. Buy from website: www.coinsky.com/htm/shop/show. cgi?id=1648 (Note: the book is signed by the author) Contact: Mr. Li Jiong Cell Phone: 15529990006; 15667811786 Email: 1327978511@qq.com 五十兩船形銀錠、官鑄銀錠、商鑄銀錠、外省陝槽、陝 西異形銀錠、存疑待考銀錠六大類,全面展示了清末民 國時期陝西省白銀貨幣的通行現狀,側面反映了這一時 期政治、經濟、文化、民俗等方面的社會面貌。本書由 中國人民銀行西安分行行長郭新明、 著名錢幣學家戴志 強先生並序。郭序指出:《陝西銀錠》的出版,恰逢我 國 “一路一帶”戰略構想提出之際,是陝西錢幣研究的 又一力作,填補了陝西白銀貨幣研究的空白。戴序認為《陝 西銀錠》是一部有關陝西地方銀錠的專譜、專著,李炯 先生立足本鄉本土,充分利用和發揮地域優勢,十年磨 一劍,揚長避短,求實務實,走了一條錢幣集藏研究的“捷 徑”,一條成功之路。全書採用以文為主,以圖為輔的 串聯方式,揭示陝西銀錠產生、發展、興盛、衰落的全 過程。 该書大 16 開本,126 克雅粉全彩精印,幣圖清晰逼真, 共計 26 萬字,260 余頁,亦附三折拉圖兩幀。作者首次 在銀錠圖片旁附陜槽銘文複原印章一方。圖文並茂,值 得珍藏。

2015 年 7 月《陝西銀錠》由陝西出版傳媒集團三秦 出版社正式出版發行。作者李炯先生是陝西榆林本鄉本 土的銀錠收藏、研究者,他用十年時間,收藏了 600 餘 種陝西銀錠。通過大量實物藏品的比對分析,作者首次 提出建構陝西銀錠分類學研究,將陝西銀錠分類為:

錢幣天堂網發售 登錄 www.coinsky.com/htm/shop/show.cgi?id=1648 可獲得作者簽名書 聯絡人:李炯 購書電話:15529990006;15667811786 郵箱:1327978511@qq.com


Unofficial Banknotes Issued in Jiangxi Province By Xu Anmin Price :RMB ¥298 Unofficial Banknotes Issued in Jiangxi Province was written by prominent paper money collector Xu Anmin, and was published in December 2014 by Jiangxi People’s Press, with the support and planning of the Jiang Xi Banking Industry. The unofficial banknotes cataloged in this book were issued by local administrative agencies, banks and organizations (such as local armed forces, cooperatives) etc. The face value of these paper notes was the same as that of the national legal currency which was circulated in some defined regions. The book is illustrated with pictures of 185 of the banknotes issued in Jiangxi Province, of which 25 were issued in the Qing Dynasty, 11 by local administrative agencies, 15 by local armed forces, 19 by chambers of commerce, and 88 by money houses and business houses. In addition, there are 21 local gold dollar coupons, 4 silver coupons, and 2 special money. Additionally, there are about 30 printing blocks and anticounterfeiting seals. The 200 physical coupons are from the author’s collection. This is the first time these precious coupons, some of which are unique, have been published.

comments were mainly on the collectors’ errors, value,

The book is divided into the following sections:

star-rating, collection methods, current existing condition and personal target.The postscript presents author ’s 20

the foreword, brief introduction, catalog, comments,

years collecting experience, his star-rating and calculating

references and postscript.The guide defines the scope

method, which will help collectors.The references include

and the time of the research and collecting and the

the relative historical resources, monographs and research

definition of unofficial banknotes. This is the first time

articles from modern times.In additional, the author

these banknotes have been categorized according to their

verified the authenticity of physical bonds which need to

different features. A brief introduction was also given

be proved. He also wrote another two articles about the paper money: “The Research of Banknotes Issued by Wu

to each chapter of the book.The General Introduction includes features, the development of unofficial banknotes, the rise of collecting these notes and the research achievements for unofficial banknotes. The pictures of the banknotes, local gold coupons ( 金圆券 ), local silver coupons ( 银 圆 券 ), special money, printing blocks and anti-counterfeiting seals are illustrated in the book. The book comprehensively describes each physical coupon of the banknotes. Many ancient stories were discovered such as the words of celebrities, family rules, poetry and prose from the script and pattern of the banknotes.The

Zheng-Yuan Private Bank of JianYi (Feng Cheng City) ”, and “Remark on 1896 Banknotes Issued by Kiangsi Official Silver Bank Again ”. This book is 281 pages long and has more than 300 colorful pictures of the banknotes. It is printed in A4 size on colorful bronze paper with a fine binding. It is a professional book for collecting and researching the unofficial banknotes issued in Jiangxi. It is sold by Xinhua Book Stores all over the country at a price of 298 yuan.


《江西民間鈔票》 作者:徐安民 售價:RMB ¥298

在江西省銀行業的精心策劃和組織下,由國內著名

特點、發展階段、民間鈔票收藏的興起及研究成果;圖

纸币收藏家徐安民先生撰寫的《江西民間鈔票》2014

錄,囊括清代錢莊鈔票、行政機構鈔票、地方武裝鈔票、

年 12 月由江西人民出版社出版發行。該書收集的實物

商會鈔票、錢莊商號鈔票、地方金圓券、地方銀元券、

函括清代至民國時期江西省境內地方行政機構、團體組

特殊幣、鈔版及印章等實物。本章節還對各不同時期民

織及各錢莊商號等發行的紙幣。主要包括錢莊、地方基

間鈔票進行了扼要綜述,對收錄的每張實物券進行了專

層行政機構、地方武裝組織、合作社、商會、商號及其

業點評,并根據鈔票上的各類文字圖案挖掘出大量中國

他機構組織發行的紙幣,且在一定社會區域與國家法定

古代名人格言、家訓及詩賦等歷史典故;收藏感悟,梳

貨幣等值流通的鈔票。全書共收集到江西民間鈔票圖片

理了民間鈔票收藏者的誤區、民間鈔票的收藏價值、星

185 張,其中清代鈔票 25 張,基層行政機構鈔票 11 張,

級評定、收藏模式與現狀及個人定位。收藏感悟係作者

地方武裝鈔票 15 張,商會鈔票 19 張,錢莊商號鈔票

20 多年收藏實踐經驗的親身感悟和思想提煉,并創造

88 張,地方金圓券 21 張,地方銀元券 4 張,特殊幣 2 枚。

性的提出了“星級別評定”的方法和計算方式,對收藏

另有,鈔版及防偽印章 30 余件。書中所錄選的 200 多

愛好者有着極大的啟發和幫助;參考文獻,主要收錄近

件實物券,均來自作者 20 多年的私人收藏品。在這些

代江西民間鈔票相關的史料、專著以及研究文章等。此

紙幣實物券中絕大多數為首次披露,極其珍貴,有些實

外,作者對收藏圈里頗有爭議和影響的實物券進行詳細

物券屬孤品或僅見品。

考證,并專門撰寫《劍邑吳正元錢號票考略》和《光緒 丙申年“江西官銀號”銀錢票再議》等文章,提出作者

全書主要由凡例、概述、圖錄、收藏感悟、參考文

觀點,供讀者參閱。該書圖文并茂,大 16 開本,全彩

獻及後記等構成。凡例,確定了本書收集和研究的範圍

銅牌紙印刷,精裝幀,281 頁,300 多幅實物原大彩圖,

及上下年限,完整地闡述了民間鈔票的科學定義,首次

是一本集史料性、實物性、知識性、專業性為一體的近

按照民間鈔票的不同性質進行分門歸類,并對各章節進

代江西民間鈔票收藏與研究的工具書。該書由全國新華

行了簡要介紹和說明;概述,包括江西民間鈔票的主要

書店經銷,定價 298 元。


PRESS RELEASE:

Artist Yu Min Was Given the Lifetime Achievement Award by Krause Publication Coin of the Year Award Committee

Editor of World Coin News David C. Harper (L.) and Chinese Embassy Culture Department Secretary Dr. Li Gang

Shanghai Mint Co., Ltd senior designer Yu Min is watching CCTV News live

A Lifetime Achievement Award in Coin Design was given to Yu Min of the Shanghai Mint Co., Ltd., Feb. 4 at the Coin of the Year Award ceremony at the World Money Fair in Berlin, Germany.

He began designing and engraving coins in 1980 and participated in the entire development process of gold and silver Pandas as a designer and engraver since the frst gold panda coin was issued in 1982.

The trophy was accepted by Dr. Li Gang, Secretary of the Culture Department of Embassy of People’s Republic of China to the Federal Republic of Germany.

His 1983 silver Panda won the Best Silver Coin award in the 1985 Coin of the Year competition. He has designed and engraved over 200 Modern Chinese coins including over 40 commemorative Panda coins, including the 2005, 2006, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2012 and 2013 gold and silver commemorative Panda coins, over the years. Mr Yu Min may hold the world record for the number of coins designed/engraved by a artist for a modern mint.

Yu Min is the first Asian Designer to win the award , the previous three edition of the award went to Herbert Wahner of Austria, Maria Carmela Colaneri of Italy, and Heinz Hoyer and Sneschana Russewa-Hoyer of Germany. Giving the award was David C. Harper, editor of World Coin News, founding sponsor of the award. The award is also sponsored by the World Money Fair. The publisher of the Journal of East Asian Numismatics, Michael Chou, introduced Dr. Li. His publication is the third sponsor of the Coin of the Year Awards and it prepared a biography of Yu Min. Yu Min graduated from Shanghai Arts and Crafts School inAugust 1980 and entered the Shanghai Mint (now known as the Shanghai Mint Co., Ltd) to design and to engrave coins in the design and pattern shop at the same year. From February to June 1996 he went to Russia and studied in the Sculpture Department of Repin Academy of Fine Arts. He was enrolled as a member of the China Sculpture Institute in July 2004.

The 2009 Panda coin designed by Yu Min was named the Best Commemorative Coin by a German magazine. Among commemorative coins, he designed and engraved the portrait of Chairman Mao on the circulating coin to Mark the 100th birthday of Mao Tse-tung. It was very diffcult to engrave a raised image of the chairman to be struck on a very hard nickelclad steel coin. Yu Min accomplished this after repeated trials. In the selection process of the 2008 Beijing Olympic coins, Yu Min’s design was one of the finalists and his four joint engraving designs (the fencing, pentathlon, archery and soccer coins) were adopted by the head offce of Bank of China.


AUCOFFRE.COM was  founded  in  2009  by  its  French  CEO  and  founder,  Jean-François  FAURE.  AuCoffre.com  ​is  an  online  platform  for  private  investors  worldwide  to  buy  and  sell  vault  stored  gold  and  silver  coins.  The  Company  has  some  20,000  customers,  4  tons  of  vaulted  gold,  11  tons  of  vaulted  silver,  25  employees​ ​and​ ​a​ ​turnover​ ​of​ ​35​ ​millions​ ​euros​ ​worth​ ​in​ ​2015.   At  the  end  of  2011,  AuCoffre.com  decided  to  strike its own coin, one oz fine gold Vera Valor  (with  a  title  of 999.9%°). It has been the gold coin the most sold  in  France,  Belgium  and  Switzerland  in  2012.  More  than  35,000  Vera​ ​Valor​ ​coins​ ​have​ ​been​ ​sold​ ​since​ ​it​ ​was​ ​launched.    Since  then,  AuCoffre.com  decided  to  diversify  its  production  and  started  to  strike  various  editions  of  Vera  coins  (1/10  oz  gold  Vera  Max  Collector,  1  oz  Vera  Silver  and  so  on  …).  More  than  400,000  Vera  Coins  have  been  struck  since its initial creation, which makes VeraValor.com the first private Mint in  France.   In  2015,  AuCoffre.com  decided  to  strike  a  Map Coin Collection  promoting  small  territories.  The  Company started to strike the  first  legal  tender  Vera  Silver  one  ounce  Zanzibar  with  a  facial  value  of  1000  shillings  of  Tanzania  (50,000  coins).  These  coins  were  sold  quite  quickly  and  the  customers  were  even  asking  for  further  editions.  Gibraltar  is  the  second  territory  to  be  represented  :  50,000  one  oz  Vera  Silver  and  5,000  one  oz  Vera  Valor  will  be  struck​ ​with​ ​legal​ ​tenders.   In  2013,  AuCoffre.com  launched  the  VeraCash,  the  first  and  unique  debit  card  that  is  backed  by  physical  gold,  the  Vera  Valor  -  unlike  other  debit  cards  that  are  backed  by  cryptocurrencies  or  dematerialised  currencies.  For  the  VeraCash,  it  is  the  physical  gold  that  will  determine  the  exact  amount  spent  based  on  the  gold  price.  Through  the  VeraCash  card  and  the  mobile  application,  it  is  also  possible  to  send  VeraCash  units  to  another  user  as  a  means  of  payment  :  a  VeraCash  unit  equals​ ​one​ ​unit​ ​of​ ​the​ ​national​ ​currency.     VeraValor.com  and  VeraCash.com  wish  to  put  forward  the  true  values  of  physical  gold​ ​and​ ​silver​ ​whether​ ​in​ ​physical​ ​coins​ ​or​ ​as​ ​a​ ​means​ ​of​ p ​ ayment. 


Mish International Monetary Inc. Mish國際錢幣公司 Specialists in 專營 Pandas since 1982 1982年起發行的熊貓幣 China Modern since 1979 1979年起發行的中國現代金銀幣 World Coins since 1964 1964年起專營世界錢幣

Looking To Buy?想買? Our inventory and knowledge has been available to both our colleagues and collector clients since coins of the People’s Republic of China first reached the world market in 1979. 自1979年中國現代金銀幣首次進入國際市場后,Mish 國際的員工及其藏家客戶積累了豐富的庫存和專 業的錢幣知識。

If you are looking for a particular China coin, chances are we have it, or may be able to recover it from an original buyer we sold it to years ago at first distribution. 想買中國幣?我們或許恰好有;也許多年前我們賣過,現在或許還能從原始買家手中買回來。

Looking To Sell?想賣? In this world of instant experts and brokers, Mish International is still your best choice to handle the purchase of your prized coins in this fast-changing market. Well-capitalized, truly knowledgeable and accommodating, we buy both single pieces and major collections at fair value with no delay, no limits and no excuses. 瞬息萬變的市場環境,Mish 國際仍是助您銷售錢幣的最佳選擇。雄厚的資金實力,專業的錢幣知識, 出色的協調能力,我們同時收購單枚幣和大型收藏,價格合理,快速付款。

Since 1964 始於1964

Here today. Here tomorrow 攜手今日 共贏明天 Mish International Monetary Inc Mish國際錢幣公司 1154 University Drive Menlo Park, CA 94025, USA 美國加州門羅帕克大學路1154號,郵編94025 Phone(電話):(650) 324-9110 Email(電郵):robert@mishinternational.com


Now Accepting Consignments THE AUGUST 2018 HONG KONG AUCTION AUCTION: AUGUST 6-9, 2018 | CONSIGN BY JUNE 8, 2018 Strong prices dominated our recent Hong Kong auction. Here are just a few phenomenal results from April.

CHINA. Szechuan. Pattern 30 Cash, ND (1904). PCGS AU-53 Secure Holder.

Realized: USD $504,000

CHINA. Chihli (Pei Yang Arsenal). Dollar, Year 22 (1896). NGC MS-62.

Realized: USD $180,000

CHINA. Reversed Dragon Pattern Dollar (Type II), Year 3 (1911). PCGS SP-64 Secure Holder.

Realized: USD $156,000

CHINA. 1,000 Yuan, 1993. Lunar Series, Year of the Cock. NGC PROOF-69 ULTRA CAMEO.

Realized: USD $84,000

CHINA. Pattern 10 Cash, ND (1913). PCGS SP-65 BN Secure Holder.

Realized: USD $288,000

CHINA. Kiangsu-Chingkiang. Pattern 20 Cash, CD (1906). PCGS SP-64 BN Secure Holder.

Realized: USD $504,000

JAPAN. 20 Yen, Year 3 (1870). NGC MS-62.

Realized: USD $63,000

CHINA. 500 Yuan, 1993. NGC PROOF-69 ULTRA CAMEO. GREAT BRITAIN. 5 Guineas, 1692. William & Mary (1689-94). PCGS MS-62 Secure Holder.

Realized: USD $204,000

Realized: USD $138,000

BURMA. Kyat, CS 1222 (1860). PCGS AU-53 Secure Holder.

Realized: USD $36,000

GREAT BRITAIN. Triple Unite, 1642. Oxford Mint. Charles I (1625-49). NGC MS-61.

Realized: USD $108,000

Stack’s Bowers and Ponterio continues to realize high prices for your collection. Contact us today for more information and consign with the best! Telephone: 852.2117.1191 | Email: infoHK@StacksBowers.com | Web: www.StacksBowers.com Unit 1603, 16/F, Miramar Tower, No. 132 Nathan Road Tsim Sha Tsui, Kowloon, Hong Kong Telephone: 852.2117.1191 Email: infoHK@StacksBowers.com 1231 East Dyer Road Ste 100, Santa Ana, CA 92705 info@StacksBowers.com • StacksBowers.com • 949.253.0916 California • New York • New Hampshire • Hong Kong • Paris SBP JEAN No. 10 180430


NUMISMATIC AUCTION

www.mdc.mc

BUY • SELL • VALUATE 錢幣拍賣會

買 賣 估價

WINTER AUCTION December 2018 INVITATION TO CONSIGN Contact us to include your rare coins

冬季拍賣會 2018年12月

歡迎出品 如欲於委託拍賣, 請即聯絡我們

27 avenue de la Costa 98000 • Monaco Monte-Carlo Tel : (00377) 93.25.00.42 • Fax : (00377) 97.77.23.13

info@mdc.mc • www.mdc.mc


文史國際拍賣公司

U.S., Chinese & Worldwide Banknotes, Scripophily and Coins Wednesday, May 23rd, 2018 Sale 48 in 2 sessions Live Gallery and Catalog sale at our offices in Fort Lee beginning at 10:30 am Local Time in Fort Lee, New Jersey There will be over 990 lots of rare and desirable U.S., Chinese & Worldwide banknotes, scripophily, and coins in this auction. Highlights include: · An outstanding collection of Chinese banknotes including a discovery 1920 Chinese-American Bank of Commerce, “Harbin” Branch Issue, Possibly Unique · Hundreds of rare U.S and Worldwide Banknotes and Scripophily We are still seeking consignments for our upcoming 2018 auctions. We are also looking to purchase single items to large estates.

Lot 154 Pei-Yang Tientsin Bank ND (ca.1910) Remainder Banknote

Lot 110 People's Bank of China, 1950 50,000 Yuan, P-855

Lot 133 Deutsch-Asiatische Bank, 1907, Tsingtau Branch Issue Rarity

You may also bid through our website at :

Lot 130 Chinese-American Bank of Commerce, 1920 "Harbin" Branch Issue Rarity

www.archivesinternational.com

Archives International Auctions LLC 1580 Lemoine Ave., Suite #7 Fort Lee, New Jersey USA 07024 Phone: 201-944-4800 Email: info@archivesinternational.com


New Polish Dealer selling on MA-Shops 波蘭 Podlaski Gabinet 錢幣公司在 MA-Shops 網站上線

Podlaski Gabinet 公司簡介: Marek Melcer’s Podlaski Gabinet Numizmatyczny has been oficially established in the year 2000. From the beginning our company’s main mission has been aimed at reliable coin evaluation and coin grading. Since 1999 we have organised fifteen professional numismatic auctions together with the Poznanski Dom Aukcyjny. Throughout all these years, we have gained a substantial experience in the coin trade and coin grading. We are the first Polish company (and the only one in three) invited to join a prestigious German Organization Der Verband der deutschen Münzenhändler e.V affiliating associations that deal with only licensed numismatic sales. We help collectors in creating and building up their coin collection. We are in close partnership with many numismatic companies and auction houses both in the country and abroad. What is more, we are actively present at the majority of important exchanges and numismatic auctions. It allows us to professionally represent our clients and purchase numismatic items on their behalf and with the highest level of expertise. Visit the shop: https://www.ma-shops.com/podlaski/

馬雷克·梅爾徹爾的 Podlaski Gabinet 錢幣公司成立於 2000 年。自 一開始我們公司便主營真實可信的錢幣鑒定和評級業務。 1999 年,我們和波茲南斯基拍賣行一起辦了 15 場專業錢幣拍賣會。 這些年來,我們已經在錢幣交易和錢幣評級方面獲得了大量的經驗。 我們是唯一一家波蘭公司(三家中的唯一一家),受邀加入著名的 德國錢幣機構——德國硬幣經銷商協會,只從事授權錢幣的交易。 我們幫助收藏家創建他們的錢幣收藏集,和國內外諸多錢幣公司和 拍賣行有密切合作。更重要的是,我們積極地參加大多數重要的錢 幣交流會和拍賣會。這讓我們擁有高水準的錢幣專業知識,專業代 表我們的客戶選購錢幣。 流覽網店:https://www.ma-shops.com/podlaski/

Nice coins offered by this dealer 優質品相錢幣在售:

August II Thaler 1717, Dresden mint. US $4,150.00 Silver 45 mm, weight 29,30 g. Catalogue References: Kopicki 11119 R4, Kaminski 629, Gumowski 2106 Very attractive and rare thaler minted to commemorate the death of the mother of Frederick Augustus I, Anna Sophia. 1717 年奥古斯特二世 1 泰勒,德累斯顿造币厂 4,150.00 美元 银质,直径 45 毫米,重量 29.30 克 目录参考:科皮斯克 11119 R4,卡明斯基 629,顾莫乌斯基 2106。 非常受欢迎的一枚珍稀泰勒,纪念弗雷德里克·奥古斯塔斯一世的 母亲安娜索菲亚的逝世。

1/2 Rouble 1819 NC RUSSIA US $3,500.00 Weight: 10.36 g Diameter: 28.00mm Catalogue References: Bitkin 163, KM C# 129. Condition: Scarce in this condition. 1819 年 1/2 卢布,俄罗斯北卡罗来纳 3,500.00 美元 重量 10.36 克,直径 28.00 毫米 目录参考:比特金 163,KM C# 129。 品相:罕见。


German New Guinea 5 Marks 1894 2,125.00 US$ Weight: 27.77 g Diameter: 38.00 mm Catalogue References: KM 5 1984 年德属新几内亚 5 马克 2,125.00 美元

Australia 100 dollars 2010 P. High Relief Koala 1,650.00 US$ Weight: 31.10 g Diameter: 27.00 mm Catalogue References: KM 1469. Diameter 27 mm, 1 Oz. Gold. Certificate PCGS PR 69 DCAM, scarce, low mintage 2000 pcs. Proof – High Relief

重量 27.77 克,直径 38.00 毫米

2010 年澳大利亚高浮雕考拉 100 澳元

目录参考:KM 5

1,650.00 美元 重量 31.10 克,直径 27.00mm 目录参考:KM 1469。直径 27 毫米,1 盎司金币。 PCGS 证书 PR69 DCAM,稀有,铸币量少至 2000 枚,高浮雕精制 币

Stater Kingdom of Macedon US $2,500.00 Ancient Greece. Kingdom of Macedon. Philip II 359-336 BC. Gold 17 mm, weight 8,58 g., Amphipolis mint. Obverse: Laureate head of Apollo right. Reverse: Charioteer driving biga right, holding kentron in right hand, reins in left; ivy leaf below horses. Catalogue references: Le Rider 70. 马其顿王国斯塔特 2,500.00 美元 古希腊,马其顿王国,菲利普二世(公元前 359-336) 金质,直径 17.00 毫米,重量 8.58 克,安菲波利造币厂 正面:阿波罗的戴桂冠头像,侧面向右 反面:御者右手持肯特隆显微硬度计,左手握缰绳,驾驶战车,向 右前行。战马下方为常春藤叶。 参考目录:骑士 70

OPEN YOUR MA-SHOP and sell to 300.000 collectors. 打开 MA-SHOP 网站, 向 300,000 收藏家出售钱币吧!


East Asia Journal 1984 Issue 《東亞通寶》第 1 期 1984 年發行

First Issue of JEAN digital edition January 2016 Issue 《東亞泉志》電子雜誌第 1 期 2016 年 1 月發行


入會申請表 Application Form 申請日期 Application date: 申請會員類別:

本地會員 Macau Member

Membership applied for:

外地會員 Non Macau Member

姓名 Name:

性別 Gender:

證件號碼 ID No.:

出生日期 Date of Birth:

(中文及外文)

住址 Add.:

職業 Occupation:

錢幣收集範圍 Interst:

聯絡電話 Phone Number:

繳納會費:

會費 新會員需交付:入會費 MOP500.00 New membership fee: MOP 500.00

本會宗旨:團結錢幣愛好者,推動錢幣之收藏及研究 介紹人 Referee:(需我會兩位成員推薦 two members of the Society) 會員姓名編號 Member No: 會員姓名編號 Member No: 此欄由澳門錢幣學會填寫 (Filled by the Society only): 新會員入會日期: 新會員編號: 1)新會員需認同本會宗旨。 New members should comply with the Society regulations. 2)入會申請人需填妥本申請表、交 1 張相片及繳納相關入會費用。 Please attach one photo and pay the membership fee. Add: AV. DR. RODRIGO RODRIGUES. 600E-P105 FIRST INTERNATIONAL COM. CENTER, MACAU Tel: (853)2833 4556 Fax: (853)2830 4772 Email: dcdesign@macau.ctm.net

地址:澳門羅理基博士大馬路 600E-1 樓 P105 室 電話:(853)2833 4556 傳真:(853)2830 4772 Email:dcdesign@macau.ctm.net


余敏榮獲克勞斯出版社世界硬幣大獎評委會頒發的 終身成就獎

《世界錢幣新聞》主編 David C. Harper(左)和中國駐德國 大使館文化部秘書李剛

上海造幣有限公司高級工藝美術師余敏在觀看 CCTV 新聞 頻道

本屆世界硬幣大獎頒獎典禮於 2 月 4 日在德國柏林的世界錢

1993 年獲工藝美術師任職資格,並被聘為工藝美術師。2004

幣展上舉行。本屆的世界硬幣大獎錢幣設計終身成就獎的獲

年 7 月,被中國雕塑學會吸收為會員。

得者是上海造幣有限公司的設計雕刻師——余敏。 余敏從 1980 年從事錢幣設計雕刻至今已 30 年,從 1993 年聘 中華人民共和國駐德意志聯邦共和國大使館文化部秘書——

為工藝美術師至今也已 23 年。從 1982 年發行第一枚熊貓金

李剛代表獲獎者領獎並發表獲獎感言。

幣起,至今已有近三十年歷史。余敏作為設計雕刻人員參與 並見證了熊貓金銀幣發展的整個過程。

余敏是首位獲得這項大獎的亞洲錢幣設計師,前三屆終身成 就獎的獲得者分別是:奧地利的赫爾伯特 • 韋納、義大利的瑪

由余敏設計雕刻的 1983 版熊貓銀幣獲得了 1985 年世界硬幣

利亞 • 卡梅拉 • 柯蘭納瑞以及德國的 Heinz Hoyer 和 Sneschana

大獎最佳銀幣獎,這些年,余敏一共設計和雕刻了 40 多枚紀

Russewa-Hoyer 夫婦二人。

念熊貓,包括 2005、2006、2008、2009、2010、2012 和 2013 熊貓金銀幣。余敏為現代造幣廠設計和雕刻的錢幣數量之多,

獎項由《世界硬幣新聞》主編及世界硬幣大獎的發起人之一

很可能在當今世界範圍內也無出其右。

的大衛 •C• 哈珀負責頒發,而世界錢幣展也是本屆獎項的贊助 商之一。

他所設計的 2009 版熊貓幣被德國錢幣雜誌評為最佳紀念幣。

《東亞泉志》出版人周邁可先生為李博士做了一下介紹。 周

紀念幣方面,余敏設計並雕刻了毛澤東誕辰 100 周年流通紀

先生的《東亞泉志》不僅贊助本次的世界硬幣大獎,同時也

念幣中的毛澤東頭像一面。在非常堅硬的鎳包鋼產品上製作

準備了一篇余敏的生平簡介。

浮雕是一個近乎苛刻的任務,經過多次實驗之後,余敏最終 圓滿完成任務。

余敏 1980 年 8 月畢業於上海工藝美術學校(中專)。同年進 上海造幣廠(上海造幣有限公司前身)設計製模車間從事錢

在 2008 北京奧運幣的競標中,余敏的設計成為了入圍了最終

幣設計雕刻工作。

的決賽圈。余敏與他人合作的設計(擊劍、五項全能、射箭、 足球)也在競標被中國銀行選中。

1996 年 2 月至 6 月期間,赴俄羅斯列賓美術學院雕塑系進修。


由余敏負責設計、上海造幣廠生產的第一枚心形紀念熊貓 母親節特別收藏加厚版紀念熊貓(50g),鑄造量 300 枚

50 克的峨眉山面有金 頂佛光

30 克

30 克的峨眉山面沒有 金頂佛光

50 克

余敏此次設計的母親節紀念熊貓是上海造幣廠生產的第一枚心形

原包裝盒及證書,每人限購一枚。購買事宜請聯繫冠軍公司美國

紀念熊貓。其中銀質熊貓共生產 1000 枚,品質為 30 克;金質熊

經銷商 Jerica,電話:941 952 0100;郵箱:jericainternational@

貓為 100 枚,重 8 克,另外還有特別收藏版 50 加厚克銀質熊貓,

gmail.com。

鑄造量為 300 枚,每枚熊貓上均打有編號。正面圖案為母親節康 乃馨、熊貓母親和倆個熊貓寶寶;背面圖案為熊貓故鄉——四川

地址:佛羅里達薩拉索塔 34236,1650 大道,Estate Coin and

峨嵋山金頂及佛光。峨眉山是中國四大佛教聖山之一。

Jewelry Galleria 公司。

每枚母親節熊貓均有單獨編號,並附有上海造幣有限公司特製包

此前由冠軍公司出品、上海造幣有限公司工藝美術師余敏設計的

裝盒。紀念熊貓由冠軍拍賣出品,上海造幣廠資深工藝美術師余

展會熊貓曾在 2014 年 6 月的澳門錢幣學會年展、2016 年 7 月的

敏負責設計,並由上海造幣有限公司負責生產。有意購買者可以

柏林世界錢幣展以及 2016 年美國錢幣協會展覽上取得過巨大的

499 美元的價格購得這種母親節特別收藏加厚版紀念熊貓,附帶

成功。

2016 年澳門錢幣學會國際年展紀念熊貓

2017 年柏林世界錢幣展覽會三色銅紀念熊貓

2016 年美國錢幣協會安娜海年會紀念熊貓

2017 年柏林世界錢幣展覽會三色銅紀念熊貓


AUCOFFRE.COM 成立於 2009 年,其創始人兼法國總裁是讓·弗朗索瓦·福爾。 AUCOFFRE.COM 是一家為全球私人投資者提供庫存金銀幣交易的網上平臺。 公司大約有 2 萬名顧客,4 噸黃金庫存,11 噸白銀庫存,25 名員工。2015 年 成交額達到 3500 萬歐元。 2011 年底,AUCOFFRE.COM 決定自鑄錢幣——1 盎司純金金幣 Vera Valor(意為“真實的價值”, 含金量為 999.9%°)。2012 年,在法國、比利時 和瑞士,Vera Valor 已成為銷量最大的金幣。該金 幣自發行起,銷量已超過 35,000 枚。 此後,AUCOFFRE.COM 決定使產品多樣化,開始鑄造各種版別的 Vera 錢 幣——1/10 盎司 Vera Max 金質收藏幣、1 盎司 Vera 銀幣等。Vera 錢幣自誕 生以來,鑄造量已超過 400,000 枚,VeraValor.com 因此成為法國的第一私營造幣廠。 2015 年,AUCOFFRE.COM 決定打造一個宣傳小塊領土的地圖幣收藏集, 開始鑄造第一種法定貨幣——桑吉巴 1 盎司 Vera 銀幣,面值為 1000 坦尚 尼亞先令,鑄造量為 50,000 枚。這些 Vera 銀幣很快被搶購一空,很多顧 客甚至還想購買這種幣的更多版別。具有代表性的第二塊領土是直布羅陀, 也將鑄造此種法定貨幣—— 50,000 枚 1 盎司 Vera 銀幣和 5,000 枚 1 盎司 Vera Valor 金幣。 2013 年,AUCOFFRE.COM 發 行 了 VeraCash 金 卡——唯一也是首個消費實物黃金 Vera Valor 的借 記卡。和其他的借記卡不同,其他的借記卡消費的 是加密數位貨幣或虛擬貨幣。對於 VeraCash 金卡來 說,按照黃金價格,用實物黃金來確定用戶所花費 的確切金額。通過 VeraCash 金卡和移動應用,將 VeraCash 的金額發給另一用戶,也能成為一種支付 方式。一個單位的 VeraCash 錢幣等於一個單位的該 國貨幣。 不論是作為實物錢幣,還是一種支付方式,VeraValor.com 和 VeraCash.com 都希望體現實物黃金和白 銀的真實價值。


《东亚泉志》电子杂志 《东亚泉志》为冠军拍卖公司总裁周迈可和著名钱币学专家史博禄于1994年创办, 是一本学术性钱币研究专业杂志。旨在让广大钱币收藏家、研究学者更深入地了解钱 币知识,让世界各地的读者更好地了解中国深厚的钱币文化。 杂志高级编辑史博禄1951年生于美国密苏里州圣路易斯市,为密苏里大学历史系学 士,哈佛大学中国研究专业硕士。1974-1977年在克劳斯出版社任《世界钱币新闻》 助理编辑,参与《世界硬币标准目录》与《世界纸钞标准目录》编辑工作。史博禄拥 有30多年的收藏和研究中国钱币的丰富经验。他在《东亚泉志》上发表的研究文献极 大地丰富了中国钱币的知识内涵。 《东亚泉志》于1994年7月份问世,在20多个国家发行,广受欢迎,长期占据许多重 要图书馆书架的显著位置,包括美国国家博物馆史密森尼学会、大英博物馆、哈佛燕 京图书馆、哈佛大学、耶鲁大学、哥伦比亚大学、斯坦福大学、康奈尔大学和美国钱 币学会、美国钱币协会。杂志刊发过不少有重要学术价值的文章,如詹姆斯•史威尼 写的《1900年京局银元》、史博禄写的《徐世昌刻字纪念章》和《民国二十五年和 民国二十六年之中国银元故事》、汤姆•基纳写的《1897年浙江三分六厘样币和1899 年安徽三分六厘流通币的关系》以及曾泽禄写的《台湾老公银伪品》等。 2015年5月,周迈可决定于2016年1月复刊《东亚泉志》为电子季刊,中英双语。内 容以披露最新钱币收藏研究成果、推介泉界成功人士的事迹为主。主要栏目有学术研 究、人物专访、鉴赏争鸣、拍卖回顾、重要信息等。聘请著名钱币研究学者袁水清担 任中文主编。袁水清,1948年生,大学金融专科毕业,从事银行工作30多年。中国 钱币学会会员,陕西省钱币学会常务理事,西安市收藏协会常务副会长。同时聘请国 内外知名的钱币学者、收藏家及专业人士加入,如美国华人钱币学者曾泽禄、美国纸 钞专家弗雷德·施万、美国东南亚钱币专家霍华德·丹尼尔、德国中国现代币研究学者 塞巴斯蒂安·威斯霍夫斯基、香港中国现代金银币研究学者陈景林、台湾钱币学者周 建福、《戳记币简史》作者台湾东吴大学加拿大籍高林教授等。 从2017年起,《东亚泉志》加盟由克劳斯在德国柏林世界钱币展览会期间举办的 “世界硬币大奖”颁奖活动。

《东亚泉志》2017年免费订阅,如果需要,请把您的邮箱发到 jeanzg@163.com! 《东亚泉志》第一期在线阅读:issuu.com/jean388/docs/the_first_issue_of_jean


The Journal of East Asian Numismatics Bilingual (English-Chinese) Digital Quarterly In 1994, The Journal of East Asian Numismatics (JEAN) was founded by Michael Chou, the CEO of Champion Auction and Bruce Smith, a noted numismatist. It is a professional numismatic academic journal whose mission is to educate collectors and researchers on the subjects of Chinese numismatics, culture and history. Bruce Smith, the chief editor of JEAN, was born in 1951 in St. Louis, MO. He received his BA in history from the University of Missouri St. Louis; and his MA in China studies from Harvard University. In 19741977, he worked for Krause Publications as Editorial Assistant on World Coin News and as cataloger for Standard Catalog of World Coins and Standard Catalog of World Paper Money. He was a full time coin dealer 1977-1987. In 1988-1989, he studied in China as a student of China Studies in Chengchow (Zhengzhou) University, Henan province. In 1991-1993, Mr. Smith was a graduate student at Harvard University. In 1994-1998, he was the editor of The Journal of East Asian Numismatics (JEAN). Bruce Smith has been a collector and researcher of Chinese coins for over 30 years. His published research in JEAN has added immensely to the body of knowledge for Chinese coins. The first issue of JEAN was released in July 1994, and the last issue (18th issue) in 1998. Most articles were written in English, the remainder in Chinese. The journal was distributed in over 20 countries, and remained a mainstay on many important library shelves, including the Smithsonian Institution, the British Museum, the Harvard Yenching Library, Harvard University, Yale University, Columbia University, Stanford University, Cornell University, the ANS (American Numismatic Society), and the ANA (American Numismatic Association). The journal enjoyed great popularity and many important articles were published in JEAN, including “Peking Coins of 1900” by James Sweeny, “More on the Hsu Shih-chang Medals with engraved names” and “The true story of China’s 1936 and 1937 Silver Dollars” by Bruce Smith, “The Apparent Relationship between 1897 Chekiang 5 Cents Pattern and 1899 Anhwei

5-Cents Circulation Strike” by Tom Keener, and “A Forgery of Taiwan’s Old Man Dollar” by Dr. Che-lu Tseng. In May 2015, Michael Chou decided to start issuing the journal again starting in January 2016. The famous numismatic researcher Mr. Yuan Shuiqing will be chinese chief editor. He is a member of China Numismatic Society, serving as executive director of the Shenxi Numismatic Society and executive vice president of the Xi’an Collectors Association. As a numismatic researcher, he was chief editor of Collections and China Numismatics. He has published over 100 numismatic research articles and the masterpiece The Elite of Monetary History of China. Other distinguished contributors from home and abroad are numismatists, collectors and coin dealers, including Bruce Smith (author of Howard Franklin Bowker-Numismatic Pioneer), Colin Gullberg (Canada, author of Chopmarked Coins-A History), Wang Chunli (China, author of Illustrated Catalog of China’s Jilin Province Silver Coins and Illustrated Catalog of Chinese Gold & Silver Coins), Chinese American senior numismatist Dr. Che-lu Tseng, senior numismatic scholar of China modern gold and silver commemorative coins King L. Chan (Hong Kong), senior numismatist Chien Fu Chou (Taiwan) and CEO of Beijing Coins website Richard Guo. It will be a quarterly, bilingual e-journal, covering the latest numismatic research, interviews with famous collectors, auction reviews, and general news. The Journal's distribution is now over 5,000, including over 2,000 in Greater China region. Starting in 2017, Journal of East Asian Numismatics is a co-sponsor of Krause's Coin of the Year Award Ceremony in Berlin with World Money Fair. You are welcome to subscribe, submit articles for publication, and advertise in the upcoming JEAN. The 2018 subscription is free of charge. Please send your email to jeanzg@163.com.

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東亞泉志 電子季刊 · 中英双语 《東亞泉志》為冠軍拍賣公司總裁周邁可先生和著名錢幣學專

2015 年 5 月,周邁可先生決定于 2016 年 1 月復刊《東亞泉誌》,

家史博祿先生于 1994 年創辦,是一本學術性錢幣研究專業雜誌。

聘請著名錢幣研究學者袁水清先生擔任主編。袁水清,1948 年生,

旨在讓廣大錢幣收藏家、研究學者更深入地了解錢幣知識,讓世界

大學金融專科畢業,從事銀行工作 30 多年。中國錢幣學會會員,

各地的讀者更好地了解中國深厚的錢幣文化。

陝西省錢幣學會常務理事,西安市收藏協會常務副會長。退休后,

雜誌高級編輯史博祿先生 1951 年生於美國密蘇里州聖路易 斯市,為密蘇里大學歷史係學士,哈佛大學中國研究專業碩士。 1974-1977 年在克勞斯出版社任《世界錢幣新聞》助理編輯,參與《世 界硬幣標準目錄》與《世界紙鈔標準目錄》編輯工作。1977-1987 年全職進行錢幣交易。1988-1989 年在中國鄭州大學留學,主修中 國研究課程。1991-1993 年在哈佛大學攻讀碩士。1994-1998 年任 《東亞泉志》總編。史博祿先生擁有 30 多年的收藏和研究中國錢 幣的豐富經驗。他在《東亞泉志》上發表的研究文獻極大地豐富了 中國錢幣的知識內涵。 《東亞泉志》于 1994 年 7 月份問世,1999 年停刊,發行了 18 期。 雜誌中大部分文章是英文,只有少部分是中文,在 20 多個國家發行, 廣受歡迎,長期佔據許多重要圖書館書架的顯著位置,包括美國國 家博物館史密森尼學會、大英博物館、哈佛燕京圖書館、哈佛大學、 耶魯大學、哥倫比亞大學、斯坦福大學、康奈爾大學和美國錢幣學會、 美國錢幣協會。雜誌刊發過不少有重要學術價值的文章,如詹姆斯 • 史威尼寫的《1900 年京局銀元》、史博祿寫的《徐世昌刻字紀念章》 和《民國二十五年和民國二十六年之中國銀元故事》、湯姆 • 基納 寫的《1897 年浙江三分六釐樣幣和 1899 年安徽三分六釐流通幣的 關係》以及曾澤祿寫的《台灣老公銀偽品》等。

歷任《收藏》《古泉園地》《西部金融 • 錢幣研究》雜誌的責任編輯, 《中國錢幣界》雜誌主編。多年來他傾力于中國貨幣史和錢幣學的 研究,發表過近百篇錢幣研究文章;2012 年,出版了匯集中國古 今錢幣的鴻篇巨製《中國貨幣史之最》。同時聘請國內外知名的錢 幣學者、收藏家及專業人士加入,如《霍华德 • 富兰克林 • 包克—— 錢幣學研究先驅者》作者史博祿先生、 《戳記幣简史》作者高林先生、 《熊貓金銀幣收藏指南》作者皮特 • 安東尼先生、《中國吉林銀圓 圖譜》和《中國金銀幣目錄》作者王春利先生、美國華人資深錢幣 學者曾澤祿先生、香港中国现代金银币资深研究学者陳景林先生、 台灣資深錢幣學者周建福先生、美國現代金銀幣資深經销商羅伯特 • 米什先生、美國東南亞錢幣專家亞當 • 比亞吉先生以及北京錢幣網 总裁郭嘉華先生等。 復刊后的《東亞泉誌》為電子季刊,中英双语。內容以披露最 新錢幣收藏研究成果、推介泉界成功人士的事跡為主。主要欄目有 學術研究、人物專訪、鑒賞爭鳴、拍賣回顧、重要資訊等。 從 2017 年起,《東亞泉志》加盟由克勞斯在德國柏林世界錢 幣展覽會期間舉辦的“世界硬幣大獎”頒獎活動。 《東亞泉志》2018 年免費訂閱,如果需要,請把您的郵箱發 到 jeanzg@163.com !

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