Page 1

東亞泉志

2017 年 01 月 January 2017 第 5 期 總第 23 期 No. 5 Issue 23

THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS 中英雙語 電子季刊 Bilingual (English - Chinese) Digital Quarterly

Taiping Rebel Tian Guo Sheng Bao 1/2 Tael Silver Coin Bowker Collection 太平天國天國聖寶 半兩,銀質,包克藏品

Howard Franklin Bowker, sr. 霍華德·佛蘭克林·包克生平簡介 Sun Zhonghui Talks about Coin Collecting, Coin Appreciation and the Coin Market 孫仲匯談錢幣收藏、鑒賞及市場 The Taiping Silver Cash Coins 太平天國銀幣


東亞泉志

2017 年 01 月 January 2017 第 5 期 總第 23 期 No. 5 Issue 23

THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS 中英雙語 電子季刊 Bilingual (English - Chinese) Digital Quarterly

Advisor

Che-lu Tseng

顧問

曾澤祿

Publisher & Editor in-Chief

Michael H. Chou

出版人、總編輯

周邁可

Senior Editor

Bruce W. Smith

高級編輯

史博祿

Editor

Yuan Shuiqing

主編

袁水清

Advertising & Circulation Manager

Liu Jinling

廣告與發行經理

劉金玲

聯繫我們 Contact Us 臺北公司 Taipei Office 臺北市南京西路 163 號 1 樓 50-51 室 Room 50-51, No.163 Nan King W. Rd., Taipei 電話 (Tel):886-2-25551761 郵箱 (Email): championghka@gmail.com

上海辦事處 Shanghai Office 上海市普陀區常德路 1258 弄 16 號 801 室 Room 801, No.16, Lane 1258, Changde Rd., Putuo District, Shanghai 電話 (Tel):86-21-62993235 郵箱 (Email): championghka@gmail.com


Foreword 前言 Welcome to the 5th edition of the Journal of East Asian

Taiping Silver Cash Coins which should be very

Numismatics. In this issue we feature an article on

interesting for our readers on this important series.

the biography of the famous numismatic researcher

The former Senior Engraver of the Shanghai Banknote

Howard Franklin Bowker. Some of the coins from the

Printing and Minting Zhao Qi Ming provided an article

Howard Franklin Bowker East Asian Collection, that

based on the background to the engraving of a Macau

were donated to the Moritzberg Museum at Halle,

Banknote plate. Wang Li Yan submitted a study of the

Germany, will be on exhibit at the World Money Fair

Gong Tun Chi Jin round coin.

Berlin held February 3-5 at the Estrel Hotel Convention Center.

We are pleased the Journal will attend the World Money Fair in Berlin for the first time, please stop by and see

Mr Yuan Shui Qing, our Chinese Editor, has submitted

us at booth D7 2/3-5 at the Estrel Convention Center.

an article in which he interviews Chinese Cash Coin

We will continue to expand on the mission of promoting

expert and senior researcher Sun Zhong Hui, formerly

numismatic exchanges between East and West.

with the Shanghai Museum. We look forward to the Year of the Chicken and the In this issue we welcome a guest article about Chinese

annual "Coin of the Year" presentation in Berlin. We

Sychee by Thomas Uhlmann, a researcher from

hope the COTY presentation will be very exciting, as

Germany. Steve Feller, former longtime editor of the

the Journal and the World Money Fair Berlin, will be co-

International Banknote Society Journal, has submitted

sponsors of the award at the ceremony.

another interesting article about his physics and Michael Chou

numismatics trips to China.

Publisher and Editor in Chief Our Senior Editor, Bruce Smith, has an article on 歡迎閱讀第 5 期《東亞泉志》。本期雜誌的一大亮點是

雕刻師了回顧了自己為澳門鈔壹拾圓雕刻“東望洋燈塔”

知名錢幣學家霍华德·佛蘭克林·包克的生平簡介。捐

製作範本的經歷。由王儷閻撰寫的《“共屯赤金”圜錢考析》

贈給德國哈雷莫里茨堡博物館的部分包克東亞錢幣藏品

一文同樣非常值得一讀。

將於 2 月 3-5 日在柏林世界錢幣展中展出,展覽地點為艾 司特爾酒店會議中心。

很高興我們的雜誌將首次踏上柏林世界錢幣展的舞臺, 我們的攤位設在艾司爾酒店會議中心 D7 2/3-5 號,熱烈歡

中文主編袁水清為本期雜誌撰寫了一篇对知名錢幣專家

迎諸位讀者前來駐足參觀!《東亞泉志》將繼續同各國

孫仲匯先生的採訪稿。孫先生曾在上海博物館任職,是

錢幣界同仁一道,為推動東西方的錢幣交流貢獻自己的

業內知名的中國古錢專家及研究家。

一份力量。

我們非常榮幸能夠邀請到德國錢幣研究家湯瑪斯·烏爾

雞年即將到來,我們期待着一年一度的世界硬幣大獎頒

曼為我們撰寫了一篇關於 10 世紀中國白銀珍寶的文章。

獎儀式能夠早日在柏林召開。從 2017 年起,《東亞泉志》

原國際紙幣學會資深編輯史蒂夫·費勒也為本期雜誌貢

將和柏林世界錢展一道,共同贊助“世界硬幣大獎”的

獻了一篇記錄自己中國錢幣及物理學之旅的精彩文章。

頒獎活動,所以我們也誠摯希望今年的頒獎儀式能夠更 加地熱鬧非凡。

對太平天國時期銀幣感興趣的讀者可能會喜歡《太平天 國銀幣》一文,文章的作者是《東亞泉志》高級編輯史 博祿。在趙啟明撰寫的文章中,這位原上海印鈔廠高級

《東亞泉志》總編兼出版人:周邁可


CONTENTS 目錄 Features 專題 Ron Guth, Bruce Smith, and the Bowker Grandchildren

Howard Franklin Bowker, sr.

45

古 富、史博録、包克家族合著(美國) 61

霍華德·佛蘭克林·包克生平簡介

Yuan Shuiqing (Xi’an)

76

袁水清(西安)

83

Bruce W. Smith (USA)

89

史博祿(美國)

91

JEAN News & Information 2017

Bruce W. Smith (USA)

3

《東亞泉志》2017 年初新聞資訊

史博祿(美國)

7

Sun Zhonghui Talks about Coin Collecting, Coin Appreciation and the Coin Market 孫仲匯談錢幣收藏、鑒賞及市場 The Taiping Silver Cash Coins 太平天國銀幣

Departments 部門

Bruce W. Smith, Ray Bows (USA)

Book Review

11

史博祿、雷·鮑斯(美國)

16

Hans-Henning Göhrum (GER)

21

漢斯·亨甯·格魯姆(德國)

22

Quan Chi (Xi’an)

23

泉癡(西安)

29

The 2016 Beijing International Coin Exhibition

Champion

34

2016 北京國際錢幣博覽會回覽

冠軍研究室

40

Howard F. Bowker (USA)

93

霍華德·佛蘭克林·包克(美國)

96

Wang Liyan (Beijing)

98

王儷閻(北京)

104

Zhao Qiming (Shanghai)

109

趙啟明(上海)

112

Thomas Uhlmann (GER)

114

10 世紀的中國白銀珍寶

托馬斯·烏爾曼 ( 德國 )

115

A Rare Kweichow Note

Xie Fei (Guiyang)

116

解飛(貴陽)

118

Yuan Shuiqing (Xi'an)

120

從錢幣大師馬定祥晚年致韓有政信函看其大家風範

袁水清(西安)

123

China-Republic Shandong 20 Cash Copper Pattern

Zou Li (Macau)

126

鄒力(澳門)

127

Steve Feller (USA)

128

史蒂夫·費勒(美國)

133

錢幣書籍推介 Macao Numismatic Fair 2016 2016 澳門錢幣學會年展观感 2016 Macau International Money Fair 2016 澳門國際錢幣年會

Column 專欄 Ming versus Ch'ing 明朝 vs 清朝 Study of the Gong Tun Chi Jin Round Coin “共屯赤金”圜錢考析 Engraving the Guia Lighthouse Image on the Macau Banknote Printing Plate 澳門鈔主景“東望洋燈塔”雕刻散記 Chinese Silver Treasure from the 10th Century

一枚罕見的貴州松桃錢票 Letters from the Well-known Numismatist Ma Dingxiang to Han Youzheng

民國山東貳拾文試樣銅元 Physics and Numismatics on Some Trips to China 以物理學和錢幣學為主題的中國之旅


Departments 部門

JEAN News & Information 2017 Bruce W. Smith (USA)

Ishi Press Reprints on Numismatics Ishi Press was founded in Japan in 1968 primarily to publish books on the game Go (Chinese: Wei Chi). The company later moved to California and since 1994 has been run by Sam Sloan, a chess champion, in New York City. The company mainly publishes reprints of books on chess, but more recently has been reprinting books on other subjects, including numismatics. The company does not sell books directly and does not have a website. Its books can be purchased through Amazon or Barnes & Noble. Most of its books are paperback and sell for $25 to $35. Its numismatic publications include: Neil G. Munro Coins of Japan (1904), ISBN 9784871878685, 412 pages, 2010.

in Sung Dynasty coinage, died on 27 October 2016. Gorny attended Blackburn College in Carlinville, Illinois 1968-1971. In 1975 he moved to Oregon where he lived the rest of his life. He began collecting coins in 1963, particularly Indian and Islamic coins. Since the 1980's he has specialized in Chinese cash coins, producing a series of volumes on calligraphy varieties of Northern Sung coins. Early in 2016 he released a revised cumulative volume on Sung coins, which also included the details on 89 mints operating during Sung times. Gorny was an amateur philologist, familiar with German, Spanish, French, Biblical Greek, Biblical Hebrew, Classical Arabic and Chinese. He wrote a number of books on other subjects.

Zhang Weiyan Dies in China

Jacobs & Vermuele Japanese Coinage (1953) ISBN 9784871878722, 160 pages, 2009. Alan D. Craig Coins of Korea (1958) ISBN 9784871878951 104 pages 2011. Kalgan Shih Modern Coins of China (1951) ISBN 9784871878708, 200 pages, 2009. This is a reprint of the rare second edition which was never released due to the Korean War. This edition is revised, entirely in English, with photographs, including previously unknown photos of the Tientsin Mint. Eduard Kann Currencies of China (1927) ISBN 9784871878852, 562 pages, 2011. Eduard Kann Illustrated Catalog of Chinese Coins (1954), 3 volumes, 2006. This set was reviewed in JEAN 2016 #1. The three volumes are divided into appropriate categories with the photo plates arranged with the corresponding text. According to online descriptions the volumes are: Vol. 1 Imperial Silver Coins, ISBN 9780923891183 280 pages Vol. 2 Republican Silver, Nickel and Aluminum Coins, ISBN 9780923891190, 248 pages Vol. 3 Gold Coins, Fantasy Coins,Medals, Sinkiang and Tibet, ISBN 9780923891206, 240 pages.

Norman Gorny Dies in Oregon Norman Frank Romanos Gorny (1951 - 2016), a specialist

Zhang Weiyan (1925 - 2016) died on 8 December 2016. Zhang, born in Kaiyuan County, Liaoning Province, was a technician at the Shenyang Mint in the city formerly known as Mukden, during the late 1940's. In the 1950's and 1960's he worked at the Shanghai Mint and was involved with the production of the first coins of the Peoples Republic of China. Later he worked for the Po Sang Bank in Hong Kong. Mr. Zhang contributed an article about his work with the mints, which was published in JEAN 2016 #4.

Lyman Allen Dies in Nevada Lyman L. Allen (1941 - 2016), a specialist in Philippine coins, died 10 June 2016. Born 25 January 1941 in Miami Beach, Florida, he served in the U.S. Navy on the USS Intrepid. In later years he was a coin dealer in Virginia City, Nevada. Allen was author of "Catalog of Philippine Coins 1828 to Date" published in 1966, which was probably the first catalog of Philippine coins in English. A second edition was published in 1968; the seventh edition was published in 2012.

3

東 亞 泉 志

THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS


Departments 部門 Ward Smith Elected to IBNS Hall of Fame

Revue de la Societe de Numismatique Asiatique The journal of the Asian Numismatic Society of France, a quarterly, was first published in March 2012 and has published 20 issues through December 2016. The president of the society is Francois Joyaux (born 1938), who is Professor Emeritus of East Asian Civilization at the National Institute of Eastern Languages and Cvilization in Paris. Normally the articles are in French. Articles in issue number 18 (June 2016) include: A Survey of Japanese E-sen (or Pictorial Coins) by Craig Greenbaum (in English);

Ward Durrant Smith (1918 - 1984) was inducted into the International Bank Note Society Hall of Fame in 2016. Smith is best known as co-author with Brian Matravers of "Chinese

A Classical Collection of Colonial Indochina by Francois Joyaux; The Length of Use of the Ticals of Ang Duong (Cambodia).

Banknotes" published in 1970 and still widely used today. Some years after his death the Ward D. Smith Award was established

Issue #19 (September 2016)

for the best article published each year in the IBNS Journal. The

A Series of Rupees of Pondichery [India] by Daniel

Hall of Fame was established in 2010 and includes other well

Cariou;

known writers on East Asian paper money such as King-on Mao,

The Coins of San Diego [Philippine] in 1600;

John Sandrock, Neil Shafer and Joe Boling. A photo of Smith

"Annamese" Coins of Amoy [China] by Francois Joyaux;

appears in the IBNS Journal 2016 #4 page 2.

The Fake and Fantasy Cast Copper Coins of the Vietnam War Era (in English) Part 1 by Craig Greenbaum (Part 2 was

Oriental Numismatic Society The Oriental Numismatic Society (ONS) was founded in

published in the next issue). Issuee #20 (December 2016)

England in 1970 and has been publishing its journal (originally

A Survey of Money Used in Tibet by Wolfgang Bertsch;

called Newsletter) since that time. The society is now an

19th Century Siamese Coins and Medals in the Chinese

international organization with members all over the world. The majority of members are interested in the coinage of the Middle East and India, but over the years many important articles have

Style by Francois Joyaux; An Unpublished Coin of North Vietnam by Laurent Bonneau;

been published in the journal on East Asian topics. Some recent articles include:

The journal can be found online at: https://sites.google. com/site/societedenumismatiqueasiatique/.

Journal #226 Winter 2016 Some Novel Pre-Islamic Coins from Central Asia by Shinji Hirano (on some cash style coins from Central Asia); Journal #227 Spring 2016 Assessing Countermarks on a Corroded Silver Dachao Tongbao by Stephanie Ward and Lyce Jankowski (countermarks on the low grade silver Mongol coins inscribed Ta Ch'ao T'ung Pao).

The Numismatist The Numismatist, now in its 130th year of publication, is the monthly journal of the American Numismatic Association, headquartered in Colorado Springs, Colorado. The January 2017 issue contains a surprising story about the United States 1859S silver dollar. As it turns out, the coin was actually struck for use in the China trade. The experiment failed and only 20,000 pieces were struck, some of which were later melted. The article,

The ONS website can be found at: www. orientalnumismaticsociety.org.

東 亞 泉 志

4

THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS

written by Dan Owens, is titled: "America's First Trade Dollar".


Departments 部門 TAMS Journal The TAMS Journal is the bimonthly publication of the Token And Medal Society. TAMS was organized in November

Howard Daniel III. Democratic Republic of Vietnam Coins & Currency (2nd edition) by Howard A. Daniel III (2016 210 pages color photos) review of the book by Anil R. Bohora.

1960 in Detroit, and was incorporated in 1966. The journal is

Volume 55 #4 (2016)

now in its 57th year of publication. The January-February 2017

Taiwan's Economic Stimulus Coupons by James Contursi

issue contains the article: "From Some Longitude Away: Notes

(on a set of negotiable coupons in denominations of NT$200 and

From A Token Collector in the Far East" which introduces the

NT $500 issued in 2009 to every Taiwan citizen as an economic

field of Taiwan tokens. The author, James Contursi, lives in

stimulus. The face of the coupons looks like a banknote, with a

Tainan, Taiwan. The September-October 2015 issue contains the

mountain vignette in the center).

article: "Chinese-American Tokens: More Samples" by Jerry F. Schimmel. This is the second and concluding article in this series

Gold Treasure Found in Han Dynasty Tomb

by Schimmel. The first part was published in the NovemberDecember 2015 issue. Schimmel is the author of the most extensive catalog on the subject: "Chinese American Tokens From the Pacific Coast" published in San Francisco, California in 2009 (210 pages, spiral bound). Probably 90 percent of Chinese American tokens were used in the three Pacific states of California, Washington and Oregon. Also in the September-October 2016 issue is a review of the book: "Numismatic Archaeology of North America: A Field Guide" by Marjorie H. Akin, James C. Bard and Kevin Akin (New York 2016, 292 pages). Strangely one of the items often excavated in the western United States are Chinese cash coins and also Chinese-American tokens. The coins are largely a testament to the settlement of Chinese in the western states. Some, however, have another origin. In the 1700's a European ship carrying a large number of Chinese cash coins as ballast, wrecked off the coast of Oregon. American Indians were able to salvage some of the Chinese coins, and used them as decorations on their clothing. Thus the coins are sometimes found in Indian burials. Marjorie Akin and her husband, Kevin Akin, have written before on the subject of Chinese coins found in the United States and Canada. Their son, Alexander Akin, once worked for well known Asian coin expert and auction operator, Stephen Album.

IBNS Journal

Under excavation since 2011, late in 2015 a hoard of gold "coins", gold plates and gold horse-hoof shaped "coins" were found in the royal tomb of Liu He (circa 92 - 59 BC). Liu had been King (or Prince) of Changyi, and Marquis of Haihun, but in 74 BC became emperor of the Han Dynasty under the reign title Yuan Ping. He was deposed after only 27 days, the shortest reign of the dynasty. He was allowed to live out his days in a lakeside estate. The tomb was discovered near Nanchang, the capitol of Jiangxi Province. Over the course of five years more than 10,000 artifacts have been excavated including 5,000 bamboo slips, containing the Book of Rites, the Book of Changes, and the Analects of Confucius. Of numismatic interest were the 96 gold "coins" (actually thick disks with designs on one side); 20 gold plates (measuring 22 by 10 centimeters); and a number of gold objects shaped

The International Bank Note Society was founded in

something like a horse hoof. Altogether 478 gold objects were

England in the 1960's and now has a worldwide membership. Its

recovered. Photos of these objects can be found online through

quarterly journal, illustrated in full color, has just completed its

Google, searching under "Haihun tomb gold".

55th year. The two latest issues contain some articles of interest to collectors of East Asian paper money. Vol. 55 #3 (2016): Ending the B. L. & P. Conundrum by Gilbert Chang (on Malayan rubber export coupons). Sun Yat Sen Revolutionary Bonds by Roger Urce and

Rare Vietnam Notes in Stacks-Bowers Sale The Stacks-Bowers-Ponterio Hong Kong auction held August 15-17, 2016 at the Mira Hotel, offered a run of rare banknotes from French Indochina and Vietnam. The highlight of the sale was an unissued South Vietnam 1000 Dong proof note

5

東 亞 泉 志

THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS


Departments 部門 (Pick 4Ap). The face of the note shows an old man on the left

NI BULLETIN ARCHIVE & INDEX

with a temple on the right. The back of the note depicts an older woman on the right and a junk under sail on the left. Lot 50424 in the sale, the note sold for US $38,240.

Singapore Coins and Notes Museum

The Newman Numismatic Portal now hosts a full archive of "NI Bulletins" (1966-2015). The Newman Numismatic Portal (NNP) at Washington University has a library which will archive all of the issues of the Numismatics International Bulletin (NIB) from the first ones in 1966 through to the end of 2015. Over 150 issues are available at that website now, and others are being added to complete the collection. The NIB issues since January 2016 are available on this website to NI members only. NNP has a powerful search engine, so it is possible to access from this database of NI Bulletin's entire issues of NIB's responsive to your Keyword Search. The index can be found through Yahoo Groups Numismatics International.

The Singapore Mint was established in 1968 by Dr. Goh Keng Swee, then Minister of Finance. In more recent years the

Pingyao Banking Museum

mint has established the Singapore Coins and Notes Museum. The museum takes up the third and fourth floors of a building at 2 Trengganu Steet, Level 3, Singapore. The museum is open daily from 10 AM to 8 PM. The mint's website can be found at: www.sigaporecoinsandnotesmuseum.com. The Singapore Mint's website is: www.singaporemint.com.

Mints & Minting in Late Imperial China Mints & Minting in Late Imperial China: Technology, Organization and Problems is the title of a lengthy paper written

Pingyao County in Shanxi Province contains a unique

by Cao Jin, published in the "Documents and Studies on 19th

museum devoted to preserving the history of the Shanxi native

Century Monetary History -- Mints, Technology and Coin

banking system. From Wikipedia:

Production" series, from a symposium held in Copenhagen, Denmark in May 2015. The 38 page paper by Cao is concerned with the technology and methods of coin casting in China from ancient times through the Qing Dynasty. The paper can be

The Rishengchang Exchange Shop (Chinese: 日升昌票號 ; pinyin: Rì shēng chāng piào hào), located in Pingyao, Shanxi province, China, is considered the first draft bank in China's

downloaded or printed through www.academia.edu.

history. It was founded during the Qing Dynasty (1823). In the

Numismatics International

Chinese economy and its branches were widespread throughout

Numismatics International was established in 1964 and has published the NI Bulletin since 1966. The headquarters of the organization have been in Texas since the group was founded. The Bulletin was originally published monthly, but in recent years has changed to bimonthly. The Bulletin is archived online and there is an online index. The following information is from the NI website; www.numis.org.

東 亞 泉 志

6

THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS

nineteenth century, at its peak, it controlled almost half of the China's big urbans and capital, Beijing. And in some western and southeastern countries, Rishengchang also owned its branches and offices. A famous Chinese writer named Yu Qiuyu has once stated that Rishengchang is the "rural grandfather" (Chinese: 鄉下祖父 ) of all the modern Chinese banks. The exchange shop is now a museum and in 2006 was included on the List of monuments of the People's Republic of China (6-484).


Departments 部門

2017 年初新聞資訊 史博祿(美國)

Ishi 出版社再次出版錢幣類書籍 1968 年,為出版圍棋方面的書籍,Ishi 出版社在日

諾曼 · 高尼逝世於俄勒岡州 宋代錢幣研究專家諾曼·弗蘭克·羅曼諾斯·高尼

本成立。之後,出版社遷往加利福尼亞,並從 1994 年起

(1951-2016 年)於 2016 年 10 月 27 日去世。高尼 1968

開始由圍棋冠軍薩姆·斯隆在紐約負責經營。雖然主攻

年至 1971 年曾就讀於伊利諾斯州州卡林維爾的布萊克本

圍棋類書籍的再版工作,但近幾年,該出版社也開始重

學院,1975 年搬家至俄勒岡,並從此在此定居。1963 年,

印一些其他方面的書籍,這其中就包括錢幣學方面的著

諾曼·高尼開始收集錢幣,主攻印度及伊斯蘭世界的貨幣。

作。Ishi 公司既不直接對外銷售書籍,也無官方購書網站。

20 世紀 80 年代起,他開始專注收集中國古錢,並出版

讀者可以在亞馬遜或巴諾書店購得該出版社圖書。其所

了一系列關於宋代錢幣銘文字體的研究專著。2016 年經

出書籍多為平裝書,售價在 25-35 美元之間,其中錢幣

過修訂,高尼出版了一本關於宋代古錢的集大成之作,

類的書籍包括:

其中收錄了關於宋代 89 家造幣廠(錢局)的詳細資訊。 此外,他還是一位業餘的語言學家,精通德語、西班牙

Neil G. Munro 著《日本貨幣》(1904 年 )ISBN 9784871878685,412 頁,2010 年重印。 Jacobs & Vermuele 著《日本錢幣》(1953 年)ISBN 9784871878722,160 頁,2009 年重印。

語、法語、古希臘語、古希伯來語、古阿拉伯語以及漢語。 除錢幣類書籍之外,諾曼·高尼還出版了許多其他方面 的書籍。

張維研逝世(中國)

Alan D. Craig 著《韓國貨幣》(1958 年),ISBN 9784871878951,104 頁,2011 年重印。 施嘉幹著《中國近代鑄幣匯考》(1951 年),ISBN 9784871878708,200 頁,2009 年再版。這是極為稀有的 第二版《中國近代鑄幣匯考》的再版書,第二版因為朝 鮮戰爭的爆發而未能出版。本版在第二版的基礎上進行 了重新修訂,通篇英文,附有照片(包括之前鮮為人知 的天津造幣廠的照片)。 耿愛德著《中國貨幣論》(1927 年)ISBN 9784871878852,562 頁,2011 年再版。 耿愛德著《中國幣圖說匯考》(1954 年),共三卷, 2006 年再版。《東亞泉志》第一期曾經推介過本套書, 作者三卷書的內容分門別類,各個圖片都附有對應的文 字說明。 據互聯網上的描述,這三卷書分別為: 卷一 :《清代銀幣》,ISBN 9780923891183,280 頁; 卷二 :《民國銀鎳鋁幣》,ISBN 9780923891190, 248 頁; 卷三 : 《金幣、臆造幣、紀念章、新疆及西藏的錢幣》, ISBN 9780923891206 ,240 頁。

2016 年 12 月 8 日,中國知名錢幣學家張維研先生 逝世。張先生 1925 年 8 月 19 日生於遼寧省開原縣,20 世紀 40 年代晚期曾在原奉天瀋陽造幣廠擔任過技術員。 50-60 年代,張維研先後調任人行總行印製局、上海造幣 廠,並參與了中華人民共和國第一套硬幣的設計工作。 1983 年借調香港寶生銀行工作。《東亞泉志》2016 年第 4 期雜誌中曾收錄過一篇張先生總結自己在造幣廠工作 經歷的文章。

萊曼·艾倫於美國內華達州逝世 菲律賓錢幣專家萊曼·艾倫於 2016 年 6 月 10 日於美 國內華達去世。萊曼 1941 年 1 月生於邁阿密(佛羅里達), 曾有過在美國海軍無畏號艦船上服役的經歷,退役後便 在維吉尼亞(內華達州)做了一名錢幣商人。其所著的 《1828- 至今的菲律賓錢幣目錄》(1968 年出版)很可

7

東 亞 泉 志

THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS


Departments 部門 能是第一本關於菲律賓錢幣的英文專著。該書第二版出

法國亞洲錢幣學會刊物

版於 1968 年,第七版於 2012 年與讀者見面。 法國亞洲錢幣學會季刊創立於 2012 年 3 月,截至

沃德·史密斯入選 IBNS 名人堂

2016 年 12 月,該雜誌已經出版了 20 期。學會負責人弗 朗索瓦·茹瓦約(1939- 至今)是法國國家東亞語言與文 化研究所在東亞文化方面的名譽教授。雜誌刊發的作品 通常為法語文章,第 18 期上刊登的文章有: 克雷格·格林鮑姆著,《日本零錢研究》(英文); 弗朗索瓦·茹瓦約著,《印尼殖民地經典錢幣藏品》; 《安東 Tical 錢幣的使用年限》 (安東隸屬於柬埔寨)。 第 19 期雜誌(2016 年 9 月)上刊登的:

沃德·杜潤德·史密斯(1918 – 1984 年)於 2106 年入選國際銀行本票協會名人堂。他最為知名的作品是

Daniel Cariou 著《印度朋迪榭裡盧比》; 《1600 年(菲律賓)聖地牙哥錢幣》;

1970 年與布萊恩·馬闕孚合著的《中國紙幣》,時至今 日依然廣受讀者歡迎。人們在沃德去世幾年之後設立了

弗朗索瓦·茹瓦約著《廈門安南幣》;

沃德·D·史密斯獎,以表彰 IBNS 雜誌上刊載的本年度 最佳文章。IBNS 名人堂成立于 2010 年,入選的其他東 亞紙幣作家還包括毛景安、約翰·山德洛克、尼爾·謝

克雷格·格林鮑姆著《越戰時期的偽幣及臆造銅幣》 第一部分(該文章的第二部分刊登於第 20 期雜誌)。

弗以及喬·波林。IBNS 2016 年出版的第四期雜誌上曾 刊載過沃德·史密斯的照片。

以及第 20 期(2016 年 12 月)雜誌上刊登的: 沃爾夫岡·波茨著《西藏貨幣研究》;

東方錢幣學會 東方錢幣學會(ONS)成立於 1970 年,自成立之日 起便開始出版雜誌(原名《資訊》)。該學會是國際知

弗朗索瓦·茹瓦約著《19 世紀中式暹羅幣及紀念章》 ; 勞倫特·邦諾著《未發行的北越南錢幣》。

名的錢幣研究機構,成員遍佈世界各地。雖然多數成員 熱衷中東及印度地區的錢幣研究,但近幾年,大量關於 東亞錢幣的重要文章也出現在了學會雜誌上,其中就包

線上閱讀雜誌請訪問:https://sites.google.com/site/so cietedenumismatiqueasiatique/。

括: 2016 年冬,第 226 期雜誌上刊登的 Shinji Hirano 所 寫的《一些罕見的中亞前伊斯蘭時期的錢幣》(探討了 一些中亞地區的流通貨幣)。 2016 年春,第 227 期雜誌上刊載的《一枚銹蝕的銀 質大朝通寶上的戳記》,史蒂芬妮·沃德及萊斯·楊科夫 斯基合著(探討了一枚品相較差的大朝通寶銀幣上的戳 記)。

有 130 年歷史的《錢幣學家》月刊是美國錢幣協會 ( 總部位於柯洛拉州多斯普林斯 ) 出版的一本雜誌。2017 年 1 月份出版的雜誌上刊登了一篇關於美國 1859-S 銀幣 的驚人故事。這種銀幣原為與中國之間的貿易所鑄,後 試鑄失敗,鑄造量僅為 2 萬枚,其中一些錢幣之後被熔毀。 這篇名為《美國首批貿易美元》的文章是由丹·歐文斯所 寫成。

ONS 官方網址:www.orientalnumismaticsociety.org。

東 亞 泉 志

《錢幣學家》

8

THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS


Departments 部門 TAMS 雜誌

以及阿尼爾·R·博霍拉為霍華德·A·丹尼爾三世所著《越 南民主共和國貨幣》(第二版,2016, 210 頁,附彩圖)

TAMS 雜誌是代幣與獎章學會於 1960 年在底特律創

一書所寫的書評。

建的雙月刊,1966 年被合併。自創刊以來,TAMS 迄今 已經歷了 57 年的歷史。刊登於 2017 年 1-2 月份雜誌上

第 55 卷,第四期(2016):

的《經度之外——一位遠東代幣藏家的紙幣藏品》一文 為讀者介紹了臺灣的代幣。文章的作者是詹姆斯·康特西, 現定居臺灣台南市。2015 年 9-10 月一期中一篇名為《論

《為刺激經濟而發行的臺灣票券》,作者:詹姆斯·康 特西(文章中介紹了一種 2009 年臺灣當局為刺激經濟而

中美代幣——更多樣幣舉例》的文章為傑瑞·F·舒密爾

發給臺灣民眾的一種流通性票券,面值為 200 及 500 新

所寫,這篇文章是作者舒密爾關於中美代幣所著的第二

臺幣。該票券的票面與紙鈔類似,中間印有山峰的圖案)。

篇總結性的論述。該文章的第一部分在 2015 年 11-12 月 份的雜誌上有登載。此外,舒密爾還出版過一本名為《太

漢代古墓發現黃金製品

平洋海岸的中美代幣》的專著(2009 年出版於加利福尼 亞三藩市,210 頁,螺旋裝訂),該書是迄今為止最為 詳盡的一本關於中美代幣的目錄。大概百分之九十以上 中美代幣的流通領域都集中於太平洋沿海各州,包括: 加利福尼亞、華盛頓及俄勒岡。 該雜誌 2016 年 9-10 月份的書評部分介紹了一本名 為《北美錢幣考古學實地指南》的書籍,由瑪喬莉·H·埃 金、詹姆斯·C·巴德及凱文·埃金合著(2016 年紐約, 292 頁)。奇怪的是,在美國西部經常能發現中國古錢 和中美代幣,這些錢幣多數是中國人在美國西部定居時 的試鑄幣,有些則另有出處。18 世紀時,一艘載有大量 中國古錢作為壓艙物的歐洲艦船在俄勒岡沿岸沉沒,附

漢帝劉賀(約公元前 92 年 - 前 59 年)之墓於 2011

近的美籍印度人打撈了一些錢幣,並將其作為裝飾縫製

年開始發掘,2015 年底,考古人員在墓中發現了大量的

在衣物上,因此有時候也會在一些印度人的墓葬裡發現

金餅、金钣及馬蹄金。昌邑王劉賀爵位海昏侯,於公元

這種錢幣。瑪喬莉·埃金及其丈夫凱文·埃金之前曾寫

前 74 年被立為帝,承襲年號“元平”。 劉賀即位 27 天

過一篇關於在美國和加拿大發現的中國古錢的文章。二

即被廢除,是漢代在位時間最短的皇帝。被廢之後,劉

人的兒子——亞歷山大·埃金也曾經為知名亞洲錢幣專

賀被獲准居於一處湖邊宮殿生活。海昏侯墓發現於江西

家及拍賣師史蒂芬·艾爾博姆工作過。

省省會南昌附近,在歷經了 5 年多的發掘工作之後,考 古人員共從墓中發現了 10000 多件漢代器物,其中包括

IBNS 雜誌 國際銀行及本票學會於 20 世紀 60 年代在英國成立, 時至今日,該組織成員已經遍佈世界各地。學會旗下的 全彩季刊迄今已有 55 年的歷史。最近兩期雜誌上刊載的 文章可能會引起東亞紙幣藏家的興趣,這些文章分別是:

5000 枚竹簡,目前已釋讀出《禮記》《周易》《論語》 等多部典籍的內容。 出土的錢幣相關器物中有 96 枚金餅(一側有花紋), 20 枚金鈑(長約 22 釐米,寬約 10 釐米)以及大量的馬蹄金, 各種黃金製品共計 478 件。這些黃金製品的實物圖片可 以通過搜索關鍵字“海昏侯墓黃金”在谷歌上查到。

第 55 卷,第三期(2016)

Stacks-Bowers 越南稀有紙幣拍賣 《B. L. & P. 難題的終結》(探討了馬來亞橡膠出口 券的問題),作者吉伯特·張;

2016 Stacks-Bowers-Ponterio 香港拍賣於 2016 年 8 月 15-17 日在香港美麗華酒店舉行,本次拍品中有一批

《孫中山革命債券》,羅傑·厄斯及霍華德·丹尼爾三 世合著;

稀有的法屬印度支那及越南紙幣頗為引人注目。最大的 亮點是一張未發行的南越南 1000 盾精製紙幣。紙幣正面

9

東 亞 泉 志

THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS


Departments 部門 是老人(左)和寺廟(右)圖案,反面的圖案則是老婦

錢幣國際檔案 & 索引

( 右 ) 及航行中的帆船(左)。 拍品號為 50424,成交價 紐曼錢幣網現收錄了《錢幣國際簡報》的完整檔案

為 38240 美元。

(1966 -2015 年)。華盛頓大學的紐曼錢幣網(NNP)

新加坡錢幣博物館

將收錄從 1966 年第一期至 2015 年底出版的《錢幣國際 簡報》(NIB)的全部內容。現網站上上傳的內容已達 150 多期,剩餘內容也在繼續補充當中。自 2016 年 1 月起, (僅限)錢幣國際會員可以通過該網站閱讀《錢幣國際 簡報》的電子版。 在紐曼錢幣網強大搜尋引擎的技術支援下,讀者可 以通過關鍵字搜索查找到《錢幣國際簡報》全部相關內容。

平遙票號博物館

新加坡造幣廠是時任新加坡財政部長的吳慶瑞博士 于 1968 年設立的。幾年前,造幣廠成立了新加坡錢幣 博物館,地址位於新加坡丁加奴街 2 號,Level 3,營業 時間為上午 10 點至晚上 8 點。造幣廠網址可在 www. sigaporecoinsandnotesmuseum.com 查閱,新加坡造幣廠的 官網為:www.singaporemint.com。

《中國封建社會晚期的造幣廠及造幣行業》 《中國封建社會晚期的造幣廠及造幣行業——造幣

山西省平遙縣有一所記錄了山西票號系統發展歷史 的特殊博物館,以下是維琪百科關於此票號的相關記載:

技術、機構以及困境》一文是曹進在 2015 年 5 月丹麥 哥本哈根研討會上發表的《19 世紀錢幣歷史的史料及研

坐落於(中國)山西平遙的日升昌是中國歷史上的

究——造幣廠、造幣技術及錢幣生產》系列文章中的一篇。

第一家票號。日升昌票號成立於清代(1823 年),在 19

作者在這篇長達 38 頁的文章中系統介紹了中國整個古代

世紀巔峰時期曾控製了中國幾近一半的經濟活動,分號

封建社會(至清代)的造幣技術與工藝。目前該文章可

遍佈首都北京及各大都市。 就連一些西方及東南部國家

在 www.academia.edu 網站上進行下載和打印。

也有其設立的分號及辦事處。知名中國作家余秋雨曾將 日升昌票號比喻為“中國銀行的鄉下祖父”。原日升昌

《錢幣國際簡報》 成立於 1964 年的錢幣國際自 1966 年開始出版《錢 幣國際簡報》,其總部設立在美國德克薩斯。簡報原本 是一月出版一次,近幾年改為了雙月刊,其電子版及索 引均可在網站上查閱。以下是摘自錢幣國際網站 www. numis.org 的一些內容:

東 亞 泉 志

10

THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS

舊址現開闢為中國票號博物館,並於 2006 年入選中華人 民共和國名勝古跡清單 (6-484)。


Departments 部門

Book Review Bruce W. Smith, Ray Bows (USA)

Rare Paper Money of the Qing Dynasty of the Qing Dynasty. This beautiful hard cover book is a supplement to his earlier work Early Paper Money of China (2004) which recorded notes from the collection of the Shanghai Museum. The earlier work covered notes and printing blocks for the Sung, Yuan, Ming and Ch'ing Dynasties, while his new work is devoted just to the Ch'ing Dynasty. The new book is divided into six sections:

Rare Paper Money of the Qing Dynasty by Zhou Xiang, Shanghai 2015, 285 pages, color plates. ISBN 9787547823750 hard cover in slip case. Zhou Xiang's latest work is focused on paper money

1) Traditional style notes (mostly from the 1850's to 1911); 2) Modern style notes from the Hu Poo Bank, the Ta Ch'ing Bank and the Bank of Communications; 3) Notes of provincial banks (25 chapters, both traditional style and modern style); 4) Notes of commercial banks (beginning with the Imperial Bank of China); 5) Notes of foreign banks in China (8 chapters); 6) Military, mining and railroad notes. All of the notes (and one printing plate) are illustrated with full color photographs. Numerous charts record details of branch issues and overprints, as well as some circulation figures. The work concludes with a bibliography of 50 works, all but one published in China since 1978. Zhou Xiang (born 1962) is numismatic curator at the Shanghai Museum.

Chinese and Foreign Paper Money Errors Chinese and Foreign Paper Money Errors by Chen Yaoguang and David Chio, Macau 2015, 233 pages, color photos. Chinese text. 800 copies printed. ISBN 9789996593857 soft cover. An unusual topic, this is probably the first book published in China on paper money errors. The first 163 pages record errors on notes of China, Hong Kong and Macau. The remaining 67 pages mostly record errors on small size notes of the United States. All the notes are illustrated in full color, including many enlargements, as well as many photos of sites or buildings shown on the notes. This may be the first time many of those banknote vignettes have been identified, and this alone makes the book worth buying. One of the most interesting errors is shown on page 17, where a giant head of Sun Yat Sen appears to be rising out of his tomb.

11

東 亞 泉 志

THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS


Departments 部門 Japanese Puppet Regimes Paper Money Japanese Puppet Regimes Paper Money by Chang Mingch'uan, Taipei 2015, 280 pages, color photos. Chinese text with English introduction. ISBN 9789869261302 hard cover in slip case. An excellent new deluxe catalog of notes issued by the Japanese puppet banks in China and Manchukuo during the war with Japan (1931-1945). Interestingly the catalog is arranged by Pick catalog number (Standard Catalog of World Paper Money; also known as Krause-Mishler or KM). All notes are illustrated full size, front and back, and in full color. In addition there are many photos of sites and buildings shown on the notes as well as officers of the banks. The portraits of officials include: Chou Fo-hai, governor of the Central Reserve Bank; Liang Hung-chih and Ch'en Chin-t'ao of the Hua Hsing Commercial Bank; Pao Yueh-ch'ing and Pa Sa Erh of the Mengchiang Bank; Jung Hou and K'an Ch'aohsi of the Manchukuo Central Bank. A chart at the end gives a summary of each note including actual size and printer where known. A rarity guide to each note is shown by zero to five stars. The identification of vignettes and photos of the officers place this work a notch above other such catalogs.

Copper Coins of Modern China (A Century of Machine Struck Copper Coins) A wonderful survey of machine struck copper, brass and copper-nickel coins of China from 1900 to 1949, with superb color photos. The book is divided into two parts - Ch'ing Dynasty and Republic. The listings in each, which includes some medals and tokens, is arranged by province, except for the last chapter (21) of the first part (coins of the Tientsin Central Mint) and the last three chapters (21, 22, 23) of the second part, which cover Japanese puppet coinage, coins of the Shanghai Central Mint and its branches, and communist army coinage. All the items are individually numbered for reference, but this is not a comprehensive catalog. The reference numbers consist of three letters followed by a number. The first two letters are an abbreviation of the province, followed by a "Q" for Qing Dynasty period or an "M" for Minguo (Republic) -a clever reference system.

Copper Coins of Modern China (A Century of Machine Struck Copper Coins) by He Daishui and Zhou Qinyuan, Shanghai 2012, 246 pages, color photos. Chinese text. ISBN 9787547811382 hard cover.

東 亞 泉 志

12

THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS

Many patterns and medals are recorded, some perhaps for the first time. Among these new discoveries are a 1908 Kirin medal (page 33), an undated medal from the Hukuang governor-general (page 55), a Taylor & Challen mint medal showing three machines instead of one (page 54), a Sun Yat Sen medal possibly engraved by Huang Wei-ts'un and


Departments 部門 another Sun medal signed "Hata" (page 138), a Hunan medal commemorating the revolution with a wreath above flags on the reverse (page 159), a small medal attributed to Kiangsi commemorating the revolution and dated "Yellow Emperor

Year 4609" (page 175), a Szechuan horse token with a lined triangle on the reverse (page 187), a medal from the Kunming branch mint with blank reverse (page 238), and two 1943 medals from the Kweilin branch mint, one depicting a river boat and the other with a portrait of Finance Minister H. H. Kung on the obverse and an ancient spade coin on the reverse (page 239). The co-author, Zhou Qinyuan, is also the co-author with Li Pingwen of "Concise Catalogue of Modern Chinese Copper Coins" published in 2012. This is a companion volume to A Century of Machine Struck Silver Coins (Silver and Gold Coins of China 18381949) by Sun Hao, also published in 2012. Sun's book is a wonderful work with superb coin photos and enhanced with photos of mint buildings and workers, maps showing the locations of mints, images of mint machinery and dies, and other related materials. At the end is a chapter with biographies of important western collectors and writers on Chinese coins and a photo and biography of Chou Chih-chun (1894-1937), one of the few Chinese coin engravers we know by name. Two others, Huang Wei-ts'un (1892 - ?) and Tung Yi-ch'ien (1907-1980), also have biographical sketches here.

Important Provincial, Commercial and Military Banknotes Erwin Beyer, a native of Germany, and one of the worlds experts on Chinese paper money, has already published several books and monographs on the subject. This work is his most ambitious undertaking. The bibliography alone fills 20 pages. Listed here are 3,723 notes from 248 banks or other issuers. The notes are listed alphabetically according to the pinyin romanization of the issuer. All known major varieties are listed along with branch issues and signature varieties. The signatures are identified where known. What is not included in this catalog are notes of the national government banks (including the PRC and Taiwan), Japanese puppet banks, foreign banks, small local banks, exchange shops, county and chamber of commerce notes. For the categories it does cover, this work is no doubt the most complete listing so far published.

Important Provincial, Commercial and Military Banknotes of China by Erwin M. Beyer, Second edition, privately published in Grafschaft, Germany, 2013, 3 volumes (1065 pages), black & white xerox illustrations. English Text.

During the 1980's and 1990's Beyer published a multivolume set of catalogs of all Chinese notes titled "Chinesisches Papiergeld" (German text) in at least 13 volumes. This set was arranged alphabetically by the issuer's name. Volume 1 (1988) covered issuers beginning with A and B; Volume 13 (1998) listed issuers K and L. It is not clear whether this series was ever completed. The first edition of the set reviewed here was published in two volumes in 2001. From 1991 through 2004, Beyer published at least 16

13

東 亞 泉 志

THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS


Departments 部門 monographs containing 30 to 50 pages each. The first was on the "Kang Ri" (Resist Japan) notes issued in central Hebei during the war with Japan. Other titles include: Banque Industrielle de China; Sino Scandinavian Bank; Industrial Development Bank of Jehol; Banknotes of Yunnan; Propaganda Notes; Notes of YuLi, Xinjiang Province; Some Notes from Guilin (Kweilin); the Shantung Bank; Kiangse Government Bank and its Forerunners; and Three Notes of Type II (Smith & Matravers Block Printed Notes Type II). Some other works: Official Banknotes of Jilin Province (1999; 61 pages); Banknotes of Xinjiang (1998; 111 pages); The Beihai Bank (1993; 78 pages); Chinese Emergency Notes (2014; 12 volumes;

5,480 notes); Chinese Hell Bank Notes (1996; 156 pages); The Bank of Communications and its Notes (2007; 128 pages, profusely illustrated); The Tsingtao City Bank and its Successor (2012, unpublished); The Agricultural Bank of the Four Provinces (2012; unpublished); The Hupeh Provincial Bank (2012; unpublished); The Farmers Bank of China (2012; unpublished); and The Bank of China and its Notes: Part I Notes With Portrait of Li Hung-chang (2012; unpublished). Some of these monographs are as small as 16 pages while others are up to 50 pages. Most are in German, some are in English, all have Chinese characters where needed. It should be noted that generally only 100 copies are printed of each book and monograph.

Vietnam Military Tokens and Chits - by Ray Bows On November 23, 2016 Ray Bows published a review of Garry Arva's A Comprehensive Listing of Vietnam Military Tokens and Chits (Disc Format) in the MPC Gram, an electronic publication for collectors of Military Payment Certificates and other military money. With permission, it is republished here. -Editor Diligence, perseverance and attention to detail were some of the watch-words emphasized to servicemen 50 years ago in Vietnam. Vietnam veteran and retired First Sergeant Garry Arva has carried those concepts forward to the present with his meticulous work A Comprehensive Listing of Vietnam Military Tokens and Chits, with his resolve and determination to share his incredible collection of Vietnam military numismatics with his fellow collectors, historians and other interested parties. For many years, Garry has been a primary force in searching out and obtaining slot machine tokens (slugs), paper and metal credit checks (chits and tokens), and wooden nickels and related items used as legitimate money by enlisted and officers clubs as a means to regulate, control, and protect MPC in Vietnam. The hundreds upon hundreds of tokens and chits that Garry has photographed bring into perspective the fact that these pieces of exonumia were never intended to be collected, but are indeed military necessity pieces of the highest order, yet his filing system is extraordinary.

東 亞 泉 志

14

THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS

A Comprehensive Listing of Vietnam Military Tokens and Chits Disc Format

Tokens


Departments 部門 Anyone with even the slightest interest in collecting military monies, from whatever period, will become enthralled with this magnificent labor of love and devotion in Garry Arva's chosen field. It is apparent that Arva is proud of his collection, as well he should be, and his selfless willingness to share all the pieces that he has acquired with others is both commendable and an important milestone in the history of this fascinating area of Vietnam history. My wife and I were mesmerized as we scrolled down through what seemed to be an never ending photographic essay of listings. With each purchase of an Arva disc, collectors will feel as though Arva's collection now belongs to them as well. Having the disc is as exciting as owning the collection itself.

Garry, job well done!"

Chits

Chits

The disc is normally $25.00, but can be purchased by MPC grammers for $20.00 from Garry Arva, PO Box 2481, Clarksville, Tennessee 37042. If you have any questions please contact Garry at militarychits@hotmail.com.

Garry adds: My listing has about 1650 Vietnam Military tokens, 1350 chits, 350 chit book covers and a few other things from Military Clubs in Vietnam. All items have a scanned image.

Garry will extend the postpaid $20 offer to readers of The E-Sylum as well. He also provided the images. Thanks! – Editor

For more information about the MPC Gram, or to subscribe, see: MPCGram@yahoo.com

[Editor’s Notes: If should be pointed out that Ray Bows is himself the author of a great book on Vietnam tokens and chits: “Vietnam Military Lore 1959-1973—Another way to Remember” (1988). Bows collected information on the

tokens during his service there. The first draft of his catalog was ready in the early 1970's but the army would not let him publish it while the war was still going on. — Bruce W. Smith]

15

東 亞 泉 志

THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS


Departments 部門

錢幣書籍推介 史博祿、雷·鮑斯(美國)

《清代紙幣珍賞》 《清代紙幣珍賞》,周祥, 上海,2015 年, 285 頁, 附彩圖。ISBN 9787547823750 ,硬皮封面,盒裝。 本書是周祥關於清代紙鈔的最新著作,精裝硬皮封 面,是前作《中國古代紙鈔》(2004 年)一書的增補本。 《中國古代紙鈔》一書收錄了上海博物館館藏的宋、元、 明、清幾個朝代的紙鈔票券,而本書則專注於清代紙幣 的介紹。《清代紙幣珍賞》一書共分為 6 個部分:1. 傳 統樣式的紙幣(多為 19 世紀 50 年代至 1911 年的紙鈔); 2. 戶部銀行、大清銀行及交通銀行發行的現代紙幣;3. 各 省銀錢號發行的票券(共 25 節,傳統紙幣與現代票券兼 有);4. 商業銀行發行的紙幣(從中國同上銀行的紙鈔 開始介紹) ;5. 外資及中外合資銀行發行的紙鈔(共 8 節);6. 軍票與路礦紙幣。所有紙幣(及一塊印刷範本)均以全 彩圖展示,眾多章節都收錄了發行機構、加印量以及流 通相關數據等細節。本書結尾列出的 50 多本參考書籍, 除一本以外,其餘均為 1978 年之後中國所出版書目。作 者周祥(1962 年生人)是上海博物館一位資深研究員。

《華洋怪鈔——中外錯體紙幣賞析圖鑒》

《華洋怪鈔——中外錯體紙幣賞析圖鑒》,陳耀光、趙 康池合著,澳門,2015 年 ,233 頁,附彩圖,中文,印 刷量 800 冊。ISBN 9789996593857,軟皮封面。 本書立意獨特,很有可能是第一本關於中國錯體紙 幣的專著。前 163 頁介紹了中國大陸及港澳地區的錯體 紙幣,後 67 頁羅列的多是小型錯體美鈔。所有紙幣都附 有全彩圖片,包括大批放大圖以及紙幣上建築及景色地 點的圖片。書中或首次披露了許多紙幣的局部細節圖, 僅憑這一點,本書就具備一定的購買價值。書中最有趣 的一張透印錯體紙幣是 17 頁中出現的僅有孫中山半部頭 像的紙幣,幣上的人像看上去似乎是正從墳墓裏爬出來 一樣。

東 亞 泉 志

16

THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS


Departments 部門 《偽政時期紙幣圖錄》 《偽政時期紙幣圖錄》,張明泉,2015 年,臺北,280 頁, 彩圖,中文,英文簡介。ISBN 9789869261302,硬皮封面, 盒裝。 這本新出版的目錄中收錄了大量抗日戰爭時期 (1931-1945 年)日偽銀行及滿洲國銀行所發行的紙幣。 有意思的是,本書採用的排序方式為 Pick 目錄編號(《世 界紙幣標準目錄》;有名克勞斯 - 米什勒或 KM)。書 中紙幣均為正反兩面全尺寸圖片,全彩印刷。此外書中 還收錄了許多紙幣上建築、風景地點圖片以及銀行官員 的肖像圖,包括:偽中央儲備銀行總裁梁鴻志;華興商 業銀行總裁陳錦濤;蒙疆銀行的包悅卿和 Pa Sa Erh,以 及滿洲中央銀行總裁榮厚和闞潮洗。書尾處有一張總結 圖表,上面列出了所有紙幣的實際大小及印刷單位等具 體資訊。作者按照稀有度將每張紙幣從無星到五星一一 打分。但是書中紙幣的細節圖案及銀行官員肖像圖就足 以讓本書成為同類作品中的佼佼者了。

《百年銅元——中國近代機製幣珍賞》 民國銅元兩個部分組成,除銅元外,書中還按照省份整 理了一些紀念章及代幣的內容,第一部分的最後一章(第 21 章——清代天津總廠銅元)及第二部分的最後三章(第 21、22、23 章)則收錄了日偽銀行、上海中央造幣廠及 其分廠發行的錢幣,以及紅軍時期的硬幣。為方便查閱, 作者將書中銅元一一編號,不過這本目錄並不算完備。 編號由三個字母和一個數字組成,前兩個字母是錢幣省 份的首字母縮寫,第三個字母是 Q(代表清朝)或 M(代 表民國),這種編號方式確實巧妙。 書中首次披露了一些新發現的紀念章和樣幣,包括: 一枚 1908 年吉林造紀念章(第 33 頁);一枚湖廣總督 紀念章,年代不明(第 55 頁);一枚退辣車倫製造廠紀 念章,上有三臺(而非一臺)機器(第 54 頁);一枚或 出自黃偉存之手的孫中山紀念章及一枚帶有“hata”簽名 的孫中山紀念章(第 138 頁);一枚湖南省造辛亥革命 紀念章,背旗、花環(第 159 頁);一枚黃帝紀元 4609 《百年銅元——中國近代機製幣珍賞》,何代水、周沁 園合著,上海,2012 年 ,246 頁,彩圖,中文。ISBN 9787547811382,硬皮封面。

年江西省造小型辛亥革命紀念章(第 175 頁);一枚四 川馬蘭幣,背三角(第 187 頁);一枚昆明造幣分廠製 紀念章,背空白(第 238 頁);兩枚 1943 年桂林分廠造 紀念章,一枚幣面上是河上小船圖,另一枚正面是財政 部長孔祥熙的肖像,背面則刻有一枚古布幣(第 239 頁)。

本書插圖品質上乘,是一本關於中國黃銅、紅銅及 銅鍍鎳機製幣不可多得的一本好書。全書由清代銅元和

本書另一位作者周沁園還和李平文合著過一本《中國機 製銅元目錄》,出版日期為 2012 年。

17

東 亞 泉 志

THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS


Departments 部門

《百年銅元——中國近代機製幣珍賞》的姊妹篇《百 年銀圓——中國近代機製幣珍賞(1838-1949)》同樣出 版於 2012 年,作者孫浩。《百年銀圓》一書中除了極為 精美的硬幣圖片之外,還額外附上了造幣廠房及造幣工 人的照片、造幣廠所在地地圖、造幣機器及模具的圖片, 以及其他錢幣相關資訊。書尾最後一章是近代機製幣人 物列傳,介紹了與中國機製幣淵源頗深的西方錢幣藏家、 作者及錢幣模具雕刻師的生平經歷。書中介紹的三位模 具雕刻師分別是:周志鈞(1894-1937 年,為數不多的知 名中國錢幣模具雕刻師之一,附有圖片及生平傳記)、 黃偉存(1892- ?,附有人物小傳)及董益謙(1907-1980 年 , 同樣附有人物小傳)。

《中國地方及軍用票券》 雄心勃勃的一部作品,僅參考書籍就羅列了 20 頁之多。 書中共收錄了 248 家銀行及其他發行機構所發行的 3723 張紙鈔,所有紙鈔均按照其發行單位的羅馬拼音進行分 類排序。多數已知的紙鈔均附有發行單位、簽名及其出 處的相關資訊。書中並未收錄國有銀行(包括中華人民 共和國及臺灣當局銀行)、日偽銀行、外國銀行、小型 地方銀行發行的紙幣 , 以及錢幣兌換莊和縣城、商會發 行的商業票券。本書涵蓋廣泛,毫無疑問是迄今為止關 於中國紙鈔最為詳實的一本著作。 20 世紀 80-90 年代,拜爾出版了一套名為《中國紙 鈔》(德文)的多卷系列叢書(至少有 13 卷),內容涵 蓋了所有的中國紙幣。這套叢書按照紙幣發行單位的拼 音進行分類排序,第 1 卷(1988 年)包含了以 A-B 為拼 音開頭的發行單位所發行的紙幣,第 13 卷(1998 年) 則收錄了發行單位以 K-L 開頭的紙鈔。 目前尚無法確定 這套叢書是否已經編寫完成。這裏介紹的該叢書的第一 版出版於 2001 年,共分為兩卷。從 1991-2004 年,拜爾 《中國地方及軍用票券》,埃爾溫· M ·拜爾,第二版, 由個人出版於德國格拉夫沙伏特,2013 年, 3 卷(共 1065 頁),黑白插圖,英文。

前前後後一共出版了不下 16 本關於中國紙鈔的著作,頁 數從 30- 到 50 頁不等。第一本書的內容介紹了抗日戰爭 時期冀中地區發行的抗日鈔。 其他的書籍還包括:《中國工業銀行》《中國 - 斯

德國人埃爾溫·拜爾是世界知名中國紙鈔專家之一, 迄今已出版了數本相關的書籍與專著。本書是拜爾最為

東 亞 泉 志

18

THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS

堪的納維亞銀行》《熱河工業發展銀行》《雲南紙鈔》《宣 傳鈔》《新疆尉犁紙幣》《桂林紙鈔》《山東銀行》《江


Departments 部門 西國有銀行及其前身》,以及《三張Ⅱ類紙鈔》(Smith

《青島銀行及其後繼者》(2012 年,未出版)、《湖北

& Matravers 雕版印刷Ⅱ類紙鈔)。拜爾其他關於中國紙

省屬銀行》(2012 年,未出版)、《中國農民銀行》(2012

鈔的作品還有:《吉林省官方紙鈔》(1999 年 ,61 頁)、

年,未出版)、 《中國銀行及其發行的鈔票:第一部分——

《新疆紙幣》(1998 年,111 頁)、《北海銀行》(1993

李鴻章像紙鈔》(2012 年,未出版),以及其他少則 16

年 ,78 頁)、《中國臨時兌換券》(2014 年,12 卷,收

頁多則 50 多頁的相關專著。這些書籍多數為德文所著,

錄票券 5480 張)、《中國冥幣》(1996 年 ,156 頁)、《交

部分為英文,所有書籍均附有中文作為注釋,印刷量均

通銀行及其發行的鈔票》 (2007 年 ,128 頁,附大量插圖)、

僅為 100 冊。

《越南軍票及代幣券大全》(光碟)——雷·鮑斯評 2016 年 11 月 23 日,Ray Bows 在 MPC Gram 上發表了一篇 關於 Garry Arva 所著《越南軍票及代幣券大全》(光碟)的書評。 這張光碟的受眾為軍用支付券及其他軍票的藏家。 經作者同意, 現將此文在此刊出。 勤勉、堅持不懈、注重細節是五十多年前越南駐軍們所恪守 的準則。現在,越南老兵、退役一等士官長 Garry Arva 通過《越 南軍票及代幣券大全》(光碟)將這些準則展現在了大眾面前。 作者憑藉其決心和毅力,將自己的恢宏的越南軍票藏品一一分享 出來,以供軍票收藏同仁、歷史學家以及眾多軍票愛好者欣賞。 Garry 多年以來一直致力於老虎機代幣(籌碼)、紙質及金屬質

《越南軍票及代幣券大全》(光碟)

信用支票(代用券及代幣)、木質鎳 幣,以及其他士兵、軍官俱樂部裡用 作法定貨幣的相關物品的搜集與收藏 工作。這些代幣和票券當時是在越南 貨幣政策委員會的管理、控製及保護 下而被用於流通和使用的。 Garry 將數以百計的代幣及代用 券一一拍攝下來,從這些圖片上我們 可以直觀地看出,這些代幣絕非是為 了收藏,而是作為首要軍需用品被生 產製造出來的。 Garry 本人用一種獨 到的方式將這些錢幣系統地整理了出 來。

代幣

無論任何年代,只要是對軍票 收藏有一點瞭解和興趣的人都會被 Garry Arva 對這一領域的巨大癡迷與 投入而感到動容和着迷。毫無疑問, 這些藏品是 Arva 的驕傲,他這麼認為 也是完全合乎情理的。 Arva 將自己所

代用券

19

東 亞 泉 志

THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS


Departments 部門 得藏品全部無私地分享了出來,此舉不僅值得稱頌,還 是越南這一段迷人歷史中堪稱豐碑的壯舉。 當我和妻子一起流覽這部大全的時候,我們二人被 其中圖文並茂、卷帙浩繁的內容深深吸引。任何購買了 這張光碟的藏家都會有一種將 Arva 的藏品收為己有之 感,其中的興奮與激動,與真正擁有這些藏品並無二致。

代用券

代用券 Garry,幹得好! Garry 補充說: 光碟原標價 25 美元,有意向購買的讀者可以以 20 美元的價格通過 MPC grammers 向 Carry Arva 購買,地 址為:田納西州 37042,克拉克斯維爾,2481 信箱。如 有其他疑問,請發郵件至 Garry 的郵箱:militarychits@ hotmail.com。

本張光碟中收錄了 1650 張越南軍用代幣、1350 張代用券、350 張回單簿封皮以及其他越南軍人俱樂 部中的物品,所有的圖片均為實物掃描。 想要瞭解更多關於 MPC Gram 的資訊或有意訂

The E-Sylum 的讀者同樣可以以 20 美元(包郵)的 價格向 Garry 購買此光碟,同樣附有圖片。——編者注

編者注:雷·鮑斯是越南代幣及票據方面的偉大著 作——《越南軍隊傳說 1959-1973——另一種銘記》(1988) 一書的作者。鮑斯在越南服役期間曾收集過關於當地代

東 亞 泉 志

20

THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS

購者,請浏覽:MPCGram@yahoo.com。

幣的相關資料。該目錄的初稿就早在二十世紀七十年代 就已經撰寫完成,但由於戰爭尚未結束,部隊在當時並 未准許出版此書。——史博祿


Departments 部門

Macao Numismatic Fair 2016 Hans Henning Göhrum (GER) On the invitation of my friend Michael Chou from Champion Auction I visited the Macao Numismatic Fair in 30 November to 4th December the first time. As former President of World Money Fair Berlin, the leading numismatic Fair worldwide, I was impressed about what the Organizers, the Macao Numismatic Society, have installed in Macao after only two years’ time. The conditions for a numismatic Fair in Macao are very good. The reason why is that the organizers managed to inspire all key institutions and persons in Macao for this project including the press, Radio and TV stations.

2 December 2016, Hans Henning Göhrum delivering a speech at Macau International Currency Forum

The location for these first steps is well known in the city. There is potential for a decent development in the years to come when the Organizer is planning to move the Fair into an even more prestigious place, the Sofitel Macao. The awareness of the public and collectors is very good but can be increased by press releases from month to month and other actions. Champion Auction owner Michael Chou is guaranteed to achieve a proper development. He is very well connected to the Macao authorities and he is well connected to the international market. A special Marketing plan will be developed and this is what Michael Chou is looking for.

30 November 2016, Hans Henning Göhrum attended the Macau Numismatic Society Annual Exhibition From left: MNS honorable president Wong Chi Seng, PMG fouder Rick Stelzer, Hans Henning Göhrum, Michael Chou

Finally, I am looking forward to visiting the Macao Numismatic Fair again in 2017 and I am prepared to help in it's development. Hans Henning Göhrum Former President of World Money Fair Berlin and owner of GOEHRUM CONSULTING Germany.

2 December 2016, Hans Henning Göhrum attended JEAN (Journal of East Asian Numismatics) Chinese Numismatic Workshop Invitation Lunch

21

東 亞 泉 志

THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS


Departments 部門

2016 澳門錢幣學會年展观感 漢斯·亨甯·格魯姆(德國) 應摯友冠軍拍賣公司總裁周邁 可先生的邀請,我出席了 2016 年 11 月 30 日 至 12 月 4 日 舉 辦 的 澳 門錢幣學會年展,這也是我第一次 參加此項盛會。 在澳門舉辦錢幣展覽具備極佳 的天時地利人和條件。此次展會盛 況空前、引人入勝,應展會舉辦者 之邀,前來參加展會的既包括澳門 各大錢幣社团及泉界權威人士,還 有眾多紙媒及廣播電視媒體代表。 本屆展會於全澳門知名的金碧 文娛中心舉行,不過舉辦者計畫在 未來將舉辦地改為名氣更大的澳門 索菲特酒店,如此或有望擴大展會 的影響力。若港澳之間的交通能按 計劃發展,那麼到 2017 年展會舉 辦的時候,前來參加的賓客尤其是 國外的客人就可以獲得更多的便 利。

2016 年 12 月 2 日,作者在國際錢幣論壇中發表演講

澳門錢展在民眾和收藏界中口 碑極佳,但若能通過日積月累的報 道及其他活動進行宣傳的話,展會 的影響力將會進一步擴大。 冠軍公司總裁周邁可先生是進 一步擴大展會影響力的關鍵人物。 周先生同澳門錢幣界眾多知名人士 及國際市場都保持了良好的關係。 一個具有針對性的营銷計畫是推動 展會發展的關鍵所在,而這也是周 邁可先生一直以來所期望的。

2016 年 11 月 30 日,作者在澳門錢幣學會年展,左起:澳門錢幣學會名譽會 長黃志成、PMG 創始人 Rick Stelzer、漢斯·亨甯·格魯姆、周迈可

最後,我期待能在 2017 年再 次來澳門參加此項盛會,我也非常 樂意為展會的發展貢獻自己的一份 力量。 (作者為前柏林世界錢幣展覽會主 席及格魯姆諮詢公司總裁) 2016 年 12 月 2 日,作者參加《東亞泉志》中國錢幣工作會邀請午餐

東 亞 泉 志

22

THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS


Departments 部門

2016 Macau International Money Fair Quan Chi (Xi’an) The 2016 Macau International Money Fair (including exhibition, trade fair, forum and auction) was jointly organized by the Macau Numismatic Society and Champion Auction, from November 30 to December 4 in Macau Kam Pek Community Center and Ponte 16 Sofitel Hotel. Here are some highlights of this fair. 1. The Money Exhibition The 2016 Macau Money Exhibition Celebrating the 17th Anniversary of Macau’s Return to China and the Howard Bowker East Asia Collection Macau Special Exhibition was organized by the Macau Numismatic Society and sponsored by the Macau Foundation and the Macau Cultural Bureau. The opening ceremony of this exhibition was held on the second floor of the Macau Kam Pek Community Center at 5:30 pm on November 30. Distinguished guests who attended this opening ceremony were: Xia Jing, the representative of the Culture and Education Department of Macau Contact Office of the Central Government; Li Kexin, the member of the Management Committee of the Macau Monetary Authority; Qu Rongzhi, the member of the Macau Foundation Executive Committee; the director of the Macau Museum Loi Chi Peng; Hans Henning Göhrum, the chairman of the Berlin World Money Fair; Wen Faren, the former secretary general of the Zhejiang Numismatic Society; Fung Ping Sau, the president of the Hong Kong Collectors Association in Greater China; Si Tu Wei Ye, the deputy editor in chief of Macau Daily; Michael Chou, the CEO of Champion Auction; Wong Chi Seng, the honorary chairman of the Macau Society (and also the vice chairman of the Readers’ Public Welfare Foundation of Macau Daily); Xiao Chunyuan, the president of the Macau Calligraphy and Seal Cutting Association; Ung Choi Kun, the chairman of the Macau Real Estate Chamber of Commerce and David Chio, the director of the Macau Numismatic Society. David Chio delivered a speech at the opening ceremony. He reviewed the development process of the Macau Numismatic Society and gave a brief introduction of the 2016 Macau Money Fair (Pic. 1). The Macau Numismatic Society was established in 1988 and received significant support from the Macau government and the public in the past 28 years. It has attracted more than 600 members and will send a delegation to communicate with the mainland provincial numismatic associations every year. The

communication activity broadens the horizons of its members and also elevates its influence. The Macau Numismatic Society started to organize an annual money exhibition and forum since 2012. Collaborating with some well-known coin auction companies, the Macau Numismatic Society launched the International Coin Collecting Week in Macau in 2014. The society will organize many activities, including the Macau Money Fair, a Special Exhibition of World Coins, an International Numismatic Forum, an International Coin Round- Table Conference and Coin Auction and will also publish reference books and annuals about coin collecting during that week. The Coin Collecting Week helps to promote Macau culture and history to the world.

Pic. 1 David Chio delivered a speech

2800 items were shown at the 2016 Macau Money Exhibition (Pic. 2). Most exhibits were modern Macau banknotes and gold & silver coins from local collectors and members of the Macau Numismatic Society. The highlights include: the No 1, 2016 year of the monkey 10 kilos 30000 yuan gold coin (5 pieces were issued, Pic. 3) and the No 1, 2016 year of the monkey 10 kilos 300 yuan proof silver coin (the mintage is 150 pieces) minted by the Australia Perth Mint (Pic. 4). 31 coins from the Howard Bowker East Asia Collection Macau Special Exhibition (Pic. 5) also attracted many visitors. Some extremely rare coins, such as three pieces of Taiwan silver coins (an old man coin,a Ju-I military ration and a Taiwan Bi Pao coin ), a set of four Kuang Hsu Yuan Bao copper-plated samples from Sichuan province and minted by the Philadelphia Mint (in denominations of five cents, ten cents, twenty cents, and fifty cents), a 1927-1928 Honan Province 500 cash pattern (the largest denomination copper coin in China and only twelve pieces were minted) and a 1937 Kuangtung Province five goats one sen copper coin were warmly welcomed by local visitors.

23

東 亞 泉 志

THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS


Departments 部門

Pic. 3 The No 1, 2016 year of the monkey 10 kilos 30000 yuan gold coin

Pic. 2 A part of the exhibition

Pic. 4 The No 1, 2016 year of the monkey 10 kilos 300 yuan proof silver coin

The launch ceremony of two magnificent commemorative medals was held after the ribbon cutting activity (Pic. 6). Wong Chi Seng, Michael Chou and David Chio (Pic. 7) unveiled the launch ceremony of the 2016 Macau Numismatic Society pandas designed by Yu Min and minted by the Shanghai Mint Co., Ltd (including 15 two oz gold pandas, a one kilo gold panda,1000 two oz silver pandas, 20 one kilo silver pandas, 101 copper pandas and

東 亞 泉 志

24

THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS

Pic. 5 Michael Chou (left) and Hans Henning Goerum 29 brass pandas). The Howard Bowker Collection Macau Special Exhibition commemorative medal (including 10 silver medals and 200 copper medals) was designed by Zhou Zhuo and produced by the Shenyang Mint. Han Henning Göhrum, Michael Chou and David Chio unveiled the launch ceremony (Pic. 8). The 2016 Macau Aspect Banknote was released at the ceremony (Pic. 9).

Pic. 6 The ribbon cutting activity


Departments 部門 2. The Trade Fair

Pic. 7 The launch ceremony of the 2016 Macau Numismatic Society commemorative pandas

Pic. 8 The launch ceremony of the Bowker Collection Macau Special Exhibition commemorative medal

Pic. 9 The 2016 Macau Aspect Banknote

The trade fair was held on the second floor of the Macau Kam Pek Community Center. Only three mainland Chinese dealers attended this fair and the rest were mainly from America, Sweden, Germany, South Korea, Macau and Hong Kong (Pic. 10). The trade fair was from December 1 to December 4 and saw about 2000 visitors a day. Visitors were more eager to appear after 3 pm in this leisure city. The only two dealers of ancient Chinese coins showed some common items which sold quite well. Early banknotes issued by Hong Kong and Macau banks were very popular while expensive Renminbi notes with good numbers performed poorly in sales. Several buyers from China mainland were interested in two 2005 1 yuan notes issued by People’s Bank of China (Q2F2222222 and M7Q7777777, PMG66) shown by a South Korea dealer but were finally scared away by the high price of 2500 HKD. Two consecutively numbered 10 yuan notes without portraits of farmers issued by the People’s Bank of China in 1980 (PMG 66) and priced at 20,000 yuan were not sold either. Various kinds of modern gold & silver coins also appeared at the trade fair. About ten pieces of early Chinese gold and silver pandas were bought by several Macau collectors. 245 2016 Macau Numismatic Society silver pandas and 60 2016 Howars Bowker Collection Macau Special Exhibition copper medals specially customized by Champion Auction were quickly snapped up (Pic. 11). Both the panda and the Bowker medal have innovative designs and local characteristics and became a huge hit. The obverse of the panda features Macau Grand Prix racing cars and the Guia lighthouse. The reverse depicts the logo of the Macau Numismatic Society: Macau Zoo pandas (mother and babies). The obverse of the Bowker medal features Macau landmarks Mazu Temple, Paul's Cathedral and Lotus, the floral symbol of Macau Special Administrative Region and the commemorative medal of The Macau Numismatic Society. The reverse depicts the main entrance of the Shenyang Mint. Co,Ltd and the dies of the Chinese coins. Live evaluations by Richard Guo, the CEO of www. beijingcoin.com and Rick Stelzer, the founder of the PMG company were held at the fair and Duan Honggang, the president of Beijing Gong Bo Coins also helped to identify coins for visitors. Mr. Guo identified many ancient Chinese coins, machine-made coins and a few foreign silver coins for over 30 visitors. Unfortunately, none of these coins were real (Pic. 11 and Pic. 12). Lots of people gathered in front of the table of The Journal of East Asian Numismatics.

25

東 亞 泉 志

THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS


Departments 部門 Professor Xu Yizong (a Taiwan writer who has published 10 books about Chinese banknotes) had a nice conversation with the chief editor, Yuan Shuiqing (Pic. 13). Guan Bingfen, a member of the Macau Numismatic Society (a wheelchair user) read over four printed copies of our magazine and took photos of Howard Franklin Bowker-Numismatic Pioneer page by page.

Pic. 10 Exhibition tables of the Champion Auction and other foreign exhibitors

Pic 13 Xu Yizong in front of the table of the Journal of East Asian Numismatics 3. The International Currency Forum Pic. 11 Visitors queued to buy the 2016 Macau Numismatic Society silver panda and the 2016 Howard Bowker Collection Macau Special Exhibition copper medal

Many local people learned the news about the International Currency Forum from the Macau Daily and they came to the hall on the first floor of the Macau Kam Pek Commumity Center to attend the forum on the afternoon of December 2. Numismatic scholars and collectors from America, Germany, Hong Kong, Macau and Xi’an delivered many outstanding speeches for attendees (Pic. 14).

Pic. 12 Richard Guo identified coins for visitors

東 亞 泉 志

26

THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS

David Chio gave a speech on how to increase the value of coin collections. He believes that collectors should first choose a collecting area they are interested in and then start to collect coins and banknotes within their capabilities. They should also focus on collecting real rather than just rare coins. Reputable shops, auctions and trade fairs are good


Departments 部門 places for buying real coins and banknotes. Ancient coin collectors must study ancient Chinese history and those who are interested in modern gold & silver coins should be concerned about related information released by the People's Bank of China. Macau coins and banknotes issued before Macau’s return are very precious and have great potential to appreciate in value. The price of rare editions of notes with good numbers is much higher than common ones.

Pic. 14 Lecturers of the International Currency Forum: (from left) Zhao Xiling (interpreter), Michael Chou, Yuan Shuiqing, Hans Henning Göhrum, Fung Ping Sau and David Chio

Hans Henning Göhrum talked about the history of the World Money Fair and COTY – Coin of the Year award and some interesting details and history about these two important institutions in English (interpreted by Zhao Xiling).Albert Beck, a Swiss citizen, founded the World Money Fair in 1972. The Fair initially started in the city of Basel, Switzerland and moved on to the capital of Germany, Berlin in 2006. The fair is held always at the beginning of the year. The exhibition area of around 9.000 square meters plans to add another 4,000 square meters in 2018. When the COTY award was created in 1984, it was intended by World Coin News to encourage the mints of the world in performing their work. The award found a permanent home in the Berlin World Money Fair in 2016. At the end of his presentation, Mr. Göhrum showed two catalogs of the COTY award winners. Yuan Shuiqing briefly introduced the Howard Bowker East Asia Collection Macau Special Exhibition and donations from Bowker’s collection. Howard Franklin Bowker (1889 to 1970) was a top numismatist and a great collector of East Asia coins and Chinese stamps. He served 34 years in the navy and devoted himself to coin collecting and study after his discharge. Mr. Bowker told his family to donate, not to sell his collections before he died. He had collected about 10,000 items, including many rare and precious coins and

stamps, in his life. 31 rare coins exhibited in the Macau Special Exhibition and 192 coins auctioned in Hong Kong in August 23, 2016 that sold for 1,590,000 USD are parts of his collection. The Bowker family has donated 6628 coins and banknotes six times to four national mints and museums in China and Germany from April 2010 to June 2016. They will donate another part of Howard Bowker’s collection to the National Museum of American History in 2017. Fung Ping Sau, shared the fun of collecting the fifth series of one yuan RMB banknote (the large-leaved orchid) with the audience. This note was issued by the People’s Bank of China in 1999 and has a raised watermark of orchid in left center of the obverse. The large-leaved orchid one yuan note gets the name from its large orchid watermark and is made of paper with fluorescence fibers. The orchid watermark is vivid with strong three-dimensional features and full of petals. Its leaves are larger than that of a normal orchid. This note has been generally considered as an independent edition of the fifth series of RMB notes. There are 33 large-leaved orchid one yuan notes (these account for 5 percent) of the 616 pieces of 1999 one yuan prefixed notes ever found. All one yuan notes with three prefixes and a few one yuan notes with two prefixes comprise such notes. No large-leaved orchids notes with four prefixes have been found.

27

東 亞 泉 志

THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS


Departments 部門 Michael Chou briefly introduced King L Chan’s research results on commemorative pandas. The Chinese government has designed and minted various kinds of commemorative pandas, including pandas to celebrate friendships between China and other countries. These coins were minted in different materials and sizes, since 1984. Images of creative and lively pandas and many exotic things and historical buildings are engraved on these commemorative medals. These represent friendships between the PRC and other countries and reflect the great skills of coin designers. It has become a great challenge to collect a complete set of commemorative pandas due to their limited mintage. Some pandas minted in the early days, like the 1994 Munich (Germany) Money Fair 1 kilo silver panda (only 99 pieces were minted), (the price of which accounted for 700,000 RMB in 2005), are very precious and can hardly be found.

The 2016 Champion Macau Auction was held in room 6/F of the Macau Sofitel Hotel at Ponte 16 on December 3. Live, online and telephone bidding began at the same time (Pic. 15). A total of 397 items, including modern Chinese machine-made coins (medals), modern gold & silver coins (medals), foreign gold & silver coins and a few ancient Chinese coins, were auctioned and 92.4 percent (367 items) were sold (13.4 percent higher than last year). The sales reached 1,405,649 USD (with commission). 139 of Charles Tanant’s 149 coins were sold (the turnover rate was 93.3 percents) for 453,447 USD (with commission), which accounted for about one-third of the total auction sales. This reflected the importance of soliciting lots from oversea collectors.

Michael Chou also introduced Charles Tanant, a Frenchman who worked for 36 years in China, and his Chinese coin collection during the lunch meeting of the Journal of East Asian Numismatics on December 2. These coins were preserved in the South of France for over 90 years. This 2016 Champion Macau Auction offered a great opportunity for collectors to get these precious coins.

a dozen uncirculated samples are known to exist today. Lot 203 is the highest graded coin by PCGS and was estimated for 30,000 to 60,000 USD. A bidder offered 55,000 dollars when the bidding began. The coin was finally bought by floor bidder 152 for 115,000 USD after a fierce bidding war and became the highest bid in the auction (Pic. 16).

Lot 203, the China-Kweichow 1928 auto dollar silver coin became the biggest highlight of this auction. Nearly all such coins circulated for a time and only less than half

4. The 2016 Champion Macau Auction

Pic. 16 The 1928 auto dollar silver coin sold for the highest price

Pic. 15 The 2016 Champion Macau Auction

東 亞 泉 志

28

THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS

The auction was successfully concluded. Other items that sold for high prices are: Lot 005, the China-Anhwei 1898 50 cents silver, Charles Tanant collection, sold for 50,600 USD; Lot 165, the China-Republic ND (1927-28) 500 cash copper, Honan Mint, plain edge, NC collection sold for 46,000 USD and Lot 220, the China-Taiwan ND(1853) Ju-I military ration with crossed lotus, NC collection sold for 41,400 USD. Modern gold and silver coins also sold well. The price of Lot 369, China 2005 year of the rooster 2000 yuan 5 oz gold proof (mintage 118) reached 39,100 USD. Both lot 341, the China 1993 panda 1000 yuan 12 oz gold proof (mintage 99) and lot 373, the China 2007 year of the pig 2000 yuan 5 oz gold proof (mintage 99) were sold at the price of 36,800 USD.


Departments 部門

2016 澳門國際錢幣年會 泉癡(西安) 由澳門錢幣學會與冠軍拍賣公司聯手承辦的 2016 澳門國際錢幣年會,採取有分有合的形式,集年展、展銷、 論壇、拍賣於一體,於 11 月 30 日至 12 月 4 日在澳門金 碧文娛中心和十六浦索菲特大酒店成功舉行。現將此次 活動的四項主要內容綜述如下,期望同行能從中捕捉到 有價值的資訊。 一、錢幣年展。儀式隆重,內容豐富。由澳門錢幣 學會主辦。澳門基金會和澳門特區文化局贊助。展名: 2016 慶祝澳門回歸祖國十七周年澳門錢幣展暨包克東亞 錢幣收藏特別展。11 月 30 日下午 5:30 在金碧文娛中心 二樓舉行開幕剪綵儀式,約 300 名會員參加。出席開幕 式的重要嘉賓有:中央駐澳門聯絡部辦公室文教部代表 夏晶,澳門金融管理局管委會委員李可欣,澳門基金會

圖 1 趙康池致辭

行政委員會委員區榮智,澳門博物館館長呂志鵬,柏林 世界錢幣展覽會主席漢斯·亨寧·格魯姆,浙江省錢幣學會 原秘書長溫法仁,大中華香港收藏家協會會長馮炳壽, 《澳門日報》副總編輯司徒偉業,愛秀集團總裁周邁可, 澳門錢幣學會名譽會長黃志成(《澳門日報》讀者公益 基金會副會長)、蕭春源(澳門書法篆刻協會會長)、 吳在權(澳門房地產聯合商會會長),理事長趙康池。 趙康池在開幕式上致辭,他回顧了澳門錢幣學會 的發展歷程,簡介了年展內容(圖 1)。澳門錢幣學會 1988 年成立,28 年來,在澳門特區政府有關部門及社會 各界的大力支持下,會員已發展到 600 多人。每年組織 代表團出訪內地省級錢幣學會進行交流,開闊視野,同 時提升澳門錢幣學會的知名度。2012 年起,每年舉辦一 屆錢幣展及論壇。2014 年起更與國際知名錢幣拍賣公司 合作,在澳門舉辦國際錢幣收藏文化博覽活動周,包括 澳門錢幣展、國際錢幣特別展、國際錢幣論壇、國際錢 幣圓桌會議、錢幣拍賣、出版錢幣收藏工具書及年刊等, 向世界各地收藏愛好者推廣澳門歷史文化。 2016 錢幣年展共展出各類錢幣 2800 件(圖 2), 以澳門近現代系列紙幣和當代金銀幣為主,展品由澳門 多名收藏家和本會會員提供。最大亮點:由澳洲皇家鑄 幣廠生產的編號“1”2016 年猴年 10 公斤普製金幣,面 值 30000 元,發行量 5 枚(圖 3 ),和澳洲珀斯(PERTH) 鑄幣廠生產的編號“1”2016 年猴年 10 公斤精製銀幣, 面值 300 元,發行量 150 枚(圖 4)。年展的另一亮點, 是包克東亞錢幣收藏展中的 31 枚珍稀錢幣(圖 5),包 括一套 3 枚非常稀有的臺灣銀幣(老公銀、如意軍餉、 “庫” 字筆寶軍餉),費城造幣廠鑄造的一套 4 枚 1902 年四川 省造光緒元寶鍍銅精製樣幣(面值 5 分、10 分、20 分、 50 分),鑄造量僅為 12 枚的 1927-1928 年中華民國河南

圖 2 展廳一角

圖 3 2016(猴)年 10 公斤普製金幣

圖 4 2016(猴)年 10 公斤精製銀幣

29

東 亞 泉 志

THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS


Departments 部門 雙旗伍百文鍍鎳銅幣 ,是中國貨幣史上面值最大的銅幣, 以及中華民國二十五年廣東省造五羊壹仙銅幣等,均十 分珍稀,澳門市民難得一見。

圖 7 2016 澳門錢幣學會紀念熊貓揭幕 圖 5 周邁可(左)和漢斯·亨寧·格魯姆向觀眾介绍包克藏品

剪綵儀式後(圖 6),舉行了兩枚意義重大的紀念 章首發儀式:上海造幣有限公司生產、餘敏設計的 2016 澳門錢幣學會精製熊貓(金質 2 盎司 15 枚、1000 克 1 枚, 銀質 2 盎司 1000 枚、1000 克 20 枚,特製紅銅質 10 枚, 特製黃銅質 29 枚)由黃志成、周邁可、趙康池揭幕(圖 7),瀋陽造幣有限公司生產、周卓設計的“包克收藏澳 門特別展”紀念章(銀章 10 枚、紫銅章 200 枚)由漢斯·亨 寧·格魯姆、周邁可、趙康池揭幕(圖 8)。澳門錢幣學 會出版的《澳門錢鈔縱橫·2016 年展特刊》同時發行(圖 9)。

圖 8 包克收藏澳門特別展紀念章揭幕

圖 6 年展剪綵

東 亞 泉 志

30

THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS


Departments 部門

圖 9 《澳門錢鈔縱橫·2016 年展特刊》封面

二、錢幣展銷。現代幣(章)多,銷售較好。本屆 錢幣展銷會亦在金碧文娛中心二樓進行,交流展櫃 44 個。 展銷商主要來自美國、瑞典、德國、韓國,以及港澳臺 地區(圖 10),中國大陸僅有 3 家。交流會從 12 月 1 日至 12 月 4 日,日均客流量 2000 餘人次 。與其他地區 展銷會不同的是,因澳門是休閒城市下午 3 點後參觀者、 交易者反而增多。從錢幣銷售分類看,中國古錢幣商僅 2 家,展銷的多為明清普通品,但買者不少。紙幣以港 澳臺地區銀行發行的早期券成交較多;人民幣紙幣趣味 幣、吉祥號價格高,一韓國幣商的兩張 2005 版中國人民 銀行壹圓券,冠號分別為“Q2F2222222” “M7Q7777777”, PMG66 分,被幾位內地人看中,因幣商要價 2500 港元 未成交。一收藏者的兩張連號 1980 年版中國人民銀行拾 圓無農民頭像浮水印券,GBPM66 分,開價 2 萬元人民幣, 未成交。中外近代金銀幣品種多,成交量一般,而 10 多 枚早期年版的中國熊貓金銀幣被幾位澳門藏家悉數購走。 冠軍拍賣公司定製的兩種紀念章——2016 澳門錢幣學會 年會紀念銀熊貓、2016 包克收藏澳門特別展紀念大銅章 銷售火爆,現場 245 枚銀章、60 枚大銅章被搶購一空(圖 11 )。這兩種紀念章受到熱捧的原因,是設計新穎,澳 門地域特色鮮明,前者圖案:正面主景為紀念文字和代 表澳門特色的賽車比賽場景及著名景點——東望洋燈塔, 賽車上有猴年標誌,背景充滿活力的弧線表現了賽車的 運動感,黑白方格突出表現了 3 號賽車到達終點時的衝 刺;背面主景為母熊貓與兩隻小熊貓嬉戲圖。後者圖案: 正面主景為澳門地標媽祖廟、大三巴和澳門象徵蓮花; 背面主景為瀋陽造幣有限公司正門、德製中國錢幣幣模。

圖 10 冠軍拍賣和外國幣商展銷區

圖 11 與會者排隊搶購冠軍發行的兩種紀念章

在展交會上,北京錢幣網總裁郭嘉華、PMG 原創人 Rick StezIer 現場評估錢幣,北京公博總經理段洪剛也在 自己的展銷櫃前為來客講評。其中,郭嘉華先後接待 30 多位求鑒者,其所帶多為中國古錢幣、機製幣,還有少 量外國銀幣,經郭先生鑒定大多為贗品,反映出這些人 有興趣收藏但缺少真假錢幣鑒別知識,有待從這方面提 升(圖 12)。《東亞泉志》雜誌展櫃前吸引了不少錢幣 研究者和收藏愛好者,出版有 10 本中國紙幣圖書的臺灣 自由作家、教授許義宗還與主編袁水清進行了交流(圖 13)。澳門錢幣學會會員關炳芬坐輪椅前來參觀,不僅 翻閱了 2016 年 4 本電子雜誌打印件,還逐頁拍照了《霍 華德·佛蘭克林·包克——錢幣學研究先驅者》一書,好學 精神令人感動。

31

東 亞 泉 志

THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS


Departments 部門 因存世量有限,較為珍貴,具有升值潛力。若收藏到挺版、 靚號嗎的紙幣,則價格會更高。

圖 12 郭嘉華(左)為參觀者鑒定錢幣

漢斯·亨寧·格魯姆的英語演講更為精彩,趙晞齡女 士翻譯成普通話。他介紹了世界錢幣展覽和世界硬幣大 獎賽的歷史,以及這兩項錢幣界盛事在發展過程中所發 生的一些趣事。世界錢幣展是瑞典人阿爾伯特·貝克 1972 年所創辦,展會最初在瑞士巴塞爾舉行。2016 年起將舉 辦地改在柏林,舉辦時間固定為每年的年初。2018 年展 區面積將增至 1.3 萬平方米。1984 年,《世界錢幣新聞》 雜誌為表彰各大造幣廠的鑄幣工作而設立了世界硬幣大 獎。從 2016 年起,該獎項的頒獎儀式永久入駐柏林世界 錢幣展覽會。格魯姆先生最後向與會者展示了兩本歷年 榮獲世界硬幣大獎的精美圖錄。 袁水清介紹了《包克及其錢幣藏品東亞收藏特別展 和歷次捐獻》簡況。霍華德·佛蘭克林·包克(1889-1970 年) 是一位東亞錢幣收藏大家和頂級錢幣學家,也是著名的 中國郵品收藏家。他的一生平凡而偉大。軍旅生涯 34 年, 退役後更是全身心地投入錢幣收藏與研究。臨終前囑咐 家人,希望把他的畢生收藏捐獻公益事業,供展示和研 究用,而不是賣掉賺錢。包克的錢幣收藏宏富而高端。 數量近萬件,且珍稀品眾多。“包克東亞錢幣收藏澳門 特別展”的 31 枚珍品和 8 月 23 日在香港義拍受到熱捧 的 192 件價值 159 萬美元的精品僅是其冰山之一角。分 散捐獻,讓世界分享。從 2010 年 4 月至 2016 年 6 月, 包克家族已向中德兩國 4 家國有印鈔造幣企業及博物館 6 次捐獻中國歷代鑄幣、紙幣 6628 件。2017 年將把一部 分包克藏品捐獻美國國家博物館錢幣收藏館。

圖 13 許義宗(左)參觀《東亞泉志》雜誌展位

三、錢幣論壇。專家演講,十分精彩。12 月 2 日下 午,從《澳門日報》提前看到消息的市民早早來到金碧 文娛中心一樓禮堂,聽取一年一次的國際錢幣論壇演講。 本屆論壇邀請美國、德國、香港、澳門、西安等地的著 名錢幣學者和藏家主講,與會者獲益良多(圖 14)。 趙康池講了《如何令錢幣收藏品升值》,他認為, 普通收藏愛好者首先要選擇好自己喜愛的錢幣種類,再 循序漸進,量力而為。應保本收藏,中線投資,勿一味 追求罕品。關鍵是要收藏真品:可在信譽佳的錢幣店選購, 也可到拍賣會或展會購買。想玩古錢者必須學習中國古 代歷史知識;玩當代金銀幣者要關注中國人民銀行發佈 的相關資訊。玩港澳紙幣、硬幣者,應把重點放在回歸前,

東 亞 泉 志

32

THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS

馮炳壽與大家分享了《第五套人民幣壹圓紙幣大葉 蘭》的收藏樂趣。第五套人民幣壹圓紙幣即中國人民銀 行 1999 年版壹圓券。其浮水印在正面左側中間,為凸版 固定蘭花圖案。 “大葉蘭”以蘭花浮水印相對較大而得名。 其特徵是,採用專用進口的滿版螢光絲紙張,蘭花浮水 印立體感強,形象逼真,比普通的蘭花浮水印葉片較大, 花瓣飽滿,已被公認為第五套人民幣的獨立版別。截至 目前,發現在 1999 版壹圓券 616 個冠字券中,其中 33 個有“大葉蘭”,占比 5%。總體看,兩冠券中有少量的 “大葉蘭”,三冠券都有,四冠券中未發現。 周邁可介紹了陳景林的研究成果——《淺談中外友 好熊貓紀念章》。自 1984 年起,中國官方造幣機構鑄造 了非常多、且設計經典的熊貓紀念章,其中中外友好熊 貓紀念章材質和規格均很豐富,熊貓圖案較為活潑生動, 富有創意,而且都有濃厚異國風情的事物或歷史建築物, 體現了當代中國錢幣在國際間的一段友誼歷史,見證了 著名設計者自由發揮的高度水準。因存世量少,集齊大 全套成為富有挑戰性的工程。早期珍品很難覓得且價格


Departments 部門 不菲,如發行量僅有 99 枚 的 1994 年 德 國 慕尼黑幣展 1 公斤銀 章,2015 年初市價已 達 70 萬元人民幣。 在 12 月 2 日《東 亞泉志》雜誌中國錢 幣工作會邀請午餐 間,周邁可還介紹了 法國人查爾斯·譚安在 中 國 長 達 36 年 的 職 業生涯,以及他收集 的大量中國鑄幣,這 些錢幣在法國南部某 地 一 直 保 存 了 90 多 年。12 月 3 日冠軍拍 賣會為藏家將這些錢 幣收入囊中提供了一 次絕佳機會。

圖 14 國際錢幣論壇演講者合影 左起:趙晞齡(翻譯)、周邁可、袁水清、漢斯·亨寧·格魯 姆、馮炳壽、趙康池

四、錢幣拍賣。成交率高,亮點多多。12 月 3 日在 索菲特大酒店 6 樓舉行,冠軍拍賣公司舉辦。現場、網 絡、電話和書面委託競投同步進行(圖 15)。拍品種類 為中國近代機製幣(章)、現代金銀幣(章),外國金 銀幣,以及少量中國古幣。總數 397 件,成交 367 件, 成交率 92.4%,高出上年同一拍賣場次 13.4 個百分點。 成交總金額 1405649 美元(含傭金)。其中,查爾斯·譚 安錢幣藏品 149 件,成交 139 件,成交率 93.3%,成交 金額 453447 美元,占成交總金額 1/3 強。反映出徵集海 外藏家拍品的重要性。

本場拍賣會的最大亮點,是 203 號拍品民國十七年 貴州省政府造貴州壹圓銀幣,俗稱“汽車幣”。這種銀 幣屬流通品,大多品相較差,目前已知僅 6 枚為未使用 品,該拍品 PCGS 評級第一高分。估價 30000-60000 美元, 開拍時有買主直接報價 55000 美元,經多位買家激烈競 投,最終被志在必得的持 152 號牌的女士競得,成交價 115000 美元,成為本場“標王”(圖 16)。

圖 16 “汽車幣”獲本場拍賣成交價第一名

圖 15 拍賣現場

此次拍賣會人氣旺盛,高價頻出。單件成交價居前 的還有:005 號拍品光緒二十四年安徽省造光緒元寶庫 平三錢六分銀幣,查爾斯·譚安藏品,成交價 50600 美元; 165 號拍品 1927-1928 年河南雙旗伍百文銅幣,光邊, NC 藏品,成交價 46000 美元;220 號拍品 1853 年臺灣 如意軍餉,NC 藏品,競爭激烈,以 41400 美元成交。現 代金銀幣有三大亮點可圈可點:369 號拍品 2005 年乙酉 (雞)年 5 盎司生肖紀念金幣,發行量 118 枚,以 39100 美元成交;341 號拍品 1993 年 12 盎司熊貓紀念金幣, 精製鏡面,發行量 99 枚,與 373 號拍品 2007 年丁亥(豬) 年 5 盎司長方形紀念金幣,精製鏡面,發行量 118 枚, 均以 36800 美元的價格成交。

33

東 亞 泉 志

THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS


Departments 部門

The 2016 Beijing International Coin Exhibition Champion commemorative note to celebrate t h e q u a t e r c e n t e n a r y o f Ta n g Xianzu’s birth (made by the Nanchang Note Printing Limited, Pic. 2) were showed by China Banknote Printing and Minting Corporation and were warmly welcomed. The 2017 rooster year colorful silver plate (Pic. 3) and the zodiac commemorative copper medal produced by the Shanghai Mint Co., Ltd were also very attractive. A large number of visitors watched engravers

Pic. 1 Yang Ziqaing, member of People’s Bank of China party committee and assistant governor, declared the opening of the exhibition and other guests (from left): Han Yuting, Zhou Weirong, Liu Guisheng, Zhang Hanqiao, Yang Ziqiang, Zhong Ping, Xiong Jun, Li Ming and Fu Guoxi

displaying the traditional carving techniques in front of the booth of the Shenyang Mint Co., Ltd (Pic. 4).

The 21st Beijing International Coin Exhibition organized

by the China Gold Coin Corporation, the China Banknote Printing and Minting Corporation and the China Numismatic Museum, was held from November 4 to 6 in the Beijing National Convention Center. 249 exhibitors and more than 10,000 coin collectors from all over the world attended the exhibition. The opening ceremony was held at 9:30 am on November 4. Han Yuting, party committee secretary of China Banknote Printing and Minting Corporation, hosted the ceremony. Zhang Hanqiao, president of the China Gold Coin Corporation, Liu Guisheng, president of the China Banknote Printing and Minting Corporation and Zhou Weirong, director of the China Numismatic Museum delivered speeches. Yang Ziqaing, member of People’s Bank of China party committee and assistant governor, declared the opening of the exhibition (Pic. 1).

1. The Exhibition

Pic. 2 The commemorative note to celebrate the quatercentenary of Tang Xianzu’s birth

Pic. 3 The 2017 rooster year colorful silver plate, Shanghai Mint Co., Ltd

Visitors poured into the National Convention Center after the brief opening ceremony. A large variety of new products was one of the highlights of the exhibition. The most impressive exhibits were 36 gold and silver commemorative pandas (released from 1982) and the 2017, rooster year gold and silver commemorative coins displayed by the China Gold Coin Corporation. Coin derivatives like the resistance war coin and the aerospace coin, and the

東 亞 泉 志

34

THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS

Pic. 4 Panda coin collector, Peter Anthony took pictures


Departments 部門 A total of 44 international mints and exhibitors (the most

from the Royal Canadian Mint, commemorative coins displayed

ever) attended the exhibition. A tremendous variety of exhibits,

by the Austrian Mint and new products of the Perth Mint of

such as the florin gold coin, the Canadian maple gold coin, the

Australia also attracted many visitors (Pic. 7).

American eagle gold coin and the Australian kangaroo gold coin, were very popular among buyers. Coins displayed by the

The A089 International exhibition booth belonged to

British Royal Mint, like the 2016 commemorative silver coin

the Champion Auction Company. A great number of visitors

set, the 90th anniversary of the Queen’s birth commemorative

gathered here to have a good look at their exhibits, such as the

coin and the Shakespeare commemorative coins, attracted the

Honan 500 cash coin, the Li Yuanhong commemorative bronze

attentions of many visitors (Pic. 5). An exhibit of the French

medal, the 1922 Wuchang Mint director Guo bronze medal, the

Mint, the 2016 VanCleef and Arpels’s 110th anniversary 1 kilo

Otto Beh Berlin Special Exhibition commemorative panda and

gold coin with diamonds (11 pieces were released, 5000 euros

the Macau Numismatic Society commemorative medal (Pic.

in denomination and 85mm in diameter ) became the bright spot

8). The Top Chinese Coins (the 1st and the 2nd edition) and the

of the exhibition (Pic. 6). The Asian Classical Culture series

Gold and Silver Panda Coin Buyer’s Guide (the 2nd edition), shown at the booth, were soon sold out. Michael Chou, president of the Champion Auction Company, warmly welcomed and talked with buyers and clients. One client, Liu Li from Beijing, said he liked to buy coins from them. Most of their coins were from oversea collectors and had a high cultural value (Pic. 9).

Pic. 5 Visitors gathered in front of the table of British Royal Mint

Pic. 7 People in front of the booth of Perth Mint of Australia

Pic. 8-1 Visitors looked trough books and brochure of the Champion Auction

Pic. 6 The 2016 VanCleef and Arpels’s 110th anniversary 1 kilo gold coin with diamonds

Pic. 9 Michael Chow talked with Liu Li

Pic. 8-2 Staff answered questions for guests

35

東 亞 泉 志

THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS


Departments 部門 2. The Conference Forum and Auction The conference launch of the “Zhong Chao” brand was held on the morning of November 4. Liu Guisheng, Han Yuting, Shao Guowei, CTO of the China Banknote Printing and Minting Corporation and Gong Shiliang, chairman of the China Gold Deal Co., Ltd, attended the ceremony (Pic. 10). Wang Hui, speaker of China Banknote Printing and Minting Corporation, introduced the significance and connotation of the “Zhong Chao” brand. The brand is created on the basis of the top anticounterfeiting skills by the China Banknote Printing and Minting Corporation and has advantages in areas of specialization, credibility and integration.

Pic. 10 The launch of the “Zhong Chao” brand

The “Zhong Chao Identification” is a brand which belongs to the China Banknote Printing and Minting Corporation and is operated by China Gold Deal Co., Ltd. In his speech, Gong Shiliang introduced the Zhong Chao Identification Center, unveiled on September 28, 2016 in Shanghai, was the first identification center organized by authoritative printing and minting corporations of China. The new product release conference of Zhong Chao Guang Hua Printing Co., Ltd and the 2017 gold and silver commemorative panda introduction conference opened at 2:00 pm on November 4. The Zhong Chao Guang Hua Printing Co., Ltd is a subsidiary of China Banknote Printing and Minting

Pic. 11 The Traditional Chinese Culture-Family Harmony Cultural Album (inner page)

Corporation. The new product released this time was the Traditional Chinese Culture-Family Harmony Cultural Album (Pic. 11). This album contained a Family Harmony commemorative note, a picture of the Hibiscus and Pheasant sculpture (gravure, the original painting was drawn by Zhao Jie, the Emperor Huizong of Song), a “He” character (cursive script) commemorative coin and a 1 yuan banknote of the fifth set of RMB. 30,000 limited sets will be released, each priced at 398 yuan. This almost unobtainable cultural derivation was warmly welcomed and over 10,000 sets were sold during the exhibition.

東 亞 泉 志

36

THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS

Pic. 13 Zhang Hanqiao made a speech in the readers’ seminar of the Chinese Modern Bullion Coins

Pic.12 The 2017 commemorative panda set (proof)


Departments 部門 Zhang Haiqiao unveiled the opening ceremony of the 2017 gold and silver commemorative panda. Gold and silver pandas are stars of international and Chinese modern bullion coins. Designs of commemorative pandas will be changed every year. The 2017 commemorative panda set contains five types of gold coins (1 gram, 3 gram, 8 gram, 15 gram and 30 gram) and one type of silver coin (30 gram) (Pic. 12). The design of this edition is a charmingly naïve panda sitting in the bamboo forest. The image is filled with a sweet atmosphere and expresses the idea of the harmonious relationship between human beings and nature. The readers’ seminar of the Chinese Modern Bullion Coins (edited by Wang Shihong) series and the collecting culture forum were held on November 5. The seminar was hosted by Wang Bin, the deputy general manager of Zhejiang Yi Jin Co., Ltd. Zhang Hanqiao made a speech and said this was a series of

Pic. 14 Michael Chou and King L. Chan gave Wang Shihong the “2016 Nick Brown Award”

authoritative, informative, historical, artistic, and readable books which made a great contribution to the promotion of Chinese bullion coin culture and the brand of Chinese gold coins (Pic. 13). Wang Shihong, the main editor of this series, Luo Yonghui, senior craft artist of the Shanghai Mint Co., Ltd and King L. Chan, the well-known collector of Chinese modern coins also gave speeches. This well-printed series with beautiful text and delicate pictures is not only an encyclopedia of Chinese modern coins but also the first set of bullion coin books with details in China. The full set was priced at 950 yuan. 2000 sets were soon sold out on www.yjzx.com after the readers’ seminar.

Pic. 15 Zhao Yansheng delivered a speech

At the end of the seminar, Michael Chou, president of Champion Auction, told the audience that Wang Shihong might go to Germany with his books to promote the culture of Chinese gold and silver coins. He also expressed his expectation of propagating Chinese numismatic culture, printing and minting skills at international money fairs. Michael Chou gave Wang Shihong the “2016 Nick Brown Award” on behalf of the jury (Pic 14). The brass medal of this series of books (450 yuan each) designed by Luo Yonghui and produced by Shanghai Mint Co., Ltd, was also released on the same day.

Pic. 16 Huang Ruiyong gave a speech

Two famous collector, Zhao Yansheng and Huang Ruiyong delivered speeches at the collecting culture forum. Zhao Yansheng, who specializes in studying Chinese modern coins, introduced how to realize the cultural and artistic value of bullion coins from various aspects of history, humanity, aesthetics, design styles, and producing techniques on the subject of “the cultural and artistic value of Chinese modern bullion coins” (Pic. 15). Huang Ruiyong analyzed the reason why most winners of the Coin of the Year Award came from Austria, Canada, Belarus and other eastern or western European

Pic. 17 The auction of top coins

37

東 亞 泉 志

THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS


Departments 部門 countries while only 9 winners were from China in the past

lots that included Chinese modern gold and silver coins, copper

two decades in his speech “The Charm and Tendency of Coin

medals, banknotes, foreign gold and silver coins and calligraphy

Awards”, which greatly educated the forum attendees (Pic. 16).

works of famous modern coin designers, 352 items (83.61%, 26.85 percent higher than last year) were sold for 126,082 yuan

Winners of the 2015 Most Popular Bullion Coin Award

(with commission). The average premium reached 1.19%. 201

and the Award of Coin and Medal Arts were released on the

pieces of Chinese modern coins (87.35%) were sold for 122,175

morning of November 5. The Most Popular Bullion Coin Award

yuan which accounted for 19% of the total turnover.

is called the numismatic Hundred Flower Award by collectors. Winners of the 2015 Most Popular Bullion Coin Award were

Lot 1, the No1 2016 Beijing International Coin Exhibition

the 70th Anniversary of the Victory in the Chinese Anti-

commemorative sliver coin was sold at the price of 2,800

Japan War and the Worldwide Anti-Fascism 7.776 gram gold

yuan. Lot 88, the No1 2015 Goat Year 10 kilos gold coin (18

commemorative coin (1/4 oz, 50,000 pieces will be issued at

pieces were issued) was sold for 4,500,000 yuan and became

most) and the 2015 New Year silver commemorative coin (1/4

the bidding king (Pic. 18). Another highlight of the auction, lot

oz, 600,000 pieces will be issued at most). The best medal: the

189, the 2016 Monkey Year 2 kilos gold coin (100 pieces were

square commemorative medal in memory of the foundation of

issued) was concluded at the price of 880,000 yuan (Pic. 19) .

the coin and medal committee ; the most creative award: the Liopleurodon commemorative medal: the best art award: the 120th anniversary of the foundation of the Shenyang mint co.ltd The results of the first Award of Coin and Medal Arts were announced on the afternoon of November 5. The Best Gold Coin went to the Da Zu Rock Carvings Sun-Moon Guanyin gold coin while the Best Silver Coin Award was given to the Da Zu Rock Carvings Sakyamuni’s Nirvana silver coin. The 70th Anniversary of the Victory in the Chinese Anti-Japan War and the Worldwide Anti-Fascism (year of monkey) commemorative coin won the Special Award. The auction of top coins started at 9:30 am on November 6 and was held by E&W International Auction with the exclusive identification service of Beijing CNAG (Pic. 17). Among 421

Pic. 19 Lot 189, the 2016 Monkey Year 2 kilos gold coin was concluded at the price of 880,000 yuan (the second highest price)

3. Shows with different features I. The Maritime Silk Road Trade and Coin Show. The show organized by the China Numismatic Museum, revealed the development progress of the Maritime Silk Road with 110 pictures, 11 graphs and 123 pieces of Chinese and foreign coins and notes (mainly from Indonesia, Malaysia, Sri Lanka and Vietnam) (Pic. 20). II. The 80th Anniversary of the Red Army’s Long March Money Show (sponsored by the Red Finance special group of the China Money and Banking Museum and three other institutions). This was this first time the coin show with the theme of Chinese revolutionary finance appeared on the international stage. Organizers displayed this numismatic history over time with hundreds of pieces of coins, notes and 400 precious pictures. These exhibits that had been baptized by war, gave a spiritual shock to visitors (Pic. 21).

Pic. 18 The bidding king was sold for 4,500,000 yuan

東 亞 泉 志

38

THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS


Departments 部門 III. The First Chinese Exhibition of Banknote Design and Engraving Arts (organized by the technical center of China Banknote Printing and Minting Corporation). The exhibition was divided into three parts: the art show, displaying the 19th century intaglio art and famous paintings in the Louvre Sculpture Studio, the science exhibition which showed the test and commemorative notes printed by modern Chinese and international printing corporations; and the collection show which displayed

Pic. 20 The Maritime Silk Road Trade and Coin Show

the engraving art of the fourth and the fifth sets of RMB issued by the People’s Bank of China and other works of the main designers and engravers (Pic. 22). The 2016 Beijing International Coin Exhibition not only provided a communication platform for international numismatic enterprises but also displayed a positive image of Chinese numismatic brands to the world. It was good to see the rising of Chinese official identification institutions. It was a pity that no extensive exhibition of Chinese ancient coins, modern

Pic. 21 The 80th Anniversary of the Red Army’s Long March Money Show

notes and machine-made coins, or a forum of famous international coins and advanced minting skills was organized. It is hoped that a better exhibition will be presented to Chinese and international coin collectors and lovers next year!

Pic. 22 The First Chinese Exhibition of Banknote Design and Engraving Arts (part)

39

東 亞 泉 志

THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS


Departments 部門

2016 北京國際錢幣博覽會回覽 冠軍研究室 本屆博覽會外國(含地 區)造幣企業和參展商共 44 個,為歷屆最多的一次。國 際展區展品亦十分豐富。享 有盛名的福格林金幣、加拿 大楓葉金幣、美國鷹洋金幣、 澳大利亞袋鼠金幣仍然是參 觀者欣賞和選購的重點。英 國皇家造幣廠展出 2016 年度 純銀紀念幣套裝,以及慶祝 英女王 90 歲生辰紀念幣、紀 念莎士比亞系列紀念幣等系 列產品吸引了眾多參觀者(圖 圖 1 楊子強宣佈 2016 北京國際錢幣博覽會開幕 左起:韓玉婷、周衛榮、劉貴生、張漢橋、楊子強、鐘平(中國人民銀行辦公廳副 主任)、熊俊(中國人民銀行貨幣金銀局副局長)、李明(中國錢幣博物館黨委書 記)、付國喜(中國人民銀行營業管理部副主任)

5)。具有千年造幣歷史的法 國巴黎造幣局,展品豐富, 琳琅滿目。其中,2016 年和 傳承百年的高級珠寶梵克雅

2016,北京,初冬微寒,層林盡染。11 月 4-6 日, 來自世界各地的 249 家印鈔造幣機構、參展商,及近萬 名錢幣收藏愛好者,齊聚中國國家會議中心,參加由中 國金幣總公司、中國印鈔造幣總公司、中國錢幣博物館 聯合主辦的第 21 屆北京國際錢幣博覽會。 11 月 4 日上午 9:30,2016 北京國際錢幣博覽會盛大 開幕。開幕式由中國印鈔造幣總公司黨委書記韓玉婷主 持。中國金幣總公司董事長張漢橋、中國印鈔造幣總公 司董事長劉貴生、中國錢幣博物館館長周衛榮先後致辭。 中國人民銀行黨委委員、行長助理楊子強宣佈博覽會開 幕(圖 1 )。

一、錢幣展覽 簡短的開幕式後,參觀者蜂擁而至,展會上的各種 新產品成為參觀者關注的熱點。 展會上最為引人注目的就要數中國金幣總公司展示 的 1982 年首發至今的 36 個年版熊貓金銀紀念幣及 2017 中國丁酉(雞)年金銀紀念幣。中國印鈔造幣總公司展 出大量貨幣實物及貨幣文化衍生品,如出口產品抗戰幣、 航天幣,及旗下南昌印鈔有限公司開發製作的湯顯祖 四百周年紀念券 ( 圖 2) 很受歡迎;上海造幣有限公司生 產的 2017 雞年高浮雕彩色銀盤(圖 3)、十二生肖典藏 紀念銅章格外惹目;瀋陽造幣有限公司雕刻師還在展臺 現場展示傳統手工雕刻技藝,觀眾爭相觀看、拍照(圖 4), 歎為觀止。

東 亞 泉 志

40

THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS

圖 2 湯顯祖四百周年紀念 圖 3 2017 雞年高浮雕彩 券,南昌印鈔有限公司展品 色銀盤 上海造幣有限公 司展品

圖 4 “貓迷”皮特·. 安東尼搶拍雕刻現場


Departments 部門 寶合作,發行量為 11 枚、面值 5000 歐元、直徑 85mm 的梵克雅寶 110 周年 1 公斤鑲鑽紀念金幣光彩奪目(圖 6)。 加拿大皇家鑄幣廠展出的經典文化主題產品的亞洲“獨 秀”,奧地利造幣廠展臺銷售的獲獎紀念幣和澳大利亞 珀斯鑄幣局展示的新產品也同樣吸引了大量觀眾(圖 7)。

8),帶去展銷的《中國近代機製幣精品鑒賞》 (一、二版)、 《熊貓金銀幣收藏指南(第二版)》簽名版等精品錢幣 圖書很快銷售一空。周邁可總裁熱情接待重要客戶並與 之交流,北京劉力先生交談時說,他之所以喜歡在冠軍 公司競買錢幣,是因為其拍品可靠,多來源於海外大藏 家的舊藏,而且冠軍對拍品文化價值挖掘得深刻(圖 9)。

被列為國際參展商之一 A089 號展位的冠軍拍賣公 司,展出了 NC 藏品珍稀幣章河南雙旗伍百文銅幣、黎 元洪像中華民國五族共和紀念銅章、民國十一年武昌造 幣廠長郭銅質紀念牌,以及當代德製幣模柏林特別展鈀 金紀念熊貓、澳門錢幣學會年展紀念章等,參觀者眾多(圖

圖 8-1 冠軍拍賣展臺前眾多參觀者翻閱圖書和宣傳頁

圖 5 英國皇家造幣廠展臺

圖 8-2 解答參觀者的詢問

二、推介會、論壇及拍賣會

圖 7 澳大利亞珀斯鑄幣局展臺前彙聚了大量觀眾

(一) “中鈔”品牌發佈會暨“中鈔鑒定”業務推介會。 11 月 4 日上午進行。劉貴生、韓玉婷(圖 10),中國印 鈔造幣總公司技術總監邵國偉、中鈔國鼎投資有限公司 董事長龔士良等出席。首先,中國印鈔造幣總公司發言 人王輝對構建中鈔要素品牌的意義、內涵進行了新聞發 佈。中鈔品牌即是中國印鈔造幣總公司利用頂級印鈔造 幣防偽技術背書優勢,確立和培育的品牌,在專業性、 信任度和集成性方面存在一定的優勢。 “中鈔鑒定”是中國印鈔造幣總公司品牌,由中國 國鼎投資有限公司具體營運。龔士良介紹說,於 2016 年 9 月 28 日在上海揭牌的中鈔鑒定中心是國內首個由國家 權威印鈔造幣機構推出的鈔幣鑒定評級機構。

圖 6 梵克雅寶 110 周年 圖 9 周邁可與劉力先生親切 1 公斤鑲鑽紀念金幣 交談

(二)中鈔光華印製有限公司新產品發佈會和“2017 版熊貓金銀紀念幣”項目推介會。11 月 4 日下午 2:00 分兩處同時進行。中鈔光華印製有限公司是中國印鈔造 幣總公司全資子公司。此次發佈的新產品為《中國傳統 文化——家和萬事興》文化紀念冊(圖 11)。

41

東 亞 泉 志

THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS


Departments 部門 該紀念冊內含“家和萬事興”三連體紀念券 1 張, 《芙蓉錦雞圖》(原畫傳由宋徽宗趙佶所作)凹版雕刻 作品 1 幅,“和”字書法 —— 草書普通紀念幣 1 枚,以 及第五套人民幣壹圓紙幣 1 張。據悉,此套《中國傳統 文化 —— 家和萬事興》文化紀念冊限量發售 3 萬冊,每 冊售價 398 元。因其是不可多得的貨幣文化衍生精品而 受到歡迎,展會期間就售出 1 萬多冊。 張漢橋在推介會上為 2017 版熊貓金銀紀念幣揭幕。 熊貓金銀紀念幣已成為世界投資幣和當代中國貴金屬紀 念幣的品牌和明星產品。其每年變換幣面圖案的做法, 可謂標新立異、獨樹一幟。2017 版熊貓金銀紀念幣共 6 個規格,其中金幣有 5 種,分別是 1g、3g、8g、15g、 30g(圖 12);銀幣 1 種,是 30g。幣面大熊貓的造型憨 態可掬,悠然自得,背景襯以竹林,整幅畫面洋溢着溫 馨的氣息,表達了人與自然和諧共存的理念。 (三)《中國現代貴金屬幣賞析》(王世宏主編) 叢書讀者見面會和收藏文化論壇。11 月 5 日進行。《中 國現代貴金屬幣賞析》叢書讀者見面會由浙江易金集團 有限公司常務副總經理王斌主持。張漢橋致辭說,這是 一套極具權威性、知識性、史料性、藝術性、可讀性的 中國錢幣類書籍,為我們中國貴金屬幣文化、中國金幣 品牌的推廣做出了不可磨滅的貢獻(圖 13)。本書主要 編寫人王世宏先生、上海造幣有限公司正高級工藝美術 師羅永輝、著名中國現代金銀幣收藏家陳景林、等分別 發言。該書文字流暢優美,圖片精美,設計印刷一流, 不僅是中國現代貴金屬幣的百科全書,還是是中國首套 極其詳細的貴金屬幣專著。全套定價 950 元惠讓了讀者, 2000 本在易金線上瞬間搶空。 見面會最後,冠軍公司總裁周邁可發言說,2017 年,王世宏老可能會去德國,拿着這本專著,去推介中 國的金銀幣文化。希望中國能夠多去國際展會做錢幣文 化、印鈔造幣技術宣傳。他代表評委會頒發了授予王世 宏“2016 年度尼克·布朗收藏貢獻獎“獲獎證書(圖 14)。羅永輝設計、上海造幣有限公司生產的該叢書紀 念套章中的黃銅章(售價 450 元 / 枚)同天在博覽會銷售。

東 亞 泉 志

42

THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS

圖 10 中鈔品牌發佈會

圖 11 《中國傳統文化之家和萬事興》文化紀念冊(內頁)

圖 13 張漢橋在叢書讀者見面會上致辭

圖 12 2017 版熊貓金紀念幣(精製)


Departments 部門 在收藏文化論壇上,兩位收藏研究專家趙燕生及 黃瑞勇作了精彩演講。專門從事中國現代金銀幣研究的 專家趙燕生,以“透析中國現代貴金屬幣的文化藝術價 值”為題,講述了如何從歷史、人文、美學、設計風格 及製作技藝等方面,認識貴金屬幣的文化藝術價值(圖 15)。黃瑞勇以《幣章大獎的魅力及趨勢》為題(圖 16),分析了 20 多年來“世界硬幣大獎”得主大戶集中 在奧地利、加拿大、白俄羅斯及東西歐,中國僅有 9 款 幣獲此大獎的原因,對與會者啟示很大。 (四)最受群眾喜愛的 2015 貴金屬紀念幣評選揭 曉儀式和幣章藝術大獎發佈會。11 月 5 日上午進行。“最 受群眾喜愛的貴金屬紀念幣”被廣大錢幣愛好者稱為中 國錢幣界的“百花獎”。本屆 2015 年中國貴金屬紀念幣 的最終獲獎者分別是:中國人民抗日戰爭暨世界反法西 斯戰爭勝利 70 周年金銀紀念幣 7.776g 圓形金質紀念幣 (1/4 盎司,最大發行量 5 萬枚)、2015 年賀歲銀質紀 念幣(1/4 盎司,最大發行量 60 萬枚)。 11 月 5 日下午,首屆幣章藝術大獎結果發佈。獲得 本次幣章藝術大獎的幣章分別是,最佳金幣:大足石刻·日 月觀音金幣;最佳銀幣:“大足石刻·釋迦涅盤聖跡圖” 銀幣;最佳普通紀念幣:2016 中國丙申(猴)年普通紀 念幣“中國人民抗日戰爭暨世界反法西斯戰爭勝利 70 周 年”紀念幣這一重大歷史題材的紀念幣被授予特別獎; 最佳紀念章:幣章委員會成立(方形)紀念章;最佳創 意獎:“逝去的王者”系列之滑齒龍紀念章;最佳工藝獎: 沈陽造幣有限公司成立 120 週年紀念章。

圖 14 周邁可發言後,陳景林(中)代為王世宏頒發獲 獎證書

圖 15 趙燕生演講

(五)錢幣精品拍賣會。由東西方拍賣公司承辦, 北京中金國衡收藏品有限公司獨家提供鑒定評級支援。 11 月 6 日 9:30 開槌(圖 17)。本場拍賣會共推出 421 件拍品,涵蓋中國當代金銀紀念幣、銅章、紙幣,外 國金銀紀念幣,以及當代著名錢幣設計師的書法作品 5 大 類。 經 過 數 小 時 現 場 激 烈 競 投, 成 交 352 件, 成 交 率 83.61%,高出 2015 年 26.85 個百分點;總成交金額 1260.82 萬元(含傭金),平均溢價率 1.19%。其中中國 現代金銀紀念幣成交 201 件,成交率 83.75%;成交總金 額 1221.75 萬元,占總成交額 97%。

圖 16 黃瑞勇演講

其中,1 號拍品 —— 證書“1”號 2016 北京國際錢 幣博覽會紀念銀幣,以 2800 元的價格成交。而最大亮點 88 號拍品——證書“1”號的 2015 中國乙未(羊)年 10 公斤紀念金幣,發行量僅 18 枚,以 450 萬元的價格落槌, 成為本場拍賣會的“標王”(圖 18)。第 189 號拍品—— 發行量 100 枚的 2016 丙申(猴)年 2 公斤紀念金幣,以 88 萬元成交(圖 19),成為本場拍賣會的又一大亮點。

圖 17 拍賣現場座無虛席

43

東 亞 泉 志

THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS


Departments 部門 三、各具特色的展览 (一)海路通絕域——海上絲綢之路貿易與貨幣展。 由中國錢幣博物館精心策劃組織。展覽通過 110 幅圖片、 6 張圖表和 123 枚中外歷代錢幣(主要是印尼、馬來西亞、 斯里蘭卡、越南等國的),揭示了“海上絲綢之路”的 發展歷程。(圖 20)。 (二)紀念中國工農紅軍長征勝利 80 周年紅色金 融貨幣展。由中國錢幣與銀行博物館委員會紅色金融專 項組等 4 家主辦。系中國紅色金融題材首次在國際舞臺 展現,且檔次高,精品多。展覽通過幾百件貨幣實物、 400 余幅珍貴的歷史照片,以時間為線索,將這一段錢 幣歷史展現在參觀者面前。展品中那些經過戰火洗禮的 貨幣,跨越時空,給參觀者帶來強大的精神震撼(圖 21)。 (三)首届中国钞票设计雕刻艺术展。由中国印钞 造币总公司技术中心主办。展览分为三大板块:一是艺 术板块,集中展示了 19 世纪雕刻凹版绘画的艺术及卢浮 宫雕刻工房的传承名画;二是科技板块,展示了当代世 界及中国印钞企业印製的测试券和纪念券,;三是收藏 板块,展示了中国人民银行发行的第四套、第五套人民 币的雕刻艺术及主要设计雕刻师创作的其他衍生作品。 (图 22)。

圖 19 這枚金幣成交價 88 萬元,排名第二

圖 20 海上絲綢之路貿易與貨幣展

2016 北京國際錢幣博覽會不僅為國際錢幣企業的交 流搭建了平臺,同時展示和塑造了中國錢幣品牌的良好 形象。中國官方鈔幣鑒評機構異軍突起令人欣慰。美中 不足的是,缺少中國歷代古錢幣、近代紙幣、機製幣的 集中展出,以及世界錢幣名品和先進鑄幣技術講座。期 望來年有更加精彩的內容呈現給中外錢幣愛好者。 圖 21 紅色金融貨幣展一角

圖 22 首屆中國鈔票設計雕刻藝術展

圖 18 本場拍賣會“標王”成交價 450 萬元

東 亞 泉 志

44

THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS


Features 專題

Howard Franklin Bowker, sr. Ron Guth, Bruce Smith, and the Bowker Grandchildren From 1923 until his death in 1970, Howard Franklin Bowker became one of the leading researchers and collectors of Chinese coins, stamps, and bank notes. He was a man whose importance as a numismatic collector and researcher might have been overlooked were it not for his family's careful preservation of his collections, library, and copious notes and correspondence. Bowker, it turns out, was one of the most avid collectors of Chinese coins and stamps at a time when few collectors cared, but he was also a consummate researcher who had a profound influence on the big "names" in Chinese numismatics. While most collectors of Chinese coins are familiar with the authors and collectors, Eduard Kann and Arthur B. Coole, few people know of their contemporary, Howard Bowker, with whom those men were active correspondents. Instead, Bowker faded into the mists of time for a couple of reasons: his collection was never sold at public auction (as was Kann's); he was either a secondary author or his publications were in obscure journals; and Chinese numismatics had not yet entered the mainstream of collecting interests. In retrospect, Bowker's timing as a collector was perfect. He had little competition and coin values had not yet skyrocketed. Similarly, his re-emergence as a collector and researcher today is well-timed. Economic development in China has fueled a collecting boom in recent years, where increasingly affluent Chinese collectors seek to repatriate their own history as represented by coins and stamps. Were Bowker alive today, he might be frustrated by the high cost of Chinese coins, which might, in turn, have stifled his interest in research. But, such is not the case. Bowker collected at a time when a man on a Navy officer's salary could afford to build a collection of thousands of individual items, many of them great rarities. Bowker's retirement from the service in 1946 gave him ample time to collect, research, write, correspond, and host international visitors. Bowker's story illustrates how one man can have a profound effect on others. Collecting is not just about hoarding pieces of money, it is about learning from those coins and sharing that knowledge with others. Bowker's story is one that needs to be told and one that should be heard. Most importantly, Bowker deserves recognition, albeit belated, for his lifetime of contributions to Chinese numismatics.

YOUTH Howard Bowker was born on January 3, 1889 in Winona, Minnesota to Albert Rensselaer and Elizabeth Fredericka Bowker. Howard was the couple's third child out of seven. Their first son died three days after birth, and the second child, a daughter, died at the age of seven. Howard grew up with four brothers: Wallace, Sumner, William, and Rockton. His father died when he was 18. Howard left Winona as a child and moved to Chicago, where he graduated from the R.T. Crane Manual Training High School in August 1903 at the age of 14. After that he helped support the family by working at the Peoples Gas Light and Coke Company. By 1910, Bowker was a selfproclaimed, self-employed stamp dealer in the Chicago area. Bowker joined the Navy in 1912 and married his wife, Violetta, on July 30, 1913. He was 24 years old, she was only 19. According to his passports and military IDs, Bowker stood between 5'8"and 5'9-1/2" (depending on his age) and he had blue eyes.

MILITARY SERVICE By Marilyn Dorman On October 19, 1912, at the age of 23 and single, Bowker joined the Navy and began a 34 year career that included service in both World Wars I and II. Much of Bowker's work in the Navy was in administration (usually associated with payroll), where he learned organizational skills that served him later as a collector and researcher. Bowker's numerous deployments exposed him to many ports throughout the world, including France, Portugal, Trinidad, South Africa, Singapore, Australia, New Zealand, New Caledonia, Japan, and China. From 1921 to 1923, Bowker was stationed at the Cavite Naval Yard in the Philippines. During this assignment, Bowker's wife gave birth to their third son, Irving, in 1922. From May 1923 to April 1924, Bowker was assigned to the Naval Garrison at Hankow, China, where he fell in love with Chinese coins (it's not clear if Bowker was a coin

45

東 亞 泉 志

THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS


Features 專題 collector prior to this time – stamps and coins often go together, after all – but this was his first exposure to Oriental numismatics).

USS Jupiter April 15, 1913 – July 2, 1917

Apparently, World War II interfered with Bowker's desire to retire in November 1942, after 30 years of service. In a letter to his good friend and fellow numismatist, Arthur Coole, Bowker wrote laconically, "I guess that is also out for some time to come."

Military record - Howard Franklin Bowker Howard was recruited October 19, 1912 and served as enlisted man until August 4, 1917 when he became an officer. He served in the Navy for 33 years, 8 months, and 12 days. He joined the Navy at the Naval recruiting station in San Francisco. His official date of retirement from the Navy was June 30, 1946. He first served as a landsman. A landsman was the lowest rank of the United States Navy in the 19th and early 20th centuries; it was a title given to new recruits with little or no experience at sea. Landsmen performed menial, unskilled work aboard ship. A Landsman who gained three years of experience or re-enlisted could be promoted to Ordinary Seaman. The rank existed from 1838 to 1921. Howard attended yeoman school beginning in December 1912 and completed that schooling on February 21, 1913. He was then an acting yeoman, 3rd class.

USS Intrepid The Intrepid was a steel vessel assigned to the Yerba Buena Training Station, San Francisco, California, for duty until February 28, 1912 when she became the receiving ship at the same station. The latter assignment lasted until January 25, 1914 when Intrepid became a receiving ship at Mare Island Navy Yard. A receiving ship is an obsolete or unseaworthy ship moored at a navy yard and used for new recruits or men in transit between stations. Intrepid was used as a barracks for the men of the submarines F-1, F-2, F-3, and F-4 of the Pacific Fleet. In 1920 she again became receiving ship at Mare Island Navy Yard. Intrepid was decommissioned on August 30, 1921 and was sold on December 20th.

東 亞 泉 志

46

THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS

USS Jupiter October 21, 1913 Howard was an acting yeoman, 2nd class and became an acting Petty Officer (yeoman), 1st class, October 21, 1914. On November, 13, 1915 he was recommended for Chief Yeoman but this was not approved "as the Navy does not desire to advance men to the rating of chief petty officer during their first enlistment" according to his official military records. In April 1914, the Jupiter was off the coast of Mexico on behalf of the United States Navy in the occupation of Veracruz and after leaving this position the Jupiter sailed through the Panama Canal on its way to the east coast. The Jupiter was the first ship to cross the canal from west to east. The Jupiter was the Navy's first surface ship propelled by electric motors. Jupiter provided transportation and coalcarrying services for the Pacific fleet until October 1914, when she transited the Panama Canal to begin operations in the Atlantic. During the First World War, she carried cargo to Europe and supplied coal to combat and logistics forces on both sides of the Atlantic. Jupiter was decommissioned in March 1920 in order to be converted to an aircraft carrier, the USS Langley. Howard was honorably discharged from the Navy in Norfolk, Virginia on July 18, 1916 and immediately reenlisted as a Yeoman first class on July 19, 1916. He received an acting appointment as a Chief Yeoman on October 19, 1916. In Norfolk, he served on a receiving ship from June 1917 until February 2, 1919; he left that assignment on October 15, 1917 to become the assistant to the assistant paymaster.


Features 專題 July 2, 1917 – While on the Jupiter he received appointment as the acting pay clerk and temporary warrant officer at Norfolk, Virginia. This position became permanent on October 24, 1917. He was in a danger zone on July 5, 1917 when his ship was attacked by an enemy submarine off the coast of France.

(NOTS). She was detached from NOTS in June 1919 and sailed to the Pacific, where she carried out supply voyages, mostly in the Far East. Appointed as Pay Clerk July 24, 1920 on the Newport News. Howard became a Chief Pay Clerk August 5, 1920.

Naval Training Station, Norfolk, Virginia October 22, 1917 – November 27, 1917

Sept. 15, 1918 received appointment as the Assistant Paymaster with the rank of Ensign.

Receiving Ship Norfolk, Virginia

Stationed at Naval Yard, Cavite, Philippine Islands January 14, 1921 – April 15, 1923

Naval Godown (warehouses), Hankow, (Wuhan) China

November 28, 1917- February 6, 1919

May 7, 1923 – April 30, 1924

USS Black Arrow

During this time frame conditions in China were disorderly especially due to the problems the Chinese government had in dealing with bandits and pirates. American gunboats were used to ensure American interests were protected.

Feb 7, 1919 to August 9, 1919 On July 1, 1919, Howard became a Lieutenant Junior Grade, served as the Supply Officer aboard the USS Black Arrow. The Black Arrow began as the Rhaetia, a German line freighter built in 1904 at Vegesack. The Rhaetia was seized by the United States Government in April 1917, when the U.S. entered World War I. Renamed Black Hawk and later Black Arrow, she spent the rest of the war carrying cargo for the U.S. Army, making at least five trips to France. In January 1919, the ship was transferred to the Navy as the USS Black Arrow and was used to bring American service personnel home from the former war zone. After the completion of three round-trip voyages for this purpose, she was decommissioned in August 1919.

USS Chaumont – transit between stations May 1924 – June 11, 1924

The USS Chaumont was a Hog Island Type B transport built for the U. S. Shipping Board at Hog Island, Pennsylvania. From her home port at San Francisco, she spent her time ferrying troops in the Pacific between California and Manila via Honolulu.

Naval Yard Mare Island

June 12, 1924 – August 9, 1926

USS Newport News

August 9, 1919 - January 11, 1921 The USS Newport News, a cargo ship, was built at Flensburg, Germany in 1904 as the Danish freighter St. Jan. The German Hamburg-Amerika line bought her in 1907 and renamed her Odenwald. A few days after World War I began, in August 1914, she helped a German cruiser load coal and reservists at San Juan, Puerto Rico. In March 1915, she attempted to leave San Juan without the proper paperwork, but was kept from doing that by the USS Morro Castle. The United States seized her upon entering World War I in April 1917. The ship was renamed Newport News in June, refitted at Philadelphia and placed in commission in July 1917. Newport News served as a transatlantic cargo carrier and was assigned to the Naval Overseas Transportation Service

Mare Island was a U.S. Navy Base in the San Francisco area.

USS Seattle

August 14, 1926 – October 22, 1927 On November 9, 1916 the USS Washington was renamed the USS Seattle. On March 1, 1923, Seattle became the flagship for the Commander in Chief, United States Fleet. In that role, over the next four years, she wore the four-starred flags of a succession of officers. During that time, Seattle operated from Seattle to Hawaii and from Panama to Australia. On June 3, 1927 she passed in review before President Calvin Coolidge in the Atlantic.

47

東 亞 泉 志

THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS


Features 專題

USS Seattle as she looked in 1918 during her convoy escort days.

USS Saratoga from January 31 to March 19 and returned to Hawaii for fleet exercises the following year from January 23 to February 28, 1933. Exercises in 1934 took place in the Caribbean and the Atlantic from April 9 to November 9, and were followed by exercises in the Pacific the following year.

USS Medusa Stern view of the Seattle, still in her war paint, in the drydock at Portsmouth, NH Navy Yard. This is possibly during her re-fit for carrying troops after the war.

USS Procyon

December 1, 1927 – April 15, 1929 Procyon was the flagship of Commander Fleet Base Force, U.S. Battle Fleet, until she was decommissioned on April 1, 1931.

USS Tennessee – transit between stations July 20, 1931 – September 22, 1931

The USS Tennessee was a battleship built at the New York Navy Yard. Commissioned in June 1920, she served in the Atlantic for a year and then transferred to the Pacific coast, where she was based for nearly two decades. As a unit of the Battleship Force, she participated in regular training and fleet exercises.

USS Saratoga

September 26, 1931 – April 27, 1935 The USS Saratoga was the second aircraft carrier of the United States Navy. In the ten years prior to World War II she was stationed in the San Diego and San Pedro area. Saratoga assisted in developing fast carrier tactics for the Navy. Saratoga participated in Naval exercises in the Hawaii area

東 亞 泉 志

48

THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS

May 1, 1935 – July 5, 1935 The USS Medusa was the United States Navy's first ship built as a repair ship and was stationed out of San Pedro.

Mare Island and Receiving Ship at San Francisco August 1, 1935 – May 1937

Naval Station Guam June 1937 – June 1939

Governor of Guam commended Howard for services rendered in the salvage of the USAT Grant which was grounded in Apra Harbor, May 19, 1939.

Receiving Ship, Brooklyn New York and Philadelphia, Pennsylvania June 1939 – June 15, 1941

June 24, 1941 – Appointed Lieutenant JG temporary, with the Supply Corps.

USS West Point - Norfolk, Virginia June 15, 1941 – July 24, 1942

The USS West Point was originally built as a trade ship to serve in the North Atlantic trade and put into commission August 1940. Due to the war in Europe, she only served briefly as a trade ship. On June 1, 1941, the Navy


Features 專題

USS West Point converted her as a troop transport. Two weeks later, the Navy commissioned her USS West Point. Her initial naval service was along the Atlantic seaboard. After President Roosevelt closed all Axis consulates in June 1941, the West Point was sent to Portugal to deliver expelled Axis diplomatic personnel and to return to New York with our consulate and diplomatic staff who had been expelled by the Axis and other countries, including China. She was sent to Singapore in early 1942 to assist in evacuating refugees from the Malayan Peninsula. For two

USS Whitney

Naval Supply Depot, Oakland, California July 1943 – January 1945

On April 15, 1944 Howard was promoted again to Lieutenant Commander.

USS Clytie

January 18, 1945 - November 14, 1945

days while loading, the ship's crews watched enemy bombers fly over the dock on their way to the City of Singapore. On the third day the planes flew over the harbor dropping bombs within fifty yards of the USS West Point, sending shrapnel flying onto her decks. The Captain ordered the ship to cast off and the ship was not damaged further.

Receiving Ship at New York July 27, 1942 – August 6, 1942

12th Naval District

Aug 14 – 28, 1942 San Francisco Bay Area

USS Castor

Aug 28 – October 1, 1942 The USS Castor was a general stores issue ship commissioned by the U.S. Navy for service in World War II. She was responsible for delivering and disbursing goods and equipment to locations in the war zone.

USS Whitney

October 1942 - July 1943 A Destroyer Tender which operated in the South Pacific and was docked at Noumea, New Caledonia during October and November. Also in October, Howard was promoted to Lieutenant.

USS Clytie A submarine tender. She was launched November 26, 1943 by Ingalls Shipbuilding in Pascagoula, Mississippi, under a Maritime Commission contract. Clytie was transferred to the Navy February 1944. She was converted at Bethlehem Steel in Hoboken, New Jersey and commissioned January 1945. She sailed from New London February 21, 1945 for Brisbane, and Fremantle, Australia, where she tended submarines of the 7th Fleet from April 4 to September 13. She returned to New London October 17. November 1945 – July 1946 Howard traveled back to Oakland via the Panama Canal. He was placed on terminal leave beginning Feb. 14, 1946.

49

東 亞 泉 志

THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS


Features 專題 Retired as a Lieutenant Commander July 1, 1946

Awards Mexican Campaign Badge WWI Victory Medal with "Transport" Clasp American Defense Service Medal with "Fleet " Clasp European-African-Middle Eastern Campaign Medal American Campaign Medal Asiatic-Pacific Campaign Medal World War II Victory Medal

on short notice following his sons' deaths. He had also been given a chance to see his third son, Irving, before the latter's deployment to Alaska. Bowker lamented the loss of his two sons – in a September 1943 letter to Coole, he wrote of his feelings and that he had advised both of them not to go into the military. The couple's third, and final son, Irving Allen Bowker was born in 1922 in Manila in the Philippine Islands. Irving married Nancy Lee (Cozzens) and they had five children together. Irving served in the Army in Alaska during World

FAMILY Howard and Violetta Bowker had three sons: Howard Franklin Bowker, Jr., Gordon Albert Bowker, and Irving Allen Bowker. Their first son, Howard Franklin Bowker, Jr., was born in 1914 in Chicago. Howard, Jr. grew up to become a Marine Corps Major and a flight instructor. Howard, Jr. and his wife Virginia, had a son, Howard Irving Bowker, on October 28, 1942. Howard, Jr. died on June 9, 1943, while on a training mission at a U.S. base in Australia. At the time of his death, Howard, Jr. was leading twelve planes in a practice attack on a task force. Eyewitnesses indicated that a structural failure of the right wing of Howard, Jr.'s plane caused it to crash into the Pacific. His remains and memorial are at the Punchbowl Cemetery in Honolulu Hawaii.

Howard and Violetta Bowker with their three sons (left to right): Gordon, Irving, and Howard, Jr.

Their second son, Gordon Albert Bowker, was born in 1917 in Norfolk, Virginia. He and his wife, Hazel, had a son, Gordon Bowker, Jr. on October 28, 1942 (coincidentally, the same birthdate as his cousin's - Howard Irving Bowker). Gordon, Sr. joined the Navy, rose to the rank of Lieutenant, and served on the submarine U.S.S. Argonaut. On January 10, 1943, the Argonaut, operating in the St. Georges Channel between New Britain and New Ireland off Papua New Guinea, attacked a Japanese destroyer. The Japanese counterattacked with depth charges, damaging the Argonaut and forcing it to the surface, where it was finished off by Japanese gunfire. The entire crew of the Argonaut, including Gordon Bowker, was lost. Fortunately, Bowker's friendship with Arthur Coole, a Methodist missionary, gave him some outlet for his grief. He noted the loss of his two sons in a letter dated July 4, 1943 to Coole. The letter was written less than a month after Howard, Jr. was killed. On August 6, 1943, Bowker wrote to Coole again stating that he had been sent home to his family

東 亞 泉 志

50

THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS

Howard Franklin Bowker, Sr. examining a stamp exhibit with his grandson, Howard, in 1955


Features 專題 War II, survived the war (the only one of Howard, Sr. and Violetta's sons to do so), then served again during the Korean War. Irving was 72 years old when he died in 1995. Howard, Sr. and Violetta had seven grandchildren: Howard Irving Bowker, Gordon Bowker, Jr., Carolyn Bowker, Marilyn Bowker Dorman, Keith Bowker, June Bowker Cornell, and Robert Bowker.

RECOLLECTIONS What was Howard Bowker like in real life? Here is what Marilyn, his granddaughter, recalled: He was a loving man, who adored his grandchildren. He always found time to teach us about his love for stamps and coins. He was playful with us. He owned an open air military jeep after WWII which he would drive his grandchildren around Oakland in --- much to our delight. At the same time he was serious and stern, which was always tempered by his love for us and the twinkle in his eyes. Some of our best time as children with him was when we would spend the night and have him all to ourselves as our grandmother slept late in the morning. We would eat breakfast, talk, listen to the news on the radio, and watch for early morning deer in the yard with him. He was a wonderful gardener, growing a variety of vegetables and fruits, my favorite being the fresh berries in season which we even got to help pick. He terraced the hillside of his property in order to have flat areas to plant. In the early 1950's he built his library onto his home, he was literally the carpenter, electrician, mason, painter, etc. That was one place that play was not allowed. Instead in that room he educated us about his collections, vast library, showed us how to run his printing press, and set type. While he did not have an extensive formal education he was bright, academic, well read, and a student for life. He was a self-made man - never wealthy but rich in personal ways. His parting words to us when we would leave his home were always "see you in church". It was a joke as he was not a church goer. But that steady comment would have been missed if not said by my grandfather – "Granddaddy" to us.

Grandson Keith Bowker remembered riding into town with "Granddaddy" in his Jeep and with "Nana" (the grandkids pet name for Violetta) in her Pontiac. According to Keith, he still has the baseball and football cards that Bowker cut off the Post Toasties boxes that contained his favorite cereal. One time, Bowker took Keith out into the yard with one of his rifles to teach his grandson how to shoot. When Keith fired the gun, the recoil knocked him back several feet, to which Bowker said, "That'll teach you to play with guns." Apparently, Howard and Violetta disliked familiarity outside of their family. For instance, the couple visited their grandson Keith on the occasion of his fifth birthday. One of Keith's friends entered the house, noticed Violetta and said, very loudly, "Hey, Grandma!" She was mortified. The Bowkers kept a large wooden bowl at the top of the stairs for the grandchildren's toys. The bowl was roughly two feet in diameter and stood on wooden legs. The grandchildren recall pulling the toys out of the bowl, then sitting in it. Such is the entertainment of children. The Bowker's used another wooden bowl to hold Hershey's Kisses, which they gave to their grandchildren as rewards for being good.

COLLECTING COINS Howard Bowker's interest in Chinese coins appears to have awakened when he was stationed in Hankow, China in 1923. This small spark eventually turned into a passion that would last the rest of his life. He became a collector of Oriental (primarily Chinese) coins, stamps, and banknotes. Bowker was a dogged researcher, an active trader, a reliable correspondent, and an author. From 1940 to 1969, a span of almost thirty years, Bowker wrote numerous articles for a variety of numismatic publications and he wrote two books. His two books focused on listings of Western language publications concerning Chinese coins. His first book, "A Numismatic Bibliography of the Far East: A Check List of Titles in European Languages" appeared in 1943 as the American Numismatic Society's Numismatic "Notes and Monographs #101". According to researcher, Bruce W. Smith, this pioneering work recorded more than 900 books, articles and even auctions of East Asian coins and paper money, published in western languages. [Bowker] was the first to record auction catalogs in an East Asian bibliography.

51

東 亞 泉 志

THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS


Features 專題 Except for the auction catalogs, the entire work is arranged in a single, alphabetical listing by author. But, going a step farther, Bowker added a notation indicating in which of more than a dozen listed libraries each work could be found. This is important because many of the works are rare or difficult to locate. Bowker's second book was another bibliography, coauthored with Arthur Coole and Hitoshi Kozono. Coole, like Bowker, was a bibliophile, but his focus was on the more challenging listing of Chinese and Japanese language

works. Bowker and Coole struck up a correspondence that lasted for decades, much of which survives today in the Bowker files. The two collectors began helping each other by locating books, offering suggestions, making corrections, and attempting to compile the largest bibliography on Chinese coins ever assembled. The result was a collaboration between Coole, Bowker, and Kozono, where Coole took care of the Chinese language works, Bowker, took care of the Western language works, and Kozono took care of the Japanese language works.

Arthur Coole sells books to Howard Bowker in 1940 – prices are in Chinese Yuan, not US Dollars!

東 亞 泉 志

52

THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS


Features 專題 The Coole/Kozono/Bowker collaboration, titled "Bibliography of Far Eastern Numismatology and a Coin Index: Encyclopedia of Chinese Coins, Volume 1" was published in 1967. "Numismatology" appears to be a Coole invention, meant to emphasize the study over the collecting aspect of numismatics, but the term has never caught on and is rarely, if ever, used today. The compilation includes approximately 2,400 works, with each author handling his section in their individual style. Thus, Coole's Chinese section

lists books alphabetically by title, but no articles are included. Kozono's Japanese section lists books alphabetically by title; Japanese articles are listed separately, by the title of the magazine. Bowker's section on Western works combines both books and articles, and lists them alphabetically by author. The book remains relevant today, despite being over forty years old, and copies can still be found (at a substantial premium over the issue price, of course) on the Internet.

Arthur Coole barely contains his enthusiasm with his good friend, Howard Bowker.

53

東 亞 泉 志

THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS


Features 專題 Bowker's passion for Chinese books was secondary to his collection of coins. The Coole correspondence indicates that Bowker took several trips to view collections (while both in the Navy and in retirement), and that collectors would visit him at his home for the same purpose. He examined important collections of Chinese coins at the Smithsonian Institution, the American Numismatic Society in New York City, and the University of Pennsylvania. He visited with Eduard Kann, Kalgan Shih (see below) and other contemporary collectors. Bowker sought out his friend Arthur Coole on a couple of side-trips on Bowker's way to the Smithsonian, where he served as a volunteer curator. On a visit to the Ferracute Machine Company in Bridgeton, New Jersey, Bowker uncovered the previously unknown fact that the company had supplied minting equipment and dies to the Kaifeng mint in Honan province, in addition to the known deliveries to the Szechuan and Hupeh mints. Bowker's quest for information, be it about books, coins, stamps, or personalities, was relentless. Howard F. Bowker was an active member of many numismatic organizations, including the Numismatic Society of China, the Pacific Coast Numismatic Society, the American Numismatic Society (which published his first book), and the American Numismatic Association. In a 1955 photograph taken at a dinner held by the Pacific Coast Numismatic Society, Bowker can be seen witnessing the presentation of an outstanding service award to Earl A. Parker by none other than Abe Kosoff. Earl Parker is best remembered today for having owned not one, but two, of the extremely rare U.S. 1894-S Dimes (of which only nine are known). Kosoff, besides being one of American's leading coin dealers, was later given the title "Dean of American Numismatics" by Q. David Bowers in a 1985 book by the same name. Bowker's presence among these luminaries indicates the high level of regard his contemporaries had for him. Even the difficulties presented during World War II failed to stem Bowker's acquisitions, at least not initially. Just prior to the war, in July 1941, Coole wrote Bowker to explain why a shipment of books had not yet arrived. Apparently, the Japanese were not allowing Westerners to ship antiquities out of China, so Coole enlisted American service-men to carry the items back for him. Bowker's books had been sent with an American soldier named Gillette; whether Bowker ever received the books remains unclear. As the war progressed, Bowker's files indicate a slowdown in activity, and no correspondence between Bowker and Coole exists from early 1944 through all of 1945.

東 亞 泉 志

54

THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS

Great numismatists: Abe Kosoff (left) presenting a service award to Earl Parker (center), as Howard Bowker (far right) looks on.

Wherever Bowker was stationed overseas during the Navy, he used the opportunity to acquire new items for his collections or to visit other libraries and collections. For instance, in April 1939, he wrote to Arthur Coole that he had returned from trips to Manila, Hong Kong, Shanghai, and Yokohama, where he obtained some Chinese silver coins, a set of nine Wang Mang spades, a HsienFeng 100,000 Cash note, and thirteen sets of old Chinese numismatic books. In November 1939, while in New York on the U.S.S. Seattle, Bowker wrote Coole to state that he had been through the New York Public Library and the American Numismatic Society (presumably, Bowker examined their Chinese coin collection then, as well) and that he already had over 300 works listed in his bibliography of western language works on Asian numismatics.

POST-WWII YEARS IN "RETIREMENT" Following his retirement from the Navy in 1946, Bowker settled down with Letta (his pet name for his wife, Violetta) at his home in Oakland, California. According to their granddaughter, Carolyn, "He and my grandmother… were a team. He researched and collected the money, but when it came to having numismatic meetings in the home, she was the hostess. They learned bookbinding together to repair damaged books that he purchased. He also learned printing, owned a printing press on which he published articles and books he wrote as well as numismatic newsletters." In retirement, Bowker's correspondence with Arthur Coole became more frequent and substantive. They discussed a wide variety of topics: coins they had acquired, items they had for sale, new discoveries, opinions on other collectors


Features 專題 and dealers, want lists, meetings, and so on. They argued often about linguistic interpretations, whether certain coins were counterfeit or real, whether the cover of Coole's book should be white or some other color, but it was always good-natured and it makes for good reading by those of us interested in the relationship between these two men.

Granddaughter Carolyn recalled, "…when I was three, he built the addition that was his library and the house for his collections. During the construction of the addition, my father Irving was walking with me holding his hand onto the scaffolding or the framing. He lost his grip and we fell one story to the dirt below."

In 1947, Bowker reported to Coole that he had met with Mr. Kalgan Shih of Shanghai to view Shih's collection of "some 800 varieties, including many unique and rare specimens" of minted gold and silver coins. Coincidentally, Bowker was working on the China listing for Wayte Raymond's next edition of the 19th century world coin book, so the opportunity to view Shih's collection could not have come at a better time. Bowker wrote to Coole that the asking price for Mr. Shih's collection was $500,000, a staggering sum for coins (from any country) in 1947 (was that in U.S. Dollars or Chinese Yuan?). In July 1947, the Bowkers hosted

In 1954, Bowker purchased an old Gordon printing press from the local Boys Club and installed it in the new addition. Bowker used the press to print information on kraft paper envelopes in which he stored his coins, utilizing

Coole at their home for a few days; Coole was on his way, once again, to China. Much of the 1947 correspondence between Bowker and Coole is concerned with book acquisitions. In 1948, the great Eduard Kann visited Bowker and examined his collection. In a letter to Coole, Bowker crowed, "[Kann] seemed much impressed that I could have so many scarce silver pieces, all collected in this country." Howard and Letta began attending twice-a-week night classes in 1948 at the Berkeley High School to learn book repair and binding. According to their grandson, Gordon, Bowker, Jr., "I believe the bookbinding served two functions: therapeutic as well as preservational." This became a hobby that the two would share together as they conserved many of the books, pamphlets, and magazines in Bowker's burgeoning library. In 1951, Bowker began plans to set up a large exhibit of Chinese material at the California State Numismatic Society's show in Santa Rosa. The display featured items from Bowker's collection, the A.G. Adams collection, items borrowed from Coole (including five fakes, as Bowker pointed out), plus whatever he could solicit from other collectors. Beginning in 1952, the Bowkers began expanding the second story of their home to store their collections. As mentioned previously in his granddaughter Marilyn's recollections, Howard did all of the work himself.

a cataloging scheme borrowed from the Harvard Yenching Library. Sometime around 1955 or 1956, Bowker arranged to provide consulting services to the Smithsonian Institution and in 1956, Coole invited Bowker to visit him in Kansas City on his way to Washington. Bowker's position became official in a December 3, 1958 letter from the Secretary of the Smithsonian, Leonard Carmichael. No account is given on how many times Bowker visited the Smithsonian, but in 1959, he visited Coole again on a return trip. In his role as consultant, Bowker attempted to obtain Arthur Coole's collection for the Smithsonian, even going so far as to arrange a donation through the New York Governor, Nelson Rockefeller, but to no avail. Bowker reported in 1963 that he still received approximately 50 referrals a year from the Smithsonian, mostly for numismatic attributions. In 1961, Bowker began cataloging the massive "Q" ("secret" code for Quast) collection out of Germany, where he discovered numerous unusual, previously unpublished coins. The collection contained 150 "drawers" of Chinese coins, plus coins from Korea and Annam. As late as October 1964, Bowker still had the collection. On July 30, 1963, Howard and Letta celebrated 50 years of marriage. Letta had gone into the hospital a year earlier with a congestive heart condition, but seemed to be doing well enough to enjoy their golden anniversary. Beginning in 1964, Bowker began working on the Coole/Bowker/Kozono bibliography and much of his subsequent correspondence with Coole centered on this work. A primary concern was obtaining Kozono as a co-author and the ability to include Chinese characters in the text, both of which they were able to accomplish.

55

東 亞 泉 志

THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS


Features 專題

Howard becomes an official consultant to the Smithsonian Institution

The last letter from the Bowker archives, dated 1969, was to his faithful correspondent, Arthur Coole. Most certainly, Bowker continued to write on his favorite subjects, but those letters have not survived.

DEATH In 1965, Bowker began experiencing medical problems, as noted in his correspondence with Coole. In May, he went into the hospital for treatments for a heart condition.

東 亞 泉 志

56

THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS

His medical problems persisted, but in 1966 his health improved, though he was still having bad side effects from his medication, and he claimed to tire easily. Howard Franklin Bowker, Sr. died July 8, 1970 and was survived by his wife "Letta" of sixty-seven years, one son Irving and seven grandchildren: Howard Irving, Gordon Jr, Carolyn, Marilyn, Keith, June, and Robert. Violetta died two years later in September 1972.


Features 專題 Bowker is buried with his wife in Arlington National Cemetery. Bowker's obituaries appeared in the following numismatic publications: Calcoin News (Fall 1970), p. 113 China Clipper (September 1970), p. 109 Coin World (July 29, 1970), p. 1132 Numismatic Scrapbook (August 1970), p. 1088 Numismatist (September 1970), p. 1263 World Coins (September 1970), p. 1133

AFTERMATH For a while after Howard Bowker’s death, Violetta was hospitalized and their home was vacant. During that period and following her death, the house was burglarized several times and several items were taken including a couch, a painting, a TV, and small household items. Bowker’s coin collection and his library seem to have survived, though there are items that appear to be missing from both. Before his death, Bowker expressed great interest in making his collection available to the public "for the purpose of research, study, and to inspire future numismatists." His will stipulated that his collections go to the Smithsonian Institution and that he did not want anyone to benefit personally from his collections other than through education and scholarly study. Soon after Bowker's death, the Smithsonian accepted his collection of Chinese stamps, which are now part of the National Postal Museum in Washington, D.C. The family made unsuccessful attempts to transfer the coins to the Smithsonian Institution, after which the collection was put into storage and essentially disappeared for the next 38 years.

REDISCOVERY Although Bowker's collection had been forgotten, it wasn't too difficult for a researcher like Bruce Smith to find it. After Violetta died in 1972, the collection passed to Bowker's only remaining son, Irving. Bruce knew of the collection from his contacts in Chinese numismatics, and he knew the collection had never appeared at auction as a "named" sale. Here is Bruce's version of the events that followed: In 2007, Michael Chou (of the iAsure Group and Champion Hong Kong Auctions) suggested we try to find the Bowker collection. In time I was able to find Irving's widow

(he had died in the 1995), and early in 2008, Michael and I went to see the collection for the first time. For our visit, the family put up several tables in the garage, and laid out boxes and boxes of coins, all neatly filed away in Bowker's original printed envelopes. The initial meeting was followed by two years of visits by Michael Chou and his colleagues to view, weigh, measure, and photograph the collection. Though an offer was entertained for the entire collection, the Bowker family stuck by Howard's desire that the collection be donated to a museum for display and research. Michael Chou was engaged to contact museums in China to determine what pieces they might like to have in their collections. Michael served on behalf of the Bowker family as the middleman between Nancy Bowker (Irving's widow) and the museums. On April 16, 2010, the Shanghai Mint Museum received a donation of 139 coins and dies from the Bowker collection in a special ceremony. Two of Bowker's grandchildren, Carolyn and Gordon, represented the family at the event. Numerous collectors, government officials and numismatic experts attended the ceremony, including Dai Zhiqiang (Vice-Chairman of the China Numismatic Society), Yu Yinghui (Vice Chairman of the Shanghai Numismatic Association), Shen Mindi (Deputy Secretary-General of the Shanghai Numismatic Association), Zhou Xiang (Shanghai Museum & China Identification Heritage Committee), Fu Weiqun (Deputy Director of the Shanghai History Museum), Xu Baoming (Deputy Director of the Shanghai Bank Museum), Fan Wenxiang (Deputy Secretary of the Putuo Cultural Affairs Bureau), King Chan (Hong Kong researcher of modern coins) and Sun Hao (Senior numismatic scholar). Gorden Bowker, Michael Chou and Dai Zhiqiang spoke at the ceremony to welcome the much-anticipated donation to the Shanghai Mint Museum. At the opening of the Bowker exhibit in Shanghai on September 3, 2010, Carolyn Bowker shared poignant recollections of her grandfather: "I would like you to know more about the person of Howard Franklin Bowker, than just the 'famous' collector. My grandfather was a humble and meticulous man. All these ceremonies would probably have been a bit much for him, but he would have also understood the cultural exchange and significance and would have honored this process. I am learning more each day about how meticulous he was not only in researching, identifying and labeling the coins in his collection, but also keeping the records of when, how and/or from whom he purchased the coins, banknotes and molds. Of course all this makes perfect

57

東 亞 泉 志

THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS


Features 專題 sense for a Lieutenant Commander of the Navy who served as both a paymaster and a purser." "During many visits to their home in Oakland, California, he taught me, my sisters and brothers and my cousins many values. He taught me to appreciate and respect other cultures, especially Asian cultures. He taught me to respect elders, not just my own, but those I come in contact with. He taught me how important reading and research are, and this was from a man with no formal college education. He taught me to respect books and learning." "My grandparents' home was on the side of a hill in Oakland. I'm sure his terracing of the land came from his years in China. He taught me about respect for the land and about gardening. I learned how and why to rotate crops and the importance of composting. My favorite fruit growing up was a Chinese yellow plum. The teamwork showed up again here as my grandmother canned the fruits and vegetables he grew. They were some of the most hospitable people, just give them a ring, they would take you in and feed you well, even on a moment's notice."

Coin Envelope for Bowker's Collection both in English and Chinese

"He was a stern man, but warm and compassionate under the gruff exterior. Family was important, maybe some of that came from losing two sons in the Pacific theater during World War II. Maybe that is where some of that sternness came from, but with a twinkle in his eye, he would 'pull your leg' and tease each of us. But he would also put us in his lap and tell stories of life overseas. When my grandfather died in 1970, I lost a great role model, but his values have stayed with me and my family. 'Time which antiquates antiquities and hath an art to make dust of all things, hath yet spared these minor monuments' is a quote from Sir Thomas Browne which he had me research and certainly applies to all that he collected. I know he has been a great steward of your precious monetary history and that you will cherish the return home of all that he collected and kept alive for you." What a fitting tribute to a great man, his family, and his coins. Negotiations are underway for the donation of the remainder of Bowker's coin collection.

東 亞 泉 志

58

THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS

Coole/Kozono/Bowker collaboration, titled "Bibliography of Far Eastern Numismatology and a Coin Index: Encyclopedia of Chinese Coins, Volume 1"


Features 專題

Howard Bowker East Asia Collection Macau Special Exhibit Howard Franklin Bowker Macau Special Exhibit was opened 12/1 at 12pm and to 12/4 5:30pm 2016. The opening ceremony was held at 5:30pm on 11/30 at the Kam Pek Community Center. The exhibit is a joint event of the Macau Numismatic Society and Champion Auctions. A set of the Very Rare Taiwan Silver cakes will be on display 1837 Old Man dollar, 1853 Lotus dollar, 1862 Bi Pao

coins from their forefather – the esteemed American collector Howard Franklin Bowker – to the Shanghai Mint Museum. Second Donation: The China Banknote Printing and Minting Corporation donation features 212 banknotes that range from the Ching dynasty to the first set of RMB. Third Donation: On May 13, 2011, Bowker Family donated Coins 84 coins to the Shenyang Mint. Fourth Donation: 23 March 2015, the Bowker family

dollar. A set of Ferracute archive Szechuan 1902 Pattern

donated 37 coins minted in areas and regions near Shanghai

dollar, 50 ,20,10,5 cents struck in gilt brass proof by the

including Kiangsu, Chehkiang, and Anhui provinces to the

Philadelphia Mint for U.S. Mint chief engraver Charles Barber

Shanghai Mint Museum.

will be also on display. This set was part of the Ferracute

Fifth Donation: In May 2016, part of the Bowker’s

archive collection and was given to Bowker during a visit to

Collection was donated to the Art Museum of Moritzburg Halle

the company by its president. Two other Ferracute based

(Saale) in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany. The Bowker Family has

patterns from Hupeh and Szechuan 1 cash patterns will also

donated 6,132 Chinese cash coins and machine-made coins

be on display. China’a largest Copper coin ever issue the

to the museum, which is the largest ever donation of Chinese

undated (1928-1932) Honan 500 cash in nickel plate with

coins in Germany.

a mintage of only 12 examples is another highlight of the

Sixth Donation: On June 15, 2016, the Bowker family

exhibit. A Rare 1936 Kwangtung 1936 Five Goats One Cent

donated part of Bowker’s coin collection to the Shanghai Mint

copper pattern from nearby Kwantung province city of Canton

, a total of 24 rare machine-made coins and medals which

is also included. An extremely rare 1874 (7th year of Meiji)

were issued at the beginning of the Republic of China.

Japan 50 Sen in proof with only a few example and rarely seen outside of Japan will give the visitor a chance to view this rarity in Macau. Bowker donations list and schedule: First Donation: In April 2010, the Bowker family authorized iAsure Group to donate 139 priceless Chinese

Seventh Donation: In 2017, part of the Bowker collection will be donated to the National Numismatic Collection Vaults of the Smithsonian’s National Museum of American History in Washington D.C. With over 1.7 million coins. The Bowker coins are expected to be on display in the fall of 2017, at the National Museum of American History which has over four million annual visitors.

China-Szechuan ND (1902) One Dollar Gilt Brass Proof Pattern

China-Szechuan ND(1902) 50 Cents Gilt Brass Proof Pattern

China-Taiwan ND(1862) Bi Pao Military Ration, chopped

China-Taiwan ND(1837) Old Man Dollar, L&M319, K1a,AU

"Ku" (treasury), C#25-5, L&M325, K4, NGC AU Details

59

東 亞 泉 志

THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS


Features 專題

China-Taiwan ND(1853) Ju-I military Ration, C#25-4,

CHINA-REPUBLIC 1936 One Fen Copper Pattern,

L&M323, K2, NGC AU Details

CCC760, UNC

China-Honan ND(1927-28) 500 Cash Nickel Plated Copper Pattern, T boder, Hsu445a, CCC559, UNC. Ex Stuart Collection, NGC AU58

Japan 1874 50 Sen Silver, Y25, Proof

China-Yunnan ND(1917) 5 Dollars Silver Pattern, with plain reverse, K1521a, UNC. Ex Kann Collection

China-Kwangtung 1936 One Cen Copper Pattern with five goats,

China-Hepeh ND(1898)Kuang hsu Tong Pao One Cash Brass

KM-Pn28, CCC18,NGC MS63BN

Pattern, struck by Ferracute Company in Bridgeton, New Jersey, 22mm, CCC781, UNC

東 亞 泉 志

60

THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS


Features 專題

霍華德·佛蘭克林·包克生平簡介 古 富、史博録、包克家族合著(美國) 從 1923 年至 1970 年去世,霍華德·佛蘭克林·包克 在中國錢幣、郵票和紙鈔的收藏及研究方面卓有成就。 若不是包克家族對其所擁有的藏品、藏書、大量筆記和 信件的妥善保存,我們很可能就此忽略了包克在錢幣學 研究及收藏方面的重要性。在很少人關注中國錢幣和郵 票的時候,包克就已經是最熱心的收藏家之一了,此外, 他也是精湛完善的錢幣研究專家,並對当時較有名望的 中國錢幣學者有深遠的影響。大多數中國錢幣收藏家都 對耿愛德(Eduard Kann)和邱文明(Arthur B. Coole) 很熟悉,卻很少有人知道同時代的霍華德·包克,殊不知 他們三人之間的互動十分頻繁。包克之所以被埋沒在歷 史的長河中,有多種理由:他的藏品從未在公開拍賣會(如 耿愛德)中進行銷售;在著作中他總是第二作者,他的 文章總是發表在無名刊物上;中國錢幣在當時並非收藏 方面的主流。 回想起來,包克當時的收藏時機極好。他幾乎沒有 什麼競爭,錢幣的價格也沒有大幅增長。同樣,作為收 藏家和研究專家的他在今天的出現也是恰逢其時。近幾 年中國經濟的蓬勃發展推動了收藏市場的繁榮,日益富 裕的收藏家們迫切地尋找着具有歷史紀念意義的錢幣和 郵票。如果包克現在還活着,那麼他一定會在現今中國 錢幣的高價面前顯得很沮喪,甚至可能連研究的興趣也 沒有。還好,事實情況並非如此。包克做收藏的時候, 正是他任海軍軍官的時候,當時的薪水足以讓他建立起 這個收藏,他收藏的個別項目有好幾千,其中很多都是 罕見的珍品。包克 1946 年退役後更是有充裕的時間進行 收藏、研究、寫作、寫信和招待國際人士。 包克的故事向我們表明一個人會對他人產生多麼深 遠的影響。收藏並不僅僅是積累財富,而是要從這些錢 幣中進行學習並與他人互相分享。包克的故事不但需要 傳頌還需要用心聆聽。最重要的是,包克在中國錢幣學 方面的貢獻是值得我們肯定的,雖然它有點姍姍來遲。

青年時期 霍華德·包克 1889 年 1 月 3 日生於美國明尼蘇達州 威諾娜市,是亞伯特·倫斯勒(Albert Rensselaer)和伊莉 莎白·弗雷德里卡·包克(Elizabeth Fredericka Bowker)的 孩子。包克夫婦育有 7 個子女,霍華德·包克排行老三。 他們的第一個孩子出生三天后即夭折,第二個孩子是個 女兒,但是也只活到 7 歲。包克和他的四個弟弟一起長大: 華萊士(Wallace),薩姆納(Sumner),威廉(William) 和羅克頓(Rockton)。包克 18 歲時,父親也離他們而去。

包克在孩提時代就離開威諾娜市搬去了芝加哥, 1903 年 8 月 14 歲時,畢業於當地的 R.T. Crane Manual Training 高中学校。之後他在 Peoples Gas Light 和 Coke 公司工作,幫助減輕家庭負擔。1910 年,包克已在芝加 哥自立門戶,成為自營郵票商。 1912 年包克加入海軍,1913 年 7 月 30 日與妻子維 奧萊塔(Violetta)結婚。當時他 24 歲,他的妻子才 19 歲。 根據他的護照和士兵證,包克的身高應該在 5.8 英 尺至 5.95 英尺之間(依據年齡),他的眼睛是藍色的。

服兵役時期 1912 年 10 月 19 日,包克 23 歲還處在單身時,加 入了海軍,自此開始了他 34 年的海軍生涯,歷經第一次 世界大戰和第二次世界大戰。包克在海軍的大部分工作 是行政部門方面的(通常跟薪資有關),這讓他學會了 組織協調能力,並對他後面從事收藏和研究幫助很大。 軍隊眾多的部署使包克得以來到世界各地的港口,包括 法國、葡萄牙、千里達島、南非、新加坡、澳大利亞、 紐西蘭、新赫裡多尼亞、日本,以及中國。 1921 年至 1923 年,包克一直駐紮在菲律賓的甲米 地海軍駐地。1922 年,包克的妻子生下了他們的第三個 兒子歐文(Irving)。 顯然,二戰致使包克在 1942 年 11 月(服役 30 年後) 準備退役的希望徹底破滅。在他寫給好朋友兼藏友邱文 明的信中,包克簡單的寫道,“我猜又要出去一段時間 才能再來了。”

軍旅生涯大事記 霍華德於 1912 年 10 月 19 日入伍服兵役。1917 年 8 月 4 日轉成軍官。他的海軍軍旅生涯歷經 33 年 8 個月 12 天。他是在舊金山的海軍徵兵站應徵入伍的。他從海 軍退役的官方日期是 1946 年 6 月 30 日。 剛入伍時他是新水手,不出海。新水手是 19 世紀 和 20 世紀初美國海軍的最低級軍別,這是剛入伍的新兵 軍銜,他們幾乎沒有出海經驗。新水手大多在軍船上幹 些打雜或不需要技能的工作。生手入伍 3 年或重新入伍 就會升職成為普通海軍軍人。這种等級海軍軍階存在於 1838 年至 1921 年。

61

東 亞 泉 志

THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS


Features 專題 1912 年 12 月,霍華德在美國海軍的文書學校學習, 直到 1913 年 2 月 21 日結束,彼時霍華德已是三等文書 上士。 勇敢號(U.S.S. Intrepid)--1913 年 3 月,作為生手 在加州的這艘新兵收容艦上服役 勇敢號,鋼製構架,被分配到加州舊金山的耶爾瓦 布埃納訓練基地(Yerba Buena Training Station)執行任 務。1912 年 2 月 28 日,這艘軍艦成為該基地的接待船, 直至 1914 年 1 月 25 日結束。後來,勇敢號成為馬雷島 海軍造船廠(Mare Island Navy Yard)的接待船。接待船 是停泊在海軍造船廠的过時船隻或已不能航海的船隻, 用於接納新兵或運送人員到其他基地。 勇敢號用作美國海軍太平洋艦隊下屬潛艇 F-1、F-2、 F-3 和 F-4 官兵的住宿之所。1920 年,勇敢號再次成為 馬雷島海軍造船廠的糾察船。1921 年 8 月 30 日,勇敢 號光榮退役,12 月 20 日出售。 木星號(USS Jupiter)-1913 年 4 月 15 日至 1917 年 7月2日

和煤炭運送工作。穿過巴拿馬運河時開始在大西洋上執 行任務。一戰期間,它負責向歐洲運輸貨物,補給戰時 所需煤炭,並不斷穿梭於大西洋兩岸。1920 年 3 月,木 星號退役,後改造成航空母艦蘭利號(USS Langley)。 1916 年 7 月 18 日,霍華德從維吉尼亞州諾福克光 榮地退役。1916 年 7 月 19 日,他立刻重新入伍並被提 升為一等文書上士兵,10 月 19 日,他接到擔任代理文 書上士官的任命。 1917 年 6 月至 1919 年 2 月 2 日,他在諾福克接待 船上服役。1917 年 10 月 15 日,霍華德擔任支付員助理。 1917 年 7 月 2 日 – 在朱庇特號上服役時霍華德接到 任命,擔任維吉尼亞州諾福克的代理支付員,及臨時準 尉軍銜。 1917 年 10 月 24 日轉正式之準尉官。他當時所在的 海域非常危險。1917 年 7 月 5 日,他所在的戰艦遭到來 自法國海岸的敵方軍艦攻擊。 維吉尼亞州諾福克海軍訓練基地 –1917 年 10 月 22 日至 1917 年 11 月 27 日 1918 年 9 月 15 日,包克又被提升為助理出納員, 少尉等級 維 吉 尼 亞 州 諾 福 克 糾 察 船 –1917 年 11 月 28 日 至 1919 年 2 月 6 日 黑箭號 –1919 年 2 月 7 日至 1919 年 8 月 9 日

木星號 1913 年 10 月 21 日,霍華德成為代理二等文書士官; 1914 年 10 月 21 日,他成為一等士官。1915 年 11 月 13 日,霍華德被推薦升任侍衛官,不過據他的官方軍旅記錄, 卻因“海軍不願提拔第一次入伍的士兵升至士官級別” 未予批准升職。

1919 年 7 月 1 日,霍華德升任海軍中尉,在黑箭號 擔任海軍供給主管。黑箭號原名菲西亞號(Rhaetia), 是 1904 年在德國維加斯(Vegesack)建造的一艘貨船。 1917 年 4 月,美國加入一戰,擒獲了這艘貨船。這艘船 先命名為黑鷹號,後改為黑箭號,一戰期間為美國陸軍 補給貨物,至少前往法國 5 次。1919 年 1 月,這艘船移 交給美國海軍,更名為黑箭號,用於運送軍人往返家園 和戰場。在它完成三次往返任務後,於 1919 年 8 月退役。 紐 波 特 紐 斯 號(U.S.S. Newport News)–1919 年 8 月 9 日至 1921 年 1 月 11 日

1914 年 4 月,木星號駛入墨西哥海岸,代表美國海 軍佔領維拉克魯斯(Veracruz)。任務結束後,木星號穿 過巴拿馬運河,進入東海岸。木星號也是第一艘從西向 東駛過巴拿馬運河的船隻。

紐波特紐斯號是艘貨船,於 1904 年建造於德國的 弗蘭斯堡 (Flensburg), 丹麥的貨船 St. Jan 號也是在此建造。 紐波特紐斯號的航線是德國漢堡至美國,1907 年重命名

木星號是美國海軍首艘由電動馬達驅動的水面艦 船。1914 年 10 月前,木星號負責太平洋艦隊的人員運輸

為 Odenwald。1914 年 8 月,一戰開始不久,這艘軍艦幫 助一艘德國巡洋艦在波多黎各的聖胡安運載煤炭和預備 役軍人。1915 年 3 月,這艘船試圖在沒有書面批准的情

東 亞 泉 志

62

THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS


Features 專題 況下駛離聖胡安,但卻遭到 USS Morro Castle 號的攔阻。 1917 年 4 月,美國加入一戰,擒獲了這艘船,並在 6 月 將其命名為紐波特紐斯號,後在費城改裝,1917 年 7 月 投入服役。紐波特紐斯號往返大西洋間運送貨物,被分 配到海軍海外運輸局 (NOTS) 服役。1919 年 6 月,該船 離開海軍海外運輸局,駛向太平洋,在此主要負責向遠 東供給物資。 1920 年 7 月 24 日在紐波特紐斯號上擔任出納員 1920 年 8 月 5 日,升任為首席出納員 駐紮在菲律賓群島甲米地(Cavite)的海軍造船廠 1921 年 1 月 14 日至 1923 年 4 月 15 日

1918 年,西雅圖號護衛艦隊

中國武漢漢口海軍貨倉 1923 年 5 月 7 日至 1924 年 4 月 30 日 這一時期,中國政府壓製民眾,巧取豪奪,出現了 一些問題,中國社會的大環境非常混亂。美國派炮艦駐紮, 以確保美國的利益不受損害。 肖蒙號(U.S.S. Chaumont)– 往返於海軍基地之間 1924 年 5 月至 1924 年 6 月 11 日 肖蒙號屬於 B 級運輸船,為賓尼法尼亞州霍格島的 美國航運局服務。從它停泊的港口三藩市離開後,一直 穿行於太平洋,通過檀香山在加州和馬尼拉之間運輸軍 隊。 1924 年 6 月 12 日至 1926 年 8 月 9 日 馬雷島海軍造船廠(Naval Yard Mare Island) 1926 年 8 月 14 日至 1927 年 10 月 22 日 馬雷島曾是位於舊金山的美國海軍基地。 西雅圖號(USS Seattle) 1926 年 8 月 14 日至 1927 年 10 月 22 日 1916 年 11 月 9 日,華盛頓號改名為西雅圖號。

西雅圖號船尾一景,當時停泊在新罕布希爾州樸資茅斯 海軍造船廠,風采依然不減。這可能是戰後重新裝備運 輸部將時的情景 舊金山海軍採購處 1929 年 4 月 19 日至 1931 年 6 月 20 日 田納西號(U.S.S. Tennessee)– 往返於海軍基地之間 1931 年 7 月 20 日至 1931 年 9 月 22 日 田納西號是一艘建於紐約海軍造船廠的戰艦,於 1920 年 6 月開始服役,先在大西洋服役一年,後轉移至 太平洋沿岸,在此停靠將近 20 年。作為戰艦部隊的一隻 力量,田納西號還參與過常規訓練和艦隊集訓。 薩拉托加號(U.S.S. Saratoga)

1923 年 3 月 1 日,西雅圖號稱為美國艦隊總司令官 的旗艦船,在接下來的四年(儘管換了幾屆司令官 , 在 这個角色之下 , 它仍身着继任四星旗的標誌),西雅圖 號從西雅圖到夏威夷,從巴拿馬到澳大利亞執行任務。 1927 年 6 月 3 日,西雅圖號還在大西洋接受了美國總統 喀爾文·柯立芝(Calvin Coolidge)的檢閱。 南河三號(U.S.S. Procyon) 1927 年 12 月 1 日至 1929 年 4 月 15 日 南河三號是美國艦隊基地部隊指揮官、美國國家戰 艦的旗艦船,1931 年 4 月 1 日退役。

薩拉托加號

63

東 亞 泉 志

THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS


Features 專題 1931 年 9 月 26 日至 1935 年 4 月 27 日 薩拉托加號是海軍的第二艘航母。二戰前的十年間, 駐紮在聖地亞哥和舊金山 San Pedro 地區,協助美國海軍 開發航母技術。1 月 31 日至 3 月 19 日,還參加夏威夷 地區的海軍訓練,第二年 1 月 23 日至 1933 年 2 月 28 日 又返回夏威夷參加艦隊訓練。1934 年 4 月 9 日至 11 月 9 日,訓練在加勒比海和大西洋上進行。1935 年訓練場地 又轉移到太平洋上。

1942 年初被派往新加坡,協助撤退馬來半島的難民。 前往新加坡城的路途中,裝船的兩天時間裡,船員們看 到敵方轟炸機飛過甲板。第三天,轟炸機在離西點號 50 碼的海港投下炸彈,並向西點號甲板上投放榴散彈。西 點號船長下令卸船,才沒有受到更多損壞。 紐約糾察船 – 1942 年 7 月 27 日至 1942 年 8 月 6 日 海軍第 12 區 – 1942 年 8 月 14 日至 28 日,舊金山

美杜莎號(U.S.S. Medusa) 1935 年 5 月 1 日至 1935 年 7 月 5 日

灣區

美國海軍第一艘維修船,駐紮在洛杉磯 San Pedro 港。

USS Castor 號 – 1942 年 8 月 28 日至 10 月 1 日 一般補給船,二戰期間受僱為美國海軍服役,負責 運輸貨物和設備至戰場。

馬雷島和舊金山糾察船 1935 年 8 月 1 日至 1937 年 5 月 關島海軍基地 1937 年 6 月至 1939 年 6 月 關島市市長命令霍華德跟隨 USAT Grant 號運輸船 (1939 年 5 月 19 日在阿普拉海港擱淺)進行海難救援。

USS Whitney 號 – 1942 年 10 月至 1943 年 7 月

紐約布魯克林和賓尼法尼亞州費城糾察船 1939 年 6 月至 1941 年 6 月 15 日 1941 年 6 月 24 日 – 暫任美國海軍供應軍团(Supply Corps.)海軍中尉 西點號(U.S.S. West Point)

USS Whitney 號

驅逐艦供應船,10 月和 11 月在南太平洋執行任務, 停靠在法屬新赫裡多尼亞諾美亞。10 月,霍華德升職, 海軍中尉。

西點號

加利福尼亞州奧克蘭海軍供應站,1943 年 7 月至 1945 年 1 月 1944 年 4 月 15 日 – 升任至海軍少校

維吉尼亞諾福克 1941 年 6 月 15 日至 1942 年 7 月 24 日 USS Clytie 號 – 1945 年 1 月 18 日 至 1945 年 11 月 西點號最初在北大西洋用作貿易船,1940 年 8 月開 14 日 始為美國海軍服役。由於當時歐洲正在打仗,所以主要 潛 水 艇 供 應 船, 英 格 爾 斯 造 船 廠(Ingalls 還是用作貿易船。1941 年 6 月 1 日,美國海軍將其改裝 Shipbuilding)製造,根據《海事委託合同》於 1943 年 成了運送軍隊的運輸船。兩週後,美國海軍入役了這艘船, 11 月 26 日 在 密 西 西 比 河 帕 斯 卡 古 拉 沿 岸 下 水。1944 最初主要在大西洋沿岸服役。1941 年 6 月,羅斯福總統 年轉為海軍服役。在新澤西霍博肯的伯利恒鋼鐵公司 下令關閉在同盟國的領事館後,西點號被派往葡萄牙, (Bethlehem Steel)經過改裝,並於 1945 年 1 月開始服役。 運送被美國遣送出境的同盟國外交人員,返回紐約時運 1945 年 2 月 21 日從新倫敦起航駛向澳大利亞布里斯班 回被同盟國和其他國家(包括中國)遣返的美國駐外領 港和弗裡曼特爾港,從 4 月 4 日至 9 月 13 日供給第七艦 事官員和外交人員。 隊的潛水艇。10 月 17 日返回新倫敦。

東 亞 泉 志

64

THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS


Features 專題 他們的第一個兒子,小霍華德·佛蘭克林·包克 1914 年在芝加哥出生。小霍華德長大後成為了一名海軍陸 戰隊少校和飛行教官。小霍華德和他的妻子維吉尼亞 (Virginia)有一個兒子,霍華德·歐文·包克,生於 1942 年 10 月 28 日。1943 年 6 月 9 日,小霍華德在澳大利亞 的美軍基地執行訓練任務時不幸身亡。將他帶向死亡的 這次任務中,小霍華德奉命帶領 12 架飛機執行攻擊訓練。 目擊者說,小霍華德駕駛的飛機右翼失靈,致使飛機墜 入太平洋。他的遺體和紀念碑都在夏威夷檀香山的太平 洋國家紀念墓園(Punchbowl Cemetery)。

USS Clytie 號

1945 年 11 月至 1946 年 7 月 霍華德經巴拿馬運河返回奧克蘭。最後一次休假始 於 1946 年 2 月 14 日。 退休,軍銜:海軍少校 –1946 年 7 月 1 日

軍功章 墨西哥行動徽章 一戰勝利徽章(附運輸船鉤飾) 美國防禦服役徽章(附艦隊鉤飾) 歐洲 - 非洲 - 中東作戰徽章 美國本土作戰徽章 亞洲 - 太平洋戰役徽章 二戰勝利徽章 1942 年,包克被提升為海軍上尉,並來到惠特尼號 (U.S.S. Whitney)服役,這是一艘驅逐艦,在南太平洋 服務直到 1943 年 8 月。 1943 年 8 月至 1944 年 8 月,包克回到美國本土, 被分配到加州奧克蘭的海軍供應站工作,之後,又重回 布魯克林海軍船塢服役了幾個月。1945 年的大多數時間, 包克都在克裡提號(U.S.S. Clytie)上服役,這艘船負責 引導美國潛水艇至澳大利亞。1945 年 10 月,包克返回 度假。 1945 年 12 月 23 日,包克從海軍退役,軍銜為海軍 少校(官方日期是 1946 年 7 月 1 日)。 包克和維奧萊塔·包克育有三個兒子:小霍華德·佛 蘭克林·包克(Howard Franklin Bowker, Jr.),戈登·亞伯 特·包克(Gordon Albert Bowker),歐文·艾倫·包克(Irving Allen Bowker)。

他們的第二個兒子,戈登·亞伯特·包克,1917 年出 生於維吉尼亞的諾福克。他和他的妻子黑茲爾(Hazel) 育有一子,小戈登·包克,1942 年 10 月 28 日出生(與 他 堂 弟 霍 華 德· 歐 文· 包 克 恰 好 在 同 一 天 出 生)。 戈 登 也加入了海軍,領海軍中尉軍銜,在亞爾古號(U.S.S. Argonaut) 潛 艇 上 服 役。1943 年 1 月 10 日, 亞 爾 古 號 在新不列顛島與愛爾蘭巴布亞紐幾內亞之間的重要水 道——聖喬治海峽,對一艘日本驅逐艦進行了攻擊。日 軍以深水炸彈回擊,亞爾古號受到重創,被逼回到海面 後,被日軍炮火摧毀。亞爾古號上的所有船員,包括包克, 全部陣亡。 幸而,包克和衛理公會傳教士邱文明之間的友誼, 為他減輕了不少痛苦。他在 1943 年 7 月 4 日寫信給邱文 明,告訴他失去了兩個兒子。這封信是在小包克过世不 到一個月寫的。1943 年 8 月 6 日,包克再次寫信給邱文明, 說在兒子死後不久他就接到通知被送往家人那裡。他也 得到機會看望他的三兒子歐文,在他被派往阿拉斯加前。 包克對失去兩個兒子感到萬分悲痛——在一封 1943 年 9 月寫給邱文明的信中,他寫下了他當時的感受,並說他 一開始就建議他們不要去參軍。 這對夫婦的第三個兒子,也是最小的一個,歐文·艾 倫·包克,1922 年出生於菲律賓群島的馬尼拉。歐文與 南茜·李(科曾斯)(Nancy Lee (Cozzens))結婚,並育 有 5 個子女。歐文二戰期間分別在阿拉斯加服役,並從 戰爭中倖存了下來(包克和維奧萊塔唯一倖存下來的兒 子),之後朝鮮戰爭期間再次參戰。歐文 1995 年逝世, 享年 72 歲。 老包克和維奧萊塔一共有 7 個孫子孫女:霍華德·歐 文·包克(Howard Irving Bowker),小戈登·包克(Gordon Bowker, Jr.),卡洛琳·包克(Carolyn Bowker),瑪麗琳·包 克·多曼(Marilyn Bowker Dorman),基斯·包克(Keith Bowker),瓊·包克·康奈爾(June Bowker Cornell),羅 伯特·包克(Robert Bowker)。

65

東 亞 泉 志

THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS


Features 專題 追忆 霍華德·包克在真實生活中是什麼樣的?這裡是她的 孫女瑪麗琳對他的回憶: 他是一個令人敬佩、充滿愛心的人。他總能找到時 間來教導我們他對郵票和錢幣的熱愛。他常常跟我們一 起玩。二戰後,他弄到一輛敞篷軍用吉普車,他會帶上 我們一起在奧克蘭附近兜風——這讓我們很開心。 同時,他又很嚴厲,這種嚴厲總是因他對我們的愛 而爆發出來,有時也會閃爍在他的眼中。

包克、維奧萊塔和他們的三個兒子:小霍華德、戈登、 歐文 兒提時代和他一起度過的一些最美好的時光,是整 晚跟他待在一起,加上祖母一起,在早上睡得很晚。我 們會在一起吃早餐,一起談論,聽電臺裡的新聞,清晨 觀看院子裡的鹿。 他是個了不起的園丁,種了很多種蔬菜和水果,我 最愛的是當季的新鮮漿果,我們甚至會一起幫忙採摘。 他還把山坡修成梯田,以便有平地可以耕種。 20 世紀 50 年代初,他在家裡建了一個圖書館,他 事事親為,既當木匠,又當電工、泥瓦匠、粉刷匠。那 是一個不允許進去玩的地方。相反,在這個房間裡,他 向我們介紹他的收藏品,他的龐大的圖書館,向我們展 示如何使用印刷機,如何排設類型。 他雖然沒有接受過全面的正規教育,但是他聰明, 有學識,博覽群書,善於從生活中學習。他白手起家—— 雖然不富裕,但人生豐富多彩。 我們離開他家的時候,他給我們的離別話語總是“教 堂見”。這是一個笑話,因為他根本就不是做禮拜的人。 可惜如今再也聽不到祖父 ( 我們都喜歡叫他“爺爺”) 說

東 亞 泉 志

66

THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS

老霍華德·佛蘭克林·包克和孫子霍華德一起參觀郵票展, 攝於 1955 年

這句話了,这反而讓我們更思念爺爺。

孫子基斯·包克記得他坐着爺爺的車、奶奶(孫兒們 對維奧萊塔的親切稱呼)開着龐蒂克駛入小鎮的情景。 基斯至今仍保存着爺爺從自己最愛的蕎麥食品包裝盒上 剪下來的棒球卡片和足球卡片。有一次,包克拿着他的 一支來福槍帶着他的孫子基斯去院子裡,教他學習射擊。 當基斯開槍後,槍的反衝力使他後退了好幾步,包克對 此說:“這將教會你如何玩槍。” 顯然,包克和維奧萊塔不喜歡與外人太親密。例如, 這對夫婦在孫子基斯 5 歲生日去看望他時,基斯的一個 朋友也來了,看到了維奧萊塔,大聲喊了句“嘿,奶奶!” 她感到很尷尬。 包克夫婦的閣樓一直保存着一個大木碗,這是孩子 們用來放玩具的。碗的直徑有兩英尺,帶木腿。孩子們 喜歡把玩具拿出來,然後自己坐進去。這就是孩子們的 樂趣。 包克夫婦用另外一個木碗放好時巧克力,用以獎勵 表現好的小孩。


Features 專題 收藏錢幣 包克 1923 年駐紮到中國漢口時,對中國錢幣燃起 了興趣。這種小小的喜愛後轉化成一種強烈的熱愛,並 在他有生之年一直持續着。他變成了東方錢幣(主要是 中國)、郵票和紙鈔的收藏家。包克是一位頑強的研究者、 活躍的交易者、可靠的通信者,也是一名作家。 1940 年至 1969 年的近 30 年中,包克為各種錢幣學 出版物撰寫了大量的文章,還出了兩本書。他的兩本書 主要專注於與中國錢幣相關的西方出版物的書目清單。 他 的 第 一 本 書《 遠 東 集 幣 圖 書 纂 要》(A Numismatic Bibliography of the Far East: A Check List of Titles in European Languages) 出 現 在 1943 年 美 國 錢 幣 學 會 (American Numismatic Society)的《注釋及專著 #101》 (Notes & Monographs #101)。據研究者史博祿所述,這本 開創性著作以西方語言出版,共記錄了 900 多本書籍、 文章,甚至還有東亞的錢幣和紙鈔拍賣會。包克是第一 位在東亞參考書目中對拍賣會圖錄進行記錄的人。除了 拍賣會圖錄,作者還對整個著作按簡單的字母進行排序。 不僅如此,包克還更進了一步,他對書目增加了批註, 在批註中他列出了一打以上可以找到該書的圖書館。這 非常重要,因為很多著作現在都很稀有或者很難找到。 包克的第二本著作是另一本書目提要,與邱文明和 小園齊(Hitoshi Kozono)共同完成。邱文明和包克一樣, 是一位藏書家,但是他專注的是更有挑戰性的中文和日 文文獻。包克和邱文明之間建立起了一種通信關係,並 一直持續了幾十年,其中很多信件至今依然保存在包克 的文獻中。兩位收藏家之間開始互相幫助,一起查找書籍, 提出建議,作出更正,甚至嘗試編輯更大型的中國錢幣 參考書目。最後,邱文明、包克和小園齊決定一起合作, 邱文明負責中文文獻,包克負責西方文獻,小園齊負責 日文文獻。 邱文明、小園齊和包克一起完成的著作《遠東貨 幣學書目及錢幣索引:中國古今泉幣辭典,第 1 冊》 (Bibliography of Far Eastern Numismatology and a Coin Index: Encyclopedia of Chinese Coins, Volume 1) 在 1967

年出版。“Numismatology”(貨幣學)這個詞似乎是邱 文明發明的,意思是強調對錢幣收藏方面的研究,但是, 這一點從未被關注,在今天也很少使用。這本著作收錄 了大約 2,400 本文獻,每一個作者都以自己的風格處理 他負責的版塊。因此出現了這樣的情況:邱文明的中國 部分是對標以字母順序排序,裡面沒有文章。小園齊的 日本部分也是對標題以字母順序排序,日文文獻按雜誌 名獨立列出。包克的西方部分則由書目和文章兩部分組 成,按作者名字排序。雖然已經過了 40 年,這本著作在 今天依然有重大意義,互聯網上依然可以找到副本(當 然價格不菲)。 與對中國錢幣的熱愛相比,包克對中國書籍的熱愛 只能排在第二位。邱文明的信中顯示,包克幾次出門去 看各種收藏品,且很多藏家到包克家中拜訪也是為同一 目的。包克檢視過很多中國錢幣的重要收藏,包括史密 森尼博物館、紐約的美國錢幣學會、賓夕法尼亞大學。 他和耿愛德、施嘉幹(見下文)及其他當代收藏家一起 參觀各種收藏。包克去史密斯學會的路上,也會找他的 朋友邱文明一起去,包克是那裡的義務性館長。在一次 對新澤西布裡奇頓的漢立克納浦廠的拜訪中,包克發現 了一個前所未知的事實,該造幣廠除了為四川造幣廠和 湖北造幣廠提供過設備外,還為河南開封造幣廠提供過 造幣設備和鋼模。包克對各種資訊諸如書籍、錢幣、郵 票或知名人士的追求總是堅持不懈。 霍華德·佛蘭克林·包克活躍在各個錢幣學組織, 包括中國錢幣學會,太平洋海岸錢幣協會(the Pacific Coast Numismatic Society),美國錢幣學會(該學會出版 了他的第一部著作),以及美國錢幣協會。在一張攝於 1955 年太平洋海岸協會宴會的照片中,可以看到包克親 眼見證了 Kosoff 頒發傑出服務獎給厄爾·A·派克(Earl A. Parker)。厄爾·派克至今為人所記,因為他不只擁有一 枚、而是擁有兩枚極罕見的美國 1894-S 十分硬幣(僅知 9 枚)。Kosoff 是美國著名錢幣經銷商之一,在大衛·鮑 爾(Q. David Bowers)1985 年的書中還被冠以“美國錢 幣學泰斗”的頭銜。包克在這些名人中出現,充分顯示 出了他在同代人中的高超水準。

67

東 亞 泉 志

THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS


Features 專題

1940 年邱文明賣書給霍華德·包克——價格是民國時代銀元,非美元

包克在海軍服役期間無論停靠在海外哪裡,都會找 機會豐富他的收藏,或參觀其他圖書館或收藏品。例如, 1939 年 4 月,他寫信給邱文明,說他已經從馬尼拉、香港、 上海、橫濱的旅行中回來,在旅途中他獲得了一些中國 銀幣,一套 9 枚王莽錢幣,一張咸豐百千文紙鈔,13 套

東 亞 泉 志

68

THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS

舊的中國錢幣書籍。1939 年 11 月,包克在西雅圖號上 服役的時候,寫信給邱文明,說他已經到過紐約公共圖 書館和美國錢幣學會(推測包克可能同時也看了學會的 中國錢幣收藏),並且已經有 300 多部文獻收錄在他的 亞洲錢幣西文參考書目中。甚至二戰時候的困難也不能


Features 專題

邱文明寫給好友包克的熱情書信 阻擋包克獲得藏品。就在戰前,1941 年 7 月,邱文明寫 信給包克解釋為何書還未運達。顯然,日本人不允許西 方人士將文物運出中國,因此邱文明只能拜託美國軍人 將書帶回給包克。包克的書由一位叫做吉萊特(Gillette)

的美國士兵送回,但是包克是否有收到這些書則無從查 證。隨着戰爭的持續,包克的收藏只能放慢速度,1944 年初至 1945 整年,包克和邱文明之間也再沒任何通信往 來。

69

東 亞 泉 志

THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS


Features 專題 愛德似乎對我收藏有如此之多的罕見銀幣感到很驚訝, 而且這些錢幣又都是在這個國家收藏到。” 1948 年,霍華德和萊塔開始了一周兩次的夜課,在 伯克利高中(Berkeley High School)學習書籍的修補和 裝訂。據他們的孫子小戈登·包克所述:“我相信裝訂有 兩大功能:修補和維護。”這也成了夫婦二人的業餘愛好, 他們共同合作,為包克不斷擴張的圖書館裝訂了很多書 籍、小冊子和雜誌。

偉大的錢幣收藏家:Abe Kosoff(左邊)頒發傑出服務獎 給厄爾·派克(中間),霍華德·包克(最右邊)觀看頒獎

二战後“退休” 自 1946 年從海軍退役後,包克與萊塔(他對妻子 維奧萊塔的昵稱)在加州奧克蘭的家中定居下來。據他 們的孫女卡洛琳所述,“他和我祖母…是一個團隊。他 研究和收藏錢幣,但家中召開錢幣會議時,她是主人。 他們一起學習裝訂,修補他購買的那些破損的書。他還 學會了印刷,他擁有一台印刷機,並用它來出版文章、 他寫的書,以及錢幣報紙”。 退休後,包克與邱文明之間的通信往來變得更加頻 繁、更加重要。他們進行了廣泛的討論:包括他們獲得 的錢幣,他們的待售物品,新的發現,對其他收藏家和 經銷商的觀點,想要的物品,會議,等等。他們經常在 言語措辭上進行爭論,關於錢幣的真假,關於邱文明的 書的封面應該是白色還是其他顏色,然而這種爭議都是 和善的,這種爭論也讓人更有興趣閱讀他們之間的關係。 1947 年,包克告訴邱文明他見到了來自上海的施嘉 幹先生,並且觀賞了施嘉幹的藏品,機製金銀幣有“800 多個品種,包括很多孤品和極罕見的樣幣”。巧合的是, 包克當時正在為 Wayte Raymond 的下一版《19 世紀世界 硬幣目錄》的中國部分工作,不然也不會有機會一睹施 氏藏品。包克寫信給邱文明,說施先生的收藏索價 50 萬 (不確定是美元還是民國時代之銀元?),就 1947 年的 錢幣價格(無論哪個國家)來說,這是一個驚人的數字。 1947 年 7 月,包克夫婦在家中招待了邱文明數天,邱文 明又要去中國了。包克和邱文明 1947 年的大部分往來信 件中,都是關於書籍的收購。 1948 年,偉大的耿愛德拜訪了包克,並且檢視了他 的收藏。在寫給邱文明的信中,包克洋洋得意地說:“耿

東 亞 泉 志

70

THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS

1951 年,包克開始着手建立一個有關中國素材的大 型展覽,參加加州錢幣學會在聖羅莎舉辦的博覽會。這 次展覽的東西有包克自己的收藏品、A.G. Adams 的藏品、 從邱文明那裡借來的收藏品(包括 5 枚假幣,正如包克 指出的那樣),以及他從其他收藏家那裡徵集到的收藏品。 1952 年初,包克就開始在家中擴建第二個儲藏室, 用以存放他們的收藏品。跟之前提到的孫女瑪麗琳對他 的回憶一樣,包克這次又是自己包攬了所有的工作。孫 女卡洛琳回憶道:“…我三歲的時候,他新增了一個儲 藏室,這是他的圖書館也是他存放收藏品的地方。在建 造這個儲藏室的時候,一次我父親歐文正牽着我的手走 上腳手架或木架。他沒有抓牢我,我們摔了下來,倒在 很髒的地面上。” 1954 年,包克從當地的男孩俱樂部(Boys Club) 購買了一架老式戈登牌(Gordon)印刷機,並且將它裝 在了新的儲藏室裡。包克用它印刷存放錢幣用的牛皮紙 信封,使用的是從哈佛燕京圖書館(Harvard Yenching Library)借來的目錄分類法。 1955 年或 1956 年的某個時候,包克被安排對史密 森尼博物館提供諮詢服務,1956 年,邱文明邀請包克在 回華盛頓的途中去他堪薩斯的家做客。1958 年 12 月 3 日,史密森尼博物館的秘書倫納德·卡米克爾(Leonard Carmichael)寫信給包克,將他的職位定為顧問。包克一 共去過史密森尼博物館好幾次,沒有統計數字,但是在 1959 年,在回程途中,包克再次拜訪了邱文明。作為顧 問,包克試圖為史密森尼博物館獲得邱文明的收藏,甚 至想要通過紐約市長納爾遜·洛克菲勒來安排這次捐贈, 但沒有結果。包克在 1963 年的時候說他每年還會收到大 約 50 封從史密森尼博物館寄過來的轉接推薦信,多是關 於錢幣的歸屬聲明。 1961 年,包克開始為德國一個巨大的 Q(Quast 的 秘密代碼)氏收藏編寫目錄,在那裡他發現了大量非比 尋常、之前從未發表過的錢幣。這個收藏中含有 150“抽屜” 的中國錢幣,另外還有韓國和安南的錢幣。至 1964 年 10 月為止,包克仍然擁有這個收藏。


Features 專題

霍華德·包克正式成為史密森尼博物館的顧問 1963 年 7 月 30 日,霍華德和萊塔慶祝結婚 50 周年 紀念。萊塔在 1 年前曾因為充血性心臟衰竭病進過醫院, 不過似乎恢復得很好,足以享受他們的金婚紀念日。 1964 年初,包克開始着手邱文明 / 包克 / 小園齊合 作的參考書目工作,他和邱文明隨後的往來信件中,大 部分也都是圍繞這方面的內容。期間他們最關心的是小

園齊的加入以及在文中如何加入中文字,所幸兩方面他 們都完成得很好。 包克檔案中的最後一封信寫於 1969 年,是寫給他 的忠實信友邱文明的。當然,包克之後應該有繼續寫他 最喜歡的主題,但那些信件都不見了。

71

東 亞 泉 志

THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS


Features 專題 逝世

解到這個收藏從未以專場拍賣形式出現在拍賣會中。以 下是史博祿對發現包克收藏的記述:

1965 年,包克的健康狀況開始出問題,他與邱文明 的信中也提及此事。5 月,他進院治療心臟問題。他的 病況一直持續,但在 1966 年的時候,他的病情有所好轉, 但是藥物的副作用依然存在,他總說他很容易疲勞。 老霍華德·佛蘭克林·包克於 1970 年 7 月 8 日逝世, 留下了 67 歲的妻子萊塔,一個兒子歐文以及 7 個孫子孫 女:霍華德·歐文、小戈登、卡洛琳、瑪麗琳、基斯、瓊 和羅伯特。 兩年後的 1972 年 9 月,萊塔逝世。包克和他的妻 子一起葬在阿靈頓國家公墓。 包克的訃聞刊登在以下錢幣學出版物上:

2007 年,(愛秀集團、香港冠軍拍賣總裁)周邁 可先生建議找到包克收藏。很快,我們聯繫到了歐文(於 1990 年去世)的遺孀。2008 年初,周邁可先生和我第 一次見到了包克的收藏。對於我們的來訪,包克一家在 車庫裡放了好幾張桌子,並且拿出了一盒又一盒錢幣, 所有錢幣都整齊地放在包克最初印刷的信封裡。 最初的會面之後的兩年裡,周邁可及其他同仁曾多 次拜訪,對錢幣查看、稱重、測量、照相。雖然受到收 藏家們的盛情邀請,包克一家依然尊重霍華德的遺願, 想要將這個收藏捐贈給博物館進行展示和研究。周邁可 開始幫助聯繫中國的博物館,以確定它們可能喜歡哪種 類型的藏品。周邁可作為中間人代表包克一家,為南茜·包 克(歐文遺孀)和博物館之間牽線搭橋。

《加州錢幣新聞》(1970 年秋),第 113 頁; 《中國剪報》(1970 年 9 月),第 109 頁; 《世界錢幣》(1970 年 7 月 29 日),第 1132 頁; 《錢幣剪貼簿雜誌》(1970 年 8 月),第 1088 頁; 《錢幣收藏家》(1970 年 9 月),第 1263 頁; 《世界硬幣》(1970 年 9 月),第 1133 頁。

後记 霍華德包克逝世後不久,萊塔被送院治療,他們的 家變得空蕩蕩的。萊塔住院期間和她去世後,房子被偷 盜過幾次,家裡少了沙發、電視機、一幅畫和其他幾樣 家用品。所幸包克的錢幣收藏和圖書館倖存了下來,雖 然裡面似乎也有東西丟失。 包克生前曾對將自己的藏品向公眾開放表示出極大 的興趣,“用以研究、學習,以及激勵未來的錢幣學家”。 他的遺願是將他的藏品捐贈給史密森尼博物館,他不希 望任何人從他的收藏中獲取利益,除非為了教育和學術 研究。包克逝世後不久,史密森尼博物館接受了藏品中 的中國郵票部分,現保存在華盛頓特區的國家郵政博物 館內。包克家族試圖將藏品的錢幣部分也捐贈給史密森 尼博物館,但並未成功,之後藏品被封存,整整消失了 38 年。

重新發現 雖然包克的收藏被大家遺忘了,但是像史博祿這樣 的研究學者還是不難找到的。1972 年維奧萊塔逝世後, 這個收藏傳到了包克唯一的兒子歐文的手上。史博祿在 接觸中國錢幣的過程中知道了這個收藏的存在,並且瞭

東 亞 泉 志

72

THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS

2010 年 4 月 16 日,上海造幣廠博物館在一個特別 儀式中接收了包克收藏中的 139 枚錢幣及幣模的捐贈。 卡洛琳和戈登代表包克家族出席了活動。很多收藏家、 政府官員和錢幣專家蒞臨捐贈儀式,包括戴志強(中國 錢幣學會副會長)、于英輝(上海錢幣學會副理事長)、 沈鳴鏑(上海錢幣學會副秘書長)、周祥(上海博物館 研究館員、中國文物鑒定委員會)、傅為群(上海歷史 博物館副館長)、徐寶明(上海銀行博物館副館長)、 範文翔(普陀區文化局副局長)、陳景林(香港著名當 代錢幣研究學者)、孫浩(資深錢幣學者)。戈登·包克、 周邁可和戴志強在儀式上發表了精彩演講,慶祝這次萬 眾矚目的捐贈的成功舉行。 2010年9月3日,包克收藏展在上海舉行,卡洛琳·包 克分享了她對祖父的深刻回憶: 我想你們知道更多關於霍華德·佛蘭克林·包克的為人, 而不僅僅是“著名”收藏家。我的祖父是一個謙遜、謹 慎的人。所有這些儀式對他來說可能並不十分重要,但 他也會理解這種文化的交流及其重要性,並且會以這一 過程為榮。我對他的瞭解每天都在增加,他不但在辨識 錢幣和給錢幣貼標籤時非常謹慎,而且非常注重資訊的 記錄,這些資訊包括何時購買、如何購買、從誰那裡購 買的這些錢幣、紙鈔和幣模。當然,這一切對於一個擔 任過主計長和財物官的海軍中尉來說是相當有意義的。 我以前常常去他加州奧克蘭的家中做客,他總是教 導我、我的兄弟姐妹和我的表兄弟們很多有價值的東西。 他教我欣賞和尊重其他的文化,尤其是亞洲文化。他教 育我要尊重長輩,不僅要尊重自己的長輩,也要尊重接


Features 專題 觸到的其他長者。他讓我認識到閱讀和研究的重要性, 而這都是出自一個從未接受過任何正規大學教育的人之 口語。他教我要尊重書本和學習。 我祖父母的家位於奧克蘭一座山的側面。我很肯定 他開墾梯田的想法也是源於在中國的那幾年。他教我要 尊重土地和園藝。我學會了如何和為什麼要輪種莊稼以 及施肥的重要性。我最喜歡的水果成熟後就是中國的黃 李子。團隊合作在這裡再次體現,我祖母會將他種植的 水果和蔬菜都裝到罐頭裡。他們是最熱情好客的人了, 只要給他們打個電話,他們就會來帶你走,給你好吃的, 甚至事先沒有任何通知。

與我們同在。湯瑪斯·布朗曾說“時間雖能使古物老朽及 凡有的藝術成為萬物灰塵 , 但这些留下來之文化遗產会 富有我们下一代人”,他讓我研究,並運用到他所有收 藏的東西上。我知道他是您寶貴的貨幣史的大管家,您 會珍視他的收藏的回歸,他活在您的心中。 獻給偉大的人,他的家庭,還有他的錢幣。包克藏 品的下一步捐贈事宜正在協商中。

他性格堅毅,粗獷的外表下總是充滿了溫暖和同情 心。家庭對他很重要,可能部分是因為在二戰的太平洋 戰區失去的兩個兒子。可能這也是他變得堅毅的原因, 但他的眼中也會閃光,他會開玩笑,逗我們每一個人。 他也會讓我們坐在他腿上,跟我們講海外生活的故事。 祖父 1970 年逝世的時候,我失去了榜樣,但他的精神

包克藏品錢幣信封 ( 中英文)

邱文明、小園齊和包克一起完成的著作《遠東貨幣學書 目及錢幣索引:中國古今泉幣辭典,第 1 冊》

73

東 亞 泉 志

THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS


Features 專題

包克東亞錢幣收藏澳門特別展 霍華德 • 佛蘭克林 • 包克錢幣收藏澳門特別展的舉辦時 間為 2016 年 12 月 1 日中午 12 點至 12 月 4 日下午 5 點半。 開幕式於 11 月 30 日下午 5 點半在金碧文娛中心舉行。 本次活動由澳門錢幣學會協同冠軍拍賣公司聯合舉辦。 展覽中較為引人注目的展品有:一套非常稀有的臺灣 銀幣,包括一枚 1837 年臺灣省造老公銀、一枚 1853 年臺灣 如意銀元,以及一枚 1862 年臺灣筆寶軍餉;一套原漢立克 納普廠檔案館館藏、費城造幣廠為美國造幣廠所鑄的 1902 年四川鍍銅精製樣幣(面值有 5 分、10 分、20 分及 50 分), 錢幣樣式由美國造幣廠首席雕刻師查爾斯 • 巴伯所設計。此

Bowker 收藏的 139 件珍稀錢幣及錢範捐贈給上海造幣博物 館。 第二次捐贈:2010 年 9 月 6 日,包克家族把涵蓋珍罕 清朝紙鈔和中華人民共和國第一套人民幣,共 212 張紙鈔, 捐贈給中國印鈔造幣博物館。 第三次捐赠:2011 年 5 月 13 日,包克家族把 84 件中 國機製幣藏品捐贈給瀋陽造幣有限公司。 第四次捐贈:2015 年 3 月 23 日,包克家族把來自上海 地區的 37 枚錢幣,包括江蘇、浙江、安徽三省的錢幣捐贈 給上海造幣博物館。

套錢幣原收藏於漢立克納普廠檔案室,後來包克來廠參觀 期間,漢立克納普廠廠長將這些錢幣作為禮物贈與了包克。

第五次捐贈:在 2016 年 5 月,包克家族把一部分錢幣

除此之外,還有兩枚漢立克納普廠四川一文樣幣和湖北一

藏品——6132 枚中國方孔錢和機製幣,捐贈給了德國薩克

文樣幣同樣會在本次展會上展出。本次展會的另一大亮點是

森 - 安哈爾特州哈雷莫里茨堡藝術博物館。目前為止是對德

1928-1932 年 ( 不確定具體年份 ) 湖南 500 文銅鍍鎳樣幣(鑄

國捐贈中國錢幣的最大捐贈者。

造量僅為 12 枚),這也是中國有史以來發行過的最大面值 的銅幣。此外,一枚稀有的 1936 年廣州五羊一分銅質樣幣 和另一枚極為稀有的日本明治 7 年(1874 年)50 錢精製樣 幣(存世稀少,很少能在日本之外看見)同樣在此次澳門特 別展上同諸位參觀者見面。 包克錢幣藏品捐贈的次數及時間 : 第一次捐贈:2010 年 4 月 16 日,包克家族授權愛秀集團,

第六次捐贈 : 2016 年 6 月 15 日,包克家族向上海造 幣有限公司捐贈 24 枚民國初期的珍貴機製幣章。 第七次捐赠 2017 年 , 包克家族將會把一部分包克藏品 捐贈給美國國家博物館國家錢幣收藏館(NNC),該錢幣收 藏館擁有超過 170 萬枚的錢幣藏品。 包克家族捐贈的錢幣有望於 2017 年秋季在年參觀者超 過 400 萬人次的美國歷史博物館展出。

將其祖父——美國已故著名錢幣收藏家 Howard Franklin

1902 年(無紀年)四川省造光緒元寶庫平七錢二分,黃銅鎏金

1902 年(無紀年)四川省造光緒元寶庫平三錢六分,黃銅鎏金

臺灣“庫”字筆寶軍餉,C#25-5, L&M325, K4,近未使用

1837 年臺灣老公銀,L&M319, K1a, 近未使用

東 亞 泉 志

74

THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS


Features 專題

臺灣如意軍餉 ,C#25-4, L&M323, K2, 近未使用

1936 年(民國廿五年)嘉禾壹分銅質樣幣,CCC760,未使用

中華民國河南雙旗伍百文鍍鎳銅幣,T 邊,Hsu445a,CCC559,NGC AU58 Stuart 舊藏

1874 年(明治七年)日本五十錢銀幣 ,Y25, 鏡面

1917 年雲南省造當銀幣伍元單面試鑄幣,K1521a, 未使用。 Kan 舊藏

1936 年(民國廿五年)廣東省造五羊壹仙銅幣 ,

1898 年光緒通寶小平試鑄幣,寶武局,黃銅,美國漢立克納浦廠造,

KM-Pn28, CCC18,NGC MS63BN

直徑 22mm, CCC781,未使用

75

東 亞 泉 志

THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS


Features 專題

Sun Zhonghui Talks about Coin Collecting, Coin Appreciation and the Coin Market Yuan Shuiqing (Xi’an) Sun Zhonghui is a well known collector in the world of modern Chinese coin collecting. I once asked Jin Baoshan (Shanghai) to interview Mr. Sun in 2009 when I was planning the supplement of West China Finance. I met him at the “Jin Sheng” Contest of Rare Coins in the Yangtze and Yellow River valleys from November 8 to 9, 2011. Sun Zhonghui was a member of the expert group at that time. We had a brief conversation. He was a simply dressed, knowledgeable but modest scholar (Pic 1). On behalf of the Journal of East Asian Numismatics, I interviewed Mr. Sun on May 1, 2016 and wrote this article. Pic. 1 Sun Zhonghui (right) and the author at the Contest of Rare Coins in First, Mr. Sun, I know you were Zhangjiagang on November 9, 2011 born in a rich family in Yuyao city, Zhejiang Province. Your father and grandfather liked to “researcher”. collect calligraphies and coins. You became interested in Second, you are a famous numismatist and have devoted coin inscriptions, inscriptive writings on calligraphies and yourself to studying ancient coins. From 1989 to 2005, you paintings since you were 12 and become an expert of coin, have published 9 numismatic books, including Illustrations bronze, gold and silver vessel identification. You used to of Ancient Coins (co-authored), Ancient Coins, Concise serve as a researcher at the Shanghai Museum and the Dictionary of Coins (co-authored), Chinese Ancient Coins, member of the council of the Shanghai Numismatic Society Appreciation of Coins, Appreciation and Collecting of and you once studied under Zhang Gongwu, the coin expert Chinese Ancient Coins, Identification of Original and Fake and the former researcher at the Shanghai Museum. Now you Coins, Sun Zhonghui Talks About Coins in Kai Yuan Coin are invited to be the counselor of the art auction department House, and Amusing Stories About Ancient Coin Collecting of Shanghai International Commodity Auction Co., Ltd. Can and Appreciation. You also edited the Great Dictionary of you share your life experiences of coin collecting with us? Chinese Numismatics: Yuan and Ming Dynasty. Rare people can complete so many books in 16 years. These practical Sun Zhonghui: First, I want to thank you for books were bought by coin lovers soon after their publication. your concern. My ancestors had lived in Yuyao city, Why did you write and edit so many books? Zhejiang Province. My grandfather moved to Shanghai with his family. I was born in Shanghai in 1946 and took an interest in cultural relics. But I never thought studying cultural relics would become my career. There is one thing that I want to clarify: I have never been the researcher of the Shanghai Museum. Some departments of the Shanghai Museum were collectively called the Exhibition and Research Department at that time. I had worked and done research work in the Bronze department but never got the title of

東 亞 泉 志

76

THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS

Sun Zhonghui: It’s not easy to write books. I have to squeeze time to write something after finishing my own work, dealing with household chores or attending social activities. Normally, I would edit my book from 8 pm to 11 pm. On weekends, I would write till dawn. It was usual for me to fall asleep in the chair. Sometimes, I had to work two nights to proofread my manuscript. Mistakes can’t be avoided if you feel drowsy at work.


Features 專題

Pic. 2-1 (from L. ) Illustrations of Ancient Coins, Ancient Coins, and Concise Dictionary of Coins

Pic. 2-2 (from L. ) Chinese Ancient Coins, Appreciation of Coins, Appreciation and Collecting of Chinese Ancient Coins

Pic. 2-3 (from L. ) Identification of Original and Fake Coins, Sun Zhonghui Talks About Coins in Kai Yuan Coin House, and Amusing Stories About Ancient Coin Collecting and Appreciation

77

東 亞 泉 志

THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS


Features 專題 Mistakes can be found in all my books, either misquoted statements or wrong dates. These books were of some use when materials on coins were not detailed enough. Just as my favorite ancient scholar, Zheng Bnaqiao had said: I just wrote some letters not articles. You can read if you like them. If you don’t, just use them to paper your wall or windows. (Pic. 2) Third, two online “Sun Zhonghui’s Collection” auctions were held in September, 2013. The “Numismatic Master Sun Zhonghui’s Ancient Coin Collection” online auction was held on www.huayicang.com during April, 2015. All 336 items (from pre-Qin period to Qing dynasty), including some very rare ancient coins, were sold out. Can you share some collecting experiences with our readers? Sun Zhonghui: I quit my job as a public servant in 1992 and started to collect coins with my friend. Our collection was very small at first. I was responsible for identifying coins (kind of like a shareholder who contributed his technology) and he offered money to buy. Sometimes we were not cautious enough or overly eager to buy before seeing the real thing. It was common to buy fake coins. But we never complained. Of Course, 90 percent of what we got were real and some were rare coins. I have sold some of my collections due to my age and limited energy. I think collectors need to exchange their coins no matter if it’s for money recovery or collection adjustment. Fourth, the history of making fantasies in China can be traced back to the Qin dynasty. A case of illegitimate coins was recorded in Feng Zhen Shi, the Qin bamboo slips unearthed in Shuihudi Yunmeng county, Hubei province. Counterfeit coins are still an unsolved problem in the collecting area today. With the development of new forgery technologies, high quality counterfeit coins emerge one after another. Collectors and investors are always fooled by fake coins and banknotes, especially some rare coins of Liao and Western Xia dynasties. As a coin expert, can you give some suggestions on how to identify the authenticity of rare coins? Sun Zhonghui: I wrote several articles to describe this before. I used to be fully confident of my ability of identifying coins before 1990 and thought that I knew old counterfeit coins very well. Collectors and my friends sent some round coins of East and West Zhou dynasties, Tian Lu and Bao Ning coins of Liao dynasty and Jiu Die Huang Song coins (all first appeared after

東 亞 泉 志

78

THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS

Pic. 2-4 Great Dictionary of Chinese Numismatics: Yuan and Ming Dynasty edited by Sun Zhonghui

Pic. 3 Sun Zhonghui (left) identified coins for collectors at an auction preview in about 2008

Pic 4-1 Tian Juan Tong Bao of Jin dynasty, 25mm in diameter, unearthed in Jin Nan, Shanxi province in 2008, Tian Juan House collection


Features 專題 the founding of the PRC and no such coins were housed in the Shanghai Museum at that time) to me to identify. I identified these coins as authentic according to their inscriptions and casting characters. Fortunately, my judgment proved to be true. With the improvement of counterfeiting technology, more and more forgeries appear after 1990. My eyesight weakens with age and now I can’t catch up with the situation. To avoid mistakes, I call my friends for help if I can’t be sure about the authenticity of a coin (Pic 3). Fifth, you have many unique and new understandings about coin collecting. When you visited the Nanjing Museum in the Summer of 1983, you identified a 10 cash Jia Jing Tong Bao copper coin of Ming dynasty as a mother coin, which was then regarded as the “earliest known copper mother coin”. A Henan collector sent you a rubbing of a Tian Juan Tong Bao coin minted in the period of Tian Juan (from 1138 to 1140) in 1990. Though there was a lack of relevant records, you still determined the original Tian Juan Tong Bao coin was real. This coin was then sold at the price of 1,200,000 yuan in the China Guardian 2006 Auction. You estimated the unique 2 cash Xuan He Tong Bao of Song dynasty at 350,000 yuan when you attended the program, Treasure Appraisal of CCTV on October 8, 2005. Why did you make these judgments? Have you had any new discoveries in recent years? I have also heard that there is a Da Yuan Tong Bao 10 cash bronze mother coin of Yuan dynasty housed in a branch of the National Museum of China. What is your opinion about this coin? Could it be the earliest bronze mother coin ever found in China? Sun Zhonghui: I did find the Jia Jing Tong Bao mother coin during my visit to the Nanjing Museum in the early 1980s but I have never heard of the Da Yuan Tong Bao 10 cash bronze mother coin. If I ever get a change I will go there and have a good look at it. A Henan collector sent me a rubbing of the Tian Juan Tong Bao 2 cash coin drawn with pencil in about 1990. As no relevant records could be found, some people presumed that the coin was counterfeit. But I believed it was real after careful observation and put the picture of the rubbing in my book for readers to study with discussion. Various Tian Yuan Tong Bao coins with inscriptions of different scripts appeared one after another in about 1999 (Pic. 4-1). All these coins have been proved to be real although their authenticity was doubted at that time as no such coins had ever

Pic 4-2 Xian Feng Yuan Bao cast by Bao Su office in the period of Qing emperor, Xianfeng

Pic 4-3 Kai Ping Tong Bao of the late Liang dynasty

Pic 4-4 Shun Tian Tong Bao of the state of Jie Yan in the period of Five dynasties

Pic. 4-5 The Wu Yang large three-hole spade sold for 3,528,000 yuan at the 2010 China Guardian Spring Auction

79

東 亞 泉 志

THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS


Features 專題 been found in the past centuries. As to the 2 cash Xuan He Tong Bao of Song dynasty collected by Bai Yang of Beijing, its authenticity had been proved and I just made some statements on television. I have seen many rare coins in recent years, like several pieces of threehole spades auctioned by Beijing Cheng Xuan Auctions Co., Ltd, the Xian Feng Bao Fu, Tai Ching 100 cash coin; the Xian Feng Bao Su (Pic. 4-2); Kai Ping Tong Bao of the late Liang dynasty (Pic. 4-3); the Qian Yuan Zhong Bao coin cast by Liu Shouguang in the period of Five dynasties; the Shun Tian Yuan Bao coin (Pic. 4-4); the Chong Qing Tong Bao cash coin of Jin dynasty and others. Most of these coins had been identified before they were sent to me. Sixth, large auction companies like China Guardian and Beijing Cheng Xuan, host coin auctions every year since 1997. The International Coin Fair has held several auctions too. Online auctions are developing rapidly in China at present. Are there any precautions you can suggest when buying coins at auctions? Sun Zhonghui: Auctions can promote exchanges between coin collectors. Owners can sell their coins at a fair price while buyers can expand their views and enrich their collections. Auction companies should carefully choose auction items and bidders should also be careful when buying coins. Buyers may ask experts to identify coins, if necessary. Bidders should avoid impulse spending and paying high prices for their favorite coins. Online and wechat auctions are very popular now. Compared with traditional auctions, online auction costs less and and are more convenient. But the atmosphere of live auction is much more exciting. Seventh, the price of ancient coins, especially threehole spades, has risen sharply in recent ten years. The Wu Yang large three-hole spade was sold for 3,528,000 yuan at the 2010 China Guardian Spring Auction (Pic. 4-5). Beijing Cheng Xuan Company sold a Xia Qu Yang large three-hole spade at a record price of 3,680,000 yuan in its 2012 Autumn Auction (Pic. 4-6). The Yang Jian three-hole spade was sold for 2,475,000 yuan on www.huayicang.com in 2013 (Pic. 4-7). What’s your opinion about the future market of these pre-Qin coins and machine made coins which are popular in recent years?

東 亞 泉 志

80

THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS

Pic. 4-6 The Xia Qu Yang large three-hole spade auctioned at a record price of 3,680,000 yuan by Beijing Cheng Xuan company in 2012

Pic. 4-7 The Yang Jian three-hole spade sold for 2,475,000 yuan on www.huayicang.com in 2013 Sun Zhonghui: It’s good to see the price of coins has risen in recent years. It was unthinkable that a three-hole spade can be sold for several million yuan in the past. But it’s still worthwhile to buy a 2300 yearold cultural relic at such a high price. You Know, a piece of three-hole spade was worth 20 paintings by of Qi Baishi or Wu Changshuo before the founding of the PRC. Today, exquisite pre-Qin coins and well-

made modern machine-made coins are quite popular among collectors. It is no wonder that their prices are rising so fast. But the high price is a double-edged


Features 專題 sword for me. On one hand, my old collections are becoming more and more pricey but on the other hand, I can’t afford some new rare coins. The rising price also adds pressure to my identification of coins. If I made a mistake, either the seller or the buyer will lose a lot of money. Eighth, you are good at calligraphy and have a good knowledge of Chinese history and the history of Chinese coins. I know you have written many inscriptions and prefaces for fellow collectors and coin companies. Both the inscription written for the West China Finance magazine in 2010 and the preface (460 words) for Private Collections of Rare Coins in Shanxi (Yuan Ju San Jin), are very good works of beautiful words and profound significance. Have you received a lot of requests for writing such things? How do you respond to these requests?

to practice my calligraphy in my middle age. My hand trembled every time I picked up a brush. I have got rid of this bad habit as more and more people ask me to write something for them in recent years (Pic 5). My friend Ai Liang asked me to write a preface when he edited Yuan Ju San Jin. Then, Wang Yangyou wanted me to write a classical Chinese preface for his book, Bao Su Quan Hui. I am glad to have the opportunity of writing prefaces for these two outstanding numismatic books. I constructed the framework of the preface in the daytime and still thought about it when l lay in bed at night. Sometimes a light bulb went on, I would get up immediately and write a few words in darkness for fear that I might forget the next day. Both prefaces are very short. But this is consistent with my principle of conciseness.

Sun Zhonghui: Practice makes perfect. More reading, more thinking and more listening are essential for writing articles, doing research and identifying coins. You also need to ask someone for the answer when necessary. I have read over the Twenty-Four Histories and other historical materials and have seen quite a lot of coins, paintings and calligraphies. I was too busy

Pic 5-2 An inscription written by Sun Zhonghui in 2011

Pic 5-1 An inscription written by Sun Zhonghui to the author in 2009

81

東 亞 泉 志

THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS


Features 專題

Pic 5-3 The “Eliminate the False And Retain the True” scroll (written by Sun Zhonghui in 2012) in the reception room of Beijing Gong Bo Coins

[Editor's Note: The interview with Sun Zhonghui reminded me that I once met Mr. Sun. On 24 October 1988 Ma Dingxiang escorted me to the old Shanghai Museum. We were taken to a back room and shown various trays of Chinese ancient coins. In my journal I recorded that a Mr. Sun brought the trays for me to examine. A photo was taken

東 亞 泉 志

82

THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS

and it was only years later that I realized it was Sun Zhonghui who showed us the trays. At the time, I had not heard of him. The photo shows (from the left): a museum worker; Sun Zhonghui; Bruce W. Smith; Liu Huiping (instructor at Zhengzhou University); Ma Dingxiang. - BWS]


Features 專題

孫仲匯談錢幣收藏、鑒賞及市場 袁水清(西安) 孫仲匯先生在當代中國錢幣界名 氣大、口碑好,幾乎無人不知。2008 年 11 月,我在策劃 2009 年《西部金融》 錢幣研究增刊時,曾委託上海金寶山 先生採訪過孫仲匯。2011 年 11 月 8-9 日,“金生杯”長江、黃河流域珍稀錢 幣博覽暨賽寶大會在張家港市舉辦時, 孫仲匯先生為專家鑒定組成員之一,筆 者有幸謀面並簡敘,他給我的第一印 象是穿着簡樸,待人謙和,知識面寬(圖 1)。2016 年 5 月 1 日,我約請孫仲匯 為《東亞泉志》雜誌談談他的錢幣人生, 商定後孫先生按擬定的採訪提綱做了 充分準備,今整理如下,與同好分享。 一、孫先生,我從有關資料得知, 您祖上是浙江餘姚一戶富裕人家。您 的祖父、父親都喜愛字畫和錢幣收藏, 受此薰陶,您從 12 歲開始對錢幣文字

圖 1 2011 年 11 月 9 日作者與孫仲匯(右)合影於張家港市珍稀錢幣賽 寶大會

圖案和字畫印章題跋上的秀美文字產生興趣,從此步入 錢幣界。經過不懈努力,成為當代著名的錢幣、青銅器、 金銀器等金屬器具鑒定專家。曾為上海博物館研究員、 上海市錢幣學會理事。師從已故的上海博物館研究員、 錢幣鑒定專家張公午先生。您現在是上海國際商品拍賣 公司藝術品拍賣部顧問。請您簡略回顧一下自己的錢幣 人生,成功之路。

孫仲匯:寫書很辛苦,因我既有本職工作,又有不 少社會活動,更兼一些家務瑣事,寫稿只能見縫插針, 一般是晚上 8 點半至 11 點左右,週末要寫到淩晨,在椅

孫仲匯:首先要感謝袁先生及泉友們的關心。我祖 上是浙江餘姚人,辛亥光復後我祖父遷居上海。我 1946 年生於上海。小時侯對文物有點興趣,沒有想到後來成 了我的專業。我沒有做過上海博物館的研究員,當時上 博的幾個業務部門統稱為陳列研究部,我填寫履歷表時 常填“青銅部研究人員”。現在網上訛傳成研究員,其 實我沒有這個職稱,希望誰能幫我在網上改正一下。 二、我知道您側重研究中國古錢幣文化,是從錢幣 收藏研究入手逐步成為著名專家的。從 1989 年至 2005 年, 您出版有 9 本錢幣專著,分別是《古錢幣圖解》 《古錢》 《簡 明錢幣辭典》《中國古錢》《錢幣鑒賞》《中國古錢鑒 賞與收藏》 《古錢真贗對比鑒定》 《孫仲匯開元談泉錄》 《古 錢鑒藏趣話》,其中第一、第三本為合著,餘均為獨著; 此外,主編《中國錢幣大辭典元明編》。一個人在 16 年 間有這麼多的著述問世,的確少見,而且這些著作由於 簡明扼要,切中時弊,對錢幣愛好者非常實用,所以每 出一本,面市不久便售罄。請問編撰這些著作的起因。

圖 2-1 孫仲匯錢幣著作《古錢幣圖解》

83

東 亞 泉 志

THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS


Features 專題

圖 2-2 孫仲匯錢幣著作《古錢》《簡明錢幣辭典》《中國古錢》

圖 2-3 孫仲匯錢幣著作《錢幣鑒賞》《中國古錢鑒賞與收藏》《古錢真贗對比鑒定》

圖 2-4 孫仲匯錢幣著作《孫仲匯開元談泉錄》《古錢鑒藏趣話》及主編的《中國錢幣大辭典典元明編》

東 亞 泉 志

84

THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS


Features 專題 子上睡着是常有的事。初稿出來了需要校對,有時趕得急, 搞兩個通宵。人在半睡半醒狀態下工作,出差錯是難免的。 我的幾本書幾乎都有些差錯,有的是觀點用材錯,有的 是校對公元年份錯。這些書多半是帶有普及性質的,在 當時錢幣資料尚未十分豐富的情況下,可能有些用處(圖 2)。鄭板橋是我很喜歡的一位古人,這裏引用他的幾句 話:“幾篇家信原算不得文章,有些好處,大家看看, 如無好處,糊窗糊壁,覆瓿覆盎而已。”

鑄造的“天眷通寶”拓片,認定其錢為真品,而歷史上 對此錢無文字記載,2006 年該錢在中國嘉德拍賣會上以 120 萬元人民幣成交;2005 年 10 月 8 日您在央視鑒寶節 目鑒定一枚宋代宣和通寶錢文行草書混合體折二錢為孤 品,估價為 35 萬元人民幣等等。請問您為何能眼光獨道? 近年還有哪些新發現?據說國家博物館錢幣分館有一枚 元代蒙文大元通寶折十雕母錢,青銅質,可否認為是迄 今為止發現的最早的銅質雕母錢?

三、2013 年 9 月,博客線上拍賣網曾举辦過兩場“孫 仲匯舊藏專場”,拍品全部成交。2015 年 4 月,華夏古 泉網推出“錢幣大師孫仲匯老師古錢幣專場”,336 件 上啟先秦、下至明清,種類繁多,不乏珍稀品的古錢全 部成交。足見您的錢幣收藏很有成就。請您介紹一下自 己錢幣收藏的主要經驗。

孫仲匯:嘉靖通寶背“十·一兩”雕母是我在 20 世紀 80 年代初參觀南京博物院時發現的,但大元通寶折十銅

孫仲匯:我的錢幣收藏是從 1992 年離開公職後開始 的。起初規模很小,有的和朋友合夥,我出眼力,他出

質雕母沒有聽說,今後有機會去看一下。天眷通寶楷書 折二是 1990 年前後河南泉友發現後寄給我一張鉛筆塗抹 的正面拓片,此錢史籍佚載,前譜所無,有人說是偽品, 但我仔細觀察錢文覺得很有可能是真的,所以將拓圖修 版後發表出來以供大家探討。1999 年前後又發現了天眷 通寶楷書小平(圖 4-1),再過了幾年天眷元寶篆書小平

資金,用現在的話說就是技術參股。也常收到偽品,但 我們從不怨人,因為是自己不謹慎,看錯了或操之過急, 例如未見實物,只聽描述就下定單了。當然 90% 以上收 到的是真品、珍品。現在年事漸高,精力有限,有些東 西就出讓了,再說收藏本身就需要流通,一方面回攏資金, 一方面調整藏品,以期精益求精。 四、我國古代貨幣作偽的歷史,最早可以追溯到秦代, 在湖北雲夢睡虎地秦簡《封珍式》中有破獲私鑄錢的案例。 時至今日,假幣問題仍是一個令錢幣界深感頭疼的經濟 毒瘤。而且隨着科技的發展,造偽者翻新手段,高仿幣 層出不窮,特別是遼錢、西夏錢和一些高檔珍稀幣鈔令 收藏投資者防不勝防,這種狀況困擾着錢幣收藏的健康 發展。您是錢幣鑒定高手,眼力過人。請您談談對普通

圖 3 七八年前(大約 2008 年)孫仲匯(左)在拍賣預 展現場為收藏者做鑒定

錢幣避偽基本要領,對高檔錢幣如何鑒別? 孫仲匯:關於錢幣辨偽的問題我以前也寫過些文章, 仗着自己對舊仿品的熟識程度,在 1990 年前是信心滿滿。 當時泉友們送來的東周、西周圜錢,天祿、保寧遼錢, 九疊皇宋等,都是新中國成立後首次面世且上海博物館 尚無收藏的東西,我根據它們的文字精神、鑄造特徵等 等定為真品,幸而言中。1990 年後偽品不斷更新,造假 水準越來越高,而自己眼睛老化,此消彼長, “敵進我退”, 漸漸跟不上形勢了。現在碰到“疑難雜症”,都會打電 話請教一下熟悉的朋友,以儘量減少差錯(圖 3)。 五、您賞析錢幣眼光獨道,多有新發現、新見解。 據我所知,1983 年夏赴南京博物院參觀時,您仔細目測 後認定展櫃中的一枚明代嘉靖通寶背“十·一兩”折十錢 為雕母,後被藏界推為“現知最早的銅雕母錢”;1990 年從河南一藏友寄給的金熙宗天眷年間(1138-1140 年)

圖 4-1 金朝天眷通寳楷書小平 直徑 25 毫米, 2008 年 出自山西晋南一带,天眷堂館藏

圖 4-2 清朝咸豊寳蘇當千 直徑 36 毫米

85

東 亞 泉 志

THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS


Features 專題 及天眷重寶楷書折三也相繼問世,有人驚呼幾百年沒有 發現的東西,怎麼一下子出來了?懷疑是假,但現在還 是得到了泉幣界的公認。宣和行草書折二是北京泉友白 揚先生的藏品,早已是大家公認的真品,我只是在電視 上評論一下,這鑒定的功勞不能算在我頭上。近年新見 的珍稀幣很多,大部分是別人先看好的再請我過一下目。 如中國嘉德、北京誠軒公司拍賣的幾枚三孔布,咸豐寶 福大清壹佰、咸豐寶蘇當千(圖 4-2),後梁開平通寶(圖 4-3),五代劉守光乾元重寶背百、順天元寶背千(圖 4-4), 金代崇慶通寶篆書小平,等等。

圖 4-3 五代后梁開平通寳

六、自 1997 年以來,中國嘉德、北京誠軒等幾家大 型拍賣公司每年舉辦錢幣拍賣會,國際錢幣博覽會也有 拍賣專場,近年網上錢幣拍賣更是如火如荼,請問通過 拍賣途徑競買錢幣,在預展和拍賣時應注意哪些事項? 孫仲匯:拍賣是促進錢幣收藏交流的極佳途徑,作 為出讓者來說可以得到一個公平的價格,作為收藏者而 言,可以拓寬眼界,增加來源,豐富藏品。對於拍品的 真偽,除了拍賣機構嚴格把關外,競拍者也應該認真核實, 或請專家掌眼。競拍時不要意氣用事,盲目跟拍,避免 拍得價過高。現在的網拍、微拍搞得風風火火,傳統的 拍賣公司無法在成本及靈活機動性方面與線上拍賣相比, 但傳統拍賣營造的現場氣氛也是網線拍賣無法比擬的。

圖 4-4 五代桀燕順天元寳背千 直徑 37.5 毫米

七、古錢幣近 10 年價格漲幅較大,特別是三孔布拍 賣價屢創新高,如中國嘉德 2010 年春拍大型三孔布“武 陽” 背“ 一 兩” 成 交 價 352.8 萬 元 人 民 幣( 圖 4-5); 北京誠軒 2012 年秋拍大型三孔布“下匕阝(qǔ)陽”背 “十七·兩”以 368 萬元人民幣成交(圖 4-6),一舉刷 新中國古錢幣拍賣成交價最高紀錄;2013 年華夏古泉網 三孔布“陽湔”背“一兩”以 247.5 萬元人民幣成交(圖 4-7)。您對先秦貨幣市場行情有何預測?另外,機製幣 近年行情也好,您有何看法?

圖 4-5 “武陽”背“一两”三孔布 通高 73.5 毫米 中國 嘉德 2010 年春拍成交價人民幣 352.8 萬元

孫仲匯:錢幣價格近年總體上漲是好事,三孔布拍 到了幾百萬元人民幣,雖說在以前是不敢想象的,但畢 竟它是 2300 年前的文物,存世稀罕,應該是物有所值。 新中國成立前買 1 枚三孔布的代價可以買到 20 張齊白石 或吳昌碩的畫了,所以和字畫相比,三孔布的現價還是 很便宜的。先秦貨幣的文字瑰麗多姿、筆鋒犀利,近代 機製幣的圖案精美、工藝高超,均受現代人喜愛,所以 價格上漲得快一些也在情理之中。錢價上升對我而言是 憂喜參半,因為舊藏品是大大升值了,但有些珍泉是無 力購進了。萬一遇到真偽難判的珍品時壓力陡增,假如 我看錯、說錯了,總有一方要受到損害。 八、您古文基礎好,諳熟中國歷史和中國貨幣史, 對《二十四史》中的“食貨志”深有研究,且寫的一手

東 亞 泉 志

86

THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS

圖 4-6 “下匕阝(qǔ)陽”背“十七·两”三孔布 通高 73.5 毫米 北京誠軒 2012 年龝拍成交價人民幣 368 萬元


Features 專題 好楷書,為泉友所稱道。我發現您為泉界同仁、錢幣公 司的題簽、題鑒、題詞、題匾、作序,文字精確,含義 深刻,書法優美。例如為《西部金融》2010 年錢幣研究 增刊題詞“辨偽鑒真泉學津梁,探源溯流望重關隴”; 2014 年 6 月 17 日為《緣聚三晉 —— 山西私人收藏歷代 貨幣珍品集》一書所寫“序言”僅 460 字,將晉之歷史 地理、出士錢幣,以及這本書的內容高度濃縮。您為傳 播錢幣文化功不可沒。請問您對這些請求是如何應接的, 其意義何在?

我很高興也很榮幸為之作序。記得當時在白天打個粗框 架,夜裏睡床上時打腹稿,半睡半醒中靈感來了,立馬 起身在一片漆黑中操筆疾書,否則到了天亮必定忘得一 乾二淨。這兩篇序言我沒數過字,反正不多吧,這也符 合我一貫節省的原則。

孫仲匯:其實寫文章、做學問、搞研究、作鑒定, 以及書畫篆刻,原理都一樣,就是要多看、多讀、多想想、 多動手,必要時再請教他人,也就熟極生巧,水到渠成 了。《二十四史》我通讀過,其他史料也涉獵一些,錢幣、 書畫的確見過不少。中年時太忙,根本無暇寫字,後來 一拿毛筆手就抖得厲害,近年求字的人多了,這手抖的 毛病也慢慢好了(圖 5)。而史料則塵封多年,估計也快 忘光了。艾亮是我的好友,要出本《緣聚三晉》,請我 作序,後來汪洋友編《寶蘇泉匯》也請我寫篇文言文的序。 這兩本書的內容翔實,水準極高,足稱當代錢幣學之豐碑,

圖 4-7 “陽湔”背“一两”三孔布 通高 74 毫米 华夏 古泉網 2013 年成交價人民幣 247.5 萬元

圖 5-2 孫仲匯辛卯(2011 年)秋題鑒 圖 5-1 孫仲匯己丑(2009 年)春為作者題贈“古 泉之道 ......”

87

東 亞 泉 志

THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS


Column 專欄

圖 5-3 掛於北京公博會客聽的條幅“去偽存真” 孫仲匯壬辰(2012 年)秋題

【編者注:這篇孫仲匯先生的訪談讓我回憶起與孫 先生曾經的一面之緣。 1988 年 10 月 24 日,我在馬定祥 先生的陪同下造訪了老上海博物館。我們在博物館的內 室裏看到了裝在匣子裏的各式各樣的中國古錢幣,我記 得當時把這些古錢幣展示給我們看的是一位姓孫的先生, 之後我還同他合了影。不過當時我並不知曉他的大名,

東 亞 泉 志

88

THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS

直到幾年之後,我才意識到那位孫先生就是本文提及的 孫仲匯。 當時所拍的照片(從左到右依次為):一位博物館 工作人員、孫仲匯、史博祿、劉慧萍(鄭州大學指導員)、 馬定祥。——史博祿】


Column 專欄

The Taiping Silver Cash Coins Bruce W. Smith (USA) Though issued by the Taiping rebels more than 150 years ago, the Taiping silver cash coins were virtually unknown until

in Washington, DC), and were illustrated in the catalog of that collection prepared by James H. Stewart Lockhart in 1895.

the definitive article on them by Bruce W. Smith was published in World Coin News for April 25, 1978. These coins are unique

Among non-numismatic references to Taiping silver coins,

in Chinese numismatic history because they are neither cast

in Mesny's Chinese Miscellany of June 18, 1896, William Mesny

nor struck, but are hand-engraved. Both the inscriptions and

recounts his experience as a prisoner of the Taiping rebels during

the borders are carved by hand. Two denominations are known,

1860. He ended up spending quite some time with them, and

based on their weights – half tael (32mm 17.5 grams) and

mentions that they minted coins in Nanking in copper, silver and

quarter tael (28mm 8.3 grams) – though the size and weight

gold.

varies from coin to coin. Smith's article not only introduced the series, but proved that they were genuine coins used in the

In addition, there is the account of Robert J. Forrest,

Taiping capital of Nanking in 1860. These coins had never

British consul at Ningpo, who visited Nanking in March 1861.

been published in China, and collectors there were reluctant to

In Lindsey Brine's 1862 book, The Taeping Rebellion, Forrest

accept them as genuine, until another article (based largely on

wrote:"...the Taipings have a silver currency of a very convenient

the first article) was published in Chinese by Dr. Che-lu Tseng

size and value. The common coin is of the size of a shilling, but

in Zhongguo Qianbi (1989 #1). Afterward they were included in

worth rather more; it is exactly like a copper cash, and has an

the second edition (1994) of Ma Dingxiang's definitive catalog

inscription engraved on it. A large silver coin of the value of a

on Taiping coins, Taiping Tianguo Qianbi. It should be noted

sovereign exists, but I have seen none." The coin about the size

that the Taiping silver cash illustrated in the Kann catalog (Kann

of a shilling (about 25mm) must be the quarter tael. The coin

8k) is a fantasy, possibly an ordinary brass coin which has been

of the value of a sovereign probably refers to the Taiping gold

silver plated. His listing for Kann 8, however, is the half tael

cash coin. The most convincing evidence, however, is a letter

coin, but Kann was unaware that the coin was engraved.

preserved in the British Museum written to the same Robert J. Forrest mentioned above. Forrest had asked Li Ming-ch'eng, a

Chinese collectors had been unable to find any written

high Taiping official, for some samples of Taiping coins. In a

references to Taiping silver coins, but such references do exist in

letter dated 19 June 1861, Li writes: "Herewith I am presenting

western language writings of the 1800's. The earliest numismatic

to you the sacred money of our country, as you have requested.

reference to Taiping silver coins is found in an article by P. O.

There are twenty dollars' worth of silver coins and ten dollars'

Van der Chijs published in the 1863 issue of the Revue de la

worth of copper coins. Would you please kindly accept them and

Numismatique Belge. Chijs reported that Gustave Schlegel, a

keep them for your pleasure." Li later sent Forrest some samples

government translator of Chinese in Batavia (now Jakarta in

of the Taiping "flowery" money.

Indonesia) had presented to the coin cabinet of the University of Leyden (in the Netherlands) some Ch'ing dynasty copper

It is easy to understand why the Taiping silver coins are so

coins. He also sent a drawing of a silver Taiping coin, which

rare today and why collectors in China were unaware of them.

belonged to an American missionary in Canton. The illustration

When Chinese government forces finally captured Nanking, the

published in that issue clearly shows one of the engraved silver

Taiping capital, they slaughtered the people there and left the

coins, and from the description, we know it was a half tael.

city uninhabited. Afterwards it was too dangerous to possess

This same illustration appears in a four volume catalog of siege

Taiping coins, and they must have been melted. This would also

and necessity coins compiled by Prosper Mailliet, which was

explain why most of the known examples of these coins have

published over the years 1868-1873. A half tael coin was sold in

been found outside of China, in the collections of foreigners.

the 1878 Berlin sale of the Fonrobert collection of world coins. In the 1880 issue of the Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society

Known Taiping Silver Coins

(North China Branch), the prominent collector of Chinese coins, Stephen W. Bushell (1844-1908), who lived in China from 1868

Museums

to 1899, published a long article on Ch'ing Dynasty coins. In

1) Smithsonian Institution (USA). ¼ Tael. Donated 1897.

that article he writes: "Silver coins of different denominations

2) Smithsonian Institution (USA). ½ Tael. Donated 1897.

were issued by the Taiping rebels with the legend Tien Kuo

3) American Numismatic Society (USA). ½ Tael. 17.07

Sheng Pao." The half tael and quarter tael coins were in the George Glover collection (now at the Smithsonian Institution

grams. 4) American Numismatic Society (USA). ½ Tael. 17.64

89

東 亞 泉 志

THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS


Column 專欄 David Loh in Canada.

grams.

16) Dave Cannon Inventory (USA). ½ Tael. 18.05 grams.

5) American Numismatic Society (USA). ½ Tael. 18.45 grams. Purchased 1928.

Sold 1984. Offered by coin dealer, Jeffrey Zairit, in 1991. Didn't

6) British Museum (England). ½ Tael. 18.29 grams

sell; placed in Ponterio auction in spring 1992; didn't sell.

7) British Museum (England). ½ Tael. 17.79 grams.

Purchased December 1992 by Bruce W. Smith for a Chinese-

Obtained 1906 from Weber Collection.

American collector in Northern California. 17) Howard Simmons Inventory (England). ¼ Tael. 8.9

8) National Museum of Chinese History (China). ¼ Tael. Formerly in the collection of Ma Dingxiang.

grams. Offered in 1984, but he still had it in June 1991, when it was consigned to Scott Semans. Semans returned it to him in

Privately Owned

December 1991.

9) Howard F. Bowker collection. ½ Tael. Bowker displayed this coin at the Pacific Coast Numismatic Society

18) Howard Simmons Inventory (England). ½ Tael. Obtained in England. Sold 1984.

meeting on 25 June 1952. 10) Money Company Auction (Hong Kong). ½ Tael. Sold September 1983. Present location unknown. 11) Garrett Collection Auction (USA). ½ Tael. Probably

19) Op den Velde Collection (Netherland). ½ Tael. 18.9 grams. Obtained in Europe in 1985 or earlier. Pictured on front cover of Scott Semans pricelist #53 (1988), and sold to Dr. Chelu Tseng, who still has it today.

obtained in early 1900's. Sold May 1984 to Irving Goodman. Sold again in Goodman Collection auction

20) Taisei Auction (Singapore). ¼ Tael. Sold February 1993.

(USA) June 1991. Present location unknown. 12) Bruce W. Smith Collection (USA). ¼ Tael. 8.34 grams.

21) Taisei Auction (Hong Kong). ½ Tael. Sold June 1994, sold $4400.

Obtained 1974.

22) Champion Auction (Hong Kong). ½ Tael. Sold June

13) Bruce W. Smith Collection (USA). ½ Tael. 17.98

1996,Sold $5000.

grams. Obtained 1974. The two Smith specimens, purchased for $300 in 1974, were published in World Coin News 25 April

23) Taisei Auction (Hong Kong). ½ Tael. Sold September 1999.

1978 issue in a front page article. The coins were exhibited at the 1979 ANA convention in St. Louis. In 1984 both were sold to Dr. Che-lu Tseng, who still has them today.

Note: The author has images of all the privately owned coins except for the two Simmons coins. With these exceptions,

14) Ken Bressett Collection (USA). ¼ Tael. 9.12 grams.

all the other coins are different from each other. If these are not

Obtained 1974 from coin dealer Holland Wallace. Appeared in

duplicates (they could be the Taisei coins or the Cannon coin),

Stacks – Bowers Auction April 2012 (Hong Kong), sold for US

then there are only 23 known Taiping silver coins – 7 quarter

$25,000 (plus buyers fee).

taels and 16 half taels. Of these only 5 quarter taels and 8 half

15) Daniel K. E. Ching Collection (USA). ¼ Tael.

taels are in private collections today.

Obtained 1976. Sold in Daniel Ching auction June 1991 to

Taiping Rebel Tian Guo Sheng Bao 1/2 Tael Silver Coin Bowker Collection

Taiping Rebel Tian Guo Sheng Bao 1/2 Tael Silver Coin, NC Collection

Taiping Rebel Tian Guo Sheng Bao 1/2 Tael Silver Coin. Che-lu Tseng Collection

Taiping Rebel Tian Guo Sheng Bao 1/4 Tael Silver Coin. Che-lu Tseng Collection

東 亞 泉 志

90

THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS


Column 專欄

太平天國銀幣 史博祿(美國) 雖然在 150 年前就由太平軍發行過太平天國銀幣, 但太平天國的銀幣幾乎是無人知曉的,直到有一篇關於 此幣的權威性文章發表,該文由史博録撰寫,發表在 1978 年 4 月 25 日的《世界錢幣新聞》。這些銀幣在中 國錢幣歷史上獨一無二,既不是翻砂鑄成,也不是機器 打製,而是用手工雕刻而成。幣上的文字及邊框均是人 工雕刻。目前僅知兩種面值,是依據它們的重量分為—— 1/2 兩(直徑 32 毫米,重量 17.5 克)和 1/4 兩(直徑 28 毫米,重量 8.3 克) —— 雖然每一枚錢幣的尺寸和重量 實際都不盡相同。史博録的文章不但對這些銀幣作了介 紹,還證明了這些銀幣是真實性的存在,在 1860 年太平 天國於都城南京时就已使用了。這些錢幣在中國從未公 開發行過,中國的收藏家也不願意相信它們是真品,直 到曾澤祿撰寫的另一篇關於此幣的文章在《中國錢幣》 (1989 年 1 期)上發表(此文主要基於史博録的第一篇 文章)。之後,它們被編錄在了馬定祥的第二版《太平 天國錢幣》(1994 年版)中。需要注明的是耿愛德目錄 中的那枚太平天國銀幣(Kann 8k)是假的,可能是由普 通黃銅幣鍍銀製成。耿愛德列出的 Kann 8 是一枚半兩銀 幣,但耿愛德並未意識到它是手工雕刻而成。 中國收藏家一直找不到有関任何此幣的参考資料, 但是早在 19 世紀的時候,這方面的資料就已經存在於 西方文獻中。最早關於此幣的記載是 1863 年 P. O. Van der Chijs 在《Revue de la Numismatique Belge》發表的文 章。Chijs 說,Gustave Schlegel 是 一 位 在 巴 達 維 亞( 今 印尼首都雅加達)為中國政府擔任翻譯的工作人員,將 一些中國清代銅幣贈送給了荷蘭萊頓大學(University of Leyden)的錢幣陳列館。一起贈送的還有一張太平 天國銀幣的圖樣,本屬於廣州一位美國傳教士。文中還 清晰地刊登了一枚雕刻的太平天國銀幣,從描述中我們 得知這是一枚半兩銀幣。這部分內容後來還被原封不 動 地 刊 登 在 了 Prosper Mailliet 編 譯 的《catalog of siege and necessity coins》, 此 圖 錄 共 分 4 冊,1868-1873 年 間出版。1878 年,一枚半兩太平天國銀幣在德國柏林的 Fonrobert 世界錢幣專場拍賣會上售出。在 1880 年出版的 《皇家亞洲文會北華分會期刊》(the Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society)中,有位著名中國錢幣收藏家 Stephen W. Bushell(生卒:1844-1908 年,1868-1899 年居住中國), 發表了一篇有關清代錢幣的長篇要文。他在文中寫道: “太 平軍發行了‘天國聖寶’字樣的各種面值的銀幣。”1/2 兩銀幣和 1/4 兩銀幣是 George Glover 的藏品(現保存于 華盛頓的史密森尼博物館),1895 年被收錄在駱哈特 (James H. Stewart Lockhart)编寫整理的有關這個收藏 的圖錄中。

太平天國銀幣在錢幣學以外的資料中也有記載,例 如在 1896 年 6 月 18 日 Mesny 所寫的《中國雜記》中, William Mesny 詳細敘述了他在 1860 年身為太平軍囚犯 時期的經歷。他跟太平軍共處了相當長的一段時間,並 提到他們在南京鑄造金、銀、銅幣。 此外,還有一篇由英國駐寧波領事 Robert J. Forrest 所 寫 的 文 章, 他 在 1861 年 3 月 訪 問 南 京。 在 1862 年 Lindsey Brine 出 版 的 書《 太 平 軍 起 義》(The Taeping Rebellion)中,Forrest 寫道:“太平軍有一種大小和面 值都極易使用的銀質貨幣。常見的銀幣是一先令大小, 但價值要更高;確切的講更像是銅幣,其幣上之銘文是 用手刻的。還有一種大型銀幣如同一英磅的價值,但是 我沒有見過。”一先令(直徑 25 毫米)大小的那種錢 幣應該是 1/4 兩。價值一鎊的那種可能是太平天國發行 的金幣。但是,最令人信服的證據,是一封上面提到的 Robert J. Forrest 的信今尚保存在大英博物館。Forrest 請 求李明成 —— 一位太平天國高級官員 [ 注:忠王李秀成 之胞弟 ] 給他一些太平天國的錢幣。在一封日期為 1861 年 6 月 19 日的信中,李明成寫道:“如兹将我国圣钱如 托付呈银钱贰拾元,青钱拾元,祈麾下哂纳,留为粗玩, 是所幸甚。”後來,李明成還送過一些太平天國“花錢” 給 Forrest。 太平天國銀幣在今天為何如此罕見,為何中國的收 藏家們都未察覺到它們,這是很容易理解的。當中國政 府軍最終佔領太平天國都城南京後,他們進行了大屠殺, 致使城中荒無人煙。之後,又握有太平天國錢幣者也是 太危險的,必須把它們熔化掉。這也可以解釋為什麼大 部分已知的太平天國銀幣都是在國外被發現、而被外國 人收藏。

已知的太平天國銀幣 博物館收藏: 1. 史密森尼博物館(美國),1/4 兩。1897 年捐贈。 2. 史密森尼博物館(美國),1/2 兩。1897 年捐贈。 3. 美國錢幣協會(美國),1/2 兩。17.07 克。 4. 美國錢幣協會(美國),1/2 兩,17.64 克。 5. 美國錢幣協會(美國), 1/2 兩,18.45 克。1928 年購買。 6. 大英博物館(英國)1/2 兩,18.29 克。 7. 大英博物館(英國),1/2 兩,17.79 克。1906 年 獲得,Weber 舊藏。 8. 中國歷史博物館(中國),1/4 兩。原馬定祥舊藏。

91

東 亞 泉 志

THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS


Column 專欄 私人收藏: 9. 霍華德 • 佛蘭克林 • 包克藏品, 1/2 兩。包克曾在 1952 年 6 月 25 日太平洋海岸區錢幣協會(Pacific Coast Numismatic Society)的會議上展出過此枚錢幣。 10. Money Company Auction( 香 港 ), 1/2 兩。 1983 年 9 月售出。目前不知所蹤。 11. Garrett Collection Auction( 美 國),1/2 兩。 可 能 是 在 20 世 紀 早 期 獲 得,1984 年 賣 給 古 德 曼(Irving Goodman),並在 1991 年 6 月的古德曼專場拍賣會(美國) 上被再次銷售。目前不知所蹤。 12. 史博録(Bruce W. Smith)藏品(美國), 1/4 兩, 8.34 克。1974 年獲得。 13. 史博録(Bruce W. Smith)藏品(美國),1/2 兩, 17.98 克。1974 年獲得。史博録的這兩枚錢幣是 1974 年 以 300 美元購得,曾刊登在 1978 年 4 月 25 日《世界硬 幣新聞》(World Coin News)的頭版文章中。在 1979 年 這兩枚錢幣在聖路易士的美國錢幣学會博覽會上展示過。 1984 年,這二枚賣給曾澤祿,至今仍在其手中。 14. Ken Bressett 藏 品( 美 國),1/4 兩,9.12 克。 1974 年從錢幣經銷商 Holland Wallace 處購得。並在 2012 年 4 月的 Stacks – Bowers 拍賣會(香港)上出現,最終 以 25000 美元賣出(含傭金)。 15. Daniel K. E. Ching 藏品(美國), 1/4 兩。1976 年獲得。1991 年 6 月在 Daniel Ching 專場拍賣會中賣給 加拿大的 David Loh。 16. Dave Cannon Inventory(美國),1/2 兩,18.05 克。 1984 年售出。1991 年由錢幣經銷商 Jeffrey Zairit 再次出

售,未賣出。之後被再次放在 Ponterio 1992 年春季拍賣 會上進行拍賣,依舊未賣出。1992 年 12 月,史博録為 加利福尼亞北部的一位美籍華人藏家購得此幣。 17. Howard Simmons Inventory(英國),1/4 兩,8.9 克。 1984 年曾被出售,但是直至 1991 年東西仍在 Howard 手 裡,當時這枚錢幣委託給 Scott Semans 進行銷售,但是 Semans 在 1991 年 12 月把它返還給了 Howard。 18. Howard Simmons Inventory(英國),1/2 兩。在 英國獲得,1984 年售出。 19. Op den Velde 藏 品( 荷 蘭),1/2 兩,18.9 克。 1985 年或更早時在歐洲獲得。Scott Semans 第 53 期(1988 年)價目單上,以此銀幣作為封面之圖片,並售給曾澤祿, 至今仍在其手中。 20. 泰星拍賣(新加坡),1/4 兩。1993 年 2 月售出。 21. 泰星拍賣(香港), 1/2 兩。1994 年 6 月售出, 售價 4400 美元。 22. 冠軍拍賣(香港)1/2 兩。1996 年 6 月售出,售 價 5000 美元。 23. 泰星拍賣(香港),1/2 兩。1999 年 9 月售出。 備註:本文作者持有以上所有這些私人收藏的照片, 除了 Simmons 的兩枚錢幣。除了這兩枚,其他錢幣都各 不相同。如果這些錢幣不重複的話(Taisei 或 Cannon 的 錢幣可能重複),那麼我們目前知道的太平天國銀幣一 共有 23 枚——7 枚 1/4 兩,16 枚 1/2 兩。其中有 5 枚 1/4 兩和 8 枚 1/2 兩至今仍在私人收藏中。

太平天國天國聖寶 半兩,銀質,包克藏品

太平天國天國聖寶 半兩,銀質,NC 收藏

太平天國天國聖寶 半兩,銀質,曾澤祿 收藏

太平天國天國聖寶 1/4 兩,銀質,曾澤 祿收藏

東 亞 泉 志

92

THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS


Column 專欄

Ming versus Ch'ing Howard F. Bowker One of the reasons for a continuing interest in the coins of China and the other East Asian countries, which, for the writer, has now extended for a period of well over twenty years, are the many unsolved problems connected with their coinages, or problems which at least remain unsolved in publications in European languages. A few years ago an article was published in The Numismatist1 entitled "An Inedited Chinese Coin of the Ming Dynasty," written by my friend Nicholas Slobodchikoff, which attributed an ambiguous small cast cash coin to the Ming Dynasty. While I had had the privilege to read the article prior to its publication, I had at that time no opinion as to the correctness of the theory he had advanced as to its attribution, though I must admit that I thought it seemed that a good case had not been made to substantiate his conclusion. Ever since I have been looking for similar specimens for my own collection, and now have what I consider sufficient applicable material to attempt a further commentary on the subject. A search has been made in the several hundred Chinese and Japanese numismatic publications in my East Asian Numismatic Library without any reference to it having been found. Subsequently it was found that the coin had previously been published in "The Manchurian Collector" in Harbin, by V. N. Alin2, who had arrived at substantially the same conclusion as had Slobodchikoff. It seems probable that the same specimen may have been available to Alin and Slobodchikoff as both were in Harbin, if perhaps not at the same time. As it seems improbable that many American collectors interested in Chinese coins would have Alin's article available to them, its text is quoted in toto. "Amongst a collection of the coins pertaining to the time of the Emperor Chuang Lieh Ti of the Ming Dynasty, who reigned from 1628 to 1644 and was known to Chinese history under the Ch'ung Chen title of reign, I found a coin, which apart from its having the usual inscription in Chinese, bore on its reverse side, an inscription in Manchu. Obverse: (read top, bottom, right, left): Ch'ung Chen T'ung Pao (meaning currency of the Ch'ung Chen period). Reverse: (in Manchu): Pao Yuan (meaning Board of Works Mint)." "This combination of the two languages on the coin belonging to the above-mentioned period has not, as yet,

been given any remarks in numismatic catalogues and is, as a matter of fact, quite unusual for the Ming coins. As the Ming Dynasty ruling over China was in a state of hostilities with the newly formed Manchu Dynasty, it can hardly be supposed that the money coined in the South was intended for the North, where its own coins had already been put in circulation." "In all probability the emission of these coins took place at the time when the Emperor Chuang Lieh Ti was dethroned by a rebel named Li Tzu-ch'eng, and Wu San-kuei, an adept of the Ming Dynasty, entered into amicable contact with the Manchus and together with the troops of the latter, started for Peking to restore the dynasty." "It can be assumed that these coins were minted during this coalition (1644) and were intended for circulation amongst the Manchu-Chinese troops; the two languages on the coins being merely a reflection of this unification. An extremely bad casting, the carelessness in making out the characters and the complete valuableness [of the coin] are the facts that may, to a certain degree, confirm that the coins were minted under unfavorable circumstances that existed during the march." The postulate expressed by Alin that there existed an alliance between the bandit chieftain Li Tzu-ch'eng and Wu San-kuei and the Manchus is contrary to historical fact. Li's army from Shansi surrounded Peking on 23 April 1644, and captured it on the 25th. On that day the Ming Emperor, Szu Tsung (Chwang Lie Ti) (Ch'uang Cheng) hanged himself on Peking's Coal Hill in the Imperial City, and thus ended the Ming Dynasty. The combined forces of the Manchus and Wu San kuei's Chinese, who had previously been Ming troops under his command, had no intention to restore the Ming Emperor or to support a successor. In the spring of 1644 Li named his kingdom Ta Shun, and took the reign title Yung Ch'ang, and issued coins with this inscription. About a month later, he with 200,000 troops, were defeated near Shanhaikuan by the combined forces of Wu San-Kuei and the Manchus. On 6 June Li evacuated Peking and retreated into Shensi, after looting and burning a part of the capital. Shortly afterward he died under unrecorded circumstances. The Manchu forces occupied Peking, confirming the Ch'ing Dynasty (which they had proclaimed in 1636) as sovereigns of China.

93

東 亞 泉 志

THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS


Column 專欄 Wu San-kuei, having given his allegiance to the Manchus, was given the task of commanding forces opposing the scattered remnants of the Ming forces in southwest China and was given the title P'ing-hsi po, "Earl Who Pacifies the West." For more than thirty years thereafter he supported the Manchu cause against several pro-Ming adherents, and became a practically independent satrap in Yunnan and Kueichou provinces. On 28 December 1673 he revolted and proclaimed an independent Kingdom of Chou (1673-1681) in the territory he controlled, with himself first as prince and later (on 23 March 1678) as Emperor of the Chou Dynasty. His regime issued coins inscribed Li Yung T'ung Pao, (1674), and Ch'ao Wu T'ung Pao (1678)3. By this time the reign of the Ch'ing Emperor Sheng Tsu had begun (1662) with the reign title of K'ang Hsi. When Wu San-kuei revolted in 1673 he addressed a memorial to the Ch'ing Emperor declaring his intension of restoring the Ming regime, and even promised him the whole of Korea if he would consent to lead the Manchus back to their homeland in Manchuria. The earlier coins of Wu San-kuei, inscribed Li Yung T'ung Pao and Ch'ao Wu T'ung Pao4 are of full weight and good fabric, and are without Manchu characters on their reverses. However, the later Ch'ao Wu T'ung Pao specimens are found with Manchu inscriptions on the everse. These are reduced in size and are of poorer metal, and are inscribed pau tsiowan5 in Manchu (indicating the Board of Revenue Mint). Of these I have two very good specimens, one normal, and the other with an inverted reverse. Those inscribed Ch'ung Chen T'ung Pao are also much reduced in size, weight, and diameter, and of a poor grade of brass lacking the higher copper content of the Li Yung and Ch'ao Wu coins mentioned above. Some have plain conventional reverses, and others are inscribed in Manchu characters pau yuwan (Board of Works Mint). Having recently had an opportunity to examine the identical specimen figured in Slobodchikoff's article as number 1, it has been found that it is indeed inscribed pau tsiowan (Board of Revenue), although quite indistinctly. Alin's reference to this coin states the reverse inscription to be "Pao Yuan Mint Board," in Manchu. This seems hardly correct as all authorities refer this inscription to the mint of the Board of Works. My own specimen, has a very legible reverse inscription which is without the slightest doubt the mint mark of the Board of Work's mint.

東 亞 泉 志

94

THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS

I now have four specimens of the Ch'ung Chen coins, all with well defined Manchu reverses, which are without the slightest doubt inscribed pau yon (Yunnan Mint). An examination of Slobodchikoff's second specimen has revealed that it is also that of the Yunnan mint. Although it might be suggested that the Manchu character yon, might have been made by removing the short vertical right-hand stroke of the Manchu character yuwan, to convert it to yon, but this is not possible as the lower characters of the obverses of these two coins, are of entirely different construction. A recent Japanese publication entitled "Annam Senpu Terui Sen Bu" (Coins of Annam, Distinguished by Calligraphy)6, which lists and illustrates many cash coins issued by rebel and other unofficial sources, lists these coins inscribed with the Chinese characters Ch'ung Chen T'ung Pao. This listing is quoted in John A. Novak's "A Working Aid for Collectors of Annamese Coins," under number 221, romanized in Annamese as Sung Trinh Thong Bao 7, but lacks any information as to whether or not it has a reverse inscription of any kind. My own collection contains two specimens with plain reverses, similar but smaller in diameter than the specimen illustrated by Miura Gosen6. As Annam is bounded on the north by the Chinese province of Yunnan, it might well be that these coins were a product of a Yunnanese mint which circulated in Annam8. It is suggested that the "inedited" coins of Alin and Slobodchikoff are not in any sense of the word issues of the Ming dynasty with Manchu reverses, but issues late in the career of Wu San-kuei, "Pacifier of the West," during the period he styled himself "Leader of the Universal Army and Prince of the Chou." and are rebel issues of the Ch'ing period of K'ang Hsi subsequent to 1662. Editor's Note: This article does not appear to have ever been published. Written in 1967 or later, it may have been one of the last articles written by Howard Bowker. The title refers to the two different theories proposed in attributing these coins. Alin and Slobodchikoff believed they should be considered Ming coins, issued in 1644 during the supposed alliance between Wu San-kuei and the Manchus. Bowker's theory is that they are coins issued during the Ch'ing dynasty, but as part of Wu San-kuei's rebellion in the 1670's. The first theory can easily be refuted, because there was no alliance between Wu and the Manchus. In May 1644 Wu had written to Dorgon, regent for the newly installed Manchu emperor known as Shun Chih, asking for his aid in driving the rebel Li Tzu-cheng from Peking. Both Wu and


Column 專欄 Dorgon knew at that time that the Ming emperor was dead. Dorgon replied that he would drive Li from Peking if Wu and all his officers would surrender to the Manchus and agree to serve them. Wu agreed to this, Li's army was defeated in a great battle at Shanhaikuan, and it was the Manchus who entered Peking in June and established their own government there. Wu San-kuei never entered Peking. He was ordered to continue west and destroy the remnants of Li's rebel army. Furthermore, the time period was too short – about 4 weeks – for a special coinage. More importantly, the reverse design used – all in Manchu – was a type not adopted by the Manchus until 1657. The earliest Ch'ing coins had plain reverses, followed by those with a single Chinese character mintmark. Bowker's theory has similar problems. Historical records clearly state that Wu issued the Li Yung coins at the beginning of his revolt. This was not a reign title, as Wu at that time only took the title Prince of Chou. Shortly before his death, he did declare himself emperor Wu Chao of the Chou dynasty and issued Wu Chao coins. There is no record of coins in the name of the Ming emperor who had died 30 years earlier. Moreover, Wu was not attempting to restore the Ming, he was creating a new dynasty. The most serious argument against these coins being from 1644 or the 1670's is that they are just too small, too thin and too brassy to have been used at that time. All of the coins issued by the last Ming ruler, by the South Ming pretenders and rebels, and by Wu himself, were full size, good quality coins. The Chung Chen coins with Manchu reverses are now believed to be 19th century forgeries. It is possible they were made during the Taiping Rebellion by some anti-Manchu group, but more likely they are simply "evasions" – coins which resemble Manchu coins then in circulation (both in size and reverse design), but which named a different ruler and therefore would not be considered counterfeit coins by the government. Whether the mintmark indicates the Board of Revenue or the Board of Works or the Yunnan Mint is not relevant, since it is just an imitation – possibly blundered – of a Manchu mintmark. The coin could have been made anywhere in China or in Annam.

The earliest known publication of these Ch'ung Chen coins with Manchu mintmarks is in the Dairen Numismatic Society Journal (a Japanese publication published in Talien – also known as Dalian and Dalny – in Manchuria) for July 1934. The coin illustrated there has the Board of Works mintmark, but the text mentions that there is also a piece with the Manchu mintmark for Kiangsu. This information was repeated in the book, Ana no Hosomichi (1971), by Adachi Kishio. The first time the coin was published in China was in the appendix to Guqianbi Tujie (1989) by Sun Zhonghui, and in the catalog, Jianming Guqian Cidian (1990) by Gao Hanming. An example of one of these coins appeared in the Champion Hong Kong Auction in December 2007. [BWS]

References 1. Slobodchikoff, N. An Inedited Chinese Coin of the Ming Dynasty. In: The Numismatist, vol. LXIII, no.5, May, 1950, pp. 256-258. 2. Alin, V. N. Note on an Interesting Coin of the Ming Dynasty. In: The Manchurian Collector, vol. 1, no.3, 15 December 1934. 3. Hummel, Arthur W., editor. Eminent Chinese of the Ch'ing Period (1644-1912), Washington, D.C., 1943, vol. II, Wu San-kuei, p. 877. 4. Ibid., 879. 5. Morgan, Evan. Times and Manners in the Age of the Emperor K'ang Hsi. In: Journal of the North China Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, 1938, vol.38, pp.28,33,36. 6. Miura Gosen. Annam Senpu Terui Sen Bu. Tokyo,1965, pp.38,55. 7. Novak, John A. A working Aid for Collectors of Annamese Coins, Longview, Washington, 1967, p. 80, no .221. 8. Toda, Ed. Annam and its Minor Currency. Journal of the North China Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, N.S. vol. XVII, part I, 1882, chapter VII, pp. 6869, False Coinage.

95

東 亞 泉 志

THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS


Column 專欄

明朝 vs 清朝 霍華德·佛蘭克林·包克(美國) 筆者對中國及其他東亞國家錢幣的喜愛,至今已經持續

1644 年春天,李自成建立大順政權,年號永昌,並發行此年

了 20 多年,原因之一就是那眾多懸而未決的問題,這些問

號的錢幣。1 個月以後,他和他的 20 萬大軍被吳三桂和滿清

題或是與貨幣製度相關,或是在欧洲語言的文獻中仍然沒有

的聯軍在山海關擊敗。6 月 6 日,李自成在北京一番燒殺掠奪

得到解決。數年前一篇題為《一枚譜外品的明朝錢幣》(An

之後敗走山西。隨後不久李自成死亡,原因及地點不詳。之後,

Inedited Chinese Coin of the Ming Dynasty)的文章發表在《錢

滿清軍隊佔領北京,建立清政府(1636 年宣佈成立),統治

幣學家》雜誌上 1,作者是我的朋友 Nicholas Slobodchikoff,

中國。

文中他將一枚曖昧不明的小古錢認作是明代的。文章在發表 之前我就已經讀過,但是當時對他提出的這種推測正確與否

吳三桂在效忠滿清後,奉命帶領自己的軍隊剷除明朝在

並無意見,雖然我不得不承認文中似乎並無任何實例可以證

中國西南部的殘餘軍隊,並被冊封為平西伯。吳三桂效忠滿

實他的結論。從那時起,我就開始為自己的收藏尋找類似的

清 30 多年,幫助其剿滅前明餘黨,並獨立管轄雲貴地區。

錢幣,而且現在我已擁有了自認充足的材料可以對這種銅錢

1673 年 12 月 28 日,吳三桂起兵反清,在他的番地建立大周

作進一步的解釋。我曾在自己的東亞錢幣圖書館的幾百本中、

(1673-1681 年),初為周王,後稱帝(1678 年 3 月 23 日)。

日文錢幣刊物中搜尋資料,但一無所獲。

吳三桂統治時期發行過利用通寶(1674 年)和昭武通寶(1678 年)3。此時,清朝進入清聖祖康熙時期(1662 年)。

後 來 發 現 此 枚 錢 幣 曾 發 表 在《 滿 洲 收 藏 家》 (The Manchurian Collector) 的一篇文章中,在哈爾濱出版,作者是 V.

吳三桂 1673 年造反的時候,曾向清皇帝上書,聲稱要

N. Alin2,他和 Slobodchikoff 得出的結論相似。似乎很可能這

反清復明,並允諾如果滿人退回到滿洲的話他將把整個朝鮮

兩個人說的是同一枚錢幣,因為兩人都在哈爾濱,即使不是

賜封給他們。

同一時期。美國的很多中國錢幣收藏家能夠讀到 Alin 的文章 的可能性似乎不大,它的全文如下:

吳三桂早期鑄造的利用通寶和昭武通寶 4 分量都很足, 質地也非常好,反面也沒有滿文。然而,後來鑄的昭武通寶

在一個有關明朝莊烈帝(崇禎,1628-1644)時期發行

反面都帶有滿文。尺寸也變小了,所用金屬材質也很差,並

的錢幣收藏中,我找到了一枚錢幣,它的反面除了有正常的

且鑄有滿文寶泉 5。我有 2 枚非常好的錢幣實物,一枚是普通的,

漢字以外,還有滿文。

另一枚則為逆背。

正面:從上到下、從右到左依次為“崇禎通寶”。 反面:滿文“寶源”。

此外,那些崇禎通寶的尺寸、重量、直徑也被縮小了, 所用銅的品質也極差,含銅量也不如上面提到的利用通寶和 昭武通寶。其中一些崇禎通寶的背面和傳統的錢幣一致,另

這種同時出現兩種文字組合且屬於崇禎時期的錢幣,在

一些則寫上了滿文“寶源局”。

泉譜上沒有記載,事實上,這對明朝錢幣來說是極不尋常的。 因為在明朝統治中國的時候,對新成立的滿清是有敵意的,

最近,我有幸見到了一枚這種實質相同之錢幣圖片,它

南方鑄造的錢幣幾乎不可能在北方流通,因為北方早就發行

在 Slobodchikoff 的錢幣目錄中排在第一號,錢幣的背面確有

了自己的錢幣。

滿文“寶泉局”,雖然看上去十分模糊。

這種錢幣十有八九是在莊烈帝(崇禎)被叛軍李自成推

Alin 認為錢幣背面的滿文是寶泉局。這似乎並不正確,

翻時發行,熟知明朝的吳三桂則帶軍與滿清合作動身前往北

因為所有權威人士都認為這些滿文是寶源局。我自己的那枚

京試圖復辟。

錢幣背面滿文十分清晰,毫無疑問上面的造幣廠(錢局)標 記是寶源局。

假定這些錢幣是在這種改朝換代時期(1644)鑄造,用 於滿、漢軍隊之間,那麼錢幣上的這兩種文字就是對這一歷

目前為止,我一共有 4 枚崇禎通寶錢幣,上面的滿文都

史事件的一個反映。錢幣的鑄造工藝很差,文字也很粗糙,

十分清晰,而且毫無疑問寫的都是寶雲(雲南造幣廠)。對

這些事實在某種程度上反映出這些錢幣是在行軍時條件欠佳

Slobodchikoff 的第二枚錢幣進行檢測後發現,這枚錢幣其實

的環境下鑄成。

也出自雲南造幣廠。也許有人會說上面的滿文“雲”,可能 是滿文“源”去掉右面的筆劃後形成的。但這是不可能的,

Alin 認為叛軍首領李自成與吳三桂及滿清之間存在聯盟

因為這兩枚錢幣正面下方的文字構造完全不同。

關係,這是違背歷史事實的。李自成的陜西軍隊是在 1644 年 4 月 23 日包圍北京的,25 日破城入京。那一天,明朝皇帝崇

在最近的一本日本刊物“Annam Sempu Terui Sen Bu”

禎(莊烈帝)在皇城的萬歲山上吊自殺,明朝滅亡。滿清和

(三浦吾泉《安南泉譜》,按書法區分)6 上,列出了這些

這位明朝將領吳三桂的聯軍無意願恢復明朝或支持其繼任者。

東 亞 泉 志

96

THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS


Column 專欄 崇禎通寶錢幣,該錢幣目錄有很多叛亂時期或非官方發行的

都被認為是 19 世紀的贗品。這些錢幣也可能是在太平天國運

銅錢。John A. Novak 在他的“A Working Aid for Collectors of

動時期由一些反清團體鑄造,但更可能是一種“規避”,用

Annamese Coins”第 221 號錢幣引用了上面這份泉譜,並以安

類似有滿洲文廠局之錢幣,然後進入流通(尺寸和背面滿文

南語“Sung Trinh Thong Bao”7 表示崇禎通寶,但沒有給出諸

之設計),使用的是不同的帝號,這樣就不會被政府認為是

如錢幣背面是否有文字等其他資訊。我自己收藏的那兩枚錢

贗品。造幣廠標記代表的到底是寶泉局、寶源局還是寶雲局,

幣是光背,與三浦吾泉 6 圖錄上的錢幣相似但直徑略小。由於

並不重要,因為這只是一種仿製品,可能是滿文標記的一個

安南的北面就是雲南邊境,所以很可能這些錢幣是雲南造幣

錯誤。這種錢幣可以在中國或安南 ( 越南 ) 的任何地方被鑄造。

廠鑄造,在安南流通。

8

帶滿文的崇禎錢幣最早發表在 1934 年 7 月的《大連錢 綜上所述,這些 Alin 和 Slobodchikoff 認為“譜外品”

幣學會雜誌》(一本在大連出版的日本刊物,在滿洲遼東一

的錢幣與明代發行的帶滿文的錢幣沒有任何關聯,是平西王

帶則稱 Dalian and Dalny)。該期雜誌上的那枚錢幣是寶源局

吳三桂反清並自封周王、總統天下水陸大元帥之後鑄造,發

錢幣,但是文中還提到一枚寶蘇局錢幣。這些資料在日本安

行於 1662 年之後的清康熙年間的叛軍錢幣。

達岸生著作的《穴之细道》(1971 年)一書中被重複提到。 這種錢幣在中國被首次提到是在孫仲匯的《古錢幣圖解》 (1989

編者注:這篇文章似乎不曾發表過。寫於 1967 年或之後,

年)附錄,以及高漢銘的《簡明古錢辭典》(1990 年)。香

可能是霍華德·佛蘭克林·包克最後撰寫的文章之一。文章討論

港冠軍拍賣 2007 年 12 月的拍賣會中曾出現過一枚這樣的錢

的是有關這些錢幣認定的兩種理論。Alin 和 Slobodchikoff 認

幣。【史博祿】

為它們是明代的錢幣,在 1644 年吳三桂和滿清建立聯盟時發 行。包克則認為它們是清代的錢幣,是吳三桂 1670 年代反清 時期的產物。 第一種理論很容易反駁,因為吳三桂和滿清之間根本沒 有達成聯盟。1644 年 5 月,吳三桂致信順治皇帝新任命的攝 政王多爾袞,向其尋求幫助將叛賊李自成趕出北京。吳三桂 和多爾袞都知道當時的明朝皇帝已死。多爾袞回復說,如果 吳三桂可以帶領部下投降並效忠滿清的話,他可以幫助將李 自成逐出北京。吳三桂同意了,李自成在山海關大敗,滿清 進駐北京,並建立自己的政權。吳三桂從未進入北京。他被 命令繼續向西清剿李自成餘黨。此外,這段時期——約 4 周, 對鑄幣來說時間也太短。更重要的是,這種反面全部採用滿 文的設計一直未被滿清採用,直到 1657 年。最早的清朝錢幣 均光背無文,隨後是造幣廠標記為簡單一個字的錢幣。 包克的理論也有類似的問題,歷史記錄清楚表明吳三桂 在起義之初發行的是利用通寶。這並非年號,吳三桂在當時 只是自稱周王。直至去世前不久,才自稱大周昭武皇帝並發 行昭武錢幣。以過世 30 多年的明朝皇帝的名義所發行的錢幣 並沒有記錄。此外,吳三桂並未打算恢復明朝,他要建立一 個新的朝代。對於這些在 1644 年或 1670 年代鑄造的錢幣,

參考文獻 1.Slobodchikoff, N,《 一 枚 譜 外 品 的 明 朝 錢 幣》(An Inedited Chinese Coin of the Ming Dynasty)發表於《錢幣學家》, 1950 年 5 月第 63 冊第 5 期,第 256-258 頁。 2.Alin, V. N.,《Note on an Interesting Coin of the Ming Dynasty》發表於《The Manchurian Collector》,1934 年 12 月 15 日第一冊第 3 期。 3.Hummel, Arthur W., Ed.,《Eminent Chinese of the Ch'ing Period (1644-1912)》,1943 年華盛頓出版,第二冊,吳三桂, 第 877 頁。 4.同上,879 頁。 5.Morgan, Evan,《Times and Manners in the Age of the Emperor K’angHsi》 發 表 於《Journal of the North-China Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society》,1938 年出版,第 38 冊,第 28, 33,36 頁。 6.MinuraGosen, 《Annam SenpuTeruiSen Bu》 (安南泉譜), 三浦吾泉,1965 年東京出版,第 38,55 頁 7.Novak, John A,《A working Aid for Collectors of Annamese Coins》,1967 年華盛頓出版,第 80 頁,No. 221

最大的爭議是這些錢幣太小、太薄、太像黃銅,不太可能在

8.Toda, Ed.,《Annam and its Minor Currency. Journal of the

當時被使用。明朝末代皇帝、南明叛軍和吳三桂所鑄造的都

North-China Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society》,1882 年出版,

是尺寸標準、品質很好的錢幣。反面帶滿文的崇禎錢幣現在

第 17 冊,第 I 部分,第 7 章,第 68-69 頁。

崇禎通寶 反面是滿洲字寶源局。此幣老仿,是用於流通的贗 品。品相難得,保存完好,甚為珍稀。 2007 年 12 月 2 日冠 軍拍賣 Lot109

崇禎通寶背滿文寶雲

97

東 亞 泉 志

THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS


Column 專欄

Study of the Gong Tun Chi Jin Round Coin Wang Liyan (Beijing)

I The discovery and research of the Gong Tun Chi Jin round coin Gong Tun Chi Jin is the circular coin with a round hole, made in Gong (a place in the state of Wei), during the Warring States period. Such coins are usually 3.9 to 4.3 cm in diameter, 11 grams in weight and the diameter of its inner hole varies from 0.5 to 0.7 cm1. The large seal script inscription, Gong Tun Chi Jin is read from the right. The National Museum of China collection has two Gong Tun Chi Jin coins, one is 4.6 cm in diameter (inner hole is 0.7 cm in diameter) and weighs 12.7 grams2, the other is 4.2 cm in diameter (inner hole is 0.6 cm in diameter) and 8.4 grams in weight (Pic. 1-1). These two extremely rare coins were donated by Shen Zicha in 1959 (Pic. 1-2) and were rated as first grade cultural relics. Records of the Gong Tun Chi Jin coin can hardly be found in early documentary materials. The copy of a Gong Tun Chi Jin round coin in Gu Jin Dai Wen Lu written by Zhu Feng in the period of Qing Emperor Qianlong, is the earliest known material about this coin. According to Zhu Feng: “the Gong Tun Chi Jin round coin is similar to the Shen Nong coin recorded in Pathways of History in size, weight, shape and material. Five to six Chinese characters were inscribed on the Gong Tun Chi Jin coin, all unidentifiable. This coin is consistent with what was recorded in the Pathways of History about the Shen Nong coin (Shen Nong coin has no outer-edge and has seven crossed Chinese characters on the surface) and is thus mentioned after the Shen Nong coin here”3 (Pic. 2). The Pathways of History written by Luo Bi in the South Song dynasty has no record of the Gong Tun Chi Jin coin. The author might not have encountered such coin by himself. The coin also wasn’t found in Hong Zun’s Quan Zhi of the same time. But other numismatic books after Zhu Feng’s period, such as Weng Shupei’s Gu Quan Hui Kao, Ma Guohan’s Hong Ou Hua Xuan Quan Pin (1832), Gu Quan Hui, written by Li Zuoxian in 1864,Bao Kang’s Guan Gu Ge Quan Shuo edited in 1873, Xu Quan Hui, jointly written by

Pic. 1-1 The large Gong Tun Chi Jin (obverse), 4.6 cm in diameter, China National Museum’s collection

Pic. 1-2 The small Gong Tun Chi Jin (obverse), 4.2 cm in diameter, China National Museum’s collection

Pic. 2 The copy of a large Gong Tun Chi Jin with a small hole (obvers)

Pic. 3 The rubbing of a large Gong Tun Chi Jin coin (obverse)

Reference 1

Page 610 to page 613, Great Dictionary of Chinese Numismatics——the Pre-Qin Period, 1995. Through consulting relevant materials, this coin was bought through Xu Xinyuan and Huang Jingluo in a cooperative shop of relics in 1961. 3 Zhu Feng’s Gu Jin Dai Wen Lu (1745) and Zhao Dai Cong Shu, published in July, 1990 by the Shanghai Classics Publishing House. 2

東 亞 泉 志

98

THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS


Column 專欄 Li Zuoxian and Bao Kang in 1875 and Jiang Biao’s Gu Quan Ta Cun, had copies or rubbings of the Gong Tun Chi Jin coin, some of which were in the authors’ private collections, like Li Zuoxian’s collection in Gu Qun Hui, Bao Kang’s collection in Guan Gu Ge Quan Shuo, and Jiang Biao’s collection in Gu Quan Ta Cun. Li Zuoxian’s Gong Tun Chi Jin coin had been collected by Luo Zhenyu and Fang Ruo and was obtained by Chen Rentao later. The Gong Tun Chi Jin coin was found in the early Qing dynasty when textology and epigraphy were developing. Weng Shupei was one of the earliest scholars who studied the Gong Tun Chi Jin coin. Zhu Feng, speculated that the on the coin was similar to the ancient character “ 十 ” (shi) while the was the character “ 金 ” (jin)4. He also pointed out Zhu Fen’s mistakes in quoting the Pathways of History: “the coin with seven crossed characters on the surface is not a round coin.” Detailed interpretations could be found in Li Zuoxian’s Gu Quan Hui and Ma Guohan’s Hong Ou Hua Xuan Quan Pin. Gu Quan Hui: the shape of Gong Tun Chi Jin resembles the Chang Huan coin. According to the History of the Han Dynasty, “Tun” means “gather”. The third character “Chi” might be “Tai” and was interpreted as “Chi” (red) in Pi Tan. Thus “Chi Jin” means the coin is made of red copper. The Gong Tun Chi Jin is another type of Gong character coin.” The author also mentioned the coin was made in today's Ji Country which was in Zheng Kingdom in ancent times5. According to Hong Ou Hua Xuan Quan Pin: “the Gong Tun Chi Jin coin is two ancient inches in diameter, two maces and two cents in weight, round, with four characters (ancient seal script) reading Gun Tun Chi Jin on the surface”. Ma Guohan noted: “ ‘Gong’ means ‘supply’ and ‘Tun’ means ‘soldiers gather together for defending’ according to historical books such as, History of the Han Dynasty - the Biography of Zhao Yunguo, Zuo’s Biography of the Spring and Autumn Annals and Lu Deming’s Traditional Explanations. History of the Han Dynasty - Treatise on Economy recorded: gold is the best, white gold the second, red gold (Chi Jin) is the worst. Red gold (Chi Jin) refers to copper”6. Interpretations of the Gong Tun Chi Jin were different in these two books. Li thought Gong Tun Chi Jin referred to “red copper coins minted in the place of Gong” while Ma interpreted the inscription as

Pic. 4 The rubbing of a small Gong Tun Chi Jin coin (obverse and reverse)

“copper coins supplied for defending troops”. But Li Zuoxian took Hu Shicha’s interpretation (“Tun” means “pure”) as a reference and explained Gong Tun Chi Jin as “pure copper coins made in the place of Gong” in Guan Gu Ge Quan Shuo. Thereafter, scholars reached an agreement on interpreting “Gong” as the place name and “Chi Jin” as copper. But there was debate about the meaning of “Tun”. Most people thought “Tun” referred to “pure” and “Gong Tun Chi Jin” meant “pure copper coins made in the place of Gong”. But Cai Yunzhang thought “Tun” referred to “exquisite” and the inscription should be explained as “exquisite copper coins minted in the city of Gong”7 after studying Du Yu’s comments of the Zuo Zhuan - the First Year of the Duke of Yin and Yan Shigu’s notes in the History of the Han Dynasty - Geography Part 2. The interpretation of “pure copper coins minted in the place of Gong” has been accepted by most numismatists today. Rubbings or copies of small Gong Tun Chi Jin coins with large holes were recorded in Xu Quan Hui and Gu Quan Sou while Ding Fu Bao’s Li Dai Gu Qian Tu Shuo had records of both large and small Gong Tun Chi Jin coins. Other rubbings and copies in relevant books were all of

Reference 4 Page 39 of Gu Quan Hui Kao (Qing dynasty), Weng Shupei, the Bibliography and Document Publishing House , 1994 5 Gu Quan Hui (1864), page 1028, Li Zuoxian, Shanghai Classics Publishing House, 1994. 6 Hong Ou Hua Xuan Quan Pin (Qing dynasty), page 11,volume 2, Shanghai Classics Publishing House, 1992. 7 Introduction of Warring States Round Coins and the fourth series of Selected Papers on Chinese Numismatics, Cai Yunzhang, China Financial Publishing House, 2002.

99

東 亞 泉 志

THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS


Column 專欄 large coins with small holes. It should be mentioned that the inscription of the large coin (small hole) recorded in Gu Jin Dai Wen Lu resembles that of the small Gong Tun Chi Jin coin. But no such real objects, pictures or rubbings of large coins with such inscription have ever been found. The reason still needs to be further studied. Someone regards the small coin recorded in Xu Quan Hui and the common large coin as the same kind of Gong Tun Chi Jin coin with different sizes and weights8. But from the rubbings, we can tell that the large Gong Tun Chi Jin coin is quite different from the small coin in shape, hole, inscription and many other aspects (Pic. 3)9. Most coins of the state of Wei, such as the unearthed Yuan, Gong, Ji Yin, Qi Yuan Yi Jin, Qi Huan Yi Jin and Gong Tun Chi Jin coins, are large coins with small holes. No small coin of the state of Wei has been found. Only copies and rubbings of such coins are recorded in numismatic books, like the copy in Xu Quan Hui and the early rubbing in Li Baotai’s Gu Quan Sou (Pic. 4). The rubbing of the small coin in Li Falin’s Zhan Guo Qin Han Kao Gu is the same rubbing recorded in Li Dai Gu Qian Tu Shuo. Through comparison, we can see this rubbing is basically consistent with the description of the coin in Xu Quan Hui, except for some small differences. Two rubbings in Gu Quan Sou and Li Dai Gu Qian Tu Shuo are two different coins while the rubbing in Li Dai Gu Qian Tu Shuo (Pic. 5) is more similar to the copy recorded in Xu Quan Hui. Such small round coins, like Pin, Ban Huan and Dong Zhou, were produced by different states in the late Warring States period and might be the results of currency circulation and communication among these countries. Small Gong Tun Chi Jin round coins are seldom recorded in today’s reference books, such as the Great Dictionary of Chinese Numismatics and the series of Chinese Currency. The reason is not clear yet. If the small Gong Tun Chi Jin coin does belong to the state of Wei, we can speculate that such coins were continuously minted in Gong of Wei which played a very important role in the international trade at that time as both its early and late coins had an influence on coins of its neighboring states. The authenticity of the Gong Tun Chi Jin coin hadn’t been proved until a piece of Gong Tun Chi Jin round coin was unearthed from the M54 tomb in Qiao village of Houma

Pic. 5 The rubbing in Li Dai Gu Quan Tu Shuo (obverse and reverse)

Pic. 6-1 The rubbing unearthed in Houma of Shanxi in 1982 (obverse and reverse)

city, Shanxi province in 1982 (Pic. 6-1 and Pic. 6-2) 10. This coin (4.3 cm in diameter and 10.2 grams in weight) is the only Gong Tun Chi Jin that has been unearthed by archaeologists in a specific place and provides a standard for coins of the same kind. About ten pieces of such round coins and rubbings have been obtained, (including two pieces stored in the National Museum of China, the one that was mentioned above, one piece collected by Shen Zicha, two pieces in the Shanghai

Reference 8

Archaeology of Warring States, Qin and Han Dynasties, page 78, Li Falin, Shandong University Press,1991. Xu Quan Hui (1875), page 185, Li Zuoxian and Bao Kang, Shanghai Classics Publishing House, 1992. 10 Jin Du Xin Tian, edited by Houma station of Shanxi Provincial Institution of Archaeology, page 360, Shanxi People Press, 1996. 9

東 亞 泉 志

100

THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS


Column 專欄 Museum, one piece collected in the Nanjing Museum, the one unearthed in Shanxi and others) since the first Gong Tun Chi Jin coin was found in Qing dynasty.

II The age of the Gong Tun Chi Jin coin Wei was one of the first countries to produce round coins. Some scholars speculate that round coins evolved from jade disks, after comparing unearthed objects11. Cai Yunzhang even pointed out round coins of the state of Wei developed from blank small coins to large coins with inscriptions12. Gong, Gong Tun Chi Jin and Yuan are the earliest round coins made in Wei. There is a debate on which coin appeared the first. Some believe the Gong coin appeared before the other two, according to the evolving law13. Some speculate Gong and Gong Tun Chi Jin were minted before the Yuan coin in the middle of the 4th century through comparing these round coins with the spade coins of Wei.14 There is also another general statement that all of these round coins were produced in the middle and late Warring States period without mentioning which one appeared the first15. Some other people believe Gong Tun Chi Jin appeared a little later than the Gong round coin16. I think Gong Tun Chi Jin, Gong and Yuan round coins were made in similar periods. First, the size and weight couldn’t be used as evidence to speculate which coin appeared the first. The weight of these coins was not fixed according to the Great Dictionary of Chinese Numismatics - Coins before the Qin Dynasty: Normally, the Gong round coin is 4.3 cm to 4.65 cm in diameter and 14.5 grams to 18.5 grams in weight; the Yuan round coin is 3.9 cm to 4.3 cm in diameter and 8.15 grams to 10.16 grams in weight; the Gong Tun Chi Jin is 3.9 cm to 4.3 cm in diameter and weighs about 11 grams. Thus, the Gong Tun Chi Jin is smaller and lighter than the Gong round coin and is nearly the same size as the Yuan round coin but a little heavier the latter. There are also many special Gong and Yuan round coins which are lighter and smaller than the normal ones. But special Gong Tun Chi Jin are either much larger and heavier than common coins or as small as those two pieces mentioned above. We can’t determine the date of the Gong, Gong Tun Chi Jin and Huan

Pic. 6-2 The coin (obverse) dug out in Houma of Shanxi in 1982, 4.3 cm in diameter

round coins based on their size and weight as these coins were minted in different places. The common Gong round coin weighs 8.5 grams to 14.5 grams and is nearly as heavy as one jin spade coins of the state of Wei, like the Yin Jin Yi Jin and the An Yi Yi Jin. Yuan round coin weighing from 8.15 grams to 10.16 grams is almost as heavy as the common half jin spade coin of Wei. Thus, the Gong round coin resembles one jin spade coin in weight while the Yuan round coin is equal to half jin spade coin. This conclusion can be proved by the discovery of Gong and Yuan round coins. A large amount of Gong and Yuan coins have been found together more than once. In 1981, 1,178 pieces of Yuan round coins and one piece of the Gong round coin were found in Shipaoquan village, Hebi city, Henan province 17. Honan farmers in Donggang village of Yanling county dug out a pile of Yuan, Gong round coins and over 40 pieces of copper rings and disks18 which were then proved to be the earliest round coin by Cai Yunzhang. More than 9,000 pieces of Warring States

Reference Chinese Currency Series - Coins before the Qin Dynasty, page 31, Wang Qingzheng,Shanghai People Press, 1998. 12 As reference 8 13 The General Theory of Wei’s Money in the Warring States Period, Journal of Kaifeng University, September, 1998. 14 As reference 12 15 As reference 2 16 As reference14 17 Research of Warring States Coins in Shipaoquan of Hebi City, Liu Heying, Zhong Zhou Currency, Fifth Series. 18 As reference 8 11

101

東 亞 泉 志

THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS


Column 專欄 round coins, including over 8,800 pieces of Yuan round cons and 100 pieces of Gong round coins, were unearthed in Baiyuan village, Yichuan county Henan province in 198819. Most Gong round coins (small or large amount) were dug out in Luoyang, Yiyang and Bihe of Henan province. Over 700 pieces of such coins were found in a pot of the Warring States in Cangdi village of Wenxi county, Shanxi province in 1973. Most Yuan and Gong round coins were together found neither in Yuan city, where the Yuan round coins were made (Yuanqu county, Shanxi province today), nor in Gong city (Hui city, Henan province today) the minting place of Gong round coins but in various places in large amounts, which proves that the round coin circulated in many places since it was produced. The phenomenon that the Gong and Yuan round coins in different size, weight or made in different places, could be used in the same place, also shows that these two kinds of coins were equal to one jin and half jin spade coins in value. We can’t determine Gong round coin appeared before Yuan round coin just because the former is heavier than the latter. But lighter and smaller round coins must appear after the heavier and larger ones. Similar shapes of Gong, Gong Tun Chi Jin and Yuan round coins (all are round coins with small round holes and apparent casting marks) can prove these coins were made at the same period. Gong Tun Chi Jin coins resemble Yuan and some Gong round coins. The script of the character “Gong” on Gong Tun Chi Jin is the same as that on the Gong round coin. A developed economy and convenient transportation paved the way for the state of Wei to develop a perfect monetary system. Two jin, one jin and half jin spade coins were produced and used before the appearance of the round coin. Considering the continuity of the monetary policy, the government of Wei just changed the shape of coins and continued to mint coins in different sizes and value. For convenience, coins of different denominations were respectively produced in pure copper (the pure copper of Gong was the standard) in two places, Gong and Yuan. If this speculation is right, it’s not difficult to understand why Gong and Yuan round coins of different weight and minting places appeared and could be used at the same time. Thus, we can speculate further that Gong Tun Chi Jin were minted at the same time as Gong and Yuan coins or even before the mass production of the latter two.

III The function of the Gong Tun Chi Jin round coin and the meaning of its inscription Different quantities of Gong, Yuan and Gong Tun Chi Jin round coins (the earliest round coins made in the state of Wei) have been found so far. Large numbers of Gong and Yuan round coins which circulated at the same time, were unearthed while only one piece of Gong Tun Chi Jin was found in Qiao village of Houma county, Shanxi province20. Thus, Gong Tun Chi Jin coins might be very rare in the Warring States period. Common Gong and Yuan round coins are as heavy as one jin and half jin spade coins. The weight of Gong Tun Chi Jin is heavier than half jin but lighter than one jin spade coin. Large amounts of Gong and Yuan coins were found at the same place, which showed these coins were the medium of commodity exchange then. If Gong Tun Chi Jin coins were made to circulate, there should be some such coins unearthed with Gong or Yuan coins no matter how few had been made in the Warring States period. But only one piece of Gong Tun Chi Jin has been found in a tomb and no other such coins has ever been unearthed with Gong or Yuan round coins so far. Thus, Gong and Yuan round coins were used as common currencies at that time while Gong Tun Chi Jin had some other special functions. Studies of the Gong Tun Chi Jin are still concentrated on interpreting its inscription today. Even authoritative books like the Great Dictionary of Chinese Numismatics and Chinese Currency series, just record Li Zuoxian’s former interpretation and lack study results of Gong Tun Chi Jin’s function and the deep meaning of its inscription. Through a comprehensive analysis of previous scholars’ opinions, I conclude that the Gong Tun Chi Jin round coin is not only a common currency but has some special meanings which are closely connected with its inscription, especially the character “Tun”. There was a debate on how to interpret Gong and Tun after the Qing dynasty. With further studies and archaeological excavations, numismatists and coin

Reference 19 20

Journal of Luoyang Numismatics, page 64, Fan Zhenan ans Huo Hongwei, Lanzhou University Press, 1999. Houmaqiao Tomb, page 350, Shanxi Provincial Institution of Archaeology, 2004.

東 亞 泉 志

102

THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS


Column 專欄 researchers basically reached an agreement on explaining “Gong” as the place name and “Chi Jin” as “copper”21. The explanation of the character “Tun” is the most controversial issue. Explanations that “Tun” means “gather” or “exquisite” might be sensible but are also superficial and biased. Thus, interpreting “Tun” as “pure” is more accurate. The interpretation that Gong Tun Chi Jin means “the pure copper coin made in the place of Gong”, not only suggested the coin’s minting place and weight but has some deeper meaning. Most coins minted in the Pre-Qin period, including spade, knife money, round coin, bronze cowrie and Chu gold block money, have inscriptions of place names, like Jinyang; lucky words, like An Zang; numbers of heavenly stems and earthly branches, like Shen; weight, like An Yang Yi Jin, state names, like Dong Zhou and numbers, like Yi. No similar inscriptions like Gong Tun Chi Jin that indicates both the minting place and the material, has ever been found. According to Dai Zhiqiang and Zhou Weirong’s “Analyzing the Alloy Composition of Chinese Copper Coins and Chinese Currency Series - Coins before the Qin Dynasty” the copper content of Wei spade coin is 71% to 85%, about 20% higher than coins of other states. The Yuan round coin of Wei is made of pure copper (92.08% to 99.31%, about 30% higher than copper coins produced in other states). High copper content is the characteristic of coins minted in the state of Wei. The average copper contents of these coins are much higher than similar coins of other states. The round coin that replaced the spade, was made of pure copper. Unlike the inscription of Gong Tun Chi Jin that indicates the minting name and material, inscriptions on other round coins of Wei, like Yuan, Ji Yin and Qi Yuan Yi Jin, are either of place names or combinations of minting places and weight. Such an inscription is unique throughout the whole numismatic history. According to this, it can be concluded that the Gong Tun Chi Jin was not only used as a currency in circulation but might also be the standard for making other round coins in the Warring States period. There are other interpretations of “Tun”. The oracle , referring to “beginning” or the forum of this character is difficult birth of grass and trees. This explanation conforms

to records of Xu Shen’s “Analytical Dictionary of Characters and Zhou Yi” Wei is one of the first states that produced and used round coins. It’s a great innovation to change spadeshaped coins to circular coins with round holes that look like jade disks or spinning wheels. Whether such non-traditional coins can be accepted by the public and other countries is of vital importance. To introduce the new money, the state of Wei first minted Gong Tun Chi Jin as the quality standard and commemoration before the mass production of Gong and Yuan round coins. Therefore, we should adopt the original meaning of “Tun”, which is “birth” or “start”, recorded in “Analytical Dictionary of Characters and Zhou Yi” the Gong Ban Jin spade coin was minted in the city of Gong before the production of Gong Tun Chi Jin and Gong round coins. Although Gong Tun Chi Jin was not the first type of coin minted in Gong city, it was indeed the beginning of the currency reform in the state of Wei and is reasonable to be explained as “start”. The special meaning of Gong Tun Chi Jin also lies in its mintage. Through the history of currency development, the mintage of coins with memorial meanings, like Qi Fan Bang Chang Fa Hua (large knife money), large Ban Liang (halftael) Kai Lu coin in the Western Han dynasty and the Da Tang Zhen Ku of the Southern Tang, was very limited even these coins could be used as money in circulation. Scarcity is a common feature of such coins with special meanings. To sum up, Gong Tun Chi Jin is one of the earliest round coins and the standard round coin minted in the state of Wei. The shape of Gong Tun Chi Jin created a new era in coins of Wei during the Warring States period and laid the foundation for the circular coin with a square hole of the state of Qin. (PS: I want to thank Liu Fei of the National Museum Archive for helping me during my writing of this article) Editor’s Note: The book “Lu Shi” (Pathways of History) was long ago shown to be completely unreliable. The so-called Shen Nong coin would have dated to prehistoric times, before the development of metal technologies. —Bruce W. Smith

Reference 21 Duan Wenlong concluded the character “Gong” could be replaced by “Jia” and was not the name of a place in his article New Interpretation of the Inscription on the Gong Coin in the Warring Period, China Relics News, page 6, April 26, 2013.

103

東 亞 泉 志

THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS


Column 專欄

“共屯赤金”圜錢考析 王儷閻(北京)

一、“共屯赤金”圜錢的發現與研究 “共屯赤金”圜錢是戰國時期魏國在“共”地鑄造 的一種圓形圓孔錢幣,一般錢徑 3.9—4.3 釐米,穿徑 0.5— 0.7 釐米,重 11 克左右 1。面文“共屯赤金”,大篆,右 旋讀。具有代表性的傳世品主要為中國國家博物館收藏 的兩枚,一枚錢徑 4.6 釐米,穿徑 0.7 釐米,重 12.7 克, 為同類錢中較大者(圖 1-1),此枚是 1961 年從文物合 作商店收購的 2;另一枚錢徑 4.2 釐米,穿徑 0 .6 釐米, 重 8.4 克,是 1959 年沈子槎先生捐贈的(圖 1-2)。兩 枚錢珍稀罕見,定為國家一級文物。 早期文獻資料鮮有“共屯赤金”圜錢的記載,清代 朱楓於乾隆年間編撰的《古金待問錄》所載“共屯赤金” 圜錢摹本,是目前所知關於此錢的最早資料之一。據朱 氏注釋“共屯赤金”圜錢“與《路史》所載之神農幣大小、 輕重、形製、銅色悉同,其文周匝五、六字,不可識,《路 史》又載:‘神農錢無周廓,面七字縱橫’,此品面文 五、六字亦縱橫,又與路史符合,故記於神農幣之後。”3 (圖 2)《路史》為南宋羅泌所著,其關於錢幣的考釋, 收錄了“垣”字圜錢、識別不出文字的七字圜錢等而沒 有收錄“共屯赤金”圜錢,說明他沒有見過此錢。南宋 洪遵《泉志》同樣沒有關於“共屯赤金”圜錢的記載。 朱楓之後,翁樹培撰於乾嘉間的《古泉匯考》、馬國翰 成書於道光十二年(1832 年)的《紅藕花軒泉品》,李 佐賢成書於同治三年(1864 年)的《古泉匯》,鮑康成 書於同治十二年(1873 年)的《觀古閣泉說》,李佐賢、 鮑康成書於光緒元年(1875 年)的《續泉匯》及江標的 《古泉拓存》等都收錄有“共屯赤金”圜錢摹本或拓本, 有些還是編纂者的私人收藏品,如《古泉匯》收錄的李 佐賢藏品,《觀古閣泉說》收錄的鮑康藏品,《古泉拓存》 收錄的江標藏品等。李佐賢收藏的“共屯赤金”圜錢, 先後經李佐賢、羅振玉、方若收藏後,歸於陳仁濤。

圖 1-1 “共屯赤金”圜錢 中國國家博物館收藏,大者(正面) 直徑 4.6 釐米

圖 1-2 “共屯赤金”圜錢(沈子槎先生捐贈)

圖 2 小穿孔的大錢摹本(正面)

從錢譜著錄情況分析,“共屯赤金”圜錢是在清初 考據學、金石學及收藏日見增溫的情況下被發現、認知的。 清代泉家在錢譜中,對“共屯赤金”圜錢的國別、大小、 錢文含義等做了考釋,其中翁樹培的考釋較早,在朱楓 《古金待問錄》關於是錢說明的基礎上,推測:“以‘共’ 字錢例之,共當在右, 似古文十字, ,金字也”4。 並指出朱楓在引用《路史》時的錯誤:“朱氏引《路史》 注釋:

圖 3 大錢拓本(正面)

1

《中國錢幣大辭典》編輯委員會編:《中國錢幣大辭典·先秦卷》,中華書局,1995 年,第 610—613 頁。

2

經查閱 1961 年的文物憑證,此錢 1961 年購於文物合作商店,經手人為許新元、黃景略。

3

(清)朱楓:《古金待問錄》,《昭代叢書》丙集補卷四,上海古籍出版社,1990 年 7 月。

4

(清)翁樹培:《古泉匯考》,書目文獻出版社,1994 年,第 39 頁。

東 亞 泉 志

104

THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS


Column 專欄 為證,不知七字縱橫一種自是異布,非圜錢也。”通過 考釋解釋錢文含義較詳細的是李佐賢《古泉匯》和馬國 翰《紅藕花軒泉品》。《古泉匯》雲:“共屯赤金,錢 製類長垣錢,四字亦右旋讀,屯者,聚也,《漢書》: 衛尉有八屯,又從者私屯,皆作聚處之意,共屯者,猶 雲共邑聚處之地也,第三字或疑為泰字,通七,《癖談》 釋為赤字,今從之,言其銅色赤,故稱赤金也,與前小 品皆共字錢別種。”並認定錢為“今汲郡,屬鄭地”5。《紅 藕花軒泉品》雲:“共屯赤金,准古尺徑二寸,重二錢 二分,圓好無輪郭,背夷漫,面文古篆四字 ,曰共屯赤金。翰案:共與供古通用,共,具也,屯, 聚也,勒兵而守曰屯,《漢書·趙充國傳》:‘分屯要害’。 馬季長《廣成頌》:校隊案部,為前後屯。屯守之法詳 於漢代,然《春秋左傳》襄公十八年:晉人執孫蒯於純 留。陸德明《經典釋文》:“‘純’,地理志作‘屯’, 古屯留布正作屯,則周時已有屯之名矣,共屯雲者,謂 共給屯守之用也,《漢書·食貨志》:黃金為上,白金為 中,赤金為下,注:赤金,銅也,共屯而曰赤金明其為 銅品也。”6 因為對錢文文字釋義不同,二人對錢文的解 釋也不同,李氏認為是“共地的紅銅錢,”馬氏認為是“供 給屯守之用的銅錢”。但是李氏在《觀古閣泉說》解釋 該錢錢文含義時,採納了胡石查“屯”為“純”省的解釋, 認為錢文含義為“共地所鑄純銅錢”。此後,錢幣研究 與收藏者關於錢文“共”、“赤金”的含義解釋基本一致: “共”為地名,“赤金”為“銅”;“屯”的意義有不 同解釋,多數人認為“屯”,通純 ,錢文意即“共地鑄 造的純銅錢”;蔡運章等根據《左傳·隱西元年》杜預注: “純,猶篤厚也”,《詩·賓之初筵》鄭氏箋、《漢書·地 理志下》顏師古注:“純,精好也”等的解釋,認為“屯” 意味精美,錢文為“共邑鑄造重大精美的銅錢”之意 7, 今錢幣界多以“共屯赤金”錢文釋義“共地鑄造的純銅錢” 為是。

圖 4 小錢拓本(正、背)

以往各家收錄的錢幣摹本、拓本中,除了《續泉匯》 《古泉藪》收錄的是穿孔較大的小錢、丁福保《歷代古 錢圖說》同時收錄大、小錢外,其餘收錄的均為小穿孔 的大錢。值得注意的是《古金待問錄》收錄的雖然是小 穿孔的大錢,摹繪的錢文卻與小錢的缺筆“屯”、“金” 寫法相同,但迄今為止可以查詢到的實物、照片及拓本 等大錢的錢文寫法,沒有一例是這種減筆異書“屯”、 “金” 二字的,其原因有待進一步研究。今人有把《續泉匯》 所載小錢和普通大錢看成是大小兩種,重量相差一倍的 注釋:

圖 5 《歷代古錢圖說》收錄之拓本(正、背)

5

(清)李佐賢:《古泉匯》利集一,上海古籍出版社,1992 年,第 1028 頁。

6

(清)馬國翰:《紅藕花軒泉品》卷二,上海古籍出版社,1992 年,第 11 頁。

7

蔡運章:《戰國圜錢概論》,《中國錢幣論文集》第四輯,中國金融出版社,2002 年。

105

東 亞 泉 志

THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS


Column 專欄 圜錢 8。但是僅從拓本就可以看出,“共屯赤金”大錢、 小錢從形製到文字等特徵都有很大差別:大錢是寬肉、 狹穿,錢文佈局均稱,疏密有度,文字筆劃硬朗,略呈 方正。小錢是廣穿,肉、穿幾乎同寬,錢文佈局疏密不均, 錢文長大,文字筆劃軟弱,書寫不規範,且“共”字結 構鬆散,“似分作兩字”9,“屯”、“金”缺筆為異書(圖 3)。魏國圜錢多為大錢,以小穿見長,穿、肉比例多超 過一倍,面世的“垣”、“共”、“濟陰”、“桼垣一釿”、 “桼睘一釿”、以及“共屯赤金”大圜錢皆如此;小錢 未見實物,僅見摹本與拓本,摹本為《續泉匯》所錄者, 拓本較早見於李寶臺的《古泉藪》(圖 4),李發林《戰 國秦漢考古》中引用的小錢拓本,為《歷代古錢圖說》 中收錄的那枚,《歷代古錢圖說》沒有說明拓本來源。 將拓本與《續泉匯》對錢的描述加以對比發現,二者特 徵基本吻合,只在“共”、“赤”局部有所不同。但《古 泉藪》與《歷代古錢圖說》的兩枚拓本分屬兩枚錢。《歷 代古錢圖說》收錄的一枚(圖 5),與《續泉匯》摹本 更相近。 這種穿、肉幾近等寬、類似環形的小圜錢,尚有“□ 坪”、“半睘”、“東周”等。這些小圜錢屬於不同國 別,鑄造時間在戰國晚期,應該是各國間貨幣相互流通、 相互影響的產物。今人著作包括《中國錢幣大辭典》《中 國錢幣大系》等工具書,鮮有涉及“共屯赤金”小圜錢 者,原因尚待進一步考證。如果“共屯赤金”小圜錢確 為魏國鑄幣,一方面可以證明魏國共地鑄幣的持續不斷, 另一方面也可以證明不僅魏國早期鑄造的圜錢對周邊國 家有影響,晚期鑄幣也同樣有影響,說明魏國在當時的 經濟貿易中的地位。 自有著錄時起,有關“共屯赤金”圜錢的真偽問題 就有兩種觀點,直到 1982 年山西省侯馬市喬村墓地 M54 出土一枚“共屯赤金”圜錢 10,其真實性才被肯定(圖 6-1、 6-2)。出土的這枚錢直徑 4.3 釐米,重 10.2 克,為傳世 “共屯赤金”圜錢提供了依據標準。此枚錢是迄今為止 唯一一枚具有明確出土地點、由考古人員發掘出土的實 物。 自清代發現“共屯赤金”圜錢以來,可搜集到的“共 屯赤金”圜錢實物及拓本約有 10 餘枚,包括中國國家博 物館收藏 2 枚,一枚為本文論及者,另一枚為沈子槎先 生舊藏,上海博物館收藏 2 枚,南京博物院收藏 1 枚,

圖 6-1 1982 年山西侯馬出土拓本(正、背)

圖 6-2 1982 年山西侯馬出土(正面)直徑 4.3 釐米

山西出土 1 枚等。

二、“共屯赤金”圜錢的鑄造時間 魏國是最早鑄造圜錢的國家。有錢幣學家根據出土 實物加以比較後,認為魏國圜錢是從玉璧脫胎而來 11, 蔡運章先生還通過出土實物進一步考證魏國圜錢是由大 到小,由無字發展到有字的 12。魏國的“共”、“共屯 赤金”、“垣”都是最早的圜錢,關於其出現的先後問 題,有不同觀點,一種以錢幣鑄造的普通規律由大到小 為依據,認為“共”早於“垣”、“共屯赤金”13;一種 在錢幣鑄造普通規律外,將錢與魏國的布幣加以比較, 認為“共”、“共屯赤金”鑄於公元前 4 世紀中葉,早

注釋: 8

李發林《戰國秦漢考古》,山東大學出版社,1991 年,第 78 頁

9

(清)李佐賢、鮑康《續泉匯》利集一,上海古籍出版社,1992 年,第 185 頁。

10

山西省考古研究所侯馬工作站編:《晉都新田》,山西人民出版社,1996 年,第 360 頁。

11

汪慶正:《中國歷代貨幣大系·先秦貨幣》,上海人民出版社,1998 年,第 31 頁。

12

同 8。

13

劉天軍、劉心健:《戰國魏貨幣通論》,《開封大學學報》1998 年 9 月。

東 亞 泉 志

106

THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS


Column 專欄 於“垣”14;一種一概而論,只說鑄造於戰國中晚期而不 所在。其發現地區廣,出土數量大,說明圜錢出現伊始 15 提三者誰先誰後 。具體到 “共”與“共屯赤金”,還 就可以跨地區流通。從“共”、“垣”圜錢鑄於不同城 有觀點認為“共屯赤金”鑄行時間稍晚於“共”字圜錢 邑,大小、輕重有別卻沒有妨礙其在同一地區共同使用 16 。筆者認為,“共屯赤金”、“共”、“垣”圜錢最初 這一點 , 也可以說明二者最初鑄造時對應的分別是一釿、 鑄造時間應該相去不遠。首先,衡量不同地區鑄幣時, 半釿布的幣值,因為“垣”圜錢輕“共”圜錢重就認定 不能僅以大小、輕重為據,從“共屯赤金”、“共”與“垣” “垣”鑄造時間晚於“共”的理由並不充分,但同銘的 的大小、輕重比較可以發現三種鑄幣的錯綜複雜,據《中 “共”、“垣”圜錢輕而小者鑄造時間必然晚於重而大者。 國錢幣大辭典·先秦編》統計:“共”圜錢一般錢徑 4.3— 其次,“共”與“共屯赤金”、“垣”形製上高度相似: 4.65 釐米,重 14.5—18.5 克;“垣”圜錢一般錢徑 4—4.2 三種圜錢均圓形圓孔,錢肉寬大,穿孔狹小,肉倍於穿, 釐米,重 8.15—10.16 克;“共屯赤金”圜錢的一般錢徑 錢面微鼓,周緣銳薄,背部平素,錢面穿孔大於背面穿 3.9—4.3 釐米,重 11 克左右。可見“共屯赤金”比“共” 孔,澆注口明顯。“共屯赤金”與“垣”、部分“共” 圜錢略小、略輕,與“垣”圜錢大小相近、稍重於“垣” 圜錢中一種穿特別小、肉特別寬,穿、肉超過一倍比例 圜錢。三種圜錢的尺寸、重量都有個別例外者,但“共”、 的圜錢特徵相同,這些是形式更為古樸,更類似最早的 “垣”的例外者多比一般範圍內錢的直徑小、輕,數量 無字圜錢的細部特徵,“共屯赤金”圜錢 的“共”字還 相對較多,部分大、小錢重量有倍比關係,“共屯赤金” 與“共”圜錢的“共”字寫法相同。這些相似性可以說 一般範圍外,既有大而重者如國家博物館收藏的此枚錢 明三種錢出現的時間大體相當。再次,從歷史背景看, 直徑、重量都超出一般值,其直徑與“共”圜錢中較大 魏國經濟發達,交通便利,是周邊國家經貿往來的必經 者接近,也有小者如前面提到的兩枚拓本。由於“共” 之地,天時地利造就其完善的貨幣體系,早在使用布幣時, 與“共屯赤金”、 “垣”是不同地方的鑄幣,綜合因素 就有二釿、一釿、半釿三種幣值,所以也許在鑄造圜錢 很多,不能僅以由重到輕,由大到小來衡量其出現的早 伊始,政府就考慮到貨幣政策的延續性,雖然錢的形製 晚,從圜錢與魏國布幣的重量橫向對比看:一般“共” 改變了,但是錢分大小、輕重的二等或三等製相權與比 圜錢重 14.5—8.5 克,與魏國標為“一釿”的布幣如“陰 值的政策並沒改變,為便利,不同幣值的圜錢由“共”、 晉一釿”、“安邑一釿”等一般值的布幣重量相似,“垣” “垣”兩地分別鑄造,幣值外,特別要求錢的質地為純銅, 圜錢重 8.15—10.16 克,與魏國一般值的半釿布幣的重量 以“共”地所產純銅為標準。如果前面推測無誤,就可 相當,可見“共”圜錢約等重於一釿布幣、“垣”圜錢 理解為什麼不同地區、不同重量的“共”、“垣”圜錢 約等重於半釿布幣,對應着不同值的布幣,這從“共”、 可以同時出現並使用,也可以輔證二者出現於同一時期, “垣”錢的歷年出土情況也可以說明。兩種圜錢出土較 進而確定 “共屯赤金”的鑄造時間與“共”、“垣”相同, 多,而且不止一次同時出土,如 1981 年河南鶴壁市獅跑 甚至在“共”、“垣”大規模鑄造之前。 泉出土的戰國錢幣中,就有“垣”圜錢 1178 枚,“共” 圜錢 1 枚 17。1993 年河南鄢陵縣東崗村農民在整地時, 三、“共屯赤金”圜錢性質與錢文含義 挖出一堆“垣”、“共”圜錢與 40 餘枚璧環狀銅器 18。 後經蔡運章先生考證,這些璧環狀銅器為最早的圜錢。 從目前掌握的材料來看,“共”、“垣”與“共屯 1988 年河南省伊川縣白元村戰國錢幣窖藏出土 9000 餘 赤金”這三種魏國最早的圜錢,多寡不一,“共”、“垣” 枚圜錢,其中“垣”圜錢 8800 餘枚,“共”圜錢 100 餘 兩種圜錢出土數量較多,且在戰國時就可以同時流通使 枚 19。“共”圜錢多出土於河南洛陽、益陽、鶴壁等地, 用,“共屯赤金”圜錢只有前述山西侯馬喬村這一枚, 零星出土外,還有大量出土的記錄,1973 年山西聞喜縣 還是在墓葬填土裏發現的 20,說明“共屯赤金”在當時 蒼底村戰國窖藏一陶罐內發現“共”圜錢 700 餘枚。統 就稀少罕見,“共”、“垣”的一般重量分別對應一釿、 計可以發現,“垣”、“共”圜錢相伴而出的地點,大 半釿布幣,“共屯赤金”的一般重量低於一釿而高於半 多既不是“垣”圜錢的鑄造地垣城(今山西省垣曲縣境內) 釿。“共”、“垣”與“共屯赤金”的鑄造時間大致相當, 所在,也不是“共”圜錢的鑄造地共邑(今河南輝縣境內) 注釋: 14

同 12。

15

同2

16

同 14

17

劉荷英:《鶴壁市獅跑泉戰國窖藏貨幣研究》,《中州錢幣》專輯五。

18

同 8。

19

範振安、霍宏偉:《洛陽泉志》,蘭州大學出版社,1999 年,第 64 頁。

20

山西省考古研究所:《侯馬喬村墓地》,科學出版社,2004 年,第 350 頁。

107

東 亞 泉 志

THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS


Column 專欄 作為流通貨幣的“共”、“垣”大量發現並出現在同一 地區,說明其確實是作為商品交換媒介存在的,“共屯 赤金”僅見,並且是在墓葬的填土中,從“共”、“垣” 伴出的現象分析,如果“共屯赤金”是作為流通貨幣鑄 造的,即使鑄造數量再少,也應當有與“共”、“垣” 或其一種伴隨而出的情況,但到目前為止,考古發掘尚 沒有發現這種情況。諸多現象說明,“共”、“垣”圜 錢是作為普通的流通貨幣鑄造的,“共屯赤金”則在流 通錢幣的基礎上,蘊含有特殊意義。 查閱有關資料可以發現,儘管特色鮮明,迄今為止, 關於“共屯赤金”圜錢的研究,依然停留在對錢文的解 釋上,即使目前權威的工具書《中國錢幣大辭典》與《中 國歷代貨幣大系》,也只沿襲李佐賢的舊說,缺少對錢 的用途、錢文深層含義的探討研究。 結合各家之說與面世錢幣情況,筆者認為,“共屯 赤金”圜錢不僅具有一般流通貨幣的性質、形製,還具 有特殊意義,這種特殊意義與錢文、特別是錢文中的“屯” 釋義關係密切。 從前面歸納的清以降關於錢文的若干釋義可以發 現,對“共”、“屯”二字的解釋多有不同,隨着考古 發掘及研究的深入,對將“共”釋為地名、赤金釋為銅 的解釋基本取得一致 21。錢文釋義中最有分歧的是“屯” 字。以往的各家釋義,無論是將“屯”釋為聚集、精美 等都可以將錢文解釋通,只是這些解釋側重了錢文表面 的意思,比較淺顯或偏頗。將“屯”釋為“純”,是對 錢文較為準確的理解。已成共識的“共屯赤金”即“共 地鑄造的純銅錢”,除了表明錢的產地、錢的品質外, 還應有其深層意義。先秦各國鑄幣,不論布幣、刀幣、 圜錢、銅仿貝還是楚國金幣等,多具銘文,銘文內容包 括地名如“晉陽”、吉語如“安臧”、天干地支如“申”、 紀重如“安陽一釿”、國名如“東周”、數字如“一”等, 無論按照傳統釋文還是新的解釋,似“共屯赤金”圜錢 這樣如此明示產地與質地的確屬首見。據戴志強、周衛 榮《中國歷代銅鑄幣合金成分探討》,《中國錢幣大系 先秦卷》附錄“先秦鑄幣(抽樣)銅合金成分化驗表” 等統計發現,魏國鑄造布幣的含銅量在 71%—85% 之間, 比其他國家同類錢幣高出約 20%;圜錢“垣”的含銅量 在 92.08%—99.31%,比其他國家同類錢幣高出約 35%, 為純銅所鑄。可見含銅量高是魏國鑄幣的特點,而且自 始至終,魏國鑄幣的平均含銅量都高於其他國家,由布 幣轉型圜錢時,錢含銅量直達純銅。魏國先後鑄造“共”、

“共屯赤金”、“垣”、“濟陰”、“桼垣一釿”等數 種圜錢,除“共屯赤金”為地名加錢質地外,均沿襲錢 文或為地名,或為地名加紀重的傳統習慣,縱觀錢幣歷史, 像“共屯赤金”這樣表明錢的質地的亦絕無僅有。由此 推測,“共屯赤金”不僅可以作為流通錢幣使用,似乎 還是製作圜錢的標準。 另外,除了以往各家引經據典的解釋外,關於“屯” 字還有很多不同解釋,“屯”在甲骨文中作 ,象形草 木始生之難,有開始之意。許慎《說文解字》:“屯, 難也。象草木之初生,屯然而難。”“屯”也是《周易》 六十四卦中第三卦的卦名,蘊意萬物初生,起始維艱。 魏國是最早鑄造和使用圜錢的國家,圜錢將源自農具鏟 形的貨幣形制改變為圓形圓孔的玉璧或紡輪式樣,是鑄 幣的重大革新,這種打破貨幣傳統式樣的舉措能否為國 人順利接受,為外國認可,關係著魏國經濟發展的前途 命運,關係着百姓的生計,關係著魏國的強大。為推行 新貨幣,在規模鑄造“共”、“垣”圜錢之前,鑄造“共 屯赤金”,既作為品質標準,也作為紀念,故錢文中“屯” 字的解釋,應具有甲骨文、《說文解字》及《周易》等 關於“屯”的原始意義即“初生”、“開始”。共邑在 鑄造“共屯赤金”、“共”圜錢之前,曾鑄造有“共半釿” 布幣,“共屯赤金”雖然不是共邑首鑄錢,卻是魏國貨 幣形制改革的源頭與開創地,蘊意“始鑄”合情合理。 “共屯赤金”具有特殊意義也體現在錢的鑄量上。 縱觀錢幣發展歷史,凡是國家鑄造的具有紀念意義的錢 幣如齊國的“齊返邦長法化(大刀)”、西漢大“半兩” 開爐錢、南唐的“大唐鎮庫”錢等鑄量都非常少,即使 這種錢可以作流通貨幣使用,也沒有大量鑄行的,鑄量小, 流傳下來的數量少,是此類具有特殊意義錢的普遍特徵。 綜上所述,“共屯赤金”圜錢是魏國最早鑄造的圜 錢之一,是魏國圜錢成色的標準錢,錢形開魏國、乃至 整個戰國時代貨幣形製的新紀元,為後來秦國的方孔元 錢奠定了基礎。 附記:在本文撰寫過程中,得到國家博物館檔案室 劉菲同志的幫助,特此致謝。 [ 編者注:《路史》一書很早之前就被證明完全沒 有可信度。文中提到的神農錢應該鑄造於史前時期,即 冶金技術發展成型之前。——史博祿 ]

注釋: 21

段穎龍撰文《戰國“共”系幣銘文新釋》,認為“共”通“賈”,非地名。《中國文物報》2013 年 4 月 26 日第 6 版。

東 亞 泉 志

108

THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS


Column 專欄

Engraving the Guia Lighthouse Image on the Macau Banknote Printing Plate Zhao Qiming (Shanghai) Macau’s return to China’s sovereignty was announced on December 20, 1999. The Chinese authority reached agreement with the Portuguese government on allowing China Banknote and Printing Corporation to design and print Macau banknotes that would be issued by the Bank of China to ensure a smooth transition of sovereignty. The Macau branch of the Bank of China and the Macau Banco Nacional Ultramarino jointly issued Macau banknotes on October 16, 1995 (each was responsible for 50% of the issuance). A total of

Zhao Qiming and his son, Zhao Qiang in front of the Guia lighthouse

2,487,500,000 yuan of Macau notes were issued by the Bank of China. To complete the design task of five types of Macau notes, a group of engravers and designers started a study tour to Macau. I, who was responsible for engraving the image of Guia lighthouse on the steel printing plate, also went to Macau with the investigation group.

We reached the top of the Guia hill by car on November 2, 1994. The Guia hill, 91 meters above sea level, is the highest peak in the Macau peninsula. The first lighthouse in coastal areas of China was built on the Guia hill in 1864. The Guia lighthouse is 13.5 meters high with a light range of 16 nautical miles and was also used to issue typhoon warning signals due to its high attitude. The Guia lighthouse, the church behind it, the old cannon that pointed at the ocean and towering telegraph poles came into my view when I stood on the top of the hill. The lighthouse basking in the sun looked brighter and whiter in the blue sky background and was integrated with thick leaves and light clouds. The cannon, old and mottled, seemed to tell us the endless past and to look forward to Macau’s return to the motherland. Foreign merchants bribed the Ming officials to allow their ships to stop at the Macau port when the Shibo department (the custom’s department) of Guangdong was moved to Macau in 1535. The Portuguese temporarily built

tens of thatched cottages along the coast for exchange and trade at first. Then, with the connivance of local officials who had accepted their bribes, they started to build tile-roofed houses, which finally developed into a village over several years. But the ancestors of Macau never stopped fighting for their sovereignty in those years. With the passage of time and the development of trade, Macau gradually became the center for trade contacts and cultural exchanges. Matteo Ricci, the well-known preacher, arrived in Macau in 1581 and entered the St. Paul’s Convent Church to study Chinese. Based in Macau, Matteo Ricci started his missionary tour around China and then co-translated the Euclid’s Elements with Xu Guangqi, who he encountered. Wei Yuan was commissioned by Lin Zexu and went to Macau to investigate when he was editing the Illustrated Treatise on the Maritime Kingdom in 1849. It was also in Macau that Dr Sun Yat-sen was initially exposed to western cultures. I kept on recalling what I had seen in Macau and tried to turn them into a sketch on the steel plate after returning to Shanghai. I “painted” 2 to 8 lines (within 1mm) with a knife, a needle and a magnifying glass before engraving the Guia lighthouse on the steel plate. To ‘draw’ a picture on the 56×48mm plate, I needed first to properly arrange the vision, the middle ground and close range and to ensure a clearly structured overall layout. Then, I had to combine

109

東 亞 泉 志

THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS


Column 專欄

The Macau 1995 10 yuan note designed by Zhao Qiming

my feelings, the views I had seen and sketch skills together and grasp the details while taking the whole situation into account. Like the sketch, the colors, the space arrangement, and the static and dynamic effects should be well performed on the steel plate. The overall layout designed in advance: the sky and leaves should be arranged horizontally, the roof, the hill slope and shadows should be put at an angle and the lighthouse and other buildings should be aligned vertically. Such arrangement conforms to the public aesthetic view which is rooted in the art vision of life. Horizontal lines are like tender women while vertical lines look as strong as men. Slanted lines, however, are always responsible for transiting and balancing.

The main image of the Guia lighthouse should be arranged in a vertical way. The shade and light areas created a three-dimensional effect when the white lighthouse was bathed in the sun. I divided the lighthouse image into two parts by the terminator and used lines of different density by the ‘Tong Mi Yi Shu’ sketch skill while engraving the lighthouse on the plate. Gradually-thinning lines were used in the shade area to reflect lights. In the light area, the gray tone gradually turned into bright highlight and the lines became thinner. The closer to the edge, the denser the lines became, which thus made a gray tone. Such skill is familiar to the ‘Ji Bai Dang Hei’ (the margin-leaving) technique of Chinese painting. Attention was paid to the details, such as tens of lines on the red roof of the lighthouse, too. Lines were thinner at both ends and horizontal lines were made finer on the top to represent the upward ball-shaped structure. Engravers can use lines of different length, thickness, shade, shape and density, to represent objects at different distances. This ‘Tong Lei Jian Bian’ skill is what we call ‘ever-changing dots and

東 亞 泉 志

110

THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS

The Guia lighthouse on the Macau 1995 10 yuan note lines’ when carving things.

My engraving work went smoothly. Dots and thin lines of the clouds were like silk threads made by spring silkworms while thick lines of mountains and leaves waved like a mighty pastoral. I used the technique of “Yi An Ji Liang” when engraving the clouds and the tree crown in the backlighting to decorate the large lighthouse image. I was very careful to avoid making a big but empty image. I was used to working 14 hours a day at that time. The words around the lighthouse were also carved by me. The work lasted for 3 months until we got approval from the bank officers. I bought several pieces as a souvenir of my work after the 10 yuan Macau note was issued. Brown is the main color of the 10 yuan Macau note issued on October 16, 1995. The predominant color was changed into red when new editions were released on January 8, 2001 and December 8, 2003.


Column 專欄 However, I forgot to collect these red 10 yuan notes. I told my son Zhao Qiang to exchange several pieces of such banknotes with RMB notes when he went to Macau in 2011. He managed to find two pieces of half new red notes after seeking around the peninsula. From the prefix number (two letters with five numbers), we can infer that the issuance of all editions of the 10 yuan Macau note is very limited. As time passes by, the 10 yuan Macau note becomes more popular among collectors and it is hard to get after it was replaced by coins and was removed from circulation. The Painting (Tiananmen, Haimen and Macau are linked together by the kite string) drawn by Zhao Qiming

This photo taken at the 2014 Macau International Currency Forum From left: He Shengnan, vice chairman of Macau Numismatic Society; Lv Ganzhou; Michael Chou, CEO of Champion Auction; King L. Chan, HK modern coin collector and researcher; Zhen Shuxheng, Hong Kong gold & silver modern coin collector and scholar and also a member of the Macau Numismatic Society; Zhao Qiming; Zhao Qiang; Wang Chunli, CEO of Beijing Hua Long Sheng Shi company; Yuan Shuiqing, chief editor of the Journal of East Asian Numismatics and David Chio, president of the Macau Numismatic Society Reprinted from 2nd Issue 2013 of China Numismatics

111

東 亞 泉 志

THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS


Column 專欄

澳門鈔主景“東望洋燈塔”雕刻散記 趙啟明(上海) 1999 年 12 月 20 日,澳門回歸 祖國的懷抱,標誌着中國對澳門正 式恢復行使主權。為了順利地完成 這個歷史過渡,早在回歸前中葡即 達成一致的意見:由中國印鈔造幣 總公司負責中國銀行澳門鈔的設計 與印製,自 1995 年 10 月 16 日開始, 由中國銀行澳門分行與澳門大西洋 銀行共同發鈔,各自發鈔的額度均 為 50%,中國銀行發行的澳門鈔總 面值為 24.875 億元。為出色地完成 澳門鈔五種面額的設計任務,銀行 方面組織雕刻人員前往澳門考察, 其中,澳門鈔壹拾圓的主景“東望 洋燈塔”由我負責鋼版雕刻。 1994 年 11 月 2 日, 我 們 乘 小 車盤山直抵東望洋山之巔。此乃澳 門半島最高峰,海拔 91 米。1864 年

趙啟明及其兒子趙檣於澳門東望洋燈塔前合影留念

建燈塔於其上,是屹立在中國沿岸地區第一座發光的燈塔,

趨勢以突出主題:天空和樹叢宜排水平線,房頂、山坡和暗

其高 13.5 米,燈光射程達 16 海裏;由於地勢高,燈塔也被用

部的處理順勢排斜線,燈塔及其它建築牆面宜排垂直線。源

作懸掛颱風預警訊號和燈號。我登高四望,燈塔聳翠,教堂

於生活的視覺藝術給予人們這樣的審美情趣:水平線平和、

殿后,古炮直指大海,電杆排插雲霄。在湛藍的天幕映襯下,

輕柔似有女性的柔美,垂直線矯健、持重似有男性的壯美,

日照塔身愈顯明亮潔白,蔥籠的樹叢和輕盈的雲朵與之渾然

而各種斜線在不同的場合扮演着過渡與諧調的角色。

一體。古炮臺殘垣斑駁,似向我輩敘述她曾經的滄桑與回歸 燈塔是畫面的主體,宜排挺拔的豎直線。潔白的圓柱體

的期待。

由於光照產生了豐富的明暗色調層次從而強化了立體感。為 1535 年外國商人向中國明朝官吏行賄,廣東官府將市舶

此我選用疏朗的線基,採用“同密異粗”的技法,如畫素描,

提舉司遷至澳門,允許外國商船在澳門入泊。起初,葡人只

從明暗交接線入手,進入暗部漸透反光,線條由粗漸細;而

在沿岸搭蓋茅棚數十間作臨時交易之所,受賄的地方官吏姑

向明部的灰調漸漸亮至高光,線條越刻越精細,接近邊緣時,

息之,葡人得寸進尺遂築建瓦房,數年間聚落成村,半島先

線距漸變刻密以偏灰色。這種鋼版畫的技藝巧合於中國畫論

民也為捍衛生存與主權而抗爭不息。歲月推移,貿易興旺,

的“計白當黑”。

澳門逐漸成為中外生意往來與文化交流之地:著名的傳教士 利瑪竇於 1581 年抵澳門入聖保祿修院學習中文,並以此為根

在處理局部細節方面,如表現燈塔上紅頂的十餘根線也

據地到中國各地傳播神學,後遇徐光啟合譯《幾何原本》;

頗講究:為表現其向左右圓轉,凡線條之兩端逐漸收細至尖尾;

1849 年魏源受林則徐委託趕編《海國圖志》曾到澳門考察;

為表現其向上,則越往上的橫線刻得越細。當同類物體所處

孫中山先生也是通過澳門才開始接觸西方文化。

位置遠近不同,可運用“同類漸變”技法,為每個物體按比 例匹配線條的長短、粗細、深淺、形態以及間距,即在雕刻

考察結束,我帶着所見所感回到上海,琢磨如何在鋼版

技藝中注重“點線無處不變化”。

上將它們演繹成為精微的點線化的素描,通過反復回放那時 的心路片段,坦露這些線路印痕。在鋼版上,我借助於放大鏡,

雕刻在有序而順利地進展着,畫面上風輕雲淡,細細的

以刀、針代筆在 1mm 內排 2 至 8 根線來雕刻東望洋燈塔這幅

點線如春蠶吐絲;層巒疊翠,波動的粗線好似渾厚的牧歌。

主景。面對這 56×48mm 的方寸之地,首先要把景物遠、中、

天空的雲朵,樹冠的逆光,運用了“以暗擠亮” 的技法,它

近的距離拉開,使前後層次分明、虛實相生掩映成趣,其次

們陪襯的燈塔面積大,稍有不慎,將會大而空,必須有輕有重,

將自己的情感、物感和點線技巧綜合起來考慮,既統籌全局,

時緩時急。

又兼顧細節。依照素描關係,各種物象的明暗色調、立體空 間和剛柔輕重之品質感,以及動感與靜態的效果必須表現完 美。雕刻必須做到未雨綢繆,事先注重線路的設計,把握大

東 亞 泉 志

112

THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS

當時每日工作 14 小時,習以為常。除了雕刻東望洋燈 塔主景外,我還刻製了周圍的所有文字。雕刻工作歷時三個月, 直至銀行主管認定滿意為止。


Column 專欄 澳門鈔發行之後,我買到了幾張拾圓券聊以自賞,畢竟

時,我囑以人民幣兌換幾張留念。他跑了好多地方才弄到兩

是自己親手雕刻的。1995 年 10 月 16 日發行的版本主色調為

張半新不舊的,從兩位數冠字加五位數號碼當知澳門鈔拾圓

棕色;2001 年 1 月 8 日和 2003 年 12 月 8 日發行的版本改為

券無論何種版本發行量都很小。時過境遷,澳門鈔逐步退出

紅色。

流通而代之以硬幣,堪為收藏界所青睞,因此得來不易。

這紅色拾圓券,我疏於收藏了。2011 年兒子趙檣赴澳門

(本文刊於《中國錢幣》2013 年第 2 期)

趙啟明設計的 1995 年澳門 10 圓紙鈔

1995 年澳門 10 圓紙鈔上的東望洋燈塔近景

趙啟明先生創作的天安門、海門、澳門一線牽作品

趙啟明先生在 2014 年澳門國際錢幣論壇合影。從左到右:澳門錢幣學會副理事長何盛南、呂幹洲,冠軍拍賣總裁周 邁可,香港現代金銀幣藏家和學者陳景林,澳門錢幣學會副理事長甄述聖,趙啟明,趙檣,北京華龍盛世執行董事 王春利,《東亞泉志》主編袁水清,澳門錢幣學會理事長趙康池

113

東 亞 泉 志

THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS


Column 專欄

Chinese Silver Treasure from the 10th Century Thomas Uhlmann (GER) From the 18th of September this year

tax payments. According to the inscription

the collection of Prof. Dr. Joachim Krüger

which is still readable in part, the silver of

will be viewable by the public for the first

the bars probably came from the sale of salt

time in the Kunstmuseum Moritzburg Halle

or from the taxation of salt trade, which

(Saale) with the title "China's Money".

had been administered as a state monopoly

Prof. Krüger donated his collection of 2,300

since the Tang dynasty.

Chinese and East Asian coins to the State Coin Cabinet of Sachsen-Anhalt in 2014, giving interested parties a new opportunity to explore East Asian numismatics.

The material of the bars has a very high purity of 93%-96% (single pieces up to 98%). The weight varied according to the type of barrages and always represented

A highlight of the exhibition is a

a multiple of a liang (a Chinese weight

silver bar from the 10th century (Pic. 1),

unit of about 37g). In addition to the large

which came from a shipwreck found in

pieces of 50 liang (1.85 kg), smaller bars of

November 1997. The wreck was found

40, 32, 24 or 23 liang, as well as fragments

about 150 km north of the coast of Jakarta

have been found. Due to the long period on

(Indonesia). Because it was located in the

the seabed, many specimens have eroded

Intan oilfield, it is commonly referred to as

and no longer have their original weight.

the "Intan wreck". In the spring of 1996, the

The mass varies in a range of 790-1720

companies Seabed Exploration and the Jade

grams. However the determination of the

Peilschiff GmbH received the order for the

initial weights is possible for some pieces

search and salvage of the wreck. For many

from the inscription. The origin of the silver

years fishermen had repeatedly discovered

cannot be fully determined but it probably

nets shards and bronze objects. In 1998

originates from the area around Guiyang,

over 11,000 finds were counted. The wreck

Guizhou Province. However, the material

turned out to be the oldest one that was

investigation allows for the conclusion that

discovered in the South China Sea ever.

the silver of the treasure comes from the

Pic. 1 Intan bar, Kunstmuseum Moritzburg, Landesmünzkabinett, MOMK62229

same mine or the same refinery. The recovered cargo consisted of gold jewelery, several bronze mirrors from

The illustrated cast bar has a weight

China and Java, ceramics, glass, copper

of 897 grams. The upper half of the piece

and lead, as well as 145 lead coins of the

is badly corroded; therefore, the inscription

emperor Lie Zu (917-942) of the southern

at the bottom cannot be completely

Han kingdom and 97 silver bars. The style

deciphered. Considering the remaining

Pic. 2 Coins Hartill 15.108 Kunstmuseum Moritzburg, Landesmünzkabinett, MOMK60214

of the goods and the Chinese coins of the

characters and taking into account the

Chinese hsi szu ("fine silk") or hsi yin ("fine

Qian Heng government (917-924) helped to

eroded material, one could conclude that it

silver"). Precious metal bars in a wide

date the wreck to the 10th century. Whether

was a 32 liang bar. There are remnants of

variety of forms were common means of

it actually sank during this period could not

the warning for counterfeiters on the left

payment for large sums in China until 1933.

be fully clarified, since the Emperor ruled

side and the guarantee of the inspector on

In medieval Germany there were also used

an additional 20 years and the coins (Pic.

the quantity of the silver on the right side.

for high value transactions, as the great

2) were valid beyond the year 924. Prof.

The liang symbol is easily readable at the

treasure trove of 14 silver bars in Erfurt has

Krüger received the rare bar in 1999 as a

lower right.

proved.

thanks for his expertise and assessment of

"sait-si") is a western rendering of the

The Chinese money system was

This bar from the Intan wreck is an

not based on the value of precious metal,

outstanding time document with special

The silver bars can be dated to the

but on cast bronze coins. However, larger

provenance, which is probably unique in

early Tang dynasty which later became

payments were made with "sycee" (ingots),

European collections. Even in China such

famous for silver bars. They were used

with privately produced silver and very rare

bars are considered extremely rare. They

as cash for major trades, international or

gold bars weighing up to 50 taels (about

should not be seen as pieces of supposedly

intergovernmental transactions and large

1.85 kg). The word sycee (pronounced

under-developed money.

the hoard.

東 亞 泉 志

114

THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS


Column 專欄

10 世紀的中國白銀珍寶 托馬斯·烏爾曼 ( 德國 ) 尤阿希姆·克魯格教授(博士)“中國錢幣”收藏展自 2016 年 9 月 18 日起向公眾開放,地點為哈雷(薩勒)莫里 茨堡博物館。2014 年,克魯格教授向薩克森 - 安哈爾特州 立錢幣陳列館捐贈了 2300 件中國及東亞各國錢幣藏品,為 廣大東亞錢幣愛好者提供了一次很好的學習和探索機會。 本次展覽的一大亮點是 1997 年 11 月從一艘沉船裡打 撈出來的一根 10 世紀的中國銀條(圖 1)。該沉船發現於 雅加達 ( 印尼 ) 海岸以北 150km 以外的海域,由於該發現地 正好位於印坦油田,所以這艘沉船通常又被稱之為“印坦沉 船”。1996 年春,Seabed Exploration 和 Jade Peilschiff 兩家 公司接受委託,開始了對印坦沉船的搜索和打撈工作。多年 以來,漁民在附近捕魚的時候經常可以發現陶瓷及青銅碎 片。截至 1998 年,人們一共從沉船上打撈到 11,000 多件物 品和碎片。後經證實,該沉船是迄今為止在中國南海海域發 現的最為古老的一艘沉船。

圖 2 乾亨重寶 哈蒂爾 15.108,莫里茨堡藝術博物館錢 幣陳列館藏品,MOMK60214 銀條的鑄造可追溯到唐代早期,唐朝後來則以製造大 規格銀條而聞名於世。這種銀條作為貨幣在當時被用於大 宗貿易、國際及政府間交易以及繳納高額稅費等活動。從 銀條邊角處尚能識別的銘文推斷,該銀條可能是當時食鹽 貿易的貨款或者稅款。自唐朝起,食鹽貿易開始為政府所 壟斷。 這批銀條(塊)的純度高達 93% 到 96%(有的則超過 98%)。雖形狀各異,重量不盡相同,但都統一標記着重多 少多少“兩”(中國重量單位,約為 37 克)。最重的銀條 (塊)為 50 兩(1.85 千克),輕一些的有 40 兩、32 兩、 24 兩 及 23 兩,另外還有一些散碎銀子。許多銀條(塊) 因長時間浸泡在海底而受到了一定程度的侵蝕,從而損耗 了部分的重量。多數銀條(塊)的重量都在 790-1720 克之間, 有的可根據其所刻銘文推測出原始重量。雖然不能推斷出 確切來源,但這批銀條(塊)很有可能產自貴州貴陽一帶。 不過通過對其材質的調查,研究人員發現鑄造這批銀條(塊) 的白銀實際出自同一所銀礦。 圖中的銀條重 897 克,因其上半部分侵蝕嚴重,故無 法完全識別出底部所刻銘文的內容。據殘存的文字及對侵 蝕部分的推斷來看,這根銀條的原始重量應為 32 兩。銀條 左側有殘存的禁止造假標識,右側所刻銘文顯示該銀錠銀 質檢驗合格,右下部的重量單位“兩”字清晰可見。

圖 1 印坦沉船上發現的中國銀鋌 莫里茨堡藝術博物館錢 幣陳列館藏品,MOMK62229 從沉船上打撈出來的物品有金銀珠寶、幾片中國和爪 哇製造的銅鏡、瓷器及玻璃碎片、銅塊、鉛塊、145 枚南漢 高祖(917-942 年)時期的鉛製錢幣以及 97 根銀條。根據 所發現物品的風格樣式及這些南漢乾亨年間的錢幣,我們可 以推斷出該沉船的所屬年代應為西元 10 世紀左右。但由於 高祖劉龑在將年號由乾亨改為白龍之後又在位統治了 17 年, 而在這段時間裡乾亨重寶 ( 圖 2) 仍舊在市面上流通,所以

中國古代的貨幣體系以銅錢而非貴金屬為基礎。但在 涉及金額較大的貿易中,人們會使用重達 50 兩(約 1.85 千克) 的私鑄銀錠或更為稀有的金條(塊)來進行交易。英語中 sycee(金銀錠)一詞的發音為 sa 'si,是西方人對漢語中“細絲” 或“細銀”二詞中文發音的化用。1933 年之前,中國人在 大額交易中通常會使用各式各樣的貴金屬塊(條)進行結算。 在德國埃爾福特發現的寶藏中同樣出現了 14 根銀條,這表 明在中世紀的德國這種貴金屬塊(條)同樣價值不菲。

我們無法確定這艘沉船是否就是沉沒於乾亨年間。1999 年,

這根印坦沉船銀條是一段歷史的有力見證者,不僅來

克魯格教授憑其專業知識對沉船上的物品進行了評估和鑒

源奇特,還有可能是全歐洲獨一無二的一件藏品。即便是

定,而上面提到的那根珍貴的銀條就是克魯格教授此次工

在中國,這種銀條也是極為稀有的,所以我們不應該將其

作的謝禮。

作為一種發展欠完善的貨幣形式進行對待。

115

東 亞 泉 志

THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS


Column 專欄

A Rare Kweichow Note Xie Fei (Guiyang)

The 1938 Songtao Mayang street Yao Wanshun note that could be exchanged for 1 string of coins, collected by the China Numismatic Museum, from the Great Dictionary of Chinese Numismatics: the Republic of China, County-Village Banknotes I had participated in editing the Great dictionary of Chinese Numismatics: the Republic of China, County-Village Banknotes and received a sample of the book not long ago. In the book, I saw a rare Kweichow note. I am very eager to introduce the note to fellow collectors as this is the first time that I encountered such a rare Kweichow note in my years of study. The Songtao Mayang Street Yao Wanshun 1 string note Vertical orientation, size unknown, yellow face, red edge. The descriptions are: “Yao Wanshun, Mayang street, Songtao County”; “can be exchanged for 1 string of coins”; “Xing, No 105, note of Yang Wan Shun in Songtao county issued on an auspicious day in the twenty-seventh year of the Republic of China” (from right to left), with seals of “Wan Shang Yun Ji” (thousands of merchants gather together),

東 亞 泉 志

116

THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS

“Yao Wan Shun Hao” (Yao Wanshun’s exchange shop) and a seal next to the “Jing Shou” inscription. The back is blue, with “Song Tao” on the top, the Magpie and Plum Blossom painting in the center, “Yu Guo Tong Shang” at the bottom and “Song Tao Qing Hua Dai Yin” (printed by Qing Hua in Songtao county) at the bottom edge. Paper money, also known as Qian Zhuang Piao, Qian Piao, Si Piao, Zhi Qian Piao, Tong Yuan Piao, Yin Piao, Liu Tong Quan, Si Tie, Shang Chao, Shang Tie, Dai Jia Quan, Tu Piao, Tu Chao, Diao Piao and Jie Piao (in Yunan province and Kweichow province) are notes (that can be used as a measure of value) which circulated in a certain region and were issued by county governments, institutions at and below county level, county commerce chambers, money and exchange shops, the silver money industry, pawn shops, factories and mines, enterprises, stores, oil stations, rice shops, temples and


Column 專欄 even whorehouses and individuals without the authority’s legal permission. The commodity economy of Kweichow was underdeveloped due to poor transpertation and backward productivity in ancient times. But paper notes have been printed and issued from early on in this region. According to Ancient History of Kweichow, Anshun officers imposed a heavy silver-consumption tax and mostly demanded notes from the ordinary people in 1737. Kweichow notes began to thrive in Tongren, Zhenyuan, Songtao and other counties in the east of Kweichow province during the middle of the Qing dynasty. Most were unsecured notes without reserve fund, issued by shops and dealers. The issuers usually refused to cash these notes under the excuse of bankruptcy. The government thus ordered that the release of notes must be supervised by the commerce chamber and guaranteed by 10 rich merchants and at least 8 shops. But the order didn’t mention anything about the reserve fund. Notes prospered in Kweichow from 1884 to 1924. More than 150 shops had released notes during that time in Kweichow. Notes that were worth over 100,000 strings of coins were released in Tongren county. It should be mentioned that most of these notes were issued in the east of Kweichow, which had certain relations with the prosperity of Hunan paper money. According to Kweichow Provincial Archives: Section 3, Volume 249: Copper coin notes were only issued in Songtao, Chishui and Zunyi in Kweichow province in 1934. Such notes were released by the Bureau of Income Tax, the Bureau of Education and the Sun Yushun money shop. Actually, Songtao notes prospered around 1931 and they had a large circulation and wide coverage. Mayang street in Songtao county was a prosperous business street before liberation. Forty to fifty shops were located on this street at that time. Shops that issued notes included the well-known “Eight Shops” which are Xu Sheng Tai, Tu Song Tai, Zhou Ming Shun, Zhou Ji Shun, Zhou Heng Sheng, Sun Yu Shun, Liu Ren Tai and Ming Shung He, and middle and small shops or houses of cloth, cotton yarn, grocery, porcelain, drugs, silver-smith, oil, salt and even alcohol and tobacco, like Yu De Hou, Fu Da Zhai, San He Hao, Zou Xin Ji, Wan Hai Shan, Lin Heng Chun, Liu Tai An, Lei Yuan Sheng, Luo Mao Tou, Luo Mao Xin, Tong Wan Shun, Bao He Tang, Lu Yong Xing, Li Rong Fa, Yang Huai Ji, Li He Ji Sun Yu Shun, Wu Ji Chang, Sun Yin Sheng, Liu Er Mao, Li Da Yong and others. Tens of merchants and stores including big shops like Xu Tai Sheng and small traders like Lei Yinhua, had issued paper money in the main towns, such

as Daping, Pujue, Mengxi, Wuluo, Ganlong and Changxing in rural areas. The denominations ranged from 1000 yuan to five or ten yuan. Most of Songtao circulating paper money were copper coin notes in units of cash and string. Only a few were silver coin notes measured in dime and yuan. These notes were printed with wood - carved or stone plates. Most lithographic notes were printed by thelocal Qing Hua Stone Lithography Bureau and Mao Xin Stone Lithography Bureau. Several shops had their notes printed in Changde, Hunan province. Normally, notes printed with stone plates were of better quality and had decorative patterns and designs while wooden plate notes with simple designs were made from rough paper and often circulated in rural areas. The Lin Heng Chun jewelry shop issued 10,000 pieces of exquisitely printed rectangular notes with two seals (regular and seal scripts) of “Lin Hung Chun”, an oval colorful picture of a landscape (in the center) and overdyed patterns (around the edge)on the face and the inscription of “one string of coins, this note can be exchanged for 10 pieces of 100 cash copper coins” on the back. Paper money issued by Xu Sheng Tai, Zhou Ming Chang and Lin Heng Chun not only circulated in the local county but could be used in neighboring counties like Xiushan county in Sichuan province; Suoli (Jishou), Qianzhou, Zhengan (Fenghuang), Yongsui (Huayuan), Longxikou (Xinhuang), and Mayang counties in Hunan province, and Tongren, Yinjiang and Yanhe counties in Kweichow province. These notes could also be cashed or exchanged in shops which had contacts or business relations with issuers in Changsha, Hankou and Changde. These ever popular notes were privately printed and released at first. Then, the county commerce chamber intervened and issued regulations on limiting the denomination and checking the original copy. Big businesses boycotted these regulations and continued to print and issue notes while small shops had no choice but to compromise and to stop issuing. Various kinds of notes without being guaranteed by reserve fund or fixed assets were issued. Such notes often couldn't be cashed. Some dealers would leave or escape to other provinces after their shops wereshut down. If that happened, the holders couldn’t cash their notes and had to accept the bad luckof the loss.The Republic Government carried out the “legal currency policy” and banned privately printed notes in 1935. After that, Songtao notes were gradually taken out of circulation.

117

東 亞 泉 志

THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS


Column 專欄

一枚罕見的貴州松桃錢票 解飛(貴陽)

民國 27 年松桃麻陽街姚萬順憑票兌市錢壹串文,中國錢幣博物館藏 轉自《中國錢幣大辭典·民國編·縣鄉紙幣卷》 筆者躬逢其盛,曾參與《中國錢幣大辭典·民國編·縣

右下有“經手”及印章。背面:藍色,上橫書“松桃”,

鄉紙幣卷》的編寫工作,並在不久前收到樣書,見其上

中為喜上(梅)眉梢圖,下豎書“裕國通商”;邊框外

載有一张罕見的貴州省松桃縣錢票,甚为欣喜。筆者收藏、

底部印有說明:“松桃慶華代印”。

研究貴州地方錢钞經年,這樣的貴州纸幣精品,还是第 一次見到,品鉴之余,遂对贵州钱票作了研究,现分享 同好。

銀票、流通券、私帖、商鈔、商帖、代價券、土票、土 鈔、吊票等,雲貴地區叫街票,是指未經政府法律允許,

錢票名稱:松桃麻陽街姚萬順一串文 票面:直式,票幅不詳。正面:主色調黃色,邊框紅色; 票首為發行單位“松桃麻陽街姚萬順”,占票面 1/3;下 部中央為“憑票兌市錢壹串文正,此據”,自右至左分 別為“興字第壹 0 五號 , 民國廿七年吉日松桃姚萬順號 票”,加蓋有“萬商雲集”迎首章和“姚萬順號”壓數章,

東 亞 泉 志

錢票也叫錢莊票、錢票、私票、製錢票、銅圓票、

118

THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS

由縣政府、縣級機構以及縣以下地方政府機構、縣商會、 錢莊、票號、銀錢業、當鋪、廠礦、企業、商店、油店、 米店、寺廟甚至妓院和個人發行的、在一定範圍內流通、 能體現貨幣的流通及價值尺度等職能的紙幣。 歷史上的貴州,由於交通閉塞、生產力落後 , 商品 經濟不發達,但是,錢票的印製發行卻不晚,據《貴州


Column 專欄 古代史》記載,乾隆二年(1737 年),“安順府各級官 吏額外浮收,重加火耗,多索錢票”。

有徐生泰等大商號;最小的 5 至 10 元,有雷銀花等小商人。 在松桃流通的錢票中,銅元是發行最多的,幣值以

清朝中葉,貴州錢票開始在黔東的銅仁、鎮遠、松

“文”、“串”為單位;發行銀元票是少數,以角、元

桃等縣盛行起來,多為商家發行,一無準備,二無擔保,

為單位。票面印刷有木刻和石印兩種,石印的多數在本

發行商店,常藉口倒閉,為害鄉里。由是政府下令,以

縣的慶華石印局和茂鑫石印局,個別商號去湖南常德石

後出錢票的商家,由商會負責,須有 10 家富商擔保,至

印。石印的紙張一般較好,有花紋圖案等裝飾。木刻的

少須 8 家擔保後方能發行,但並沒有關於準備金的要求。

多在農村流通使用,紙張較粗,花紋圖案也很簡單。

光緒十年(1884 年)至民國 13 年(1924 年)是貴

林恒春銀樓發行的銅元票有 1 萬張,呈長方形,印

州錢票大盛的時期,貴州約有 150 餘家各種商號發行錢

製較為精美,正面有“林恒春”楷書和篆書兩枚印章,

票,僅銅仁一縣就發行有錢票 10 多萬吊,值得注意的是,

中間有橢圓形山水有色圖案,四周邊框有套色花紋,背

貴州錢票的發行大多集中於黔東,這和湖南錢票大為流

面印有“一串文,憑票兌換當百銅元十枚”字樣。

行不無關係。 據《貴州省檔案館“2”宗 249 卷》載:“銅元票的

徐生泰、周命昌、林恒春等發行的錢票,不僅在本 縣廣為流通,而且在鄰近的四川省秀山縣,湖南省所裡 ( 吉

流通,民國二十三年在貴州僅有松桃、赤水、遵義發行過。”

首 )、乾州、鎮竿 ( 鳳凰 )、永綏 ( 花垣 )、龍溪口 ( 新晃 )、

又載:“在松桃是由餉捐局、教育局和孫裕順錢莊發行。”

麻陽及本省的銅仁、印江、沿河等縣也能使用。在長沙、

其實,松桃錢票盛於民國 20 年左右,發行面寬,數量也大。

漢口、常德有聯絡和貿易關係的商號,還能持票兌現或

松桃縣城麻陽街,解放前是一條繁榮、熱鬧的商業

辦理匯兌。

街,大小商號店鋪有四五十家。著名的“八大商號”都

紅極一時的錢票,先是私印私發,後縣商會出面干預,

發行過錢票,他們是徐生泰、塗松泰、周明順、周吉順、

提出“限製票額,查驗底本”的規定,大商號串通一氣抵製,

周恒盛、孫玉順、劉仁泰、明雙和等八家,還有些中小

仍照常印發,小商人無法抗拒,有所收斂或自行停發。

店鋪和商家也發行過錢票。如布店、棉紗店、百貨店、 瓷器店、藥店、銀匠鋪、染匠房,以及賣油、賣鹽的, 連賣煙酒的都發行過,據說有德裕厚、傅達齋、三合號、 鄒新記、萬海山、林恒春、劉泰安、雷源盛、羅貓頭、 周茂鑫、童萬順、寶和堂、陸永興、李榮發、楊懷記、 李和記、孫裕順、吳繼常、孫銀生、劉二毛,黎大永等; 在農村主要集鎮大坪、普覺、孟溪、烏羅、甘龍、長興 等地,也有數十家商人發行過錢票。發行額最大的上千元,

由於錢幣發行名目繁多,形色各異,既無準備基金, 又無固定財產的擔保,所以經常發生不能兌付的情況, 有的商家一旦發生倒閉,就離家躲藏,或捲逃外省,持 票人兌付無着,只有幹認倒楣。 民國 24 年(1935 年),國民政府實行“法幣政策”, 明令“查禁錢票”後,松桃錢票才停止使用,並逐漸退 出流通領域。

119

東 亞 泉 志

THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS


Column 專欄

Letters from the Well-known Numismatist Ma Dingxiang to Han Youzheng Yuan Shuiqing (Xi'an) I have always had a passion for collecting letters and have found that letters between famous numismatists are useful materials for study. On April 19 th, 2014, I visited Mr. Han Youzheng (1942) in Qian county and bought 21 letters from Ma Dingxiang, a wellknown numismatist (1916.11-1991.3); several banknotes from the Qing dynasty and the Republic of China; two letters from Zhao Shanchang and two calligraphy scrolls written by Zhang Baozisuo and Xu Feng (Pic 1). After studying Ma Dingxiang’s letters for

Pic 1 Han Youzheng (left) transferring his letters from Ma Dingxiang to the author (right) at his home in Qian county on April 19th, 2014

two days, and although these letters just reflected a small part of his career, I was deeply impressed by the life of this great numismatist.

Compared with Ma Dingxiang, Han Youzheng is unknown to coin collectors and scholars. He has spent much of his life in a highway maintenance job and has been collecting stamps and banknotes for over 40 years. He once had 1,000 kinds of banknotes, the quantity is more than 10,000, and he has donated 2,420 pcs of them to the state six times. Han Youzheng has published seven books based on his collection and collecting experiences, including: Essays of Han Youzheng’s Collection, Notes of Banking Houses in Old China, Banknotes Issued by Chinese Banks, Selected Chinese and Japanese Envelopes and The Joy of Stamp Collecting. Mr. Han thought he was old and should give away his collections as his son preferred to collect paper-cutting rather than letters. He also needed money for his wife’s medical expenses, he finally decided to transferred Ma Dingxiang’s letters to me. Han Youzheng gave me a total of 21 letters and envelops from Ma Dingxiang, including fourteen letters (22 pages) with envelops and seven envelops (the letters had been lost). All letters were written between 1989 and 1990, among

東 亞 泉 志

120

THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS

Pic 2 A letter written by Ma Dingxiang's secretary on December 4th, 1990, to Han Youzheng.

which, three were written by Ma Dingxiang’s secretary when he was seriously ill. The earliest letter was written on July 1st,1989, by Mr. Ma himself (at the age of 73) after returning to Shanghai from a trip to Japan. Ma Dingxiang wrote the latest letter on September 10th,1990, before he went to America to visit his family. Mr. Ma’s secretary wrote the last letter for him on December 4th, 1990, when he came back from America and didn’t feel very well. Three months later, Ma Dingxiang passed away at the age of 75. These letters written in Ma Dingxiang’s old age, were in neat format with concise but comprehensive and sincere


Column 專欄 words. In these letters Mr Ma discussed the exchange of banknotes, envelops and receipts with Han Youzheng giving us a glimpse into Ma Dingxiang’s life two years before his death. I concluded three noble qualities that made Ma Dingxiang a master of numismatics after studying his letters to Han Youzheng. He never stopped chasing rarities Ma Dingxiang was famous when he communicated with Han Youzheng from 1989 to 1990. He was the first Chinese numismatist who was invited to give lectures in Japan and was an authority on coin identification. Normally, it was just the right age to retire and enjoy a quiet life of old age. But Ma Dingxiang didn’t stop chasing rare coins and notes. I suppose it is this spirit that had made him a master of numismatics. Back in the 1950s, Ma Dingxiang, with his second son, Ma Chuande specially went to Xian to buy a 1907 one tael exchange cash note of the Qinfengchang bank from the famous collector Qu Huichuan. He wrote to Han Youzheng on March 2nd, and July 7th, 1990, as soon as he found there were a Shan Bai Piao (a 1910 official note valued at one tael sycee issued by the Shaanxi branch of Da Qing Bank) and a Shan Si Liang (chromatic dragon notes with denominations of one , three, five and ten tael issued by official Shaanxi banks ) in Han Youzheng’s exchange list. In these letters, he said: “I would

Pic 3 A letter written by Ma Dingxiang on July 8th, 1990

like to exchange 20 entire covers sticked with Imperial China coiling dragon stamps for a Shan Bai Piao with you as I have been looking for a Shan Bai Piao. If you can give me a Shan Si Liang I am very eager to give you some more rare envelops in return.” Finally, Mr. Ma agreed and sent Han Youzheng over ten banknotes and specimens, including: a Mongolian version of the 1951 10,000 yuan note with horses issued by the People’s Bank of China, an Uyghur version of

10,000 yuan camel caravan banknote, a 1953 5,000 yuan, steam passenger train crossing the bridge over the Wei River note, a Soviet version of the 10 yuan, worker and peasant banknote, a 1949, half dollar note issued by the People’s Bank of Southern China and others including eight envelops of the Republic of China and also two numismatic books: the first volume of People’s Currency (about 6.7 jin in weight ) and Ding Zhanggong’s A Brief Illustrated History of Chinese

121

東 亞 泉 志

THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS


Column 專欄 Military Notes and Bonds published by Ding Zhanggongliang in Taiwan. He had a clear focus Without a clear aim and focus, one cannot make any achievement in collecting. This is what I have learned from Ma Dingxiang’s letters. Ma replied to Han Youzheng after receiving his banknotes on May 13th, 1990. In this letter, he said: “The parcel has been received, I found some ordinary items. My biggest interest is in collecting copper coins, notes issued by foreign banks, notes from the early Qing dynasty and other rare specimens. Except patterns, I prefer rare coins and notes than fine ones.” Then, Ma Dingxiang sent Han fifteen sets of separately packed old banknotes to exchange his Shanbei notes and other paper money on July 16th, 1989. He told Han: “I want some notes issued by foreign banks like the Deutsche Asiatische Bank, the Yokohama Specie Bank and the Chinese-French Industrial Bank. They don’t need to be in perfect condition as I just want to complete my collection.” Han Youzheng’s interest was in collecting envelops and he enclosed a stamp for Ma posting a replying letter to him in the envelop every time he wrote to Ma Dingxiang. Although Ma also liked envelops he preferred to collect early envelops and didn’t care to give his collections away. Ma DingXiang also liked to collect early receipts, especially deeds from the early Qing dynasty as he thought this was a “less explored area.” When Han Youzheng expressed the desire to sell the early land deeds of his family, Ma Dingxiang wrote to him on October 16th, 1989, and said: “I am very interested in the land deeds you have mentioned and want to exchange several envelops from the Republic of China or other paper money you want for them.” Ma Dingxiang searched out seven banknotes (a Helongjiang branch 10 yuan promissory note, a Guangdong 5 cents note with a plain reverse, a Jiangxi Construction Bank 5 cents junk note, a 1948 Beihai Bank 1000 yuan banknote, a 1918 Jilin Yongheng half dollar, a 1915 Hunan banknote valued at 10 coins and a 1926 Jilin Yongheng 10 yuan note) and sent them to Han Youzheng in exchange for the land deeds on March 2nd, 1990. He was a law-abiding and honest person Ma Dingxiang was a law-abiding heritage expert. The Law of the PRC Governing Cultural Relics had just been promulgated when Ma started to communicate with Han Youzheng. He made it clear in his first letter that: “All coins

東 亞 泉 志

122

THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS

and notes (no gold and silver coins) should be exchanged not sold, in case people think we are doing business.” In the letter written on February 9th, 1990, he stressed once again that “I only exchange and not sell or buy coins and notes after the Law of the PRC Governing Cultural Relics was enacted. This is my principle.” Ma warned Han Youzheng again in the letter written on July 8th, “I keep telling you not to price your notes in case they are bought by smugglers. It would cause you trouble to get involved with these people.” He also mentioned that he had put most of his collections into a bank vault not in his home to avoid being stolen or ruined by fire. Ma Dingxiang was very careful to make friends with coin or note collectors. He thought Han was “an honest and upright person”, “your collection is nearly perfect and there is no one else that can compare with you” and “I believe you are an honest friend to communicate with although we haven’t known each other for a long time.” The advice and comments mentioned above shows that Ma Dingxiang was a law abiding, cautious person who was eager to encourage younger collectors. “Being honest” was Ma Dingxiang’s principle of life. He replied to every letter he received from other collectors like Han Youzheng, and tried his best to satisfy them even at the price of damaging his own interests in note exchange activities. He stuck to his principles and would make sure types and condition of the notes before exchange so the other collector wouldn’t “regret or return the notes afterward” as “it’s too much trouble”. Ma Dingxiang used to write letters at night and even when temperature reached 38 centigrade. He insisted on writing a letter to Han Youzheng when he had been ill in bed on January 11st 1990, as “the exchange activity hasn’t been done”. Every time I read these letters I see a great master who had devoted his life to collecting coins and banknotes. These letters witness the friendship between a great numismatist and a common collector. Han Youzheng told me that “Mr. Ma deserved the title of ‘master’. It’s a pity that he passed away at such a young age.” When I called him on July 25th, 2016, “He gave me 20 pieces of rare banknotes and many ancient envelops. I feel a little bit guilty as the “Shan Si Liang” he fancied had been bought by other people before he wrote to me. He was an honest, venerable master who sought neither fame nor gain. His persistence and perseverance will always be my personal example.” This article was originally published on The 2016 Macau Aspect Banknote, several changes are made here.


Column 專欄

從錢幣大師馬定祥晚年致韓有政信函看其大家風範 袁水清(西安) 中國錢幣界名人 手劄是研究泉界歷史人 物、歷史事件的寶貴資 料,向為我收藏之所好。 馬 定 祥 先 生(1916.111991.3) 是 當 代 中 國 著 名 錢 幣 學 家。2014 年 4 月 19 日,陝西知名收藏 家韓有政先生(1942-) 在其乾縣家中,將珍藏 多年的馬定祥給他的 21 封信函,以及清朝、民 國紙幣數張,趙善長信 2 封, 張 包 子 俊、 徐 楓 題詞書法軸 2 幅,一併 轉 讓 於 我( 圖 1)。 緣 由是“年事已高,兒子 只喜剪紙藝術,老伴患 腦溢血治療需要資金”。 返回西安後,我用兩天 時間對馬定祥信函進行

圖 1 2014 年 4 月 19 日韓有政(左)在其乾縣家中將馬定祥致他的信件轉讓作者

了研讀,雖對他的錢幣人生是管中窺豹,但感觸頗深。

相對於馬定祥,韓有政為泉界所知不多。他大半生 從事公路養護,集郵、集鈔 40 餘年,其中國歷代紙幣擁 有量最高時達 1000 種 1 萬餘張,先後 6 次向國家捐獻紙 幣 2420 張。以自己的收藏經驗和實物為基礎,出版有《韓 有政收藏文集》《舊中國民間錢莊紙幣》《中國各省地 方銀行紙幣》《中日實寄封選》《我的集郵之樂》等著 作 7 本。 展閱馬定祥這批信函,21 封中,信封與信箋同在的 14 封 22 頁;另 7 封僅存信封,其中 3 封為馬定祥病重 時秘書代複。時間段為 1989-1990 年,最早的一封寫於 1989 年 7 月 1 日,是馬老應邀赴日本講學回滬不久,時 年 73 歲;最晚的一封親筆信是 1990 年 9 月 10 日即赴美 探親之前所寫,最後一封為 1990 年 12 月 4 日秘書代複, 時馬老已“訪美經港回國”,“身體欠佳”(圖 2)。3 個月後,75 歲的馬定祥溘然長逝。 綜觀馬定祥晚年這批信函,書寫工整,語氣懇切, 言簡意賅,均圍繞二人在紙幣、實寄封及契據交換方面 的事宜,為我們呈現了馬老臨終前兩年一段鮮活的收藏 歷史。筆者從信函中濃縮出以下三點,從中可以看出這 位錢幣大師的大家風範。

圖 2 1990 年 12 月 4 日馬定祥秘書代書韓有政

一、追尋珍品,始終不渝。韓有政與馬定祥通信的 1989—1990 年,正是馬老“很開眼、很過癮、很風光的 幾年”。他“是中國泉幣界第一個到日之人”。此時馬 定祥幣鈔集藏宏富、鑒定一錘定音、數次無私捐獻,名 氣很大。本該安享晚年,但他並未止步,依然“嗜錢如 命”,執着追尋珍稀幣鈔。這就是大家的境界。“方圓 乾坤里,多少使人迷”,珍稀品更具魅力。早在 20 世紀 50 年代,馬定祥就和次子馬傳德專程來西安,從著名集 鈔家渠匯川處易得一張光緒三十三年秦豐昌銀行壹兩兌 換銀票,如獲至寶。此次當發現韓有政開列的轉讓目錄

123

東 亞 泉 志

THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS


Column 專欄

圖 3 1990 年 7 月 8 日馬定祥致韓有政信及信封

中有“陝百票”(清代宣統二年陝西大清銀行兌換平足 紋銀壹百兩券)和“陝四兩”(陝西官銀錢號五彩龍銀 兩票壹兩、三兩、五兩、拾兩)珍稀紙幣時,即於 1990 年 3 月 2 日、7 月 7 日分別復信道:“對於陝百票,因 我所喜,我願遵您囑以二十枚蟠龍實寄封與您交換”;

東 亞 泉 志

124

THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS

“還有您的陝四兩,我就想要一張,如願割愛,我再奉 上一些相當稀少的其他品種如何?”經過多次協商(圖 3),最後按韓有政選定的交換方案,馬老以帶饋贈性質 的交換,寄給韓有政中國人民銀行 1951 年壹萬圓馬群蒙 文版、壹萬圓駝隊維文版券,1953 年伍仟圓渭河橋、拾


Column 專欄 圓工農圖蘇聯版券,1949 年南方人民銀行伍角券等共 10 多張紙幣及票樣;8 枚民國實寄封;加贈 2 本泉著——“《人 民貨幣》卷一巨冊,約重 6.7 斤”;臺灣出版的丁張弓 良著《中國軍用鈔票史略》。易得韓有政一張“陝百票”。 韓有政十分滿意,馬老亦如願以償。 二、突出重點,提檔補缺。一個人想要在收藏上玩 出成就,就必須選定重點,有所取捨。這是我從馬定祥 這批信函中悟出的真諦。馬老在 1990 年 5 月 13 日收到 韓的紙幣後回信說:“紙包已收,皆一般之物。”“我 最最喜歡的是好銅元,其次是洋商客鈔、前清早期票以 及各種少的票樣,除票樣注重品相外,其餘均以稀少為 主。”1989 年 7 月 16 日馬老寄給韓有政“分袋裝開之 舊鈔 15 組”,換韓之陝北券及所需要的紙幣,信中說: “對於品相,我倒並不苛求,例如德華、正金、中法實 業等外商鈔,破舊些也無妨,因我缺失也。” 韓有政喜集實寄封,給馬老的去信每次都另夾回郵 郵票。馬老亦對實寄封“頗感興趣”,不過注重於解放前者, 且“最喜早期實寄封”。 馬老還對早期特別是前清的契據樂於收藏,認為 “這類契據集者乏人,是項冷門”。韓有政擬轉讓保存 的韓氏家族比較完整的早期地契,馬老在 1989 年 10 月 16 日去信說:“以若干民國封,或若干您所配缺之紙幣, 以交換您所告我的一批契據,因我對這類東西亦感興趣 也。”1990 年 3 月 2 日,馬老隨手在抽斗里找出“黑龍 江分行拾圓期票、廣東省伍分大洋票(光背)、江西建 設銀行伍分左右船、北海 37 年壹仟、吉林永衡七年五角、 湖南四年壹拾枚、吉林永衡大洋拾圓(民十五)”共 7 張寄換韓之土地契。 三、守法防範,誠信第一。馬定祥是一位遵法守紀 的文博專家。韓有政與馬老交往時恰好國家《文物法》 剛剛頒佈。在給韓有政的第一封信中馬老就明確表示“幣 (金銀幣拒收)鈔皆限互相交換,以免人議”,“誤會 我倆在做生意”。在 1990 年 2 月 9 日的信中又強調:“我

的原則是自從國家頒佈《文物法》後,凡是錢幣包括紙幣, 只談同好之間互易有無,不談現款交易。”同年 7 月 8 日信中說:“我曾再三勸告您勿對於票紙示價,尤其要 防走私販子用錢購買,如果那種人出岔子,那就難免使 您牽連,屆時您會受害匪淺的。”不僅對韓多次提醒告誡, 而且在信中示意防範,他說自己的大部分藏品都不放在 家中,以防火防盜而存入銀行保險庫中。馬老在與泉友 交往中更加謹慎。他認為韓有政“乃一位仁人君子”, “您 的集鈔實已甚好,要配缺品不容易了,一般的集鈔家已 不可能同您相論矣!”“您我相交雖尚不久,但我認為 您是一位可交的同好,才樂於通信。”上述忠告和評論, 既說明馬老遵守法律,防範意識強,又體現了對後學的 關懷和鼓勵。 誠信是馬老做人處事的基點。他對待韓有政和對待 其他眾多泉友一樣“來信必複,有問必答”。交換中儘 量滿足對方,哪怕自己吃虧。但做事原則性很強,與韓 商交換前即講清紙幣或郵品的品種及其品相, “互換之後, 不要翻悔,也勿再行退換,否則太煩神矣!”。為了及 時給韓回復,有時深夜伏案,甚至不顧天氣炎熱,帶病 在高溫達 38℃的室內汗流浹背寫信。1990 年 1 月 11 日 的信更是帶病在床上所寫,因與韓“交換契據之事,尚 未解決”。此情此景,感人肺腑。 近兩年每當我翻閱馬老的這些寶貴信函時,他為中 國錢幣事業傾盡其終生精力的高大形象便會浮現在眼前。 他晚年與韓有政的短期交往見證了一位大家與普通收藏 家的友誼。2016 年 7 月 25 我向韓有政電話瞭解信中有 關細節時,他動情地說:“馬定祥先生不愧是一代錢幣 大師,可惜走得太早了!他前後共交換給我 20 多張珍貴 紙幣,還有不少早期實寄封。而他需要的陝四兩被人捷 足先登,我深感內疚。馬老不計名利、泉德為重、坦誠 待人、矢志不渝的品德和鍥而不捨、堅韌不拔的毅力永 遠是我學習的榜樣。” (此文原載《澳門錢鈔縱橫·2016 年展特刊》,個 別處有改動)

125

東 亞 泉 志

THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS


Column 專欄

China-Republic Shandong 20 Cash Copper Pattern Zou Li (Macau) Kwangtung province pioneered by producing coins mechanically in July, 1887 and officially minted the Kuang Hsu Ku Ping one mace coin (made of copper and lead-tin alloy) the next year. These new coins were widely welcomed by the public and were soon emulated by other provinces. By 1905, such machine-made coins were produced in more than 13 provinces in China. The Shandong government imitated the Kwangtung copper coin (it was only changed by switching the “Kwangtung” inscription into “Shandong”) and started to produce copper coins in Jinan, in 1905. But the minting only lasted less than a year and was then stopped by the Board of Revenue. For this reason, only few Shandong copper coins are known to exist now (many are extremely rare) and they have always been very popular among copper coin collectors. In general, there are over thirty types of Shandong 10 cash copper coins: seven types with Manchu inscriptions; four types with two characters “Shan Dong” on the left and right sides; ten kinds with the dragon design on the reverse and others. This figure is consistent with what had been recorded in the books by Woodward, the pioneer of copper coin collecting. Shandong stopped minting Kuang Hsu Yuan Bao and started to produce Ta Ching 10 cash and 2 cash copper coins in the Spring of 1906. Such Ta Ching copper coins are far less common than Kuang Hsu coins. Few 2 cash copper

Pic. 1 Han Fuqu, the governor of Shandong Province, the Republic of China

coins were circulated and only about ten types of 10 cash coins were minted at that time. The Shandong government didn’t officially release any copper coins after the victory of the Xinhai Revolution in 1911 and the foundation of the Republic of China. Only two kinds of Republic copper patterns have been found now, which are: The 1933 Republic of China Shandong 20 Cash Copper Pattern: On the obverse, there are the national flag of the Republic

Pic. 2 Republic of China Shandong 20 Cash Copper Pattern (obverse & reverse)

of China, the flag of the KMT party (crossed), seven Chinese

the Central Finance Ministry then ordered local governments to

characters “the twenty-second year of the Republic of China”

produce 5 cents nickel coins. The Shandong government, lead by

(horizontally inscribed, on the top) and four Chinese characters

Han, however, disobeyed the order and minted I cent nickel and

“Made in Shandong” (horizontally inscribed, at the bottom). Three

20 cash copper coins. This explains why Shandong 20 cash copper

Chinese characters “ten cash” (in the center), wheat eras and two

coins hadn’t been circulated. Han was nominated as the commander

plum blossoms (on the left and right sides), two horizontal Chinese

in chief of the 3rd Army of the National Revolutionary Army after

characters “copper coin” (on the top) and English characters “Twenty

the Anti-Japanese War broke out. He refused to obey the military

Cash” were inscribed on the reverse. These are extremely rare

orders of the central government and withdrew his army from the

patterns, only four or five pieces are known to exist.

battlefield, which caused thousands of casualties, when the Japanese invaded Shandong. Han Fuju was arrested by the BIS (Bureau of

And the 1932 Republic of China Shandong 20 Cash

Investigation and Statistics) and was sentenced to death in 1938.

Copper Pattern: Minted in 1932 and is almost the same as the coin

Until then, the Shandong 20 cash copper coins had just been minted

(except for the date) mentioned above, rarer, unique.

for five years.

These two coins were minted when Han Fuju (Pic. 1) served

I bought a Shandong 20 cash copper pattern (Pic. 2) at the

as the chairman of the Shandong government in 1933. According to

Norman Jacobs Collection Hong Kong Coin Auction in 2008

historical materials, Han joined Feng Yuxiang’s Northwest National

(hammer price: 3,800 USD). I am glad to have this opportunity of

Revolutionary Army when he was a teenager and was promoted to

publishing my article about the coin in the 2016 Special Issue of the

be the commander of the 8th Army for his military exploits during

Macau Numismatic Society.

the civil war between the KMT and the CPC. He had also served as the chairman of Shandong and Henan government. Han Fuju was a two-faced person. For example, take the minting of coins,

東 亞 泉 志

126

THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS

This article was originally published on The 2016 Macau Aspect Banknote


Column 專欄

民國山東貳拾文試樣銅元 鄒力(澳門) 清光緒十三年(公元 1887 年)七月,廣東省率先 開鑄機製製錢,次年四月正式開鑄光緒通寶方孔庫平一 錢,以紫銅為材,輔以鉛錫,每板約重二錢,新式銅幣 在流通中廣受商民歡迎,因而獲利甚豐,各省爭相仿效, 至光緒三十一年,各局承辦者已達十三省之多。 山東省開鑄銅元,始於光緒三十一年(公元 1905 年), 設局於省會濟南,發行光緒元寶十文銅幣,並且仿廣東 銅元形式,幣文僅改廣東為山東而已。但後來因時局變換, 未到一年,戶部即下令停鑄,故山東光緒元寶銅幣存世 數量較少,其中不乏珍罕品,歷來為集銅幣者所喜愛。 山東十文銅幣品種,其面文中寫滿清文字者有七類, 左右嵌“山東”二字者四類,背有龍紋圖案十類,綜合 分析都有三十多個品種,銅元鼻祖鄔德華的專著中分類 也是與此基本接近的。 光緒三十二年春季,山東省停止鑄造光緒元寶,但

圖 1 民國時期山東省政府主席韓複榘

繼續改鑄大清銅幣,計分十文及二文兩種,其中二文銅 幣流通稀少,而十文銅幣分類也有十餘個品種,數量遠 較光緒元寶為少。 1911 年辛亥革命後,中華民國成立,國民政府山東 省並未正式發行銅幣,以目前實物所見僅發現試鑄者二 種: 一为“山东贰拾文铜元”——此銅幣正面繪中華民 國國旗及黨旗各一面,以交叉排列方式,上端橫書“中

圖 2 民國山東貳拾文試樣銅元(正、反)

華民國廿二年”七字,下端橫書“山東省造”四字。背

但韓做人做事喜歡陽奉陰違,以鑄幣為例,當時中央財

面中央直書“貳拾文”三字,左右各以嘉禾二束,上端

政部規定,鎳鑄伍分,山東省則鑄造貳分,完全與政令

橫書“銅元”二字,左右嵌梅花星飾各一,下端列英文

背道而馳,而又鑄銅元貳拾文,因不合時宜而未獲發行。

Twenty Cash 字樣,圖案設計製作精美,乃屬試鑄銅幣,

抗日戰爭開始後,韓複榘擔任國民革命軍第三集團軍總

存世量甚稀,今所見僅有四五品。

司令,當時日軍侵入山東,其部隊一再違抗軍令,擅自 撤退,怠誤戰機,造成傷亡數千人。於民國廿七年(公

二為“山東貳拾文銅元”——為民國廿一年鑄,除 年份外,其餘均與廿二年所鑄相同,存世量更少,為僅

元 1938 年)一月被國民黨軍統局逮捕,後被判處死刑, 死時距其開鑄山東貳拾文銅元,僅五個春秋。

見品。 此枚山東貳拾文(圖 2),來源於 2008 年香港諾曼 民國廿二年(西元 1933 年)韓複榘(圖 1)擔任山 東省政府主席,以上兩幣俱為其在位所鑄造。何以鑄造

雅各斯專場拍賣(落槌價為 3800 美元),藉 2016 年澳 門錢幣學會專刊,敝帚自珍,專文於此。

而未發行,據山東史載:韓氏自幼起行伍隸屬西北國民 革命軍馮玉祥。國共內戰中,以戰績榮升至西北國民軍

转自《澳门钱钞纵横·2016 年展特刊》

第八軍軍長,先後擔任河南省及山東省兩省政府主席,

127

東 亞 泉 志

THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS


Column 專欄

Physics and Numismatics on Some Trips to China Steve Feller (USA) I am a professional physicist and in that capacity I spent a few months in China. My travels have allowed me to visit universities and state key labs in Shanghai, Beijing, and Xi'an. In Shanghai I spent two extended periods at Fudan University and its associated State Key Laboratory of Micro-and Nano-Photonic Structures. Fudan is a splendid University and one of the best in China. I’ve seen it grow enormously since I first visited in 1998 until my second visit in 2005. While there I did a few joint projects on secondharmonic generation in glass. This is an important effect in which laser light that enter a glass may have its frequency doubled and wavelength halved. This is a very useful practical property of a glass. Several journal articles resulted from this work with Professors Wenchang Wang’s and Liying Liu’s groups.

Ming Dynasty bronze printing plate from 1375. Image source: The Shanghai Museum

東 亞 泉 志

128

THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS

Fantastic hospitality was shown to me as the norm. Included in this were intensive weekend tours. The most important numismatic visit was to the Shanghai Museum. This amazing world-class art museum has many numismatic collections. To me the most important were original printing plates for the Ming Dynasty mulberry paper bank notes. Shown below are images of one such printing plate from the Shanghai Museum and a genuine note from a similar plate that is in the British Museum. For more details of the note and the plate please see: http://britishmuseum.tumblr.com/ tagged/Ming50Years.

One Guan Ming Dynasty note from 1375. Image Source: The British Museum


Column 專欄

The Shanghai Museum. Image source: Steve Feller

Currency exchange booth displayed in Municipal History Museum of Shanghai. Image source: Steve Feller

The interior of the Shanghai Museum. Image source: Steve Feller

Shanghai is an impressive city in numerous ways. It is considered the largest city in China and one of the five largest cities in the world by population and as of 2016 it has over 24.1 million people (http://worldpopulationreview.com/ world-cities/shanghai-population/). The Pudong sector of the city was built up tremendously over just the last few several decades. It is a tribute to the people of modern China that such a project has been undertaken in such a short period of time. The Oriental Pearl Tower, the largest structure in China from 1994-2007, is one of several of the most distinguished structures in this region. At the bottom of the Tower is an exhibition put on by the Municipal History Museum of Shanghai. There you will learn some of the fascinating history of the city. Shanghai was an international city with several nations controlling “concession areas” including France, Russia, the United States, England, and Germany. The history of Shanghai is certainly complex and in the presecond world war time it was a financial center of great import. Shown in the museum are a number of numismatic items including the image here of a currency exchange booth. This was needed due to the very complicated currencies in circulation. Shanghai newspapers quoted about 10 different currencies on a daily basis within the city itself.

During my first trip to China in 1998 it was possible to legally buy ancient coins at the state-sponsored tourist shops. Shown below is a first-century of the common era money spade with beautiful patina from the Han Dynasty.

A first-century of the common era money spade from the Han Dynasty

129

東 亞 泉 志

THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS


Column 專欄 While Shanghai was my base of operations I made several other trips around China. For example, I went to the State Key Laboratory of Transparent Optics and Photonics in Xi’an. Xi’an is a place of world-class history and is the home of the Terracotta Warriors. Many thousands of ceramic soldiers have been uncovered and the work is ongoing. The site was accidently found on March 29, 1974 by farmers, now known as the luckiest men in China (Awakened: Qin’s TerraCotta Army, Shaanxi Travel and Tourism Press, 2001). I had the pleasure of meeting one of the discoverers at the site, his signature on the reference guide book is shown below. While in Xi’an my group of three was, once again, shown excellent hospitality. Part of that was a series of tours including the aforementioned tour of the Terracotta Warriors. Another tour was to the History Museum of Shaanxi Province. Since I enjoy history the museum was very much appreciated and included many numismatic items. Once it became clear to my scientific hosts that I enjoy numismatics they began a spirited discussion with museum staff. Next the museum staff brought out a collection of coins for sale. What a wonderful idea, I thought, to sell duplicates to interested museum visitors. Then I watched a brief but intense negotiation take place before I purchased the collection for about $75. The collection consists of 66 items mostly ancient coins spanning many centuries. To me, it is a great memento of my visit to Xi’an. The cover of the album, a brief description of the coins, a typical page of coins (unfortunately transparent tape was used to secure the coins), and certifying cards are shown in the next several images. If I understand the cards right, the price for the collection was initially 1380 yuan. At the time of the purchase it was about 8 yuan to the dollar so I paid about 600 yuan or just under half of the list price. To me that was reasonable.

Scene from the ancient wall of Xi'an. Image source: Steve Feller

The Terracotta Warriors of Xi’an. Image source: Steve Feller

With two Coe College students (left K. Wobeter and right C. Larson) at the entrance of the State Key Laboratory of Transparent Optics and Photonics in Xi’an. Image source: Steve Feller.

東 亞 泉 志

130

THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS

Signature of one of the farmers’ who discovered the Terracotta Warriors. Image source: Steve Feller


Column 專欄

Cover of Chinese Numismatic Collection sold by the History Museum of Shaanxi Province Image source: Steve Feller

From the inside cover of the coin collection. Image source: Steve Feller

Certifying cards from the museum collection I purchased. Image source: Steve Feller

My students and I receive coin gifts from the State Key Laboratory of Transparent Optics and Photonics in Xi'an. Image source: Steve Feller

131

東 亞 泉 志

THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS


Column 專欄 The visit to the State Key Lab in Xi’an had a few components to it. First, I got to see how well developed Chinese optics is. They are world class scientists in the field. They have the expertise and the state-of-the art equipment. Second I gave a talk on my research. This is how science works—a visiting scientist is usually expected to give one or more talks on his/her research. At the end of the talk my students and I were presented with a two-coin set of ancient coins, see image below. The coins are in superb condition as may be seen in the image. There is a red wax impression that

maybe seen with the coins. It reads “Customs Permission A25” that allowed me to take the coins out of China. All-in-all I very much enjoyed my travels around China. It is nation of beauty and historical greatness. The science that is done there is among the best in the world and it is getting better at a great rate. As is usually the case with my travels numismatics showed up on a regular basis and I learned much about Chinese culture through my strong interest in the history and beauty of money.

Card that describes the two ancient coins that constituted the gift to me. Image source: Steve Feller Two-coin gift from the State Key Laboratory of Transparent Optics and Photonics in Xi’an. Image source: Steve Feller

Author introduction Steve Feller has been a collector of coins and paper money for over 60 years. His two specialty areas of numismatic research are World War II camps and the American Civil War. He is a member of several numismatic organizations including the American Numismatic Association, the International Bank Note Society for whom he served as editor of the IBNS Journal from 1990-2007, the Society of Paper Money, the Numismatic Literary Guild, and more. With his daughter Ray he coauthored the standard reference book Silent Witnesses: Civilian Camp Money of World War II. He has written over 60 articles and he has been a major contributor to several books including the standard World War II Remembered: History in Your Hands. He is a prolific numismatic speaker who has spoken hundreds of times around the world. Steve earned his doctorate in physics from Brown University. Within physics he specializes in creating new glasses and studying their physical properties and atomic-level structure. With Barbara, his wife of 45 years, he has two children, Heidi and Ray, and three grandchildren, Max, Leo, and Isaac.

東 亞 泉 志

132

THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS


Column 專欄

以物理學和錢幣學為主題的中國之旅 史蒂夫·費勒(美國) 以自己物理學者的身份之便,我來到中國,開始了

我此行一如既往地受到了復旦方面的熱情接待。週

一段為期數月的旅行。期間,我有幸參觀了上海、北京、

末的行程被安排的滿滿當當,其中最為重要的一項是上

西安各大高等學府以及國家重點實驗室。我在上海復旦

海博物館的錢幣參觀之旅。上海博物館是一座世界頂級

大學及其所屬的微納光子結構重點實驗室參與研究的時

的藝術博物館,錢幣館藏豐富,而對我而言,館內意義

候多停留了一段時間。復旦大學聲名顯赫,是中國最好

最為重大的一項藏品就是桑皮紙大明通行寶鈔的原始印

的一所大學之一。1998 年,我第一次造訪復旦大學,當

版。下圖所示的就是於上海博物館拍攝的原始印版的照

我 2005 年再次來到這里的時候,復旦大學已經發生了翻

片以及一張用類似印版印製而成的大明通行寶鈔(現存

天覆地的變化。我和這里的同道以“玻璃中的二次諧波”

於大英博物館)。 想要瞭解更多關於這張大明寶鈔及原

為題進行了幾個項目的合作研究。鐳射穿過玻璃時會出

始印版的資訊,請訪問:http://britishmuseum.tumblr.com/

現頻率加倍及波長減半的現象,這是一個非常重要的物

tagged/Ming50Years。

理學效應,而玻璃的這種性能也非常具有實用性。此次 研究是我和王文昌及劉麗英團隊共同協作完成的,研究 結果後被整理成論文併發表出版。

1375 年明代青銅印版 圖片來源:上海博物館

1375 年大明通行寶鈔 圖片來源:大英博物館

133

東 亞 泉 志

THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS


Column 專欄

上海博物館外景 圖片來源:史蒂夫·費勒

上海歷史博物館內展出的錢幣兌換亭(錢莊) 圖片來源:史蒂夫·費勒 我 1998 年第一次來中國的時候,遊客還可以通過 合法途徑在國營旅遊商店里購買古幣。下圖所示的就是 一枚公元 1 世紀的漢代貨布,幣面上有漂亮的青銅鏽。

上海博物館內景 圖片來源: 史蒂夫·費勒 從諸多方面來說,上海都是一個讓人印象深刻的城 市。作為中國人口密度最大的城市及全世界人口最多的 五大城市之一,截至 2016 年,上海所收納的人口數量已 經達到了 2410 萬之多(http://worldpopulationreview.com/ world-cities/shanghai-population/) 。 浦 東 新 區 在 近 幾 十 年里更是發生了翻天覆地的變化。能在如此短的時間里 完成如此巨大的工程量,這都是當代中國人民的功勞。 東方明珠塔是浦東新區最著名的標誌性建築之一。從 1994 年至 2007 年,這座塔一直都保留着“中國最高建築” 的美譽。在東方明珠塔塔底有一場上海歷史博物館舉辦 的展覽,遊客可以從這里瞭解到上海近百年來精彩紛呈 的歷史。上海的歷史紛繁複雜,二戰之前,這里曾經是 極為重要的金融中心和國際化大都市。當時,包括法國、 俄羅斯、美國、英國以及德國在內的西方國家都在上海 建立了租借區。下圖所示的錢幣兌換亭(錢莊)就是上 海歷史博物館諸多錢幣相關展品中的一件。據報紙披露, 當時每天在上海市內流通的錢幣多達十餘種。在如此繁 雜的貨幣狀況下,這種錢幣兌換亭便應運而生。

東 亞 泉 志

134

THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS

一枚公元 1 世紀的漢代貨布


Column 專欄 我以上海為基地開始了周遊中國的旅行,期間,我 訪問了西安的瞬態光學與光子技術國家重點實驗室。西 安是世界聞名的歷史古都,也是秦始皇兵馬俑的所在地。 現出土的兵馬俑已達數千件之多,而發掘工作目前仍在 進行中。1974 年 3 月 29 日,一位農民偶然發現了兵馬 俑的所在地,而我有幸在現場親眼見到了這位“中國最 幸運的人”(這一稱呼出自《蘇醒的秦代兵團》,陝西 旅遊出版社 2001 年出版),並得到了由他簽名的一本旅 行指南(見下圖)。 我和我的學生一行三人在西安再一次受到了當地同 道的熱情接待。 我們的行程中除了之前提到的參觀兵馬 俑之外還有陝西歷史博物館的遊覽之旅。這座博物館歷 史悠久,藏有非常豐富的錢幣展品,這讓身為歷史愛好 者的我感到十分的滿意。

西安古城牆下景觀 圖片來源:史蒂夫·費勒

博物館里的錢幣藏品讓我樂在其中。在確認我玩盡 興了之後,陪同參觀的當地同道和博物館的工作人員便 熱烈地交談了起來。之後,博物館的工作人員拿出一套 錢幣專集向我們兜售。向對藏品有興趣的參觀者出售錢 幣的複製品,這可真是一個妙招。在圍觀了一場簡短但 激烈的討價還價之後,我以 75 美元的價格將這套錢幣專 集買下。專集中收納的多是中國歷代的古錢,這對我來 說算是此次西安之旅的一個絕佳的紀念品。下面幾張圖 展示了這套錢幣專集的封面、錢幣簡介、收納錢幣頁面(遺 憾的是這些錢幣都被用塑膠膠套保護起來了)以及幾張 鑒定證書。如果我沒認錯的話,這套錢幣專集上面標示 的初始價格為 1380 元。按照當時的匯率來看,我大概花 了 600 元,也就是不到標價一半的價錢將其買下。這個 價格對我來說還算合理。

西安秦始皇兵馬俑 圖片來源:史蒂夫·費勒

筆者與自己蔻伊學院的兩名學生於西安瞬態光學與光子技術國家重點實驗 室門口的合影 圖片來源:史蒂夫·費勒

兵馬俑發現者(楊培彥)簽名 圖片來源:史蒂夫·費勒

135

東 亞 泉 志

THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS


Column 專欄

陝西歷史博物館內出售的《歷代古錢珍藏 專集》的封面 圖片來源: 史蒂夫·費勒

《歷代古錢珍藏專集》內頁 圖片來源:史蒂夫·費勒

《歷代古錢珍藏專集》中的鑒定證書 圖片來源:史蒂夫·費勒

我和我的學生收到了西安瞬態光學與光子技術國家重點實驗室人員贈予的中國古錢幣 圖片來源:史蒂夫·費勒

東 亞 泉 志

136

THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS


Column 專欄 西安國家重點實驗室之旅共分為幾個部分。首先, 我對中國光學的發展情況進行了一番考察。這所實驗室

Permission A2”(海關許可)的紅蠟戳印,可以作為我 們將這套古幣帶出中國的憑證。

里聚集的都是世界頂級的光學專家,他們不僅專業知識 豐富,而且配備了最先進的器材輔助其研究工作。其次

總的來說,我度過了一次非常愉快的中國之旅。 中

就是我的演講。 前來訪問的科學家通常都會舉行一場

國是一個擁有偉大歷史的美麗國度,這里的科學技術現

或幾場的演講來介紹自己的研究成果 ,這是科學界的

已居於世界領先水準,而且還在飛速地發展革新中。錢

一個慣例。 演講結束的時候,我和我的兩名學生都收

幣又一如既往的成為了我此次旅行中不斷出現的小插曲,

到了一套(兩枚)古錢幣作為禮物(見下圖)。如圖所

在自己對歷史和錢幣之美的強烈興趣的驅使下,我學習

示,這套錢幣品相絕佳,錢幣上連着一塊寫有“Customs

到了很多關於中國文化的知識。

兩枚古錢幣的鑒定證書 圖片來源:史蒂夫·費勒

西安瞬態光學與光子技術國家重點實驗室人員所贈兩枚中國古錢幣 圖片來源:史蒂夫·費勒

作者簡介 史蒂夫·費勒從事硬幣和紙幣收藏已有 60 多年的歷史。他專於二戰戰俘營貨 幣及美國內戰時期錢幣的研究工作,是包括美國錢幣協會、國際銀行本票 協會(1990-2007 年期間,史蒂夫·費勒曾擔任其下屬 IBNS 雜誌的編輯)、紙 幣學會、錢幣學著作協會等錢幣學研究機構的成員。他曾和女兒蕾合著了《沉 默的見證者:二戰平民戰俘營貨幣》一書,多年來共發表 60 多篇學術文章, 還是《二戰記憶:身邊的歷史》等書籍的主要撰稿人。此外,史蒂夫·費勒 還是一位多產的錢幣學演講家,已在世界各地發表了數百場的演講。史蒂 夫曾在布朗大學獲得物理學博士學位,在物理學領域,他專注於創造新型 玻璃材料及其物理性能和原子結構的研究。 再同妻子芭芭拉結婚的 45 年里, 二人一共生育了兩個孩子 ( 海蒂和蕾 ),育有三個外孫(馬克斯、里奧和艾 薩克)。——編者

137

東 亞 泉 志

THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS


TOP CHINESE COINS 2nd Edition 《中國近代機製幣精品鑒賞》第二版 Price( 售價 ):US $100 Plus Postage( 不含郵費 )

In June 2010, Top Chinese Coins Vol. 1 was published by iAsure Group and the The Journal of East Asian Numismatics (JEAN). Top Chinese Coins Vol. 1 offers an in-depth summary of the final results from the Top Chinese Coins Survey, a landmark event held in winter 2009 to search for the 10 most valuable Chinese struck coins. Coins submitted for review were judged by their rarity, historical importance, artistic appeal, condition, market value and group identity. The deluxe bound book offered details on the Top Chinese Coins Survey as well as high-quality pictures, price trends, degrees of rarity and historical context of the 60 top Modern Chinese Coins.

Top Chinese Coins , Vol. 1 had a limited print run of 1000, leaving many numismatists and enthusiasts unable to purchase a copy of their own. In response to high demand, iAsure has made certain that the second volume which released in June 2011 will be available to a much wider audience. While Top Chinese Coins Vol. 1 included gold, silver and copper coins, the second volume highlights the great range of silver coins. It will also add summaries from auction sales that list pricing, degree of rarity, pedigree and grades. 2010年6月,愛秀集團和《東亞泉志》出版了《中國

版的基礎上出版第二版。第二版于2011年6月發行,相比

近代機製幣精品鑒賞》第一版。該書對60枚中國最頂級

第一版60枚錢幣囊括金幣、銀幣和銅元,第二版專注於

的近代機製幣進行了全面、深入、係統的研究與展現。

60枚中國近代機製銀幣,定名為《中國近代機製銀幣精

其內容涵蓋高清錢幣圖像、流傳脈絡、拍賣紀錄、市場

品鑒賞•銀幣版》 (簡稱《銀幣鑒賞》)。

趨勢、珍稀度解析和背景故事等,在錢幣業界引起巨大 的轟動和反響,備受讚譽,被譽為“全景式展現中國珍 稀機製幣的重要鑒賞書籍”。

由於頁面所限,第二版刊載60枚中國銀幣精品的重 要資訊,在第一版的基礎上有多方面改進和加強。《銀 幣鑒賞》在最受歡迎和好評的照片拍攝和排版下更多功

儘管因時間蒼促、經驗不足,書中存在一些缺陷和

夫,並提供更多詳細、準確和豐富的近期拍賣成交價格

錯誤,但仍得到讀者的肯定和欣賞。由於該書僅限量印

記錄、歷史評估、珍稀度和譜係說明。所有內容均為中

刷1000本,無法滿足廣大錢幣愛好者的需求。經多位資

英雙語,彩色精裝印刷。第一版中有關錢幣背景的“故

深錢幣專家、學者、收藏家建議,愛秀集團決定在第一

事閱讀”部分將以附件方式另行印刷成冊。

If required, please contact Liu Jinling 如果需要請聯繫劉金玲小姐 Tel:021-6299 3235 Email: dyqz2015@163.com


Chopmarked Coins - A History 《戳記幣簡史》 Colin Gullberg 高林

Price ( 售價 ):US $50 Plus Postage ( 不含郵費 ) The book Chopmarked Coins- A History by Colin Gullberg is funded by iAsure Group. The softcover book is 187 pages in length, 210mm×285mm, fourcolor printing. It covers the history of foreign silver coins that circulated in China from 1600 to 1935 and contains images of some 150 coins. Gullberg includes firstperson accounts, summaries of all modern sources of knowledge on the subject and scans from a shroff’s handbook (circa 1890). It is the first English- language book on the subject since 1990 and only the second English language book on the subject.

愛秀集團贊助出版發行的 戳記幣英文專著《戳記幣簡 史》為軟裝本,正文內容187 頁,開本210mm×285mm, 四色印刷,闡述了1600年至 1935年間中國流通的外國戳記 銀幣概況,作者高林先生採用 第一人稱敘述,總結了現代有 關戳記幣的詳盡知識,並配有 某錢莊的手冊(約1890年)掃 描插圖和150多張戳記幣高清 圖片。本書是1990年之後的第 一本戳記幣英文專著,也是有 史以來的第二本戳記幣英文專 著。

Chinese And Foreign Papermoney Errors 《華洋怪鈔 -- 中外錯體紙幣賞析圖鉴》 David Chio 趙康池 Aguang Chan 陳耀光

Price ( 售價 ):MOP $300; RMB 240; US $30 Plus Postage ( 不含郵費 ) In December 2015, this book was released by Macau Numismatic Society and edited by David Chio and Aguang Chan. A total of 1,000 copies was printed, 200 in hard cover and 800 soft cover. The book is 323 pages of full color A4 size 210×285 mm and features over 300 error notes and 800 photos. Notes from Chin dynasty to modern times and more than 10 countries and region is covered. The books also cover causes of errors, background information on the printing process and authenticity of errors. This is the first book in Chinese to feature this type of information on error notes and its collection.

该书由澳門錢幣學會於2015年 12月出版,趙康池、陳耀光編著。 印行1000冊,其中精裝本200冊, 平裝本800冊。是書全彩精印,小 A4开本,210mm×285mm,323 頁,選錄了中外錯體紙幣300多 種,圖片800多張,涵蓋中國自清 末到現今使用的紙幣,涉及中外十 多個國家和地區。本書對中外錯 體、錯版、變體等紙幣的成因、歷 史背景和辨偽,實事求是地作了係 統的、科學的分析與歸納,並介紹 了印鈔基本步驟和印鈔過程中所產 生的“另類”紙幣,補充了不少紙 幣收藏的基礎知識。可以說,本書 是首本對錯體紙幣進行全方位論述 的著作。

If required, please contact Champion Auction Liu Jinling 如果需要請聯繫冠軍拍賣公司劉金玲小姐 Tel: 021-6299 3235 Email: dyqz2015@163.com


Shanxi Sycee 《陝西銀錠》 By Li Jiong

作者:李炯 Price (售價):RMB ¥398

Shanxi Sycee was published by Shanxi Media Group’s Sanqin Press in July 2015. It was written by Mr. Li Jiong, a collector and researcher of Shanxi sycee from Yulin, Shanxi. Mr. Li collected 600 varieties of Shanxi sycee over a ten–year period and after comparing and analyzing many collections of Shanxi sycee, he decided that there was a need for a professionally researched book on the subject.

the silver currency of Shanxi Province. Mr. Dai remarked that “This book is a professional work of research of Shanxi sycee. Mr. Li has taken advantage of local sources in his research and has made a great achievement in numismatic research. It covers all development stages of Shanxi sycee including its infancy, development, widespread adoption and its final discontinuation.”

Mr. Li has classified Shanxi sycee into six categories: 50 taels boat-shaped ingots, officially minted sycee, commercially minted sycee, Shanxi stamp remittance ingots from other provinces, odd-shaped sycee, and a sixth ‘other’ group of sycee. This book comprehensively shows the conditions of the circulation of Shanxi silver currency in the late Qing Dynasty and early Republic Period. This book also examines the social conditions including politics, economics, culture, and customs of that period. The president of the Xi’an Branch of The People’s Bank China Guo Xinming and prominent collector Dai Zhiqiang both wrote prefaces for this book. They remarked that this book was a masterpiece of Shanxi numismatics and filled a space in the research of

The book is A4 size and is 260 pages long with two additional trifold pages. It is printed in full-color and is illustrated with good quality graphics of Shanxi sycee. It was published by Shanxi Media Group’s Sanqin Press in July 2015. Buy from website: www.coinsky.com/htm/shop/show. cgi?id=1648 (Note: the book is signed by the author) Contact: Mr. Li Jiong Cell Phone: 15529990006; 15667811786 Email: 1327978511@qq.com 五十兩船形銀錠、官鑄銀錠、商鑄銀錠、外省陝槽、陝 西異形銀錠、存疑待考銀錠六大類,全面展示了清末民 國時期陝西省白銀貨幣的通行現狀,側面反映了這一時 期政治、經濟、文化、民俗等方面的社會面貌。本書由 中國人民銀行西安分行行長郭新明、 著名錢幣學家戴志 強先生並序。郭序指出:《陝西銀錠》的出版,恰逢我 國 “一路一帶”戰略構想提出之際,是陝西錢幣研究的 又一力作,填補了陝西白銀貨幣研究的空白。戴序認為《陝 西銀錠》是一部有關陝西地方銀錠的專譜、專著,李炯 先生立足本鄉本土,充分利用和發揮地域優勢,十年磨 一劍,揚長避短,求實務實,走了一條錢幣集藏研究的“捷 徑”,一條成功之路。全書採用以文為主,以圖為輔的 串聯方式,揭示陝西銀錠產生、發展、興盛、衰落的全 過程。 该書大 16 開本,126 克雅粉全彩精印,幣圖清晰逼真, 共計 26 萬字,260 余頁,亦附三折拉圖兩幀。作者首次 在銀錠圖片旁附陜槽銘文複原印章一方。圖文並茂,值 得珍藏。

2015 年 7 月《陝西銀錠》由陝西出版傳媒集團三秦 出版社正式出版發行。作者李炯先生是陝西榆林本鄉本 土的銀錠收藏、研究者,他用十年時間,收藏了 600 餘 種陝西銀錠。通過大量實物藏品的比對分析,作者首次 提出建構陝西銀錠分類學研究,將陝西銀錠分類為:

錢幣天堂網發售 登錄 www.coinsky.com/htm/shop/show.cgi?id=1648 可獲得作者簽名書 聯絡人:李炯 購書電話:15529990006;15667811786 郵箱:1327978511@qq.com


Unofficial Banknotes Issued in Jiangxi Province By Xu Anmin Price :RMB ¥298 Unofficial Banknotes Issued in Jiangxi Province was written by prominent paper money collector Xu Anmin, and was published in December 2014 by Jiangxi People’s Press, with the support and planning of the Jiang Xi Banking Industry. The unofficial banknotes cataloged in this book were issued by local administrative agencies, banks and organizations (such as local armed forces, cooperatives) etc. The face value of these paper notes was the same as that of the national legal currency which was circulated in some defined regions. The book is illustrated with pictures of 185 of the banknotes issued in Jiangxi Province, of which 25 were issued in the Qing Dynasty, 11 by local administrative agencies, 15 by local armed forces, 19 by chambers of commerce, and 88 by money houses and business houses. In addition, there are 21 local gold dollar coupons, 4 silver coupons, and 2 special money. Additionally, there are about 30 printing blocks and anticounterfeiting seals. The 200 physical coupons are from the author’s collection. This is the first time these precious coupons, some of which are unique, have been published.

comments were mainly on the collectors’ errors, value,

The book is divided into the following sections:

star-rating, collection methods, current existing condition and personal target.The postscript presents author ’s 20

the foreword, brief introduction, catalog, comments,

years collecting experience, his star-rating and calculating

references and postscript.The guide defines the scope

method, which will help collectors.The references include

and the time of the research and collecting and the

the relative historical resources, monographs and research

definition of unofficial banknotes. This is the first time

articles from modern times.In additional, the author

these banknotes have been categorized according to their

verified the authenticity of physical bonds which need to

different features. A brief introduction was also given

be proved. He also wrote another two articles about the paper money: “The Research of Banknotes Issued by Wu

to each chapter of the book.The General Introduction includes features, the development of unofficial banknotes, the rise of collecting these notes and the research achievements for unofficial banknotes. The pictures of the banknotes, local gold coupons ( 金圆券 ), local silver coupons ( 银 圆 券 ), special money, printing blocks and anti-counterfeiting seals are illustrated in the book. The book comprehensively describes each physical coupon of the banknotes. Many ancient stories were discovered such as the words of celebrities, family rules, poetry and prose from the script and pattern of the banknotes.The

Zheng-Yuan Private Bank of JianYi (Feng Cheng City) ”, and “Remark on 1896 Banknotes Issued by Kiangsi Official Silver Bank Again ”. This book is 281 pages long and has more than 300 colorful pictures of the banknotes. It is printed in A4 size on colorful bronze paper with a fine binding. It is a professional book for collecting and researching the unofficial banknotes issued in Jiangxi. It is sold by Xinhua Book Stores all over the country at a price of 298 yuan.


《江西民間鈔票》 作者:徐安民 售價:RMB ¥298

在江西省銀行業的精心策劃和組織下,由國內著名

特點、發展階段、民間鈔票收藏的興起及研究成果;圖

纸币收藏家徐安民先生撰寫的《江西民間鈔票》2014

錄,囊括清代錢莊鈔票、行政機構鈔票、地方武裝鈔票、

年 12 月由江西人民出版社出版發行。該書收集的實物

商會鈔票、錢莊商號鈔票、地方金圓券、地方銀元券、

函括清代至民國時期江西省境內地方行政機構、團體組

特殊幣、鈔版及印章等實物。本章節還對各不同時期民

織及各錢莊商號等發行的紙幣。主要包括錢莊、地方基

間鈔票進行了扼要綜述,對收錄的每張實物券進行了專

層行政機構、地方武裝組織、合作社、商會、商號及其

業點評,并根據鈔票上的各類文字圖案挖掘出大量中國

他機構組織發行的紙幣,且在一定社會區域與國家法定

古代名人格言、家訓及詩賦等歷史典故;收藏感悟,梳

貨幣等值流通的鈔票。全書共收集到江西民間鈔票圖片

理了民間鈔票收藏者的誤區、民間鈔票的收藏價值、星

185 張,其中清代鈔票 25 張,基層行政機構鈔票 11 張,

級評定、收藏模式與現狀及個人定位。收藏感悟係作者

地方武裝鈔票 15 張,商會鈔票 19 張,錢莊商號鈔票

20 多年收藏實踐經驗的親身感悟和思想提煉,并創造

88 張,地方金圓券 21 張,地方銀元券 4 張,特殊幣 2 枚。

性的提出了“星級別評定”的方法和計算方式,對收藏

另有,鈔版及防偽印章 30 余件。書中所錄選的 200 多

愛好者有着極大的啟發和幫助;參考文獻,主要收錄近

件實物券,均來自作者 20 多年的私人收藏品。在這些

代江西民間鈔票相關的史料、專著以及研究文章等。此

紙幣實物券中絕大多數為首次披露,極其珍貴,有些實

外,作者對收藏圈里頗有爭議和影響的實物券進行詳細

物券屬孤品或僅見品。

考證,并專門撰寫《劍邑吳正元錢號票考略》和《光緒 丙申年“江西官銀號”銀錢票再議》等文章,提出作者

全書主要由凡例、概述、圖錄、收藏感悟、參考文

觀點,供讀者參閱。該書圖文并茂,大 16 開本,全彩

獻及後記等構成。凡例,確定了本書收集和研究的範圍

銅牌紙印刷,精裝幀,281 頁,300 多幅實物原大彩圖,

及上下年限,完整地闡述了民間鈔票的科學定義,首次

是一本集史料性、實物性、知識性、專業性為一體的近

按照民間鈔票的不同性質進行分門歸類,并對各章節進

代江西民間鈔票收藏與研究的工具書。該書由全國新華

行了簡要介紹和說明;概述,包括江西民間鈔票的主要

書店經銷,定價 298 元。


Mish International Monetary Inc. Mish國際錢幣公司 Specialists in 專營 Pandas since 1982 1982年起發行的熊貓幣 China Modern since 1979 1979年起發行的中國現代金銀幣 World Coins since 1964 1964年起專營世界錢幣

Looking To Buy?想買? Our inventory and knowledge has been available to both our colleagues and collector clients since coins of the People’s Republic of China first reached the world market in 1979. 自1979年中國現代金銀幣首次進入國際市場后,Mish 國際的員工及其藏家客戶積累了豐富的庫存和專 業的錢幣知識。

If you are looking for a particular China coin, chances are we have it, or may be able to recover it from an original buyer we sold it to years ago at first distribution. 想買中國幣?我們或許恰好有;也許多年前我們賣過,現在或許還能從原始買家手中買回來。

Looking To Sell?想賣? In this world of instant experts and brokers, Mish International is still your best choice to handle the purchase of your prized coins in this fast-changing market. Well-capitalized, truly knowledgeable and accommodating, we buy both single pieces and major collections at fair value with no delay, no limits and no excuses. 瞬息萬變的市場環境,Mish 國際仍是助您銷售錢幣的最佳選擇。雄厚的資金實力,專業的錢幣知識, 出色的協調能力,我們同時收購單枚幣和大型收藏,價格合理,快速付款。

Since 1964 始於1964

Here today. Here tomorrow 攜手今日 共贏明天 Mish International Monetary Inc Mish國際錢幣公司 1154 University Drive Menlo Park, CA 94025, USA 美國加州門羅帕克大學路1154號,郵編94025 Phone(電話):(650) 324-9110 Email(電郵):robert@mishinternational.com


East Asia Journal 1984 Issue 《東亞通寶》第一期 1984 年發行

First Issue of JEAN digital edition January 2016 Issue 《東亞泉志》電子雜誌第一期 2016 年 1 月發行

《東亞泉志》電子雜誌第一期在線閱讀:http://issuu.com/jean388/docs/the_first_issue_of_jean 第二期 在線閱讀:https://issuu.com/jean388/docs/the_second_issue_of_jean 第三期在線閱讀:http://issuu.com/jean388/docs/the_third_issue_of_jean 第四期 在線閱讀:http://issuu.com/jean388/docs/the_fourth_issue_of_jean


入會申請表 Application Form 申請日期 Application date: 申請會員類別:

本地會員 Macau Member

Membership applied for:

外地會員 Non Macau Member

姓名 Name:

性別 Gender:

證件號碼 ID No.:

出生日期 Date of Birth:

(中文及外文)

住址 Add.:

職業 Occupation:

錢幣收集範圍 Interst:

聯絡電話 Phone Number:

繳納會費:

會費 新會員需交付:入會費 MOP500.00 New membership fee: MOP 500.00

本會宗旨:團結錢幣愛好者,推動錢幣之收藏及研究 介紹人 Referee:(需我會兩位成員推薦 two members of the Society) 會員姓名編號 Member No: 會員姓名編號 Member No: 此欄由澳門錢幣學會填寫 (Filled by the Society only): 新會員入會日期: 新會員編號: 1)新會員需認同本會宗旨。 New members should comply with the Society regulations. 2)入會申請人需填妥本申請表、交 1 張相片及繳納相關入會費用。 Please attach one photo and pay the membership fee. Add: AV. DR. RODRIGO RODRIGUES. 600E-P105 FIRST INTERNATIONAL COM. CENTER, MACAU Tel: (853)2833 4556 Fax: (853)2830 4772 Email: dcdesign@macau.ctm.net

地址:澳門羅理基博士大馬路 600E-1 樓 P105 室 電話:(853)2833 4556 傳真:(853)2830 4772 Email:dcdesign@macau.ctm.net


The Journal of East Asian Numismatics In 1994, The Journal of East Asian Numismatics (JEAN) was founded by Michael Chou, the CEO of Champion Auction and Bruce Smith, a noted numismatist. It is a professional numismatic academic journal whose mission is to educate collectors and researchers on the subjects of Chinese numismatics, culture and history. Bruce Smith, the chief editor of JEAN, was born in 1951 in St. Louis, MO. He received his BA in history from the University of Missouri St. Louis; and his MA in China studies from Harvard University. In 1974-1977, he worked for Krause Publications as Editorial Assistant on World Coin News and as cataloger for Standard Catalog of World Coins and Standard Catalog of World Paper Money. He was a full time coin dealer 1977-1987. In 1988-1989, he studied in China as a student of China Studies in Chengchow (Zhengzhou) University, Henan province. In 1991-1993, Mr. Smith was a graduate student at Harvard University. In 1994-1998, he was the editor of The Journal of East Asian Numismatics (JEAN). Bruce Smith has been a collector and researcher of Chinese coins for over 30 years. His published research in JEAN has added immensely to the body of knowledge for Chinese coins. The first issue of JEAN was released in July 1994, and the last issue (18th issue) in 1998. Most articles were written in English, the remainder in Chinese. The journal was distributed in over 20 countries, and remained a mainstay on many important library shelves, including the Smithsonian Institution, the British Museum, the Harvard Yenching Library, Harvard University, Yale University, Columbia University, Stanford University, Cornell University, the ANS (American Numismatic Society), and the ANA (American Numismatic Association). The journal enjoyed great popularity and many important articles were published in JEAN, including “Peking Coins of 1900” by James Sweeny, “More on the Hsu Shih-chang Medals with engraved names” and “The true story of China’s 1936 and 1937 Silver Dollars”

by Bruce Smith, “The Apparent Relationship between 1897 Chekiang 5-Cents Pattern and 1899 Anhwei 5-Cents Circulation Strike” by Tom Keener, and “A Forgery of Taiwan’s Old Man Dollar” by Dr. Che-lu Tseng. In May 2015, Michael Chou decided to start issuing the journal again starting in January 2016. The famous numismatic researcher Mr. Yuan Shuiqing will be chinese chief editor. He is a member of China Numismatic Society, serving as executive director of the Shenxi Numismatic Society and executive vice president of the Xi’an Collectors Association. As a numismatic researcher, he was chief editor of Collections and China Numismatics. He has published over 100 numismatic research articles and the masterpiece The Elite of Monetary History of China. Other distinguished contributors from home and abroad are numismatists, collectors and coin dealers, including Bruce Smith (author of Howard Franklin Bowker – Numismatic Pioneer), Colin Gullberg (Canada, author of Chopmarked Coins – A History), Wang Chunli (China, author of Illustrated Catalog of China’s Jilin Province Silver Coins and Illustrated Catalog of Chinese Gold & Silver Coins), Chinese American senior numismatist Dr. Che-lu Tseng, senior numismatic scholar of China modern gold and silver commemorative coins King L. Chan (Hong Kong), senior numismatist Chien Fu Chou (Taiwan) and CEO of Beijing Coins website Richard Guo. It will be a quarterly, bilingual e-journal, covering the latest numismatic research, interviews with famous collectors, auction reviews, and general news. The Journal's distribution is now over 5,000, including over 2,000 in Greater China region. Starting in 2017 , Journal of East Asian Numismatics is a co-sponsor of Krause's Coin of the Year Award Ceremony in Berlin with World Money Fair. You are welcome to subscribe, submit articles for publication, and advertise in the upcoming JEAN. The 2017 subscription is free of charge. Please send your email to jeanzg@163.com.

2017 JEAN Advertising Rate 2017 Issue

Issue Date

Ad Required

Full Page/Issue

Full Page/Year

1/2 Page/Issue

1/2 Page/Year

Issue 1

1/31

1/15

$375

$1,250

$250

$800

Issue 2

4/30

4/1

$375

$1,250

$250

$800

Issue 3

7/31

7/1

$375

$1,250

$250

$800

Issue 4

10/31

10/1

$375

$1,250

$250

$800

* PX: 300 * full page (A4): 210×297mm *1/2 page: 210×148mm

Contact JEAN Shanghai Office Liu Jinling (Advertising & Circulation Manager) Tel: 0086-18017691263 Email: alice0092@163.com


東 亞 泉 志 《東亞泉志》電子雜誌簡介 《東亞泉志》為冠軍拍賣公司總裁周邁可先生和著名錢

亞泉誌》,聘請著名錢幣研究學者袁水清先生擔任主編。

幣學專家史博祿先生于 1994 年創辦,是一本學術性錢幣研

袁水清,1948 年生,大學金融專科畢業,從事銀行工作 30

文化。

《西部金融 • 錢幣研究》雜誌的責任編輯,《中國錢幣界》

究專業雜誌。旨在讓廣大錢幣收藏家、研究學者更深入地了

解錢幣知識,讓世界各地的讀者更好地了解中國深厚的錢幣

多年。中國錢幣學會會員,陝西省錢幣學會常務理事,西安

市收藏協會常務副會長。退休后,歷任《收藏》《古泉園地》 雜誌主編。多年來他傾力于中國貨幣史和錢幣學的研究,發

雜誌高級編輯史博祿先生 1951 年生於美國密蘇里州聖

表過近百篇錢幣研究文章;2012 年,出版了匯集中國古今

路易斯市,為密蘇里大學歷史係學士,哈佛大學中國研究專

錢幣的鴻篇巨製《中國貨幣史之最》。同時聘請國內外知

業碩士。1974-1977 年在克勞斯出版社任《世界錢幣新聞》

名的錢幣學者、收藏家及專業人士加入,如《霍华德 • 富兰

助理編輯,參與《世界硬幣標準目錄》與《世界紙鈔標準 目錄》編輯工作。1977-1987 年全職進行錢幣交易。19881989 年在中國鄭州大學留學,主修中國研究課程。1991-

1993 年在哈佛大學攻讀碩士。1994-1998 年任《東亞泉志》 總編。史博祿先生擁有 30 多年的收藏和研究中國錢幣的豐

富經驗。他在《東亞泉志》上發表的研究文獻極大地豐富了 中國錢幣的知識內涵。

《東亞泉志》于 1994 年 7 月份問世,1999 年停刊,

發行了 18 期。雜誌中大部分文章是英文,只有少部分是中文, 在 20 多個國家發行,廣受歡迎,長期佔據許多重要圖書館

克林 • 包克——錢幣學研究先驅者》作者史博祿先生、《戳 記幣简史》作者高林先生、《熊貓金銀幣收藏指南》作者皮

特 • 安東尼先生、《中國吉林銀圓圖譜》和《中國金銀幣目 錄》作者王春利先生、美國華人資深錢幣學者曾澤祿先生、

香港中国现代金银币资深研究学者陳景林先生、台灣資深 錢幣學者周建福先生、美國現代金銀幣資深經销商羅伯特 •

米什先生、美國東南亞錢幣專家亞當 • 比亞吉先生以及北京

錢幣網总裁郭嘉華先生等。從 2017 年起,《東亞泉志》加 盟贊助由克勞斯在德國柏林世界錢幣展覽會期間舉辦的“世 界硬幣大獎”。

書架的顯著位置,包括美國國家博物館史密森尼學會、大英

復刊后的《東亞泉誌》為電子季刊,中英双语。內容以

博物館、哈佛燕京圖書館、哈佛大學、耶魯大學、哥倫比亞

披露最新錢幣收藏研究成果、推介泉界成功人士的事跡為

大學、斯坦福大學、康奈爾大學和美國錢幣學會、美國錢幣

主。主要欄目有學術研究、人物專訪、鑒賞爭鳴、拍賣回顧、

協會。雜誌刊發過不少有重要學術價值的文章,如詹姆斯 •

重要資訊等。

事》、湯姆 • 基納寫的《1897 年浙江三分六釐樣幣和 1899

柏林·世界錢幣展覽會中舉辦的克勞斯“年度世界硬幣大獎”。

史威尼寫的《1900 年京局銀元》、史博祿寫的《徐世昌刻 字紀念章》和《民國二十五年和民國二十六年之中國銀元故

從 2017 年開始,《東亞泉志》電子雜誌將贊助每年在

年安徽三分六釐流通幣的關係》以及曾澤祿寫的《台灣老公 銀偽品》等。

2015 年 5 月,周邁可先生決定于 2016 年 1 月復刊《東

《東亞泉志》2017 年免費訂閱,如果需要,請把您的 郵箱發到 jeanzg@163.com !

2017 年《東亞泉志》的廣告現在接受預定!

2017 年

發行時間

廣告截止時間

1頁/期

1頁/年

1/2 頁 / 期

1/2 頁 / 年

第1期

1 月 31 日

1 月 15 日

375 美元

1250 美元

250 美元

800 美元

第2期

4 月 30 日

4月1日

375 美元

1250 美元

250 美元

800 美元

第3期

7 月 31 日

7月1日

375 美元

1250 美元

250 美元

800 美元

第4期

10 月 31 日

10 月 1 日

375 美元

1250 美元

250 美元

800 美元

* 分辨率:300 《東亞泉志》上海辦公室 廣告與發行經理劉金玲 電話:0086-18017691263 郵箱:alice0092@163.com

* 1 頁 (A4):210×297mm

* 1/2 頁:210×148mm

The fifth issue of jean  
The fifth issue of jean  
Advertisement