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東亞泉志

2016 年 04 月 April 2016 第 2 期 總第 20 期 No. 2 Issue 20

THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS 中英雙語 電子季刊 Bilingual (English - Chinese) Digital Quarterly

CHINA-HUNAN ND(1898) One Dollar Silver Proof Pattern. Heaton Mint Collection - NC Collection 1898 年湖南省造光緒元寶庫平七錢二分銀質樣幣, 鏡面。喜敦造幣廠藏品—NC 藏品

CHINA-HUNAN ND(1898) 50 Cents Silver Proof Pattern. Heaton Mint Collection - NC Collection 1898 年湖南省造光緒元寶庫平三錢六分銀質樣 幣,鏡面。喜敦造幣廠藏品—NC 藏品

Hidden Dragons of Hunan: The 1898 Dollar and Half Dollar 1898 年湖南省造七錢二分和三錢六分銀幣 Chinese minting tools from Germany 源自德國的中國幣模 Huang Xiquan Discusses Issues Regarding Pre-Qin Currency 黃錫全談先秦貨幣的有關問題


東亞泉志

2016 年 04 月 April 2016 第 2 期 總第 20 期 No. 2 Issue 20

THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS 中英雙語 電子季刊 Bilingual (English - Chinese) Digital Quarterly

Advisor

Che-lu Tseng

顧問

曾澤祿

Publisher & Editor in-Chief

Michael H. Chou

出版人、總編輯

周邁可

Senior Editor

Bruce W. Smith

高級編輯

史博祿

Editor

Yuan Shuiqing

主編

袁水清

Advertising & Circulation Manager

Liu Jinling

廣告與發行經理

劉金玲

聯繫我們 Contact Us 臺北公司 Taipei Office 臺北市南京西路 163 號 1 樓 50-51 室 Room 50-51, No.163 Nan King W. Rd., Taipei 電話 (Tel):886-2-25551761 郵箱 (Email): championghka@gmail.com

上海辦事處 Shanghai Office 上海市普陀區常德路 1258 弄 16 號 801 室 Room 801, No.16, Lane 1258, Changde Rd., Putuo District, Shanghai 電話 (Tel):86-21-62993235 郵箱 (Email): championghka@gmail.com


前言 Foreword We are extremely pleased with the response of our readers for the first digital edition of the Journal of East Asian Numismatics (JEAN). Over 4,000 digital PDF copies were sent out to our readers. We also set up an online version of JEAN on the digital publishing platform issuu for the ease of our readers who uses tablets and other mobile devices.

For the second issue of JEAN we are fortunate to add additional writers and long time friends Neil Shafer, Fred Schwan, and Howard Daniel. Neil was the long time editor of the Standard Catalog of World Banknotes and a past President of the International Banknote Society. Neil cataloged the Christie's auction of the American Banknote Company’s archive. It was over 20 years ago when I accompanied J.S Lee of Taiwan to New York upon Neil’s advice about the auction to purchase the majority of the Chinese banknotes from the auction. We hope Neil will be able to write additional articles about the American Banknote Company and its archive sales. Fred Schwan, another leading banknote expert, provided an interesting article about the notes of Biak. Fred was honored by the American Numismatic Association as the 2015 Numismatist of the year in Chicago. Howard Daniel, a leading collector and author in the field of Southeast

我們非常榮幸地從讀者那裏收到對第 1 期《東亞泉 志》電子版肯定的反饋:認為這是一本很有生命力的期 刊。第 1 期 PDF 雜誌共向世界各地發來郵箱的讀者贈送 了 4000 多份,另外我們還在數字出版平臺上發佈了本 期雜誌的網路線上版,以方便平板及移動設備用戶查閱。 令人欣喜的是,第 2 期《東亞泉志》又有新的作者 及老朋友參與了進來,其中包括尼爾·謝弗、弗瑞德·施萬 和霍華德·丹尼爾。尼爾是國際紙幣學會的前任主席,多 年來一直擔任《世界紙幣標準目錄》的編輯。他還曾經 將佳士得拍賣行所拍賣的美國紙鈔公司檔案歸類整理成 冊。20 多年前,我聽從了尼爾的建議跟隨臺灣的 J.S Lee 先生前往紐約參加拍賣會,並於 1991 年從拍賣會上買 到了大量的中國紙幣。我們希望尼爾先生能夠撰寫出更 多關於美國鈔票公司及其檔案銷售方面的文章。另一位 權威的紙幣專家弗瑞德為我們貢獻了一篇有趣的關於比 亞克島紙鈔的文章。弗瑞德曾經在芝加哥獲得過美國錢 幣學會頒發的“2015 年年度最佳錢幣學家”的殊榮。權 威收藏家及《東南亞錢幣學》的作者霍華德·丹尼爾則為 我們寫了一篇關於越南錢幣的文章。希望錢幣收藏家和 研究者今後能夠為我們提供這方面更多的有趣文章,供 讀者欣賞。 我們雜誌的主編袁水清先生有機會對中國錢幣博物 館前任館長、《中國錢幣》雜誌編委會主任黃錫全先生

Asian Numismatics, wrote an article about the coinage of Vietnam. I hope he will continue to provide interesting articles from this area in the future. Our Chinese editor, Mr. Yuan, was able to interview the past President of the Chinese Numismatic Museum and editorial director of China Numismatics Mr. Huang Xi Quan about his area of expertise in Pre-Qin coinage.

My long time mentor and friend Mr. Chou Chien Fu, past President of the Taipei Numismatic Society, gave us a timely article about his reflection of his 35 years in numismatics. I am pleased that both sons of Mr. Chou, Stanley and James, are successful in continuing in the numismatic business. Robert Mish and King Chan provided the journal with show reports which I hope are interesting for our readers who were unable to attend these shows. We had a very successful project with the Künker Company and the Saxony-Anhalt Museum in Berlin and I was very happy to report on the various events at the World Money Fair.

For the third issue we will increase the news and book review sections to better reflect this area of importance for our readers. Please continue to give us feedback on how to improve the Journal and we look forward to meeting our readers at an upcoming convention. Best Regards, Michael

進行了一次採訪,黃先生就他所專長的先秦貨幣研究談 了真知爍見。

周建福先生是我多年的導師和朋友,也是臺北集幣協 會的前任會長。他及時地為我們寫了一篇關於自己 35 年 來錢幣研究心得的文章。看到周先生的兩個兒子斯坦利 和詹姆斯能夠子承父業,不勝欣忭。祝願他們的錢幣生 意蒸蒸日上。 羅伯特·米什和陳景林先生分別為這期雜誌撰寫了關 於柏林世界錢幣展和美國錢幣之旅的報道,我希望未能 前去參加展會的讀者能從這兩篇文章中找到自己感興趣 的內容。我們同昆克拍賣公司及柏林的薩克森 - 安哈爾 特博物館保持了良好的合作,我非常高興能在這期對這 次國際錢幣展銷會的各項活動作出詳細報道。 我們將從 7 月出版的第 3 期《東亞泉志》電子雜誌 開始,增加“新聞縱覽”和“圖書摘要”這兩個欄目, 以便為讀者更好地提供關於這一重要領域的內容。希望 諸位讀者能夠積極建言,多提寶貴意見,以便我們對雜 誌作出改進。我們也期待能在不久的年度會議上同各位 讀者朋友見面。 致以最美好的祝福! 周邁可


CONTENTS 目錄 Features 專題 Hidden Dragons of Hunan: The 1898 Dollar and Half Dollar 1898 年湖南省造七錢二分和三錢六分銀幣

Bruce W. Smith (USA)

47

史博祿(美國)

50

Ramsdeniana

By Howard F. Bowker (USA) 52

拉姆斯登藏集

霍華德 • 佛蘭克林 • 包克(美國) 57

Huang Xiquan Discusses Issues Regarding Pre-Qin Currency 黃錫全談先秦貨幣的有關問題

Yuan Shuiqing (Xi'an)

61

袁水清(西安)

65

Departments 部門 Nicholas P. Brown 2015 Person of the Year Award

Champion

3

2015 “尼古拉斯·P·布朗中國錢幣收藏貢獻獎”頒獎儀式

冠軍研究室

9

The Opening Ceremony for the Remodeled Bowker Coin Collection Exhibition Hall Yuan Fang (Xi'an)

14

圓方(西安)

16

Künker Auction (GER)

18

昆克拍賣(德國)

22

Michale Chou (USA)

25

周邁可(美國)

33

Bruce W. Smith (USA)

41

史博祿(美國)

44

Chien Fu Chou (Taipei)

68

周建福(臺北)

71

Fred Schwan (USA)

73

弗瑞德 • 施萬(美國)

75

Sapeque and Sapeque-Like Coins in Cochinchina and Indochina

Howard A. Daniel III (USA)

77

交趾支那和印度支那穿孔錢幣

霍華德 • 丹尼爾三世(美國) 81

包克錢幣藏品展示廳改建優化後正式開放 Chinese minting tools from Germany 源自德國的中國幣模 2016 World Money Fair Berlin Visit 2016 柏林 • 世界錢幣展覽會活動紀實 Numismatic Book Review 推介三部錢幣著作

Column 專欄 35 Years Recollection of My Numismatic Career 三十五年錢幣生涯 A Scarce Biak Note Issued by the American Red Cross 一張罕見的比亞克島紙鈔

The World-Famous American Bank Note Company 大名鼎鼎的美國鈔票公司 Modern Interpretation of Traditional Chinese Culture 傳統文化的今日再現 Berlin Panda Issue Highlights 2016 World Money Fair 柏林世界錢幣展覽會紀念熊貓驚艷 2016 世界錢幣展覽會 An American Coin Tour 美國錢幣之旅 Preliminary Research on Wang Mang Coins 新朝貨幣文化初探

Neil Shafer (USA)

85

尼爾 • 謝弗(美國)

86

Zhang Chenchen (Nanjing)

87

張琛琛(南京)

89

Robert Mish (USA)

91

羅伯特 • 米什(美國)

95

King L. Chan (Hong Kong)

99

陳景林(香港)

103

Lian Wenyu (Taiyuan)

106

廉文煜(太原)

109


Departments 部門

Nicholas P. Brown 2015 Person of the Year Award Champion The dinner and ceremonies for the Nicholas P.(Nick)

In addition to the traditional Nicholas P. Brown awards,

Brown Award for the Advancement of Chinese Numismatics

the committee felt it appropriate to give the first Special

was held at the Sofitel Hotel Macau at Ponte 16 on Dec. 5,

Achievement Awards. These were presented to Nanjing Mint

2015. The 2015 winner was Mr. Yu Min, the senior designer of

designer Ms. Zhang Chenchen and to Shanghai Mint artist

the Shanghai Mint. The first winner of Person of the Year (2013)

Ms. Dong Huizhen. Ms. Zhang and Ms. Dong designed and

Award Danny Spungen presented the award.

engraved the Modern Chinese Painting Master Xu Beihong’s “Harmony of Two Immortals” 1-ounce silver coin.

Every year since Nick’s passing in 2013, the award has been given twice, each year by the Committee: once for

“Red leaves and Magpies” is Xu Beihong’s swan song and

Lifetime Achievement, and once for recognition of the past

one of his favorites. The painting is rectangular while the gold

year’s contributions to our hobby, thus the “Person the the

coin is round and only in 1/4 oz. weight. “So it was necessary

Year”. Earlier last year, the 2015 Lifetime Achievement was

to make adjustments when I designed this coin,” said designer

awarded posthumously to M. Oka, a pioneer in developing the

Yu Min. Mr. Yu enlarged the magpies and the red leaves,

international market for modern Chinese coins.

and enhanced the red leaves color, a perfect rendering of Xu Beihong’s painting in such a small space.

The 2015 annual honoree, Mr. Yu Min, graduated from Shanghai Arts & Crafts College in August 1980 then started

Harmony of Two Immortals is recognized as the earliest

working in coin design and engraving in the Shanghai Mint.

known work of Xu Beihong. It is said that it was painted

In August 1987 he graduated from Department of Sculpture,

by Xu when he was 19, the most difficult time of his life, to

Central Academy of Craft Art. In 1996, Mr. Yu studied at

express his thanks to the chef who helped Xu hold a funeral

Repin Academy of Fine Arts.

ceremony for Xu’s father. When Ms. Zhang designed the 1 oz. Silver Coin, she represented Xu Beihong’s vertical scroll

The 1983 Silver Panda Coin designed and engraved by

painting “Harmony of Two Immortals” in vertical to make

Yu Min won “Coin of the Year: Best Crown” in 1985. These

the Two Immortals figures more impressive while Ms. Dong

awards each year are determined by a committee at Krause

engraved the two immortals in high relief. The laser-engraved

Publications, respected publishers of The Standard Catalog of

left and right maple leaves make the background more subtle.

World Coins, and have become internationally recognized as the “Oscars” for new mint issues.

The 2015 Modern Chinese Painting Master (Xu Beihong) 1/4 oz. Gold Coin and 1 oz. Silver Coin set is considered to

Mr. Yu has designed more modern PRC panda coins

be the finest China Mint product in many years. The coins

than any of the other China Mint designers. Among his many

were made using a combination of traditional and modern die

achievements of design over the years includes both the

making processes including sand blasting and lasering (frost

stunning 2014 and 2015 Macau Numismatic Society Annual

and texture), polishing (to add a mirror finish), and coloring

Expo Commemorative Pandas, the Modern Chinese Painting

(using single and multiple color overlays). This combination

Master (Xu Beihong) 1/4 oz. Gold Coin “Red leaves and

of artistic interpretation and blending of new and old die

Magpies” and the 70th anniversary of the victory of Chinese

making and minting technology resulted in a uniquely real

people's resistance war against Japanese invasion and the

representation of the Chinese traditional stylistic ink-painting

world Anti-Fascist War 5 oz. Silver Coin “V” symbol.

that these coins are based on.

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THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS


Departments 部門 Further Reading Nick Brown Biography Building a Collection Nick Brown was always associated with China’s high-

end modern coins. Since he was America’s most famous dealer of high-end Chinese coins, his influence has been deep in this field.

As a great coin collector, Nick Brown’s passion

was unbounded. He devoted himself and his time in

accumulating knowledge. His motto was “Collect–InvestHave fun.” He lived up to this and kept challenging

himself to better understand high-end coins. Though he was already an expert with a sizable collection, he still

tirelessly kept trying to upgrade his own collection and his own knowledge.

Another part of his success, Nick attended many

coin shows. He generously showed off his considerable

collection of rare modern coins, unlike other dealers, who show their importance by purchasing quantities of

coins and filling their display trays. One of Nick’s noted

Nick Brown

achievements was all of his collection was graded and ranked by NGC.

With coins, comes interest in life Nick confessed that in the coin world he was 70%

collector and 30% dealer. Therefore, on the other side of being a successful coin dealer, he was also a successful

coin collector. He loved to collect, to learn more and understand how the coin market worked.

In many people’s minds, Nick was not only a great

coin collector, but also a great philanthropist. His kind manner, combined with an attentive personality, was

praised by people who dealt with him. He always listened patiently to people and gave them his opinions.

As a top leader in modern Chinese coins, Nick Brown's

reputation will continue to deeply influence anyone who possesses an interest in these coins.

The Nick Brown Award for the Advancement of Chinese Numismatics Medal

The Nick Brown Award for the Advancement of Chinese Numismatics The Nick Brown Award for the Advancement of

numismatic scholar of modern Chinese commemorative

Numismatics Committee, with Robert Mish of Mish

Kong Po Sang Bank, serves as the senior consultant to the

Chinese Numismatics Ceremony was organized by the Nick Brown Award for the Advancement of Chinese

International serving as the committee chairman. Michael Chou (CEO of iAsure Group), David Camire (President of

NCS), Publisher of Pricepedia Peter Anthony and senior

東 亞 泉 志

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THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS

coins King Chan are the committee members. Mr. Zhang Weiyan, who had worked in the Shanghai Mint and Hong

committee. The ceremony was also sponsored by Mish International and iAsure Group.


Departments 部門 The Nick Brown Award for the Advancement of

Chinese Numismatics Medal is sponsored by Mish International and iAsure Group to recognize those people who contribute significantly to the advancement of

Chinese numismatic research and collecting. The Medal,

Metal Silver with Gold Gilt Silver Copper

Diameter 80mm 80mm 80mm

Fineness .999 .999

designed by Han Xiaosheng and Jin Yaxuan, was struck

in copper, silver and silver with gold gilt by the Shenyang

Mint. The No. 0 silver with gold gilt medal and the No. 0 silver medal were both presented to Nick Brown's family.

Weight 500g. 500g.

Mintage 6 14 200

No. 0-5 0-13 1-200

The Nick Brown Award Dinner Ceremony 2013 A private memorial banquet for Nick Brown of

Majestic Rarities, was held at the Hyatt Regency, Hong

Kong, on Aug. 24, 2013. Many people who admired Nick,

including good friends from America, Germany, Japan, Singapore, China and Taiwan, gathered at the Hyatt to remember this great person in Chinese numismatics.

N i c k ’ s f r i e n d s , i n c l u d i n g C C G’ s C E O, S teve n

Eichenbaum, Danny Spungen, Peter Anthony, NCS’s

president, David Camire, Robert Mish (president of Mish International), and iAsure’s CEO, Michael Chou all gave speeches remembering this great collector, dealer, and friend.

Danny Spungen (the founder of Why Not Collectibles)

was given the first Nick Brown Person of the Year Award for the Advancement of Chinese Numismatics (Number

1 Silver Medal). The Nick Brown Lifetime Achievement

Award for the Advancement of Chinese Numismatics (No.1 Silver with gold gilt medal) given to Martin Weiss, founder of Panda America Company.

to the Nick Brown Award committee. Mr. Zhang Weiyan worked in the Shanghai Mint and the Po Sang Bank in

Hong Kong, and witnessed China’s modern coinage development. The Letter of Appointment was presented

by Robert Mish. The Lifetime Achievement Award went to

Mr. Yang Bingchao, who was in charge of the production of the Beijing Scenery Gold Medals, the 30th Anniversary

of the Founding of the People's Republic of China, and

the 1982 Panda Gold Coins. Mr. Yang Bingchao served as general manager of the Printing Company of the People’s Bank of China in 1980. On behalf of his father, Mr. Yang

Xiaoguang received the award medal (No.2 Silver with gold gilt medal) and award certificate from Zhang Weiyan. The second Lifetime Achievement Award winner was

Mr. Zhu Chunde, whose biography was presented by Mr.

King Chan. Mr. Zhu Chunde, described as the “The Father of the Chinese Gold Coin”, served as vice president of the China Gold Coin Corporation. Mr. Zhu attended the fine

arts school affiliated with the China Central Academy of

Fine Arts (CAFA), and co-founded the China Gold Coin Corporation and the China Numismatic Society. He was

the first Chinese judge of the Coin of the Year Award

2014

sponsored by Krause Publications. King Chan presented

The Nick Brown Award for the Advancement of

Zou Jianjun). Michael Chou of the iAsure Group introduced

Chinese Numismatics ceremony was held at the Beijing InterContinental Hotel at 18:30 on October 24, 2014.

T h e f i r s t h i gh l i gh t o f t h e c e re m o ny wa s t h e

appointment of Mr. Zhang Weiyan as the senior consultant

the award medal (No.3 Silver with gold gilt medal) and award certificate to Mrs. Zhu (the famous stamp designer

the winner of the Person of the Year Award, Mr. Wang Shihong and presented him with the award medal (No. 2

Silver medal) and award certificate. Mr. Wang is the chief editor of the book series China Modern Precious Metal

Commemorative Coins Appreciation, which is regarded

5

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THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS


Departments 部門 as the encyclopedia of modern Chinese coinage. After 3 years’ painstaking editing and revision, the first volume of China Modern Precious Metal Commemorative Coins

Appreciation was released on 24th October during 2014 Beijing International Coin Expo.

a fabulous award dinner and the great memories of Nick Brown.

2015 The Nick Brown Lifetime Achievement Award for

Mr. King Chan served as the official translator for this

the Advancement of Chinese Numismatics ceremony

Printing and Minting Corporation (CBPM), Mr. Zhang

Achievement Award was Masamichi Oka (1924–1997).

award ceremony. The distinguished guests included the following: former Party Secretary of the China Banknote Jiedong; Party Secretary of the Shanghai Mint, Mr. Gu Jun;

cultural department director of CBPM, Mr. Wang Hui; vice president of the Shenyang Mint, Mr. Qin Xiaoxiang; chief

art officer of CBPM Museum, Mr. Qu Zhenrong; general manager of the Shanghai Shenquan Industry & Trading

Co. Ltd. (a subsidiary of the Shanghai Mint), Mr. Yuan

Zhanhong; principal senior engraver and designer of the Shanghai Mint, Mr. Luo Yonghui; Nick Brown Award

was held at the Hyatt Regency O’Hare Hotel at 18:30,

12nd August 2015. The winner of this year’s Lifetime Mr. Oka graduated in Tokyo University in 1948 and

established Taisei Stamps & Coins Co., Ltd. in 1967 (Taisei is the most important panda coin distributor in Japan). He

was the Chairman of JNDA (Japan Numismatic Dealers’ Association) and the Vice Chairman of WWF (World Wide

Fund for Nature), Japan. He was author of Silver Crowns

of the Far East; one of the major contributors to the standard reference book, Gold Coins of the World authored

medal designers Han Xiaosheng and Jin Yaxuan of the

by Arthur L. Friedberg, as well as to the new edition of

Zhao of the Shanghai Mint; the 2nd general manager of

Corporation, was present to accept the award on behalf of

Shenyang Mint, and senior designer Chang Huan of the Shenyang Mint; 2015 Panda Coin designer, Mr. Rocky

the China Gold Coin Corporation, Mr. Pi Zhikai; former president of the China Great Wall Coins Investments Ltd.,

Mr. Zhao Yansheng, the current vice president, Mr. Liu

Modern World Coins authored by Richard S. Yeoman. Mr. Oka’s son Masahiro Oka, the president of Taisei Coins his father.

The distinguished guests included, but were not

Hongqi, and manager, Anita Chou; prominent China Great

limited to: the former president of Panda America, Martin

Korea Hwadong Corporation, and Ms. Andrea Lang from

president of Korea Hwadong, J.C.Lee; Ulrich Künker, director

Wall Coins Investments Ltd. international distributors Mr.

Masahiro Oka from Japan Taisei Corporation, J.C. Lee from

the Austria Mint; China Gold Coin Corporation franchisee and Shanghai Yintai president, Zhang Ronghua; jibinet

chairman, Yu Jiwei; chief editor of Qian Bi, Yin Min; senior

collector and researcher, Ge Zukang; senior panda coin collector, Yuan Xiong; European auction house Künker

Weiss; distributor of China Gold coins/former president of PNG (Professional Numismatists Guild), Fred Weinberg;

of the German auction house Künker; the former president of International Bank Note Society (IBNS)/governor of

ANA Joseph Boling; Neil Shafer, the former president of

International Bank Note Society (IBNS)/chief editor of Standard Catalog of World Paper Money by Albert Pick;

Auction representative, Petr Kovaljov; YJ Online general

chairman of NGC, Mark Salzberg and David Camire, president

China Manager Zhao Zhenyang. All the attendees enjoyed

2015 ANA Numismatist of the Year winner Fred Schwan.

manager, Ding Feng; Coin in Coin chairman, Chen Haomin; vice president of PCGS, Ms. Muriel Eymery; and NGC

東 亞 泉 志

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THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS

of NCS; incoming president of ANA Jeff Garrett; and the famous American numismatic researchers Ron Guth and


Departments 部門 Winners List Lifetime Achievement Award Martin Weiss (2013, No. 1 Silver with gold gilt medal) Yang Bingchao (2014, No. 2 Silver with gold gilt medal) Zhu Chunde (2014, No. 3 Silver with gold gilt medal) Masamichi Oka (2015, No. 4 Silver with gold gilt medal)

Martin Weiss

Yang Bingchao

70th anniversary of the victory 2014 Macau Numismatic of Chinese people's resistance Society Annual Expo Commemorative Panda war against Japanese 5 oz. Silver Coin The Nick Brown Special Achievement Award

Zhu Chunde

Person of the Year Award

Masamichi Oka

Zhang Chenchen (2015.12) Dong Huizhen (2015.12)

Danny Spungen (2013, No.1 Silver Medal) Wang Shihong (2014, No. 2 Silver Medal) Yu Min (2015, No. 3 Silver Medal)

Zhang Chenchen Danny Spungen

Wang Shihong

Xu Beihong "Red leaves and Magpies"

Dong Huizhen

Yu Min

The Modern Chinese Painting Master (Xu Beihong) 1/4 oz. Gold Coin

Xu Beihong "Harmony The Modern Chinese Painting Master of Two Immortals" (Xu Beihong) 1 oz. Silver Coin

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THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS


Departments 部門

King Chan(R) hosts the ceromony with Danny Spungen

Michael Chou(R) CEO of the Champion Auction presents the award to the designer Zhang Chenchen of the Nanjing Mint

Zhang Yuequn accepts the prize presented by Peter Anthony(R) on behalf of Dong Huizhen of Shanghai Mint

Zhang Yuequn, winner of the first ‘Person of the Year’ Danny Spungen and Committee members

Dr. Ulf Drager introduces the Moritzburg Museum in Halle

(From L) Richard Guo, Michael Chou, Ulf Drager, Ken Krah and King Chan

The awards banquet

The awards banquet

東 亞 泉 志

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Departments 部門

2015 “尼古拉斯·P·布朗中國錢幣收藏貢獻獎”頒獎儀式 冠軍研究室 2015 年度“尼古拉斯·P·布朗(簡稱尼克·布朗)中國 錢幣收藏貢獻獎”年度人物獎頒獎晚宴於 12 月 5 日(週六) 在澳門十六浦索菲特酒店舉行。2015 年度“尼克·布朗中 國錢幣收藏貢獻獎”年度人物獎獲得者是上海造幣有限 公司高級工藝美術師余敏先生。第一屆年度人物獎(2013 年)獲得者 Danny Spungen 先生出席頒獎儀式。

2015 年,評委会除了頒發传统的“尼克·布朗中國錢 幣收藏貢獻奖”,還首次頒發了“尼克·布朗中國錢幣收 藏貢獻奖”特别貢獻奖。 該獎項的獲得者是南京造幣有 限公司設計師張琛琛女士和上海造幣有限公司工藝美術 師董慧珍女士。她們分別設計和雕刻了中國近代國畫大 師(徐悲鴻)1 盎司銀質紀念幣(和合二仙圖)。

自 2013 年尼克·布朗逝世后,尼克·布朗中國錢幣收 藏貢獻獎每年由評委會頒發 2 次:一次為終身成就獎; 另一次是為表彰過去一年對中國錢幣事業做出巨大貢獻 的人士頒發的“年度人物獎”。就在去年不久,崗政道 先生獲追授 2015“尼克·布朗”終身成就獎。崗政道先生 是一位為中國現代幣開拓了國際市場的先驅。

《紅葉喜鵲圖》是徐悲鴻大師的絕筆之作,也是大師 最喜愛的作品之一。由於原作是長方形構圖,而 1/4 盎 司金幣為圓形,設計師余敏先生表示設計這枚幣時必須 要做調整。他把喜鵲和紅葉適當放大,並把紅葉顏色加深, 於錢幣方寸之間完美再現了徐悲鴻大師的作品。

2015 年度人物獎獲得者余敏先生 1980 年 8 月畢業於 上海工藝美術學校。同年進上海造幣有限公司從事錢幣 設計雕刻工作。1987 年 8 月畢業於中央工藝美院裝飾雕 塑系。1996 年赴俄羅斯列賓美術學院雕塑系進修。 余敏先生設計雕刻的 1983 版熊貓銀幣在 1985 年獲得 “最佳銀幣獎”。這些獎項每年由克勞斯出版社評委會(評 委會成員為《世界标准硬币目录》的出版商們)評選得出, 現已成為國際公認的造幣廠新發行物的“奧斯卡”獎。 余敏先生設計的中國現代熊貓幣數量是中國造幣廠 設計師中最多的。在過去幾年,他取得了眾多的設計成就, 其中包括:2014 - 2015 年澳門錢幣學會年展紀念熊貓、 中國近代國畫大師(徐悲鴻)1/4 盎司金質紀念幣(紅葉 喜鵲圖)和中國人民抗日戰爭暨世界反法西斯戰爭勝利 70 周年 5 盎司銀質紀念幣(“V”字造型)。

而《和合二仙圖》可能是目前所知徐悲鴻最早的作品。 據說是徐悲鴻 19 歲的作品,當時正是徐悲鴻一生最悲苦 的時期。為了感謝大廚幫助料理父親的喪事,徐悲鴻作 了此畫。設計師張琛琛在設計 1 盎司銀幣時,呈現了徐 悲鴻原作立軸式的構圖,突出和合二仙人物形象。工藝 美術師董慧珍雕刻時將人物形象做成高浮雕,左右兩邊 的楓葉採用激光處理,作為背景不會顯得突兀。 中國近代國畫大師(徐悲鴻)1/4 盎司金質紀念幣(紅 葉喜鵲圖)和 1 盎司銀質紀念幣(和合二仙圖)套幣據 稱是中國造幣廠多年來最好的產品。這套幣是傳統與現 代製模工藝完美結合的典範。這些工藝包括噴砂、激光 處理製造凝霜和肌理效果、鏡面研磨工藝、黑白與多層 次彩色的交相輝映等。設計師 / 雕刻師的藝術再創造與 新舊製模工藝、造幣技術的結合,真實再現了中國傳統 特色的油墨畫大作,獨具匠心。

相關閱讀 尼克 • 布朗先生簡介 錢幣之間,收藏之路 談及尼克·布朗先生,那自然會讓人聯想到中國高端 現代錢幣。尼克·布朗先生可謂是美國最知名的中國高端 現代錢幣的經銷商,他生前對這一行業的影響具有深遠 的意義。 作為一名偉大的錢幣收藏家,尼克·布朗先生對於錢 幣的熱愛超乎了所有人的想象,他在此領域中傾注了大 量的時間,也因此收穫了豐富的相關學識。他的座右銘 為:“收藏——投資——獲得樂趣”。他也是如此踐行的。

他不斷地挑戰自我,積極尋找那些他想要的錢幣。雖然 他在錢幣方面的收藏頗豐,但卻從未滿足,依然孜孜不 倦地擴大着自己的收藏版圖。 尼克·布朗先生成功的另一個原因是他經常參加各種 錢幣展銷會。在展會中,其他經銷商常常會購買大量的 錢幣將他們的展櫃填滿。而尼克·布朗先生則不同,他慷 慨地展示他本人的藏品,其數量之多,讓人歎為觀止。 而他所展示的藏品的另一大特點便是每枚錢幣都由評級 鑒定公司 NGC 進行過評級。

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Departments 部門 錢幣之間,人生之味 尼克·布朗先生曾坦言,在錢幣領域他自己是 70% 的 收藏家,30% 的經銷商。因此在他成功的錢幣經銷商的 頭銜之下,他更是一位成功的錢幣收藏家。他熱愛收藏, 喜愛學習,對錢幣和市場瞭解深厚。 而在眾多人的眼中,尼克·布朗先生不僅僅是一位偉

尼克 • 布朗

大的錢幣收藏家,更是一位偉大的親善大使。他優秀的 涵養與體貼的性格常常為他人所樂道。與他交談時,他 總是會耐心地等待對方把話說完,才發表自己的意見。 逝者已去,精神長存。作為一位在中國現代錢幣收藏 及研究上有相當高造詣的人,尼克·布朗這個名字或許將 更為長久地鐫刻在每一位對中國現代錢幣感興趣的人的 心中。

“尼克 • 布朗錢幣收藏貢獻獎”獎章

尼克 • 布朗中國錢幣收藏貢獻獎

“ 尼 克· 布 朗 中 國 錢 幣 收 藏 貢 獻 獎” 頒 獎 儀 式 由 “尼克·布朗中國錢幣收藏貢獻獎”評審委員會主辦, Mish International 公 司、 愛 秀 集 團 協 辦。 其 中 Mish International 總裁 Robert Mish 先生任評委會主席,評委 則由愛秀集團總裁周邁可先生、NCS 總裁 David Camire 先生、Pricepedia 創辦人 Peter Anthony 先生和中國現代 金銀幣資深研究學者陳景林先生擔任。曾在上海造幣有 限公司、香港寶生銀行工作過的張維研先生擔任評委會

資深顧問。 “ 尼 克· 布 朗 中 國 錢 幣 收 藏 貢 獻 獎” 獎 章 由 Mish International 公司和愛秀集團聯合贊助製作,專門用於 獎勵在中國錢幣研究和收藏方面做出重大貢獻的人士。 紀念章採用三種材質:紫銅、純銀和純銀鍍金,由瀋陽 造幣廠設計、鑄造,韓曉生和金雅軒設計。0 號鍍金銀 章和銀章贈予尼克·布朗家族。

材質

直徑

成色

重量

發行量

編號

鍍金銀章

80mm

.999

500g.

6

0-5

80mm

.999

500g.

14

0-13

紫銅

80mm

200

1-200

頒獎晚宴 2013 年

2013 年 8 月 24 日 18:30, 一 場 紀 念 Majestic Rarities 總裁尼克·布朗先生的私人晚宴在香港凱悅酒店 隆重舉行,來自美國,德國,日本,新加坡,中國內地、 臺灣及香港等地的近 60 名尼克·布朗先生的仰慕者及其 生前好友、同窗悉數到場。尼克·布朗先生生前好友美 國 CCG 集 團 公 司 總 裁 Steven Eichenbaum 先 生、Danny Spungen 先 生、Peter Anthony 先 生、NCS 總 裁 David

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Camire 先生、Mish International 總裁 Robert Mish 先生 以及 iAsure 集團總裁 Michael Chou 先生均發表演說, 追思這位偉大的中國錢幣收藏家。晚宴期間,Why Not Collectibles 創辦者 Danny Spungen 先生更被授予“尼克·布 朗中國錢幣收藏貢獻獎”2013 年度人物獎(1 號銀章), 而“尼克·布朗中國錢幣收藏貢獻獎”終身成就獎則由美 國熊貓公司的創辦者 Martin Weiss 獲得(1 號鍍金銀章)。 2014 年


Departments 部門 2014 年 10 月 24 日 18:30,北京北辰洲際酒店宴會 廳內,2014 年度“尼克·布朗中國錢幣收藏貢獻獎”頒 獎晚宴在此隆重舉行。 首先由主持人介紹張維研先生並由 Robert Mish 向張 老頒發了聘書,聘請張維研先生為“尼克·布朗錢幣收藏 貢獻獎”評審委員會資深顧問。張老系原上海造幣廠員工, 曾在香港寶生銀行負責經銷中國現代金銀幣,是中國現 代貴金屬幣發展的重要見證人,也是本年度“終身成就 獎”獲得者楊秉超先生當年的老部下。張老聲情並茂地 講述了楊秉超先生當年領導生產現代貴金屬幣的事蹟。 楊秉超先生曾領導生產北京風景名勝紀念金章、中華人 民共和國成立 30 周年紀念金幣和第一套中國熊貓金幣。 1980 年,任中國人民銀行印製總公司總經理。接下來, 張維研先生將“終身成就獎”榮譽證書和獎章(2 號鍍 金銀章)頒發給楊秉超的兒子楊曉光先生。隨後,中國 現代金銀幣資深研究學者陳景林先生追憶了另一位“終 身成就獎”獲得者朱純德先生的生動事蹟,並將“終身 成就獎”榮譽證書和獎章(3 號鍍金銀章)頒給朱純德 的夫人鄒建軍女士。朱純德先生被譽為“新中國金幣之 父”,曾任中國金幣總公司副總經理。他先後在中央美 院附中和中央美院就讀,是中國錢幣學會和中國金幣總 公司創始人之一,也是克勞斯世界硬幣大賽第 1 位中國 評委。其夫人鄒建軍女士是中國著名郵票設計師。最後, 愛秀集團總裁周邁可先生介紹了“2014 年度人物獎”的 獲得者王世宏先生並為其頒發獎章(2 號銀章)和榮譽 證書。王世宏先生組織編著了《中國現代貴金屬幣賞析》 系列叢書,以獨特的學術視角、樸素的敘述文字,多角 度、全方位地展示了中國現代貴金屬幣的選題立項、設 計雕刻、工藝製作等過程,同時在文化價值、收藏屬性 等方面做了較為深入的探討,是中國現代貴金屬幣資訊 資料的百科大全。第 1 冊耗時三年多編撰而成,於 10 月 24 日北京國際錢幣博覽會期間首發。

頒獎儀式全程由陳景林先生任翻譯。領獎者分別發表 了獲獎感言。出席晚宴的重要嘉賓有中國印鈔造幣總公 司原黨委書記張解東,上海造幣有限公司黨委書記顧軍, 中國印鈔造幣總公司企業文化部主任王輝,瀋陽造幣有 限公司副總經理秦孝祥,中國印鈔造幣總公司博物館藝 術執行總監曲振榮,上海造幣有限公司下屬單位上海申 泉工貿有限公司總經理袁展宏,上海造幣有限公司正高 級工藝美術師羅永輝,“尼克·布朗中國錢幣收藏貢獻獎” 獎章設計師 / 瀋陽造幣有限公司工藝美術師韓曉生和金 雅軒,瀋陽造幣有限公司高級工藝美術師常歡,2015 年 熊貓幣設計師 / 上海造幣有限公司高級工藝美術師趙檣,

中國金幣總公司第二任總經理皮執凱,中國長城硬幣投 資有限公司原總經理趙燕生、現任副總經理劉紅旗、經 理 Anita Chou,中國長城硬幣投資有限公司海外資深經 銷商日本泰星代表 Masahiro Oka,韓國 Hwadong 公司 J.C. Lee,奧地利造幣廠代表 Andrea Lang,中國金幣特許商 上海銀泰董事長張榮華,中國集幣在線董事長俞吉偉, 《錢幣》報主編殷敏,收藏家和研究學者葛祖康,熊貓 幣專題收藏家袁雄,資深拍賣公司德國 Künker Auction 公司代表 Petr Kovaljov,易金在線總經理丁峰,廣銀閣 董事長陳浩敏,以及 PCGS 副總裁 Muriel Eymery 和 NGC 中國區域銷售經理趙振陽等國內外友人。大家齊聚一堂, 暢所欲談,氣氛熱烈,紛紛合影留念。 2015 年

2015 年度“尼克·布朗中國錢幣收藏貢獻獎”終身成 就獎於 2015 年 8 月 12 日(週三)18:30 在美國伊利諾 州羅斯蒙特奧黑爾凱悅酒店舉行。2015 年度“尼克·布朗

中國錢幣收藏貢獻獎”終身成就獎獲得者是創立日本泰 星郵幣公司的崗政道先生 (Masamichi Oka,1924 – 1997 年 )。崗政道先生于 1948 年,畢業於東京大學;1967 年創立日本泰星郵幣有限公司 (Taisei Stamps & Coins Co., Ltd.);曾任日本幣商協會主席、世界自然基金會日本分 會副主席、立時集團副總裁等職務。日本泰星公司一直 是中國熊貓紀念幣的重要經銷商。崗政道先生著有《遠 東銀圓珍品》(Silver Crowns of the Far East ),是《世界

金幣標準目錄》和新版《近代世界硬幣》主要撰稿人, 幾十年來不遺餘力地推廣錢幣文化和交流。崗政道的兒 子、泰星公司現任總裁崗政弘先生代其父受獎。

頒獎晚宴上,美國熊貓公司前總裁 Martin Weiss 先生、 中 國 金 幣 代 理 商 / 原 PNG(Professional Numismatists Guild, 專業錢幣行業協會)總裁 Fred Weinberg 先生、 日本泰星總裁 Masahiro Oka 先生、韓國 Hwadong 公司 總裁 J.C.Lee 先生,德國昆克拍賣公司總裁 Ulrich Künker 先 生、 原 International Bank Note Society (IBNS) 總 裁 / 美國錢幣協會董事 Joseph Boling 先生、原 International Bank Note Society (IBNS) 總 裁 /Pick《 世 界 紙 鈔 目 錄》 總 編 Neil Shafer 先 生、NGC 董 事 長 Mark Salzberg 先 生 和 NCS 總裁 David Camire 先生、美國錢幣協會新一屆主 席 Jeff Garrett 先生、美國著名錢幣研究學者古富先生、 美國錢幣協會 2015 年度人物 (2015 Numismatist of the Year) Fred Schwan 先生、中國現代貴金屬幣經銷商代表 徐建新先生等國內外錢幣界重量級人物悉數亮相。

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Departments 部門 “尼克 • 布朗錢幣收藏貢獻獎”獲獎人員名單 終身成就獎 Martin Weiss (2013 年,1 號鍍金銀章) 楊秉超(2014 年,2 號鍍金銀章) 朱純德(2014 年,3 號鍍金銀章) 崗政道(2015 年,4 號鍍金銀章)

Martin Weiss

楊秉超 中國人民抗日戰爭暨世界反 法西斯戰爭勝利 70 周年 5 盎司銀質紀念幣

2014 年澳門錢幣學會 年展紀念熊貓

特別貢獻獎 張琛琛 (2015 年 12 月 ) 董慧珍 (2015 年 12 月 ) 朱純德

崗政道

年度人物獎 Danny Spungen (2013 年,1 號銀章) 王世宏(2014 年,2 號銀章) 余敏(2015 年,3 號銀章)

張琛琛

王世宏

Danny Spungen

余敏

徐悲鴻《和合二仙圖》 徐悲鴻《紅葉喜鵲圖》

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中國近代國畫大師(徐悲鴻) 1/4 盎司金質紀念幣

THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS

董慧珍

中國近代國畫大師(徐悲鴻) 1 盎司銀質紀念幣


Departments 部門

陳景林先生(右)主持活動,Danny Spungen 出席頒獎 儀式

冠軍總裁周邁可(右)為南京造幣有限公司設計師張琛 琛頒獎

Pricepedia 創辦人 Peter Anthony(右)為上海造幣有限 公司工藝美術師董慧珍颁奖,張躍群代領

張躍群、第一屆年度人物獎獲得者 Danny Spungen 與評 委會委員

Ulf Drager 博士介绍德国哈雷莫里茨堡藝術博物馆

左起:郭嘉華、周邁可、Ulf Drager、肯·克拉、陳景林

頒獎晚宴現場

頒獎晚宴現場

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Departments 部門

The Opening Ceremony for the Remodeled Bowker Coin Collection Exhibition Hall Yuan Fang (Xi'an)

Guests visit the Bowker Coin Collections Exhibition Hall

The grand opening ceremony for remodeled Bowker Coin Collection Exhibition Hall was held at auditorium of Shanghai Mint Museum on December 10, 2015. More than 30 guests were invited to attend. Mr. Gu Jun, Party Secretary of the Shanghai Mint Co., Ltd. Carolyn Bowker, Howard Franklin Bowker's granddaughter,Michael Chou,President of iAsure Group, and Ken Krah, Vice President of NGC and world coins rating expert, delivered speeches respectively at the opening ceremony. After the ceremony, the guests visited the refurbished Bowker Coin Collection Exhibition Hall happily.

Mr Howard Franklin Bowker (1889-1970)—Numismatic Pioneer, is a famous American coin collector who devoted much of his time to Chinese coin collecting and research and became one of the most studied scholars of Chinese coins between 1940 and 1960. In 2010, the Bowker family donated over 139 pieces from his Chinese coin collection, representing different historical phases, to the Shanghai Mint Co., Ltd. as Mr Bowker requested in his will. The Shanghai Mint Museum set up the Bowker Coin Collections Exhibition Hall in 2014. They carefully preserved and displayed the coins, and made the Exhibition Hall one of three permanent exhibition halls in Shanghai Mint Museum. As of now, nearly 2 thousand visitors have come to the Exhibition Hall, most

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of them from the state organs, enterprises and institutions, universities, etc.. In March 2015, the Bowker family donated another 37 coins from the collection, effectively filling the void in late Qing Dynasty coins for Shanghai Mint Museum. Mr. Gu Jun mentioned that in order to display the new collections better, in 2015 the Shanghai Mint Co., Ltd. spent two months developing and remodeling the Coin Collection Exhibition Hall. This consisted of (1) Adjusting the pavilion and display rack, including placing new vertical showcases to exhibit Qing Dynasty coins while recreating the display rack of coin collections of Qing Dynasty, Republic of China and so on. (2) They used the NGC packaging option to protect the coin boutique and enhance the unity of the exhibits. (3) They adjusted the lighting layout to make it more comfortable for visitors when viewing the displays. And, (4) Replaced the wall cloth and applied visually distinctive lettering for the name of the Exhibition Hall. Mr. Gu Jun also said the Shanghai Mint Co., Ltd. will continue to explore and develop and present information on the Bowker coin collection. In addition, new media technology such as Wechat will be used to let more people have the opportunity to gain knowledge of Chinese coins and to better understand Mr Bowker’s collection and research findings. Mr. Gu wants to conduct more cooperation and


Departments 部門 communication in various forms with the Bowker family to make more contributions to the prosperity and development of China's money culture. Carolyn Bowker thanked the Shanghai Mint Co., Ltd. for what it has done for carefully preserving and displaying these coins in her speech, and she wanted to continue to carry out good cooperation with the Shanghai Mint Co., Ltd. to make

contributions to the monetary cultural heritage. Michael Chou and Ken Krah also delivered speeches at the ceremony and expressed their appreciation and gratitude to the common efforts that Shanghai Mint Co., Ltd. and Bowker family have done for coin collections and cultural heritage. (These pictures provided by the culture department of Shanghai Mint Co.)

Shanghai Mint Party Secretary Gu Jun delivers a speech

Howard Franklin Bowker's granddaughter, Carolyn Bowker delivers a speech

CEO of Champion Michael Chou delivers a speech

Vice President of NGC, Ken Krah delivers a speech

6. Danny Spungen, Peter Anthony and Michael Chou are talking together

(From L) Vice general designer of the Shanghai Mint Luo Yonghui, chairman of Liaoning New Automation Control Group Co., Ltd Wang Long, the Shanghai Mint Museum former curator Zhang Yuequn, former vice general engineer of the Shanghai Mint Zhang Jun

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Departments 部門

包克錢幣藏品展示廳改建優化後正式開放 圓方(西安)

嘉賓參觀改建優化后的上海造幣博物館包克錢幣藏品展示廳 2015 年 12 月 10 日,上海造幣博物館在其放映廳隆 重舉行包克錢幣藏品展示廳改建優化開放儀式。30 多位 嘉賓應邀出席。上海造幣有限公司黨委書記顧軍,包克 家族代表卡羅琳·包克女士(包克孫女),愛秀集團總裁 周邁可,美國 NGC 副總裁、世界錢幣首席評級師肯·克 拉分別講話和致辭。儀式結束後,來賓們興致勃勃地參 觀了煥然一新的包克錢幣藏品展示廳。 霍華德·佛蘭克林·包克先生(1889-1970 年)是美國 著名錢幣收藏家,他將大半生時間奉獻於中國錢幣收藏 研究上,是 1940 至 1960 年對中國錢幣領域最有研究的 學者之一。按照包克先生生前將錢幣藏品捐贈社會的遺 願,2010 年,包克家族曾向上海造幣有限公司捐贈過 139 件中國各個歷史時期的錢幣藏品。上海造幣博物館 於 2014 年特設包克錢幣藏品展示廳,對這批錢幣藏品予 以精心保存並公開展示,使之成為上海造幣博物館的三 個常設展廳之一。參觀人數已近 2000 人,觀眾來源涵蓋 國家機關、企事業單位、高等院校、文化藝術團體等。 2015 年 3 月,包克家族再次捐贈了 37 件錢幣藏品,有 效填補了上海造幣博物館在清末機製幣方面的空白。顧 軍在講話時介紹,為了更好地展示這些新增藏品,上海 造幣有限公司於 2015 年耗時兩個月,對包克錢幣藏品展

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廳進行了改建優化。1. 調整展區與展架,包括:新建立 式展櫃收藏清代錢幣精品;重新製作清代、民國和歷代 錢幣珍品等展區的展架。2. 採用 NGC 的封裝方式,對錢 幣精品進行保護,提升了展品的統一性。3. 調整了展廳 的燈光佈局,使之更符合錢幣觀賞的需要。4. 採用立體 字的方式表現展廳名稱,並重新張貼了背景牆布等。 顧軍表示,上海造幣有限公司將繼續積極探索與發揮 包克錢幣藏品的文化傳播功能,同時,嘗試運用微信等 新媒體技術,讓更多的人有機會瞭解中國錢幣知識,瞭 解包克先生的收藏與研究成果。他希望與包克家族開展 更多形式的合作與交流,共同為中國錢幣文化的繁榮與 發展,做出更大的貢獻。 卡羅琳·包克在致辭中向上海造幣有限公司對這些錢 幣的精心保存與展示表示感謝,她希望繼續與上海造幣 有限公司開展良好合作,共同為錢幣文化的傳承做貢獻。 周邁可、肯·克拉在儀式上先後致辭,對上海造幣有限公 司和包克家族在錢幣收藏和文化傳承方面的工作表示讚 賞與感謝。 (本文圖片由上海造幣有限公司企業文化部提供)


Departments 部門

上海造幣有限公司黨委書記顧軍講話

卡羅琳·包克(包克孫女)致辭

冠軍拍賣總裁周邁可致辭

NGC 副總裁肯·克拉致辭

Danny Spungen、Peter Anthony、周邁可親切交談

前排左起:上海造幣有限公司副總工藝美術師羅永輝、 遼寧中新自動控制集團有限公司董事長王龍、上海造幣 博物館前館長張躍群、原上海造幣廠副總工程師章軍

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Departments 部門

Chinese minting tools from Germany —— A mystery has been solved Künker Auction (GER)

Foreword In June of 2012 Künker Auction House offered minting tools and patterns from the archives of Otto Beh’s company in Esslingen at its auction. Even though all of the objects had been published by Gerhard E. Kümmel in a Festschrift in

The World Money Fair will set the perfect background for the ceremonial hand over of the collection and the first presentation in Germany.

Chinese dies from Germany

2009, it was this auction with its catalogue that would finally

For China’s rise to modernity, the establishment of

make them known internationally and solve the mystery

a sophisticated and modern currency system acted as an

of modern Chinese coin minting. For modern Far East

important catalyst. Many of the big coin producing firms,

numismatics this offer was a sensation.

such as in Philadelphia, Birmingham and also Germany, like L. Schuler from Göttingen, competed for this new market

This collection presents an important document of

in the last decade of the 19th century. After the installation

Chinese numismatics. It contains 42 dies and 36 punches and

of mints using English machines in Tientsin (Tianjin) and

will be donated to the Foundation of Domes and Castles in

Canton (Guangzhou) in 1887, more provincial mints were to

Saxony-Anhalt for the state coin cabinet in the art museum

be established. Schuler delivered its first friction presses to

of Moritzburg Halle (Saale) in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany. The

China in 1895.

key objectives of the endowment are long time preservation, as well as public and academic access. The museum already

In 1884 Otto Friedrich Immanuel Beh (1859-1944)

owns the extraordinary “Prof Dr Joachim Krüger” collection

founded an engraving company in the city of Esslingen. He

of Chinese coins, which is the second biggest of its kind in

produced 40 Chinese dies for Schuler in 1897. In 1898 and

Germany and it pursues a remarkable concept to mediate

1899 he earned more commissions, for example, from the

the history of the world of money. Especially through the

Magdeburg merchant Heinrich Knape. This is how the coin

patronage of Michael Hans Chou, owner of Champion

designs for the provinces of Cheh-Kiang (mint of Hangzhou,

Auction House in Hong Kong, Künker Auction House was

Zhejiang), An-Hwei (mint of Anqing, Anhui), Feng-Tien

able to arrange the donation of this important convolute. The

(Fungtian/Fengtian, today’s Liaoning, originally Fengtian

support of numismatic academia presents an important part

Machinery Bureau, today’s Shenyang mint) and Sinkiang

of the philosophy of Künker Auction House.

(Sungarei, today’s Xinjiang) were created. Also, for Knape, Beh produced five sets of 1 dollar, 50, 20, 10 and 5 cents, as well as 30 patterns for the northeastern province of HeiLung-Kiang (Hēilóngjiāng), where no mint had yet been established. His specialization on Chinese coins brought Otto Beh the biggest commissions in the history of engraving companies in the 19th century. All together, he delivered more than 200 dies. The Chinese numismatics community gradually became aware of the German patterns after 1944 through articles and auctions. By now though, the prices for these extreme rarities are mind-staggering. The many assumptions about their

The photo shows how Otto Beh has stored the dies in a wooden box over the years

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origin have become part of scholarship and the mystery of modern Chinese coin history has been solved.


Departments 部門 1898. At the time this was by far the largest order for Otto Beh - a company principally operating today in manufacturing identification plates signs and in the digital printing field. The company Otto Beh silver-plated brass 1 dollar pattern for China's An-hwei Province, year 23 (1897). Künker Auction 211 (2012), Lot 2529. Estimate: 5,000 euros, hammer price: 145,000 euros.

celebrated its 125 year Cheh-kiang/Che-kiang Province 3 Mace and 6 Candareens (50 Cents) Year 23 (1897): Matrix of reverse die with name of province in Latin-alphabet letters. L./M. die of 272

in Esslingen is an important document of Chinese numismatic history and of the close economicties between Germany and China at the end of the 19th century. Even at that time German engineering products had an excellent reputation abroad. Closely linked with the Otto Beh company (established in 1884) was the firm of Louis Schuler (established in 1839) from neighbouring Göppingen. Today a worldwide operating full public company (AG) and a leading producer of

numismatist Gerhard E. Kümmel from Esslingen drafted a history of the company with a catalogue of the medals, badges and pins brought out by Beh 125 Jahre Gravier- und Prägeanstalt Otto Beh, Esslingen, Medail-lenPlaketten-Anstecknadeln, Esslingen 2011).

Chinese minting tools of the engraving company Otto Beh, Esslingen

This portfolio of coining dies from the Otto Beh company

To mark this occasion,

( G e rh a rd E . K ü m m e l ;

Otto Beh brass 20 cent pattern for China's Hei-lungkiang Province, no date. Künker Auction 249 (2014), Lot 460. Estimate: 5,000 euros, hammer price: 75,000 euros.

Extract of Künker Auction Catalog No. 211, June 2012

anniversary in 2009.

Kwang Hsu (1875-1908) Value 10 cash obverse die, no date.

Still in Beh's possession was this stock of male moulds, die plates

and letter chasing tools as well as the two test rounds of the Anhwei and Sin Kiang provinces (Sungarei). It was the Beh family‘s wish that the future owners of these items – as documented in the Künker catalogue No. 211 - are collectors very much interested in numismatic history.

Great rarities of Chinese numismatics given to the state coin cabinet of Saxony-Anhalt of the art museum Moritzburg in the city of Halle (Saale)

coining machines, Schuler specialized in the 19th century in manufacturing sheet metal working machines – and presses

The rarities are comprised of 42 Chinese dies and 36

in particular. Schuler obtained the order to supply coin

punches, displaying Chinese characters. They derive from the

presses in 1895 - in all probability at the Leipzig Trade Fair.

engraving firm of Otto Beh of Esslingn on the river Neckar

Schuler, in turn, commissioned Otto Beh, who specialised

and were produced for the Chinese provinces of Anhwei,

in the production of seals and dies, with manufacturing the

Chekiang, Fengtien (Fungtien), Heilungkiang and Sinkiang

coining dies. Cooperation between the two companies from

(Sungarai). On the one hand these coin striking tools present

Württemberg was highly successful with Beh supplying

an extraordinary document of Chinese numismatics and

Schuler with over 200 dies for Chinese coins in 1897 and

on the other they illustrate the close business relationship

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Departments 部門

between Germany and China. Even back then, German

future permanent exhibition. But first, starting on September

products already enjoyed an exceptional reputation.

17th, 2016, Moritzburg will be hosting a special exhibit on the topic of Chinese coin and currency history.

On June 18th, 2012 the collection was supposed to be auctioned off during Künker Auction 211. But due to

In the beginning of December 2015 the numismatic

the responsibility towards the dies’ exclusiveness and the

rarities were exhibited at the Macau Numismatic Society

fact, that only a few coins had actually been minted with

Annual International Show in Macau, China. For a few days,

them, Künker withdrew the dies from auction. It was to be

the pieces were on view in the presence of Michael Hans

suspected that not only collectors would be interested in

Chou, Ulf Dräger and Petr Kovaljov as a representative of

the dies, but also clients with possible criminal intentions.

Künker. The enormous public interest assured the organizers

Together with Michael Hans Chou, owner of Hong Kong

of this exhibit that they made the right choice.

Auction House Champion, Künker was able to convince the consigner to withdraw the dies from auction. But this had to take place under one condition: the tools were to be marked in order to forego misuse. The punching was carried out by Foba of Lüdenscheid using microscopic laser engraving.

In December 2015, the exhibition of the dies was ceremoniously opend in Macau

On Saturday, February 6th, 2016, in a celebratory

ceremony, Michael Hans Chou and Ulrich Künker will Die with the punch "OB" for Otto Beh

The tools, because of their historic importance, were to be given to a museum in China or Germany. Again, in

hand over the extraordinary pieces to the director of the Foundation of Domes and Castles of Saxony-Anhalt, Dr Christian Philipsen, and the chief curator of the state coin cabinet of Saxony-Anhalt, Ulf Dräger.

cooperation with Michael Hans Chou, Künker was looking for such a renowned institution, which would give the

In commemoration of this event, the Shanghai

dies and punches their deserved attention. After years of

Mint produced two Commemorative Pandas. The first

considerations, it was the art museum of Moritzburg in the

commemorates the exhibit of the dies in Macau and was

city of Halle (Saale), which would be chosen to house this

already presented and sold at the show. The second piece,

incredible gift. The museum already owns an extraordinary

commemorating the ceremony in Berlin, displays the

collection of Chinese coins, which is the second biggest

Berlin Dome and the logo of the World Money Fair on the

in Germany today, and it pursues a remarkable concept to

obverse, whereas the reverse displays the Berlin bear, the

mediate the history of the world of money. Additionally, it

Chinese panda, a coin showing the Anhalt bear and two

also oversees an unique museum of the technology of coins

dies. This edition documents a historic moment in German

in Stolberg (Harz). The coin cabinet of Saxony-Anhalt, part

numismatics. The “Berlin-Panda” coins will be available for

of the art museum Moritzburg Halle (Saale), will receive the

69 euros at the World Money Fair at booth D6.

dies as a donation with the obligation to present them in a

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Departments 部門 the Prof Dr Joachim Krüger collection, which contains 2337 objects. These holdings allow the museum to present an outstanding overview of the historical development of Chinese numismatics from the beginning to the present. It includes many specimen of great rarity and international relevance for numismatic scholarship.

2016 World Money Fair Berlin Silver Panda Commemorative

The state coin cabinet of Saxony-Anhalt

Silver bar (yinding/yuanbao), first half of the 10th century. Means of payment during the last phase of the disintegrating Tang-Dynasty from the shipwreck Intan, sunk between 917-942, salvaged 1997. Silver bars were used in China until 1933 as a means of payment for example for the payment of taxes or duties from wealthy families. The inscription refers to the amount of silver and details of the mint and warning against counterfeiting. Silver, 897 gramm, MOMK62229, ex collection Prof. Joachim Krüger.

View into the exhibition "Coinage of Magdeburg" (2011) of the state coin cabinet in the art museum of Moritzburg Halle (Saale) in Saxony-Anhalt

Hans Chou will certainly go down in German museum

The state coin cabinet of Saxony-Anhalt, part of the art

and numismatic history books. And having been given

museum of Moritzburg Halle (Saale), was founded in 1950.

these tools, the museum will be able to act as a catalyst for

Its collection contains more than 100,000 coins, medals and

displaying the modern history of coins. They not only verify

paper notes, which makes it to one of the biggest German

the close business relationship between China and Germany

coin cabinets. The origin of the collection goes back to the

in the 19th century, but also display a powerful document of

19th century. From the beginning the idea of a universal

the beginning of China’s transition into the modern era.

With the generous gift of Otto Beh’s dies, Michael

numismatic collection was stressed, which would facilitate an overview of the world of money from all cultures and continents.

At the moment a new permanent exhibit is being developed in Halle. It will be on display at the art museum Moritzburg Halle (Saale), in the rooms of the old mint of

The museums’ collection of Chinese coins is one the

the archbishopric of Magdeburg. This very special and

largest in Germany. It consists of objects from the first

representative location is also where the donation will find its

beginnings of currency to the latest emissions. The first

place. But beforehand, there will be a special exhibit about

important convolute, the estate of the explorer Adolph

the history of Chinese coins, which will include the donation.

Riebeck (1859-1889), was given to the museum in 1895.

It will open on September 17th, 2016 and we would like to

In 2014, the museum received another important donation:

extent our invitation to everybody interested in this topic.

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Departments 部門

源自德國的中國幣模 ——揭開中國珍稀錢幣百年之謎 昆克拍賣(德國)

前言

來自德國的中國錢幣幣模

2012 年 6 月,德國昆克拍賣 (Künker Auction) 會上有

在中國的近代化歷程中,建立完善的近代貨幣體系是

一套來自奧托拜赫公司 (Otto Beh) 檔案室的造幣工具和

至關重要的催化劑。19 世紀 90 年代,世界各大造幣廠,

樣幣拍品。儘管 2009 年埃斯林根市錢幣學家柯米爾在奧

如美國費城、英國伯明翰和德國舒勒廠等都想在新興的

托拜赫公司產品目錄中就已經介紹過這套拍品,但是直

中國錢幣市場分一杯羹。1887 年,隨着安裝英國造幣機

到本屆昆克拍賣會和它的目錄出版,這套拍品才被國際

器的天津和廣東造幣廠的建立,中國更多地方造幣廠亟

錢幣界所知,特別是遠東錢幣界更引起了一陣轟動。這

待建立。舒勒廠于 1895 年向中國交付了第一批摩擦壓印

套拍品的出現也揭開了中國近代造幣的一個謎團。

機。

這套拍品是中國錢幣歷史的重要見證,有 42 個幣模

1884 年,Otto Friedrich Immanuel Beh (1859-1944 年 )

和 36 個漢字沖頭,屆時將會捐給德國薩克森—安哈爾特

在埃斯林根市創建了奧托拜赫公司,從事錢幣雕刻。該

州哈雷莫里茨堡藝術博物館下屬的古堡基金會錢幣陳列

公司于 1897 年為臨近的舒勒廠製作了 40 個中國錢幣幣

館。幣模捐贈的關鍵目的是長期保存幣模,同時也希望

模。1898-1899 年,該公司接到了更多委託訂單,其中有

便於公眾參觀和學術研究。該博物館不僅有德國第二大

一個來自馬格德堡 (Magdeburg) Heinrich Knape(專營中

中國錢幣收藏(Joachim Krüger 教授收藏),而且該館一

國錢幣)的訂單,這正是製作中國浙江、安徽、奉天和

直致力於展現世界錢幣歷史。冠軍拍賣總裁周邁可先生

新疆錢幣幣模的訂單。此外,奧托拜赫公司還為 Heinrich

將這套幣模和樣幣慷慨捐贈給該館,昆克拍賣從中積極

Knape 生產了一套七錢二分、三錢六分、一錢四分四釐、

協調,最終促成了幣模的捐贈。這也體現了昆克拍賣支

七分二釐和三分六釐的銀幣,也為黑龍江省造了 30 枚樣

持錢幣學術研究的理念。

幣(當時黑龍江省還沒有造幣廠)。Heinrich Knape 為奧 托拜赫公司帶來了該公司在 19 世紀最大的一個訂單。當

2016 年 2 月上旬在柏林舉行的世界錢幣展覽會是這

時 Heinrich Knape 共交付了 200 多個幣模。

套幣模在德國的首次展示, 2 月 6 日在展覽會上舉行了 幣模交接儀式。

安徽省造光緒元寶七錢二分鍍銀銅樣,奧托拜赫公司雕刻 幣 模,2012 年 211 屆昆克拍賣會,拍品號 2529,估價 5000 歐元,成交價 145000 歐元。

多年來,奧托拜赫公司將幣模一直保存在木箱里

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黑龍江省造光緒元寶一錢四分四釐銀幣銅樣,奧托拜赫 公 司 雕 刻 幣 模,2014 年 第 249 屆 昆 克 拍 賣 會, 拍 品 號 460,估價 5000 歐元,成交價 75000 歐元。


Departments 部門 1944 年以來,德國製造的中國錢幣樣幣逐漸通過文 章和拍賣會的渠道為中國錢幣界所知,到現在,這些珍 稀樣幣的價格高得驚人。關於這些樣幣的鑄造產地的猜 測成了錢幣學術研究的一部分。這套幣模的出現揭開了 這一謎團。

德國先進造幣技術鑄造中國珍稀機製幣 巧合的是,這些幣模都保存下來了。一共是 42 枚幣模, 用於鑄造安徽、浙江、奉天、黑龍江和新疆五省的錢幣。 此外還有 36 個漢字沖頭,用於壓印幣模上的漢字。 這 套 幣 模 和 漢 字 沖 頭 原 本 于 2012 年 6 月 18 日 第

德國埃斯林根市奧托拜赫雕刻公司製作 中國錢幣的幣模

211 屆昆克拍賣會上拍賣,但出於強烈的責任感,最終

摘自 2012 年 6 月 211 屆昆克拍賣會目錄:

的這些樣幣是中國錢幣界的寶貴財富,拍賣成交價定會

位於內卡 (Neckar) 河畔的埃斯林根市的奧托拜赫公

司造幣工具是中國貨幣歷史的重要證件,也是中德兩國 在 19 世紀末就已有緊密的經濟聯繫的見證。那時,德國 的技術產品就已經享譽國際。

幣模撤拍,僅剩幾枚樣幣進行拍賣。奧托拜赫公司製作 高達數萬歐元,因而應防止復刻錢幣的企圖。於是,昆 克拍賣與香港冠軍拍賣公司總裁周邁可先生說服出品人 不要出售幣模。為防止誤用幣模,這些造幣工具全部請 FOBA 公司激光鐫刻上了標記,這樣就不能再用於製造 假幣。

臨近的格平根市的舒勒公司(成立於 1839 年)和奧

托拜赫公司(成立於 1884 年)有着密切的業務聯繫。

今天的舒勒公司業務遍及全球,是業界領先的鑄造機器

製造商。舒勒公司在 19 世紀專門生產金屬片加工機器, 尤 其 是 壓 印 機 的 生 產。

1895 年舒勒公司可能是在 萊比錫貿易博覽會上得到 了一份交付硬幣壓印機的

訂單。舒勒公司又轉而委 託專門生產印章和圖章的 奧托拜赫公司生產幣模。 這兩家公司合作得很成功。

1897 年(光緒二十三年) 浙江省造光緒元寶庫平三 錢六分背面陰模,書英文 紀地文字,LM272

1897-1898 年 間 奧 托 拜 赫 公司共向舒勒公司交付了

鑒於這些幣模具有重要的歷史價值,決定將其捐給博

200 多個幣模,這是當時

物館。昆克拍賣與周邁可先生合作,最終決定將幣模和

奧托拜赫公司最大的訂單。

漢字沖頭捐給哈雷莫里茨堡藝術博物館。該館已收藏了

2009 年值奧托拜赫公司成

很多中國珍稀錢幣,規模在德國屬於第二大收藏,而且

立 125 週年之際,埃斯林

該館致力於展示錢幣歷史。此外,該館還負責(哈爾茨)

根市錢幣學家柯米爾撰寫

施托爾貝格造幣技術博物館。薩克森—安哈爾特州錢幣

了一部公司歷史并附有公

陳列館(隸屬於哈雷莫里茨堡藝術博物館)將會接收這

司產品目錄。

些幣模和漢字沖頭,前提是需為這些錢幣和漢字沖頭設

奧托拜赫公司不僅存 有這些陽模、陰模和漢字 沖頭,而且還有安徽和新 疆省的兩枚試樣鑄模。拜 赫家族期望對錢幣歷史感 光緒通寶十文銅幣正面陰模

FOBA 公司激光鐫刻上了“OB”(Otto Beh) 標記

興趣的收藏家能獲得這些 幣模和漢字沖頭。

立永久展櫃。不過,永久展示前,這些幣模和漢字沖頭 先在 2016 年 9 月 17 日開幕的中國錢幣和紙鈔歷史特別 展上進行展出。 2016 年 2 月 6 日,柏林世界錢幣展覽會上舉辦了交 接慶祝儀式,周邁可和 Ulrich Künker 把幣模轉交給古堡 基金會會長 Dr. Christian Philippsen 和薩克森—安哈爾特 州錢幣陳列館館長 Ulf Dräger。

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Departments 部門 之前,這些幣模和漢字沖頭已于 2015 年 12 月 4-6 日 澳門錢幣學會舉辦的國際錢幣展期間在澳門展出。展出 期間,參觀者眾多,引起廣泛關注。

薩克森—安哈爾特州錢幣陳列館

2015 年 12 月徳製幣模澳門特別展

為紀念這些幣模和漢字沖頭,上海造幣廠鑄造了兩種 紀念熊貓。一枚是紀念澳門錢幣學會國際年展,并在年 展期間發售,備受歡迎,很快售罄。第二枚將在世界錢 幣展覽會上亮相,正面是柏林大教堂,上方是世界錢幣 展覽會標誌。背面是中國熊貓和柏林熊,中間是一枚安 哈爾錢幣,這枚錢幣上也有一隻熊。此外,背面還有兩 枚幣模,這些幣模將在展覽會期間交接。銀質紀念熊貓 將在柏林世界錢幣展覽會期間昆克拍賣展位 D6 有售,價 格 69 歐元。

船形銀鋌,10 世紀上半葉,897 克,Joachim Krüger 教授舊藏。 唐朝末期流通,來自 917-942 年的印坦沉 船,1997 年被打撈。1933 年之前,銀錠一直被富人 階層用於付稅。 銀錠上的銘文包含銀錠重量、造幣機 構以及防偽信息等。

(1859-1889) 慷慨捐贈的不動產。2014 年,該館又接受了 Joachim Krüger 教授收藏捐贈,共有 2337 件物品。該館 館藏很多珍稀樣幣以及學術研究探討各國關係的錢幣物 證,該館也有信心更好地宏觀展示中國錢幣從古至今的 發展歷史。 柏林世界錢幣展覽會紀念熊貓

薩克森—安哈爾特州錢幣陳列館

此次,周邁可先生將這些幣模慷慨捐給薩克森—安 哈爾特州錢幣陳列館,他的名字定會載入記載德國博物 館和錢幣學歷史的著作中。藉助這些幣模,博物館也將 會更好地展示近代造幣歷史。它們不僅是 19 世紀中德兩 國經濟密切往來的重要物證,也是見證中國進入近代化

薩克森—安哈爾特州錢幣陳列館隸屬於哈雷莫里茨

歷程的有力證明。

堡藝術博物館成立於 1950 年,現館藏 10 萬枚錢幣、紀 念章和紙鈔,是德國最大的錢幣陳列館。館藏錢幣要追

目前,哈雷莫里茨堡藝術博物館正在緊鑼密鼓地規劃

溯到 19 世紀。最初的構思就是期望涵蓋錢幣收藏各個領

一個永久展櫃,計劃將它們設在馬格德堡大主教管轄的

域,便於宏觀了解各大洲各種文化的世界錢幣。

老造幣廠的房間展示。這是當地一個具有特殊意義的代 表性地點,將會是展示這些幣模的絕佳地點。不過,在

該館館藏涵蓋從貨幣產生初期到現在的錢幣。博物

幣模永久展示前,它們將先在展示中國錢幣歷史的特別

館 第 一 次 接 受 的 捐 贈 是 1895 年 探 險 家 Adolph Riebeck

展上展出,特別展將於 2016 年 9 月 17 日開幕,歡迎參觀!

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Departments 部門

World Money Fair Berlin Visit Michael Chou (USA) It has been a few years since I visited the World Money Fair in Berlin. This year’s trip started with a flight from Hong Kong on Lufthansa on the evening of February 1st transiting in Frankfurt and arriving in Berlin’s Tegal airport on morning of February 2nd. I waited at the airport to meet up with friends from Shanghai: former Shanghai Mint Museum Director Zhang Yue Qun and Rocky Zhao the Senior Designer. We checked in to the Grand Hyatt Berlin Hotel around 1pm, then we took a short walk to Checkpoint Charlie, the famous Berlin landmark which used to be one of the crossing that separated East and West. Later in the day we meet up with Robert Mish, CEO of Mish International who traveled from the United States and had dinner at the famous Sony Center which is across the street from our hotel.

On the morning of February 3, I went to Künker Auctions’ Berlin office in the Mitte district. I delivered the World Money Fair Berlin Pandas struck in copper for the Otto Beh turnover event on Saturday February 6th at 12:30 in the Paris room of the Estrel hotel. The Shanghai Mint copper pandas were to be distributed to VIPs and attendees to the event.

World Money Fair 2016 Berlin Copper Commemorative Panda

An American Soldier Portrait in Checkpoint Charlie

A Soviet Soldier Portrait in Checkpoint Charlie

World Money Fair 2016 Berlin Copper Commemorative Panda Box and Certificate

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Departments 部門 I also discussed with Ulrich Künker, managing director of the Künker Auction house, which is the leading numismatic auction house in Europe, the next days’ auction of the number one Gold and Silver Berlin Panda for the benefit of the Saxony-Anhalt museum at Moritzburg .

World Money Fair 2016 Berlin Gold Commemorative Panda, Serial No. 1

World Money Fair 2016 Berlin Silver Commemorative Panda, Serial No. 1

Later in the day we checked in to the host hotel of the World Money Fair Berlin, the Estrel Hotel. The World Money Fair is the largest international numismatic trade show and this year is the 45th time it has been held. At 6:30 pm we traveled by special shuttle bus to the reception of the South Korea embassy hosted by South Korea ambassador to Germany Kim Jae shin. Also in attendance were Komsco Mint Director Kim Hwa Dong, Chairman of Poongson Roy Ryu, and our old friend CEO of Poongson Hwadong J.C. Lee.

Including: South Korea ambassador to Germany Kim Jae shin, Komsco Mint Director Kim Hwa Dong and Chairman of Poongson Roy Ryu

Corporation Masahiro Oka and staff members Kasumi Kenta and Takako Kiyose, Kitty Kwan the CEO of Panda America, Jeff Starck, senior editor of Coin World, Robert Mish of Mish International, and David Harper of World Coin News published by Krause Publications and Tom Michael of Standard Catalog of World Coins.

On the morning of February 4th the Künker auction was held at the Estrel hotel. The auction of the World Money Fair Berlin Panda number one gold and silver was scheduled for 12 pm. Lot 913, the Gold number one, went for €9,250 to a mail order bidder and Lot 914, the silver panda, sold for a hammer price of €2,200 to a Chinese floor bidder residing in Germany. The Künker auction had many world coin highlights including an Australia holey dollar which realized over €250,000 and a pattern Gold French 5 franc which sold for over €180,000.

The reception was attended by over 60 people including many representatives from the many different mints attending the World Money Fair Berlin. The managing director of the World Money Fair Hans Henning Gorum and founder Albert Beck were also there. Other important guests included leading German dealer Achim Becker and his wife, CEO of Taisei Coin

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February 4th the Künker Auction


Departments 部門

Korea culture and history. Next was the coin program for the 2018 Winter Olympic coin program. The first coins from this program will be released on November 1, 2016, and the second series on November 1, 2017. Next up was the French mint and the Japanese mint.

Robert Mish makes notes in the catalog at the Auction

February 5th was the opening of the World Money Fair Berlin and the first day that the Otto Beh Chinese Dies were on display at the Künker Auction booth D6. The sale of the Silver Berlin Panda was also at the same booth at €69 each. I attended the media forum for the first time with Coin World senior editor Jeff Starck. First up was the guest of honor from South Korea, Riu Han Sik. In his presentation Mr Riu presented a background of South

CEO of Champion Michael Chou with the Otto Beh Dies

World Money Fair 2016 Berlin Commemorative Panda Plaster

World Money Fair 2016 Berlin Exhibition Guide

Managing Director of the World Money Fair Hans Henning Gorum Hosts the Opening Ceremony

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Departments 部門 The guest of honor dinner was hosted again by the Ambassador of Korea, Poongson, and Hwadong. The dinner was attended by over 150 people from leading mints, minting companies, numismatic companies and leading numismatic publications.

2018 Winter Olympic Coins

Around noon I went a lunch meeting with Robert Mish and a friend from Switzerland. We discussed the overall market in Europe and recent passing of our friend Singapore Supreme court justice Sam T.S. Sinnathuray. Sam was a long time coin collector and when he retired from the court he founded Mavin International, a leading Singapore numismatic auction house. I found out about the judge’s passing when I arrived in Hong Kong on January 19th. I travelled to Singapore on the evening of January 20th and went to pay my last respects on Thursday morning with my friend Jeffrey Wai and Wong Hon Sum, the former president of the Numismatic Society Asia and operator of Collectables Auction Asia. My friend was a long time friend of Sam’s and the Sinnathuray family and he had travelled to Singapore from Europe to attend the services on Friday. Friday evening we travelled by special shuttle bus with Ulrich Künker of Künker Auctions to the Berlin Museum of Communications which was founded as a postal museum in 1872.

The Roof of Berlin Museum of Communications

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(From L) the former Shanghai Mint Museum Director Zhang Yuequn, the senior editor of Coin World Jeff Starck, Michael Chou and Robert Mish

(From L) Robert Mish, Michael Chou, the chief editor David Harper of World Coin News and Zhang Yuequn

(From L) Zhang Yuequn, Komsco Mint Director Kim Hwa Dong and the Senior Designer Rocky Zhao


Departments 部門 We were seated at the table with World Coin News chief editor Dave Harper, Coin World senior editor Jeff Starck, Emperiom Hamburg CEO Achim Becker and his wife, Robert Mish CEO of Mish International, Zhang Yue Qun former Shanghai Mint Museum director, Rocky Zhao senior designer, and Dave Lisot, CEO of Cointelevision. It was great evening with plenty of interesting discussions about the conditions of numismatic markets and wonderful performances by performers who travelled from Korea. First was a Korean singer who performed a classic Korean song, then a young seventeen-year-old on saxophone, finally a performance by a classical group who performed parts of the Four Seasons and other classical pieces of music.

Otto Beh Dies brochure by Künker Auction

(From L) Jeff Starck, Dave Harper and Michael Chou

Korean live music performance

Saturday at 12:30 pm was the main event for us, the official turnover of the Otto Beh Chinese dies to the Saxony-Anhalt Museum by Michael Chou and Ulrich Künker. The dies were accepted by Dr. Christian Philipsen, director of the foundation of Domes and Castles of Saxony-Anhlat and Dr. Ulf Drager chief curator of state coin of the state of Saxony-Anhalt.

The event was hosted in the Paris room of the Estrel Hotel. In attendance were managing director of the Word Money Fair Hans Henning Gorum, and Albert Beck, founder of the World Money Fair and chief editor of the Muzen Review. Jeff Starck of Coin World and Tom Michael of Standard Catalog of World Coins and other leading numismatic publications were in attendance to report on this event. The head of the German Dealer’s Association, Rabb and the wife of the famous coin collector Professor Dr. Joachim Kruger was also in attendance. Dr. Kruger donated 2,337 pieces from his Chinese collection to the Malztberg Museum. The ceremony started with speeches by Ulrich Künker and a presentation of a check for €12,500 from the auction of the number one Berlin Panda from Robert Mish of Mish International to Christian Philipsen, Director of the Foundation of Domes and Castles of Saxony-Anhalt. A short speech by Michael Chou was followed by a toast by Michael Chou, Ulrich Künker, Robert Mish, Christian Philipsen and Ulf Drager to celebrate the turnover. Christian Philipsen then made a presentation of the Saxony-Anhalt Museum. The ceremony was followed by a lunch for the all the attendees.

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Departments 部門

Presentation of the check from Robert Mish to Christian Philipsen, Director of the Foundation of Domes and Castles of Saxony-Anhalt

Michael Chou delivers a speech

(From L) Ulrich Künker, Ulf Drager, Robert Mish, Michael Chou and Christian Philipsen in official Berlin turnover of the Otto Beh Chinese dies to the Saxony-Anhalt Museum

(From L) Ulf Drager, Christian Philipsen, Michael Chou, Robert Mish and Ulrich Künker

Otto Beh dies and Chinese coins special exhibit, 18th Sept. 2016 to 29th Jan. 2017, Saxony-Anhalt Museum

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Departments 部門

Olympic Coins autographed by Albert Beck is presented to Michael Chou

(From L) the founder and chief editor of the Muzen Review Albert Beck, Rocky Zhao, Zhang Yuequn and Michael Chou

Following the Otto Beh ceremony was the Coin of The Year presentation by World Coin News’ Dave Harper. More than 70 independent judges voted on the winners of each category and the Coin of The Year. The Coin of The Year this year went to the United States for the Baseball coin. The principal deputy US mint director Rhett Jeppson was present to receive the award from Dave Harper. After the ceremony we had a brief 2016 Coin of the Year brochure

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Departments 部門 discussion with Mr. Jeppson and he invited our group to visit the San Francisco Mint prior to the August American Numismatic Association annual show in Anaheim, California.

United States National Baseball Hall of Fame coin in copper-nickel

Dave Harper makes a presentation of Coin of the Year award

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Dave Harper presents the award to the principal deputy US mint director Rhett Jeppson (left)

Zhang Yuequn and the former US mint director Edmund Moy(right)

Group photo of all winners


Departments 部門

2016 柏林·世界錢幣展覽會活動紀實 周邁可(美國) 我已經有好幾年沒去參加柏林世界錢幣展覽會

2 月 3 日早上,我去拜訪了昆克拍賣(歐洲頂級

了。2 月 1 日晚,我從香港搭乘漢莎航空公司航班,

的錢幣拍賣公司)柏林米特區的辦事處,並將上海

開始了今年的柏林之旅。中途在法蘭克福轉機,於

造幣有限公司製作的 2016 年柏林世界錢幣展覽會

2 月 2 日早上抵達柏林泰戈爾機場,並在機場等候

紫銅紀念熊貓交給他們。2 月 6 日(週六)12:30 埃

從上海過來的朋友:原上海造幣博物館館長張躍群

斯特酒店巴黎廳舉行德製幣模交接儀式時,這些紀

先生和工藝美術師趙檣先生。

念熊貓將會贈送給重要嘉賓。

下午 1 點左右,我們一行三人入住柏林君悅酒 店,之後步行到柏林的著名景點查理檢查哨,這裏 曾是東西柏林的分隔點。之後,與來自美國的 Mish International 總裁 Robert Mish 先生一起在酒店對面 的索尼中心共用晚餐。

2016 年柏林世界錢幣展覽會紀念熊貓紫銅

查理檢查哨美國士兵肖像

查理檢查哨蘇聯士兵肖像

2016 年柏林世界錢幣展覽會紀念熊貓紫銅盒、證書

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Departments 部門

此外,我還和昆克拍賣公司總裁 Ulrich Künker

我們乘坐大巴前往韓國駐德國大使金在信在大使館

商討了 2 月 4 日 1 號金、銀柏林世界錢幣展覽會紀

舉行的接風酒會。出席晚宴的還有韓國印鈔造幣公

念熊貓拍賣所得捐給薩克森—安哈爾特州哈雷莫里

司主席金和東 (Kim Hwa Dong) 先生、Poongson Roy

茨堡博物館一事。

Ryu 主席 / Poongson Hwadong 總裁(也是我們的老 朋友)J.C. Lee 先生。 接風晚宴共有 60 多人參加,包括參加柏林世界 錢幣展覽會的各大造幣廠代表,世界錢幣展覽會董 事總經理 Hans Henning Gorum 先生和創辦人 Albert Beck 先生也出席了晚宴。 其 他 重 要 嘉 賓 還 有: 德 國 資 深 幣 商 Achim Becker 先生和其夫人、日本泰星錢幣公司總裁崗政

2016 年柏林世界錢幣展覽會紀念金貓 1 號

弘 先 生 攜 其 員 工 Kasumi Kenta 和 Takako Kiyose、 美國熊貓公司總裁張潔常女士、《錢幣世界》資深 編輯 Jeff Starck 先生、美國 Mish International 總裁 Robert Mish 先生和克勞斯出版社《世界錢幣新聞》 主 編 David Harper 和《 世 界 錢 幣 目 錄》 主 編 Tom Michael。 2 月 4 日上午,昆克拍賣會在埃斯特酒店舉行。 1 號金、銀柏林世界錢幣展覽會紀念熊貓在 12 點拍

2016 年柏林世界錢幣展覽會紀念銀貓 1 號

賣。其中,1 號金質紀念熊貓(lot 913)以 9250 歐 元由一位書面委託買家買走,1 號銀質紀念熊貓(lot 914)以 2200 歐元的成交價由現場一位居住在德國

稍後,我們入住了柏林世界錢幣展覽會主辦酒

的華人買走。昆克拍賣成交過很多世界著名錢幣,

店埃斯特酒店。世界錢幣展覽會是目前世界上最大

包括澳大利亞通孔銀元,成交價超過 25 萬歐元和

的錢幣交易會,2016 年已是第 45 屆。傍晚 6:30,

一枚法國 5 法郎金幣樣幣;成交價超過 18 萬歐元。

在座包括:韓國駐德國大使金在信先生、韓國印鈔 造幣公司主席金和東先生、Poongson Roy Ryu 主席 J.C. Lee 先生

2 月 4 日昆克拍賣會現場

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Departments 部門 項目”,第一組紀念幣將於 2016 年 11 月 1 日發行, 第二組將於 2017 年 11 月 1 日發行。接下來是介紹 法國造幣廠和日本造幣廠。

Robert Mish 先生在拍賣會現場標注圖錄

2 月 5 日柏林世界錢幣展覽會開幕,德製中國珍 稀錢幣幣模在昆克拍賣展位 D6 展出,同時也在該 展位銷售銀質柏林世界錢幣展覽會紀念熊貓,每枚 69 歐元。我和《錢幣世界》資深編輯 Jeff Starck 先

冠軍總裁周邁可先生與幣模合影

生一起參加了媒體論壇。首先是來自韓國的造幣廠 業務經理 Riu Han Sik 的演講,他介紹了韓國的文化 和歷史背景。接着是介紹“2018 年平昌冬奧會錢幣

2016 年柏林世界錢幣展覽會紀念熊貓石膏模

2016 年柏林世界錢幣展覽會手冊

2016 年柏林世界錢幣展覽會董事總經理 Hans Henning Gorum 主持開幕儀式

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Departments 部門

自各大造幣廠、造幣公司、錢幣公司和錢幣書刊出 版機構的代表。

2018 年平昌冬奧會紀念幣

中 午 時 分, 我、Robert Mish 還 有 一 位 瑞 士 朋 友共進午餐。我們一起探討了歐洲的整體市場環 境,緬懷了剛剛去世的新加坡最高法院法官 Sam T.S. Sinnathuray 先 生。 他 長 期 收 集 錢 幣, 從 法

左起:原上海造幣博物館館長張躍群、《錢幣世界》 資深編輯 Jeff Starck、周邁可、Robert Mish

院退休後創辦了新加坡頂級錢幣拍賣公司 Mavin International。1 月 19 日(週二)我到香港時知道了 Sam 離世的消息。20 日晚我飛到新加坡,週四上午 與朋友 Jeffrey Wai 和亞洲錢幣學會前會長 / 亞洲收 藏品拍賣運營總監黃漢森先生一起見 Sam 的最後一 面。我朋友與 Sam 和他家人是多年交好的朋友,專 程從歐洲飛往新加坡參加週五的追悼會。 週五晚上,我們與昆克拍賣總裁 Ulrich Künker 乘坐大巴前往柏林通訊博物館,該館原是 1872 年 建立的郵電博物館。

左起:Robert Mish、周邁可、《世界錢幣新聞》主 編 Dave Harper、張躍群

柏林通訊博物館的屋頂 韓國大使金在信、Poongson 和 Hwadong 做東又 款待了嘉賓,大約有 150 多人參加了晚宴,包括來

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左起:張躍群、韓國印鈔造幣公司主席金和東、工 藝美術師赵樯


Departments 部門

我們同一桌就餐的有:《世界錢幣新聞》主編 Dave Harper、《錢幣世界》資深編輯 Jeff Starck 先 生、德國 Emperiom Hamburg 錢幣公司總裁 Achim Becker 及 其 夫 人、Mish International 總 裁 Robert Mish 先生、原上海造幣博物館館長張躍群先生、工 藝美術師趙檣先生和 Cointelevision 電視總裁 Dave Lisot 先生。席間,大家交流了對錢幣市場現狀的看 法,還伴有精彩的表演。這些演員是從韓國遠道而 來,第一個節目是一位韓國歌手演唱了一首經典的 韓國歌曲,之後是一位 17 歲的少年表演薩克斯獨奏, 最後是以古典音樂的方式演奏《四季歌》。

昆克公司德製中國幣模宣傳冊 左起:Jeff Starck、Dave Harper、周邁可

交接儀式在埃斯特酒店巴黎廳舉行,參加儀式 的重要嘉賓還有:世界錢幣展覽會董事總經理 Hans Henning Gorum、世界錢幣展覽會創辦人 /《Muzen Review》 創 始 人 及 總 編 輯 Albert Beck。《 錢 幣 世 界》資深編輯 Jeff Starck 先生、《世界錢幣目錄》 主編 Tom Michael 以及其他錢幣學書刊出版發行機 構代表出席報道此次交接儀式。德國幣商協會會長 Christoph Rabb、著名錢幣收藏家 Dr. Joachim Kruger 教 授 的 夫 人, 捐 贈 了 Dr. Kruger 教 授 生 前 收 藏 的 2337 枚中國錢幣給莫裏茨堡博物館,也出席了儀式。 儀式開始,首先是 Ulrich Künker 發表演講,之後 是 Mish International 總裁 Robert Mish 先生將 12500 歐元(1 號金、銀柏林世界錢幣展覽會紀念熊貓拍

韓國的樂隊在演奏

賣所得)的支票交給薩克森—安哈爾特城堡基金 會主席 Christian Philipsen。我發表簡短演講後,與

週 六 12:30, 我 和 昆 克 拍 賣 總 裁 Ulrich Künker

Ulrich Künker、Robert Mish、Christian Philipsen 和

將德製幣模轉交給薩克森—安哈爾特博物館,薩克

Ulf Drager 共同舉杯慶祝。隨後,Christian Philipsen

森—安哈爾特城堡基金會主席 Dr. Christian Philipsen

介紹了薩克森—安哈爾特博物館。最後,所有參加

和薩克森—安哈爾特州立錢幣陳列館館長 Dr. Ulf

交接儀式的來賓共進午餐。

Drager 先生接受了捐贈的幣模。

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Departments 部門

Robert Mish 先生將支票交給薩克森—安哈爾特城 堡基金會主席 Christian Philipsen

周邁可先生發表演講

(左起)Ulrich Künker、Ulf Drager、Robert Mish、 周邁可、Christian Philipsen 在德製幣模轉交給薩克 森—安哈爾特州哈雷莫里茨堡博物館儀式中

左起:Ulf Drager、Christian Philipsen、周邁可、 Robert Mish 和 Ulrich Künker

Otto Beh 德製中國幣模與中國錢幣特別展,9/18/2016-1/29/2017,薩克森—安哈爾特哈雷莫里茨堡博物館

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Departments 部門

Albert Beck 簽名《奧林匹克紀念幣》贈與周邁可先生

左起:《Muzen Review》創始人及總編輯 Albert Beck、趙檣、張躍群、周邁可

交 接 儀 式 之 後 是《 世 界 錢 幣 新 聞》 主 編 Dave

Harper 介紹世界硬幣大獎。70 多位獨立評委爲各個 單項獎和“年度最佳硬幣”投票。 2016 年度最佳硬幣最後由美國國家棒球名人堂 銅鎳合金錢幣摘得桂冠。美國造幣局代局長 Rhett Jeppson 先生出席,Dave Harper 先生爲其頒獎。頒 “2016 年世界硬幣大獎賽”活動手冊

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Departments 部門 獎儀式後,我們與 Rhett Jeppson 進行了簡短交談, 他邀請我們於 2016 年 8 月份美國錢幣學會加州安 娜海姆年展前參觀舊金山造幣廠。

美國國家棒球名人堂銅鎳合金錢幣

Dave Harper 介紹世界硬幣大獎賽

Dave Harper 為美國造幣局代局長 Rhett Jeppson (左)頒獎

張躍群與原美國造幣局局長梅冠芳(右)合影

所有獲獎者合影

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Departments 部門

Numismatic Book Review Bruce W. Smith (USA)

I. The Cream of the Late Mr. Wu Chouzhong’s Paper Money Collection

but also shown is an issued and well circulated 1909 $10 note (Pick type A78) overprinted for the Fengtien branch. The listing of General Bank of Communications notes includes unlisted 1909-1910 notes from the Tsinan branch (in taels), from the Honan branch (in taels), from the Yingkow branch (in “dimes”), and from the Nanking branch (in dollars). Most of these appear to be specimens, though the Tsinan note clearly had circulated (though stamped SPECIMEN, it has graffiti from circulation and has been cancelled). From here the catalog continues through page after page of rare Ch’ing dynasty notes issued by provincial and private banks, Republican government and private banks, early Communist banks, military notes, and foreign bank issues.

1 By Wu Danmin,edited by Chen Xiejun and Wang Qingzheng. Shanghai Museum 2005. Chinese and english text throughout, hard cover, 487 pages, color illustrations, 1000 copies printed. ISBN 7807251034. Cover Price: RMB ¥380 Another lavish catalog, featuring actual-size, full color illustrations of the most important notes in the collection of Wu Chouzhong. Mr. Wu assembled this collection, containing more than 5,200 Chinese notes, over a 60 year period. In September 1979 he donated the collection to the Shanghai Museum. Among the treasures shown are several private bank notes issued during the 1840’s and 1850’s, some of them from semi-official banks. From the Ta Ch’ing Government Bank there is an entire set of 1909 notes from the Kaifeng branch in Honan province. None of these vertical notes, in denominations of 1, 3, 5, 10, 50 and 100 taels, are listed in Krause’s Standard Catalog of World Paper Money. From the same bank, there are other unlisted sets of 1909 or 1910 dated notes from the Shensi branch (denominated in taels), from the Yunnan branch (denominated in taels), from the Canton branch (denominated in dollars), and from the Kirin branch (denominated 50, 100, 200, 500 and 1000 chiao (jiao or “dimes”). All of these are unissued specimen notes,

Wu Chouzhong (1917-2004) was a native of Shanghai and during 1979-2003 authored about 250 articles and a few books on Chinese paper money and coins. His writings were published in both China and Taiwan, in such journals as Wen Wu (Cultural Relics), Zhongguo Qianbi (China Numismatics), China Philately (both English and Chinese editions), Chi Pi Hui K’an (Taipei Numismatic Society Journal), the Hong Kong Numismatic Society Journal, and several different provincial numismatic society journals. This book concludes with a biographical sketch and a long list of Mr. Wu’s writings.

II. Paper Money of Imperial China, by Zhou Xiang. Shanghai Museum This is a lavish work, compiled by the Curator of Numismatics at the Shanghai Museum, and based largely on the museum’s collection. Most of the notes and printing plates are illustrated full size and in color. And more importantly, unlike most of the large, “coffey table” numismatic books published in China in recent years, this book has a considerable amount of text – not just beautiful pictures. The first 83 pages are devoted to notes issued before the Ming Dynasty – that is, notes from the Chin and Yuan dynasties. A chart on pages 10 and 11 records Chin and Yuan notes found in China since 1949, giving the time and place of their discovery and the number of notes found. Of the Yuan Dynasty notes, one hoard contained 33 notes, another contained 132 notes, and the largest, discovered in

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Departments 部門

Shanghai Peoples Publishing House 2004. Chinese text (english preface and author’s biography), hard cover, 409 pages, color illustrations, 2000 copies printed. ISBN 7208049289. Cover Price: RMB ¥280 Inner Mongolia in 1985, contained 288 notes. Most, if not all, of these notes are in museums in China. In addition to the notes themselves, several printing plates for Chin and Yuan notes have been found. Some of these are on display in the Shanghai Museum, while others are in private collections. Strangely, there are no Sung Dynasty notes or printing plates recorded in this book, except at the end, in a section on forgeries. There, the two most famous Sung Dynasty printing plates are listed as fakes! One of these plates depicts a double row of cash coins across the top and men carrying sacks of

2

grain at the bottom. The other plate depicts a city wall at the bottom.

III. Illustrated Catalog of Chinese Coins, by Eduard Kann. Ishi Press

me Volu

1

Volume 2

Volu m

e3

3 New York, NY, 2006. English text. 3 Volumes, soft cover. List price $30 per volume. Volume 1: pages 1-187 plus plates 4-77 ISBN 0923891188 Volume 2: pages 187-340 plus plates 78-143 ISBN 0923891196 Volume 3: pages 340-476 plus plates 144-223 ISBN 092389120x Though originally published more than 50 years ago, the Kann catalog is still the most comprehensive listing of Chinese gold, silver and nickel coins ever published in any

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language. In 1966 a hard cover reprint was published by Mint Productions of Riverdale, NY, which added a biography of Kann, written by Russell Rulau, and a new price guide.


Departments 部門 The Ishi reprint, reviewed here, is an unchanged copy of the 1954 edition, with only the 1954 price guide and without the biography. The print quality is fairly good, but the illustrations are poor. However, two features do make this reprint worth having. First, the plates have been interleaved with the text, and placed as close as possible to the related text. This makes checking a variety much easier than flipping through plates at the end of the book. Second, the work has been broken up into three volumes, divided at logical places. This makes carrying the book much easier than the original one volume, and the soft covers also reduce the weight. Volume 1 covers Chinese silver dollars and minor coins of the Ch’ing dynasty (through Kann 599). A new Foreword by Mario L. Sacripante has been added, as well as a new Introduction by Sam Sloan. The original list of mints and the subject index appear at the end, while the cyclical dating chart and chart of Asian numerals has been moved to the front of the volume. Volume 2 includes Republican silver, nickel and aluminum coinage, plus silver taels and their fractional coins (Kann 600 through 985). This volume also has the list of mints and subject index at the end, with the cyclical chart and numeral chart appearing in the front and the back. Volume 3 records the coins of Sinkiang, Tibet and Mongolia, plus all gold coins from all areas of China, and the listing of Chinese forgeries, medals and fantasy pieces. This includes Kann 990 through 1597, plus all the F numbers and the B numbers. This volume has the same material in the back, plus the chart of mintage statistics. One of the problems with this reprint is its sloppy preparation. This includes such things as the typeface for the new foreword (which is incorrectly spelled Forward) and introduction being much too large compared to the rest of the book; the statement in the introduction that the publishers had decided to break it into two volumes, when, in fact there are three volumes; and the lack of a new priceguide, even though the introduction says there is one. From reading the new foreword and introduction, it is clear that the editor, Sam Sloan, and the revisor, Mario Sacripante, know nothing about Chinese coins, the Chinese coin market, or the background of the book itself. They repeatedly refers to the author as “Dr. Eduard Kann” when, in fact, Kann held no such degree nor did he claim to hold

such a degree. They infer that very few Chinese silver coins exist today because the Chinese government melted them all down in the 1930’s and again during the Cultural Revolution (1966-1976). While it is true that the Chinese government sold huge amounts – about 200 million ounces – of silver to the United States during 1936-1941, most of this was in the form of bullion (sycee) and foreign coins (Spanish American, Mexican, Japanese, and other trade dollars, including those from the United States). They did not, however, confiscate coins from the public. During the Cultural Revolution, many coin collections were seized by the Red Guards, but they were turned over to local museums, and many have since been returned to the original owners. In the early 1980’s, so many Chinese silver coins, especially from Sinkiang, came on the market, that many coin dealers in Taiwan were bankrupted trying to buy them all. They also claim that Kann’s catalog is an extremely rare book, that only a few copies are in existence today and available to collectors. This certainly isn’t true. The 1954 original and 1966 reprint are very scarce, perhaps rare, but copies come up regularly for sale in coin auctions and numismatic book auctions and even on internet book sites. Today the 1954 original sells for around $200 and the 1966 version sells for around $100. This is about what a set of this paperback reprint costs. They also claim that the 1966 reprint was of low quality and possible a pirate edition. This, too, is wrong. Sidney Frey purchased the rights to the book from Kann’s widow before publishing his reprint under the name Mint Productions. This was publicized in the numismatic press, including Numismatic News, Coin World, Numismatic Scrapbook and World Coins Magazine. When I spoke to Frey’s widow in 1983, she told me that she had renewed the copyright to the Kann book and planned to publish a new, third edition. That work never appeared, but from this information, it appears that the Ishi Press reprint reviewed here is probably an illegal edition. What is Ishi Press? A little research on the internet reveals that Ishi Press is Sam Sloan, a chess master, who drives a New York cab for a living. He has published or reprinted several books on Chess, but this is his only numismatic publication. As for Mario Sacripante, who claims to be an expert on Chinese and Japanese coins, in 40 years of collecting and researching Chinese coins, I have never heard of him. Nevertheless, for the reasons stated at the beginning of this review, this book is still worth owning. The set can be ordered from the publisher at www.anusha.com.

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Departments 部門

推介三部錢幣著作 史博祿(美國) 奉天分行的過量錢幣印刷品。

一、《吳籌中先生舊藏紙幣精粹》

中國交通銀行所發行的紙幣清單中包括 1909-1910 年 未流通的紙幣,發行的銀行分別是濟南分行(以兩計價)、 河南分行(以兩計價)、營口分行(以角計價)以及南 京分行(以元計價)。雖然這些錢幣多有“樣幣”字樣, 不過濟南分行發行的紙幣卻很顯然曾經在市面上流通過。 因為上面帶有流通時增添的塗鴉。這套紙幣已被註銷。) 後面的內容仍然是按頁列舉的各種稀有的清代紙幣, 發行方有國家及私人銀行、民國政府銀行、早期共產黨 銀行。另外還有一些軍鈔以及國外銀行發行的紙幣。 吳籌中先生(1917-2004 年)是土生土長的上海人。 在 1979 至 2003 年期間,吳先生先後發表了 250 多篇關 於中國紙幣和硬幣的文章,還出版了幾本相關的書籍。 中國大陸和臺灣的幾家雜誌都發表過他的文章,包括《文

1

物》、《中國錢幣》、《中國集郵》(中英雙語版)、《集 幣會刊》(臺北錢幣協會雜誌)、《香港錢幣協會雜誌》 以及幾家省級錢幣學會所發行的雜誌。本書的末尾附上 了吳先生的生平簡介及其著作目錄。

作者:吳旦敏 、陳燮君、汪慶正,2005 年上海博物館編著 , 上海書畫出版社出版。中英雙語,硬皮封面、帶彩色插圖,

二、 《上海博物館藏品研究大系 · 中國古代紙鈔》

共 487 頁,印刷量 1000 冊。ISBN 7807251034,標價: RMB ¥380 本書內容豐富,並附有吳籌中先生最重要的紙幣收 藏品的等比大小全彩圖片。這些藏品是吳先生 60 多年的 心血,一共包含了 5200 多張的中國紙幣。1979 年 9 月, 他將這些藏品捐贈給了上海博物館。書中展示出的珍品 中還有幾張 19 世紀 40 至 50 年代私人銀行所發行的紙幣, 這些私人銀行有的還具有半官方的性質。其中還有一整 套 1909 年大清銀行河南省開封分行發行的紙幣。不過, 這些面值分別是一兩、三兩、五兩、十兩、五十兩以及 一百兩的豎版紙幣卻並沒有被收錄到《克勞斯世界紙幣 標準目錄》中。同樣未能被收錄到這本目錄中的還有幾 套出自大清銀行的 1909 或 1910 年紙幣,發行方分別是 陝西分行(以兩計價)、雲南分行(以兩計價)、廣州 分行(以元計價)以及吉林分行(面值分別是五十角、 一百角、二百角、五百角以及一千角)。以上全部紙幣 都是未發行的樣幣。不過,書中還提及了一套面值十元 的 1909 年發行的紙幣(A87), 這套紙幣流通廣泛,是

東 亞 泉 志

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2


Departments 部門

作者周祥,2004 年上海博物館編著,上海人民出版社出 版。中文印刷(帶有英文序言和作者生平),硬皮封面, 帶 彩 色 插 圖, 共 計 409 頁。ISBN 7208049289, 標 價: RMB ¥280

了這些紙幣的發現時間、地點以及數量。其中一套元朝 紙幣包含了 33 張的藏品,還有一套有 132 張,其中數量 最多的就要數 1985 年在內蒙古發現的一套紙幣了,數量 高達 288 張。這些紙幣現在基本都收藏於中國的博物館。 除了這些紙幣之外,還有幾副金、元時期的紙幣鈔版,

本書內容浩博,是上海博物館錢幣館的研究員周祥 先生根據館內古代紙幣的藏品編纂而成。書中大多數紙

這些鈔版有的是在上海博物館展出,其他的則流入到了 私人藏家的手中。

幣和鈔版都按實物原大刊印彩頁。這本書和近些年中國 出版的其他“咖啡桌”式的錢幣圖書所不同的是,本書

奇怪的是,關於宋代的紙幣和鈔版,只在書本末尾

不光只是漂亮插圖的堆砌,同時還穿插了大量的文字敘

的“偽造品”一章中有所提及。而最出名的兩種宋代鈔

述,這一點很重要。 本書的前 83 頁記錄了明朝之前金、

版卻被列為了贗品!其中一個鈔版的上面是兩行銅錢的

元兩代所發行的紙幣。第 10 頁到第 11 頁的圖表列出了

圖案,下麵是背着糧食袋子的人像。另外一個鈔版的下

中國 1949 年以後發現的金、元兩個朝代的紙幣,並附上

麵則帶有城牆的圖案。

三、《中國幣圖說匯考》

第一

第二卷

第三

3 作者:耿愛德,紐約 Ishi Press 2006 年出版,全英文三卷,軟皮封面, 每卷定價 30 美元 第一卷:1-187 頁,附錄插圖 4-77 號,ISBN 0923891188 第二卷:187-340 頁,附錄插圖 78-143 號, ISBN 0923891196 第三卷:340-476 頁,附錄插圖 144-223 號,ISBN 092389120x

45

東 亞 泉 志

THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS


Departments 部門

雖然本書最早的一版要追溯到 50 多年前,但耿愛德

這兩個人在書中多次將作者寫成“耿愛德博士”,不過

的圖錄依舊還是迄今世界上最為詳盡的中國金、銀、鎳

耿愛德並沒有博士學位,而他本人也沒有提及過。他們

幣的圖錄。1966 年紐約的裏弗代爾鑄幣製作公司將此書

還說之所以現在中國銀幣存世數量稀少就是因為中國政

再版,硬皮封面,另附上了 Russell Rulau 所寫的耿愛德

府在 20 世紀 30 年代和“文革”時期(1966-1976 年)曾

的生平傳記以及新的價格指南。這裏介紹的 Ishi 再印的

經有過兩次銷毀錢幣的行動。但是實際上,中國政府在

版本,原封不動地保留了 1954 年那一版的內容,保留了

1936 至 1941 年期間曾經對美國出售了大量白銀,總計

老版的價格指南,也沒有添加 Kann 的生平傳記。書本裝

約 2 億盎司,其中大多數都是銀錠,或是外國銀幣(包

幀印刷都頗為精緻,雖然插圖稍有欠缺,但仍然值得購買。

括西屬美洲地區、墨西哥、日本以及其他地區的貿易銀

一是因為這一版的插圖都是穿插在文本之中的,而且是

元,其中甚至還有來自美國的銀元)。但中國政府卻從

盡可能地靠近相關的文字內容,這樣一來在看插圖的時

未在民間強制徵收過錢幣。“文革”期間,紅衛兵曾經

候就比特意翻到書本最後去查找要方便的多了。而且這

收繳過大量的錢幣藏品,不過這些錢幣卻被送到了當地

一版本按照邏輯順序將原書分為了三卷,並以軟封作為

的博物館,還有很多後來也都被退還給了原主。20 世紀

封面,如此一來便大大減輕了書本的重量,使攜帶變得

80 年代早期,大量中國銀幣特別是新疆的銀幣流入市場。

更為輕鬆和便捷。

為了全部買下這些銀幣,有的臺灣幣商甚至不惜散盡家 財。

第一卷包含了清朝的銀元及其輔幣的內容(耿愛德 599 號),另外還加上了 Mario L. Sacripante 所寫的序言

這一版的兩個編者還聲稱耿愛德的目錄非常稀有,

及 Sam Sloan 所寫的簡介。原書中的造幣廠名單以及附

現在可供收藏的書本數量很少。這個說法肯定不是真的。

錄被放在了書本的最後,而干支紀年對照表和東西方數

雖然 1954 年的原版書和 1966 年的再印版的確很稀有,

字對照表則被移到了書本的前面。

但複製本卻經常能在錢幣拍賣會、錢幣書籍拍賣會甚至 是圖書網站上買到。目前 1954 年原版書的售價約為 200

第二卷的內容是民國時期的銀幣、鎳幣、鋁制鑄幣,

美元,1966 年重印本的售價大概是 100 美元左右。平裝

還有銀兩及其輔幣。(耿愛德編號 600 到 985)書本的

本的市價大概就是這樣。這兩個人還表示 1966 年重印版

後面同樣附有造幣廠的名單和主題索引,年代週期圖表

的品質粗糙,很有可能是盜版書。這也不是真話。Sidney

以及亞洲數字元號表在書前書後都有。

Frey 在以鑄幣製作公司的名義重印此書之前,就已經從 耿愛德的遺孀那裏購買了本書的版權。許多錢幣媒體,

第三卷記錄了新疆、西藏和蒙古的錢幣和來自中國

如《錢幣新聞》《硬幣世界》《錢幣剪貼簿》以及《世

其他地方的金幣。另外還列出了中國的贗品幣、紀念章

界錢幣雜誌》都報道了這則消息。我們曾經在 1983 年和

以及臆造幣。這一卷包括了耿愛德原書編號 990 到編號 1597 的內容,還包括 F 和 B 類目下全部的編號內容。這

Frey 的遺孀探討過這個話題,她當時告訴我們她又重新 購買了耿愛德這本書的版權,並且打算再次印製第三版。

一卷後面的附錄同前面兩卷一樣,只是多一張造幣廠鑄

但是這個版本卻從沒有出現,不過這也可以說明現在所

額記錄表。

介紹的這一版 Ishi Press 的再印本很有可能是非法印製的。

不過這本書存在的問題之一就是再版方的準備工作

Ishi Press 究竟是誰?我們在網路上稍微搜索了一下,

做得非常馬虎。比如新一版“序言”( 英語:foreword)

發現這個所謂的 Ishi Press 就是 Sam Sloan,一個靠在紐

二字就在這本書裏被錯拼成了“Foreward”;“簡介”

約開計程車為生的國際象棋大師。他出版及重印過幾本

部分所用的字體和書中其他章節相比顯得過大;雖然一

關於國際象棋的書,但是這本書卻是他出版的唯一一本

共分成三卷書,但出版商只把簡介的內容分成了兩部分;

關於錢幣的書籍。還有 Mario Sacripante,雖然他聲稱自

還有儘管簡介裏曾經提到過這一版本增添了新的價格指

己是中國、日本錢幣的專家,有 40 年收藏和研究中國

南,但實際成書裏卻並沒有出現。

錢幣的經驗,但是我卻從未聽說過這個名字。但就如一

從新的“序言”和“簡介”中可以很明顯地看出這 一版本的編輯 Sam Sloan 和修訂者 Mario Sacripante, 對於 中國錢幣、錢幣市場以及這本書的創作背景所知有限。

東 亞 泉 志

46

THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS

開始所說的那樣,即便存在許多問題,這本書還是具有 一定的收藏價值。想要購買的讀者可以到出版商的網站 www.anusha.com. 上面訂購此書。


Features 專題

Hidden Dragons of Hunan: The 1898 Dollar and Half Dollar Bruce W. Smith (USA)

CHINA-HUNAN ND(1898) One Dollar Silver Proof Pattern. Heaton Mint Collection - NC Collection, NGC SP67 2014 Champion Auction private transaction, USD 1 million+

CHINA-HUNAN ND(1898) 50 Cents Silver Proof Pattern. Heaton Mint Collection - NC Collection, NGC SP67 2013 Champion Auction private transaction

Until now, the origins of the Hunan Provincial Mint at

be very much better than that of the subsidiary coinage

Changsha have been obscure. Kann’s History of Minting

of the other provinces, as they exchange for the same

in China dated the opening of the mint to 1901 but notes

number of cash, proportionately, as the dollars. Dollars,

that there are Hunan ten cent coins dated 1898 and 1899.

preferably Hupeh, are in current use at the capital, but the

Our most reliable source of information on the early mints

obnoxious habit of “chopping” has been introduced by

in China, the annual reports of the Chinese Maritime

the Cantonese merchants, of whom there is quite a large

Customs Bureau, are of little use here because Changsha

colony in Changsha and Hsiangtan.

was not opened as a treaty port until 1904. The first treaty port in the province, Yochow, was opened in 1899, by

The Changsha silver coin mint was closed in late 1898

which time the Changsha silver coin mint was already

or early 1899 as a result of the collapse of the “Hundred

closed.

Days Reform Movement.” Ch’en had been one of the leaders of the reform movement, but when the Empress

Hunan had the reputation of being the most anti-

Dowager returned to power and imprisoned Emperor

foreign province in China. Foreigners were not allowed

Kuang Hsu, Ch’en was dismissed in September 1898 and

into its capital, Changsha, until the early years of the

replaced by Yu Lien-san. The 1901 customs report for

1900’s. Why then would Hunan purchase a foreign style

Yochow comments:

coinage plant, which would require the presence of foreign workmen to set it up and a foreign supervisor to keep it

Under the enlightened governorship of His Excellency

running? The answer is Ch’en Pao-chen (1831-1900),

Ch’en Pao-chen, instructors were engaged to drill the

Hunan governor during 1895-1898, and a prominent

Hunanese forces according to western methods, a mint

member of the 1890’s reform movement in China.

was set up in Changsha, and electric light installed. On the appointment of the present governor, however, all these

Writing in the 1900 Chinese Customs Report for Yochow, Alec. W. Cross, gives a brief account of the mint:

reforms were at once abolished, and nothing of the kind has since been attempted.

A mint was opened in Changsha by Governor Ch’en

Research by Richard N. J. Wright in the Heaton Mint

Pao-chen towards the end of 1897. During its two years

records reveals that Heaton received an order in April

working existence only 20 cents and 10 cents pieces were

1898 for assorted small equipment for the Hunan mint and

minted, the latter preponderating. I have been unable

for master dies for a dollar and half dollar. The order did

to find out the total number coined. Their fineness must

not include any other dies nor any stamping machines.

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THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS


Features 專題

Since no earlier records for Hunan coins were found

Mint opened in 1889, it was the largest in the world, with

at Heaton, it is unclear whether the 1898 order was for

90 stamping machines (compared to 16 at London’s Royal

additional equipment for an existing mint–supplied by

Mint and about 10 at the Philadelphia Mint). In the 1890’s

some other firm–or whether this order was a supplement

many of those machines often sat idle as demand for the

to an earlier order which has not been found.

new coins was slow to develop. A survey of the number of minting machines in each Chinese mint published in

Looking at the coins which were actually issued, the

the North China Herald for 23 June 1905, showed that

20 cents appears to be struck from Heaton dies, but the 10

the Canton Mint had only 80 machines at that time, and

cents coins seem to be struck from locally prepared dies.

that the Changsha Mint had 4 old machines plus 36 new

The extremely rare Hunan 5 cents coin is clearly modeled

machines (for making 10 cash copper coins). Those four

on the Kwangtung 5 cents coins of 1889 and 1890, but

old stamping presses were probably the original machinery

with stars instead of crosses as decoration. Whether

of the Changsha Mint, supplied by Canton.

Heaton made the dies or not is unclear. The Heaton Mint collection does not contain any dies for 5, 10 or 20 cents

There is still the question of who supplied the dies

coins, nor any examples of such coins. This brings up

for the Hunan minor coins. It is possible that the Canton

the possibility that the original Changsha mint was set

Mint made the dies for the 5, 10 and 20 cents coins, but

up by someone else. Though the 5 and 20 cents coins are

for some reason did not or could not supply the half

in Heaton style, we know from other examples that both

dollar and dollar dies. The Changsha Mint was already

American and German die makers copied the Heaton

in operation when Heaton’s received the order for dollar

Mint’s Kwangtung coins when supplying dies to China.

and half dollar dies in the spring of 1898. This order was apparently cancelled because of Ch’en’s removal from

The clues to the origin of the Hunan Mint have now

office in September 1898.

been found, in a small article published in the North China Herald for 15 January 1897. Published without a title, the account reads:

It was only in 1974 that Richard Wright published for the first time photographs of the Hunan dragon dollar and half dollar. These two coins had never been seen before

A dispatch received from Changsha, the provincial

and were a stunning discovery. Wright found the coins in

capital of Hunan, reports that Governor Ch’en has bought

the reference collection of the Heaton Mint along with the

or set aside some houses in that city to be used as a mint

master dies used to produce the coins. Combined with the

for the coinage of silver dollars and subsidiary coins. The

April 1898 sales record, there can be no doubt that Heaton

machinery and artisans to work it are now on the way

had made the dies and struck these samples in 1898. It

from Canton in a gunboat detailed for the purpose, and

would seem that the dies and the samples were never

will be unloaded at Wuchang or Hankow, whence boats

sent to China, no doubt due to the collapse of the reform

sent from Changsha will take them by the Tungting Lake

movement and the closing of the Changsha Mint.

to that city. Just about the time Wright was doing his research, From this it seems that Governor Ch’en avoided the

the Heaton Mint was bought by another company, which

problem of foreigners setting up or running the mint in

ordered all the duplicate coins in the Heaton collection to

Changsha. Apparently the machinery and the workers

be sold. Hundreds of coins from various countries, struck

were supplied by the Canton Mint, and were delivered by

by Heaton’s over the previous century, went to the British

a Chinese gunboat. This makes sense because Ch’en was

coin firm Spink’s, or perhaps a combination of Spink’s

an associate of the famous reformer, Chang Chih-tung,

and the American firm, Paramount. These two companies

who had founded the Canton Mint, and was at that time

began marketing the coins in 1975. The first Hunan coin

Governor-General of Hunan and Hupeh provinces. Since

to be offered was the mysterious dragon dollar. Paramount

the article is dated in the middle of January, the planning

somehow knew that I had some information about this

for this mint must have begun in 1896. When the Canton

coin, and one of their associates, James Jelinski, brought

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Features 專題 the coin (and 14 other Chinese coins from the sale) to

obtained a specimen of the coin sometime before 1921,

the Krause Publications office in Wisconsin, where I

when a rubbing of it was obtained by the American

was working on the Standard Catalog of World Coins,

Numismatic Society in New York. Ros never published

for my examination and some free publicity. I told their

the coin and the rubbing lay forgotten in the ANS files

representative that I knew of only one other example of

until I found it in 1993. In addition the 1909 annual report

this coin, the one in the Heaton Mint collection. I did

of the British Museum says that in 1908 a Hunan dollar

not yet know about the sale of the Heaton company or

was given to the museum by Major E. H. McKenzie

its collection. Paramount claimed the coin came from

Elliot. I have been unable to confirm the presence of this

the collection of an old mint master. World Coin News

coin in the British Museum collection; perhaps this was a

published a story about the coin, saying it was one of

typographical error for Hupeh.

two known, and that information was also published in the Paramount auction catalog. After the sale, Richard

The next sale of a Hunan dragon dollar contained

Wright wrote to me saying that the coin was not one of

another surprise–a matching Hunan half dollar–also never

two, but that there were about a dozen of the Hunan coins.

seen before. This was the NASCA Auction, December 5-8,

I published this information, and Wright wrote again

1977 – the first part of the Wayte Raymond Collection. It

pointing out I had misunderstood his previous letter. There

is highly unlikely these two coins were in the Raymond

were not a dozen dollars and a dozen half dollars, but

collection; rather they were probably consigned by Spink’s

about a dozen in total – approximately six pieces of each

or Paramount. The dollar is described as “One of the Three

coin.

Known Hunan Dollars” and the half dollar is described as “Possibly Unique …… almost certainly the only

The first Hunan dollar to be sold was in the Long

collectible example in the world.” Spink’s and Paramount

Beach Sale of the Paramount International Coin

knew this was not true, but NASCA probably did not

Corporation, August 7-10, 1975, Lot 84 (pictured on the

know. According to the Prices Realized list published by

front cover of the catalog). The catalog description reads:

NASCA, the dollar sold for $23,000 and the half dollar for $12,000. There is a problem, however, as both of these

Hunan, 1898 Dollar, Proof. Lovely delicate lilac

coins turned up for sale again. The half dollar appeared

toning and flawless surfaces. The existence of a Hunan

in the Money Company sale of June 1979 (Lot 231) and

dollar was not even hinted at in Kann. Our research

the dollar showed up in the Money Company sale of

indicates that only one other specimen exists and that

January 1980 (Lot 260). Did someone buy these coins

is permanently impounded in The Mint Birmingham

and resell them two years later or are the NASCA prices

Museum. This represents the first time this rarity has been

fictitious?

offered at auction. One of the highlights of this sale that could approach the five figure mark.

In the years that followed, four more half dollars and three more dollars have appeared in auction through 2008.

Of course Paramount, or at least Spink’s, knew that

In addition a Hong Kong museum has a Hunan dollar

there were other examples of this coin available, but at the

which has not appeared in auction and NC collection

time, no one else knew. The coin sold for $15,500 – the

has a half dollar which apparently has not been seen

highest price ever paid for a Chinese coin at the time. It

in an auction. This brings the total known examples

was an historic purchase.

to six dollars and six half dollars – plus one of each in

This was not, however, the first example of a Hunan dragon dollar to enter a private collection. The Italian collector of Chinese coins, Guissepe Ros, somehow

the Heaton Mint collection. Although all of these coins were undoubtedly struck from the same pair of dies, and probably on the same day, they can be identified because they have toned in different patterns over the past century.

49

東 亞 泉 志

THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS


Features 專題

1898 年湖南省造七錢二分和三錢六分銀幣 史博祿(美國)

1898 年湖南省造光緒元寶庫平七錢二分銀質樣幣, 鏡面。喜敦造幣廠藏品—NC 藏品,NGC SP67 2014 年冠軍拍賣私人交易,成交價超過一百萬美元

1898 年湖南省造光緒元寶庫平三錢六分銀質樣幣, 鏡面。喜敦造幣廠藏品—NC 藏品,NGC SP66 2013 年冠軍拍賣私人交易

直到現在,湖南長沙造幣廠具體的開辦時間仍不明 了。 耿 愛 德 在 其《 中 國 造 幣 史》(History of Minting in China ) 一書中指出,長沙造幣廠開辦於 1901 年,但湖南 七分二釐卻有 1898 和 1899 的鑄造年份。我們對中國早 期造幣廠的最可靠資訊來自中國海關貿易局的年度報告, 但具體到長沙造幣廠卻沒有任何有效資訊,因長沙直到 1904 年才成為貿易開放口岸。湖南省的第一個開放口岸 是嶽州,於 1899 年開放,那時長沙銀幣廠業已關閉。

英國錢幣研究學者萊特 (Richard N. J. Wright) 在研究 英國喜敦造幣廠檔案時披露,喜敦造幣廠於 1898 年 4 月 接到一份訂單,交運一套小型組合設備和七錢二分和三

湖南排外性比較強。直到 20 世紀初,外國人才可以 進入湖南省府長沙市。那為何當時的長沙造幣廠購買了 一套國外的造幣設備呢?這套設備肯定需要外國人組裝 並有一個外國人監管運營吧?原來,這一切與 1895-1898 年任湖南巡撫的陳寶箴 (1831-1900 年 ) 有關,陳寶箴也 是 19 世紀 90 年中國維新變法的主要成員。

仔細觀察實際發行的錢幣發現,一錢四分四釐採用了 喜敦造幣廠的幣模鑄造而成,而七分二釐則好像是採用 當地準備的幣模鑄造而成。極為稀有的湖南三分六釐則 是明顯參考了廣東 1889 和 1890 年的三分六釐圖案,只 是以星星取代了十字作為裝飾。喜敦造幣廠是否製作了 這些幣模尚不可知。喜敦造幣廠的幣模中沒有三分六釐、 七分二釐和一錢四分四釐的幣模,也沒有這些幣的實例。 或許長沙造幣廠由他人創辦。儘管三分六釐和一錢四分 四釐是喜敦造幣廠的風格,但我們從其他實例中得知美 國和德國向中國提供幣模時,會複製喜敦造幣廠製作的 廣東銀圓幣模。

Alec. W. Cross 曾在《1900 年中國嶽州海關貿易冊》 中對長沙造幣廠進行了簡單描述: 1897 年底,湖南巡撫陳寶箴開辦了長沙造幣廠。造 幣廠運營的兩年內,僅鑄造了一錢四分四釐和七分二釐, 以七分二釐為主。我無法得出造幣總數。這兩種錢幣肯 定比其他省份鑄造的輔幣成色要好,因它們可以相應兌 換同等數量的七錢二分。當時的長沙主要流通湖北壹圓 銀圓,但廣東商號打戳記的不良舊習也在湖南流行,尤 以長沙和湘潭最盛。 長沙銀幣廠因百日維新運動的失敗於 1898 年底或 1899 年初關閉。陳寶箴是維新變法的主要領導人之一, 後來慈禧太后發動政變,再次“訓政”,光緒帝被囚禁, 陳寶箴也於 1898 年 9 月遭革職,由俞廉三接任。《1901 年嶽州海關貿易冊》這樣記述: 湖南巡撫陳寶箴力推新政,鼓勵地方官員借鑒西方開 發湖南,在長沙開辦造幣廠,安裝電燈。然而新任巡撫 上任後,這些改革立即被廢除,再無嘗試任何新政之舉措。

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THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS

錢六分的祖模給湖南造幣廠。訂單中不包括其他幣模和 衝壓機。因喜敦造幣廠對湖南錢幣沒有更早的記錄,因 而尚不清楚 1898 年湖南的訂單是為現有造幣廠購置更多 設備(該造幣廠還有其他公司供應設備)還是之前訂單(尚 未找到)的追加。

關於湖南長沙造幣廠的起源,在 1897 年 1 月 15 日的 《北華捷報》刊登的一篇無標題短文中找到了些許線索, 內容如下: 從湖南省府長沙發來的快件記述:湖南巡撫陳寶箴在 長沙購買或準備了幾間房屋,用作鑄造銀幣和輔幣的造 幣廠。造幣設備和技師專程從廣東乘坐炮艇前往,將在 武昌或漢口下船,從長沙而來的船在此接應,然後經洞 庭湖返回長沙。 由此可以看出,陳寶箴好像在避免外國人在長沙組裝 設備或運營造幣廠這一問題。很明顯,造幣設備和技師 由廣東造幣廠提供,乘坐中國炮艇運送。因陳寶箴曾是 廣東造幣廠創辦人、著名改革家張之洞的部下,加上張 之洞時任湖廣總督,因而短文中的說法有一定道理。因


Features 專題 文章寫於 1 月中旬,因而造幣廠定於 1896 年已經開辦。 1889 年廣東造幣廠創立,號稱當時世界最大的造幣廠, 擁有 90 台衝壓機(倫敦皇家造幣廠 16 台,費城造幣廠 約 10 台)。19 世紀 90 年代,由於研發新幣時間緩慢, 這些造幣機器常常處於閒置狀態。1905 年 6 月 23 日的《北 華捷報》發佈的中國各個造幣廠造幣機器數量調查顯示, 當時的廣東造幣廠只有 80 台機器,長沙造幣廠有 4 台舊 機器和 36 台新機器(製造十文銅元)。這 4 台舊的衝壓 機可能是長沙造幣廠最初的造幣設備,由廣東造幣廠提 供。

第一枚湖南七錢二分是在 1975 年 8 月 7 日至 10 日 的 Paramount 長灘拍賣會上售出,lot 84(圖片刊在目錄 封面上)。拍賣目錄中這樣描述:

然而,湖南輔幣的幣模來自哪裡仍是個謎。可能是廣 東造幣廠製作了三分六釐、七分二釐和一錢四分四釐的 幣模,但由於某種原因,沒有或不能提供三錢六分和七 錢二分的幣模。1898 年春,喜敦造幣廠接到三錢六分和 七錢二分的幣模訂單時,長沙造幣廠已在運營,1898 年 9 月陳寶箴被革職,這份訂單也就隨之取消了。

當然,Paramount(或至少 Spink's)公司知道該幣存 在另一枚實例,但在當時再無其他人知道這一事實。該 幣成交價為 15500 美元,是當時中國錢幣的最高拍賣價。 這創造了中國錢幣的成交記錄。

萊特 (Richard Wright) 只在 1974 年第一次發佈了湖南 省造七錢二分和三錢六分圖片。之前從未見過這兩枚幣, 實屬驚人的發現。萊特在喜敦造幣廠的資料室發現了這 些幣和祖模。再加上 1898 年 4 月的銷售記錄,毫無疑問 的是,喜敦造幣廠於 1898 年製作了這些幣模、鑄造了樣 幣。好像這些幣模和樣幣從未送至中國,當然原因還是 由於維新變法的失敗和長沙造幣廠的關閉。 大約是萊特在喜敦造幣廠做研究的時候,喜敦造幣 廠被另一家公司購買,該公司訂購了喜敦造幣廠用作研 究的所有複品用於出售。喜敦造幣廠在過去百年為各國 鑄造的數百枚錢幣流向了英國錢幣公司 Spink's,或者是 Spink's 與美國公司 Paramount 聯合銷售。1975 年這兩家 公司開始推廣營銷這些錢幣。亮相的第一枚湖南銀幣就 是頗具神秘色彩的七錢二分。不知為何,Paramount 知 道我對此幣有所瞭解,這兩家公司的代表 James Jelinski 將這枚幣和拍到的其他 14 枚中國錢幣帶到了威斯康辛 (Wisconsin) 的克勞斯出版社 (Krause Publications) 的辦公 室,讓我看看這枚幣,同時做些免費的公開宣傳。當時 我正在那編輯《世界硬幣標準目錄》(Standard Catalog of World Coins ) 這本書。我告訴他們的代表我只知道這枚幣 的另一個實例,即在喜敦造幣廠檔案室的那枚。當時我 尚不知道喜敦造幣廠及其檔案室的錢幣資料已經出售。 Paramount 宣傳他們的這枚幣來自喜敦造幣廠一位老員工 的收藏。《World Coin News 》刊登了此幣的一則故事, 稱該幣是兩枚已知湖南銀幣中的一枚,這一資訊也刊登 在 Paramount 的拍賣目錄中。拍賣會後,萊特寫信給我, 說該幣不是已知的兩枚幣中的一枚,但湖南銀幣(七錢 二分和三錢六分)各有 12 枚。我發表了這一資訊,但萊 特又寫信給我,指出我誤解了他上封信的意思。不是七 錢二分和三錢六分各有 12 枚,而是七錢二分和三錢六分 各 6 枚,一共 12 枚。

1898 年湖南省造七錢二分銀幣,精製。表面光潔無 瑕,散發淡紫色的包漿光澤。耿愛德的《中國幣圖說匯考》 中沒有提及 1898 年湖南七錢二分的存在。我們的研究 顯示還存在另一枚樣幣,但永久存放在英國伯明罕造幣 廠博物館中。這表明這是湖南七錢二分首次出現在拍賣 會中,成交價有望突破一萬美元大關。

然而,這不是湖南七錢二分第一次成為私人收藏。 意大利籍中國錢幣收藏家羅斯 (Guissepe Ros) 於 1921 年 前獲得了一枚七錢二分樣幣,1921 年紐約的美國錢幣學 會獲得了該幣的拓圖。羅斯從未公開過該幣,美國錢幣 學會的拓圖也被遺忘,直到 1993 年我找到這張拓圖。 此外,1909 年大英博物館的年度報告稱,1908 年 E. H. McKenzie Elliot 少將贈給博物館一枚湖南七錢二分銀幣。 我無法確認大英博物館的藏品中是否有這枚幣,或許是 湖北銀幣拼錯了。 湖南七錢二分銀幣第二次拍賣時也有驚喜的發現,出 現了之前從未見過的三錢六分銀幣,見於 1977 年 12 月 5 日至 8 日 NASCA 拍賣的 Wayte Raymond 藏品第一部分。 很有可能這兩枚幣不是 Raymond 的收藏,而是 Spink's 或 Paramount 的委託拍品。其中,七錢二分被描述為“已 知的三枚湖南七錢二分銀幣其中一枚”,三錢六分銀幣 則是“可能為僅見品,幾乎可以確定的是世界唯一一枚 可供收藏之實例”。Spink's 和 Paramount 均瞭解這樣描 述不正確,不過 NASCA 或許不知道實情。根據 NASCA 的成交清單,七錢二分銀幣成交價為 23,000 美元,三錢 六分銀幣成交價為 12000 美元。然而,問題是後來又有 七錢二分和三錢六分後流入市場進行拍賣:1979 年 6 月 Money Company 拍賣了三錢六分 (Lot 231) 和 1980 年 1 月 Money Company 拍賣了七錢二分 (Lot 260)。是有人買 入又在兩年後賣出嗎?還是 NASCA 編造了成交價? 之後多年又有 4 枚三錢六分和三枚七錢二分(2008 年) 出現在拍賣會上。此外,香港博物館有 1 枚湖南七錢二分, 從未出現在拍賣會上;NC 收藏中有一枚三錢六分,也從 未現身拍賣會。這樣,已知的七錢二分和三錢六分就各 有 6 枚,喜敦造幣廠又各有 1 枚。毫無疑問,這些銀幣 都是使用同一組幣模鑄造而成,可能鑄造於同一天。由 於過去 100 年來,這些錢幣已發生不同形式的氧化變色, 因而可以得出以上結論。

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東 亞 泉 志

THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS


Features 專題

Ramsdeniana Howard F. Bowker (USA) The year 1940 marked the twenty-fifth anniversary of

appears to have first started as an annual about 1896,

the death of Henry Alexander Ramsden, who departed this

in which form it continued until 1909, when it became

life on the 27th day of January 1915 in Yokohama, Japan,

a monthly and continued as such until it was merged

at the early age of forty-three years. At the time of his

into the Numismatic and Philatelic Journal of Japan.

death, he was without doubt the foremost writer and most

During its later years its title appeared in English and the

competent occidental authority in his chosen field, that of

advertisements of the firm of coin dealers with which

Far Eastern numismatics.

Ramsden was connected, Jun Kobayagawa Company of Yokohama, appeared regularly in its pages. The style of the

He was the author of numerous studies, and had

publication was also changed, being provided with a more

published several books and many magazine articles on

substantial cover and improved illustrations in colors and

Far Eastern numismatics in Europe, Asia, and America.

in collotype. As some of these superior plates reappear in

During this life he was the prime mover in the study of

the Numismatic and Philatelic Journal and in Ramsden's

the coins of his specialty, and was most probably the

booklets in later years, it may be presumed that he was the

direct cause of the popularity which the coins of the

instigator of these improvements. The file of the last few

orient enjoyed in the United States during the last years

years of the Yokohama Ko Sen Kai is perhaps the most

of his life. With his death, and the death of several of his

outstanding example of the typically Japanese numismatic

correspondents, among whom were John Robinson of

society organ. The illustrations are principally uchigata

Salem, Massachusetts, John Reilly Jr. and Howland Wood

ink rubbings taken from actual coins in the collections of

of New York, the collecting of the coins of the orient for

the members and authenticated by the attractive red seals

anything but their curious shapes seems to have become

of their owners, supported by a printed text in Chinese

more and more moribund and unpopular.

and native characters. A handsome collection could be made of these seal impressions alone, which would have

Not the least of his activities was as editor and

a decidedly numismatic flavor as they are frequently in

publisher of the Yokohama Ko Sen Kai during the last

the form of ancient odd-shaped coins or the more modern

few years of its existence prior to December 1912, and

round or oval pierced coins of the Orient. Sets of such

its successor, the Numismatic and Philatelic Journal

periodicals are extremely difficult to obtain as they were

of Japan, from January 1913 to December 1914. In

published only in sufficient numbers for distribution to the

1909 he also published six issues of a periodical called

members of the particular organization which issued them,

The Numismatic Monthly, but whose Japanese title,

no general subscription list being provided for.

Gai Koku Kosen Geppo, would more accurately be translated Foreign Money Monthly Magazine. The first

Aside from Ramsden's editorial and publishing

and last mentioned were entirely in Japanese, while the

career, if there ever was a numismatamaniac it was he.

more pretentious Numismatic & Philatelic Journal was

His unpublished letters to John Robinson, which are

bilingual, in English and Japanese. The Numismatic

deposited in the library of the Essex Institute in Salem,

Monthly seems to have been a test balloon to sound out

Massachusetts, attest to his entire absorption in his studies

the popularity of foreign coins among Japanese collectors,

in oriental numismatics. He made frequent journeys to

but as it was discontinued after six issues, it would appear

the principal cities and the interior of China in the pursuit

to have met with no great popular response among the

of new numismatic items for his own collection, which

Japanese.

at his death numbered over 15,000 patterns and is now in the cabinet of the American Numismatic Society of New

The journal of the Yokohama Numismatic Society

東 亞 泉 志

52

THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS

York, or for the stock-in-trade of his company. No price


Features 專題

was too dear for really rare coins, and Chinese collectors who previously had had this field to themselves, felt the competition from one whom they must have felt was a rank outsider and "fan kwei." Through his hands passed

(1906) Kwen Ei Tsu Ho Coins . Barcelona. 13 pages illustrated. (25 copies printed) (1910) Corean Coin Charms and Amulets . Yokohama. 40 pages plus plates.

many outstanding collections formed by numismatic

(1910-1911) Modern Chinese Copper Coins .

connoisseurs of both China and Japan, and it can hardly be

Reprint of a series of articles originally published in The

doubted but that the finest of their specimens remained in

Numismatist.

Ramsden's own collection and that the pieces with slight defects or inferior patina passed on to waiting buyers.

(1911) Siam Porcelain and Other Tokens . Yokohama. 37 pages plus plates (including one in color) (1911) Chinese Openwork Amulet Coins . Yokohama.

He was familiar with the greatest Chinese and Japanese archaeological and numismatic experts, among whom were Lo Chen-yu and Gakuyo Katsuyama, and

60 pages plus plates. (1911) Chinese Paper Money . Manuals of Far Eastern Numismatics #1. Yokohama. 37 pages plus plates.

Neil Gordon Munro, the author of the authoritative Coins

(1912) Chinese Early Barter and Uninscribed Money.

of Japan. A man of decided opinions and convictions,

Manuals of Far Eastern Numismatics #2. Yokohama. 34

he had reason to doubt many of the published statements

pages plus plates.

by Lacouperie in his Catalogue of Chinese coins from the 7th Century BC to AD 621. In consequence, one of

(1914) Model Insect Money of Ancient China . Specialized Series #1. Yokohama. 22 pages illustrated.

his principal reasons for visiting Europe in 1912 was to personally examine the collection of ancient Chinese

MAGAZINE ARTICLES

coins in the British Museum in London, upon which that

American Journal of Numismatics

work was based, in order to form a first-hand opinion

Tsi Moh Knife Coins – Small Series . V. 44 #4,

regarding them. These dissenting opinions may be found in many of his letters to other collectors. While in Europe he visited the principal museums in London, Paris, Rome,

October 1910 pg. 158-163

Early Chinese Metallic Currency: Carapace Money . Vol. 45 #2, April 1911, pages 70-72.

St. Petersburg and Berlin, paying particular attention to

Berliner Munzblatter

their far eastern numismatic sections. After returning to

Papiergeld in China . V. 32 #118, October 1911, pg.

Japan he commented on the meagerness and inadequacy

182-184

of the collections he had viewed as compared to others

China Review

with which he was familiar in the orient, and particularly

Notes on the Currency of the Philippine Islands . V. 24

with his own great collection. While in Rome in 1912 he

#4, January 1900, pg. 241-243; V. 24 #6, May 1900, pg.

read a paper before the 3rd International Archaeological

289-290

Congress on the subject of cowries and their substitutes used as money in ancient China, which has never been

Elder Magazine

published.

The Knife Coins of Ancient China . V.2 #1, January 1911, pg. 7

The following bibliography comprises the principal publications by Ramsden on Far Eastern numismatics. The

Journal of the Tokyo Archaeological Society

inclusion of his articles on philately and unsigned articles

Ant's Nose Money . V. 2 #10, June 1912, pg. 35-38 (in

and editorials would greatly increase the listing.

Japanese)

BOOKS

Mehl's Numismatic Monthly

(1904) A List of Tokens and Paper Notes Issued For

Glass Coins of the Far East . Vol. 3 #3, March 1910,

Use of Sugar Estates in the Island of Cuba . Barcelona. 36 pages (50 copies printed)

pg. 33-35

Paper Money of China . V. 4 #9-10, September-

53

東 亞 泉 志

THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS


Features 專題 October 1911, pg. 123-124

Bamboo Money in China . V. 5 #5, May 1914, pg. 77 Copper Coinage of the Chinese Republic , V. 6 #5,

Chuen . V. 2 #3, September 1913, pg. 93-96 Model Insect Money of Ancient China . V. 4 #4-6, October-December 1914, pg. 121-135

Seals for Impressing on Chinese Private Bank Notes

May 1915, pg.65-73

Ancient Chinese Coins: Ghost Head Money . V. 7 #67, June-July 1916, pg. 84-86 Note: The last two articles were published after Ramsden's death.

and their Significance . V. 2 #1, July 1913, pg. 15-17; August 1913, pg. 49-51; October 1913, pg. 133-135; December 1913, pg. 212-213; September 1914, pg. 94-97; October-December 1914, pg. 157-167.

The Coins of Yuen . V. 4 #1, July 1914, pg. 1-2; August Numismatic Chronicle The Ancient Coins of Lin-tzu . Series 4, V. 15, 1915, pg. 121-131.

1914, pg. 57-59

The Cowrie Currency of Ancient China . V. 2 #5, November 1913, pg. 161-163

The Origin of Birds Found Protruding from the Outer Numismatic and Philatelic Journal of Japan

Circumference of Certain Chinese Coin Amulets . Vol. 4

A Bank Note of Tsingtau . Vol. 3 #3, March 1914, pg.

#2, August 1914, pg. 41-47

The Paper Money of Formosa . Vol. 1 #2, February

98-99.

A Characteristic Bank Note of Modern China . Vol. 2 #6, December 1913, pg. 201-205

A Chinese Bank Note With Historical Personages . Vol.

1913, pg. 53-55

The Tangut Script and Numismatics . Vol. 3 #4, April 1914, pg. 121-126

3 #2, February 1914, pg. 41-43

A Modern Style Chinese Bank Note . Vol. 3 #6, June

The Numismatist A Chinese Historical Amulet Coin . Vol. 22 #8, August

1914, pg. 218-219

Ant's Nose Money . Vol. 3 #4, April 1914, pg. 139140; May 1914, pg. 165-166

Arrowhead Currency . Vol. 4 #4-6, Oct-December

1909, pg. 227-228

A Recent Chinese Commemorative Coin . V. 25 #9, September 1912, pg. 346

Coins of the Meiji or Present Period of Japan . V. 24

1914, pg. 153-156

Chinese Bank Note with Reproduction of a Spanish Dollar . Vol. 1 #6, June 1913, pg. 222-223 Chinese Bank Note with the Twelve Animals of the Duodenary Cycle . Vol. 4 #1, July 1914, pg. 12-13 Chinese Coin Amulets Inscribed with "Japan" . Vol. 1 #5, May 1913, pg. 161-166

Chinese Republic Paper Money . Vol. 1 #3, March

#8, August 1911, pg. 266-268

Corean Modern Copper Coins . V. 22 #4, April 1909, pg. 101-103; May 1909, pg. 136

Dollar Mark 2400 Years Old . V. 26 #8, August 1913, pg. 422-423

Foreign Money in China . V. 23 #2, February 1910, pg. 33-34

Modern Chinese Copper Coins . Vol. 23 #5-6, May-

1913, pg. 99-100

Cowry Substitutes Used as Currency in Ancient China . Vol. 3 #1, January 1914, pg. 15-17

June 1910, pg. 141-142; November 1910, pg. 241-245; December 1910, pg. 269-271; January 1911, pg. 15-19;

Errors in the Formation of the Ideographs "An Yang

February 1911, pg. 74-75; March 1911, pg. 86-91; April

"as Found on the Early Currency of this Ancient Chinese

1911, pg. 117-118; May 1911, pg. 167-169. Reprinted as a

City . Vol. 1 #3, March 1913, pg. 88-90; June 1913, pg.

pamphlet. [This work won a numismatic book award]

New Coin Issues for Corea . V. 22 #12, December

212-218

Far Eastern Coins with their Value Expressed in the Legend . Vol. 1 #2, February 1913, pg. 45-47 Fookinese Modern Cast Copper Coins . Vol. 2 #4, October 1913, pg. 121-123

Military Coin Issue for the Chinese Province of Sze

東 亞 泉 志

54

THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS

1909, pg. 339

Pictorial Characters of Ancient Chinese Coins . V. 24 #6, June 1911, pg. 203-204


Features 專題 Spink's Numismatic Circular

Kobayagawa Company of Yokohama, communicate with

Some Rare and Unpublished Chinese Coins . Part 1:

the writer: Numbers 2 through 7, 11-13, 20, 29, 30, 32, 36,

The Coins of Tch'ui . Vol. 19 #227, October 1911, columns

38-41, 44, 48-52, 57, 60-62, and nay issue having a higher

13103-13106; Part 2: Kung Coins. Vol. 20 #236, July

number than 64. Any material loaned will be promptly

1912, col. 13732-13737; Part 3: Nieh Coins. Vol. 21 #1,

returned and reimbursement will be made for postage

January 1913, col. 63-65; #12, December 1913, col. 911-

charges.

915.

The Origin of Chinese Cash . Vol. 23 #3-4, MarchApril 1915, col. 163-169.

Une Piece Inedite . Vol. 17 #196, March 1909, col. 11272.

(Originally published in Coin Collectors Journal May

1941.)

Supplement The following supplement was written by Bowker

UNPUBLISHED MANUSCRIPTS

in January 1967 and published as Numogram #5 by the

(1912) Cowries and Their Substitutes Used as a

Society for International Numismatics, apparently later

Medium of Exchange in Ancient China . A paper read

that year.

before the 3rd International Archaeological Congress, Rome, October 1912.

Other interesting data regarding Ramsden's antecedents and personal career have been collected that

(1909-1914) Notes and Observations on Ancient

perhaps generally are unknown and may be of interest.

Chinese Coins . Letters written by Ramsden to John Robinson. Originals in the library of the Essex Institute,

His father, Frederick W. Ramsden, was British Consul

Salem, MA. A 243 page typescript abstract was prepared

at Santiago, Cuba, during the Spanish-American War. He

in 1917 by John Robinson, the original of which is in

exerted himself in the interests of the United States Navy

the Essex Institute. Copies are held by the American

crew of the U.S.S. Merrimac which had been captured by

Numismatic Society and the library of Cornell University,

the Spanish when the attempt was made on 3 June 1898,

Ithaca, NY. [A microfilm copy of this typescript, prepared

to block off Santiago's harbor under the command of

for Howard Bowker, is now in the Bruce W. Smith library]

Naval Constructor Richmond Pearson Hobson. The U.S. Navy placed a bronze plate upon the wall of Ramsden's

For the information of collectors who might wish to

house in appreciation of his services. Doubtless this has

refer to any of the above listed publications, most of them

disappeared since the seizure of power by Fidel Castro. A

are in the library of the American Numismatic Society at

duplicate plate is on display at the U.S. Naval Academy.

75 Varick Street,floor II], New York City. Many can also be found in the New York Public Library and the library of

It is not well known that Henry Alexander Ramsden,

the Essex Institute. [Most are also] in the writer's library.

in 1898, was British Vice-Consul in Manila, and

He would appreciate having brought to his attention any

conducted a party from besieged Manila through the

omissions and would like to hear from any collector

Filipino insurgents' lines about Manila to Malabon to

who might have any of Ramsden's letters on numismatic

rescue a group of Chinese refugees. This event is recorded

subjects which they would be willing to loan.

in a Chinese-style volume entitled The Chinese Soldier and Other Sketches with a Description of the Capture of

In the October 1940 issue of The Coin Collectors

Manlia, by Alfred Cunningham, published in Hong Kong

Journal a request was made for material pertaining to

in 1902, in which the 7th chapter is titled The Insurrectos

Mr. Ramsden. No response having been received, a more

at Malabon.

specific request for information is made herewith. It would be greatly appreciated if anyone having the following numbered, or any unnumbered circulars issued by Jun

Additional items of Ramsdeniana as follows are in the writer's collections, as follows:

55

東 亞 泉 志

THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS


Features 專題 4 postcards, with photos of Ramsden's shop in Yokahama,

The Numismatist October 1915 and in Spink's Numismatic

and holiday greetings;

Circular November-December 1915. From this and other

80 advertising circulars of numismatic, philatelic,

sources, some additional information can be obtained. His

publications, medals, decorations, gambling tokens,

father, Frederick Wollaston Ramsden (1839-1898), born in

amulets, postcards, sword guards which were for sale;

Essex, England, was a British diplomatic consular official

193 publications on numismatics belonging to Ramsden's

who served in various parts of the world. He had seven

library now in the Library of the American Numismatic

children, all born in Santiago, Cuba, including Henry A.

Society, N.Y;

Ramsden (1872-1915; other sources say he was born in

3 examples of small printed envelopes from the Jun

1870).

Kobayagawa Co., for coins; Several hundreds of ink-squeeze coin rubbings of East

Henry graduated from Lehigh University, Bethlehem,

Asian coins and amulets offered for sale;

Pennsylvania, in 1892, and was a member of Sigma Chi

Typewritten transcript of Ramsden's unpublished address

fraternity. He is listed in the U.S. Congressional Directory

read before the IIIrd International Archaeological Society

1901 as vice-consul for Great Britain at Havana, Cuba.

in Rome, 17 October 1912 on The Cowries and their

He and his mother owned sugar estates in Cuba, which

Substitutes Used as Mediums of Exchange in Ancient

explains his first published work, a catalog of Cuban

China;

sugar plantation tokens. At some point he also served as

Notes and Observations Regarding a Collection of Large

consul at Barcelona, Spain.

Knife Coins of the States of Tsi in Ancient China. The Fang collection of 60 pairs of ink-squeeze rubbings, 2

In Japan his brother-in-law operated the firm, Jun

pages of text, 20 pages of rubbings; and 24 of Medium

Kobayagawa, which sold coins, stamps, post cards and

Size Pointed Knife Money of Ancient China. Fang

related items. This firm introduced collectors in the West

Collection, 2pp text, 6 pp. ink-squeeze rubbings. Some

to Chinese bamboo talley stick money and Siam gambling

Notes and Observations Regarding a Collection of Over

tokens. Henry, meanwhile, focused on his collecting. He

500 Coins, as Illustrated in the Accompanying Plates. The

had a vault built next to his bedroom so he would be near

Ro (Lo) Collection, 511 specimens. 8 pages of text, 65

his collection. At his death, his collection, which contained

pages of rubbings.

15,000 items, was sold to John Reilly Jr. for 30,000 yen (about US $15,000). The collection included: 90 hollow

Mr. Bowker also noted that his article Ramsdeniana

handle spade coins; 272 heavy spades (including a few

(1941) was translated into Japanese by Mr. Eiichi Tamaya

3 hole spades); 535 pointed foot spades; 928 square foot

and published in one of the brochures of the Yokohama

spades; 226 Ch'i type knife coins (including 63 with more

Numismatic Society.

than three characters); 668 ming knives; 172 talley sticks; and over 1200 Siam tokens. The collection later passed

Editor's Note: Howard Bowker noted in one of his

to the American Numismatic Society when John Reilly

letters to Arthur Coole that no photos of Ramsden are

donated his collection and the Ramsden collection. [BWS]

known to exist. Obituaries on Ramsden were published in

東 亞 泉 志

56

THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS


Features 專題

拉姆斯登藏集 霍華德 • 佛蘭克林 • 包克(美國) 1940 年, 亨 利 • 亞 歷 山 大 • 拉 姆 斯 登 (Henry

墨印拓圖大多是來自協會會員收藏的真實錢幣,並由

Alexander Ramsden) 逝 世 25 周 年, 他 於 1915 年 1 月

物主親自鑒定封紅印,以中文和當地語言雙語印刷鑒

27 日在日本橫濱去世,享年僅 43 歲。毫無疑問,他

定證書。單是這些印鑒收藏起來已是蔚為壯觀,大多

去世時,已然是遠東錢幣研究領域最重要的西方權威

採用古錢的古怪形狀或近代東方的圓形或橢圓形帶孔

人士和錢幣學作家。

的形狀,這絕對也是錢幣界收藏的一個特殊領域。如 今,獲得這些期刊極其困難,因這些刊物多是只針對

他發表過多篇研究成果,出版過幾本書,並在歐

會員發行,不向普通大眾提供訂閱。

洲、亞洲和美國雜誌上發表過多篇遠東錢幣研究文章。 在他短暫的一生中,積極促進遠東錢幣研究,很可能

拉姆斯登除了在編輯及出版事業方面頗有建樹外,

也是他去世前幾年東方錢幣在美國大受歡迎的直接原

他也是一位錢幣狂熱者。他與約翰 • 羅賓遜的通信未

因。隨着拉姆斯登及其幾位同好的通信者(其中包括

曾公開,現存放在麻塞諸塞州賽勒姆埃塞克斯研究院

麻塞諸塞州賽勒姆的約翰 • 羅賓遜 (John Robinson)、

圖書館 (Essex Institute),这證明了他對東方錢幣的研

紐約的 John Reilly Jr. 和 Howland Wood)的相繼離世,

究是全身心投入。他為了增加個人收藏或公司的藏品,

除對錢幣各種古怪形狀的關注外,對東方錢幣的收藏

經常遊歷中國各大城市和內地,到他去世時收藏的樣

似乎变得更為消極死沉而成為冷門了。

幣已達 15000 件,這些藏品都陳列在紐約美國錢幣協 會錢幣櫃中,或他自己的公司內。珍稀的中國錢幣價

他 積 極 活 躍 於 創 辦 雜 誌, 先 後 擔 任《 橫 濱 錢 幣

格再高他也會購買,中國收藏家們也在追求这方面的

協 會 》 (Yokohama Ko Sen Kai ) 雜 誌(1912 年 12 月

珍稀品,並認為這位競爭對手絕對是位“黑馬”。他

前)、後併入《日本錢幣與集郵雜誌》(Numismatic

經手過許多來自中日鑒賞家的珍稀錢幣,因而幾乎不

and Philatelic Journal of Japan ,1913 年 1 月至 1914 年

用質疑的是最頂級的錢幣就收藏在拉姆斯登本人的藏

12 月期間任職 ) 的編輯和出版人。1909 年還出版了 6

品中,而略有瑕疵和有不良銅銹的普品他就待售給買

期《錢幣月刊》(The Numismatic Monthly ),其實該雜

家。

誌的日語名更準確達意,譯為“外國錢幣月刊”。其 中,《橫濱錢幣協會》和《錢幣月刊》是日文版,而《日

拉姆斯登與中日兩國的考古專家和錢幣專家都是

本錢幣與集郵雜誌》則是英日雙語版,在當時很是了

熟識,如羅振玉、勝山嶽陽 (Gakuyo Katsuyama)、權

不起。《錢幣月刊》更像是在試探外國錢幣在日本收

威著作《日本貨幣》(Coins of Japan ) 作者尼爾 • 戈登 •

藏界是否受歡迎。不過,該雜誌發行 6 期後就停刊,

芒羅 (Neil Gordon Munro) 。他決策果斷、說服力強,

這似乎說明日本人對外國錢幣並不太感興趣。

有足夠的理由質疑古柏 (Lacouperie) 在其《大英博物 館館藏中國錢幣目錄》(Catalogue of Chinese coins from

橫濱錢幣協會主辦的期刊《橫濱錢幣協會》創辦

the 7th Century BC to AD 621 ) 中的論斷。於是,他在

於 1896 年,最初是年刊,直到 1909 年改成月刊,後

1912 年遊歷歐洲,其主要原因就是要親自核對這本書

來被併入《日本錢幣和集郵雜誌》。在雜誌發行後期,

中提及的倫敦大英博物館收藏的中國古錢藏品,從而

出現了英語標題,拉姆斯登聯合建立的橫濱小早川商

獲得這些古錢的第一手資訊。他與書中相悖之處常出

會 (Jun Kobayagawa Company) 的廣告定期刊登在插頁

現在他與其他藏家的通信中。他参觀了倫敦、巴黎、

上。雜誌的整體風格也相應有了改觀,封面內容更豐

羅馬、聖彼德堡和柏林的主要博物館,特地留意館內

富,插圖顏色明顯改善,採用珂羅版印刷紙印刷。這

遠東錢幣展區。回到日本後,對比熟悉的東方錢幣,

些先進的印版多次出現在後來的《日本錢幣和集郵雜

特別是他自己的偉大收藏,他指出了前所考察的藏品

誌》和拉姆斯登的小冊子中,由此可推測拉姆斯登可

的粗劣和不足之處。1912 年羅馬第三屆國際考古大會

能是改進雜誌的積極策劃者。最後幾年的《橫濱錢幣

之前,他宣讀了一篇關於貝幣及其替代幣的論文,這

協會》或許是日本錢幣協會錢幣學刊物的典型代表。

篇文章至今仍未出版。

57

東 亞 泉 志

THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS


Features 專題 以下所列書目涵蓋拉姆斯登遠東錢幣學研究主要

《Mehl 錢幣學月刊》

著作。若是再加上他關於集郵的文章、無落款的文章

《遠東琉璃幣》,3 卷 #3,1910 年 3 月刊,33-35 頁。

和評論,書目會更多。

《中國紙鈔》,4 卷 #9-10,1911 年 9 月至 10 月刊, 123-124 頁。

書籍

《中國竹製錢幣》,5 卷 #5,1914 年 5 月刊,77 頁。

(1904 年)《古巴島甘蔗園發行的代幣和紙鈔清

《中華民國銅元》,6 卷 #5,1915 年 5 月刊,65-73 頁。

單》,巴塞羅那,36 頁(印 50 份) (1906 年) 《寬永通寶》,巴塞羅那,13 頁插圖(印 25 份)

《中國古錢:鬼臉錢》,7 卷 #6-7,1916 年 6 月 至 7 月刊,84-86 頁。 注:最後兩篇文章於拉姆斯登去世後才發表。

(1910 年)《韓國壓勝錢》,橫濱,40 頁外加拓 英國皇家錢幣協會會刊《Numismatic Chronicle 》

圖印版。 (1910-1911 年)《近代中國銅幣》,原載於美國

《臨淄古錢》,系列 4,卷 15,1915 年,121-131 頁。

集幣協會月刊《錢幣學家》(The Numismatist )。 (1911 年)《暹羅陶瓷及其他代幣》,橫濱,37 頁外加圖印版(其中一個為彩色)。 (1911 年)《中國鏤空花錢》,橫濱,60 頁外加

《日本錢幣和集郵雜誌》 《青島錢幣》,卷 3#3,1914 年 3 月刊,98-99 頁。 《中國近代特色紙鈔賞析》,2 卷 #6,1913 年 12 月, 201-205 頁。

拓圖版。 (1911 年) 《中國紙鈔》,遠東錢幣學手稿 #1,橫濱, 37 頁外加圖印版。

《中國歷史人物紙鈔賞析》,3 卷 #2,1914 年 2 月刊, 41-43 頁。

(1912 年)《中國早期交換物和無幣文古錢》, 遠東錢幣學手稿 #2,橫濱,34 頁外加印圖譜。 (1914 年) 《古代中國蟻鼻錢》,專業系列 #1,橫濱, 22 頁插圖。

《中國近代風格紙鈔》,3 卷 #6,1914 年 6 月刊, 218-219 頁。 《蟻鼻錢》,3 卷 #4,1914 年 4 月刊,139-140 頁; 1914 年 5 月刊,165-166 頁。 《銅箭頭貨幣》,4 卷 #4-6,1914 年 10 月至 12 月, 153-156 頁。

雜誌文章 《美國錢幣學雜誌》 《即墨刀幣 – 小系列》,44 卷 #4,1910 年 10 月刊,

《複製西班牙銀圓之中國紙鈔》,1 卷 #6,1913 年 6 月刊,222-223 頁。 《十二生肖中國紙鈔》,4 卷 #1,1914 年 7 月,

158-163 頁。 《中國早期金屬貨幣:銅貝幣》,45 卷 #2,1911 年 4 月刊,70-72 頁。

12-13 頁。 《刻有 "Japan" 的中國花錢》,1 卷 #5,1913 年 5 月刊,161-166 頁。

《Berliner Munzblatter 雜誌》

《中華民國紙鈔》,1 卷 #3,1913 年 3 月,99-100 頁。

《 中 國 紙 幣 》,32 卷 #118,1911 年 10 月 刊,

《中國古代貝幣代幣》,3 卷 #1,1914 年 1 月刊, 15-17 頁。

182-184 頁。

《安陽市早期錢幣上的象形文字錯誤探析》,1 卷 《中國評論》

#3,1913 年 3 月 刊,88-90 頁;1913 年 6 月 刊,212-

《菲律賓群島貨幣備註》,24 卷 #4,1900 年 1 月

218 頁。

刊,241-243 頁;24 卷 #6,1900 年 5 月刊,289-290 頁。

《有幣文的遠東錢幣》,1 卷 #2,1913 年 2 月刊, 45-47 頁。 《福建近代機製銅元》,2 卷 #4,1913 年 10 月,

早期雜誌 《中國古代刀幣》,2 卷 #1,1911 年 1 月刊,第 7 頁。

121-123 頁。 《 中 國 四 川 省 軍 政 府 銀 圓 的 發 行》,2 卷 #3,

《東京考古協會》雜誌 《蟻鼻錢》,2 卷 #10,1912 年 6 月刊,35-38 頁(日 語版)

東 亞 泉 志

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THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS

1913 年 9 月刊,93-96 頁。 《古代中國蟻鼻錢》,4 卷 #4-6,1914 年 10 月至


Features 專題 12 月,121-135 頁。 《中國私造紙鈔之封印及其重要性》,2 卷 #1, 1913 年 7 月刊,15-17 頁;1913 年 8 月刊,49-51 頁; 1913 年 10 月 刊,133-135 頁;1913 年 12 月 看,212213 頁;1914 年 9 月 刊,94-97 頁;1914 年 10 月 至 12 月刊,157-167 頁。

卷 #1,1913 年 1 月刊,專欄 63-65;#12,1913 年 12 月, 專欄 911-915。 《中國貨幣起源》,23 卷 #3-4,1915 年 3 月至 4 月, 專欄 163-169。 《一件譜外品》,17 卷 #196,1909 年 3 月刊,專 欄 11272。

《 銀 圓 錢 幣》,4 卷 #1,1914 年 7 月,1-2 頁; 1914 年 8 月刊,57-59 頁。 《 中 國 古 代 貝 幣》,2 卷 #5,1913 年 11 月 刊, 161-163 頁。 《中國花錢外圈飛禽溯源探考》,4 卷 #2,1914

未發表手稿 (1912 年)《中國古代物物交換媒介之貝幣及其 代幣》,第三屆國際考古大會前宣讀的一篇文章, 1912 年 10 月羅馬。

年 8 月刊,41-47 頁。 《臺灣紙鈔》,1 卷 #2,1913 年 2 月刊,53-55 頁。

(1909 年至 1914 年)《中國古錢注解及評論》。

《西夏手稿和錢幣學研究》,3 卷 #4,1914 年 4 月刊,

此文為拉姆斯登寫給約翰 • 羅賓遜的書信,原稿存放

121-126 頁。

於麻塞諸塞州賽勒姆埃塞克斯研究院圖書館。1917 年,約翰 • 羅賓遜準備了 243 頁的打字稿,其原稿仍

《錢幣學家》(The Numismatist )

是保存在埃塞克斯研究院;美國錢幣協會和紐約伊薩

《 中 國 歷 史 花 錢》,22 卷 #8,1909 年 8 月 刊,

卡 (Ithaca) 的康內爾大學有影本。[ 霍華德 • 包克先生

227-228 頁。

則有打字稿的微縮膠片,現存放在史博錄圖書館中 ]

《中國近代紀念幣》,25 卷 #9,1912 年 12 月刊, 346 頁。 《日本明治時期當代錢幣》,24 卷 #8,1911 年 8 月刊,266-268 頁。 《 韓 國 近 代 銅 元》,22 卷 #4,1909 年 4 月 刊, 101-103 頁;1909 年 5 月刊,136 頁。 《2400 年 來 錢 幣 標 誌 演 變 史》,26 卷 #8,1913

藏家若是想參考上述所列刊物資訊,請前往紐約 瓦瑞克大街 (Varick Street) 二樓美國錢幣學會查詢。其 中大部分資料還可在紐約公立圖書館和埃塞克斯研究 院的圖書館中找到,亦可在作者的圖書館中找到。若 是藏家能指出遺漏之處,或願意慷慨出借拉姆斯登錢 幣學信件,作者不勝感激。

年 8 月,422-423 頁。 《在華流通的外國錢幣》,23 卷 #2,1910 年 2 月 刊,33-34 頁。 《中國近代銅元》,23 卷 #5-6,1910 年 5 月至 6 月刊,

1940 年 10 月,發行《錢幣收藏家雜誌》時曾發出 請求,徵求拉姆斯登先生的資料。可惜未收到任何回 音,因而繼續發出更具體的請求資訊。若是各位同好

141-142 頁;1910 年 11 月刊,241-245 頁;1910 年 12

手中有橫濱小早川商會以下編號期刊:2-7、11-13、

月 刊,269-271 頁;1911 年 1 月 刊,15-19 頁;1911

20、29、30、32、36、38-41、44、48-52、57、60-

年 2 月刊,74-75 頁;1911 年 3 月刊,86-91 頁;1911

62、64 號之後的期刊或無編號的通告等,請與作者聯

年 4 月刊,117-118 頁;1911 年 5 月刊,167-169 頁。

繫。作者保證將準時歸還,並支付郵資。

再版印成小冊子,獲錢幣學著作獎。 《韓國發行的新貨幣》,22 卷 #12,1909 年 12 月, 339 頁。 《中國古錢上的象形文字》,24 卷 #6,1911 年 6 月刊,203-204 頁。

( 原載于《錢幣收藏家雜誌》1941 年 5 月刊。) 增補

以下增補內容是包克先生于 1967 年 1 月所寫,後 由國際錢幣學會刊登記為 Numogram #5。

《斯賓克錢幣通告》(Spink's Numismatic Circular ) 《中國部分珍稀和未公開錢幣》第一部分:Tch'ui 錢 幣。19 卷 #227,1912 年 7 月 刊, 專 欄 13103-

此外,還收集了拉姆斯登的趣聞軼事和個人職業 生涯簡介,大多為世人所未聞,頗有趣味。

13106;第二部分:Kung 錢幣,20 卷 #236,1912 年 7 月刊,專欄 13732-13737;第三部分:Nieh 錢幣,21

拉姆斯登的父親 Frederick W. Ramsden 是美西戰爭

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Features 專題 期間英國駐古巴聖地亞哥市領事,在美國軍艦梅裡馬

包克先生指出,他於 1941 年寫的《拉姆斯登藏集》

克號 (U.S.S. Merrimac) 上為美國海軍效力。1898 年 6

由 Eiichi Tamaya 翻譯成日文,並在橫濱錢幣學會的一

月 3 日,該艘軍艦奉造船師 Richmond Pearson Hobson

期小冊子中發表。

之命封鎖聖地亞哥海港,被西班牙軍方俘獲。美國海 軍在 Frederick W. Ramsden 寓所牆壁上懸掛銅章以示

編者注:包克先生在給邱文明的一封信中指出,

嘉獎。毫無疑問,卡斯特羅 (Fidel Castro) 掌權後銅章

尚無拉姆斯登的照片存世。悼念拉姆斯登的訃聞刊登

消失不見了,後複刻一枚銅章陳列在美國海軍學院。

在 1915 年 10 月 刊 的《 錢 幣 學 家》 和 Spink 1915 年 錢 幣 學 通 告 11-12 月 刊 上。 從 上 述 資 料 和 其 他 來 源

鮮為人知的是,1898 年,亨利 • 亞歷山大 • 拉姆

中可以獲得更多資訊。他的父親 Frederick Wollaston

斯登任英國駐馬尼拉副領事,率團突破馬尼拉包圍,

Ramsden (1839-1898) 年生於英國埃塞克斯,曾擔任英

穿越菲律賓暴徒拉起的馬尼拉至馬拉翁的防線,營救

國外交領事,任職於世界各地;育有 7 個子女,均在

一小隊中國難民。這個事件由 Alfred Cunningham 撰寫

古巴聖地亞哥出生,其中包括亨利 • 拉姆斯登(1872-

成書,書名為《中國士兵與素描:馬尼拉被捕記》(The

1915 年;另有說法他生於 1870 年)。

Chinese Soldier and Other Sketches with a Description of the Capture of Manlia ),於 1902 年香港出版,第七章 標題為《馬拉翁暴亂》(The Insurrectos at Malabon )。

亨利於 1892 年畢業於賓尼法尼亞州伯利恆理海大 學 (Lehigh University),曾是 Sigma Chi 兄弟會之成員。 1901 年因擔任英國駐古巴哈瓦那副領事被寫入美國國

拉姆斯登的其他物品也收藏在作者的藏品之列,

會名人簿。他與母親在古巴擁有一座甘蔗園,他的第 一部著作《古巴甘蔗園代幣圖錄》(a catalog of Cuban

包括以下內容: 4 張明信片(印有拉姆斯登橫濱的錢幣店)和節日 賀卡;

sugar plantation tokens ) 與此息息相關。此外,在某種 意義上講,他履行了駐西班牙巴塞羅那的領事職責。

80 張廣告頁,包括錢幣、郵票、出版物、獎章、飾物、 籌碼、花錢、明信片、劍的護手等等; 拉姆斯登圖書館中的 193 本錢幣學出版物,現紐 約美國錢幣學會圖書館館藏;

在日本,亨利的姐夫開辦了小早川商會,銷售錢 幣、郵票、明信片和相關物品。該商會將中國的竹簽 幣和暹羅的賭博代幣介紹給西方藏家。同時,亨利注

小早川商會印刷的小號幣封三套;

重集藏。他的臥室旁建有一間保險庫,其藏品可觸手

數百枚待售的東亞錢幣具有墨拓印圖譜及花錢;

可及。亨利去世時共留下 15000 多項藏品,轉手給了

1912 年 10 月 17 日,第三屆考古大會前,拉姆斯

John Reilly Jr.,合 30000 日元(約 15000 美元)。藏

登宣讀的一篇未出版的論文打印手稿,標題為《中國

品包括:90 枚空首布、272 枚大布(包括幾枚三孔布)、

古代物物交換中的貝幣及其代幣》(The Cowries and

535 枚尖足布、928 枚方足布、226 枚齊國刀幣(其中

their Substitutes Used as Mediums of Exchange in Ancient

四字刀、五字刀 63 枚,六字刀 2 枚)、668 枚明刀、

China );

172 枚竹幣和 1200 多枚暹羅代幣。後來,John Reilly

中國古代齊國大刀幣藏品註解,方氏收藏的 60 對 壓墨拓印、2 頁文稿、20 業拓印,24 枚中國古代中型 尖頭刀幣,方若藏品、2 頁文稿、6 頁壓墨拓印,500 多枚錢幣收藏註解並附圖譜,羅氏收藏的 511 枚錢幣、 8 頁文稿、65 頁拓印。

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Jr. 將自己的藏品和拉姆斯登的收藏捐贈給了美國錢幣 學會。[ 史博祿 ]


Features 專題 EXCLUSIVE INTERVIEW

Huang Xiquan Discusses Issues Regarding Pre-Qin Currency Yuan Shuiqing (Xi'an) On a beautiful day of lunar January 2016, the author was commissioned by The Journal of East Asian Numismatics to interview the famous Chinese paleography and currency expert Professor Huang Xi-Quan about preQin currencies. Professor Huang once worked as the vice chairman of the archaeological team of Hubei Province and taught students in the departments of History, Archaeology and Museology, at Wuhan University. In Beijing, he served as the director of the China Numismatic Museum, and the Vice President and Secretary General of the China Association of Numismatics (ICOMON). After retirement, he continued to serve as a member of the National Commission for Cultural Relics Identification, the deputy director of the China Numismatic Society (CNS) and the editorial director of journal China Numismatics. Firstly, Dr. Huang, we know that you have made in-depth study of paleography, archeology, history and culture of the Chu kingdom as well as the identification of cultural relics, and you have published many academic works. How did you become so interested in this difficult field and continue to scale new heights?

Huang Xiquan: I graduated from Peking University and my major was archaeology. After graduation, I was assigned to work at the Hubei Provincial Museum and presided over the archaeological excavations of ancient tomb in Ji’nan City, Jingzhou County, Hubei Province and the tomb of Marquis Yi of Zeng. During the

Chinese paleography and currency expert, Ph.D in history, Professor Huang Xiquan process of archaeology, you may encounter ancient writing materials, such as bronze, bamboo and silk manuscripts, if you have no basic knowledge in ancient philology, it will be difficult to interpret and understand ancient texts. In 1978, China reinstated graduate education, so I applied to the postgraduate program in paleography at Jilin University and studied under the tutelage of the famous philologist, Professor Shengwu Yu. In early 1985, I was assigned to teach at Wuhan University in Hubei Province, which is the birthplace of culture and history of the State of Chu. The cultural relics are very rich there and the education of the college also focuses on study of the history and culture of the State of Chu. In 1992, the People's Bank of China set up the China Numismatic Museum where researchers were needed, so I was transferred to work at the China Numismatic Museum. Most Chinese pre-Qin currencies have inscriptions and the nature of my work and profession required me to focus on

the pre-Qin currencies. For exhibitions and research the museum needed to collect the physical currencies and then comes to the question of identifying the authenticity of the relics. Therefore, the scope of my research that included all aspects of what you have mentioned. Through my professional learning and training and the guidance of wellknown teachers and hard work, the problems encountered in practice are generally easy to resolve, and some achievement has been made, some papers have been published - but not that much - the contribution is not so significant. Secondly, we all know that the pre-Qin Dynasties have a long history and are so distant from now, and there were very few written records of the currency of that time. Why did you still choose to study the pre-Qin currency?

Huang Xiquan: Chinese currency is an important part of the development history of world currency, and also

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Features 專題 has a long history of development. The research of the economy, culture, technology, politics and other fields of ancient China and the world can't be done without the research of currency, especially the early currency. However, due to various reasons, there are not many early written records of Chinese currency and a lot of difficult problems about currency in the history haven’t been resolved. Therefore, the study of the early history and developments of Chinese currency encounters many difficulties. For example, how long is Chinese currency history? How can we correctly calculate the historical eras of the Chinese currency? Were cowrie shells used as money? Did some products function as money? How did the various currencies evolve? None of these problems can be ignored to understand the history of Chinese currency. The record of pre-Qin currencies in the literature is limited, so research needs to rely on the physical currency. And since there are not many surviving currencies, we only hope that new physical currencies can be found and new relevant material becomes available. There are still many problems about the research of the pre-Qin currency and some links are not very clear, so we need to constantly sum up experience and explore. The current difficulties are as follows: First, the reference materials are not enough. Second, some characters on the currency cannot be interpreted and understood well at the moment. Third, the current research is not deep enough. The biggest problem is that reference materials which we have that are related to currency lack systematic collection, collation and research. Thirdly, it is known that the preQin currencies include the primitive money, metal barter, and cast metal

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coins as well as other things. What’s your opinion about their origins and development in history?

Huang Xiquan: Pre-Qin currency includes primitive money, metal barter and cast metal coins and they all emerged before Emperor Qinshi Huang unified China. The primitive money was the physical currency that included the commodities that were often in circulation and became the main media of the exchange. According to documents and archaeological discoveries, as well as academic research, we all know that, during pre-Qin Dynasty China, production tools, food, cloth, livestock, leather, teeth, shells, and beads all served as a medium of exchange. Later in China, the most important exchange media was still concentrated in food, cloth, livestock and other goods and foreign seashells. Since the physical currencies have many disadvantages: they are too cumbersome, difficult to divide up, are inconvenient to carry, easy to rot or wear, in short supply or suffer from inappropriate storage, therefore, with the expansion of society and social development and a commodity economy, commodity money was gradually replaced by metallic currency. The metal barter was born with the invention and improvement of metal smelting technology and epoch-making change in the production of tools. In China, the first metallic currency that appeared was copper or bronze barter objects in shapes which later developed into cast coinage. Meanwhile, with the development and expansion of productivity of commodity exchange, gold and silver that had many advantages also become a currency. According to available information, we know that the production level of

the bronze making in the Xia Dynasty was already very high. The Chalcolithic era (circa 2000 BC) already had copper and bronze, and copper would have been a very precious and valuable item at that time. The use of the metal barter lasted until the Spring and Autumn period (771-476 BC). At the early stage, they coexisted with cowrie money, and at the late stage, they coexistedwith cast coins. The period of metal barter was close to the period when slavery was established, so it is estimated that the coins would have existed in the Xia Dynasty (2070-1600 BC) and now the period we can find the first (?) physical coins is in late Shang Dynasty. The unearthed copper from Yin Dynasty ruins in Anyang is the evidence. Copper spade coins were shaped like a spade or weeding tool, and probably began to be used in the Yin and Zhou Dynasties. Gold and silver bartering occurs in the middle Spring and Autumn Period. The minted gold of this period, which was of various sizes, could have served as money, with inscriptions consisting of square or round stamps in which there are one or two characters. China also had long used silver ingots as a medium of exchange and these two kinds of currency were mostly used in the Chu state, the Three Jin states (Han, Wei and Zhao) and the Zhongshan state. As for the beginning of the history of Chinese currency, some Chinese academics claim that it starts from the coins of the Spring and Autumn period, while others think it should be calculated from the period of metal barter. How to calculate the history of Chinese currency still needs to be discussed. We believe that the history of currency should include two stages: metal currency and physical currency. When it comes to the history, we cannot omit the physical currency stage. If we


Features 專題 make the emergence of ‘coins’ as the standard, we can call the period after the metal currency period the ‘narrowly defined monetary history stage’ and the period before the emergence of the original currency or physical currency the ‘generalized defined monetary history stage’. The Xia Dynasty (2070-1600 BC) existed for a few hundred years, so we can’t imagine what it would be like without an intermediate medium for exchange, whether for domestic or foreign exchange. According to the above discussion, it seems that the commodity money (such as cowrie shells) originated from the Xia Dynasty or the late Neolithic Age before the Xia Dynasty (this is only speculation and needs to be confirmed). If commodity money could be traced back to the late Neolithic period, it would be accompanied by the emergence of an original city, country and civilization. It seems that, the history of Chinese currency is not only a history of the development of economics but also an important part of the history of Chinese civilization. Of course, this problem can also be discussed in depth. Based on the above discussion, it seems we can make following assessments about the history of Chinese currency: Cast coinage ------- early Spring and Autumn period, dating back about 2,700 years; Metal barter ----- late Shang Dynasty, dating back about 3200 years; Commodity money ------- Xia Dynasty or before Xia Dynasty, dating back about 4,000 - 5,000 years. F o u r t h l y, w h a t a b o u t t h e distribution and development of all kinds of cast coinage? How should we carry out the research?

Huang Xiquan: The social change during the Spring and Autumn period was very intense; it was also the most interesting period for the pre-Qin currency. The predominant coins issued by the royal families of the Central Plains and the Three Jin states, were spade coins, round currency and knife coins (such as in the State of Zhao). The most common coin in the state of Yan in the northern China and state of Qi in the region of Shandong Province was the knife coin, in the latter period it was accompanied by spade and round coins. The most common coins in the state of Chu in southern China were copper shell coins (ant nose), gold and silver coins, spade coins, as well as copper plaque coins. The round coins were the most prominent ones in the state of Qin in western China. The state of Wu and Yue in southeast China and state of Chu in southwest China were also at the same stage of social development, so their currencies should have different characteristics, but we are still unsure and it is believed that the bronze dagger-axe and bronze bridge were the currencies that were mostly used at that time. After the middle Warring States period, the shape of the coins gradually became smaller and more convenient, so the round coin became the best form of money and many countries began to mint coinage. Finally, the state of Qin unified the Chinese currency with the half-liang money and laid a solid foundation for the economic development of China's feudal society. The bronze coinage which contains four main kinds of coins including cowries, spade coins, knife coins and round coins gradually came into being and developed from the late Shang Dynasty, forming a distinctive coinage culture. Copper shell coins were produced in the Shang Dynasty and declined in the Warring States

period. The use of copper and shell coins started from the state of Chu and remained until late period of Warring States period. Spade coins may have arisen in the early Spring and Autumn period, because they were popular in the middle of the Warring States period and served as the major currency in the royal court and the Three Jin states. Knife coins may have been produced in the Spring and Autumn period, prevailed until late Warring States period and served as the major currency among the Baidi people and in the states of Zhongshan, Yan, Qi, Zhao and other countries until the Qin Dynasty unified the six states and abolished the currency. Round money generated in the Warring States period served as the major currency in the state of Qin, in the Three Jin states, and in the states of Yan and Qi. Round money had always been the main form of ancient Chinese coins until it was abolished in the early Republic of China. As for the research of the pre-Qin currency, it should focus on: 1. the origin of the currency; 2. the discovery, distribution and related issues about metal barter; 3. the generation time of the spade coin; the evolution of spade coins with various shapes and the relationship between them; 4. the original of the knife coins and the relationship between different kinds of knife coins; 5. issues relating to the spade coin of the state of Chu and the gold coins; 6. The origin and circulation of round coins; 7. the relationship between the name of the currency and historical geography; 8 the function of Qin Shi Huang’s unification of the currency. F i f t h ly : C a n yo u t a l k a b o u t t h e c h a ra c te r i s t i c s o f t h e p re Qin currency character and some features that can’t be interpreted completely?

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Features 專題 Huang Xiquan: Pre-Qin currency inscriptions refer to the words cast or engraved on pre-Qin commodity money including copper, tin, lead, gold, silver and jade, silk, etc., all of which belong to a branch of ancient Chinese texts, usually attributed to the content of the Warring States period character research. Similar to contemporary seals, pottery, stone, treaty of alliance, bamboo, silk manuscripts inscriptions, the characteristics are full of features. However, due to the limitations of the scope of the writing and the different writing styles used in different states, the texts have different configurations and the interpretation of the text becomes more difficult. In my book Characteristics of Pre-Qin Currency Characters, I summarized as follows: 1. simple text form; 2. form changes; 3. make full use of the strokes of Chinese characteristics; 4. present different font styles; 5. make the best of the font style and shape, and all of these have been incorporated into my book Research of Pre-Qin Currency, which you can read. The majority of the currency texts that have already been found have been properly interpreted by scholars of paleography. As for the remaining texts, the glyph of some is not clear enough, some are too simple to identify, some are not so easily interpreted today, some can be interpreted but the context cannot be understood, so new findings and related materials are needed to provide new information. For example, although the texts on the spade and the copper coins of the State of Chu can be interpreted, interpretation of the meanings are divergent. Another example, a few years ago, there was a round coin with an uncertain inscription and context. Later, I found some useful information from a Chu bamboo book at Tsinghua University, I identified the inscription as ‘Yingze’, located in Hua

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County of Hebei Province belonging to the State of Wei. Then I wrote an article Analysis of a Rare Ancient Round Coin: An Excavated Inscription and a Traditional Text Verify Each Other, which was published in the fourth series of Qinghua University’s magazine Excavated Inscriptions, published by the West Publishing House, 2013. Those interested can refer to it.

a Warring State Period round coin(obverse) with the design of " 環 ", 43mm, 13g Sixthly, coin collecting continues to become more and more popular among people. What’s your opinion about coin collecting, currency research and today's coin market?

Huang Xiquan: Coin collecting is similar to other forms of collecting, and is an interesting cultural activity. People collect coins for joy or to gain specialized knowledge. Whatever the outcome, the growth of the collecting activities increases the knowledge of coins for the collector, promotes the culture of collecting and promotes indepth relevant academic research. In fact, collecting is one kind of art, even a learned skill. Faced with the popularity of collecting and some non-standard market phenomenon, collectors should know how to collect rationally, how to tell truth from falsehood and how to combine collecting and research. All of these questions need to be thought about.

I think the main purpose of collecting is to cultivate character, increase knowledge and preserve heritage for the state or nation. A minority of people collect for money, and strictly speaking, this behavior is not really ‘collecting', because it is different from the essence of collecting. Currently, the overall situation of coin collecting is quite normal, but also has exposed some worrying phenomenon which makes many collectors confused. If some person or company wants to use hype for making money and have some quick success, to some extent, the impact of this negative impact would influence the activity of the collectors and would potentially fuel speculative reselling or wrongdoing, and also to some extent interfere with the normal market order, affecting social harmony. Collecting and research cannot be equated. Collecting needs study, while research aims to understand a collection. The two complement each other. Collectors can gain experience and increase their knowledge by collecting, if there is no in-depth study, it is difficult to verify the authenticity, which can’t improve the quality of the collection, but would result in large economic losses. For a long period of time, basic research on coinage has focused on the shape, writing style, weight and fineness of the metal which belongs to the category of epigraphy. In fact, we can uncover the history of a number of phenomena through research of coins of all ages. We can’t simply research the money, but we also should combine it with economy, finance, archaeology, history, ancient writing, science and technology. Only in this way will the unresolved questions on ancient coins receive scientific validation and interpretation.


Features 專題

名家專訪 黃錫全談先秦貨幣的有關問題 袁水清(西安) 丙 申 年(2016 年) 孟 春 榖 旦, 筆者受《東亞泉志》編輯部之托, 就“先秦貨幣的有關問題”採訪了 著名的中國古文字與古代貨幣研究 專家、歷史學博士黃錫全教授。黃 教授曾擔任過湖北省文物考古隊副 隊長、執教過武漢大學歷史系考古 文博專業,進京後曾擔任中國錢幣 博物館館長、中國錢幣學會副理事 長兼秘書長、國際錢幣與銀行博物 館 委 員 會 執 委(ICOMON) 等, 退 休後繼續擔任國家文物鑒定委員會 委員、中國錢幣學會學術委員會副 主任、《中國錢幣》編委會主任等。 這次訪談重點圍繞以下幾個問題進 行:

中國古文字與古代貨幣研究專家、歷史學博士黃錫全教授

一、黃先生,您在古文字學、考

我就被調到中國錢幣博物館工作。

然而,由於種種原因,記錄中國使

古學、楚史楚文化、文物鑒定及先

由於中國先秦貨幣多有銘文,因工

用貨幣的早期文獻不是很多,不少

秦貨幣等方面都有深入的研究,先

作與專業的需要又側重於先秦貨幣

貨幣史中的疑難問題未能得到解決。

後出版過不少學術論著,成果頗豐。

的研究。博物館陳列展覽及研究需

因此,研究中國早期貨幣的歷史及

你是如何對這一艱難的領域產生興

要徵集實物,涉及到文物辨別真偽

其發展變化,就會遇到不少困難。

趣並不斷攀登高峰的?

的問題。故我的研究涉及的範圍就

比如中國貨幣歷史究竟有多久,或

包括了您所說的諸方面。經過系統

者如何計算中國貨幣的歷史,海貝

黃 錫 全: 我 本 來 是 學 考 古 的,

的專業學習與訓練,又有名師指導,

究竟是不是貨幣,實物貨幣算不算

畢業於北大考古專業,分配至湖北

加之刻苦勤奮,在實踐中遇到有關

貨幣,各種貨幣是如何演變的?等

省博物館工作,先後參與主持過湖

問題一般多能應對並有所收穫,發

等這些問題,是瞭解、研究中國貨

北荊州楚故都紀南城遺址和隨州曾

表了一些論著,但不算多,貢獻還

幣歷史不能回避的問題。先秦文獻

侯乙大墓的田野考古發掘工作。考

不夠大。

涉及貨幣的記載有限,需要依賴貨 幣實物進行研究,傳世的實物還不

古工作經常會遇到古文字材料,如 青銅器、竹簡、帛書之類,沒有古

二、我們知道,先秦時期經歷時

是很多,所以寄希望於不斷有新的

文字學基礎難以釋讀及解決有關問

間長,跨度大,離現在久遠,幾乎

貨幣實物發現,新的有關材料面世。

題。1978 年正好趕上研究生恢復招

沒有多少關於當時貨幣情況的記載。

生,我就報考了吉林大學古文字專

我們為什麼還要研究這個時期的貨

業的研究生,師從著名古文字學家

幣?有哪些困難點?

于省吾教授。1985 年初分配至武漢 大學任教。湖北是楚國歷史文化的

黃錫全:中國貨幣是世界貨幣發

發源地,地上地下文物極為豐富,

展史中的重要組成部分,歷史悠久,

教學之余偏重于楚史楚文化的研究。

源遠流長,研究中國乃至世界的經

1992 年,中國人民銀行成立了中國

濟、文化、科技、政治等諸多領域

錢幣博物館,需要研究人員,於是

離不開歷代貨幣,尤其是早期貨幣。

研究先秦貨幣還有不少問題與環 節不是很清楚,需要不斷的總結與 探究。目前的困難主要有:一是新 材料還不是很多;二是有些貨幣文 字一時還不能準確釋讀、理解;三 是各方面的研究還不夠深入。尤其 是對已經發現的涉及貨幣方面的材 料還缺乏系統的收集、整理與研究。

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THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS


Features 專題

三、先秦貨幣包括原始貨幣、金

代應該有鑄幣,目前能夠見到實物

屬稱量貨幣、金屬鑄幣等,對它們

者為商代後期。安陽殷墟出土的銅

的起源與發展以及貨幣歷史有何見

鑄貝是其物證。銅布幣來源於農具

解?

鏟,很可能萌芽于殷周時期。金、 銀屬於稱量貨幣,大約始於春秋中 黃錫全:先秦貨幣,就是秦始皇

期。黃金稱量貨幣有冶煉澆鑄的金

統一中國以前出現的貨幣,包括原

版、金餅、金貝等;白銀稱量貨幣

始貨幣、金屬稱量貨幣和金屬鑄幣

有冶煉澆鑄的銀鏟、銀版、銀餅,

等。原始貨幣即實物貨幣,就是由

及銀布幣、銀貝等,主要流通于楚,

那些經常處在流通中並成為主要交

並見於三晉及中山國等。

換對象的商品來充當。在我國先秦

實物貨幣——夏代或夏代以前, 距今約 4000 - 5000 年左右。

四、各種金屬鑄幣的分佈區域及 起止情況如何?需要在哪些方面開 展研究? 黃錫全:春秋戰國時期的社會變 革最為激烈,也是先秦貨幣中最為 多姿多彩的時期。中原的王室、三

時期,根據文獻和考古發現,以及

學術界或主張中國貨幣歷史應從

晉主要流行布幣,也流行圜錢和刀

學術界的研究,生產工具、糧食、

春秋鑄幣算起,或主張應從金屬稱

幣,如趙國。北方的燕和山東的齊

布帛、牲畜、皮革、齒角、龜殼、

量貨幣時算起,見仁見智。怎樣計

主要流行刀幣,後期伴行布幣和圜

珠玉、海貝等都充當過交換媒介。

算中國貨幣的歷史,還需要討論。

錢。南方的楚主要流行銅貝幣和金、

後來因交易不便,有的逐漸被淘汰。

我們認為,貨幣歷史應包括金屬貨

銀幣,以及布幣和銅錢牌。西方的

在中國,後來最主要的可能還是集

幣及實物貨幣兩個階段。談其歷史,

秦以流行圜錢為主。東南的吳越及

中在糧食、布帛、牲畜等和外來交

不能割斷實物貨幣階段。如以鑄幣

西南的巴蜀,當時也都處於大致相

換物品海貝上。由於實物貨幣多有

的出現劃線,似可將金屬鑄幣以後

同的社會發展階段,各自應具有不

缺點,或過於笨重,或不易分割,

的階段稱之為狹義的貨幣歷史階段,

同特點的貨幣,但目前的情況還不

或攜帶不便,或易於腐爛磨損,或

將原始貨幣或實物貨幣出現以後的

是很清楚,或以為青銅戈和橋形銅

供不應求,或不宜儲藏等,因此,

階段稱之為廣義的貨幣歷史階段。

器是當時使用的貨幣。戰國中期以 後,幣形、幣制逐漸向輕小便利的

隨著社會的發展和商品經濟的擴大, 夏代作為一個存在數百年的王

方向發展,圜錢成為最佳的形式,

朝,無論是國內經營還是對外交往,

各國紛紛鑄行圜錢。最後,秦以方

金屬貨幣是冶煉技術發明和提

如果沒有交換的中間媒介是不可想

孔圜錢“半兩”統一中國貨幣,為

高、生產工具發生劃時代變革以後

像的。根據上面論述,似可將實物

以後中國封建社會的經濟發展奠定

的產物。在我國,最先出現的金屬

貨幣(包括海貝)的時間暫且推定

了堅實的基礎。

貨幣是銅或青銅,先出現稱量貨幣,

在夏代或夏代以前的新石器時代晚

然後又發展為鑄幣。同時,隨著生

期(這一推測還要根據中國文明史

以貝幣、布幣、刀幣和圜錢四大

產力的發展和商品交換的擴大,具

的確認而定)。實物貨幣如可追溯

貨幣體系為主的青銅鑄幣自商末起

有很多優點的金和銀也成為貨幣的

至新石器時代晚期,與原始城市、

便先後逐漸產生和發展,形成了別

一種。

國家的出現、文明的起源相伴隨。

具特色的鑄幣文化。銅貝產生于商

似乎可以這樣認為,中國貨幣的歷

代,衰亡于戰國,楚國沿用至戰國

根據目前的材料,金屬稱量貨幣

史,就是一部中國經濟發展史,也

末年。布幣可能產生於春秋早期,

的出現只能推到商周,但其開始產

是中國文明史中的重要組成部分。

盛行于戰國中期前後,主要流通于

生很可能在夏代,而且還有可能發

當然,這個問題還可以深入討論。

周王室及三晉地區。刀幣大約產生

生在“銅石並用”時代,“只是簡

根據以上論述,目前似可將中國貨

於春秋中期以前,盛行至戰國晚期,

單的按重量交換罷了”。這是因為

幣歷史作如下估定:

主要流通于白狄、中山、燕、齊、

實物貨幣逐漸被金屬貨幣所取代。

趙等國,至秦統一被廢止。圜錢產

夏代的銅器製作已具有相當高的水 準,“銅石並用”時代已出現紅銅 和青銅,銅在當時應是非常貴重而 有價值的物品。金屬稱量貨幣一直 延續至春秋,早期與貝幣並行,晚 期與鑄幣並行。金屬鑄幣時期,大 致在奴隸制完全確立時期,估計夏

東 亞 泉 志

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THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS

金屬鑄幣——春秋早期前後,距 今約 2700 年左右 ;

生于戰國中期,主要流通于秦、三 晉及燕齊地區。秦統一後圜錢一直 成為中國古代鑄幣的主要形態,直

金屬稱量貨幣——商晚期前後,

至民國初年廢止。

距今約 3200 年左右 ; 有關先秦貨幣的研究方面,大家


Features 專題

可 側 重:1. 貨 幣 起 源 問 題;2. 金 屬

歧較大。又如,前幾年見到的一枚

收藏界如何進行理性收藏,怎樣辨

稱量貨幣的發現、分佈及有關問題;

圜錢,文字釋讀及文義不明。後來

別真偽,怎樣將收藏與研究有機地

3. 布幣的產生時間及各種形制布幣

清華大學藏戰國楚簡中出現了重要

結合起來,則是需要大家冷靜思考

的演變及相互關係問題;4. 刀幣起

資訊,我據此考證其為地名“環環

的問題。

源及各種刀幣的關係問題;5. 楚國

(bó)”,即“熒澤”,位於河北滑縣,

布幣與黃金貨幣問題;6. 圜錢的起

屬衛。遂撰寫了《解析一枚珍稀圜

我認為,收藏主要是陶冶情操、

源與流通問題;7. 各種地名貨幣與

錢—出土文獻、傳世文獻、古幣文

增長知識、為國家或民族保存文物。

歷史地理的關係問題;8. 秦始皇統

字互證之一例》,刊於清華大學《出

至於只是為了賺錢而去搞所謂的“收

一貨幣的作用問題,等等。

土文獻》第 4 輯,由中西書局 2013

藏”,那是少數,嚴格說,這種行

年刊出。有興趣者可以查閱。

為並不是真正的“收藏”,其與一 般所說的收藏品可以增值有本質的

五、能否談談先秦貨幣文字具有

不同。目前,錢幣收藏領域總的情

哪些特點,還有哪些不能釋讀?

況還算正常,但暴露出的某些現象 也令人擔憂,使不少收藏者感到困

黃錫全:先秦貨幣文字,是指鑄

惑。如有的人或公司為賺錢而刻意

或刻在先秦貨幣實物上的文字。這

炒作,急功近利,這種負面影響一

些實物質地包括銅、錫、鉛、金、

定程度影響到一般收藏者的積極性,

銀及玉、帛等,屬於中國古文字的

無形中助長了投機倒賣者的不法行

一個分支,一般歸屬于戰國文字研

為,也一定程度干擾了市場的正常

究範疇。其與同時代的璽印、陶文、 石刻、盟書、竹簡、帛書等類似, 具有較濃的時代特色。然因受到書 寫範圍的局限及國別不同,文字構 形有別等因素,增加了釋讀的困難。 我曾撰有《先秦貨幣文字形體特徵 舉例》,將有關特點大致歸納為:1. 形 體簡省;2. 變化形體;3. 借用筆劃;

秩序,影響了社會的和諧。

戰國“環 ”圜錢(正面),直 徑 43mm,重 13g

文集,大家可留意參閱。

相輔相成,有機結合。收藏者通過

民收藏之勢,對於錢幣收藏與研究

收藏,可以積累經驗,增長知識,

以及當今錢幣市場有何看法?

倘若沒有深入的研究,就難以辨別 真偽,不僅提高不了收藏的檔次,

黃錫全:錢幣收藏與其他收藏一 樣,也是一種高雅的文化活動。或 出於愛好,或為了學習某一方面的

目前發現的貨幣文字,經過古文

知識,或為了某種追求、達到某種

字學界的共同努力,多數已得到正

目的去收藏錢幣。不論結果如何,

確釋讀。餘下者,或字形不夠清晰,

其收藏活動客觀上增長了收藏者的

或簡省厲害一時難以確定,或新見

錢幣知識,宣傳了貨幣歷史文化,

之字一時不易釋讀,或文字能夠釋

促進了相關學術研究的深入。

讀但文義不明等,這些還有待新的 發現與相關文字材料提供新的資訊。

研究,而研究需要懂得收藏,二者

六、目前收藏不斷升溫,大有全

4. 筆劃穿出與收縮;5. 借筆、重形、 合書等,已收進我的《先秦貨幣研究》

收藏與研究不能等同。收藏需要

其實,收藏還是一門藝術,更是

比如,楚國布幣、銅幣上的文字,

一門學問。面對目前社會出現的“收

雖能夠釋讀,但對其含義理解則分

藏熱”及市場中一些不規範的現象,

而且還會造成較大的經濟損失。 在相當長的一段時間裡,研究錢 幣基本停留在對其形制、書體、重 量、金屬成色的考證上,屬於金石 學的範疇。事實上,我們透過歷代 錢幣實物,可以揭示歷史上若干現 象,不能單純的就錢論錢,而應該 與經濟學、金融學、考古學、歷史學、 古文字學、科學技術等方面結合起 來。只有這樣,以往一些難以明斷 的古錢才能得到科學的驗證和解釋。

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Column 專欄

35 Years Recollection of My Numismatic Career Chien Fu Chou (Taipei) Starting when I was young I have always had a passion for coin collecting. After trying out a few different jobs after graduating from school, I thought I would be very happy if my hobby could become my lifetime’s work. During this period, the Taiwan numismatic market was in its infancy and in 1980 a good opportunity arose when J.S. Lee approached to me to join his newly established Chi-chi Coins. I saw this as a good opportunity so began to work in his store; thus started my professional numismatic training. Coin collecting was very popular in Taiwan at that time. J.S. Lee was not only a prominent international coin dealer but also the most important figure in Taiwan’s numismatic community. I was able to inspect many rare and precious coins in his store which

J.S. Lee (R) with friends

J.S. Lee coin store ad.

helped to increase my knowledge of Chinese numismatics. Many older and more experienced numismatists also helped me to learn from their experiences. During this period, it was also very popular to exchange silver coins for electronic watches with the fishing boats from mainland China. Many bags of silver coins were bought by J.S. Lee. When the silver coins arrived at the store, I had to pick out the fakes, and often I found there were also some strange coins. Doing this work helped to increase my ability to identify coins and especially authenticate Chinese coins. With the numismatic skills I learned from working at the store during this period I started my own coin business and became a formal member of the Taiwanese numismatic community in 1984.

December 4, 2007 Taipei Fu Chin Coin & Stamp

China, even very low value items. This was the flourishing period of the numismatic market in Taiwan and I was proud

At this time, the cross strait trade was not open, so the

to be part of the Taiwan numismatic community. But the good

ancient cash coins and silver machine struck coins from the

times did not last long. By the end of 1984, the news of the

mainland were usually smuggled to Hong Kong and then

leading dealer of the Taiwan numismatic community, J.S.

sold to Taiwanese dealers. I often made trips between Hong

Lee, was bankrupt. The numismatic community of Taiwan

Kong and Taiwan to purchase these Chinese coins from the

was stunned. The after effect was a serious economic crisis in

mainland. Every September in Hong Kong, there was an

Taiwan’s numismatic market, as many senior collectors were

annual international numismatic auction and international numismatic exposition. Many of exhibitors were the most

stunned by this event, sold off their collections and stopped collecting. As an old Chinese saying goes, “Blessings never

important coin dealers from all over the world. The auction

come in pairs; misfortunes never come alone.” In 1985, the

room was often packed with many active floor bidders.

bankruptcy of Taipei's Number Ten Credit Cooperative caused

Bidders from Taiwan were often bidding against each other

a huge financial storm and Taiwan suffered from a depressed

for these rare Chinese coins (in the auction). Once the auction

economy, the situation of Taiwan’s numismatic community

lots closed, there was often loud applause in the auction room.

further deteriorated. Many collectors were disappointed and

And with the applause the foreign buyers in the auction room

lost their confidence. All of the numismatic markets were

always knew the final buyer was from Taiwan. During this

deserted and when there were a few who visited the market

period many foreign buyers noticed people from mainland

they were always sellers. Sometimes I bought some high grade

China trying to sell anything of value, and in this pursuit many

coins with nice eye appeal and condition at a low price, but I

Chinese culture items were sold; people from Taiwan were

still could not sell them for a profit and I often had to sell them

doing very well and purchased everything coming out from

at a loss to generate cash flow. Those days were most difficult

東 亞 泉 志

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Column 專欄 time for the Taiwan numismatic community. Many collectors gave up numismatics and got interested in other fields. I was also suffering from the high pressure of supporting my family, I started to have the idea to seek different career, but I couldn't give up what I love. So I started to work in a plastic injection company in the morning and operated my coin store in the afternoon. In that case I could feed my family and continue my coin business during this period, I once had a two-week period when my sales were zero; those difficult times lasted over three years. In 1979, China Gold Coin Incorporation (CGCI) was established under the supervision of the People’s Bank of

Hong Kong which actually focused on targeting the coin

December 5, 2007 (from L) Chung Haw Numismatic Society Chou Chien-fu, Chen Wentao, Hung Tzu-lin, Karl Stephens, Michael Chou, Bruce Smith

market in Taiwan. At that time it was illegal to officially

at all. As expected, the price of all coins increased in a great

China. CGCI was in charge of issuing Chinese modern gold and silver commemorative coins. In 1988, in order to expand oversea market, a new branch company of CGCI set up in

import modern Chinese coins into Taiwan, but the excellent design and quality of these coins attracted many Taiwan collectors. Slowly, the Taiwan numismatic market recovered from the depression. I felt that it was going to be the start of the recovery of the market. When I returned to the numismatic community I found most dealers and collectors were strangers to me. I tried to become CGCI’s exclusive distributor for the Taiwan region, and which I successfully obtained in 1989. Even though CGCI had many distributors all over the world, the distributor in Taiwan was extremely important. Taiwan collectors had the financial ability to purchase modern Chinese coins and many of modern Chinese coins were sold to Taiwan, Taiwan became one of the largest markets for Chinese modern gold and silver coins. In 1990, when I had an interview with Taiwan newspaper Min Sheng Daily ( 民 生 報 ), I predicted that these coins issued by CGCI would be repurchased by mainland buyers at a much higher price. While my prediction came true in the future the actual amount of the price appreciation was much higher than my expectation. In 1995, a small quantity of the coins was sold back to mainland. In 1996, Shanghai Everbright City, located opposite of the Shanghai Railway Station, had three floors devoted to coin dealers and

would be able to earn money. He did not worry about anything amount. Some items were manipulated and prices rose sharply without any reason. The market was totally a seller’s market. The seller with products was king, and the more supply, the higher the price. Later I found that the people from mainland lacked regular invest channels, so they took coin collecting as a way to invest. They bought coins but did not sell, because tomorrow there would be a much higher price than that of today. Collecting coins had even become an activity that attracted everyone; and of course it attracted the attention of the Shanghai Administration of Industry and Commerce (the Administration). It was on the eve of 1st July 1997 when Hong Kong returned to China, the Administration had interventions with the coin market. Fortunately my store was not open that day. It was said all coins from four stores at the mall were removed. After this news rapidly spread to the stamp and coin markets all over the country, and because there were so many people wanting to sell their coins, prices dropped sharply. The coin market returned to the point of origin. Even though the Chinese coin market experienced a huge rise and fall in this period, the increasing purchasing ability of mainland buyers could not be ignored.

collectors. I felt that the focus of the coin market would shift

In 1999, the coin and stamp markets of China recovered

from Taiwan to the mainland, so I rented a shop in the mall

slowly. At this period, its focus was ancient Chinese coins

and made frequent trips between Taiwan and China. As I

and the silver machine-struck coins from the Qing dynasty

expected, the coin and stamp markets in mainland China were

and early Republican China periods. In 2002, Hong Kong

in a bull market. In 1997, the stamp and coin mall was always

dealers came to Taiwan to purchase large numbers of Yuan

crowded, once the store made an announcement for a limited

Shih-kai’s portrait silver dollars; almost all the stock of the

sale of one item per person, people would wait in a long line

stores were bought out. Their next purchase target were

outside the store the next morning. One time, I also waited

senior collectors, the larger volume of coins, the higher the

in a line and asked the man in front of me if the price would

price required. Actually the final buyers of these coins were

rise a lot? He answered that once you bought the item you

from mainland China. In 2007, prices for ancient coins,

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Column 專欄 silver dollars, banknotes and Chinese modern gold and silver commemorative coins, all rose sharply and there was much speculation in the coin market. In 2008, the second generation of numismatists in my family entered into numismatics when my two sons formally entered into numismatics, too. My elder son did online auctions in Taipei; the younger son had a coin business in Shanghai. There were many young people from Taiwan and China entering into the field, just like the old Chinese saying “indigo is extracted from the indigo plant, but is bluer than the plant it comes from”; the old generation was being replaced by the new one. By conducting business over the internet, business increased with faster transactions. After 2010, the numismatic markets of Taiwan and mainland China were like raging horses, the auction companies continually broke price records. Some old collectors from Taiwan who wanted to sell their collection were amazed by the prices and the later one sold the higher the price one got. One time a dealer told me that his stock value increased after he came back from a

December 5, 2007 Chou Chien-fu(right) with Karl Stephens

more mature and steady. However, the online coin exchange companies became the showstoppers of the coin market, once these companies had a mishap the entire China numismatic field would be affected and it took a long time for the coin market to recover from the bust.

10-day holiday abroad. I assumed that the coin market was

Time has passed very fast. It has been more than 35 years

becoming disorderly again. In other collecting fields like

since I entered into numismatics professionally and now

Chinese antiques, jade, calligraphy and paintings, the price increased like a “triple jump”. Even many corrupt governors

I have retired. For my sons, I can only support them with

took illegally obtained money to purchase coins as a way to

China’s numismatic community has been interesting. Every

launder the cash. This was one of the main reasons why prices

time when I see a coin listed in a catalog it would remind me

became disconnected form the actual collector’s value in these

of so many stories. I remembered when the policy change

artworks.

permitted Taiwanese to visit their relatives in mainland China

After Mr. Xi Jinping became the president of China, he put a focus on rooting out government corruption, which quickly affected the Chinese artwork market. Prices started to come down and eventually the crazy game ended. The coin market remained quiet and prices dropped a lot. The crowds of people disappeared, and business decreased. Recently, I visited the Shanghai numismatic mall and was shocked that almost all the coin store owners were staring at computer screens. It was a new rising way to engage in the coin business called online offers. After I looked into it I got to know that the online numismatic market was set up the same as the stock

my professional numismatic knowledge. My 35-year life in

and I made a special trip to visit Ma Dingxiang, a numismatic expert in Shanghai, and had a happy three-day conversation with him. I had heard some funny stories and secrets about the early Shanghai numismatic community from him. I also learned much numismatic knowledge. Later I became acquainted with some coin dealers in Shanghai. In this period, the coin dealers and collectors from China knew less than those from Taiwan about the authenticity of coins and the market. We were very happy when we went together to seek for coins, because we can buy many favorable coins at a very cheap price.

market, you can sell and buy over the internet. But most coins

I remembered it was about 1988, when I became

exchanged online were ordinary and cheap. Once one type

acquainted with Michael Chou. I was so grateful to him for

of coin was listed in large quantities, there were people who

him bringing me into the world of western coin markets. In

started to speculate, so the price rose and dropped sharply.

this period, Michael Chou was a young man full of ambition

And because this was very profitable the number of such

and it seemed that he had endless questions about coins.

companies increased all the time, driving more and more coin

After the Journal of East Asian Numismatics was issued, he

dealers online. If the coin market runs in regular order, there are normal rises and falls. But as a Chinese saying goes:“fortune

established Champion Auction which gained a good reputation

knocks at least once at every man's gate”. After experiencing

important figure in Chinese numismatics and I am very

the booms and busts of this period, the coin market became

gratified for all of the achievements he obtained.

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in the China numismatic field. Michael has become a very


Column 專欄

三十五年錢幣生涯 周建福(臺北) 筆者從小就很喜歡錢幣,踏入社會嘗試了幾種工作之 後,心想如果能把嗜好當作終身行業那一定很幸福。而 當時台灣錢幣界也正是萌芽的階段,1980 年,J.S.Lee 所 開設的集集郵幣社剛好缺人手,這是難得的機會,筆者 毛遂自薦,順利地進入集集郵幣社接受專業訓練。當時 收藏錢幣的風氣非常鼎盛,又因 J.S.Lee 是國際錢幣界的 知名人士,也是台灣錢幣界的龍頭,所以筆者有幸能見 到很多很多珍稀錢幣,大開眼界,又經常有機會接受前 輩們的熱心教導,收益良多。當時流行台灣漁船,用電 子錶與大陸漁船交換銀元,一袋袋的銀元幾乎全部都賣 給了 J.S.Lee,只要錢幣一到,筆者就必須挑燈夜戰,把

李振興 (右) 與友人

李振興錢幣商鋪廣告

贗品挑出,裡面也常有奇怪的錢幣,從中不但增強了鑒 定能力,也增加了很多專業知識,進步神速。終於 1984 年學成開業正式成為台灣錢幣界的一份子,展開了錢幣 生意的啟程。 當時海峽兩岸還未開放,大陸古錢、銀元都走私於香 港再輾轉賣到台灣,所以筆者就經常港、台兩地跑。而 每年的 9 月初香港均有舉辦盛大的國際錢幣拍賣會及國 際錢幣展銷會,參展商都是世界各地的大幣商,場面浩 大而熱鬧。拍賣會上的中國珍貴錢幣常看到台灣同好互 相競標,落槌時也常聽到驚歎聲之後就一陣掌聲。外國 人都知道中國錢幣的最後買家一定是台灣人。常聽外國 人評論說,大陸窮得什麼都賣,都快把文化賣光了;台 灣很富有,連垃圾都快被買光了。這是台灣錢幣界的全

2007 年 12 月 4 日臺北福君郵幣社

盛時期,筆者也常以此為榮。但是好景不常,1984 年底, 台灣錢幣界龍頭 J. S. Lee 驚傳倒閉,同好之間頓失重心, 影響之巨,始料未及,尤其一些老前輩在傷心與灰心之餘, 紛紛賣出藏品,退隱江湖。古人常說福無雙至,禍不單 行。隔年,台灣社會爆發了眾所矚目的十信弊案,引發 金融風暴,重創了台灣的經濟,錢幣經營當然是雪上加 霜,仿佛從天堂到地獄。同好們哀嚎遍野,台灣所有的 錢幣商場冷冷清清,偶有客人上門均是賣家。有時筆者 認為品相難得,價格便宜,買了也套牢。畢竟剛剛開業, 資金有限,每賣必賠,這是台灣錢幣界最低潮的時期。 市場上同業紛紛轉業,筆者也面臨了生活的壓力,為了 養家糊口,不得已也有轉業的念頭。但是又放心不下對 錢幣喜歡的執着,所以折中,早上到一家塑膠射出的工 廠打工,下午回錢幣店顧店。做錢幣生意,曾有兩星期 營業額是零的記錄,這種辛苦的日子約有三年多的光景。

2007 年 12 月 5 日中華錢幣協會 左起:周建福、陳文濤、 洪子林 、Karl Stephens、 Michael Chou、Bruce Smith

因為中國錢幣不能公開進口,多了一層神秘感,又加上 錢幣圖案設計得非常精美,很快就俘獲台灣收藏家的心。

中國人民銀行於 1979 年設立中國金幣總公司,負責

台灣錢幣界漸漸起死回生,筆者有熬出頭的感覺。重回

發行中國當代金銀紀念幣的業務,直到 1988 年在香港成

戰場,發現台灣錢幣界大換血,不管業者與收藏家都是

立分公司負責推廣海外業務,其實重點是台灣錢幣市場,

一些生面孔。筆者也極力爭取中國金幣總公司的台灣代

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Column 專欄 理權,終於 1989 年取得台灣代理。雖然世界各地都有 代理商,但他們都看好台灣消費能力,大部分都賣到台 灣,台灣錢幣市場也成為中國金銀紀念幣的最大集散地。 1990 年,台灣媒體《民生報》專訪筆者時,筆者大瞻預測, 將來必會賣回大陸,屆時價錢肯定漲翻天,事後都被筆 者料中。但真正的漲幅,卻也在筆者預料之外。1995 年, 已經有少量回銷大陸。1996 年,上海火車站的對面,一 棟不夜城商廈淨空,四、五、六層向錢幣業者招商,筆 者感應到市場轉移的時候到了,不經思索馬上拿下個旺 鋪,開始海峽兩岸跑。果然點燃了大陸郵幣界的牛市。 1997 年,整個郵幣商場常被擠得水洩不通。店鋪只要預 告明天要賣某品種,限量,賣完為止,隔天一大早肯定 大排長龍。有一次筆者也去排隊,問前面那位老兄,這 品種將來會漲價嗎?這老兄竟回答,買了就賺,管他那 麼多。果然所有錢幣都漲價,其中有人坐莊的項目,價

2007 年 12 月 5 日周建福(右)與 Karl Stephens

大陸新一代的領導人習近平先生上任后,把工作重

錢都亂漲,完全進入賣方市場。有貨者為大爺,量愈大

點放在肅貪,藝術品市場有立竿見影的效果,馬上降溫。

價錢愈高,後來發現大陸缺少投資的管道,就把錢幣當

終於結束了幾近瘋狂的遊戲。錢幣市場恢復了平靜,價

作投資的工具。只買不賣,因為明天價錢肯定比今天高,

錢也跌了,人潮不見了,買賣少了。筆者最近去了大陸

所以幾乎變成了全民運動。這當然也引起了大陸工商局

的錢幣商場,發現每個老板眼睛都盯着電腦看,原來一

的注意,就在 1997 年 7 月 1 日香港回歸日的前夕出面干

個新興行業叫電子盤,深入了解,方知是把錢幣行情股

涉。那一天筆者剛好沒開店,據說有四家店的貨品被工

市化,可以有買進賣出,但是通常是一些非常普通便宜

商局全數扣押。消息馬上傳到全國郵幣市場,馬上降溫,

的錢幣,只要有量,有人炒作,價錢就會暴漲暴跌。因

回復之前的平靜。由於賣的人多,價錢就崩跌,一切回

為有利可圖,電子盤公司一直增加,熱衷的同業也愈來

到原點。雖然經歷了此次的暴漲暴跌,但也確立了大陸

愈多。筆者個人的解讀這就是炒作。如果錢幣市場正常

的買盤實力是不可忽視的。

營運以前的經驗,市場有好有壞,十年河東十年河西, 經過這次的興衰,只會讓市場更成熟,更穩健。但經過

1999 年大陸的郵幣市場又慢慢有了熱度,這次是古

電子盤的攪局,一旦電子盤公司出事,可能會造成錢幣

錢,還有清末民初的銀元登場。2002 年就有香港的業者

界更大的傷害了,對於將來錢幣市場的復甦,就更遙遙

跑來台灣大量收購袁大頭,每家店的庫存都被賣光。再

無期了。

來向收藏大戶購買,量愈大價錢愈高。其實真正最後的 買家在大陸。2005 年後,袁大頭、船洋、開國紀念幣,

筆者進入錢幣界一轉眼已經過了卅五個年頭了,現

價錢暴漲。國際錢幣拍賣公司的中國珍稀錢幣競標者開

在也已經退休了,對初涉者也只能提供專業知識的協助,

始變成大陸業者及收藏家,成交價也都創新紀錄。2007

覺得 35 年的過程是精彩的。每次看到拍賣目錄的每一個

年,古錢、銀元、紙幣、當代金銀紀念幣價格同步大漲。

錢幣,都可回憶很多故事。記得兩岸剛開放探親,筆者

市場的熱度愈炒愈高,2008 年過後,一些錢幣界的第二

曾專程拜訪大陸錢幣專家馬定祥先生。在上海與他老人

代有如春筍般的冒出。筆者的兩個犬子也正式進入錢幣

家暢談了三天,了解早期上海錢幣界的一些趣事與秘辛,

界。哥哥在台北發展網拍生意,弟弟進軍上海錢幣界最

也從馬老先生身上得到不少錢幣知識,後來也認識了上

前線奮鬥,同時兩岸都有一批年輕的生力軍投入市場,

海的幣商。當時他們對於錢幣的真假及行情都沒有台灣

青出於藍而勝于藍,真是長江後浪推前浪。 通過電腦,

清楚。所以每約好看錢幣時,心情都很興奮的,因為都

生意做得比以前更大,成交變得更快。2010 年後的兩岸

可以很便宜買到很滿意的錢幣。

錢幣市場,有如脫韁的野馬,拍賣公司落槌屢創新紀錄。 台灣老收藏家想賣藏品聽到價錢都目瞪口呆,愈晚賣價

還記得約 1988 年認識邁可先生,感謝他帶領筆者進

錢愈高。曾聽一個同業說,他出國旅行 10 天,回家說資

入西方的錢幣世界。當時他是一個很有企圖心的小伙子,

產又增加了。居安思危,筆者認為行情已經脫序了。其

永遠有問不完的錢幣問題。後來眼看他創辦《東亞泉志》

他的藝術品如古董、玉器、字畫等據說價錢也是三級跳。

雜誌之後更創立冠軍拍賣公司,得到不錯的口碑,在錢

更據說是有很多貪官把黑錢拿來投資與洗錢,所以才爆

幣界也確立了舉足輕重的地位,對筆者來說,是值得欣

發這些藝術品價值脫序的現象。

慰的。

東 亞 泉 志

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A Scarce Biak Note Issued by the American Red Cross Fred Schwan (USA) American Red Cross in World War II Collectors' Guide (2014, BNR Press) by Jim Aitken, Garry Arva, and Kathy Freeland lists a very interesting note from Biak Island. Unless you have the book, you probably have not only never heard of the note, but also have never heard of the island. Biak was described as a land “where nobody ever goes, where the sun seldom shines and dogs bark at strangers.” Commercial Solvents Corporation used these words during World War II in a magazine advertisement to describe Biak Island. Biak is a 45 by 23 mile island just north of New Guinea. It was taken by the Japanese in 1942 then the site of intense fighting in May and June 1944 when it was retaken. As far as I can determine, no issues from Biak were previously listed in any numismatic catalog, have ever been sold in an auction, or have never been graded by, well, anyone.

Biak Island volleyball game

This amazing and wonderful note has been in the collection of a collector, himself a World War II veteran, for many years. He sent me a photocopy of it more than a few years ago, but only recently was I able to visit him, examine the note, and get a good image of it. The note is very crude as we should expect. The design was hand drawn then reproduced on low quality brown paper. The image at the center is of a ship approaching the viewer.

Biak red cross canteen

Biak Island Red Cross

The denomination is five dollars which is in the top corners and reinforced by the slang “one fin” that was much more common in the 1940s than today.

The ends of the note are heavily tape stained clearly indicating that this note was at one time part of a “short snorter.” That souvenir use probably saved this piece from destruction--thank you tape!

The most critical legends are “Biak Island” left and “Red Cross” right. Obviously, this legend is how we know that this note was for Biak Island and issued by the [American] Red Cross (ARC). This might seem strange until you know that the Red Cross operated many hundreds of clubs for soldier, sailor, airman, and marine recreation across all theaters of the war. For confirmation, George Korson in his very important

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1945 At His Side the Story of the American Red Cross Overseas in World War II mentions in two different places that the Red Cross was at Biak. Unfortunately, he does not provide any specifics of activities there. If we think that Biak sounds like a strange name, consider this. In the same sentence where Korson first mentions Biak, he also mentions Lae, Salamaua, Wau, Finchhafen, Saidor, Aitape, Wakde, Noemfoor and Sansafor as places in the area of Biak where the Red Cross operated. Does that mean that we have more notes to find? Of course I hope so. What was the purpose of the note? There are only a few possibilities. The most obvious, but least likely, is that it was a local emergency currency issue. In the European Theater of Operations various notes, chits, and the like were created for use in commerce. There is a keen group of collectors for these issues, but I do not know of any ARC monetary issues for the south Pacific. It is possible that the note was created for a party event like a casino night where the notes could be used instead of money. Finally, it is possible that it was intended as a souvenir. I believe that this is the most likely purpose of the Biak note. Since there were no local notes for use in making short snorters such souvenirs might well have been popular. It is likely that making short snorters was a common activity at the Red Cross clubs (although more common and popular where alcohol was served), and it is altogether reasonable that the Red Cross girls could have created the notes for no other purpose. No matter what the original reason of creation was, we have seen that the note made its way into, and was likely saved by, a short snorter.

Further Reading Riegelman, Harold. Caves of Biak. Dial Press, New York, 1955.

Korson, Geroge. At His Side the Story of the American Red Cross Overseas in World War II. Coward-McCann, New York, 1945.

About the author

Fred Schwan is a serious and long time numismatist. He specializes in the World War II numismatics. He is

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Biak Island Short Snortet

Have you gotten the idea that I really like this note? Yes indeed, I do. In the sense of most numismatic issues it can be argued that this note is not so important. Ever the contrarian, I think that this note, and items like it, are more important than the better-known pieces. This note was there. It was on that remote, all but forgotten island where men fought and died. Unfortunately (and correctly), this note will never be listed in the standard catalogs because it (probably) was not a monetary issue. Heck, even in our 1995 World War II Remembered it would not have been listed--even if we knew of it-because it was outside our stated scope. If we can ever get another edition finished, we will include the Biak note, It will still likely be outside the stated scope, but I feel much less bound by stated scopes and the like than I did in 1995. Are there other Biak items? Let me be more clear. Are there more Biak numismatic items? Since learning about the Biak note, I became a Biak fan. I have been fortunate to find some important World War II photographs taken at Biak and I have read much about the fighting there. For as small and out of the way as Biak seems to be it also seems to be over represented on World War II short snorters. I really like these items, they just scream "I was there".

the author of hundreds of articles on his speciality and other items. He is also the author or coauthor of standard numismatic references: World War II Remembered, Comprehensive Catalog of Military Payment Certificates, World War II Savings Bonds and Stamps. He and his books have won many prestigious awards from the International Bank Note Society, Numismatic Literary Guild and American Numismatic Association. He is the American Numismatic Association 2015 Numismatist of the Year.


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一張罕見的比亞克島紙鈔 弗瑞德 • 施萬(美國) 由 Jim Aitken、Garry Arva 和 Kathy Freeland 聯 合 編 著、2014 年 BNR 出版社出版的《二戰時期美國紅十字 會錢幣收藏指南》(American Red Cross in World War II Collectors' Guide )一書中列出了一張來自比亞克島 (Biak Island) 的紙鈔。如果沒有讀過此書,您可能都沒有聽說 過這張紙鈔和比亞克島。 比亞克島“人跡罕至,終年難見陽光”,商用溶劑公 司 (Commercial Solvents Corporation) 曾在二戰期間的一 個雜誌廣告中用這樣的字眼描述比亞克島。 比亞克島長 45 英里(約 72 公里),寬 23 英里(約 37 公里),位於新幾內亞島以北。1942 年被日本佔領, 1944 年 5-6 月被夺回,戰亂不斷。據我所知,來自比亞 克島的錢幣或紙鈔從未出現在錢幣目錄中,也沒有現身 拍賣會,更沒有被評級。

比亞克島的排球比賽

這張紙鈔被一位藏家收藏多年,他曾是二戰老兵。多 年前,他發給我一張紙鈔的複印件,不過直到最近我才 拜訪他看到了這張紙鈔,并拍了一張清楚的照片。 不出所料,這張紙鈔算不上精美,手繪的圖案,劣 質的棕黃色紙張印刷。圖案中間是迎面駛來的一艘船, 上方左右兩端書面值“5 美元”,中間再以“一分(one fin)”強化面值,此種做法在 20 世紀 40 年代很普遍。

比亞克島的紅十字食堂

比亞克島紅十字會 5 美元

紙鈔左右兩邊有嚴重的膠水粘過的痕跡,這清楚表 明這張紙鈔應是一連串簽名紙鈔中的其中一張,因為有 膠水粘在一起,所以可能才使這張紙鈔免於毀壞,真是 萬幸! 這張紙鈔上最重要的文字是左右兩邊的“比亞克島” 和“紅十字會”。顯然,這些文字告訴我們這張紙鈔

是美國紅十字會為比亞克島發行的。如果不了解美國紅 十字會,可能覺得這個事實有點奇怪。事實是,二戰期 間美國紅十字會在所有戰區都設有俱樂部,便於陸海空 士兵修養。George Korson 在其 1945 年的著作《二戰期 間美國紅十字會海外軼事》(At His Side the Story of the American Red Cross Overseas in World War II ) 中兩處提到 美國紅十字會位於比亞克島,遺憾的是,他沒有提及美

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國紅十字會在那的具體活動。 如果您覺得比亞克島聽起來比 較陌生的話,那再來看看這幾個地 點。 同 一 句 話 中,Korson 先 提 到 了比亞克島,還提到了比亚克岛上 的 其 他 地 方: 萊 城 (Lae)、 薩 拉 毛 亞 (Salamaua)、 瓦 烏 (Wau)、 芬 什 港 (Finschhafen)、赛多尔 (Saidor)、 艾塔佩 (Aitape)、韦瓦克 ( Wakde)、 农 福 尔 岛 (Noemfoor) 和 桑 薩 坡 (Sansafor) 等,美國紅十字會在這些 地方都有休養所。那麼,這是否意 味着將會發現更多的紙鈔呢?希望 如此!

比亞克島一連串簽名紙鈔其中一張五角背面

發行這些紙鈔的目的何在呢?只有幾種可能。最明顯 但又最不可能的是,這是當地應急發行的紙鈔。在歐洲 戰區,各種紙鈔、代金券等都是商用。很多藏家熱衷收 藏這類藏品,但是我不知道美國紅十字會為南太平洋地 區發行過的任何紙鈔或錢幣。 另一種可能是為賭博之夜等派對活動而發行的代金 券。還有一種可能是紀念品,筆者認為這是發行比亞克 島紙鈔最有可能的目的。 當地沒有發行的紙鈔可以製作一連串紙鈔,所以這 樣的紀念品就非常流行。原因可能是製作一連串的紙鈔 在紅十字會俱樂部是非常常見的(在喝酒的地方,這種 活動更常見、更流行),因而紅十字會護工製作這張紙 鈔也沒有其他目的。且不論製作這張紙鈔的初衷是什麼, 事實是這張紙鈔成為一連串紙鈔中的一張,并被保存下 來。

的確如此。綜合發行的大多數紙鈔來看,可能會認為這 張紙鈔不怎麼重要。但我恰恰認為這張紙鈔比其他更有 名的紙鈔還重要。這張紙鈔是毫無爭議的存在。它在地 處偏遠、幾乎被人遺忘的一座島上使用,這裡曾有戰亂 和傷亡。很遺憾,它們從未在錢幣標準目錄中出現,(可 能是)因為它不屬於發行的貨幣。即使在 1995 年我參與 編撰的《二戰追憶錄》(World War II Remembered ) 中也 沒有列出這些紙鈔,因為它不屬於指定的範疇,所以即 使知道它的存在,也沒有將其列出。如果再版,將把這 張紙鈔列出,可能它仍不屬於指定的範疇,不過我覺得 比 1995 年的限制少多了。 比亞克島還有其他東西嗎?確切地說,還有其他錢幣 或紙鈔嗎?研究比亞克島紙鈔后,我對比亞克島越來越 癡迷。我剛好找到了幾張二戰期間在比亞克島拍攝的照 片,也閱讀了很多那裡的戰爭資料。比亞克島地處偏遠, 看似不起眼,但是卻發行了大量的這種一連串紙鈔。我 非常喜歡,它們仿佛在吶喊:“我是歷史的見證!”

說了這麼多,看出我很喜歡這張紙鈔了吧?沒錯,

延伸閱讀

作者簡介

Harold Riegelman 著《 比 亞 克 島 洞 穴 》(Caves of Biak ),1955 年紐約 Dial Press 出版社。

弗瑞德 • 施萬,資深錢幣學家,專業研究二戰錢幣和 紙鈔,并在該領域和其他方面發表過幾百篇文章。他曾 編撰或合著了以下錢幣學參考書目: 《二戰追憶錄》(World War II Remembered )、《 軍 用 券 大 全》(Comprehensive Catalog of Military Payment Certificates ) 和《二戰儲蓄公 債和郵票》(World War II Savings Bonds and Stamps )。

Geroge Korson 著《二戰期間美國紅十字會海外軼事》

(At His Side the Story of the American Red Cross Overseas in World War II ),1945 年紐約 Coward-McCann 出版社。

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他的著作先後獲得了國際紙鈔協會、錢幣學文獻公會 和美國錢幣學會的多次嘉獎。2015 年獲選美國錢幣學會 年度人物。


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Sapeque and Sapeque-Like Coins in Cochinchina and Indochina Howard A. Daniel III (USA) I am working on the third edition of my French Southeast Asia Coins & Currency catalog and was checking my cross-references, to include World War II Remembered by Fred Schwan & Joe Boling. I was reading the text about the zinc 1/4 Cent coin minted in Osaka for French Indochina when what Joe Boling wrote there made me want to write this article. He wrote: This coin was made in Japan for Indochina but why this particular denomination is a mystery. It is also too early for this alloy: Japan did not start coining in tin-zinc until 1944. The second question is about the metal and the answer is; Indochina ordered the coin in zinc. The French and the Vietnamese often used zinc in their coinage during bad

They were accepted by the French and the foreign merchants at 600 to 1000 to a Mexican or Spanish 8 Reals (1 Piastre) depending on their weight and metal (zinc, tin and/ or copper). For the local people, low value coins were perfect for their use. But a French and/or foreign merchant in Saigon was likely dissatisfied with the Vietnamese Sapeques. He had several 1870-dated patterns minted by Dietrich Uhlhorn. The Tu Duc Thong Bao merchants was close for a foreigner not skilled in writing it. The 4 grams weight was likely made to match the Vietnamese 10 Phan weight of 3.7783 grams, which was the official “full” weight for their cash-style coins, but it was probably too expensive to mint and ship from Europe to Saigon.

times. The first question is why this particular denomination? The Vietnamese (& Lao and Cambodian) people used very low value coins in their economy down at the hamlet and village level. Coins higher than 5 Cents were rarely needed by them except when paying their annual head or other taxes to the French. The following is a description of the low value coins available to them. Emperor Tu Duc was ruling Dai Viet (Viet Nam later) when the French (and Spanish) military started attacking his country from 1858. In 1862, France forced him to cede the southern third to them, which they renamed the Colony of Cochin-China. The emperor’s cast cash-style coins (Sapeques in French) were in circulation at that time.

Daniel Collection KM-Unlisted/Lec-1

This private effort was dropped, but Saigon’s need for their own Sapeque must have been strong. 10,000 of the 1,000,000 of the 1875-K 1 Centime coins brought to Saigon to circulate with their French Francs and Centimes coins were holed at the Saigon Arsenal. When holed, this coin weighed less than 1 gram and it was rejected by the Vietnamese so the process was halted.

Daniel Collection KM-1/Lec-2

Then the French created their own 1879-dated CochinChine Sapeque coins and circulated them at 500 to 1 piastre. They must have been forced onto the Vietnamese when paid for their goods or services because they still preferred their own Emperor Tu Duc cast coins even though they were valued at 600 to 1000 to 1 Piastre, which was lower value than the French Sapeques. Courtesy of Art-Hanoi.com Barker-103

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Column 專欄 weights. Each was assigned a value against the 1 Piastre. It was likely a confusing time and many poor people were likely cheated by the money changers.

Daniel Collection Cochinchina KM-2/ Lec-9

Daniel Collection Indochina KM-2/Lec-5

In 1896, the French reduced the weight and size of their 1 Cent coin, and holed it to be Sapeque-like. Most Westerners do not know that Vietnamese coins were holed to be strung and carried on a belt or pole because the early East Asian clothes did not have pockets. This 1 Cent coin was 100 to 1 Piastre and it allowed the people to more easily accumulate enough to pay their taxes.

After Emperor Khai Dinh took his throne in Hue in 1916, Hanoi must have halted or reduced the funds to cast his own Sapeque cast coins. Within three to four years, the number of coins he was minting did not satisfy the needs of the Vietnamese people. So another committee was formed in Hanoi and they decided to mint a copper-alloy Sapeque coin with Khai Dinh Thong Bao on it.

Courtesy of Jean Lecompte B-109.4/Lec-26

Daniel Collection KM-8/Lec-50

The French apparently gave in to the Vietnamese and stopped minting their Cochin-China, then Indo-China (with hypen), Sapeques in 1902, but some in Saigon and Hanoi did not want to give up. A committee decided a zinc, instead of copper-alloy, Sapeque, valued at 600 to 1 Piastre would be better than their previous copper-alloy Sapeque valued at 500 to 1 Piastre. The new French zinc Paris-minted Sapeques were dated 1905 but were not put into circulation until 1906. They easily corroded and broke when handled so the Vietnamese and the French did not like or use them and their issue was halted. But the French government was still not giving up on controlling all of the coins circulating in Cochin-China and Indo-China.

Daniel Collection KM-1/Lec-3

After Emperor Tu Duc and before Emperor Khai Dinh, there were also Emperors Kien Phuc, Ham Nghi, Dong Khanh, Thanh Thai, and Duy Tan. These emperors also issued cast cash-style coins of different metals and different

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They were minted in a factory in Haiphong and weighed 2.50 grams each. This was heavier than the old French Sapeques at 2.05 grams valued at 500 to 1 Piastre but these new coins were also valued at 500 to 1 Piastre. They were apparently accepted by the Vietnamese because the first variety had a mintage of over 27 million and the second variety had a mintage of 200 million!

Courtesy of Jean Lecompte B-109.6/Lec-27

The first variety was minted in 1921 and the second started in 1922. The French issued a Paris Mint holed coppernickel Indochina (no hypen) 5 Cents coin in 1923. At 20 to 1 Piastre, this would have been a high value Sapeque-like coin to the local people in their marketplaces, but was likely another coin to accumulate for them to pay their annual head tax to the French.

Daniel Collection KM-18.1a/Lec-121

Emperor Khai Dinh died in his palace in Hue of tuberculosis in 1925. His son, Prince Vinh Thuy, was brought


Column 專欄 back from France, where he was being educated, and named his father’s successor in 1926 with the new name of Bao Dai. The young Emperor Bao Dai was sent back to France and a regent and a council functioned in his place. Emperor Khai Dinh’s second variety coin had a mintage of over 200 million coins, so it was very likely minted well after his son was named emperor. It was normal for a son to honor his King or Emperor father by continuing his father’s coins. Bao Dai was also not in Hue during that time and returned to the palace in September 1932.

B-110.7 (Lge Chars) Courtesy of Dr. R. Allan Barker

B-110.8 (Short Dai) Courtesy of Dr. R. Allan Barker

Sometime during 1933, Emperor Bao Dai began casting his own 3.2 gram cash-style coins and the French started minting his Sapeque coins at the same time. His Frenchminted coins weighed 1.36 grams so they were likely valued at 1000 to 1 piastre. There are also two major varieties of his coins; one with a large Dai character and the other with a small Dai.

B-110.10/Lec-29 (reg Dai) B-110.11/Lec-Unlisted (Sml Dai) Courtesy of Dr. R. Allan Barker

The French never stopped trying to create their own Sapeque-like coin and issued a holed 1/2 Cent coin in 1935, which was valued at 200 to 1 Piastre. This was somewhat close to the needs of the local people but not close enough, so the Emperor Bao Dai coins continued to be minted and valued at 1000 to 1 Piastre.

Daniel Collection KM-20/Lec-33

Copper is a critical military metal. So the minting of Emperor Bao Dai’s coins likely stopped in Haiphong soon after the Japanese arrived there in 1940. The Japanese started stockpiling all military metals there for shipment to Japan, to include Vietnamese and French coins. The French 1/2 Cent coin was changed to zinc in 1939 and 1940, then they were no longer shipped from Paris.

Daniel Collection KM-20a/Lec-35

So other Sapeque-like coins were needed satisfy the needs of the Vietnamese. They would be the zinc holed 1/4 Cent (400 to 1 Piastre) and 1 Cent coins like the previous 1/2 Cent coin. The 1 Cent coin was minted in Hanoi but the 1/4 Cent was minted at the Osaka Mint in Japan. Because of higher priority shipping of military materials, the 1/4 Cent coins did not arrive in time to be issued.

Daniel Collection KM-31/Lec-24

Daniel Collection KM-24/Lec-105

Inflation raised the cost of all goods and services because of the war. A small aluminum 1 Cent coin replaced the larger zinc 1 Cent coin, and a small aluminum 5 Cents coin also replaced the larger copper-nickel 5 Cents coin minted at the Paris Mint. These coins saw only one year of low mintages, and became the last French-holed Sapeque-like coins for the Vietnamese.

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Column 專欄 put back together, but that does not mean they never existed or were not permitted.

Daniel Collection KM-26/Lec-110

Daniel Collection KM-27/Lec-122

Inflation grew as the war continued and all coins were replaced with paper. The lowest denomination was 5 Cents but it, and the 10, 20 and 50 Cents, could be torn in half to make lower denominations! They could circulate as halves but when deposited in a bank or paid for goods or services in a government facility, two halves had to be taped or glued together to spend them. The practice of tearing a note in half was also allowed for the Piastre denominations, and it continued into the French (Associated) State of Viet Nam, the independent State of Viet Nam, and the Republic of Viet Nam. The author has never see a Democratic Republic of Viet Nam note torn in half and

The Democratic Republic of Viet Nam had declared independence from the French on September 2, 1945, and started issuing their own coins and notes in early 1946 in denominations of 20 Xu, 5 Hao, 1 Dong and 2 Dong. None of these coins were holed! The French and the Democratic Republic started fighting the French Indochina War in late 1946. After the war started, the Democratic Republic found old Vietnamese cash-style coins were still circulating in remote Bac Bo (Northern Region) and Trung Bo (Central Region) areas because of a lack of Xu, Hao and Đong coins. There was a need for low value coins but it is likely the people were also still quite attached to their old cash-style coins. Democratic Republic of Viet Nam Decree 51/SL of January 6, 1947 officially set the exchange rate at 20 cashstyle coins equaling 1 Dong, which made them 5 Xu coins until April 13, 1948! There is no record yet found of the other Vietnamese governments allowing cash-style coins to circulate. The last year a cash-style coin officially circulated in Việt Nam or anywhere in Asia was in 1948.

References Barker, R. Allan, The Historical Cash-Coins of Viet Nam, Self-published, Singapore, ISBN 978-9810523008, 2004, 416 pages (B). Cuhaj, George S. & Tom Michael, Standard Catalog of World Coins, 19th Century, Krause Publications, Iola, Wisconsin, ISBN 978-1440245244, 2015, 1294 pages (KM).

-, Standard Catalog of World Coins, 20th Century, Krause Publications, Iola, Wisconsin, ISBN 9781440244094, 2015, 2352 pages (KM). Daniel, Howard A., III, Democratic Republic of Viet Nam Coins & Currency, The Southeast Asian Treasury, Dunn Loring, Virginia, ISBN 978-1879951013, 2016, 210 pages (D).

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-, French Southeast Asia Coins & Currency, The Southeast Asian Treasury, Dunn Loring, Virginia, (ISBN 978-1879951---draft), 2017, 300+- pages (D). Lecompte, Jean, Monnaies et Jetons de l’Indochine Francaise, Editions Gadoury, Monaco, ISBN 9782906602427, 2013, 168 pages (Lec). Schwan, C. Frederick & Boling, Joseph E., World War II Remembered, BNR Press, Port Clinton, Ohio, ISBN 9780931960406, 1995, 784 pages (SB).


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交趾支那和印度支那穿孔錢幣 霍華德 • 丹尼爾三世(美國) 目前,我正在編寫《法屬東南亞錢幣和紙鈔》 (第三版)

圓形穿孔錢幣被法國人和外國商人所接受,因錢幣重

目錄, 參考 Fred Schwan 和 Joe Boling 合著的 《二戰追憶錄》

量和材質(鋅、錫和 / 或銅)不同,大約 600 - 1000 枚兌

(World War II Remembered ) 一書時,針對書中大阪造幣

換一枚墨西哥或西班牙 8 雷亞爾(1 皮阿斯特)。對於

局為法屬印度支那鑄造 1/4 分鋅幣一事以及 Joe Boling 書

當地人而言,小面值的錢幣用起來太方便了,但是在西

中所提的時間,筆者恰巧略有研究,故執筆寫下此文,

貢(前南越首都)的一位法國人(也是外國商人)卻可

以饗同好。

能對這種錢幣頗有不滿。

書中寫道:“此幣是日本為印度支那而造,但為何面

他手上有幾枚由德國工程師烏亨(Dietrich Uhlhorn,

值是 1/4 生丁呢?再者,日本開始製造錫鋅合金錢幣始

發明了壓印機)鑄造的 1870 年錢幣樣幣。“嗣德通寶”

於 1944 年,因而當時出現這種合金還為時尚早吧?”第

四字可能爲不擅長書法的外國人所寫,重 4 克,可能是

二個問題是關於錢幣材質的,答案是印度支那預訂的錢

爲了與越南的 10 盾、重 3.7783 克(圓形穿孔錢幣的官

幣使用鋅製造。當時的法國和越南(安南)在困難時期

方十足重量)匹配,不過可能造價太高,而且從歐洲運

常使用鋅製造錢幣。

至西貢費用也高。

那麼,第一個問題,為何是 1/4 生丁面值呢?當時的 越南(和老撾、柬埔寨)人民在經濟不景氣的時候使用 很小面值的錢幣。面值大於 5 生丁的錢幣很少使用,只 在每年向法國人支付人頭稅或其他稅時才使用。下文是 當地人使用的小面值錢幣的描述。 嗣德帝統治大越國(即後來的越南)期間,1858 年起,

丹尼爾收藏,KM 未列出,Lec-1

法國(和西班牙)開始侵略越南。1862 年,法國迫使嗣 德帝割讓南方的印度支那三國,並將其重新命名爲交趾

支那。當時的流通貨幣是翻砂鑄造、上書皇帝紀年的圓 形穿孔錢幣。

因而此人私鑄錢幣的做法擱淺了,但是西貢當地對鑄 造自有銅錢的需求是很強烈的。 1875 年 1 生丁銅錢發行量 100 萬枚,其中 1 萬枚與 法國法郎同時在西貢流通,不過這些銅錢先在西貢兵工 廠穿孔。穿孔後,銅錢重量不足 1 克,越南人拒絕使用, 於是擱置。

丹尼爾收藏,KM-1/Lec-2 之後,法國人自己鑄造了 1879 年交趾支那穿孔銅錢, 流通時以 500 枚兌換 1 皮阿斯特。不過,法國人可能是 強迫越南人在購買商品或支付服務費時使用這種銅錢, 因爲越南人還是傾向使用本國製造的嗣德通寶銅錢,儘 管 600-1000 枚嗣德通寶才能兌換 1 皮阿斯特(面值比法 Art-Hanoi.com 友情提供圖片,Barker-103

國人製造的銅錢小)。

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Column 專欄 嗣德皇帝之後,越南先後經歷了建福 (Kien Phuc)、 咸 宜 (Ham Nghi)、 同 慶 (Dong Khanh)、 成 泰 (Thanh Thai)、維新 (Duy Tan) 和啓定 (Khai Dinh) 的統治。他們 在位期間,也發行了使用不同材質、重量不等的穿孔錢 丹尼爾收藏,交趾支那銅錢 KM-2/ Lec-9

幣。面值均是與 1 皮阿斯特掛鉤。這樣可能容易造成困惑, 很多窮人或許兌換錢時被騙。 1916 年,啓定帝在順化繼位後,河內停止或減少了 鑄造穿孔錢幣的基金。不到三四年,錢幣數量不能滿足 民衆的使用需求。於是,另一家委員會在河內成立,並 決定鑄造銅合金銅錢,書“啓定通寶”。

丹尼爾收藏,印度支那銅錢 KM-2/Lec-5

1896 年,法國人減少了 1 生丁錢幣的重量和大小, 形似穿孔銅錢。大多數西方人不瞭解的是,越南發行的 銅錢穿孔是爲了穿繩便於攜帶,因早期東亞的服飾沒有 設計口袋。新式的 1 生丁錢幣是 100 枚兌換 1 皮阿斯特, 也便於大量積攢用於付稅。

Jean Lecompte 友情提供圖片,B-109.4/Lec-26 “啓定通寶”銅錢在海防的一家工廠裏鑄造,每枚 重 2.50 克,這比舊式的法國銅錢(重 2.05 克,500 枚兌 換 1 皮阿斯特)重,不過仍是 500 枚兌換 1 皮阿斯特。 第一版發行了 2700 萬枚,第二版發行了 2 億枚,從而可 見越南人對“啓定通寶”銅錢是樂意接受的。

丹尼爾收藏,KM-8/Lec-50 法國人最後還是向越南人妥協了,1902 年,法國停 止了鑄造交趾支那以及後來的印度支那(英文單詞中有 連接符)的銅錢,不過在西貢和河內還是有人不願放棄。 一個委員會決定使用鋅取代銅合金製造銅錢,600 枚兌換 1 皮阿斯特,比之前 500 枚銅合金銅錢兌換 1 皮阿斯特要 好。

Jean Lecompte 友情提供圖片,B-109.6/Lec-27 第一版“啓定通寶”鑄造於 1921 年,第二版始於

鋅製銅錢由法國巴黎造幣廠鑄造,紀年爲 1905 年,

1922 年。1923 年,法國發行了巴黎造幣廠穿孔的印度支

不過實際流通是在 1906 年,鋅幣很容易腐蝕和損壞,因

那(英文單詞中間無連接號)銅鎳合金 5 生丁錢幣,20

而越南人和法國人不喜歡使用鋅幣,因而停止發行。不過,

枚兌換 1 皮阿斯特。這對當地人來說是大面值的穿孔錢

法國政府沒有放棄控制交趾支那和印度支那的所有錢幣。

幣,不過也可能成爲當地人支付法國人人頭稅的錢幣。

丹尼爾收藏,KM-1/Lec-3

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丹尼爾收藏,KM-18.1a/Lec-121


Column 專欄 1925 年,啓定帝因肺結核在順化皇宮駕崩,在法國

法國人從未停止鑄造穿孔錢幣的步伐,1935 年發行

留學的永瑞太子被接回國,1926 年繼承皇位,年號保大。

了 1/2 生丁穿孔銅錢,200 枚兌換 1 皮阿斯特。這幾乎能

後來,年輕的保大帝被送回法國,一位攝政大臣和議事

滿足當地民衆的需求,但還不夠,所以繼續鑄造“保大

會代其執政。

通寶”銅錢,1000 枚兌換 1 皮阿斯特。

第二版發行量超過 2 億枚,很可能是在保大帝繼位後 鑄造的。兒子爲紀念父王繼續發行父王年號的錢幣,這 很正常。保大帝當時也不在順化,1932 年 9 月才回到皇宮。

丹尼爾收藏,KM-20/Lec-33 銅是至關重要的軍用金屬。所以,1940 年日軍入侵 越南後不久,越南在海防停鑄了“保大通寶”銅錢。日 軍開始大肆囤積軍用金屬並運往日本,包括越南和法國 B-110.7(大字版)R. Allan Barker 博士友情提供圖片

錢幣。法國 1/2 生丁銅錢也於 1939 年和 1940 年改用鋅 鑄造,之後也不再從巴黎運過來了。

丹尼爾收藏,KM-20a/Lec-35 B-110.8(小字版)R. Allan Barker 博士友情提供圖片 1933 年間,保大帝開始鑄造重 3.2 克的“保大通寶” 穿孔銅錢。與此同時,法國人也開始鑄造銅錢,重 1.36 克, 1000 枚兌換 1 皮阿斯特。“保大通寶”也有兩個版別, 大“大”字版和小“大”字版。

B-110.10/Lec-29(正常版) R. Allan Barker 博士友情提供圖片

B-110.11/Lec- 未列出(小字版) R. Allan Barker 博士友情提供圖片

這樣以來,就需要其他的穿孔錢幣來填補越南人對錢 幣的需求。於是,穿孔 1/4 生丁鋅幣(400 枚兌換 1 皮阿 斯特)和 1 生丁鋅幣(與之前 1/2 生丁銅錢類似)就應 運而生了。1 生丁鋅幣在河內鑄造,而 1/4 生丁鋅幣則是 在日本大阪造幣局鑄造。由於優先運輸軍用物資,所以 1/4 生丁鋅幣沒有及時到達越南繼而發行。

丹尼爾收藏,KM-31/Lec-24

丹尼爾收藏,KM-24/Lec-105

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Column 專欄 戰爭帶來的通貨膨脹增加了商品和服務成本。小的 1

半必須用膠水粘起來。

生丁鋁幣取代了原來較大的 1 生丁鋅幣,5 生丁鋁幣取 代了原來巴黎造幣廠鑄造的 5 生丁銅鎳合金錢幣。這些

將紙鈔撕成兩半的做法也適用於面值爲皮阿斯特的

錢幣僅發行了一年,發行量也很低,成爲法國爲越南人

紙鈔,而且這種做法延續到了法屬越南、越南獨立同盟

發行的最後一批穿孔錢幣。

會和越南民主共和國時期。筆者從未見過越南民主共和 國使用的紙鈔撕成兩半又用膠水粘在一起的,不過這不 意味着這種情況不存在或不允許這樣做。 越南民主共和國於 1945 年 9 月 2 日脫離法國,宣佈 獨立,並於 1946 年初開始發行本國的錢幣和紙鈔,面值

丹尼爾收藏,KM-26/Lec-110

有 20 樞、5 毫、1 盾和 2 盾,而且都沒有穿孔。法國和 越南民主共和國在 1946 年底又開戰。 戰爭開始後,越南民主共和國發現,在偏遠的北部地 區和中部地區,因缺少樞、毫和盾等面值的錢幣,所以 還在使用舊式的穿孔錢幣。看來對小面值錢幣還是有需 求的,不過很可能也是因爲當地民衆對舊式錢幣特別有

丹尼爾收藏,KM-27/Lec-122

感情。 1947 年 1 月 6 日,越南民主共和國《第 51/SL 法令》

隨着戰爭的持續進行,通貨膨脹也日益加劇,所有

正式確定 20 枚銅錢兌換 1 盾,相當於 5 樞面值,這種情

錢幣均被紙鈔取代,最小面值是 5 生丁,但是 10 生丁、

況一直持續到 1948 年 4 月 13 日。不過,目前還沒有發

20 生丁和 50 生丁都可以撕開對半使用。流通時可以對

現其他越南政府允許銅錢流通的記錄。銅錢在越南或亞

半使用,但是在銀行存錢或支付政府商品或服務時,兩

洲其他地方最後流通的年份是 1948 年。

參考文獻

《越南銅錢》,R. Allan Barker 著,自行出版,新加坡,

ISBN 978-9810523008,2004 年,416 頁 (B)。

《世界硬幣標準目錄— —19 世紀》,George S. Cuhaj

和 Michael Tom 合著,克勞斯出版社,威斯康辛州艾奧拉, ISBN 978-1440245244,2015 年,1294 頁 (KM)。

《世界硬幣標準目錄— —20 世紀》,George S. Cuhaj

和 Michael Tom 合著,克勞斯出版社,威斯康辛州艾奧拉,

ISBN 978- 1440244094,2015 年,2352 頁 (KM)。

《越南民主共和國錢幣和紙鈔》,霍華德·丹尼爾著,

The Southeast Asian Treasury 出版社,弗吉尼亞州 Dunn

Loring,ISBN 978-1879951013,2016 年,210 頁 (D)。

東 亞 泉 志

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THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS

《法屬東南亞錢幣和紙鈔》,霍華德·丹尼爾著, The Southeast Asian Treasury 出版社,弗吉尼亞州 Dunn

Loring,(ISBN 978- 1879951--- 待 定 ),2017 年,300 多頁 (D)。

Monnaies et Jetons de l' Indochine Francaise ,Jean

Lecompte 著,Editions Gadoury 出版社,摩納哥,ISBN 978-2906602427,2013 年,168 頁 (Lec)。

《 二 戰 追 憶 錄》,C. Frederick Schwan 和 Joseph E.

Boling 合著,BNR 出版社,俄亥俄州克林敦頓港,ISBN 978-0931960406,1995 年,784 頁 (SB)。


Column 專欄

The World-Famous American Bank Note Company Neil Shafer (USA) To practically every student of world paper currencies, the name American Bank Note Company immediately brings forth a feeling of highest quality, beauty, security and popularity. This venerable printer has produced some of the world’s most treasured and magnificently executed paper money. It all came to fruition in 1858, when seven of the leading private bank note printers came together to form the single entity. Since then ABN has produced a tremendously wide range of notes, stocks and bonds, checks, documents of all sorts, in addition to other kinds of commercial printings such as calendars and office forms. During its first seven years as a company, ABN thrived on producing issues as needed for a multitude of private banks all over the country. Up to this time, work for foreign governments had been only a minor part of the business. But in 1862 the company received large orders from Greece and Colombia; since then, banks and issuing authorities from many places have availed themselves of the exceptionally high quality services offered by ABN. Yet the area where so many orders originated was predominantly Latin America. By the mid-1860’s and into the 1870’s, printing in color was the norm rather than the exception, and notes made by ABN from that period are often spectacular. This is the result of lovely designs and the use of vibrant colors, singly or in striking combinations, often with remarkable effects. Another distinctive characteristic of notes produced by ABN centers on the usage of certain vignettes. At times the same vignette may be seen on a number of issues from different banks, and even from different countries. Famous historical scenes such as the landing of Columbus, individuals like the Prince of Wales and Simon Bolivar, world monarchs, historical battle scenes on land and sea, adaptations of the greatest paintings, wonderful allegories, natural landscapes, wildlife, the ever-popular trains and ships, were employed time and again. Local personalities were also used when appropriate; often portrayed were national heroes from many places. Other major companies joined forces with ABN over the years; these included such well-known firms as National, Continental, Homer Lee, International, Franklin, Franklin-Lee and Western. The Canadian Bank Note Company was established at Ottawa in 1897 as an affiliate. This action was thought necessary to help satisfy the increasing demand for notes for the various banks in Canada and the Caribbean area. During much of the 20th century ABN has supplied more currency for a wider group of issuing institutions. In fact, from 1913 to mid-century ABN was the chief supplier of notes for the numerous issuing entities all over China. World War II also served to bring a number of significant orders to ABN; during that conflict and immediately afterwards, places such as Belgian Congo, French West Africa, Israel, Martinique, Morocco, Netherlands, Surinam and Turkey were supplied with currency made by this company. Many of these issues are highly sought by collectors at this time. Around 1970 there was a significant change in banknote production. There was an unprecedented proliferation of localized security printing

CHINA 1919 International Banking Corporation-Peking Branch 1 Dollar

CHINA 1920 The Commercial Bank of China-Shanghai Branch One Tael

CHINA 1914 Bank of China-Chihli Branch 5 Dollars

CHINA 1941 Bank of Commumications 500 Yuan

plants. Former ABN customers began to print their own paper money – Mexico is an excellent case in point. Yet with the introduction of new ways of printing, stronger and more sophisticated anti-counterfeiting devices such as holograms and plastic “paper,” ABN was able to remain a leader in the preservation of banknote integrity and trust. That legacy continues to this day.

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Column 專欄

大名鼎鼎的美國鈔票公司 尼爾 • 謝弗(美國) 對於學習研究世界紙鈔的人而言,一提到美國鈔票公 司,腦海中立刻想起的是:優質、精美、安全、廣受歡迎! 這家歷史悠久的印鈔公司印製過世界上最珍貴的紙鈔。 美國鈔票公司成立于 1858 年,由當時 7 家頂尖的私 營印鈔廠聯合成立。100 多年來,美國鈔票公司印製了 大量的紙鈔、股票、債券、支票、文書,種類繁多,此 外還有其他商業印製訂單(日曆、公司表格等)。公司 成立的最初 7 年,業務主要是接受美國國內各大私營銀 行的印製委託,為外國政府承製還只是很小的業務。到 了 1862 年,公司接到了希臘和哥倫比亞的大量訂單;自 此,很多地方的銀行和權威發行機構都從美國鈔票公司 提供的優質服務中大大受益。但是,當時的訂單主要還 是來自拉美地區。 19 世紀 60 年代中期到 70 年代,彩色印刷成為主流, 美國鈔票公司印製的紙鈔常是絕佳之品,這主要是由於 鈔票設計精美,色彩鮮明,單色或多色亮麗組合,多屬 精品之作。另一個顯著的特色是美國印鈔公司使用的裝 飾圖案。有時候,不同的銀行,甚至不同國家在紙鈔上 都使用同一圖案,一些有名的歷史場景如哥倫布登上新 大陸、歷史名人如威爾士親王和西蒙 • 玻利瓦爾、各國 帝王、歷史上有名的海陸戰役、名畫再創造、奇特的寓 言故事、自然風景名勝、野生動物、久負盛名的火車和 船艦等都是被反復使用的素材主題。有時候,當地名人

也可能成為素材,很多國家的英雄人物像常常被印到紙 鈔上。 美國鈔票公司的發展過程中,先后合併了多家大型 公司,其中包括美國國家鈔票公司、美國大陸鈔票公司、 美國荷馬李鈔票公司、美國國際鈔票公司、富蘭克林印 鈔造幣公司、富蘭克林 - 李紙鈔公司和美國西方紙鈔公 司等。1897 年,在渥太華成立附屬公司加拿大紙鈔公司, 以滿足加拿大和加勒比海地區不斷增長的紙鈔印製的需 求。 進入 20 世紀,美國鈔票公司為更多的發行機構提供 印鈔服務。從 1913 年至 50 年代,中國多家發行機構的 紙鈔主要來自該公司。二戰期間,美國鈔票公司又接到 一批重要的訂單,戰爭期間及戰後,比屬剛果、法屬西非、 以色列、馬提尼克、摩洛哥、荷蘭、蘇里南、土耳其等 都是由該公司提供紙鈔。現在,這些紙鈔很受收藏家青睞。 1970 年前後,公司的紙鈔印製有個很顯著的變化。 各地的可以印有防偽標誌的印鈔廠大量出現,很多美國 印鈔公司的客戶開始自主印製紙鈔,當時的墨西哥就是 一個典型的代表。然而, 隨着新式印刷技術的引進,更 高級的防偽技術如全息技術和塑質鈔票不斷出現,美國 鈔票公司憑藉誠信可靠,穩坐紙鈔印製的頭把交椅,時 至今日,仍無人可敵。

1919 年美商花旗銀行——北京支行壹圓

1920(民國九年)中國通商銀行——上 海通用銀兩壹兩

1914 年(民國三年)原李鴻章像大清銀行 加印中國銀行兌換券伍圓

1941 年(民國三十年)交通銀行伍佰圓

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Modern Interpretation of Traditional Chinese Culture Zhang Chenchen (Nanjing) It is said that Xu Beihong, born into a poor family, painted “Harmony of Two Immortals” at the age of 19, in 1914, to thank a friend for his help. “Harmony of Two Immortals” is featured on the 1 oz. silver coin I designed. The “Two Immortals”, Hé and Hé, are also known as the “Immortals of Harmony ( 和 ) and Union ( 合 )”. They are popularly associated with a happy marriage or happiness. Hé ( 和 ) and Hé ( 合 ) are typically depicted as two males, one holding a lotus flower and leaf ( 荷 , He), the other a round box with lid ( 盒 , He), giving us a double rebus. The “Two Immortals” images, mostly plain, clumsy, adorable and amiable, are often featured on Chinese New Year paintings, embroideries and utensils to express blessing. Traditional Chinese art is a flowing creation full of vitality. My design for the coin reproduces the concise and powerful vertical composition, to be true to the master’s patriotism and to the painting. The two figures emerge from delicate strokes and full ink colors. The left and right sides of the painting are decorated with overlapping maple leaves. These were Xu’s favorite and his spiritual sustenance at that time. The 10 Yuan denomination–half in maple leaves,

half in the painting–breaks the symmetry. It adds a sense of lightness to a design structure that at its core is based upon proportionality. The final concise, placid design is faithful to its source. It integrates the master’s personality into a simple yet vital composition. This silver coin is an interpretation of Chinese aesthetics, with mutual complementation between Confucianism and Taoism as its foundation. It focuses on the function, relation and rhythm, but not the specific objects. And that is why the traditional Chinese culture resonates through generations. As an expression of traditional images, why can the “Harmony of Two Immortals” painted so long ago is still appreciated by modern people? Why are modern people eager to review and appreciate this long lasting culture over and over again? And why do the art styles and aesthetic tastes gathered in the classical culture still attract resonance in the modern world? I think this is because the emotion and reason accumulated in the painting are the same as our emotion and rationality. This is the inheritance of culture. We can get pleasure from this cultural consistence. This is also the charm of traditional artistic images. As a combination of reason and emotion, form and content, truth and kindness, traditional art is a great achievement in human history. Only in this way will modern art develop into splendid mountains and changing rivers.

The Modern Chinese Painting Master (Xu Beihong) 1 oz. Silver Coin (obverse, reverse)

Representative works:

Xu Beihong "Harmony of Two Immortals"

2nd Summer Youth Olympics gold, silver and copper medals (reverse); 2nd Summer Youth Olympics 5 oz. silver coin; Xu Beihong “Harmony of Two Immortals” 1 oz. silver coin; 70th Anniversary of the Foundation of Changchun Film Studio 1/2 oz. silver coin; won the first prize in the 2014 CBPM Coin Designing contest; took part in designing the commemorative coins for the 70th

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Column 專欄 anniversary of the victory of the Chinese People's War of Resistance Against Japanese Aggression and the World AntiFascist War.

About the author

Ms. Zhang Chenchen, Born in Aug. 1984. In 2006, she graduated from Chengdu University of Technology with a major of Art and Design and began her work in the Nanjing Mint.

Brief Introduction of the Nanjing Mint Company Nanjing Mint Company is a large state-owned enterprise which is managed under the China Banknote Printing and Minting Corporation. Its principal activities are designing and manufacturing banknote printing equipment, producing circulating coins and printing VAT invoices. The company is located in the science park in Jiangning Nanjing on the Qinhuai River and covers an area of 205,000 square meters with total floor area of 104,000 square meters. Nanjing Mint Co. was established in 1985. After 30 years of development the company has been enlarging its scale, improving its productive capacity and enhancing its technological strength, especially through the rapid development in the Eleventh Five-Year Plan and the continuing transformation during the Ninth and the Tenth Five-Year Plan period. With its development during these years Nanjing Mint Co. has become the only domestic enterprise to produce minting machines and has become a center for spare parts for the banknote printing industry, which provides reliable support for the central bank. Technological innovation: With the acceleration of technical transformation and upgrades, the company has completed 35 key technology projects of for the Eleventh Five-Year Plan, including constructing a line of copper clad steel coin blanks, which lays a material and technical foundation for the fast and sustainable development for the Twelfth Five-Year Plan period. Production of professional printing equipment: By transforming foundry and heat treatment techniques, rebuilding and expanding metalworking and assembly

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workshops and also by building a system of turning, boring and grinding combined together, Nanjing Mint Co. has significantly raised efficiency and improved its processing capacity. , It has constructed a base of research and production and also integrated design and manufacturing. With the capacity of designing, manufacturing and producing a special series of printing equipment, including offset printing, gravure and relief, Nanjing Mint Co. has advanced world standards and has achieved domestic production on the whole. Tax stamp production: To meet the needs of customers and to follow the philosophy of managing tax stamp as money, Nanjing Mint Co. can perfectly finish any productive task and guarantee supply, quality and security at the same time. Technological innovation: With the acceleration of technical transformation and upgrades, the company has completed 35 key technology projects of the Eleventh FiveYear Plan, including constructing a line of copper clad steel coin blanks, which lays a material and technical foundation for the fast and sustainable development in Twelfth Five-Year Plan period. Technology research and development: Following the principle of technology leading development, Nanjing Mint has developed new technology and products centered on the RMB and used new equipment and processes to promote independent innovation. The company was recognized as the ‘enterprise of technology center in Jiangsu Province’ in 2007. During the Eleventh Five-Year period, it has developed many special printing facilities and new materials like copper plating nickel alloy with steel core. All of these developments are based on techniques accumulated on the production line of electroplating of copper-clad steel and show that the company has reached an internationally advanced standard. Enterprise management: Nanjing Mint practices a general manager responsibility system and has built a corporate governance structure coordinating decision implementation and supervision. To explore a way of refined management with Nanjing Mint characteristics, the enterprise has strengthened its basic management and improved administration approaches to extend management to every step of production. These efforts of improving management has not only supported the sustained and steady development of the company but also helped it win the title of ‘enterprise of modern management in 2009’. From 2011 to 2014, Nanjing Mint received a top mark of ‘3A’ in industrial appraisal of comprehensive performance.


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傳統文化的今日再現 ——從“和合二仙”銀幣設計談起 張琛琛(南京) 《和合二仙圖》這幅國畫作品是徐悲鴻先生于 1914

化之飽含的深情。從這一點出發,我決定採取理性的路線,

年 19 歲時創作的,是其繪畫生涯中比較早期的作品。根

第一感覺就是將畫面呈現出立軸式的構圖,突出主體人

據相關介紹,這幅作品是當時家境貧寒的徐悲鴻為了答

物,將徐悲鴻先生細膩的筆觸和飽滿的墨色表現出來。

謝友人的幫助而作的。

由於這是一幅國畫作品,而對於徐悲鴻先生這樣一位一 生致力於發展中華民族的繪畫以及中國的美術教育的愛

我所設計的這枚中國近代國畫大師(徐悲鴻)1 盎司

國畫家來說,這樣的構圖顯得既穩重大方,又簡潔有力;

紀念銀幣的主體圖案正是這幅《和合二仙圖》,瞭解中

兩側圖案考慮運用先生最喜愛的紅葉,以疊壓的形式排

國傳統文化的人們會知道,“和合二仙”是漢族民間傳

列在和合二仙的兩邊,和相對簡潔的主體人物形成一些

說之神,是掌管婚姻的喜神,還有“歡天喜地”的寓意。

對比,同時也是對畫家精神狀態的寄託,表現了在當時

他們的形象是兩個蓬頭、笑面、赤腳的小孩模樣,一個

歷史背景的大環境下徐悲鴻的愛國主義情懷。左側的“10

手持盛開的荷花,一個手捧滿籃的水果,代表和諧合好

元”一半在紅葉之上,另一半嵌入畫中,剛好將完全對

之意。這樣的形象在中國傳統活動中經常出現,無論是

稱的畫面打破,為畫面增加了輕鬆感。最終的設計稿整

在年畫、刺繡以及器物上,均會見到使用“和合二仙”

體追求簡潔平和的基調,正如同徐悲鴻先生的為人一般,

的圖案來表達祝福。這些圖案大多拙樸、可愛、有一種

簡樸而具有生命力。

自然的親近感。可以想見,中國的傳統藝術是流動的、 富有生命力的創造。

這枚銀幣是對中國美學的一種詮釋,儒道互補是中國 美學思想的一條基本線索。它的着眼點更多的不是在物

對於這枚銀幣的設計,需要表達徐悲鴻先生于傳統文

件、實體,而是功能、關係、韻律。這就是中國傳統文 化所具有如此感人的審美魅力而千古傳誦的原因所在。 作為這樣一個傳統形象的表達,它是如此久遠,但 為什麼仍然能夠表現、甚至感染今天乃至後世呢?作為 當代的人們為什麼要一再去回顧和欣賞這些流傳已久的 文化呢?而凝聚在這些古典文化中的民族性的審美情趣、 藝術風格,為什麼仍然與今天的人們的感受相吻合呢? 我想這是因為積澱在其中的情理結構與今天我們的心理 結構相一致,從而在文化上產生了繼承性、統一性。所 以我們能夠從中感受到親切、愉悅。這就是傳統的藝術 形象所帶來的美,它作為感性和理性、形式和內容、真 與善的統一,是人類歷史發展的偉大成果。藝術只有這樣, 才能成長為壯麗多彩的山川,才能彙聚成變幻莫測的江 河。

徐悲鴻《和合二仙圖》

中國近代國畫大師(徐悲鴻)1 盎司銀質紀念幣(正、背)

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主要作品:

幣機械備品備件中心,為央行貨幣發行提供了可靠支援。

第二屆夏季青年奧林匹克運動會金銀銅獎牌(B 面); 第二屆青年奧林匹克運動會 5 盎司銀幣; 國畫大師徐悲鴻 1 盎司銀幣; 長春電影製品廠成立 70 周年 1/2 盎司銀幣; 2014 年中國印鈔造幣總公司組織的錢幣大賽中獲得 評審第一名; 參與設計 2015 抗日戰爭勝利暨世界人民反法西斯勝 利 70 周年普通紀念幣。

硬幣生產:通過新建伍角幣生產線、優化生產工藝、 推進物流系統建設、合理生產佈局、建立模具設計製造 體系,造幣綜合生產能力不斷擴大。 印製專用機械生產:通過實施鑄造和熱處理工藝技 術改造、金加工廠房和裝配廠房改擴建以及金加工車削、 鏜銑、磨削三大加工單元構建等,生產效率和加工能力 得到顯著提升,初步建成印鈔造幣專用設備研發生產基 地,實現了設計、製造一體化,具備了膠、凹、凸三大 系列印製專用設備設計製造和批量生產能力,產品整體

作者簡介

水準已接近和達到國際先進水準,行業主要印製設備基 本實現國產化。 稅票生產:以客戶需求為導向,執行“稅票視同鈔票 管理”的要求,保供應、保品質、保安全,圓滿完成各 項生產任務。 技 術 改 造: 公 司 加 快 技 術 改 造 步 伐, 提 升 技 術 檔 次和內涵,第三條銅包鋼硬幣坯餅生產線建設等 35 項 “十一五”重點技改項目均優質高效完成,為“十二五” 的快速、持續發展奠定了物質和技術基礎。

張琛琛,女,1984 年 8 月出生,2006 年畢業于成都 理工大學藝術設計專業,同年進入南京造幣有限公司工 作。

科技研發:公司注重發揮科技在發展中的引領作用, 推進自主創新,圍繞人民幣提升開發新產品、新技術, 運用新設備、新工藝,增強企業技術實力。2007 年,企

南京造幣有限公司簡介

業通過“江蘇省企業技術中心”認定。“十一五”先後 完成了多項印製專用設備的研製。立足于銅包鋼電鍍生 產線積累的工藝技術,成功開發鋼芯鍍銅鎳合金等造幣

南京造幣有限公司隸屬于中國印鈔造幣總公司,位於

新材質通過行業鑒定,達到國際先進水準。

南京市秦淮河畔、江甯區科學園內,是集印鈔造幣機械 設計製造、流通硬幣生產、增值稅發票印刷於一體的國

企業管理:公司實行董事會領導下的總經理負責制,

家大型一類企業。廠區占地面積 20.5 萬平方米,總建築

初步建立決策、監督和執行協調運轉、有效製衡的法人

面積 10.4 萬平方米。

治理結構。公司從強化企業基礎管理入手,改革管理機 製,改進管理方法,改善管理手段,將管理觸角延伸到

南京造幣有限公司于 1985 年成立,經過 20 多年的發

企業生產經營的每個環節當中,努力探索南幣特色的精

展建設,特別是通過“九五”、“十五”期間的相繼改

細管理之路,為實現企業持續穩定發展提供了可靠的管

造以及“十一五”期間的快速發展,經濟規模不斷擴大,

理支援。2009 年獲得機械工業“現代化管理企業”稱號,

生產能力不斷提高,科技實力不斷增強,是國內唯一一

2011-2014 年在行業綜合績效考評中均位列前茅。行業綜

家生產印紗造幣機械的企業,也是印鈔造幣行業印鈔造

合績效考評為“3A”。

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Berlin Panda Issue Highlights 2016 World Money Fair

Show Commemoratives Regaining Popularity Robert Mish (USA)

Two floors. Several large rooms and halls. Over 300

only combed the floor of USA shows, but also traveled to

booths, mostly with numismatic coins for sale. Auctions,

the major German shows to find and recover the PRC rarities

new Mint issues, numismatic news releases, dealer and

that were once sold primarily in Germany. Our German

club meetings, coin awards, first class hospitality. Thirteen

colleagues reported intense floor competition in recent years

thousand people trying to take it all in with only three days.

from these Chinese buyers. While pre-existing German

Booths and tables tended to be much larger at this show

dealer inventories were “cleaned out” in this period, Chinese

than we traditionally see at USA and Asian shows, affording

coins steadily resurface from original MDM customers as

dealers to display many more coins for public perusal.

well as from collections built by sourcing other modern world coin dealers in Europe. So, what doesn’t wind up on

The annual Berlin World Money Fair is to Europe what

German eBay, or in auction, can get brought to the Berlin

the ANA World’s Fair of Money is to the USA. Berlin is

show by some of the dealers with tables. Right from the show

certainly the most important coin convention in Europe and

opening, I joined the hunt.

one of the major coin shows of the world, drawing noted dealers, collectors, and mints from numerous countries.

Hoping to stumble into some PRC rarities, I was

What began in Basel, Switzerland in 1972 moved to Berlin

somewhat disappointed. I did see numerous gold and silver

in 2006 and expanded to accommodate the post-iron curtain

pandas, however, the rare dates were either long gone, or

numismatic boom.

were leftovers with imperfections. I bought some PRC sports coins at reasonable levels at more than a few tables,

Hunting for Chinese Coins PRC modern Chinese coins were actively distributed in Germany, particularly by the Mint distributor MDM of Braunschweig. From the late 1980s until the late 1990s, MDM was the primary contractee for several series, including both the world and the traditional culture coins of 19901997, various sports issues of 1988-1996, the 1993 Marco Polo issues, and the Munich show pandas of 1988-1997. In addition, MDM sold quantities of numerous issues from Mint allotments and from other distributors, most notably large size silver pandas, historical series 1984-1992, Year of Peace coinage, and silver Inventions & Discovery singles and sets.

plus some but not as many older Munich show issues as I had expected to find. Again, so many of the China coins in German inventories were not of top quality. This was complicated by the general ask price levels being higher in Europe than in the USA, where we are used to “deals” on the PRC Chinese coins which have had a more “relaxed” market as of late. Why is the quality generally lower in European inventories? One reason of course is that quality gets picked and sold first. But as one dealer explained, there is another factor. MDM marketed these coins by subscription to an audience of “investors” more so than collector numismatists. Non-numismatists and their heirs were more likely to mishandle the coins than would a serious collector.

Where Did the Munich Pandas Go ? 1993 China's outstanding historical figures Mao TSe Tung commemorative gold coin

One of the reasons I was unable to buy much in older Munich show pandas, and none at my “preferred” price was that, as one German explained, the previous steady supply of

When Chinese coins both vintage and modern caught

show pandas coming back from original buyers has subsided.

fire in the home market from 2010-2013, China mainland

In addition, with the “small-world” information age, the

coin dealers and independent local Chinese residents not

German dealers were already aware that these issues, hardly

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Column 專欄 wanted two years ago, were among those being pursued by

Empire period, were being donated to the (Anhalt State)

the mainland Chinese since their “re-discovery” of late. True,

Kunstmuseum Moritzburg Museum in Halle, Germany to

show pandas seem to be “a thing” again, but I wasn’t going

anchor a new section devoted to the history of Chinese coins

to tip my hand. I came to Berlin with multiple “old” orders

as well as German participation in their manufacture, tying in

to find Munich 12 oz. and Kilo silver pandas, bi-metal 1996,

with German-Chinese trade.

and any of the Munichs that might certify PF69 or better by NGC once we got them home. Unfortunately, I returned with

Forty-two of these original dies—plus 36 die punches

none of the rare types, and only a handful of half-ounce gold

were recovered by Michael Chou of Champion Auctions

that had a chance to 68 or 69.

(Shanghai/Macau/Taiwan), who bought them for a healthy figure (multiples of the original auction estimate) to prevent them from going into auction, where he feared they could get into unscrupulous hands. With the assistance of Künker Auctions (Osnabruck, Germany), the ideal German museum was selected to receive the dies and protect them for eternity. The “Chinas Geld” exhibit will open on 18 September 2016 and complete its first run on 29 January 2017.

1996 Munich Int’l Coin Show Bi--metallic Panda, 30mm

Mr. Chou exhibited the dies, leading to much fanfare at the Macau International Coin Convention in December 2015 where even collectors and scholars from mainland China came to view and study them. The dies of course were featured on the Macau Show Panda. The dies then traveled to Berlin where they again were exhibited prior to a well-attended “hand-over” ceremony. Meanwhile, with the support of the WMF Administration and the Künker Company, the 2016 Berlin Pandas, also featuring

1994 Munich International Coin Show Gold Panda 1Kg Ag, 100mm

the Otto Beh dies, had become the “buzz” of the show. The obverse portrays the Berlin Dome, the famous artistic landmark and largest church in Berlin. The reverse features two of the dies, with the China panda bear and the Berlin bear connecting as they examine the old Anhalt bear coin from the 19th century.

1997 Munich Int’l Coin Show Sliver Panda 12oz Ag, 80mm

2016 Berlin Pandas Sell Out

While a 2013 show Panda was the first to commemorate the Berlin WMF, the reintroduction of a WMF panda for 2016 had a purpose beyond. The Otto Beh dies, made in Germany for many of the provincial coins of the 1889-1911

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2016 World Money Fair Berlin Pandas 1oz Ag, 40mm

The 300 one-ounce silver pieces allotted for strict one-

per-person sales were moving steadily at 69 Euros with the


Column 專欄 sales flow actually increasing on the second day when they

Managing Director Ulrich Künker reported. The silver was

sold out. Another 1700 coins of the 2000 mintage were

bid up from issue price to 2200 Euros, while the gold brought

allotted among the international distributors in Hong Kong,

9250 Euros, both plus 20% buyer’s fee and VAT. Call it US

Macau, Japan, Korea, Germany, and the USA. Another 20

$2955 and US $12,430 at the time. The full proceeds were

pieces were struck in two-ounce gold, 10 pieces in one-ounce

donated by the project partners, Michael Chou and myself, to

palladium, with 200 copper mostly handed out as gifts to

help defray the costs of constructing the Museum’s expanded

Mint and Museum dignitaries, exhibit event attendees, and

China section.

working show personnel. Also, 45 brass were struck as part of a two-piece copper & brass presentation set for distributors and for current and future museum events. As was accomplished with the 2014 and 2015 Macau Show Pandas, each of the commemoratives have their sequential serial number struck on face, while the copper & brass have the number struck on the edge. The Shanghai Mint considered this issue so important that they hand carried the original die plasters to Berlin for display at the show panda sales booth, where the Otto Beh dies were also displayed. This was the first time that show panda plasters ever left China. Another “first” was the Berlin Panda being the only show panda ever made with lasering of the die. The workmanship can be seen in the background beneath the Berlin Dome, helping to highlight its magnificent details. “This was the most beautiful, and well made show panda yet,” commented Denny Huhn (House of Coins), a German dealer in Modern World coinage. That is saying a lot considering all the nice artistry and notable motifs in past show pandas, particularly the recent Macau issues. Regardless, such reactions were heard often whether I walked around the show or hung around the distribution booth. Perhaps that is in part why the market value for the silver one-ounce has tripled since the Berlin show, with demand still unfilled.

Show Pandas Gain Status Show commemorative Panda issues have also attained new recognition as a class of numismatics above merely “medals.” Pricepedia, NGC, and Chinese numismatists such as the renowned modern China coin scholar & author Chan King Lam have now categorized them as official panda show commemoratives. With identical specifications as the nominally denominated bullion pandas, these official commemoratives could not be monetized as they were struck exclusively in friendship for international coin events in foreign countries or in special administrative regions with their own currencies. One retired China Mint official explained that when the show pandas were first struck, there was only two possible words in Chinese, one for monetized coins, and one for all other. Thus actual medals, medallions, badges, and nonmonetized bullion and commemorative issues all shared one word “zhang” which was translated on the first certificates to “medals.” Starting with the 2015 Macau show panda, all issues since no longer say “medal” on the certificate. NGC removed “medal” from new issues starting with the certification of 2014 Macau pandas, and now certifies new submissions of any show commemoratives as “Official Panda Issue” followed by the date and show name.

Impact of Terminology The collecting community in the English-speaking world

Auction of Berlin #1 Pandas Künker Auctions are the official auctioneer of the WMF. As the largest numismatic auctioneers in Europe, they hold numerous events each year, which regularly include some of the most desirable German, and other world coins which come to market. Künker donated space in their auction for each of the Berlin gold & silver pandas with Serial #1. “We were overwhelmed by the interest and spirited bidding,”

has enjoyed the benefit of several words in the language making possible a more specific identity of numismatic related products. We recognize both circulating and noncirculating mediums of exchange, whether blessed with a “denomination” by a government entity or not. Often these denominations are meaningless or nominal when a product is not intended to circulate as a medium of exchange. In 1974, the Society for International Numismatics published a paper in an attempt to classify the various numismatic

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Column 專欄 issues, many of which were of dual character. Umbrella

For the first time in many years, I have customer

categories included: Numia (circulating coins and bullion

orders I cannot fill from inventory, so I will be combing

regardless of issuer), Mesonumia (non-circulating coins and

the shows and soliciting my colleagues for help. If future

commemorative bullion), Exonumia (tokens and merchant

show issues continue to be produced with design quality and

issues for redemption, coins altered for novelty, medallions,

workmanship, and with sensible mintages not exceeding

decorations, charms, etc.).

current collector demand, they will continue to rise in value and respect as essential parts of all serious panda coin

Today common usage terms include coins, bullion,

collections.

commemorative bullion, tokens, medals, and medallions. Non-monetized issues as China 1982 gold Pandas and South Africa gold Krugerrands are among the famous bullion issues while China show pandas are among the world’s most popular collected commemorative bullion. With government mints engaging in different practices worldwide as to monetization, redemption, and purpose of issue, it is understandable why there is so much confusion. In the end, it is the free market, not monetary authorities, that determines collectability.

Evolving Market

2012 Singapore Int’l Coin Fair Gold Show Panda 5oz Au, 60mm

As both a dealer and collector who has been fond of the China Panda series since inception, and who has been involved in their design, distribution, or aftermarket, I am delighted to witness the successful revival of show panda

For referral to the Berlin Panda distributor for your

area, readers can email robert@mishinternational. com

issues (starting in 2012) after a 15-year interlude. The series, which began with the 1984 Hong Kong International Show issue, honored dozens of worldwide numismatic events that the China Mint attended through 1997. In 2012 the second generation of show issues rebirthed at the Singapore International Coin Fair.

For a complete checklist of all China official

international show commemoratives, readers can email office@mishinternational.com

Mr. Mish is the founder and President of Mish

International Monetary Inc., a Menlo Park CA

(USA) firm known to be among the world’s most

prominent market makers in modern Chinese coins.

He is a past primary contributor to the KrauseMishler Standard Catalog of World Gold Coins, and ongoing contributor to Friedberg’s Gold Coins of the

World, China Pricepedia, and the Standard Catalog of World Coins. 1984 Hong Kong Int’l Coin Exposition Silver Show Panda, 1oz Ag, 38.6mm

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柏林世界錢幣展覽會紀念熊貓驚艷 2016 世界錢幣展覽會

——紀念熊貓風潮再度來襲 羅伯特 • 米什(美國) 兩層樓,數間禮堂;300 多個攤位,多是售賣錢幣

2010-2013 年,中國近現代錢幣成為了中國國內

藏品的;拍賣會,造幣公司新出的錢幣,錢幣資訊,

錢幣市場的熱點。中國大陸的幣商和當地的私人買家

幣商和社團聚會,錢幣獎,賓至如歸的服務…… 參加

不僅將美國錢幣展購買一空,還到訪了德國各大錢展

展會的 13000 人試著要在短短三天內就把以上所有的

以搜尋和回收起初在德國售出的中華人民共和國稀有

訊息全部瀏覽一下。這次展會的攤位比以往美國和亞

錢幣。我的一位德國同事曾經報道過近幾年這股來自

洲錢幣展上的攤位要大得多,這樣一來,幣商們便可

中國買家的競爭浪潮。這段時期,由於德國幣商先前

以展出更多的錢幣藏品以供參觀者鑒賞。

的存貨已經被全部清空,所以中國錢幣開始不斷地從 MDM 先前的顧客以及從中國錢幣的收藏家手中流向

一年一度的柏林世界錢幣展之於歐洲就如同 ANA

市場,而這些錢幣是從其他歐洲世界現代幣幣商那裏

世界錢幣展之於美國一樣重要。柏林錢展不僅是歐洲

購買到的。因此,那些未在德國 eBay 及拍賣會上出

最為重大的錢幣展覽會,也是世界聞名的幾大錢展之

售的錢幣才得以被某些幣商帶到柏林錢展的攤位上出

一,全世界的知名幣商、收藏家以及造幣廠每年都會

售。自本次錢展一開幕,我便投入到了搜尋錢幣的隊

前來參加展會。柏林錢幣展始於 1972 年,當時是在瑞

伍中。

士巴塞爾舉辦的,後來,為了順應後鐵幕時代的錢幣 繁榮浪潮,主辦方便於 2006 年將舉辦地遷到了德國柏 林。

我本來希望買到一些中華人民共和國的錢幣珍品, 但結果卻並不盡如人意。雖然我的確見到了很多的金、 銀熊貓,但那些稀有年份的熊貓卻早已被別人買走,

尋找中國錢幣

剩下的也都帶有瑕疵。我從幾家攤位上買到幾枚價格 合適的中華人民共和國體育紀念幣,還有為數不多的

中華人民共和國現代幣曾經在德國風靡一時,最

慕尼黑錢展熊貓,這些是我預想會碰到的。此外,現

出名的中國現代幣經銷商就要數布倫瑞克的 MDM 錢

在德國幣商手中已經鮮有頂級品質的中國錢幣了。又

幣經銷公司了。在 20 世紀 80 年代末至 90 年代後期

因為美國市場的一般賣價要低於歐洲的緣故,所以我

這一段時間裏,MDM 曾經作為主要簽約商銷售過好

們以往都習慣於在美國購買中華人民共和國錢幣,但

幾種中國現代幣,其中包括:1990-1997 年發行的世

是這個市場最近開始變得愈發寬鬆,這也就使得展會

界文化及中國傳統文化系列紀念幣;1988-1996 年的

上錢幣品質不高這個問題變得更加錯綜複雜。

體育薈萃系列紀念幣;1993 年的馬可·波羅系列以及 1988-1997 年發行的慕尼克錢展紀念熊貓系列。另外,

為何歐洲幣商手中的中國幣品質普遍较低?其中

MDM 公司還出售過大量來自造幣公司及其他經銷商

一個原因自然就是因為高品質的錢幣總是最先被買

的中國現代幣,這其中最有名的要數大規格銀質地紀

走。但是,正如一位幣商對我解釋的那樣,市面上錢

念熊貓、1984-1992 年的歷史系列、國際和平年紀念

幣品質不高還存在另一個原因,那就是 MDM 通過

幣以及探索與發明系列的單枚或成套銀幣。

預定的方式把更多的錢幣賣給了投資者而非錢幣收藏 者。而錢幣在這些非專業的人士及其傳人手裏比在资 深收藏家手裏更容易受到損壞。

慕尼黑紀念熊貓都去哪兒了? 我未能買到年代更為久遠的慕尼黑錢展紀念熊貓, 也沒能買到價錢心儀的錢幣。一位德國人為我道出了 1993 年中國傑出歷史人物—毛澤東紀念金幣,23mm

其中緣由。他告訴我,先前從原始賣家手裏不斷回流 的慕尼黑紀念熊貓幣現在已經沉寂了下來,另外,

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在這個世界變小了的信息時代里,德國幣商們已經意

2016 柏林世界錢幣展覽會紀念熊貓被搶購一空

識到自己手中這些兩年前近乎無人問津的錢幣因為最 近中國興起的“重新發現”潮流,現在已經成為中國

2013 年的展會紀念熊貓是第一次為紀念柏林世界

大陸幣商們追逐的對象。的確,慕尼黑錢幣展紀念熊

錢幣展覽會所鑄,2016 年再次鑄造的展會紀念熊貓也

貓似乎又火了起來,但我沒打算讓人知道我此行的目

有其目的所在。 德國製造的奧托(Otto Beh )幣模在

的。我此次來柏林身上肩負着大量訂單,都要求我尋

1889-1911 年大清帝國時期製造了許多地方錢幣,這

找慕尼黑錢幣展 12 盎司銀幣、1 公斤銀質熊貓及 1996

些幣模被捐獻給了德國薩克森 - 安哈爾特州哈雷莫里

年雙金屬纪念熊貓,和一些帶回去有可能得到 NGC

茨堡博物館用於新設一處展區,這個展區將用來展示

PF69 或以上的評級分數的其他慕尼黑紀念熊貓。但是

中德貿易紐帶下的中國近現代錢幣的發展歷史以及德

遺憾的是,我此行並沒能買到任何珍稀品種,只有少

國人在製造這些錢幣的過程中所作出的貢獻。

量評級分數有可能達到 68 或 69 的半盎司金質熊貓。 42 塊原始幣模以及 36 個模用沖頭都由冠軍拍賣公 司(上海 / 澳門 / 臺灣)的周邁可先生通過私人交易 獲得。他之所以買下這些幣模和沖頭(價格是拍賣公 司原始估價的幾倍)就是為了防止它們被拿去拍賣進 而落入到某些不法之徒的手中。在昆克拍賣公司(位 於德國奧斯納布呂克)的幫助下,周先生挑選了一家 心儀的博物館接收并永久保存這些幣模。中國錢幣展 1996 年慕尼黑國際硬幣展銷會雙金屬紀念熊貓,36mm

示會將於 2016 年 9 月 18 日開幕,初次巡展的結束時 間是 2017 年 1 月 29 日。 周先生在 2015 年 12 月舉辦的澳門國際錢幣研討 會上展示了自己所捐贈的幣模,引發了與會者的熱烈 討論。這次會議還吸引了來自中國大陸的錢幣收藏家 和專家學者們前來視察和探討。此次澳門展覽會紀念 熊貓刻有“德製幣模澳門特別展”紀念文字及 2 個幣 模圖案。 之後,幣模被運到柏林公開展出,隨後又舉行了

1994 年慕尼黑國際硬幣展銷會 1 公斤銀質紀念熊貓,100mm

一場座無虛席的交接儀式。與此同時,在世界錢幣展 覽會管理委員會以及昆克拍賣公司的協力之下,這些 同樣刻有奧托幣模圖案的 2016 柏林錢幣展覽會紀念熊 貓,成為了當時展會上熱議的對象。 紀念熊貓的正面是柏林大教堂,這座教堂是柏林 最大的教堂也是當地知名的地標性藝術建築。背面則 刻有兩個幣模,還有一只中國熊貓同一只柏林熊共同 檢視 19 世紀的老版安哈爾特熊錢幣的圖案。 這批 300 枚的柏林世界錢幣展覽會 1 盎司銀質紀 念熊貓單枚售價為 69 歐元,每人限購 1 枚。前來購買

1997 年慕尼黑國際硬幣展銷會 12 盎司銀質紀念熊貓,80mm

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的人絡繹不絕,而且销量不断增长,到展會的第二天 就已經全部售罄。2000 枚紀念熊貓中剩下的的 1700 枚被分發給了來自香港、澳門、日本、韓國、德國以 及美國的錢幣經銷商。還有 20 枚 2 盎司金質的紀念熊


Column 專欄 拍賣柏林展覽會 #1 紀念熊貓 昆克拍賣公司是世界錢幣展覽會的官方拍賣商。 作為歐洲最大的錢幣拍賣商,昆克拍賣公司每年都會 舉辦多場拍賣活動,其中通常就有流向市面的最搶手 的德國以及世界各國的錢幣。昆克拍賣公司在其自己 的拍賣活動上,為此次拍賣 #1 系列柏林錢幣展覽會 紀念金、銀熊貓提供了拍賣機會。“許多人對此次拍 2016 柏林世界錢幣展覽會 1 盎司紀念銀貓,40mm

貓、10 枚 1 盎司鈀金的紀念熊貓以及 200 枚的銅質紀 念熊貓被作為禮品贈與了造幣公司和博物館的高級官 員、展會的嘉賓以及工作人員們。除此之外,展會還 鑄造了 45 枚黃銅紀念熊貓,黃銅、紫銅紀念熊貓兩枚 一組,以供經銷商和博物館現在及以後的展示活動所

賣表示了興趣,大家都躍躍欲試,這讓我們有點應接 不暇。”昆克拍賣公司的總經理 Ulrich Künker 如此說 道。#1 銀質紀念熊貓以 2200 歐元的價格成交,而 #1 金質紀念熊貓則拍出了 9250 歐元的高價,另外還要加 上 20% 的買方佣金和增值稅,按當時的匯率來算就分 別是 2955 美元和 12430 美元。我和周先生作為這個項 目的合夥人,將此次拍賣的全部收益捐贈給了博物館, 用以支付其擴建中國展區所花費的開銷。

使用。

展覽會紀念熊貓獲得認可 同 2014 及 2015 年的澳門錢幣展紀念熊貓一樣, 這些紀念熊貓在製作完成之後都在幣面打上了序列 號,黃銅、紫銅紀念熊貓的編號則被刻在了邊緣上。

展覽會紀念熊貓不光只是一種紀念章,最近也被 認可為是一個新的錢幣品種。Pricepedia、NGC 及以 知名中國現代幣學者陳景林為代表的中國錢幣學家們

上海造幣有限公司非常重視這些錢幣,所以特意

都將其歸類為官方展覽會紀念熊貓。雖然這些紀念熊

讓我們攜原版幣模石膏前來柏林參加展會,石膏同奧

貓和貴金屬熊貓金幣規格是一樣的,但由於這種官方

托幣模一起被擺在出售展覽會金質紀念熊貓的攤位

的熊貓紀念幣僅僅是作為在國外或有各自貨幣的特別

上,供人們參觀。這是展覽會紀念熊貓的石膏有史以

行政區舉行的國際錢幣活動中表示友誼所鑄造的,所

來第一次離開中國。

以紀念熊貓並不能作為一種法定貨幣使用。

還有一個“第一次”即此次的柏林錢幣展覽會紀

一位中國造幣公司的退休幹部告訴我,展覽會紀

念熊貓是第一批用激光在幣模上製造出來的紀念熊

念熊貓剛發行時,中文只有兩個詞用來表示錢幣,一

貓。這種工藝可以在熊貓正面柏林大教堂圓頂下的背

個用來表示法定貨幣,而其他非法定貨幣都用另一個

景中看到,它彰顯了鑄幣者對這批錢幣巧奪天工的細

詞來表示。因此,所有的獎章、勛章、徽章、沒有貨

節處理。

幣性質的貴金屬以及紀念幣在證書上都會用“章”這 個字來表示。 2015 年澳門錢幣展覽會紀念熊貓發行以

“這是目前為止外表最為精緻、製作最為考究的

後,所有的證書上都不再使用“章”這個字來表示了。

展覽會紀念熊貓了。”一位德國的世界現代幣幣商丹

NGC 自 2014 年澳門展覽會紀念熊貓以後就把“章”

尼·休恩(錢幣之家)這樣評價道。考慮到以往尤其

字 從新發行的紀念熊貓證書上面移除了。

是最近這次澳門錢幣展紀念熊貓的精巧工藝和各具特 色,休恩此言可真算得上是盛讚有加了。不過,這麼 認為的人並不止他一個。無論是參觀展會還是逛經銷 攤位的時候,我經常都能聽見這樣的讚美之言。這也 是為什麼自柏林錢幣展覽會以後一盎司柏林熊貓的市 場價格翻了 3 倍依然供不應求的部分原因吧。

術語的影響力 英語地區的錢幣收藏家們有專門的詞彙可以更容 易地區分錢幣相關的產品。我們可以識別流通貨幣或 是非流通貨幣,不管上面有沒有政府標誌的面值。有 時這些面值並沒有什麼重要意義或者只有象徵性的意

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Column 專欄 義,因為有的錢幣並不是用以流通的貨幣。1974 國際 錢幣收藏家協會發表了一份文件,目的是為了將這些 紛繁複雜的錢幣產品加以分類,其中很多錢幣都具有 雙重屬相。具體分類如下 :Numia(流通錢幣或貴金屬, 不分發行單位)、 Mesonumia(非流通性錢幣及紀念 貴金屬)以及 Exonumia(代幣、商業代幣、改造硬幣、 獎牌、勛章及花錢等)。 現如今,日常所使以描述錢幣相關的產品的詞語 包括流通硬幣、紀念貴金屬、代幣、紀念章以及獎牌等。 非貨幣性質的錢幣中,1982 年的中國熊貓金幣和南

系列的國際錢幣盛會。2012 年,第二代展覽會紀念熊 貓在新加坡國際錢展再次出現在了世人面前。 這是我從事錢幣行業多年以來第一次未能完成顧 客所託付的訂單,所以我打算接下來繼續參加一些幣 展並請我的同事們助我一臂之力。如果接下來的展覽 會紀念熊貓仍然能保存這樣的高水準和製作工藝,並 且發行量不超過當前市場需求量的話,那麼這一系列 的紀念幣仍然會繼續增值,而且會被尊崇為熊貓錢幣 收藏中所不可或缺的一份子。

非克魯格金幣是最為出名的紀念貴金屬,而中國展覽 會紀念熊貓則是全世界最熱門的收藏性紀念貴金屬。 因為政府造幣廠總是在全世界不停地進行各種鑄造貨 幣、贖回及製定發行政策等活動,所以不難理解為什 麼會出現如此多的疑問了。到最後,真正決定錢幣收 藏價值的是自由市場而非這些官方的金融機構。

不斷發展的熊貓紀念幣市場 2012 年新加坡國際錢幣展銷會 5 盎司金質紀念熊貓,60mm

作為幣商和收藏家,我自熊貓紀念幣剛上市開始 就一直對這一系列鐘愛有加,也曾參與過這些錢幣的 設計、發行以及後續市場的工作。在經歷了 15 年的沉 寂期之後,現在展覽會紀念熊貓又一次成為熱銷產品

想查找您附近的柏林錢幣展覽會紀念熊貓的經

(自 2012 年開始),這令我感到很欣慰。自 1984 年

銷 商, 請 發 郵 件 至 robert@mishinternational.

的香港國際硬幣展覽會紀念熊貓開始,這一系列的紀

com

念熊貓見證了中國造幣公司所參加的 1997 年之前的一

想查找中國官方發行的國際錢幣展覽會 紀 念 幣 的 完 整 清 單, 請 發 郵 件 至 office@ mishinternational.com 米什先生是米什國際錢幣有限公司的創始人 兼總裁。 米什國際錢幣有限公司是世界上最出名 的一家位於加州門羅公園 (美國) 的中國現代 幣錢幣商。 米什先生以前曾經是克勞斯和米什勒 《世界金幣標準分類目錄》 的撰稿人, 現在是 1984 年的香港國際硬幣展覽會 1 盎司銀質 紀念熊貓,36.8mm

東 亞 泉 志

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在為弗里德伯格的 《世界金幣》《中國幣價大全》 以及 《世界錢幣標準目錄》 三本雜誌供稿。


Column 專欄

An American Coin Tour King L. Chan (Hong Kong) Last summer, I was honored to be invited by the famous coin dealer, Robert Mish, and prominent coin auctioneer, Michael Chou, to America. I hadn’t been there for more than 20 years. This time I visited many prominent dealers of modern Chinese gold and silver coins. I also visited NGC, a professional coin grading service and the American Numismatic Association annual World’s Fair of Money. This year, the event was held in Chicago. At the end of this trip, I attended the ceremony of the Nick Brown Award for the Advancement of Chinese Numismatics. My journey began with a United Airlines flight from Hong Kong to San Francisco. Mr. Robert Mish personally picked me up in his car. He took me to his coin store in Menlo Park, near the famous Stanford University. There are many fine restaurants and trendy residential districts there and in the adjoining university town of Palo Alto. His shop has been there for more than 30 years and the layout was as hospitable as its owner. It took us the whole day to take pictures of original China coin certificates and presentation boxes, something that Mr. Mish had preserved and stored for future use and study. After the shooting we read through the literature and other marketing materials of Chinese coins which Robert had also preserved for decades. He also told me in detail his memories and experiences of dealing in Chinese coins in the last decades. What he had done really surprised me for it was unusual for a coin dealer to preserve files so carefully. The full-page ads he had taken out in a numismatic newspaper to sell modern Chinese coins in the 1980’s and 1990’s was also on file. Mr. Mish is actually one of the first coin dealers to sell modern Chinese coins in America and had visited Beijing and Shanghai early in 1980’s. It was he who pioneered the idea to create the first 1 ounce panda gold show commemorative

position to purchase them back from the original collectors, in recent years he and Mr. Michael Chou have organized many public service activities and created new panda show commemoratives together. The next day, Mr. Mish drove me over the famous Golden Gate Bridge then around the Bay before returning to San Francisco for a “tourist” visit. Having lunch on the dock at the Ferry Building, we ran into Mr. Tung Chee-hwa, the first chief executive of Hong Kong and even got a chance to salute him! We returned to Menlo Park to meet Mr. Chou who flew in for dinner and to accompany me on the next leg of my “American tour”. The following morning, Mr. Michael Chou and I flew to Los Angeles to visit some notable dealers who participated in the 1980’s China coin market. First, Mr. Fred Weinberg is a famous coin dealer and expert in error coins. He has also published some specialized books of coins. Although not being involved in Chinese coins since the mid 1990’s, he still has some great memories from the days when he was an important distributor. He started his business of selling Chinese coins in the 1980’s. Mr. Weinberg was the American distributor for the Phoenix & Dragon series, so naturally I had some questions for him. I asked him why there were a few 1989 dragon and phoenix coins since this series were issued in 1990. He told me he was once in Beijing to negotiate a deal of buying dragon and phoenix coins with Chinese officials. They agreed to deliver this set of coins dated 1989 in the second half of that year, but after that some political events happened and the Chinese authorities informed him that there would be a delay in delivery until the end of that year or later. Therefore Mr. Weinberg suggested changing

(first issued for the 1987 San Francisco International Coin Exhibition). This famous city was also commemorated by the China Mint’s first coin show issue Dragon, a 1 oz. gold struck for the 1988 San Francisco International Numismatic Convention. To this day, it remains one of the most beautiful and sought after show commemoratives. After years of selling and passionately promoting Chinese coins, Mr. Mish has accumulated a large impressive network of customers past and present as well as investors and cooperating dealers. Over the years he has sold numerous rarities and patterns, putting him in a good

(From L) Michael Chou, Fred Weinberg, King L. Chan

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Column 專欄 the date to 1990 in order to sell these coins as new products in the next year. It was not until he had almost sold all of those coins when he discovered the existence of some dated 1989. (Note: This set was recorded as ‘dragon and phoenix souvenir dated 1989’ in the Standard Catalog of Coins of the People’s Republic of China, edited by the currency board of People’s Bank of China in 1993, meaning there would be news versions of this type issued in the following years.) Next, we went to Mr. Richard Nelson’s home to have a visit. Richard Nelson founded the Hong Kong Coin Show in the 1980’s, which was a great contribution to coin collecting in Hong Kong. Although Mr. Nelson is very old he still allowed us to interview him from his bed. We were deeply moved by his kindness. Mr. Nelson used to travel between East Asia and Europe to do a coin and bullion business and had also been the exclusive distributor of 1 ounce silver pieces of Tibet and Sinkiang, panda gold coins, 5 ounce silver show pandas and others. Inspired by the prosperous coin show in Japan, he decided to organize an exhibition in Hong Kong (a free port). With the help of his friends in American coin collecting circles and the leaders of the Hong Kong Numismatics Association he succeeded in hosting the first International Hong Kong Coin Show in 1982. To attract attendees Mr. Nelson asked a travel agency to offer the most favorable price for air tickets and accommodations to them. He also treated the participants to a dinner on a cruise while enjoying the beautiful night at Victoria Harbor. From the efforts of Mr. Nelson the Hong Kong show won both praise and support from the public. Relying on his good relations with Chinese officials Mr. Nelson also ordered silver panda commemoratives for the coin show. This was the first time (1984) that a panda coin was used to commemorate a coin exhibition. He remembered how this was praised and well accepted, even being used as hard currency in trade at the show. Mr. Chou and I then drove by car a few hours inland to the famous resort area of Palm Springs to visit Mr. Martin Weiss. Mr. Mish flew in from San Francisco to join us. Mr. Weiss is an important person and numismatic pioneer in modern Chinese coins. He founded Panda America, a famous coin firm that during his oversight, was the major distributor of new issue China coins in the USA. Although he retired several years ago, he remains connected with the numismatic community as a consultant, and still deals with Chinese and other world coins on his own for fun.

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(From L) Robert Mish, Martin Weiss, King L. Chan, Michael Chou

Back in the 1980’s, Mr. Weiss cooperated with Taisei Coin Company of Japan, MTB Coins of New York USA, and Germany’s MDM Company to sell modern Chinese gold and silver coins worldwide. Besides his efforts in expanding the market Mr. Weiss also made suggestions to the Chinese authorities regarding the designs and themes of the coins. His suggestions were accepted and some of these coins even became classics, like the series of ancient Chinese inventions, the Kirin (unicorn) coin series, the 1995 set of ancient sailing ships, and the 1993 Marco Polo series. Interestingly, he told us his ideas of the designs were quite accidental. For example, the inspiration of Kirin coin came from Kirin beer, a Japanese brand of beer. He once bought a condensed book of History of Ancient Chinese Science and Technology in a bookshop at the airport lounge and this book inspired for him to design the series of coins with the theme of technical inventions of ancient China. The most interesting thing was what he told us about the first draft of this set of coins. It turned out that the silver and gold coins of the technical inventions series was first designed by a Soviet designer who had designed the 1980 Commemorative Coins of the Moscow Olympic Games. Chinese designers then modified the design based on the original draft and finally created this popular and exciting ‘Encyclopedia of Precious Metal’ on ancient Chinese science and technology. Mr. Weiss might have the most precious metal patterns of the PRC in the world. He once owned a 1 ounce Panda Gold Coin specimen struck in platinum (It was said this kind of pattern was struck in white gold by a foreign mint with a die borrowed from Chinese officials at the request of four foreign dealers. Only four pieces were made.), five gold panda specimens dated 1984, (which have sold for more than 8 million yuan at an auction in Shanghai a few years ago), three gold coins and one silver patterns of ancient Chinese


Column 專欄 science and technology series dated 1992 (the obverse of these patterns showed the Chinese national emblem, different from the original issued coin ones) and also 5 oz. gold and 5 oz. silver Marco Polo specimen coins (dated 1992, and belonged to the Germans at that time as this set was created in cooperation with Germany’s MDM). Mr. Martin Weiss knew all these patterns were unique, except for the 1 ounce gold panda pattern dated 1982. After our 2 day visit, Mr. Chou and I then took a flight from Southern California to Florida to visit the headquarters of Numismatic Guaranty Company (NGC) an internationally renowned coin grading firm. This 2500 mile journey equaled the distance from Shanghai to Urumqi! I really appreciated Mr. Chou for accompanying me on the trip. NGC is located in Sarasota, a quiet, beautiful small city in Florida. The headquarters of NGC was a secured single-story building and the security is similar to the Pentagon. At the entrance we met the chairman of NGC, Mr. Mark Salzberg. Instead of conducting a diplomatic conversation he directly introduced to me his new collecting interest: shark teeth fossils. He is a collector with many profound interests and a senior numismatist as well. Mr. Salzberg is a kind gentleman who has been recognized as one of the most important persons in American Numismatic Circles. He showed us around NGC building and carefully explained every step of the business and grading operations. It was this kind of seriousness that I admired most. All employees were focusing on their work while we were visiting but I could

The headquarters of NGC in Sarasota

(From L) NGC chairman Mark Salzberg, NGC CEO Steven Eichenbaum, NGC senior adviser King L. Chan

still feel an earnest but harmonious and friendly atmosphere. Mr. Salzberg himself was a grading analyst and usually worked in the grading room with the other graders. For this reason he and his employees got along well with each other. Besides grading coins and paper money NGC also provides grading services for comic books, magazines and movie posters. At a cocktail party, I mentioned to him that a medal which might have been incorrectly attributed as a pattern was to be auctioned very soon. On hearing this, Mr. Salzberg immediately called the chief grader of his department to look into this matter. I was much impressed by his determination and the extremely rigorous and modest style of the NGC leader who paid less attention to self-propaganda but more to action. On the last day we were invited to dinner by the NGC senior management including Mr. Steven Eichenbaum, CEO of Certified Collectibles Group who especially returned from his vacation to attend to our party. Mr. Eichenbaum is a much respected person among Chinese numismatists not only because of his success but also his warm and friendly character. He has traveled between America and China for many years. Under his leadership and the effort of his staff, NGC had successfully built a solid business base in China and became the leading company in the grading of modern Chinese coins. I agree with their company’s philosophy of focusing more on grading work rather than unnecessary selfpromotion. As both Mr. Mish and Mr. Chou had a stall at the Chicago ANA Coin Convention, we met again in the “windy city”. Such a large exhibition, over 350 dealers, is seldom held in Asia. I suppose it would take about 4 hours to briefly visit all the booths and days to visit with focus. I was much impressed by the more than 30 bookcases of 4 big stalls selling special books and albums for coin collecting and research. Many collectors were not just interested in collecting and investing but also wanted to study coins. This phenomenon showed that America was really a mature coin collecting market. China is still in the primary stage of modern coin collecting and I hope and envision there will be more books and articles published on Chinese numismatics. After all, studying is among the most rewarding aspects of coin collecting. I also found about 90 percent of stalls were owned by private dealers (At major shows in Asia, a large percent of the booths are owned by Mints and/or their Distribution agencies.). Each of these independent dealer booths had their own characteristics. Some had been in this business for generations with welldeveloped product specialties. I even saw tables of firms specializing in plasters and original molds. Although most

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Column 專欄 stands were selling American coins, there were still some dealers selling other types of coins from different countries. I remember watching these dealers and customers sitting together discussing coins looking very happy. Most dealers were coin fanciers or collectors themselves. They carefully organized their products and introduced them in a polite and enthusiastic way. Their behaviors showed their respect for this industry, this hobby, coin collectors and also for dealers themselves. I believe this is the best environment to attract more highly-qualified buyers and form a virtuous cycle for the coin market.

2015 Chicago ANA coin show medal

At the end of the ANA Show Mr. Mish and Mr. Chou hosted the Dinner Banquet for the Nicolas Brown Award for the Advancement of Chinese Numismatics. Many famous coin dealers in the world were in attendance, including Chinese dealers, Mr. Hou Ou-ching and Mr. Xu Jianxin. The chairman of NGC, Mr. Mark Salzberg and Panda America founder Mr. Martin Weiss were there too. (Mr. Weiss was the winner of the first Nick Brown lifetime achievement award in 2013). Every attendee got a NGC graded Nick Brown bronze medal as a souvenir. The Lifetime Achievement Award for 2015 was given to Mr. Oka, the late president of Japan’s Taisei Coin Company. Mr Oka’s son Masahiro Oka received the prize on behalf of his father. Then each participant made a speech in memory of Mr. Oka. At the end of the dinner Mr. Danny Spungen, a famous collector of both panda coins and also documents of the historical Jewish Holocaust in Nazi Germany, (and also the winner of the first yearly achievement Nick Brown Award in 2013) introduced a guest to tell stories of her grandfather (who used to be a counterfeiter in Nazi Germany) and displayed many treasures. Both her stories and exhibits impressed me very much. Although this was a dark period in German, European as well as Asian history, it spawned many collectibles which have contributed to preserving the truths and memory, in hope that future peoples remember to never let such atrocities happen again. At the conclusion of the ANA “World’s Fair of Money” (which it truly is), I flew back to Hong Kong directly from Chicago, my head spinning with so many pleasant memories and so much new information to process! I am looking forward to returning for the 2016 ANA to be held in Anaheim, California, right next to the original Disneyland.

2015 Chicago ANA coin show

Michael Chou, Fred Schwan, and Neil Shafer attend ANA annual dinner

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Nick Brown Award for the Advancement of Numismatics. (From L) King L. Chan, Michael Chou, David Camire, Robert Mish, Masahiro Oka, Martin Weiss


Column 專欄

美國錢幣之旅 陳景林(香港) 2015 年夏天非常榮幸的得到著名美國錢幣商羅伯特 •

溫伯格先生就提出將年號改作 1990 年好讓他在來年作為

米什(Robert Mish)和著名錢幣拍賣商(Michael Chou)

新貨發售。在收到 1990 年版龍鳳幣以後,他並沒有察覺

周邁可先生的邀請,到訪闊別 20 多年的美國,為寫書搜

到其中原來夾雜有 1989 年版幣(估計是造幣廠在未收到

集素材訪問了多位著名的中國現代金銀幣經銷商,並參

改變年號指令前最早打的一批)。他說發覺有 1989 年版

觀和訪問了 NGC 錢幣評級公司和 ANA 全美錢幣收藏家

已是很後期的事了,貨都基本賣完了!(注:根據中國

年度博覽會,最後還參加了“尼克﹒布朗錢幣收藏貢獻奬”

人民銀行貨幣發行司於 1993 年編輯的《中華人民共和國

頒獎晚宴。

貨幣圖錄》一書,該套幣記載為“1989 年龍鳳紀念幣”, 頗有後續仍會發行不同年份之意。)

第一站是從香港乘坐聯合航空飛抵舊金山,羅伯特 • 米什特地開車來迎接我,首先去了他位於羅伯特的錢幣 店裡參觀,他的店鄰近著名的史丹福大學,社區內高級 的商店餐廳林立,還有優雅的住宅區,是美國罕有的一 片淨土。米什先生的店開業已超過 30 年,店內陳設樸實 無華與羅伯特先生的友善作風頗相似。我們花了一整天 時間拍攝錢幣、證書和包裝盒的照片,並且閱覽他保存 了幾十年的有關中國現代幣的文獻資料,又聽取了他細 說幾十年來經營中國幣的回憶和經驗。我頗感意外的是 一位錢幣商竟如此仔細地保留資料,實屬難得,資料當 中還有他在 20 世紀 90 年代在錢幣報上刊登的全版中國 現代幣售賣廣告。其實羅伯特 • 米什是最早在美國經銷 中國幣的幣商之一,早於 80 年代即到訪過北京和上海並 相談業務。他開創性和成功地開發了新中國第一枚 1 盎 司黃金紀念熊貓(1987 年紀念舊金山國際硬幣展銷會而

左起:周邁可、弗莱德 • 溫伯格、陳景林

接着我們來到理查德 • 尼爾遜先生(Richard Nelson)

的家裡,他是香港錢幣博覽會的創辦者,在 80 年代初

發行的紀念熊貓)。於次年他還為第二屆舊金山錢幣展

首創香港幣壇盛事對業界頗有建樹。他因年事已高是躺

覽會訂造了新中國首枚的黃金紀念金龍,它們至今仍被

在床上接受訪問的,使我們非常感動。早年尼爾遜先生

認可為最精美和受歡迎的藏品。他一直經營中國幣至今,

經常來往東亞及歐洲經營錢幣金條買賣,亦曾經獨家經

在世界幣壇有廣泛的關係和人脈,非常多的現代幣珍罕

銷過早年的西藏、新疆 1 盎司銀幣,熊貓金幣和 5 盎司

品及樣幣均由他賣出。近年為推動中國錢幣收藏,還與

銀章等項目。受到當時日本繁榮的地方錢幣博覽會所啟

周邁可先生籌辦了多項公益活動,並且合作重新開發精

發;萌生了在香港這麼一個自由港舉辦博覽會的念頭。

美絕倫的紀念熊貓。米什先生還抽空開車帶我遊覽著名

藉着他與香港錢幣協會領導和美國錢幣界的人脈關係,

的金門橋,意外地在碼頭廣場巧遇香港首位特首董建華

在 1982 年成功籌辦了“首屆香港國際硬幣展覽會”。為

先生並向他致敬!

了吸引國際幣商參展,尼爾遜先生聯絡旅行社安排了最

下一站由周邁可開車前往拜訪弗莱德 • 溫伯格(Fred Weinberg)先生,他是美國知名的錯幣專家和幣商並曾 出版過專著。20 世紀 80 年代中他開始經銷中國幣,著 名的龍鳳呈祥紀念幣、孔雀開屏幣、嬰戲圖幣和龍馬精 神幣均是他的主要項目。我特地請敎他關於龍鳳紀念幣 的年號問題:為何龍鳳幣是 1990 年發行的但卻出現少量 1989 年版的?他說在 1989 年初曾到北京與中國官方協 商龍鳳幣經銷事宜,談判順利並預計下半年交貨,年號

優惠的機票、食宿提供給參加者,並自費為他們提供香 港觀光行程,還用遊艇晚宴形式為他們洗塵參觀維多利 亞港美麗夜色!最後贏得了各界的口碑與支持。尼爾遜 先生藉着與中國造幣官方的良好關係還為展覽會訂製了 純銀紀念章;開創了以熊貓作為硬幣展覽會紀念章的先 例,受到好評而且認受度高。據說當年這些章在展覽會 場中還可以當作硬通貨使用作買賣呢! 羅伯特 • 米什和周邁可先生均陪伴我飛到南加州探訪

用 1989 年,但因發生了政治事件,中方恐怕生產會有延

馬丁 • 魏斯(Martin Weiss),並在當地住宿一晚,可見

誤,通知溫伯格先生可能要到年底甚至更遲才能交貨,

魏斯先生在他們心目中的重要性,我們都很敬重這位幣

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Column 專欄 壇老前輩和美國熊貓錢幣公司的創辦人。他早在 80 年代

Salsberg),我們一開始並沒有客套對話,他直接就充滿

即與日本泰星公司、美國 MTB 銀行、德國 MDM 公司形

興趣地向我介紹他的新藏品:鯊魚牙齒化石。他的確是

成緊密聯繫,面向全世界經銷中國現代金銀幣。除了在

一位收藏家、錢幣學家。他溫文爾雅,待人親切,曾被

開拓市場方面有貢獻之外,他還向中國官方提出了錢幣

譽為“美國幣壇最重要的人物”。薩爾茨堡先生親自帶

主題設計的建議,均被採納並成為經典幣品:中國古代

領我們參觀了每一個工序每一個部門,講解和安排都非

科技發明發現系列、麒麟系列、古代航海船系列和 1993

常仔細認真,這就是我最欣賞的修養。公司內員工雖然

年版馬可 • 波羅系列等。更有趣的是他道出這些系列的

都聚精會神地工作,但我感受到一種既嚴肅又和諧和友

構思過程,其實也是偶然再結合他的智慧。比如麒麟幣

善的氣氛。薩爾茨堡先生本身就是一位評級師,長時間

的靈感來自日本品牌“麒麟”啤酒。古代發明系列的主

都會在評級室工作並與員工打成一片。除了硬幣和紙幣

題,內容以至設計均源於一次在機場候機室書店買到的

的評級外,他們公司還有漫畫、雜誌和電影海報的評級

《中國古代科技史》濃縮本,但最有趣的卻是他告訴我

服務。有一件事最令我印象深刻的事是薩爾茨堡先生遇

們:古代科技發明金銀幣系列的設計初稿原來均出自一

事非常果斷。在一個酒會中我與他提起了一枚可能被錯

位曾經負責設計 1980 年莫斯科奧運紀念幣的蘇聯設計師

評為樣幣的紀念章很快會公開拍賣,他立即中止了所有

之手。中方後來在這個圖稿的基礎上作出修改,才有打

活動馬上致電該部門的主任評級師研究問題,這反映出

造岀這套廣受歡迎、振奮人心的中國古代科技“貴金屬

NGC 領導層少作宣傳但卻極度嚴謹的低調作風。最後一

百科全書”。魏斯先生可能曾經是世上擁有最多新中國

天 NGC 領導層宴請我們吃飯,首總裁史提分 • 艾肯鮑姆

貴金屬樣幣的人。他曾擁有 1982 年熊貓 1 盎司金幣的白

先生(Steven Eichenbaum)特地從外地度假提前回來,

金材質樣幣(據聞此樣幣是四大海外經銷商借用中國官

艾肯鮑姆先生過多年來經常穿梭於中美兩國,在他的領

方原模請外國造幣廠以白金鑄造的 , 共造了 4 枚留念),

導和員工的努力下,成功地在中國打下了堅實的業務基

1984 年的五枚金套熊貓樣幣(數年前在滬拍出人民幣

礎,在現代幣評級界可謂首屈一指。我比較認同他們的

800 多萬元),1992 年古代科技發明發現三金一銀樣幣(樣

理念:把主要精力放在將評級工作做到最好而非宣傳炒

幣與正幣區別在於正面圖案:樣幣均用國徽而非長城),

作。

1993 年馬可 • 波羅 5 盎司大規格金、銀樣幣(樣幣上的 年版號均為 1992 年,又因這套幣是與德國 MDM 合作開 發的,故此銀樣幣當時由德方擁有)。馬丁 • 魏斯先生 所知這些樣幣的存世量均為 1 枚,1982 年 1 盎司金貓樣 幣除外。

NGC 評級公司總部,位於薩拉索塔市

左起:羅伯特 • 米什、馬丁 • 魏斯、陳景林、周邁可

評級公司總部,飛行距離等同上海至烏魯木齊。一路

NGC 董事長馬克 • 薩爾茨堡、NGC 總裁 Steven Eichenbaum、NGC 資深顧問陳景林

上 還 由 周 先 生 開 車, 不 勝 感 謝! NGC 坐 落 於 南 部 的

設有攤位,我們再次在“風之城”相會。幣展有超過 350

SARASOTA 市,是一個寧靜又優美的小城市。總部是

個錢幣商,規模之大在亞洲較為少見。我曾大概計算一

一座密封式單層建築,保安深嚴仿似華盛頓的五角大

下把所有攤位簡單參觀完共需約 4 個小時,當然還不能

樓! 剛 進 門 就 見 到 董 事 長 馬 克 • 薩 爾 茨 堡 先 生(Mark

細看。印像深刻的是四個大攤位加起來約有 30 多個書櫃

我和周先生一同從南加州飛往佛羅裡達參觀 NGC

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羅伯特 • 米什和周邁可先生均在芝加哥 ANA 錢幣展


Column 專欄 專門出售錢幣收藏研究書籍和畫冊,這大概也顯示了這

愉悅,經常坐下來互相探討幣識,大部分幣商本身就是

個集幣大國的成熟發展,有大批藏家對錢幣作出研究而

錢幣愛好者或藏家,而且有學養和修養,對自己的錢幣

不單止是收藏與投資而已。我國的現代幣收藏還處於初

愛護有加,都陳設得整整齊齊的,並且很有禮貌和熱情

級階段,但願能見到更多更豐富的學術著作!畢竟研究

地去介紹錢幣和傳播知識,這就是對這個行業、愛好者、

錢幣才是真正的樂趣所在啊!另外一個特點是我發現錢

藏家甚至幣商自己的尊重!相信這樣的環境才能吸引真

幣個體戶佔會場 90%以上,他們各有專長,有些已是跨

正有能耐的高端客人加入,使錢幣市場步入良性的循環

代經營,藏品也分得很細,我就見過專門賣錢幣石膏原

發展軌道。

模的攤位,當然主要還是以美國幣為主,不過有專門於 不同類別或時期錢幣的商人。印象中幣商與客人都表情

ANA 展覽接近尾聲。米什先生和周邁可先生舉辦的 “尼克 • 布朗錢幣收藏貢獻獎”的頒獎晚宴,當晚邀請 了世界各地知名幣商參加;也包括多位國內來參觀的幣 商如侯藕清先生和徐建新先生等。NGC 總裁馬克 • 薩爾 茨堡先生和馬丁 • 魏斯先生也出席了活動。每位嘉賓都 獲贈一枚 NGC 評級鑒定過的尼克 • 布朗紀念銅章作為紀 念品。2015 年的終身成就獎是頒給已故的日本泰星錢幣 公司總裁崗正道(Masamichi Oka)先生,並由他的兒子 領獎。在馬丁先生帶領下,大家都發言對崗正道先生緬 懷一番。最後由圈內著名熊貓幣和猶太受難歷史文獻物

2015 年芝加哥 ANA 錢幣展覽會紀念章

品收藏家 Danny Spungen 先生為我們帶來了一位嘉賓講 述她祖父(曾擔任納粹黨偽鈔製造專家)的歷史,還展 出了多種實物,令人印象深刻。這些藏品和回憶揭示了 當年德國,歐洲乃至亞洲的黑暗歷史。希望我們都能吸 取教訓永遠不要再讓悲劇上演! 終於我踏上回國之路,內心百感交集。芝加哥 ANA 國際錢幣展確實名不虛傳,其規模之宏大與廣博值得我 們學習。這次旅程還有幸的了解到不少鮮為人知的中國 現代幣故事,值得我好好整理並與大家分享。熱切期待 再次參加今年六月份在加州迪士尼發源地安納海姆市 (Anaheim)舉辦的 2016ANA 展會!

2015 年芝加哥 ANA 錢幣展覽會

周邁可、弗瑞德 • 施萬、Neil Shafer 在 ANA 年度晚宴

“尼克 • 布朗中國錢幣收藏貢獻獎”的頒獎晚宴 左起:陳景林、周邁可、David Camire、羅伯特 • 米什、 崗政弘、馬丁 • 魏斯

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Preliminary Research on Wang Mang Coins Lian Wenyu (Taiyuan) Numismatic culture is an extraordinary part in the Chinese cultural history. In addition to its practical function, each coin also reflects its specific political, economic, manufacturing technology and cultural contexts. In the Chinese numismatic development history, it is generally acknowledged that Wang Mang Coins and North Song Dynasty Emperor Huizong Coins are the most outstanding examples. In this article, I will make a preliminary research on the numismatic cultural interpretations of the Wang Mang coins based on the prototypes which my family acquired at great expense over 40 years. The History and Categories of Wang Mang Coins 1. Historical Background The Wang Mang coins, as its name suggests, are the coins cast in the reign of Wang Mang. Wang Mang was born into an imperial family in 45 BC and, with the help of his powerful uncle Wang Feng, the commander of the armed forces at that time, Wang Mang began his political career. In the reign of Emperor Ping, the Grand Empress Dowager Wang Zhengjun, who was Wang Mang’s aunt, gradually fostered her personal cohorts and promoted Wang Mang to be the Marquis of Xindu in 16 BC. In 8 BC, Wang Mang succeeded to the position of the commander of the armed forces (the most powerful court official). On the one hand, he took drastic action to attack his political enemies; on the other hand, he donated money and land to gain support from the people as well as Confucian scholars, as he was preparing to seize the throne. In AD 5, he poisoned the fourteen-yearold Emperor Ping, and the next year selected two-year-old Liu Ying as the designated successor to Emperor Ping. He granted himself the title of “Regent of the Emperor” and “Acting Emperor”. In AD 8, Wang Mang usurped the throne and established the Xin Dynasty. In AD 23, the Lulin and Chimei rebels destroyed the regime. Wang Mang instituted a series of large-scale political and economic reforms, especially the four currency system reforms, which were said to have hastened the destruction of the regime. 2. Currency System Reform From AD 7 to 14, Wang Mang conducted four currency system reforms. He firstly ordered production of large value knife coins. Then in a second reform, he introduced 28 varieties of coins made of five materials (gold, silver, copper, tortoise shells and cowrie shells). It was hard for people

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to understand such a vast and complex monetary system and as a result, Wang’s currency system was forced to be abolished. The following two reforms leave us various kinds of numismatic legacies (see pic.1 to pic.5). The Fascination of the Wang Mang Coins 1. Fabulous Calligraphy Chinese calligraphic art consists of Seal, Clerical, Regular, Running and Cursive Scripts. Since the First Emperor of Qin commanded Li Si to invent the Small Seal Script, the legends on coins were usually written in Small Seal Script. In the Xin dynasty, based on the Seal Script, Wang Mang developed a new version that displayed the great calligraphic accomplishment. The horizontal stroke was like a firm and stable crossbar while the vertical stroke was so overwhelming like a waterfall rushing down. As for the stroke with a hook, it seemed to be finished in a smooth motion, natural and unrestrained. The legends on the Wang Mang Coins are unparalleled due to its smoothness, powerfulness, elegance and balance of the strokes. 2. Unique Production Technology Since the First Emperor of Qin standardized the coins, the coins were mainly in round shape with a square hole. But the Wang Mang Coins were oddly shaped. Please see the following details. Gold Inlaid Knife coin (Pic. 1): the top is round with a square hole seamlessly integrated with the blade. The two characters “Yi Dao” ( 一 刀 , meaning “one knife”) were written in complicated calligraphic art. The knife coin, inlaid with real gold which functioned as an anti-counterfeiting measure, was a unique Chinese numismatic achievement. Wang Mang Coins (“Six Rounded Coins”, “Ten Spades”, “Money Spade” huo bu 貨布 and “Biscuit Huo Quan”) (See Pics. 2, 3, and 4): These coins have become highly valued for their beauty. It was the first time for Chinese coins to display the numbers "one to ten" (10 series of numbers) in the same currency. This was a move to promote the mathematical evolution of the Han Dynasty. “Guo Bao Jin Kui Zhi Wan” (meaning “national treasure gold reserve value ten thousand”): round top with square bottom reflects the “round sky and square earth”. The “Guo Bao Jin Kui” was written in an unusual order (top, bottom,


Column 專欄 right and left). This coin is very rare now, only two specimens had been found before the 20th century. One is now in the China National Museum and the other is in a Hong Kong collection. Recently a few more have been excavated, but most of these were broken.This coin illustrated in Pic. 5 and was authenticated by the expert Sun Zhonghui (Pic. 6). It is one of the best known examples and is extremely rare. In my opinion, Wang Mang coins set four records in Chinese numismatic history. They boast the most advanced bronze smelting technology, the consummate coin casting technique, the most beautiful Seal Script calligraphy, and monetary reform with

the greatest number of coin categories during one reign. The Reasons and Results of the Monetatry Reform 1. As a Confucian scholar, Wang Mang took power with his imperial relatives’s help. 2. After Wang Mang usurped the throne, he abolished the knife coins out of political necessities. 3. The reforms were to suppress inflation but ended in failure. 4. After Wang Mang became the emperor, he had taken further steps to control finance and increase the national treasury revenue. Each reform of the currency system had the effect of looting property from people, which intensified the class conflict and led to rebellions. Eventually, Wang Mang was killed by rebels. He was viewed as a usurper and conspirator. In summary, when we do research in numismatics we should adopt a viewpoint of historical materialism. While appreciating numismatic culture, we must analyze the political and economic conditions which were prevalent at the time these coins were made. It is only in this way can we come to a conclusion. That may be the most enlightening thing that Wang Mang coins give us.

Pic. 1 Qi Dao Wu Bai (meaning “inscribed knife five hundred”, equals to 500 cash) and Yi Dao Ping Wu Qian (meaning “one knife worth five thousand”, equals to 5,000 cash)

Pic. 3 “Ten Spades”

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Pic. 2 “Six Coins”

Pic. 5 “Guo Bao Jin Kui Zhi Wan” (meaning “national treasure gold reserve value ten thousand”)

Pic. 4 Money Spade, Spade Coin, Wealth Coin

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Pic. 6 Authentication by Sun Zhonghui on the “Guo Bao Jin Kui Zhi Wan”

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新朝貨幣文化初探 廉文煜(太原) 貨幣文化是中國文化史上的一支奇葩,因為它除了在 經濟交往中的實效作用外,每一種貨幣都能折射出鑄行 時代的政治、經濟、製造工藝、文化修養等諸多方面的 內涵。而在源遠流長的中國錢幣發展史上,業界公認莽 錢和徽宗錢是精品中璀璨的兩顆明珠。本文依據我家三 代人、歷 40 多年耗費巨資艱辛收藏的莽錢實物,僅對新 朝的貨幣文化內涵作一粗淺賞析,以期拋磚引玉,與識 者共商。 一、莽錢的歷史淵源和種類 1. 歷史背景 莽錢是王莽執政時期新鑄錢幣的簡稱。公元前 45 年, 王莽出生於皇親國戚之家。漢成帝時期靠時任大司馬大 將軍的舅父王鳳提攜步入官場,並繼其之後出任大司馬 大將軍。漢平帝時,在其姑母太皇太后王政君的培植下, 王莽復位,封新都侯,得以外戚掌權。他一方面排除異己, 打壓另一外戚衛氏,另一方面屢次捐錢捐地,收攬民心, 樹立黨羽,籠絡儒生,為自己奪取政權做準備。公元 5 年, 王莽毒死十四歲的漢平帝,次年立年僅二歲的劉嬰為帝, 先後稱攝政皇帝和假皇帝,權傾朝野。攝政三年後,王 莽於公元 8 年自立為帝,改國號新,公元 23 年新王朝在 赤眉、綠林等農民起義軍的打擊下崩潰。王莽在位期間 在政治經濟上進行了一些改革,先後四次改革幣製,頻 繁地更換貨幣。新王朝的迅速崩潰,可以說主要源於這 次荒唐的貨幣改革。 2. 幣制改革 王莽於公元 7 至 14 年間,先後進行了四次幣制改革。 先鑄大值刀幣遭反,進而復古改制。行用“五物” (金、銀、 銅、龜、貝)、“六名”(黃金、銀貨、龜幣、貝幣、布、泉) 計二十八品。由於貨幣“複雜難辨,天下騷動”而告終。 以後又連續兩次幣製改革,為後世留下了一刀平五千(錯 刀)、契刀五百、“六泉”、“十布”、布泉、貨泉、 貨布、國寶金匱直萬等種類繁多、式樣新穎、鑄造精良、 藝術絕倫的歷史遺產(圖 1 至圖 5)。 二、莽錢的藝術魅力 1. 書法藝術精美絕倫 中國書法藝術分篆、隸、楷、行、草五大類。自李斯 受秦始皇書同文之命創小篆以來,貨幣上的文字多以小 篆為主。莽錢上的書法藝術,在傳統篆字書寫的基礎上, 加以發展變化,融錢文書法線篆、懸針篆和長腳篆為一體,

呈現出精美絕倫的藝術特色。橫若巨木托殿,鋼柱擋道, 氣勢逼人;曲似驚鴻飛蹄,自由舒展,流暢自然;豎如 高山瀑布,一瀉千里,勢不可擋,又像鐵線懸空,遒勁 挺拔,堅不可摧。縱覽诸钱钱文书法,清秀而無柔弱之感, 奔放而有內斂之氣。其線條之流暢,力度之勁健,形體 之優美,結構布白之均衡,疏密之有緻,書法精髓俱現, 是其他貨幣文字難望其項背的。 2. 鑄造工藝獨具特色 自秦始皇統一貨幣以來,圓形方孔為其主要造型。王 莽復古改製,莽錢造型奇特,成為藝術欣賞的另一特色。 錯刀:刀柄外圓內方,下部與刀身渾然一體。“一刀” 兩字工藝複雜,刻有外窄內寬的燕尾榫。內充黃金,整 體錢幣既美觀又具防偽功能,工藝造型古今中外絕無僅 有。 布泉(“六泉”、“十布”、貨布、貨泉、布泉): 布幣線條清麗典雅,外形似褲,外廓弧形線條流暢自如, 與幣上文字線條結合得天衣無縫,無懈可擊。泉幣外廓 圓整,內方均衡,足見模範之精美。更為突出的是首次 在同一貨幣系列中顯示出“一”至“十”10 個數字,此 舉推動了漢代數字的進化,為以後中國宋代民間商業數 字即蘇州碼子開了先河。 國寶金匱直萬:造型更獨具匠心,整體上圓下方,暗 含古代中國“天圓地方”之識,上體外圓內方,亦有“外 柔內剛”之意。“國寶金匱”四字佈局上下右左,“匱” 古通“櫃”,存物之器也,下體形似箱櫃。“直萬”二 字豎鑄於箱櫃之上,大有家財萬貫之寓意。此錢幣存世 量極少,20 世紀前僅發現兩枚,國家館藏一枚,另一枚 流於香港。“近年始有新出”,大多錢體殘缺,本文展 示這一枚經中國錢幣鑒定專家孫仲匯鑒定為真品,且“此 屬品相最佳之一,為莽錢大珍”(圖 6)。 筆者淺見,莽錢在中國貨幣史上創下了四個之最: 一是青銅冶煉技術為當時最高;二是錢幣鑄造工藝最精; 三是鐵畫銀鉤、遒勁自然的懸針篆體最美;四是改革幣 製次數和推行的錢幣品類最多。毋庸置疑,莽錢在中國 錢幣史上成為一個朝代的大系列,給後人留下一部豐富 的貨幣文化遺產。 三、莽錢改製的原因和後果 1. 王莽由一名儒生靠皇親關係,投機鑽營,沽名釣譽, 進入劉氏皇權之內,實現外戚專權,進而為篡漢立新實

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THE JOURNAL OF EAST ASIAN NUMISMATICS


Column 專欄 行財政儲備。 2. 王莽篡權后,為削除劉氏皇朝影響,以繁體“劉” 字從刀而廢除刀幣,是政治上的需要。 3. 莽錢以小充大,幣值增高,造成通貨膨脹,以緻“農 商失業,食貨俱廢,民人至涕泣於市道”,只好飲鴆止渴, 不斷進行改製,此為形勢所迫。

4. 王莽登基后,為進一步控製金融,壟斷工商業,是 為增加國庫稅收的需要。 王莽屢易貨幣,每一次都是對人民的大掠奪,加速了 人民的破產。這種急功近利、竭澤而漁的政策,不僅不 能挽救王莽政權,反而使階級矛盾更加突出,社會更加 動蕩,民不聊生,自然揭竿而起。公元 23 年,王莽在長 安被農民起義軍殺死。在歷史上留下了陰謀家和篡位者 的罵名。 綜上所述,我們不難看出,研究貨幣文化必須採用歷 史唯物主義的觀點。在欣賞其文化內涵的同時,也要分 析其折射出的政治、經濟內涵,方能得出一個較為準確 的結論。這恐怕就是莽錢給我們的一個啟迪。

圖 1 契刀五百、一刀平五千(正面)

東 亞 泉 志

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圖 2“六泉”(正面)

圖 3“ 十布”(正面)


Column 專欄

圖 4 貨布、貨泉、布泉(正面)

圖 5 國寶金匱直(值)萬(正、背)

圖 6 孙仲汇鉴定意见

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TOP CHINESE COINS 2nd Edition 《中國近代機制幣精品鑒賞》第二版 Price( 售價 ):US $100 Plus Postage( 不含郵費 )

In June 2010, Top Chinese Coins Vol. 1 was published by iAsure Group and the The Journal of East Asian Numismatics (JEAN). Top Chinese Coins Vol. 1 offers an in-depth summary of the final results from the Top Chinese Coins Survey, a landmark event held in winter 2009 to search for the 10 most valuable Chinese struck coins. Coins submitted for review were judged by their rarity, historical importance, artistic appeal, condition, market value and group identity. The deluxe bound book offered details on the Top Chinese Coins Survey as well as high-quality pictures, price trends, degrees of rarity and historical context of the 60 top Modern Chinese Coins.

Top Chinese Coins , Vol. 1 had a limited print run of 1000, leaving many numismatists and enthusiasts unable to purchase a copy of their own. In response to high demand, iAsure has made certain that the second volume will be available to a much wider audience. While Top Chinese Coins Vol. 1 included gold, silver and copper coins, the second volume highlights the great range of silver coins. It will also add summaries from auction sales that list pricing, degree of rarity, pedigree and grades. 2010年6月,愛秀集團和《東亞泉志》出版了《中國

第一版的基礎上出版第二版。相比第一版60枚錢幣囊括

近代機製幣精品鑒賞》第一版。該書對60枚中國最頂級

金幣、銀幣和銅元,第二版專注於60枚中國近代機製銀

的近代機製幣進行了全面、深入、系統的研究與展現。

幣,定名為《中國近代機製銀幣精品鑒賞•銀幣版》 (簡

其內容涵蓋高清錢幣圖像、流傳脈絡、拍賣紀錄、市場

稱《銀幣鑒賞》)。

趨勢、珍稀度解析和背景故事等,在錢幣業界引起巨大 的轟動和反響,備受讚譽,被譽為“全景式展現中國珍 稀機製幣的重要鑒賞書籍”。

由於頁面所限,第二版刊載60枚中國銀幣精品的重 要資訊,在第一版的基礎上有多方面改進和加強。《銀 幣鑒賞》在最受歡迎和好評的照片拍攝和排版下更多功

儘管因時間蒼促、經驗不足,書中存在一些缺陷和

夫,並提供更多詳細、準確和豐富的近期拍賣成交價格

錯誤,但仍得到讀者的肯定和欣賞。由於該書僅限量印

記錄、歷史評估、珍稀度和譜系說明。所有內容均為中

刷1000本,無法滿足廣大錢幣愛好者的需求。經多位資

英雙語,彩色精裝印刷。第一版中有關錢幣背景的“故

深錢幣專家、學者、收藏家的建議,愛秀集團決定在

事閱讀”部分將以附件方式另行印刷成冊。

If required, please contact Liu Jinling 如果需要請聯繫劉金玲小姐 Tel:021-6299 3235 Email: dyqz2015@163.com


Chopmarked Coins - A History 《戳記幣簡史》 Colin Gullberg 高林

Price ( 售價 ):US $50 Plus Postage ( 不含郵費 ) The book Chopmarked Coins- A History by Colin Gullberg is funded by iAsure Group. The softcover book is 187 pages in length, 210mm×285mm, fourcolor printing. It covers the history of foreign silver coins that circulated in China from 1600 to 1935 and contains images of some 150 coins. Gullberg includes firstperson accounts, summaries of all modern sources of knowledge on the subject and scans from a shroff’s handbook (circa 1890). It is the first English- language book on the subject since 1990 and only the second English language book on the subject.

愛秀集團贊助出版發行的 戳記幣英文專著《戳記幣簡 史》為軟裝本,正文內容187 頁,開本210mm×285mm, 四色印刷,闡述了1600年至 1935年間中國流通的外國戳記 銀幣概況,作者高林先生採用 第一人稱敘述,總結了現代有 關戳記幣的詳盡知識,並配有 某錢莊的手冊(約1890年)掃 描插圖和150多張戳記幣高清 圖片。本書是1990年之後的第 一本戳記幣英文專著,也是有 史以來的第二本戳記幣英文專 著。

Chinese And Foreign Papermoney Errors 《華洋怪鈔 -- 中外錯體紙幣賞析圖鉴》 David Chio 趙康池 Aguang Chan 陳耀光

Price ( 售價 ):MOP $300; RMB 240; US $30 Plus Postage ( 不含郵費 ) In December 2015, this book was released by Macau Numismatic Society and edited by David Chio and Aguang Chan. A total of 1,000 copies was printed, 200 in hard cover and 800 soft cover. The book is 323 pages of full color A4 size 210×285 mm and features over 300 error notes and 800 photos. Notes from Chin dynasty to modern times and more than 10 countries and region is covered. The books also cover causes of errors, background information on the printing process and authenticity of errors. This is the first book in Chinese to feature this type of information on error notes and its collection.

该书由澳門錢幣學會於2015年 12月出版,趙康池、陳耀光編著。 印行1000冊,其中精裝本200冊, 平裝本800冊。是書全彩精印,小 A4开本,210mm×285mm,323 頁,選錄了中外錯體紙幣300多 種,圖片800多張,涵蓋中國自清 末到現今使用的紙幣,涉及中外十 多個國家和地區。本書對中外錯 體、錯版、變體等紙幣的成因、歷 史背景和辨偽,實事求是地作了系 統的、科學的分析與歸納,並介紹 了印鈔基本步驟和印鈔過程中所產 生的“另類”紙幣,補充了不少紙 幣收藏的基礎知識。可以說,本書 是首本對錯體紙幣進行全方位論述 的著作。

If required, please contact Champion Auction Liu Jinling 如果需要請聯繫冠軍拍賣公司劉金玲小姐 Tel: 021-6299 3235 Email: dyqz2015@163.com


Shanxi Sycee 《陝西銀錠》 By Li Jiong

作者:李炯

Price ( 售價 ):RMB ¥398 Shanxi Sycee was written by Li Jiong, a collector and researcher of Shanxi sycee from Yulin, Shanxi. Mr. Li collected 600 varieties of Shanxi sycee over a ten–year period and after comparing and analyzing many collections of Shanxi sycee, he decided that there was a need for a professionally researched book on the subject. Mr. Li has classified Shanxi sycee into six categories: 50 taels boat-shaped ingots, officially minted sycee, commercially minted sycee, Shanxi stamp remittance ingots from other provinces, odd-shaped sycee, and a sixth ‘other’ group of sycee. This book comprehensively shows the conditions of the circulation of Shanxi silver currency in the late Qing Dynasty and early Republic Period. This book also examines the social conditions including politics, economics, culture, and customs of that period. The president of the Xi’an Branch of The People’s Bank China Guo Xinming and prominent collector Dai Zhiqiang both wrote prefaces for this book. They remarked that this book was a masterpiece of Shanxi numismatics and filled a space in the research of

the silver currency of Shanxi Province. Mr. Dai remarked that “This book is a professional work of research of Shanxi sycee. Mr. Li has taken advantage of local sources in his research and has made a great achievement in numismatic research. It covers all development stages of Shanxi sycee including its infancy, development, widespread adoption and its final discontinuation.” The book is A4 size and is 260 pages long with two additional trifold pages. It is printed in full-color and is illustrated with good quality graphics of Shanxi sycee. It was published by Shanxi Media Group’s Sanqin Press in July 2015. Buy from website: www.coinsky.com/htm/shop/show. cgi?id=1648 (Note: the book is signed by the author) Contact: Mr. Li Jiong Cell Phone: 15529990006; 15667811786 Email: 1327978511@qq.com 銀錠、外省陝槽、陝西異形銀錠、存疑待考銀錠六大類, 全面展示了清末民國時期陝西省白銀貨幣的通行現狀, 側面反映了這一時期政治、經濟、文化、民俗等方面的 社會面貌。本書由中國人民銀行西安分行行長郭新明、 著名錢幣學家戴志強先生並序。郭序指出:《陝西銀錠》 的出版,恰逢我國 “一路一帶”戰略構想提出之際,是 陝西錢幣研究的又一力作,填補了陝西白銀貨幣研究的 空白。戴序認為《陝西銀錠》是一部有關陝西地方銀錠 的專譜、專著,李炯先生立足本鄉本土,充分利用和發 揮地域優勢,十年磨一劍,揚長避短,求實務實,走了 一條錢幣集藏研究的“捷徑”,一條成功之路。全書採 用以文為主,以圖為輔的串聯方式,揭示陝西銀錠產生、 發展、興盛、衰落的全過程。 全書大 16 開本,由陝西出版傳媒集團三秦出版社發 行。該書 126 克雅粉全彩精印,幣圖清晰逼真,共計 26 萬字,260 余頁,亦附三折拉圖兩幀。作者首次在銀錠 圖片旁附陜槽銘文複原印章一方,圖文並茂,值得珍藏。

2015 年 7 月《陝西銀錠》正式出版發行。作者李炯 先生是陝西榆林本鄉本土的銀錠收藏、研究者,他用十 年時間,收藏了 600 餘種陝西銀錠。通過大量實物藏品 的比對分析,作者首次提出建構陝西銀錠分類學研究, 將陝西銀錠分類為:五十兩船形銀錠、官鑄銀錠、商鑄

錢幣天堂網發售 登錄 www.coinsky.com/htm/shop/show.cgi?id=1648 可獲得作者簽名書 聯絡人:李炯 購書電話:15529990006;15667811786 郵箱:1327978511@qq.com


Mish International Monetary Inc. Mish國際錢幣公司 Specialists in 專營 Pandas since 1982 1982年起發行的熊貓幣 China Modern since 1979 1979年起發行的中國現代金銀幣 World Coins since 1964 1964年起專營世界錢幣

Looking To Buy?想買? Our inventory and knowledge has been available to both our colleagues and collector clients since coins of the People’s Republic of China first reached the world market in 1979. 自1979年中國現代金銀幣首次進入國際市場后,Mish 國際的員工及其藏家客戶積累了豐富的庫存和專 業的錢幣知識。

If you are looking for a particular China coin, chances are we have it, or may be able to recover it from an original buyer we sold it to years ago at first distribution. 想買中國幣?我們或許恰好有;也許多年前我們賣過,現在或許還能從原始買家手中買回來。

Looking To Sell?想賣? In this world of instant experts and brokers, Mish International is still your best choice to handle the purchase of your prized coins in this fast-changing market. Well-capitalized, truly knowledgeable and accommodating, we buy both single pieces and major collections at fair value with no delay, no limits and no excuses. 瞬息萬變的市場環境,Mish 國際仍是助您銷售錢幣的最佳選擇。雄厚的資金實力,專業的錢幣知識, 出色的協調能力,我們同時收購單枚幣和大型收藏,價格合理,快速付款。

Since 1964 始於1964

Here today. Here tomorrow 攜手今日 共贏明天 Mish International Monetary Inc Mish國際錢幣公司 1154 University Drive Menlo Park, CA 94025, USA 美國加州門羅帕克大學路1154號,郵編94025 Phone(電話):(650) 324-9110 Email(電郵):robert@mishinternational.com


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China Pricepedia

the Modern Chinese Coin price guide Are you interested in Pandas, Lunars, Unicorns, or other modern Chinese coins? China Pricepedia is the top source for prices of these popular coins. That includes prices from China, the USA, Europe, and all around the globe. China Pricepedia is the source for Panda and modern Chinese coins prices. China Pricepedia is the source for what is happening in the Chinese coin markets. China Pricepedia is where you find the hottest coins, markets and coin shows. China Pricepedia is information from the coin industry insiders. China Pricepedia is edited by author and NGC consultant Peter Anthony China Pricepedia is published 12 times per year.

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East Asia Journal 1984 Issue 《東亞通寶》第一期 1984 年發行

First Issue of JEAN digital edition January 2016 Issue 《東亞泉志》電子雜誌第一期 2016 年 1 月發行

《東亞泉志》電子雜誌第一期在線閱讀 : http://issuu.com/jean388/docs/the_first_issue_of_jean


The Journal of East Asian Numismatics In 1994, The Journal of East Asian Numismatics (JEAN) was founded by Michael Chou, the CEO of Champion Auction and Bruce Smith, a noted numismatist. It is a professional numismatic academic journal whose mission is to educate collectors and researchers on the subjects of Chinese numismatics, culture and history. Bruce Smith, the chief editor of JEAN , was born in 1951 in St. Louis, MO. He received his BA in history from the University of Missouri St. Louis; and his MA in China studies from Harvard University. In 1974-1977, he worked for Krause Publications as Editorial Assistant on World Coin News and as cataloger for Standard Catalog of World Coins and Standard Catalog of World Paper Money . He was a full time coin dealer 1977-1987. In 1988-1989, he studied in China as a student of China Studies in Chengchow (Zhengzhou) University, Henan province. In 1991-1993, Mr. Smith was a graduate student at Harvard University. In 1994-1998, he was the editor of The Journal of East Asian Numismatics (JEAN). Bruce Smith has been a collector and researcher of Chinese coins for over 30 years. His published research in JEAN has added immensely to the body of knowledge for Chinese coins. The first issue of JEAN was released in July 1994, and the last issue (18th issue) in 1998. Most articles were written in English, the remainder in Chinese. The journal was distributed in over 20 countries, and remained a mainstay on many important library shelves, including the Smithsonian Institution, the British Museum, the Harvard -Yenching Library, Harvard University, Yale University, Columbia University, Stanford University, Cornell University, the ANS (American Numismatic Society), and the ANA (American Numismatic Association). The journal enjoyed great popularity and many important articles were published in JEAN , including “Peking Coins of 1900” by James Sweeny, “More on the Hsu Shih-chang Medals with engraved names” and “The true story of China’s 1936 and 1937 Silver Dollars”

by Bruce Smith, “The Apparent Relationship between 1897 Chekiang 5-Cents Pattern and 1899 Anhwei 5-Cents Circulation Strike” by Tom Keener, and “A Forgery of Taiwan’s Old Man Dollar” by Dr. Che-lu Tseng. In May 2015, Michael Chou decided to start issuing the journal again starting in January 2016. The famous numismatic researcher Mr. Yuan Shuiqing will be chief editor. He is a member of China Numismatic Society, serving as executive director of the Shenxi Numismatic Society and executive vice president of the Xi’an Collectors Association. As a numismatic researcher, he was chief editor of Collections and China Numismatics. He has published over 100 numismatic research articles and the masterpiece The Elite of Monetary History of China . Other distinguished contributors from home and abroad are numismatists, collectors and coin dealers, including Bruce Smith (author of Howard Franklin Bowker – Numismatic Pioneer ), Colin Gullberg (Canada, author of Chopmarked Coins – A History ), Peter Anthony (USA, author of Gold and Silver Panda Coin Buyer’s Guide ), Wang Chunli (China, author of Illustrated Catalog of China’s Jilin Province Silver Coins and Illustrated Catalog of Chinese Gold & Silver Coins ), Chinese American senior numismatist Dr. Che-lu Tseng, senior numismatic scholar of China modern gold and silver commemorative coins King L. Chan (Hong Kong), senior numismatist Chien Fu Chou (Taiwan), prominent American modern coin dealer Robert Mish, Southeast Asia numismatic expert Adam Biagi and CEO of Beijing Coins website Richard Guo. It will be a quarterly, bilingual e-journal, covering the latest numismatic research, interviews with famous collectors, auction reviews, and general news. A bound volume will be printed at the end of each year. You are welcome to subscribe, submit articles for publication, and advertise in the upcoming JEAN .

* The 2016 subscription is free of charge. Please

send your email to jeanzg@163.com.

2016 Issue

Issue Date

Ad Required

Full Page/Issue

Full Page/Year

1/2 Page/Issue

1/2 Page/Year

Issue 3

7/31

7/1

$300

$1,000

$200

$640

Issue 4

10/31

10/1

$300

$1,000

$200

$640

* PX: 300 * full page (A4): 210×297mm *1/2 page: 210×148mm

Contact JEAN Shanghai Office Liu Jinling (Advertising & Circulation Manager) Tel:021-6299 3235 Email: alice0092@163.com


東 亞 泉 志 《東亞泉志》電子雜誌簡介 《東亞泉志》為冠軍拍賣公司總裁周邁可先生和著名 錢幣學專家史博祿先生于 1994 年創辦,是一本學術性 錢幣研究專業雜誌。旨在讓廣大錢幣收藏家、研究學者 更深入地了解錢幣知識,讓世界各地的讀者更好地了解 中國深厚的錢幣文化。 雜誌高級編輯史博祿先生 1951 年生於美國密蘇里州 聖路易斯市,為密蘇里大學歷史系學士,哈佛大學中國 研究專業碩士。1974-1977 年在克勞斯出版社任《世界 錢幣新聞》助理編輯,參與《世界硬幣標準目錄》與《世 界紙鈔標準目錄》編輯工作。1977-1987 年全職進行錢 幣交易。1988-1989 年在中國鄭州大學留學,主修中國 研究課程。1991-1993 年在哈佛大學攻讀碩士。19941998 年任《東亞泉志》總編。史博祿先生擁有 30 多年 的收藏和研究中國錢幣的豐富經驗。他在《東亞泉志》 上發表的研究文獻極大地豐富了中國錢幣的知識內涵。 《東亞泉志》于 1994 年 7 月份問世,1999 年停刊, 發行了 18 期。雜誌中大部分文章是英文,只有少部分是 中文,在 20 多個國家發行,廣受歡迎,長期佔據許多 重要圖書館書架的顯著位置,包括美國國家博物館史密 森尼學會、大英博物館、哈佛燕京圖書館、哈佛大學、 耶魯大學、哥倫比亞大學、斯坦福大學、康奈爾大學和 美國錢幣學會、美國錢幣協會。雜誌刊發過不少有重要 學術價值的文章,如詹姆斯 • 史威尼寫的《1900 年京 局銀元》、史博祿寫的《徐世昌刻字紀念章》和《民國 二十五年和民國二十六年之中國銀元故事》、湯姆 • 基 納寫的《1897 年浙江三分六釐樣幣和 1899 年安徽三分

六釐流通幣的關係》以及曾澤祿寫的《台灣老公銀偽品》等。 2015 年 5 月,周邁可先生決定于 2016 年 1 月復刊《東 亞泉誌》,聘請著名錢幣研究學者袁水清先生擔任主編。 袁水清,1948 年生,大學金融專科畢業,從事銀行工作 30 多年。中國錢幣學會會員,陝西省錢幣學會常務理事, 西安市收藏協會常務副會長。退休后,歷任《收藏》《古 泉園地》《西部金融 • 錢幣研究》雜誌的責任編輯,《中 國錢幣界》雜誌主編。多年來他傾力于中國貨幣史和錢 幣學的研究,發表過近百篇錢幣研究文章;2012 年,出 版了匯集中國古今錢幣的鴻篇巨製《中國貨幣史之最》。 同時聘請國內外知名的錢幣學者、收藏家及專業人士加 入,如《霍华德 • 富兰克林 • 包克——錢幣學研究先驅者》 作者史博祿先生、《戳記幣简史》作者高林先生、《熊 貓金銀幣收藏指南》作者皮特 • 安東尼先生、《中國吉 林銀圓圖譜》和《中國金銀幣目錄》作者王春利先生、 美國華人資深錢幣學者曾澤祿先生、香港中国现代金银 币资深研究学者陳景林先生、台灣資深錢幣學者周建福 先生、美國現代金銀幣資深經销商羅伯特 • 米什先生、 美國東南亞錢幣專家亞當 • 比亞吉先生以及北京錢幣網 总裁郭嘉華先生等。 復刊后的《東亞泉誌》為電子季刊,中英双语,每 年年底出版合订本。內容以披露最新錢幣收藏研究成果、 推介泉界成功人士的事跡為主。主要欄目有學術研究、 人物專訪、鑒賞爭鳴、拍賣回顧、重要資訊等。

*《東亞泉志》2016 年免費訂閱,如果需要,

請把您的郵箱發到 jeanzg@163.com !

2016 年

發行時間

廣告截止時間

1頁/期

1頁/年

1/2 頁 / 期

1/2 頁 / 年

第3期

7 月 31 日

7月1日

300 美元

1000 美元

200 美元

640 美元

第4期

10 月 31 日

10 月 1 日

300 美元

1000 美元

200 美元

640 美元

*分辨率:300

《東亞泉志》上海辦公室 廣告與發行經理劉金玲 電話:021-6299 3235 郵箱:alice0092@163.com

* 1 頁 (A4):210×297mm

* 1/2 頁:210×148mm

The second issue of jean  

This is our second digital edition of the Journal of East Asian Numismatics(JEAN). It is the first Asian Numismatic Journal in English and C...

The second issue of jean  

This is our second digital edition of the Journal of East Asian Numismatics(JEAN). It is the first Asian Numismatic Journal in English and C...

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