IUSD â€” Yearbook 2014/2015
MSc Integrated Urbanism & Sustainable Design (IUSD) www.iusd-program.net
IUSD Yearbook 2014/2015
2 IUSD Yearbook 2014/2015 Editor: Melanie Migle Kundrot supported by Mohammed Alfiky, Franziska Laue IUSD Design Concept: Studio Matthias Görlich, Darmstadt MSc Integrated Urbanism and Sustainable Design (IUSD) Faculty of Architecture and Urban Design University of Stuttgart www.iusd-program.net Copyright disclaimer: All rights reserved. All student work has been edited prior to publishing. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher. 2015 revised 2016
IUSD Office University of Stuttgart Faculty of Architecture and Urban Planning Keplerstrasse 11 70174 Stuttgart/Germany email@example.com IUSD Office Ain Shams University Faculty of Engineering 1 El-Sarayat Street 11517 Abbasiya, Cairo/Egypt firstname.lastname@example.org
3 Table of contents
Year I – Stuttgart 01 Architecture
Year II – Cairo 9
Sustainable Architecture I Sustainable Architecture II War Destruction and Reconstruction Urban Cultural Heritage
10 16 22 24
02 Urban Planning
05 Integrated Case Study
ctivation of “Gabakhana” A Rooting a Local Cooperative Body: Mobilization of Istabl Antar Participatory Upgrading of Open Communal Spaces Enhancing Accessibility
Urban Planning, Policy and Sustainable Urban Management I 30 Urban Planning, Policy and Sustainable Urban Management II 32 City Branding 38 Berlin Module 48 Between Lecture Hall and Practice 52
Selected Topics on Urbanism Design Projects Design Projects: Architecture Design Projects: Urban Design Research Methodology
124 137 138 141 145
07 Master Theses
Urban Ecology and Ecosystem Design I GeoDesign
04 Integrated Research and Design
Integrated Research and Design Projects I – Learning the City Integrated Research and Design Projects II – Urban Refugees Stuttgart
Year I & II 08 IUSD Lab
Vision Lectures Workshops
164 166 168
09 IUSD People
IUSD Staff IUSD Students IUSD Alumni Alumni Network Advisory Board
172 176 180 186 190
4 IUSD Yearbook 2014/2015
Introduction Prof. Dr. Astrid Ley – Course Director, University of Stuttgart Prof. Dr. Mohamed Salheen – Course Director, Ain Shams University Prof. Antje Stokman – Director of Admissions, University of Stuttgart and the IUSD-Team: Dr. Marwa Abdelkatif, MSc. Abdulmoneim Alfiky, Dr. Bernd Eisenberg, Dipl.-Ing. Raoul Humpert, Dipl.-Ing. MSc. Franziska Laue, Arch. Amira Shendy, Sarah ElShamy, Dipl.-Ing. Ines Wulfert
September is always a time of great change in the IUSD program. While in September 2014 the third intake just moved from Stuttgart to Cairo to start their second year in the IUSD programme, the second intake of IUSD students celebrated their successful graduation in Cairo. At this time they joined the growing group of alumni which enhance the master’s programme and research of the IUSD lab through their presence and activities. At the same time, our fourth intake arrived for their first year in the IUSD programme in Stuttgart. This group, including international students from Turkey, Ethiopia, Peru, Mexico, Chile, Venezuela, and Colombia further enriches the internationality of the programme beyond Germany and the MENA region. The coordination team has undergone some changes. Nina Gribat ended her period as interim chair for international urbanism at the University of Stuttgart and moved on as senior researcher to TU Berlin. Astrid Ley started as the new chair for international urbanism in October 2014 and as course director on the Stuttgart side from January 2015. Raoul Humpert spent a research period in Tunisia from September 2014 to January 2015, with
Ines Wulfert taking over his coordination responsibility during this period. In Cairo, Mona Manoun ended her period at IUSD Cairo and moved on as a consultant for an urban development company. Furthermore, Amira Shendy and Sarah ElShamy joined the IUSD coordination team. This yearbook 2014-15 proudly presents an overview of the rich experiences and results of the MSc IUSD programme of the last academic year, including selected activities, projects and papers that were produced by the students during their first year in Stuttgart (Part 1), and by students in their second year in Cairo (and other locations) for their master thesis research (Part 2). The yearbook gives an impression of the variety and kinds of subjects that were taught during this period at both universities. Part 1 is structured according to the three core themes – architecture, urban planning and landscape, each of which is represented by a core module and different electives. It is rounded up with the results of the applied training in the Integrated Research and Design Module. Part 2 contains a large section on the Integrated Case Study in Cairo,
which forms the backbone of the programme. At the same time it presents impressions from results of the electives that were offered during the third semester at Ain Shams University. It concludes with summaries of the master’s thesis projects which are jointly supervised by staff from both universities. Some of the extracurricular activities and special highlights of the academic year in Stuttgart and Cairo are also documented in the yearbook. The preparation phase of the third intake started with urban safaris in and around Stuttgart, language courses, as well as team building and project management workshops. Highlights during their academic year at University of Stuttgart included excursions to the Rhine and Ruhr area, participation in the International Earth Construction Festival Grains d´Isère in Lyon, and participation in the Module on German-Arab cooperation in development, economy, culture and politics together with four other bicultural MSc programmes in Berlin. For the final event of the Integrated Research and Design Module “Urban Refugees Stuttgart”, IUSD organised a symposium and exhibition where the students presented their findings, proposals, and realised projects in the community. Also present were representatives of Stuttgart Municipality, and other invited speakers. Meanwhile, students of the third intake arrived in Egypt for preparatory activities, orienting and familiarising them with Ain Shams University, Cairo, and Egypt. This included urban safaris in Downtown Cairo, Fatimid Cairo, and an excursion to Alexandria. The activities were complemented with general lectures on the history of Cairo, and cultural evenings. In addition, “one day crash courses” were provided by the DAAD Cairo Academy for the enhancement of the students’ academic and cultural skills. Furthermore, the students organized
an excursion during the semester to some villages in the Delta. At the end of the semester, the students together with IUSD organized ‘Gabakhana Festival’. Here the students presented the findings of their final projects of Integrated Case Study Module ‘Upgrading Informal Areas’ in an interactive way to the local community, officials from the central ministries, members of the Cairo government, and civil society. The students also organised cultural activities, and a musical concert to draw attention to the cultural potential of Cairo’s less visited areas. The successful IUSD Lecture Series with international invited experts were meanwhile held in Stuttgart in connection with Cairo via video-conferencing. The lectures, open to IUSD students and the general public, dealt with the realities of planning practice, development cooperation, and challenges in intercultural work environments. By setting up an IUSD YouTube channel, interesting lectures and presentations that are given through IUSD regular events are available for a wider audience1. This channel also contains a new IUSD image film giving a vivid impression of our students´lives in the IUSD programme, both in Stuttgart and Cairo. IUSD kept-up its tradition of contributing and taking part in international symposiums and conferences. In September 2014, Mohamed Salheen and Marwa Abdellatif submitted a paper on experiential learning in IUSD modules to the association for architectural educators 2014 conference at the University of Sheffield School of Architecture, UK. In October 2014, Astrid Ley was invited to present for IUSD at a networking event of European faculties with related master’s programmes held at the University of Manchester, and Franziska Laue gave a presentation on IUSD during the Urban Thinkers Campus by UN-Habitat in Naples,
6 IUSD Yearbook 2014/2015
Italy. In November 2015, Mohamed Salheen, Franziska Laue, and Antje Stokman presented for IUSD as part of the Cairo Days in Stuttgart. In November 2014, IUSD team participated in the events of ‘Arch Cairo 2014: 6th International Conference: Towards A Regional Agenda for Habitat III, where Mohamed Salheen and Marwa Abdellatif gave a presentation on active learning in IUSD. In March 2015, Astrid Ley and Antje Stokman presented for IUSD as part of the “Faces to the City” series at the University of Witwatersrand in Johannesburg and the “Brownbag Lecture Series” at the University of Cape Town, South Africa. In June 2015, IUSD was invited to participate in the First Egypt Urban Forum and exhibition. IUSD was also present during a number of fairs and networking events such as AidEx in Bruxelles (2014), the Evangelischer Kirchentag by the protestant church in Stuttgart (2015), the GAMP and AGEP networking meetings and through testimonials by IUSD students at education fairs in Turkey and Peru by the University of Stuttgart. Moreover, the second advisory board was established. It held its first meeting in November in Cairo, where IUSD team and the advisory board members shared their experiences and ideas for the future of the programme. Also, for the first time webinars were introduced and tested in cooperation with GAMP activities3. Finally, the IUSD programme was present also at the year show of the faculty of architecture and planning at the University of Stuttgart. The master thesis by Mahy Mourad Nowier on “Urban Space and Politics of Transition in Contemporary Cairo” was selected as one of the ten best theses of the Faculty of Architecture and Urban Planning at the University of Stuttgart by an independent jury.
The IUSD Lab aims to engage in basic and applied transdisciplinary research in cooperation with different institutions from Germany, Egypt, MENA countries and around the world. The IUSD lab´s activities, in Stuttgart and Cairo are presented in Part 3 of this yearbook. In September 2014, IUSD successfully carried out a German-Egyptian-Tunisian summer school on Landscape, Tourism and Integrated Coastal Management on Djerba Island organized by Antje Stokman and Mohamed Salheen together with our partner Imène Zaâfrane Zhioua from the Institut Supérieur des Technologies de l’Environnement de l’Urbanisme et du Bâtiment (ISTEUB), financed by DAAD’s transformation partnership programme. In December 2014, IUSD Lab hosted an international workshop on water sensitive urban design in Stuttgart as part of a new research initiative on green infrastructure considering integrated urban water management. 25 invited participants from Germany, Egypt, Jordan and Ethiopia discussed research fields relating to the topics of Integrated Water Resource Management, Sanitation, Urban and Open Space Planning and Design, as well as Environmental Justice and Participation. In April 2015 this was followed by the submission of two German-Egyptian research applications of the IUSD Lab to the German-Egyptian Research Fund (GERF) for which we are awaiting further notification in October 2015. This year, IUSD – Lab Cairo continued working on its running research projects. In November 2014, IUSD researchers of ‘Development Priorities in Informal Areas: Planning, Realization and Local Perceptions’ research project, in cooperation with TU Berlin, gave a presentation on the project progress at ‘Arch Cairo 2014: 6th International Conference: Towards A Regional Agenda for Habitat III’. In December 2014, the Lab organised the second
‘Integrated Design Workshop in Siwa as part of ‘Design Project’ academic module and in cooperation with the ‘Energy-Efficient and Sustainable Building Design and Construction in Egypt’ research project.
granted by the Supreme Council of Higher Education. Full accreditation by the National Agency for Quality Assurance and Accreditation of Education (NAQAAE), requires the graduation of three full intakes.
The IUSD Alumni of whom there are currently 40, form an important backbone of the programme. As the number of alumni grows with each graduating class, the Alumni network has started developing an electronic newsletter. The IUSD alumni and team is also an active partner within the GAMP network, a network of several German-Arab master’s programmes. Alumni play a particularly active role in identifying joint activities. For instance, REMENA and IUSD alumni have collaborated in GAMP webinar activities with their specific points of view to the aim of developing sustainable urban communities. The establishment of the IUSD programme continues to take place during dramatic political transformations in the MENA region which continue to present many challenges. The ongoing global urban transformation process also validates our overarching aim of training urban practitioners to face tremendous environmental, cultural, socio-economic, and governmental challenges.
The IUSD team at both universities wishes to thank all our IUSD alumni and students for their dedication and enthusiasm! We would also like to thank our universities and all our colleagues who contribute to teaching, and who work tirelessly to make IUSD a success. In particular we want to thank the DAAD staff in Bonn and Cairo whose active support made the establishment of IUSD possible.
Dramatic political transformations in the MENA region continue to present many challenges but also, more importantly, to fuel the enthusiasm of all those involved. It also offers our graduates a chance to contribute to the transformation process by pursuing new career possibilities within more democratic and open societies. Against this background it is encouraging that the MSc. IUSD has pursued internal accreditation by USTUTT in 2014. In the Egyptian system, initial recognition of the degree has been
We are looking forward to many more years! ●
Internet Links: 1. IUSD YouTube Channel:
https://www.youtube.com/ user/IUSDmsc 2. Image Film:
https://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=TFeWrGWVujY 3. Advisory Board Webinars:
8 IUSD Yearbook 2014/2015
Sustainable Architecture I Core Module, WS 2013/14 Dipl.-Ing. Dominique Gauzin-Müller, external at SI Dipl.-Ing. Victoria von Gaudecker, external at SI
Sustainable architecture is the result of integrated planning combining ecological, economic, cultural, and social aims. In order to explore sustainable architecture in depth, this seminar is structured around four questions. – Where does sustainable architecture come from? Vernacular architecture and pioneers like Frank Lloyd Wright, Alvar Aalto, and Hassan Fathy have been studied. Foundational texts about philosophy, economy, and sociology were included: “Towards a critical regionalism” by Kenneth Frampton, “Collapse” by Jared Diamond, etc. – How much technology is enough? Sustainable architecture demands a deep knowledge about current technologies, but it does not always need to be covered with photovoltaics. Case studies and a workshop by Robert Celaire (French specialist for bioclimatic design) has supported us in defining the right measure of technology in a given context. – What does low-tech mean in the global North and in the global South?
„More with less“ is one of the key phrases representing Low-Tech architecture. Case studies inlcuding the work of the German architect Anna Heringer (Aga Khan Prize Winner 2007) and the Austrian building contractor Martin Rauch, have demonstrated that it is possible to achieve beauty and to create specific identities within little means. – Where is the balance between hightech and low-tech? Sustainable architecture has to fulfill its functions and satisfy its users. It should be adapted to its natural, social and cultural environment, and require minimal energy. The specificities of local, renewable materials (earth, stone, wood, bamboo, straw, reed, etc.) and their use were studied in detail. Numerous international examples from all the continents were collectively analyzed in order to understand the process, which contribute to a more sustainable world. The module ended with a workshop on humanitarian projects with guest lectures by two young architects: Nicolas Coeckelberghs, from Belgian, has built a library in Burundi; Wayne Switzer, from the US, a pavilion in Ghana. ●
11 Sustainable Architecture I
The Development of Small-scale Cities: Alternatives for Dealing with Slums
by Juan Sebastian Alvarado Vargas Overview
In â€œPlanet of Slumsâ€? Mike Davis analyses in detail the phenomenon of informal settlements in various cities. Even though it provides historical examples of cities in the northern hemisphere, it focuses mainly on cities in the global South, perhaps because of the current high urbanization trend in these places and the incredibly large population that is affected. The book tries to explain why such large belts of misery have spawned and what keeps driving their growth. It also assesses the results of various measures employed by local governments to deal with informality which, according to the author, have resulted in less than impressing results. Urbanisation and Growth Slum Economics
Informal settlements as a phenomenon arose as a result of the industrial revolution in Europe. The growing economies of cities drew in inhabitants from surrounding provinces, which started settling in makeshift quarters especially around productive urban centres. This accepted pattern of urbanisation is refuted by Davis, who points to the example of 19th century Dublin where there were sprawling slums despite there being little signs of industrialisation during the first half of the century. Continuing in this line of thinking, Davis argues that in the case of most of the Global South, the urbanisation rate has not been directly linked to a growing economy or an Âavailability of jobs,
but rather to a decline in the job market, and increasingly harsh living conditions in rural areas. It is noted in the book that the economic conditions that have fostered the creation of slums have resulted from the policies of international players: from the intervention of agencies like the IMF and the World Bank, to the political and social structures put in place by governments via colonial rule. To put it in simple terms, colonial governments exploited countries under their control as suppliers of raw materials and cheap labour all while systematically hindering these areas from becoming industrialised themselves. This was acheived through denying the local population access to education or wealth gained from the commercialisation of exported goods. When these non-industrialised countries were unable to compete economically with their industrialised counterparts, they entered into debt with international lenders who in return asked them to cut all unnecessary public spending such as agricultural and housing subsidies. The most vulnerable were left to their own devices and then settled where they could, however they could: the birth of slums. Future Growth Perspective
As the author points out, most of South America is already mostly urban when compared to eastern Asia - these regions have an urbanistion rate of approximately 80% and 50% respectively. This high rural rate in East-Asia can be linked to strong cultural ties to traditional agrarian practices in addition to self-imposed isolation policies that existed in several communist countries such as China. Compared to the specific case of south America where all native inhabitants were almost completely
eÂliminated during the colonisation period (along with their culture, and guardianship of the land), the colonial inhabitants brought with them European standards of urbanisation, which may help to explain why South America was so quickly urbanised. Whereas cities in latin America are already relatively established, the landscape of much of South-East Asia is expected to change radically over the course of the next few decade if the current trend of urbanisation continues. The book points indicates data not to be overlooked: While mega cities around the world attract the most attention, smaller cities have higher growth expectancy. These smaller cities usually have problems due to the lack of investment and deficient public services and infrastructure when compared to their larger counterparts, but their smaller scale also means that plans can be implemented to correct these deficiencies without the complications associated with correcting the same same problems in larger metropolitan areas. The general idea is to prepare smaller cities adequately for their expected growth, assuring they develop in a sustainable way, and avoiding the problems that plague many of todayâ€™s megacities. Dealing with slums
Davis is thorough in critiquing the results of some government studies on slums. However, recommendations for action are missing (all presented examples are treated as complete or partial failures). It seems the best case scenario would consist of encouraging the re-densification of neglected and abandoned urban centres. The book explains that in many parts of the Global South, wealthy city inhabitants are moving further from the centre, buying properties within greener gated communities, and leaving those centres to decay. Redeveloping these areas would reduce the pressure for development that exists towards urban peripheries, would make urban transportation systems more efficient as commuting distances decrease, and would encourage the use of cleaner modes of transportation such as biking or
walking. Even though the author critisises private initiatives, it is unlikely that the government could plan and execute a such a massive social housing programme on its own. Publicprivate partnerships have been proven to work when proper management and oversight is in place, and could be one way for governments to encourage projects of urban renovation. While any type of intervention aimed at alleviating the problem of slums might help some part of the population, the fact is that these solutions deal only with the consequences of rural to urban migration, but not with the cause. The only thing that would ensure that new slums do no form or continue to grow is to think of ways of enabling rural communities. If rural communities are offered sustainable economic activity, good access to medical and educational facilities, and security, they will not feel the need to leave their homes in search of better futures in the cities. Even if they do decide to move to an urban setting, they would have a better chance at adapting to the city without having to resort to squatting in slums. In the end, it all comes back to designing sustainable and fair development models for rural areas. This leads us back to working on planning for the development of small and medium sized cities - the natural hubs for services and activities in rural communities. â—?
Davis, Mike (2006). Planet of Slums. Verso, New York.
13 Sustainable Architecture I
Primary School in Gando,www.moma.org
Analysis of the Primary School in Gando, Burkina Faso by Francis Kéré
hWp://www.moma.org/interacBves/exhibiBons/2010/smallscalebigchange/projects/primary_school( by Salsabil Fahmy and Jasmin Shata
“Only those who are involved in the development process can appreciate the results achieved, develop them further and protect them” – Francis Kéré (www.fuergando.de) Gando Village
●● Southern plains of Burkina Faso. ●● Hot Semi-Arid climate. Cultural'Context' ●● The Harmattan winds bring dust clouds and 00(residents.( occasional sand storms from the Sahara. ectricity(besides(the(solar(powered(lamps.( ●● Southern Extreme: Few scattered comean(water(apart(from(wells.( pounds and the school site. well(below(the(naBonal(average(of(25%.(( ●● Halfway: The mosque and the market mark (in(Burkina(Faso(is(52.( (fuel(is(wood,(and(with(the(expanding(populaBon,( the geometric centre of the nominal village as(become(a(big(problem.( site.
Granaries(in(Burkina(Faso( Granaries in Burkina Faso, www.pbase.com
Aerial View of Gando, 2000 www.wikipedia.org
●● Population: 3000 residents. ●● No source of electricity besides the solar powered lamps. ●● No access to clean water apart from wells. ●● Literacy rate is well below the national average of 25%. ●● Life expectancy in Burkina Faso is 52. ●● Main source of fuel is wood, and with the expanding population, deforestation has become a big problem. ●● Rural dwellings consists of round compounds closed in walls (sun-dried mud blocks). ●● Some 40 compounds spread over an area of roughly 150 hectares.
c t ;( ina(
( to( ( of(
●● Construction: October 2000 – July 2001 ●● Total Size: 30,000 m² ●● Number of users: 360 students ●● Components: School Building, Toilets, Kitchen, Vegetable garden, Sports field and Housing for 6 teachers and their families. Design Concept:
( a( ge:( cks-
for( n :( abé( Architect Francis Kéré German-trained architect; originally from als( ●● “People'are'the'basis'of'every'piece'of'work”Gando, Burkina Faso. n g( ●● He was the only child allowed to attend school (As the first son of the head of his village). ●● Diploma in Architecture and Engineering from the Technische Universität in Berlin. ●● Raised money for building a school in his home village: Schulbausteine für Gando, 1998. ●● He developed strategies for innovative construction: combining traditional Burkinabé building techniques/ materials with modern engineering methods.
●● Climatic comfort with low- cost construction. ●● Making the most of local materials and labour potential of local community. ●● Adapting simple technological contributions from the industrialised world ●● Helping the local community appreciate the value of traditional materials The school building itself occupies 526 sqm. It is a long rectangular volume, set on a platform raised 50 centimetres from the ground and oriented along an east–west axis, meaning that the main exposures are towards the north and the south. The roof overhang provides necessary shade, particularly needed on the south side. The walls are built in compressed stabilized earth blocks. These are ‘ribbed’ with pilasters for further structural soundness and to provide solar protection from the East and the West; they also enhance the three-dimensional quality of the walls.
Architect and Principal Designer
Clients: Children of Gando
Fundraising and Financing
Coordination and Management
15 Sustainable Architecture I
Passive techniques: • Solar Orienta,on • Clay Brick Walls absorb heat. • Double Rooﬁng System: Air ● ● Vegetation pre-filtres incoming air which is ﬂow between roof and ceiling. channeled through underground pipes to • Cross-‐Ven,la,on cool rooms via floor holes. Hot Air Flow • Future: Inclined roof direc,ng rain water into channel running Involvment along Community Crossnorthern eleva,on into a Ventilation First school to serve children not only from pond, irriga,ng vegetable Gando, garden. but also students from surrounding • villages. Raised PlaKorm Everything was made by local people Classroom • who Pa,os were separa,ng classrooms: trained to use handsaws and welding Sound Insula,on Schematic air flow at the Secondary School, machines. Secondary S chool: -‐ Low-‐tech c ost e ﬀec,ve p ipes i n t he g round • Wood rejec,on: liMle sketch by authors as passive geothermal cooling. Professional contribution was utilised only in exper,se & scarcity. -‐ Vegeta,on pre-‐ﬁlters incoming air which is channeled Therefore, replaced with the design; a local architect took the initiative through underground pipes to cool rooms via ﬂoor holes. metal. in assisting the design process. Passive Techniques:
Community members were involved since the ●● Solar Orientation beginning of construction. It was a cooperative ●● Clay Brick Walls absorb heat. ●● Double Roofing System: Air flow between project which served as an example for two nearby villages who also built their schools roof and ceiling. through community efforts. ●● Cross-Ventilation Source: City and Wind: Climate as an architectural instrument-‐ Schema,c ﬂow at the Secondary School Impact: Skills were applied to further intiatives ●● Future: Inclined roof directing rain air water into channel running along northern in the village and elsewhere. The local authorielevation into a pond, irrigating vegetable ties recognised the project’s worth and continue to support it with teaching staff, as well as garden. employing people trained during the school’s ●● Raised Platform ●● Patios separating classrooms: Sound Insu- construction for the town’s public projects. ● lation ●● No Wood: little expertise & scarce, therefore replaced with metal. Energy Efficiency
Overview: Concepts and outcomes
●● Low-tech cost effective pipes in the ground as passive geothermal cooling.
Social Creating a strong community through knowledge serving to improve life of entire village
Economy Using education to pave the way out of poverty
Overview: Concepts and outcomes
Culture Respecting the culture and traditions of his people
Climate Using simple and passive design in a place with harsh climate
Sustainable Architecture II Core Module, SS 2014 Dipl.-Ing. Dominique Gauzin-Müller, external at SI Dipl.-Ing. Victoria von Gaudecker, external at SI Dr. Ing. Manal El Shahat, SI, Ezbet Project Director and Co-Founder in collaboration with the NGO AYB
Sustainable Architecture results from integrated planning – how do we achieve a good balance between ecologic, economic and social aims? What role does context play? Does it bring about a particular aesthetic? We tried to answer these questions by planning a Reading and Learning Pavilion with a shadow roof within the primary school of the informal settlement Ezbet Abu-Qarn, Cairo. Starting with the analysis of the situation concerning climate, culture, geology, geography, and available building materials we also analysed the needs and wishes of the local population. We studied various libraries, learning rooms, and pavilions. We worked in groups on the design of the small pavilion, while having workshops and field trips. The acquired theoretical skills will be applied to practical work under the theme: „Build together, Learn together!“ After the analysis and design phase in Stuttgart, we travel to Cairo and build the pavilion together with the residents of Ezbet Abu-Quarn in three workshops: in September 2015, February 2016, and Summer 2016. Special attention will be paid to the use of traditional building materials like earth and wood. ●
17 Sustainable Architecture II „Build together - Learn together“ Learning Pavilion in the Primary School of Ezbet Abu-Quarn, Cairo
by Mai Adel, Namariq Al-Rawi, Miriam Ceravolo, Anais Charlier, Greta Colle, Henriette Commichau, Aki Hashimoto, Christian Hiery Borbala Kneip, Julia Schloz, Tereza Spindlerova, Juan Sebastian Alvarado Vargas, Jesus Antonio Martinez Zarate
Aerial View of Ezbet Abu-Quarn, Source: El Shahat, 2011
Amr Ibn El Ass Mosque
Schematic Plan of the School-Building
The School-Building 11
Urban Structure, Source: Google Earth 2015
Ezbet Abu Qarn is an informal area located in Misr El-Qadimah „Al-Fustat district“ (the oldest and the first urban core of the Arab occupation in Egypt) behind Amr Ibn El Ass Mosque (the first mosque in all of Africa).
In the informal settlement of Ezbet Abu Quarn exists only one primary school which is not in very good condition. 1421 children from first to sixth grade and two groups of preschool children visit this school daily. In each class 50-60 children are learning with one teacher. The director of the school Mr. Bekhet Ali Sabra tries to impove the situation for the children, but the financial means are very low.
Design Concept, Source: Authors Car Tire Seats
Furniture – Simplicity!
All of the furniture needs to be fabricated on site or at least within Ezbet community. We tried to use as few screws and nails as possible and concentrated on easy to saw measurements and shapes. Chairs, hammocks and bean bags can be prefabricated by the local women sewing group. Shelves, chairs and desks can be presawn and then put together directly on site. ●
The main part of the Learning Pavilion will be the library. The Ezbet Project team hopes for donations of books to establish a well equipped library. The system of shelves should be easy to cut and build up. Only one type of box that can be sawn and nailed together on the floor. All boxes get joint through ordinary nails. The whole shelf will be joint to an outer frame which is screwed to the concrete pillars on the outside. 1,50
For the outside area we thought of more flexible and movable furni- ture. 23 The car tire seats can be rolled wherever the kids need them. They can either be coloured with acrylic paints and stuffed with a pil- low or closed with a wooden lid made from playwood and then deco- reated with ropes as shown above. The car tire seats are easy to store since you can either stack them on top of eachother or roll them into a hiding cupboard in the outside modules. Of course they can also be stored inside. The textiles for the pillow cases can be found almost everywhere in Ezbet. Womens groups could sew the pillows.
19 Sustainable Architecture II Interior View: Computer Lab
Outside View: Pre-School Playground, Source: Authors
d as deomputer on the ricks. is made ation of is fixed children
The new wall created as de- limitation of the computer laboratory is based on the tecnique of adobe bricks. The decoration part is made to allow the circulation of air and light, and is fixed to the childrensâ€˜ sitting height. Plaster covers the bricks at the end.
The solution used for the realisation of the cover is very simple: through the method of the strut and tie and a light use of materials, spaces used by children to play, give lessons, etc .. are easily protected from the sun. 31
The aim of the students is to improve the learning situation in the school through combining conventional ways of learning with interactive ones following the idea â€œ Build together, learn together!â€?
The computer lab will be included in the former two empty class rooms. It will be a room inside a hall with comfortable seatings. A traditional design is used in the openings to connect both rooms.
Information Booklet of the Project by Mai Adel & Namariq Al-Rawi
21 Sustainable Architecture II
The new design of the wall will have different functions to be more interactive for the children to enjoy reading while sitting around in different hlevels providing comfortable space to be used as a outdoor library.
The wall itself works as an interactive platform of creative ways of reading; from the big book for group reading to the small hanging books. also conventional way of reading can happen in the pockets inside the wall.
Information Booklet of the Project by Mai Adel & Namariq Al-Rawi
War Destruction and Reconstruction Elective, SS 2014 Dr.-Ing. Dietlinde Schmidt-Vollmer, ifag
This course is ment to be an open academical platform for research, report and discussions on cities affected by destruction under war and terrorsim. Many of the IUSD students have related personal experiences. There is a big demand in this field and desire as well to learn from historical solutions in reconstruction, conservation and building new cities. Seventy years after the destruction of many major inner cities in Germany and other countries in WWII, we are discussing the former and present situation of these urban centres. What are the reasons to focus on completely new urban patterns and concepts? What are the reasons for keeping old city centres, iconic monuments (even if they were not loved), if they remind of the former domineering system? Discussion topics ranged from divided cities like Beirut and Berlin, or post-war planning of Franco Regime in Spain, to colonial architecture in Tunis. We analysed different cities, where political systems changed like East Berlin and Vilnius, or where nationalities changed as in Gdansk, Zopot, and Gdinia, and the city planning after the War in Bosnia. Public space as a political tool in planning was widely discussed. We saw architecture and
planning of cultural identity, the opportunity to “improve” urban centres after bombing and clearing of what is considered unsuitable. Examples include rebuilding after WWII in German or Italy, and “new building” in Damaskus. New concepts like large city-highways, healthier living conditions, and other efforts could be implemented on cleared areas after demolition. Wide boulevards or parade squares are examples of projects with new political connotations. The IUSD students contributed reports on Cairo and the political and planning burden of Suez Cities, analysis of the cultural heritage and reconstructions of identities after destruction, and also the internal destruction of cities. We discussed the foundation of a city as a political decision, and the consequences of when political interest is lost. Most impressive were the presentations on housing for expellees and refugees, refugee shelters in Europe, Palestine and Syria, their “architecture” and social situation. The IUSD students also benefitted from presentations focusing on solutions in Europe. Thanks to all of you! ●
23 War Destruction and Reconstruction
Urban Cultural Heritage Elective, SS 2015 Dr.-Ing. Anette Gangler, associate lecturer at SI
Due to population growth, globalisation and changing lifestyles, the urban transformation is an ongoing process and is changing the image of the city. Many historic cities are the nuclei of metropolises and have been listed as UNESCO World Heritage Sites of special cultural and physical significance. In this course the students should become aware of these invaluable urban cultural heritage sites or characteristic urban structures of cultural, architectural, or social value as an important aspect for future sustainable urban development. They had to analyse an urban cultural site from their country and present strategies for the rehabilitation and revitalisation of such sites in their local context. The initiation of lively discussions between students with different cultural backgrounds has been one of the highlights of the seminar. The appreciation of cultural heritage in improving economic and social living conditions, and the economic role of tourism have been reflected on, as well as cultural heritage destruction in armed conflicts as a strategic weapon (as in the Middle East). As a result of this seminar, many contributions focused on post war reconstruction or post disaster reconstruction as a large challenge in the process of globalization. ●
25 Urban Cultural Heritage
Case study: The Medina of Tunis by Nader Khelifi Introduction
The different urban extensions around Tunisian cities transform medina as much as the European fabrics in marginalised neighbourhoods which no longer meet the criteria of urban centre. The various re-distributions of activities on the scale of cities along with the impact of economic and social change, will require selective reinvestment in central districts to avoid negative effects and social conflicts. Indeed the old districts now gather a disadvantaged category of people who find refuge and create forms of social integration that are difficult to reproduce in new districts. Tunis, as an example, holds an exceptional historic fabric that highlights the overlay of all the historic eras that the city went through. (From the Carthaginian era to the recent colonial and then modern era) these urban and social fabrics are undergoing radical change that is the direct result of negligence and deterioration.
One of the most catching features in the Medina of Tunis is the typical medieval Arab-Islamic urban fabric: a compact ensemble made of courtyard buildings connected through a network of narrow streets not following any rational grid but perfectly embracing the natural topography of the site. The Medina is also considered an example of sustainable city since most of the streets are pedestrian. Due to their narrowness most of the streets are shaded and this prevents the city heating up in the hot season which lasts more than half the year. The buildings are built out of stone and due to the proprieties of this material, donâ€™t require any extra energy for heating or cooling. Religion, Lifestyle and Arts and Crafts
The Zitouna mosque, situated at the heart of the Medina, is the religious hub of the city. It is one of the most influential and important
The Medina of Tunis is an urban model. It represents a system that is at the same time closed, organised, integrated, and open to exchanges of all kinds: historical, administrative, commercial, spiritual, and intellectual. The Medina of Tunis integrated and assimilated the influences from all times and cultures that came across its development. A spirit of tolerance persists in this place of intense exchanges.
Series of photographs showing the outside appearance of buildings in the Medina of Tunis, photos by Author
Panorama of a typical Souk, source: flickr.com
school for religion in the country, and an academic library. The Medina has a great concentration of other mosques and smaller â€œMasjidsâ€? in almost every street. The Medina of Tunis is also a unique model of communal living. Due to the density of the fabric, and the introversion of the houses, the streets are considered a public space where interaction happens almost naturally between neighbours, locals, visitors, street vendors, and shop owners. The Medina of Tunis is also at the heart of the arts and crafts industry in Tunis. It is a place for production and commercialisation. The souks (markets) are of a great economical value for the city since they attract a great number of locals and tourists Impact of Tourism
The economy of the Medina is highly dependent on arts and crafts, small industries, and tourism. In the recent years many projects relating to the touristic sector were realized. The rehabilitation of old houses and palaces and their transformation into Hotels and hostels has become a very common practice, creating a network of different exclusive spots that are somehow disconnected from the ensemble and creating an effect of gentrification, for most the clientele is foreign. This has two sides: a positive side because most of them use local workers for the realisation of the projects: Building, furniture, maintenanceâ€Śetc. and a negative side because of the exclusivity and the disconnection of these
spaces from the fabric itself in terms of social standards. These spaces may give a wrong impression of the Medina more so than they help promote it. Strategies for the Rehabilitation and Development
The rehabilitation of the Medina should be a long term process enabled by deep research to identify all problems and adapt solutions that fit to the characteristics of the site. It should tackle all issues and integrate them for a process of integration on many levels: Economic Integration
The economic integration should tackle different aspects such as promoting local know-how in craftsmanship and enhancing the vocational training sector to create job opportunities. It should be part of a cycle of cultural heritage regeneration in order to revitalise the dynamics inside the Medina, and thus provide opportunities for local and foreign entrepreneurs. Social Integration
The social integration should start with providing missing basic social services like healthcare, education, and job opportunities. Also, it should tackle the issue of housing by providing affordable and basic standard housing to enhance social mixture and avoid the gentrification effect from one side and the informal spatial occupation from the other. Besides, it is important to reclaim the open public spaces
27 Urban Cultural Heritage
that provide a platform for exchange between all occupants and visitors. Spatial Integration
The spatial integration should tackle the problem of visibility and accessibility in the Medina and from other parts of the city to the Medina, in order to create a continuity in the urban patterns while preserving the characteristics of the different layouts of the Medina and the European city. Environmental Integration
The Medina presents environmental characteristics in the way it was designed and built. This should be highlighted and made use of in order to enhance resilience towards climate change issues and promote efficiency in energy consumption. Besides, the deteriorated infrastructure should be rehabilitated in order to create a livable environment for the users.
UNESCO World heritage and on the few projects of rehabilitation in favour of tourism. The effect of gentrification that started taking place the last few years is more harmful than helpful since it creates more disconnection with the real context and does not help in enhancing social cohesion. I personally think there is no need to upgrade the Medina to a level of a typical European historical centre, but rather to allow it evolve in a natural way even if that means that informality would be part of this evolution process. In other words, it should be rehabilitated and integrated within the city and be part of its functioning systems in order to preserve its role as an important economic, social, and cultural hub. â—?
The preservation of the Medina of Tunis is a long term action that needs to take place as soon as possible in order to save what is important and should not simply rely on the title of
An open air art performance during Dream City Art Biennale, source: www. lesadc.com
28 IUSD Yearbook 2014/2015
02 Urban Planning
30 Urban Planning
Urban Policy, Planning and Sustainable Urban Management I Core Module, WS 2014/15 Prof. Dr. Astrid Ley, SI Dipl.-Ing. MSc. Franziska Laue, SI
In Urban Planning different theoretical approaches to cities, environment, social issues and to the practice of urban and regional planning itself are introduced. The module aims to make students reflect critically on urban policy-making, urban and regional planning and urban management. In highlighting how different theoretical approaches inform planning practices (and visa versa) the module demonstrates that theoretical and practical approaches to planning are closely linked. Furthermore, the module draws attention to the dangers of uncritically transferring theories of practices to different urban contexts (e.g. global north to Global South; or growing city to shrinking city, etc.). Practical constraints of relying on best practice methodologies (and mainstream urban theories) are highlighted. For their assessment, students were asked to discuss the positions presented in the lectures in a co-authored essay. Subsequently, students formulate peer-reviewed essays that deal with a selected theoretical concern of this course in a chosen case study.â—?
31 Urban Policy, Planning and Sustainable Urban Management I
Challenges of German Cities to Achieve Social Inclusion of Migrants
by Anna Buchmann
“The city is composed of different kinds of men; similar people cannot bring a city into existence” – Aristotle stated in the fourth-century BC in his work Politics that a city is a site of difference (Madanipour, 1998). Multiculturalism is fundamental for cities and should be seen as a valuable resource. Due to huge waves of migration worldwide, multiculturalism has become an unstoppable global trend, which increases ethnical, cultural and social diversity more than ever before. Those diverse influences define the global economy, characterise the population and shape the social structure of cities all over the world (Fromowitz, 2014). The contact with the unknown, and the exposure of difference are main elements of urbanity (Hillmann, 2011). But there are still problems with the coexistence of different groups in urban space. Recent events throughout the world show the great need for actions towards social inclusion of migrants but also for sensitisation of the population in the home country. In Germany a series of attacks took place between 2000 and 2007, 10 people of foreign origin were killed by the National Socialistic Underground (NSU). Their actions revealed the existence of a support network of right-wing terrorists, united by their racist ideologies and their will to make them public. In 2013 more than 43 attacks on refugee camps were registered (Aced, M. et al. 2013).
In October 2014 the movement PEGIDA “Patriotic Europeans against the Islamization of the West” started weekly demonstrations in Dresden. The protests reached international publicity and caused fear. Asylum-seekers and migrants often find themselves between inclusion and exclusion at their destination (Miles & Thränhardt, 1995). This raises questions: how can social inclusion of migrants be achieved? How should cities manage the high amounts of migrants and at the same time handle the new diversity of the population? Which concepts of social inclusion already exist? History of Migration to Germany
“Throughout history many of the most dynamic urban societies have welcomed foreigners and included them in the life of the city” (Madanipour, 1998). This describes the process of social inclusion. Social inclusion is considered to be a promising approach for development policies focusing on the poor, which should enable everyone to participate in social, political, cultural and economic life in a society. Inclusion is conceived as innovation and impulse for change processes, for example in local planning (GIZ 2013). Migration developed the complex structure of our world including different traditions, languages, religions and political organization units, which represents our social presence and migration continues to change and rebuild the structures of society. Reasons for migration are often better job opportunities, a wish to reunite with family members or leaving their home countries to escape
32 Urban Planning
war conditions and violence. After the end of World War II in 1945 the German government encouraged guest workers from Italy, Portugal, Greece and Turkey, to come for a certain period of time to Germany, but many of them became migrant by staying (Aced, M. et al., 2013). The German society held the view of a short-term stay and the acceptance was high. Also nowadays Germany needs immigration for the long-term stabilisation of the labour market, especially regarding the decline of the working-age-population and demographic change. Without immigration, Germany would have 23 Million inhabitants less by 2050, this would cause serious problems in the healthcare system and pension scheme (Zandonella, 2003). The new coexistence of people with different cultures, languages, and social backgrounds is likely to cause tension between citizens and migrants. In that case there is a demand for adaptation and assimilation and a necessity for tolerance, openness and socioeconomic equality in the society. Migration as a Challenge for Urban Management
Cities and regions must always face new economic, social and demographic challenges to stay sustainable. The increasing migration brings multiculturalism and diversity to Germanys cities, which develop new dynamics and structural changes. Exclusion can happen in every part of a city and in all dimensions of social life, it is reflected in different ways, for example the spatial segregation of the population and privatization of the public sector (Madanipour, 1998). The still existing irregular conditions of many migrants call for strategies supporting social inclusion through a comprehensive approach, which respects social diversity and prevents the segregation from the population, whether its cause is due to ethno-cultural, social or economical origins (UCLG, 2013). The combination of being a member of lower class and being part of an ethnical minority generate disadvantage and discrimination. In many cases
there is still a lack of inclusion of migrants at the labour market, the social system, the educational structure and especially in everyday life. This is reflected in statistical data of the migrant population in all social parts like work, housing, organization of associations and voter participation. A differentiation and segmentation in social environments took place (Hillmann, 2011). Milieus, which develop in certain urban districts, cause social and spatial segregation. Foreigners live mostly in residential areas, which are often referred to as socially disadvantaged urban areas. But the segregation of migrants cannot only be justified by their social status like income, labor status or level of education. On the one hand living in urban marginality can be helpful for the integration of new migrants into the society, help with orientation and favor social networks with other migrants; on the other hand frequent consequences are increasing poverty and social inequality, which lead to social exclusion (UCLG 2013). Opposite to those living in marginal urban areas, there is also a big group of very successful migrants, which demonstrate that segregation is not destructive for successful inclusion of migrants (Berding, 2007). Each one of them has cultural, social and religious needs, causing conflicts. Some residents do not see a positive sign of tolerance, openness and integration in a prestigious mosque but fear a growing foreign infiltration, rising crime rates and development of urban ghettos. It is nearly impossible to take away those fears through urban planning or local initiatives (BERDING 2007). In large sections of the society there exists a fundamental skepticism about the unknown and the external, which is reflected in different forms.
33 Urban Policy, Planning and Sustainable Urban Management I Measures to Achieve Social Inclusion of Migrants
Many cities seek to design long-term guidelines, development goals and strategies as part of the integrated urban development concept, which should support the future organization of inclusion. The committee on Social Inclusion, Participative Democracy and Human Rights of United Cities and Local Governments (UCLG) give policy guidelines, cities are recommended to follow when designing and developing public policies for social inclusion (UCLG, 2013). One of the big questions regarding the future of cities is how it is going to be possible to develop and realize innovative and effective concepts for the inclusion of migrants. In Germany many programs like “integrated urban development concepts” (InSEKs)”, “urban development programs” (StEPs), “social cities” and other strategic plans exist, which are thematic and cross departmental as well as broadly oriented in space and content (Berding, 2007). Those campaigns already work for several years towards inclusion, but structural inequalities remain and have social consequences questioning the distribution of resources or the level of participation (Sherry, 1969). The values equality, solidarity, and respect for differences shall lead the actions and support diversity. The creation of permanent spaces for dialogue, debate and negotiation will support participation that involves joint responsibility and strengthens social networks (UCLG, 2013). In Germany, communities with large numbers of migrants deal with challenges that cannot be completely managed on the communal level; since inclusion needs to start on the local level, in this context additional support from national politics as well as the federal and European level is required. Integration is becoming more important and it is a crucial point of the politics of each federal state of Germany, but often they are non-binding declarations with only symbolic character. The verifiable and functionaloriented implementation and the quality of the program are determining. So far no general
guidelines exist for managing the existing issues and problems. Structures that enable the level of social inclusion must be promoted on a sustainable base (Gesemann & Roth, 2014). Foreigners permanently residing in Germany have the opportunity to participate in integration courses in terms of language courses as well as introductions to law, culture and history of Germany. In case of migrants with no knowledge of the German language and a previous stay of less than six years, the attendance is obligatory (Zandonella, 2003). But in most cases this step is not sufficient, measures need to take place at the time of arrival, especially when migrants intend to stay long-term. Different aspects such as, the structural aspects (living, education, labour market, finance), language aspects (skills, and communication in everyday life), social aspects (cohabitation with neighbours, member in local clubs, social experiences within the community), and identification aspects (connectivity and naturalisation intention) need to be tackled. The following case study shows the challenges and local measures towards integration and social inclusion of migrants from Bulgaria and Romania, often members of the ethnical minority group “Roma” and aim to stay in Germany long-term. This increases the need for measures regarding all mentioned aspects. Case Study – Migrants from Bulgaria and Romania
Since 2007 Bulgaria and Romania are members of the European Union even though problems and deficits had been detected in the evaluation of the countries in 1997. As a consequence there are high migration waves towards EU states. 2007 - 2011 continuous migration rates and more than 500.000 migrations have been officially registered (Gelsenkirchen, 2014b). Many of the migrants belong to the ethnical group “Roma”. The members of this group are exposed to discrimination, social exclusion and hostility; they live in extreme poverty and persistent segregation, which drives the motivation for migration in order to start a new
34 Urban Planning
Settling of Romanian and Bulgarian migrants in Germany, source: SĂźddeutsche.de
life without having to face differentiation and discrimination on a daily basis. Gelsenkirchen for example is a city (located in the west of Germany) with extremely high numbers of people from Romania and Bulgaria; from 2007 to 2013 more than 2.773 migrants came. About 80% of the migrants live in the south of the city, where huge unemployment rates and vacant properties define the district. The new conditions threaten to intensify the problems. The urban management was required to take measures and developed an integration concept. The city has selected specific areas of action: integration into everyday life, organization of law and order, housing, health, work, and education. Part of the campaign for integration into everyday life is two booklets with general information to support the orientation of newcomers and lists the first steps to be taken after arrival as well as rules about living in Gelsenkirchen. Contact persons exist with Romanian and Bulgarian language skills and cultural knowledge to support the new citizens
in all kinds of affairs as well as the integration of the entire family (Gelsenkirchen, 2014b). Besides those measures, special projects for children and young people have been developed, to enable the integration into the regular school classes (Gelsenkirchen, 2014a). The different measures do not only cope with immediate issues but also offer strategies on the long-term. But the concept focuses only on the migrants; to reach a level of social inclusion all members of the society must be included. In comparison the strategy of the Bavarian city Regensburg is following an opposite approach, even though most of the aspects which should be tackled are the same. The situation of Gelsenkirchen with 3.452 migrants from Romania and Bulgaria and Regensburg with 4.390 is comparable; also segregation in peripheries is the case in both cities. But the concept of Regensburg is, other than in Gelsenkirchen, based on analysis of the entire society, not only the migrants. A detailed monitoring process and a quantitative and qualitative
35 Urban Policy, Planning and Sustainable Urban Management I
survey was conducted, to check the current level of integration and the satisfaction of the population in Regensburg. For each field of action, associations, round tables or groups exist which aim to support social integration and aim to reach social inclusion of the migrants in Regensburg (Haug et al., 2014). Conclusion
Reaching social inclusion in cities is a very complex process and it is still connected with many challenges for all actors involved, but more and more cities start to develop their own strategy. Each of them has a high potential and includes effective measures, but it is important to always include all actors and work towards a multicultural diverse society, which is inclusive. There might be a possibility to develop an optimised strategy and concept for social inclusion in cities through comparing several existing strategies and combining the positive aspects. German citizens must be included in the strategy otherwise it would be only a concept of integration. A rethinking is necessary within the German society, which must be supported by awareness rising about the fact, that Germany is a country of migration and the population needs to accept that. Migrants do not only bring challenges, but also opportunities for cities. In a globalized world urban development and migration is inseparable and migrants are important actors of urban development and must be considered in urban management practices. Some cities implement the trend of multiculturalism successfully for the self-presentation as an element of effective city marketing and for improvement of the city’s image. That often meets the lifestyle of a new milieu, the well-educated, young urban professionals who developed an open attitude towards other cultures, international food, music, fashion, and tourism (Radtke, 2003). ●
Aced, M., Düzyol, T., Rüzgar, A. & C. Schaft (2014). Migration, Asyl und (Post-) Migrantische Lebenswelten in Deutschland. Bestandsaufnahme und Perspektiven migrationspolitischer Praktiken. Berlin, LIT Verlag. Berding, U. (2007). Migration – ein Thema der Stadtentwicklungspolitik? Diss. Aachen. www.pt.rwth-aachen.de Fromowitz, M. (2014). Multiculturalism: The unstoppable global trend. Campaign Asia-Pacific. www.campaignasia.com Gesemann, F. & Roth, R. (2014). Integration ist (auch) Ländersache! Schritte zur politischen Inklusion von Migrantinnen und Migranten in den Bundesländern. Friedrich Ebert Stiftung. Berlin. GIZ (2013). Soziale Inklusion in kommunaler Planung und Stadtentwicklung. www.giz.de Madanipour, A. (1998). Social Exclusion and Space. Haug, S., Vernim, M., Gelfert, V. & A. Reindl (2014). Integrationsbericht und Integrationskonzept für Regensburg. Hillmann, F. (2011). Marginale Urbanität. Transcript Verlag. Radtke, F.-O. (2003). Multiculturalism in Germany: Local Management of Immigrants’ Social Inclusion. In: International Journal on Multicultural Societies, Vol.5, No.1, 2003
Schädler, J. & Dirr, M. (2013). Veranstaltungsreihe „Forschung trifft Praxis: nachhaltige Entwicklung in der internationalen Zusammenarbeit“ GIZ, http://youtu.be/ ChBDjdrHQhk Sherry, R. A. (1969). A ladder of citizen participation. JAIP, Vol. 35, No.4, July 1969. Stadt Gelsenkirchen (2014a). Rahmekonzept zur Integration von Kindern und Jugendlichen rumänischer und bulgarischer Zuwanderer. https://ratsinfo.gelsenkirchen.de Stadt Gelsenkirchen (2014b). Zuwanderung im Rahmen der EU-Osterweiterung aus Bulgarien und Rumänien. Handlungskonzept der Stadt Gelsenkirchen. www.rotthausen.de United Cities And Loval Governments (UCLG) (2013). Committee on Social, Inclusion, Participatory Democracy and Human Rights. For a World of Inclusive Cities. Zandonella, B. (2003). Zuwanderung nach Deutschland. Bundeszentrale für politische Bildung, Bonn.
36 Urban Planning
Urban Policy, Planning and Sustainable Urban Management II Elective, SS 2015 Prof. Dr. Astrid Ley, SI Dipl.-Ing. MSc. Franziska Laue, SI M. Arch. Marisol Rivas Velasquez, SI
Urban and planning theory may sometimes seem a little abstract and detached from concerns in planning practice. This course aims to show how theoretical concerns underpin practice in focusing on urban development projects that target social, environmental, or economic sustainability, both in the Global North and South. The course is based on a case study approach. In the first phase, students are required to critically analyse different urban development approaches of different realworld projects regarding social, environmental and economical issues of sustainability. In the second phase, they develop suitable strategies to enhance certain aspects of sustainability in the case study area. In both phases, the analysis and the preparation of strategic urban development concepts follows a structured approach to which students are introduced at the beginning of the term. In addition, students receive course materials, which form the starting points for their analyses and interventions. Case study areas are selected based on different urban development and planning approaches, spanning from urban upgrading approaches of existing areas to the construction of new
quarters or towns, but also including nonbuilding approaches. This summer term’s case studies focused on projects achieving the “Socially Inclusive City” and the “Living City”. ●
37 Urban Policy, Planning and Sustainable Urban Management II
entrance of the building
Source: https://www.flickr.com/photos/filmanois/14487243817/ accessed 05.05.2015 Fig. 1: Entrance of an occupied building, source: flickr.com
Ocupação Zumbi Dos – Backed by a legal rightPalmares under the constitution, many activist groups have resorted to occupying voids Rio de Janeiro, Brazil and unused spaces to demand what is referred to as
by Bora Bayrakci, Anna Buchmann, a just ‘social function’. The constitution under Article 184 requires the Brazilian government “to exSemegnish E. Gizaw, Sofia Kerner, propriate for the purpose of agrarian reform, rural Julienne Zürn property that is not performing its social function.” (1) Furthermore these demands have also been extended to urban voids and idle buildings as a tool to demand and make use of their rights of living.
city.theOrganized byOlympic activist the commuFollowing award of the 2016 Gamesgroups to rio, the port area, which is a prime land inabandoned the city is going buildings that nity is occupying the under a rapid revitalization program under the name located this inarea portoare maravilha projectin starting 2011. (Fig. (2) This 1). massive project that aims to expropriate the inhabitants of the area, and replace them with a new business district is facingActors a lot of criticism and protest in the city. Organized by activist groups the community is occupying the abanAfter 80 buildings were identified by the state, doned buildings that are located in this area.
the local university contacted a group of young Backed by a legal right under the constitution, architects called ‘Chiq da Silva’ in proposing many activist groups have resorted to occupy- interventions that improve the conditions of ing voids and unused spaces to demand what the spaces. ‘Chiq da Silva’ was involved in oris referred to as a just ‘social function’. In Bra- ganizing community workshops that focused zil, the constitution under Article 184 requires on the people’s needs. MTST- Brazil, which is a the Brazilian government “to expropriate for corporation of workers without a place to stay, palmares isZumbi alsodosan influential actor in the process as it is the purpose of agrarian reform, rural propmachado de assis Quilombo das Guerreiras erty that is not performing its social function” the strong stakeholder in organizing the workchiquinha Gonzaga (MST 2015). Furthermore these demands have ers and the community. One can consider this also been extended to urban voids and idle organization as the legal and legitimate face of buildings as a tool to demand and make use the community that directly participates in the area rio de Janiero and protests (Fig. 2). of their rights of living. Following the award of decision-makingport Source: Aneignung Öffentlicher Räume, Rio de Janeiro, Katharina Schmidt 2011 accessed 08.05.2015 the 2016 Olympic Games to Rio, the port area, Private owners of the buildings and the assowhich is a prime land in the city is going un- ciation ‘Minha Casa - Minha Vida’ can be conder a rapid revitalization program under the sidered as actors with indirect influence on the name Porto Maravilha project starting in 2011 ‘Ocupacao Zumbi dos Palmares movement’. (Rioonwatch 2013). This massive project that aims to expropriate the inhabitants of the area, and replace them with a new business district is facing a lot of criticism and protest in the Context
38 Urban Planning
The community at the heart of the occupation
Source: http://fotospublicas.com/ocupacao-zumbi-dos-palmares-mtst-em-sao-goncalo-rio-de-janeiro/ accessed The community at the heart of the occupation, source: flickr.com 15.05.2015
Outcomes of Previous Activities As a result of the unique provisions in Brazilian law,
the community main actor for the reforms Those people joining theis theoccupation camein the occupation movements. What is very crucial however is the or initiation of the municipality in crefrom the peripheral areas favelas and escape ating the platforms for such movements. After 80 violence, drugs and police terror (MST buildings were identified by the state, the2015). university contacted a group of young architects called Chiq da Some families got social but Silva in proposinghousing interventions units that improve the of the spaces. Chiq da Silva was involved others will have conditions needed to probably resettle in organizing community workshops that focused in the needs of the people. again. In the occupied buildings homeless people did not pay any rent, so they can save money, additionally having less transportation costs to get to the city center. The location integrated the workers in the city, which provided better future prospects. The shared homes offer new work relationships and higher economic security. The occupation had direct benefits for the homeless participants, however they remained highly vulnerable (Tomazine chiq da silva mTsT brasil 2010: 91). Even though they reach the status of ownership, they did not achieve better living standards. This was due to not having
been able to invest money to keep the state of the buildings upright. The government did neither invest in the buildingâ€™s infrastructure, nor in the general supply systems, like waste disposal. This is why these occupations cannot be considered long-term solutions in order to combat the housing deficit in Rio de Janeiro.
MTST- Brazil which is a corporation of workers without a place to stay is also an influential actor in the process as it is the strong stake holder in organizing the workers and the community. One can consider this organization as the legal and legitimate face of the community that directly participates in the decision making and protests. Private owners of the buildings and Minha Casa Minha Vida can be considered as actors with indirect influence on the Ocupacao Zumbi dos Palmares movement.
As expected from a city with wide social differences, Rio was also confronted with the challenge of creating a just city that is fairly if not equally used by the citizens. This has taken a very unique movement of occupying a space in the city if there is a social cause and the space is not used or vacant. Resulting from the minha casa - minha Vida mega events that are going to be hosted in the city, the land value and the price of land has increased in Rio. Events such as the Olympic Organization - Social structure - Election of Representatives
Chiq da Silva Building Owners MTST Occupants Municipality
Identification of empty buildings around the city
Fig. 2: Timeline of Events, Source: Authors
Workshop -Education -Entrepreneur Training
Self Administration -driect contact with the municipality
39 Urban Policy, Planning and Sustainable Urban Management II Positive factors
There is a strong sense community and unity among the occupants.
• Better represented • Using voids and unused spaces • Raising awareness • Living closer to the city presenting better opportunities • Community
The land is not producing its worth in the market
An efficient use of space in the cityEmpty buildings being utilized
Opportunities • Participatory planning • Better possibilities to find work • Income generation as a result of self-administration • Communication with existing movements • Workshops to grow
•Less money generation than if it was developed •Don’t have money for maintenance •No improvement of living standards •No upgrade in social statues •Pollution no waste management
Threat • Self-administration leading to social problems and unequal power division • Mega-events that initiated large scale development projects • Eviction • Selection process that may result in corruption
Constant pressure from developers and large scale projects
Negative factors Fig. 3: SWOT of Project, Source: Authors
Games and the world cup have ignited efforts to massively construct and in many cases reconstruct (Fig. 3). As the city was dense and with a lot of ‘slums’, most of the reconstruction was As expected from a city with a wide social differat the high Cost of inhabitants begin cleared. ence, Rio is also faced with the challenge of creating However despite these trends, this particua just city that is fairly if not equally used by the citlar building the occupation movement is izens. This haswith taken a very unique movement of ocacupying vacanta building that a prime space in the cityisif actually there is ain social cause
sWOT analysis of the occupation Source: study diagram from the group
land in the middle of the port rehabilitation project. At the time of occupation the building was neither occupied nor in the plans to be demolished. Therefore efforts of the moveMoreover the formally organized participatory ment and MTST to organise themselves to ocplanning workshops add to the belongingness of the cupy is a creative way to address the issues of citizens, which reflects on how they use their city. housing shortage, and living in Because they live inhomelessness a place that they prefer which the outskirts thatopportunities has its own these problems. is close to job and peopleSuch could
also benefit more from the city’s infrastructures, making them a production force in the city. economy the city center Resulting from the mega events thatbetter areconnection going totobe no rental costs Despite all the socially conscious efforts and contrihosted in the city, the land value and use ofthe salaryprice for costof of living land has increased in Rio. Events such as the Olym- bution however these buildings and their occupiers pic Games and the world cup have ignited efforts to have a negative side. One of the major ones being, massively construct and in many cases reconstruct. the fact that the land in this way will not produce As the city was dense and with a lot of ‘slums’, most what it is worth in the municipal and national econof the reconstruction was at the high Cost of sustainable inhab- omy. The intended developments in the area, this itants begin cleared. However despite these Development trends, building included, are expected to generate much this particular building with the occupation move- stronger revenue than those residential blocks that ment is a vacant building that is actually in a prime are owned by lower class citizen of Rio. This influoutcome of the occupation movements as land in the middlecommunity of the port rehabilitation project. ences the ecological landuse better networks inbetween the was neither At the time of occupation the building neither theeffective MTST nor the Occupants have a leverage no maintenance of the occupied buildings settlements but no prospect of with. and lack of supply systems occupied nor in the plan to be Therefore to bargainpollution social equality in demolished. the city the efforts of the movement and MTST to organize Fig. 4: Sustainability Triangle Project, Source: themselves to occupy is aofcreative way toAuthors address Another challenge to the movement is the state Owing for to the thesustainability lack of a feeling of the issues of housing shortage, homelessness and of the buildings. study diagram Source: diagram from the group living in the outskirts that has its own problems. responsibility and anstudy already deteriorating infraSuch a movement is a show of how citizen can take structure, the building is not in a good condition. charge of their city. and the space is not used or vacant.
40 Urban Planning
a movement is a show of how citizen can take charge of their city. Moreover the formally organised participatory planning workshops add to the belongingness of the citizens, which reflects on how they use their city. Because they live in a place that they prefer which is close to job and opportunities these people could also benefit more from the city’s infrastructures, making them a production force in the city. Despite all the socially conscious efforts and contribution however these buildings and their occupiers have a negative side. One of the major ones being, the fact that the land in this way will not produce what it is worth in the municipal and national economy. The intended developments in the area, this building included, are expected to generate much stronger revenue than those residential blocks that are owned by lower class citizen of Rio. This influences the outcomes of the occupation movements as neither the MTST nor the Occupants have a leverage to bargain with. Another challenge to the movement is the state of the buildings. Owing to the lack of a feeling of responsibility and an already deteriorating infrastructure, the building is not in a good condition.
As one of the major actors, MTST (Movimento dos Trabalhadores Sem-Teto) has an important role most especially from the beginning of the movement. In order to create a community beneficial to the occupants in long term, there are certain steps to be accomplished at the very beginning by MTST. Those are mainly as follows: Capacity analysis, network developing, and capacity developing, etc. Capacity Analysis
Consider the physical conditions of occupied buildings; first step should be improvement of existing living conditions. To achieve this, MTST should analyze existing capacities in terms of skills of occupants and materials that can be acquired. Network Developing Among Three Buildings: Occupied buildings should be linked to each other to get organized for a better internal operation and stronger communication with the municipality.
MTST 1-CAPACITY ANALYSIS 2-DEVELOPMENT OF NETWORK AMONG 3 BUILDINGS 3-SELF ADMINISTRATION 4-EDUCATION CAMPAIGN 5-COMMUNITY SAVING
FIRST : CHIQ DA SILVA THEN : SELF ADMINISTRATION WILL BE REPRESENTATIVE LINKAGE BETWEEN MUNICIPALITY & OCCUPATION PRIVIDING PROFFESIONAL ASSISTANCE
Ocupação Zumbi dos Palmares LEADING WORKSHOPS PARTICIPATORY PLANNING
1-HELPING TO ORGANIZE SELF ADMINISTRATION 2-CONFLICT MANAGEMENT WORKSHOPS 3-SETTING THE STANDARDS TO SUSTAIN
CHIQ DA SILVA
actors network mapping
Source: study diagram from the group
Fig. 5: Actor’s Network Mapping, Source: Authors
recOmmenDaTiOns As one of the major actors, MTST (Movimento dos
people, self administration ability for community,
41 Urban Policy, Planning and Sustainable Urban Management II Capacity Development
Linkage of three buildings will provide a foundation to improve the occupation’s capacity. In order to sustain the occupation moreover, push it to one step further and create the roots of integration to the city, job opportunities for people, self administration ability for community, gaining new skills, and improving the existing capacity of the community, are the most important and crucial steps of a capacity development process. Self-sufficiency is the key component to carry out self-administration. Community Savings
Taking in to account the amount of unemployment of occupants, in order to create economic input to the system, existing income generation ways of occupation have to be improved. Sandal production is a good example that occupants had achieved as a kick-start. However, it should be enhanced with a wide range of daily tasks in the occupation buildings especially for the occupants who are not able to work outside of the occupation. The tasks that are vital for workers should be carried out collectively such as day care, cooking, and laundry, cleaning, etc. As follows, occupants who have other skills will be able to work and pay for those daily tasks. So, this money will create a community saving which might be used for maintenance of the building, and collective services. Education Campaign
As a first step ‘read & write’ skills should be improved among all occupants. Also there should be job trainings in an attempt to equip people with new skills. Keep in mind that, to be able to consider this occupation movement as successful, another important aspect is integration to the society of the occupation. Self sufficient, educated, self-confidence gained citizens, surely will live in a better harmony with the city, with in the city. The Role of ‘Chiq da Silva’
From the first phase of occupation, ‘Chiq da Silva’ played an important role between
occupation and municipality. Underway to self administration, Chiq da Silva should stay as an actor to represent occupation, solve problems between actors they should organize conflict management workshops and capacity development workshops. Immediately after setting self-administration, ‘Chiq da Silva’ has to get one step back, but still they will play an important role during planning phases to ensure a more participatory process. Conclusion
The occupation movement can be seen as the starting point for possibilities and potentials for the homeless people within the current situation of ongoing mega events. If the main actors work together, a very effective concept can be developed and a well-organized structure can be achieved. To prevent a negative development of the occupied houses, measures must be taken, to develop further and to prevent deconstruction and resettlement of the families occupying the houses. The proposed recommendations tackle all aspects, which are important to consider. ●
MST (n.d.). About Friends of the MST | Friends of the MST. (2015). www.mstbrazil.org MTST - Movimento dos Trabalhadores Sem-Teto. (n.d.). (2015). www.mtst.org RioOnWatch. (n.d.). The Port’s Discontents. Retrieved August 3, 2015, www.rioonwatch.org
Tomazine, E. (2010) Kooperativimus und soziale Kämpfe in der Stadt, Überlegungen zur Obdachlosenbewegung im Zentrum Rio de Janeiros. In: Solidarische Räume & kooperative Perspektiven in Lateinamerika und Europa
42 Urban Planning
City Branding Elective, SS 2015 Dr.-Ing. Mona Helmy, SI
Branding of cities, as in the shaping of the ‘urban imaginary’ of a particular place, represents a collection of feelings and perceptions about city’s image, urban life, and built scape. City branding, as a new field of urban communication, donates the promoting of the city image through image representation / marketing processes. Paris is Romance, Tokyo is Modernity, Egypt – where it all begins, Definitely Dubai, Amsterdam, etc. are slogans that reflect a promise and represent a mental picture that captures the essence of the city to all that are exposed to it. In the course of this studentcentered based seminar, students will explore how cities brand themselves, and how cities succeed in creating a city brand, or a corporate city image to be identified better. The seminar will examine the shift from city marketing to city branding by adapting the concept of corporate-level marketing for the needs of cities and how it is mar¬keted and sold for its residents, visitors, tourists and entrepreneurs. It will also explore how architecture is used as a tool to represent the branded image of the city. The seminar aims at expanding students’ understanding of the knowledge on how cities brand themselves. Students collectively gain
a wide range of theoretical and practical knowledge through identifying and sharing different approaches of city branding and their effects on cities’ urban experience and development at large. Students are to examine a variety of city branding strategies, approaches, precedents, and experiences in different contexts. Lectures and case studies will strengthen the link between theories and practices of city branding strategies. ●
43 City Branding
Dubai at Night, source: MyFirstClassLife, 2015
An Analysis of Dubai’s Development and Branding
by Tamer Aly Kamel Background
Dubai is often looked at as a role model for the region. The relatively young and new city has risen to the top rather fast and it is now competing with cities like London and New York. Dubai is currently one of the most exciting places to live and work globally.
i nfamous towering skyscrapers are located on those spines, especially along Sheikh Zayed Road.
Dubai is built with businesses, services, recreation and residential offers, most of which is located in the centre of the city. Dubai is generally divided into two major zones; Deira and Bur Dubai (Helmy, 2008). The urban pattern in Dubai shows a perfect amalgamation between old and new. The historical centres where various markets (Souks) are located – a traditional, almost medieval, fabric with narrow bending streets and low rise buildings, while the newer districts have various forms of contemporary urban grids with massive spines that stretch along the city parallel to the coastline. Most of the city’s
Traditional Souk, source: flikr, 2008
Public space is not one of Dubai’s highlights. Most recent development plans were not concerned with providing public space and therefore, Dubai generally lacks those social centres, so instead private spaces in shopping malls and hotels act as the main public plazas for those who can afford it, while the less fortunate are secluded from these services (Project for Public Spaces, 2009). Dubai offers a mix of old meets new and east meets west in its visual image. Old traditional buildings are found in the older districts and there is a slow movement of reviving this heritage in newer buildings, while Dubai’s skyline is dominated
44 Urban Planning
Dubai’s Islands, source: Wikimedia Commons, 2008
by contemporary glass, steel and concrete towers and skyscrapers like the Burj Khalifa, Burj al Arab and the Emirates Towers. Off the north coast of Dubai, the cities luxurious man made islands are located. Those are private residential islands with a few commercial offerings like the Palm Jumeirah, Palm Jebel Jebel Ali and he World Archipelago. Vision, Branding & Current Development
In 2007, Dubai launched a new long term development plan, The Dubai Strategic Plan 2015. This plan outlined five areas strategic aspects of development, economic, social, security, justice and safety, infrastructure land and environment, and government excellence (Dubaiplan2021.ae, 2015). Economic development focuses on GDP growth, improving productivity, economic stability and competitiveness, while social development focused on national identity and cohesion, education, social services and culture. Infrastructure, land and environment development is concerned with urban planning, energy and water, transportation, environment and waste management, while developments in safety, security and justice are to deal with better security and order, protection of civil rights and freedom, the management of crises and disasters, and equality in the judicial system. Finally government excellence development targets strengthening forward looking strategies, organisations and structures,
e fficiency, responsiveness and customer services and empowering and motivating public service employees. These efforts are to further anchor Dubai as the centre of a continuously growing region and as a link between east and west (Dubaiplan2021.ae, 2015). In 2013, a new tourism vision for 2020 was approved. This plan is to cope with the Word Expo 2020 in Dubai and it aims at accommodate 20 million visitors per year, which is double the number of visitors the city hosted in 2012. The plan stretches over multiple fields including policies, infrastructure, product enhancement and services, events and destination marketing. The goal of the 2020 plan is putting Dubai on the leisure and business travel map as a first choice destination (Visitdubai. com, 2015) by focusing on three main topics: ●● to position Dubai and the UAE as a top family destination – by investing in activities, events and attractions which cater for families ●● moving Dubai from a regional hub for events to an international one ●● Dubai as a business destination by improving business tourism offers and services and promote Dubai as the “most effective place to do business” (Shweta, 2015). In 2015, Dubai launched yet another plan: Dubai Strategic plan 2021. This plan marks a new chapter in the story of Dubai and it is
45 City Branding
to send a message that the city is a home to people from all parts of the world and that the planned progress is on both the national and international scales (Government of Dubai. The Executive Council, 2014). It focuses on six themes: ●● The People – A city of Happy, Creative and Empowered People Empowering Emiratis; promoting educated, cultured and healthy individuals, proud of their culture, taking care of their own well-being through proactive measures; contributing to the economy and society of Dubai. ●● The Society – An Inclusive and Cohesive Society Targeting a sustainable and multi-cultural society; an economically and demographically sustainable community; focusing on civic rights and equality; encouraging families and community forming as a building block for forming societies. ●● The Experience – The Preferred Place to Live, Work and Visit Upgrading the livable conditions in Dubai proving the best available qualities in education, health and housing while enriching the culture in both the entertainment and sports fields; making Dubai a more secure place to live, work and visit. ●● The Place – A Smart and Sustainable City A fully connected and integrated mobility infrastructure providing access to all centres and services; the cross hairs of Dubai’s future focusing on clean energy sources, protecting oil, soil, water and air and promoting sustainable consumption. ●● The Economy – A Pivotal Hub in the Global Economy Enhancing Dubai’s position as a key player in the global economy and aiming at placing Dubai among the top 5 destinations for trade, logistics, finance, and tourism; offering a business friendly city attracting investments and foreign capital by innovation and productivity.
●● The Government – A Pioneering and Excellent Government Providing a more efficient and transparent government that is an authority for people and not over them – the government is to be proactive and creative in ensuring that both individuals and society are meeting their needs. (Government of Dubai. The Executive Council, 2014) Logos and Slogans
In 2009, Dubai launched a campaign with the strapline Definitely Dubai. The campaign was to attract tourists mainly from the UK and Europe. This Dubai logo was supposed to be a mix of modern typography and arabic calligraphy reflecting Dubai’s east meets west position. However, in 2014, Definitely Dubai was abandoned for the new Campaign (Blog.dubaicityguide.com, 2009). The Dubai Department of Tourism and Commerce unveiled its new brand identity. The new logo features the word “Dubai” seamlessly written in both Arabic and Roman alphabets, reflecting Dubai’s previously mentioned multicultural image. The logo now is used by all official departments
Dubai’s New Logo, source: DCTM, n.d.
Definatly Dubai Logo, source: Defiantly Dubai, 2015
46 Urban Planning
reflecting their unit under the new vision. (Eturbonews.com, 2015) “Today we launched Dubai’s new brand identity which will be used to promote our city regionally and internationally. The new brand identity focuses on Dubai being a credible, unique and welcoming destination for tourists and visitors” – Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum Assessment This analysis will focus on the Dubai 2021 Plan mentioned before. The plan originally has six different pillars of action to achieve the desired vision. The pillars are The People, The Society, The Experience, The Place, The Economy and The Government. Although all six pillars are equally critical for the development of Dubai, this report will focus more on the built aspect of the plan manifested in The Experience and The Place. The Experience
The first subcomponent of this pillar addresses housing, education and health. While housing is relatively abundant, Dubai falls short when it comes to university education and health facilities. It is not that these two factors are not up to quality, but they are simply not on the list of things which one would associate with Dubai. The second subcomponent is concerned with the availability of public and green spaces. University Education
Dubai has recently witnessed a surge in higher educational investments. There are currently 116 higher educational institutions in total and in 2011, Dubai had 116,912 students enrolled in such facilities (Knowledge & Human Development Authority, n.d.). This number when referenced with the total population, roughly 2 million inhabitants, would only show that less than 6% of the population are enrolled in high education (Dsc. gov.ae, 2015). In addition, keeping in mind that in 2011, 73.6% of the population of Dubai were between the age of 20-44, one can deduce that there are either not
enough high education offers in Dubai, or that there is no local, regional or international interest to study in Dubai (Dsc.gov.ae, 2015). As a matter of fact, most university students who have lived their entire live in the UAE leave often for Europe, USA or other Arab countries for their university education. Health Facilities
Development and investment in the field of health is still underdevelopment and a relatively new issue for Dubai. The first healthcare centre was opened in Dubai in 1943, and the first hospital in 1951. Development in this field was rather slow till the late 1980’s with another surge of medical projects (Dha.gov.ae, 2015). While the Dubai Health Authority was only established in 2007, the first plan to promote Dubai as a health tourism destination was unveiled in 2014 (Dha.gov.ae, 2015). While Dubai currently has an adequate number of high quality health and medical facilities, their health tourism strategy remains untested. Public Space
The last subcomponent of this pillar addresses public space as a part of the rich cultural experience. This aspect might offer a more difficult challenge to fulfill since Dubai falls short when it comes to public spaces. As mentioned before, most of the spaces that are used for socialising are indoor places inside shopping malls, which renders them private. The Place
In this pillar, two main aspects are presented; a smart integrated infrastructure for accessibility and sustainability with resources and services. Both fall short in the current image of Dubai. Integrated Infrastructure
Although Dubai has a bus, tram and metro networks, they often prove to be inefficient and the majority of the population often rely on private cars or taxis to commute. The current rate of car ownership in Dubai is higher than in
47 City Branding
other metropolitan cities like London or New York. In 2014, 14% of total journeys made in Dubai were using public transportation which is an upgrade from 6% (2006) while the Roads and Transport Authorities want to increase this number up to 20% by 2020, which is far from achieveing the Dubai 2021 plan. However, the biggest challenge facing this will be that Dubai is a “car culture”(Thenational.ae, 2015). Sustainablity
Sustainability on the other hand might prove to be a most challenging goal. As mentioned before, Dubai is rather unsustainable, and this applies to its economy, lifestyle and overall image. All the gulf countries have relied heavily on fossil fuel for their economy, this is by definition unsustainable, however Dubai has started to sway away from this dependency as seen in the 2021 plan by further developing and promoting the city as a tourism and business
destination. However the biggest problem is still the culture. On mentioning Dubai, one would instantly recall images of shiny skyscrapers, exotic artificial islands, expensive supercars and various other luxurious aspects, all of which are by definition unsustainable. ●
Blog.dubaicityguide.com, (2009). Definitely Dubai New Slogan for DUbai Tourism | Dubai Blog. www.blog.dubaicityguide. com bq Magazine, (2015). UAE’s population by nationality. www.bqdoha.com Dha.gov.ae, (2015). Our History. www.dha.gov.ae Dha.gov.ae, (2015). Dubai Medical Tourism Program. www.dha.gov.ae Dsc.gov.ae, (2015). Dubai Statistical Year Book 2011. www.dsc.gov.ae
New Dubai Metro, source: DubaiMetro, 2014
Dubai Online, (2015). Deira. www.dubai-on- line.com Dubai.ae, (2015). Dubai History. www.dubai. ae En.wikivoyage.org, (2015). Dubai/Deira – Travel guide at Wikivoyage. en.wikivoyage.org/wiki/ Dubai/Deira Eturbonews.com, (2015). Dubai debuts new destination brand – eTurboNews.com. – www.eturbonews.com
Traffic in Dubai, source: thenational.ae, 2013
Government of Dubai. The Executive Council, (2014). Dubai Plan 2021. Dubai: Government of Dubai. The Executive Council. www.dubaiplan2021.ae Helmy, M. (2008). Urban Branding Strategies. Ph.D. University of Stuttgart. Knowledge & Human Development Authority, (n.d.). Higher Education in Dubai. [online] Dubai: Government of Dubai www. chea.org Project for Public Spaces, (2009). Mixed Use in Dubai – Project for Public Spaces. www.pps.org Shahbandari, S. (2015). For every two Dubai residents, there is one car. www.gulfnews.com Shweta, J. (2015). Dubai sets new tourism vision for 2020. www.gulfnews.com The national.ae, (2015). Public transport use in Dubai is on the rise www.thenational.ae Uaeinteract.com, (2015). Dubai population jumps 4.8 percent to 2.17m UAE – The Official Web Site – News. www.uaeinter- act.com Visitdubai.com, (2015). Visit Dubai – Official Tourism Board in Dubai www.visitdubai.com
48 Urban Planning
Berlin Module Elective, SS 2015 Dipl.-Ing. MSc. Franziska Laue, SI Prof. Claus-Peter Haase, external Prof. Matthias Weiter, external
Once again, the fourth intake of young professionals studying at IUSD joined the other four German Arab Master’s Programme students (GAMP) from Marburg/Beirut, Cologne/Amman, Kassel/Cairo, and Ludwigsburg/Cairo during the Berlin Module this May. The first part of the Berlin Module introduced the students to the different tiers, mechanisms, and actors within the German governance system on three different levels: parliament, federal government ministries, and implementing organizations. Students had the chance to critically discuss various topics ranging from economy, academia, social matters and politics. The module is emphasizing on the interplay of institutions and organisations. During this one week the participants studied the process of changing rules and regulations, based on practical examples, presented by various actors. In the afternoons, students had the possibility to exchange with researchers, former politicians and diplomats who shared their experiences and analyses on the ongoing political and social reform processes in several Arab countries. These events took place in the premises of DAAD and DAFG.
The “Berlin Module” also brought the chance to further strengthening the friendship and network with the other GAMP students and colleagues. In the second part of the Berlin module the particularities of planning and urban management in Germany were introduced to the IUSD students by urban experts Hilmar von Lojewski (Deutscher Städtetag) and Dr. Nina Gribat (Habitat Unit, TU-Berlin). Dr. Dietlinde Schmitt-Vollmer, from the Institute for History of Architecture, guided the students through a reunified and reconstructed Berlin. We thank the organisers Prof. Dr. Matthias Weiter, Prof. Dr. Claus Haase and Manuela Helmecke (HU Berlin) for a complex and fascinating week. More about the Berlin module: http://gamponline.net/en/berlinmodul.html ●
49 Berlin Module
Meeting and Talking with Klaus Mindrup (SPD), member of the German Federal Parliament
Report by Urban Development Working Group
by Ayodeji Ademuyiwa Adegbenro, Emad Helmy, Semegnish E. Gizaw, Phoebe Ishak, Heba Hatem Aggour, Ashraf Abozeid, Muhammad Salman, Entisar Al Masri, Hassan Alseaf, Jesus Martinez Zarate Introduction
Urban development topic is the topic where the explanation and experiences in the responsibilities of the German central government and its 16 federal states to plan and support affordable housing. In periods of shortage and speculation, special measures against excessively rising real estate rents and prices are necessary, especially in urban growth areas like Berlin. Housing is considered a basic need, and social peace of a town is endangered when low-income residents are being marginalised or evicted from their familiar neighbourhood. In Berlin, subsidised house building programmes with longterm fixed rents as well as housing cooperatives have a century old tradition to secure affordable rents. Could similar solutions be adapted also to larger cities in the MENA-region? (...)
4. Berlin Housing Cooperative 1892
by Semegnish Eshetu Gizaw
The meeting held with the civil institution Berlin Housing Cooperative 1892 represented by Dirk Lรถnnecker and representing the organisational level guided us into an interesting overview of a common practice in Germany. The principle of a housing cooperative takes advantage of the German habit of not owning a house until late in life by providing a service between owning and renting. Also provide extra benefit that help establish some common ground for the real estate market thanks to the size of the institution. A general discussion with the representative of this institution helped this group to understand the arena in which the cooperatives unfold Germany-wide. A cooperative can easily become the connection between the institutional level and the organisational level. The second part of this is based on the very informative lectures that were given by individuals who had a first-hand experience in the MENA region. Both the lectures presented the challenges and opportunities that young professionals could face.
50 Urban Planning
Being member of a cooperative is a common situation in Europe, one out of five people are members of one. The cooperatives aim to establish a safe market ground together with extra benefit to help built up the market; this particular case is affordable housing and improving of living conditions. The number of dwellings offered by the city of Berlin rises up to 1.9 million. Almost 84% of Berlin inhabitants live in rented flats, and out of those, 71.2% are managed by private owners and only 17% by companies. And while the rent index in Germany is established in €5.84/m2, the index in a cooperative low down to €5.54/m2. The organisation scheme of a cooperative works similar to the 3-level scheme in terms of arenas established and connections to the exterior, every one develop an specific task, but when it comes to decision making every member of a cooperative shares equal responsibility. The development and further success of cooperatives is based on the ideas of self-help, self-responsibility and self-administration, therefore you have to become a member to participate in the decision making process, the only way to do so is acquiring shares. The housing cooperatives first appear at the beginning of 1900’s as an attempt of the working class to improved living standard at the same time as trying to establish an affordable market. Later on strengthen civil organisation was able to establish certain benefits to counter the real estate market by keeping the costs down for a longer period than the market. 5. German-Arab Policy Science and Culture
by Jesus Martinez Zarate, based on the talk by Bernd Erbel ‘interests, principles and actors of German Foreign Policy in the MENA region. This lecture given by a long serving ambassador, was an eye opener to the policy the German state has regarding the very fragile conditions of the region. It was an interesting
discussion in understanding where it stood in the past and will be in the future. From the Iraq war to Syrian conflict, the Ambassador had explained how Germany is being involved and will be involved. The economic interests that Germany has within the region were also raised. Topics of natural resources from the MENA and technical support (the construction of sporting arenas for Qatar were mentioned as an example) from the German side were also points of the discussion. The questions posed by the audience were thought provoking and were dealt with tremendous care from Mr. Erbel’s side reflecting his experience from which we can learn. 6. Research on Culture and Politics in Yemen
by Jesus Martinez Zarate
Marie-Christine Heinze presented her research on ‘Research on Culture and Politics in Yemen. Focusing completely in one country in the region, this lecture by an academician had an interesting flow from research to practical experiences. The lecture was particularly interesting in the fact that the researcher managed to propose solutions and make contributions after finishing the research. With a focus on ‘Janbiya’ the Yemeni dagger, it was interesting to see how taking a single cultural element with such care can help better understand a society. On another note an online monitoring system for the Yemeni parliament was discussed showing how one could contribute in the change making process. The support that is provided for such projects could be a good indicator on how Germany actively works in making its policies a reality. (...)
51 Berlin Module 8. Meeting a Parliamentarian
by Ashraf Abozeid
Germany is considered a leading European country that has a great role on developing a variety of housing solutions, especially lowincome housing projects. Through the whole discussions all over the meeting different discussions and arguments were raised to include the different aspects affecting the housing problems in Germany. Strategies of the country towards on a broader scale related to other factors related to housing such as environmental and social aspects were introduced. Through the meeting with Mr. Mindrup (SPD), the focus was about environmental and social strategies related to urban housing policies in Germany. Through the discussion and questions, it was obvious that waste management procedure was of the most importance. Mr. Mindrup argued that Germany has the techniques and procedures to recycle their wastes inland. However, this became less clear following further discussion. The topic of urban development was not discussed only from the perspective of inhabitants and their dwelling state but the environmental and social aspects were also discussed.
In 1990, after the reunification, the museum’s location was changed from West to East and showed the history of all Germany. In 2002 the museum presented an exhibition on the Holocaust. Interest has increased since its permanent exhibition was opened in 2006 with about 4,000 artefacts and documents. A new modern building for permanent exhibitions was added to the museum’s old building in 2003 and designed by the Chinese-American architect, I. M. Pei. It contrasts with the main building by using glass and steel, and by employing curved lines in the design of the staircase. ●
9. The German Historical Museum
by Heba Hatem Aggour
The German historical museum is one of the main attractions in Berlin, and it is the only museum in Germany covering history of the First World War in an exhibit entitled “1914– 1918. The First World War”. It focuses on effects of the violence in this era, and important changes in political thought during the 20th century. Berlin’s anniversary illustrates the history of Berlin. “The Museum is supposed to be a place of (inward) contemplation and self-recognition through historical memory” (Konzeption, 1987). In the beginning the museum showed the history and life style of both Western and Eastern Germany in permanent exhibitions.
The excursion group at the Reichstagskuppel in Berlin •
52 Urban Planning
Between Lecture Hall and Practice Elective, SS 2015 Dipl.-Ing. Raoul Humpert, SI Dipl.-Ing. MSc. Franziska Laue, SI
IUSD at the final GIZ HuP Symposium in Berlin in July 2015 – In this year’s summer term 2015, IUSD students took again part in the competition “Zwischen Hörsaal und Projekt” (between lecture hall and project), initiated by the GIZ. The task was to design a poster critically assessing one selected ongoing international project by GIZ. This included direct communication and mutual exchange with staff in the respective projects. At the final symposium on July, 10th 2015 in Berlin, an interdisciplinary expert jury evaluated all posters. This year, contestants from TU München, HU Berlin, FAU Erlangen, HNE Eberswalde, Rhine-Waal University, and University of Hohenheim made it to the final round. We are proud to announce that our IUSD students from intake IV developed three out of twelve posters that made it to the final round: Dina Najjar, Mohamed Jabi defended their analysis and recommendations on “Protection of the Environment and Biodiversty in Jordan”. They received a special acknowledgement from the jury. Fadi Ajjoub, Anas Mohamed discussed strategies to enhance “Connective
Cities“. Reeham Sayed presented her poster and recommendations on “Women´s Role in the Economy. Does it Really Matter?“ We thank Sabine Olthof, Lucia Auge and Dr. Regine Schönenberg for this initiative and support. We are looking forward to the next year’s competition. ●
ready to receive waste. Then recycling could be enhanced. ready to receive waste. Then the the recycling lawlaw could be enhanced.
53 Between Lecture Hall and Practice
SWOT Analysis SWOT Analysis Strengths: Strengths:
- Environmental awareness - Environmental awareness
- Weak enforcement - Weak enforcement of of recycling recycling lawlaw
- Rural community - Rural community development development
- Target groups - Target groups areare notnot inclusive inclusive
- Operating inside MoENV - Operating inside MoENV
- No direct influence - No direct influence on on thethe educational system educational system
- Bridging between - Bridging thethe gapgap between GO’s NGO’s GO’s andand NGO’s - Green income generation - Green income generation
- Biodiversity enhancement - Biodiversity enhancement
- Decrease of awareness - Decrease of awareness
- Reaching broader audience - Reaching broader audience - Capacity building (training) - Capacity building (training)
- Limited time frame - Limited time frame of of project project - No future monitoring plan - No future monitoring plan
- New green - New green jobsjobs opportunities opportunities
- End of funding = end - End of funding = end of of cooperation cooperation
SWOT Analysis of the project by authors
Protection of the Environment and Biodiversity in Jordan – PROTEB, 2013 – 2016
by Dina Al Najjar and Mohammad Aljabi Introduction
Lately, Jordan has witnessed an increase in its population count, which could be linked partly to the sudden influx of refugees fleeing to Jordan. This has caused an environmental impact on a country considered the fourth driest in the world, not only threatening its water resources, but also its natural resources & biodiversity. More problems have therefore escalated, such as the increase in solid waste production and desertification. What is more concerning is the absence of environmental awareness among the locals. In order to change their environmental behaviour, they must be involved in the process. Making them take part in the solution would generate more commitment from their side towards protecting the environment. This was integrated in the approach the GIZ has taken in its attempt to intervene.
The main objective of the GIZ in this project was to connect non-governmental organisation with governmental ones and create cooperation between them. Both parties would then use improved approaches set by the GIZ. The strategy is bridging the gap between these organisations and working together towards raising awareness among the locals. Research questions
After understanding the problem and the GIZ objectives and project aims, we have come out with few questions. The first one was regarding the sustainability of the project after it ends in 2016. How will the project’s main objective of Picturesfrom from deferentprojects projects Pictures deferent raising awareness keep spreading among the (PROTEB 2015) (PROTEB 2015) locals: Will the cooperation between NGO’s and GO’s continue? And how will this be monitored? These questions led us to the second question of research: Do we need to involve new actors to keep the process ongoing? What will be their role in ensuring project’s sustainability? The third research question was: how do we reach a broader audience? The project was targeted at certain community members, for example very few schools were included. Spreading the message to a larger part of the community would be very challenging, however very promising. In our first attempt to understand the status of the project, we started with the current stakeholders’ analysis; we divided the actors into three main categories: NGO’s, GO’s, and civil society. Then we subcategorised them into primary and secondary actors and studied their role in the project. This has helped us in understanding where each actor would stand in our future PROTEB follow-up plan, which we later transformed to a new proposed stakeholder analytical diagram. (...) Analysis
To further enrich our analytical approach, we did a SWOT analysis where strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of the project were listed. (...) ●
NGO’s MoEDU PROTEB Trainers follow-up Rangers MoAwqaf
Involving new actors Strengthening NGOs
Eco-School students Women Youth Fishermen Religious leaders
King Talal Dam Amman
Create green micro project
Bridging the gap between NGOs and GOs
- Environmental awareness
- Weak enforcement of recycling law
- Rural community development
- Target groups are not inclusive
- Operating inside MoENV - Bridging the gap between GO’s and NGO’s
- No direct influence on the educational system
- Improving recycling infrastructure
Cooperation between NGO & MoEDU
-Broader audience reaching students through school curriculum
- Green income generation
- Biodiversity enhancement
- Decrease of awareness
Operating with MoENV
“Public and selected NGO’s use improved approaches to increase the prevalence of environmentally conducive behavior”
Jordan, one of the driest countries, has a rapidly growing population. Environmental awareness is almost absent among the locals. To change their environmental behavior, they must get involved in the process.
Proposed stakeholder analysis
Women Youth Fishermen Religious leaders
orts N G O
MoEDU Eco-School students
GIZ PROTEB Rangers
s ion zat ni ga
g an Or
Influx of refugees & population increase
l ta en
2013 - 2016
Gov er n
Protection of the Environment and Biodiversity in Jordan
54 Urban Planning
-Raising awareness through trainers from NGO’S
-Involving new actors:monitoring the project after it ends
- Reaching broader audience
Project Involving new sustainability actors
Reaching broader audience
- Capacity building (training)
- Limited time frame of project - No future monitoring plan
- New green jobs opportunities
Between Lecture Hall & Project
Dipl-Ing. Raoul Humpert Dipl.-Ing. MSc. Franziska Laue
€ Dina Al Najjar
MSc Integrated Urbanism & Sustainable Design (IUSD)
-Income generation through green microprojects
Practice (HuP) of the Environment and Biodiversty Mohammad Aljabi “Protection in Jordan” by Dina Najjar & Mohamed Jabi Barbara Schweiger (Program Coordinator)
Enhancing recycling law
- End of funding = end of cooperation
PROTEB Fact-sheet, September 2014. Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH PROTEB Presentation_update, January 2015. Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH
“Econowin – Women‘s Role In The Economy, Does It Really Matter?” by Reeham Sayed
55 Between Lecture Hall and Practice
SUPRAREGIONAL COOPERATION WITH
CONNECTIVE - CITIES community of practice for sustainable urban development
Home > Worldwide > Germany > Connective Cities – community of practice for sustainable urban development
Problem: lack of systematic access to the local practice-oriented solutions with regards to sustainable urban development issues. "How to facilitate sharing of know-how gained from practical experiences in local successful urban development solutions?"
Project Description: (www.GIZ.de, 2015) Title: Commissioned by: Country: Lead executing agency:
Connective Cities – community of practice for sustainable urban development German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ) Global Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit GmbH (GIZ), Association of German Cities and Engagement Global (EG). Duration: 2013 to 2015
"Search Globally for Local Solutions" "The exchange of knowledge, expertise and know-how between cities has been a highly encouraged subject"
Project Objectives: (www. connective-cities.net, 2015)
The objective of the cities platform is to facilitate worldwide exchange of expertise in the field of sustainable urban development.
How does it work?
The Connective-Cities is a platform that works as facilitator, mediator and moderator for a knowledge sharing and capacity development processes.
The relevant knowledge is grouped in three main clusters: 1-
Good Urban Governance
2- Integrated Urban Development
"There is always the potential that positive planning approaches in one part of the world will be of use in another (if differences in context are correctly understood)"
3- Local Economic Development
)Watson, V, 2009(
Process of sharing knowledage:
Local problems No solutions
Local problems Some solutions
Assemblage of good practices
Spread the knowledge
Spread the practice
Establish the network
GOVERNANCE FACILITY MAKING STRUCTURE
JOBS EXCHANGE UNDERSTANDING
With regards to the three main themes, it is recommended to integrate climate change as a cross cutting issue within each theme.
MOBILITY WATER INNOVATIVE
Project's vision, global active exchange network of knowledge and expertise at cities level.
Provide the virtual portal with an advanced research engine to make it easier to access good practices.
With regards to activating the existing network, • Develop interactive phone application to keep the practitioners aware of the latest events and new good practices. • Participants-based rating system to rate the good practices inside the platform. • Organizing an annual competition to encourage participation and to spread the practice and knowledge.
References: • UN-HABITAT (2002), “REPORT OF THE FIRST SESSION OF THE WORLD URBAN FORUM” (accessed 17 June 2015). • Watson, V (2009) ‘The planned city sweeps the poor away….’ Urban planning and 21st century urbanization, Progress in Planning 72, 151- 193.
Anas Muhammed: email@example.com Fadi Ajjoub: firstname.lastname@example.org
Dr. Manfred Poppe (GIZ) for answering our questions and providing us with the necessary information. Franziska Laue and Raoul Cyril Humpert for tutoring and support.
EXCHANGE NEW PUBLIC CHANGE EXPERIENCES SECURITY
Intergrated Climate Change Urban Development Local Economic Development
Good Urban Governance
EFFICIENCY ENERGY PROTECTION
ACCOUNTABILITY MANAGEMENT CREATING
“Connective Cities“ by Fadi Ajjoub & Anas Mohamed
Franziska Laue: email@example.com Raoul Cyril Humpert: firstname.lastname@example.org
Manfred Poppe: email@example.com
Provide intellectual incentives for owners of good practices ideas to further motivate the participation such as: • Classification i.e. sustainable consultant class A, • Insuring the Intellectual property rights.
56 IUSD Yearbook 2014/2015
Urban Ecology and Ecosystem Design I Core Module, WS 2014/15 Prof. Antje Stokman, ILPÖ Dipl.-Ing. Moritz Bellers, ILPÖ
How can we understand cities as dynamic ecosystems and how can we integrate ecological principles into urban and landscape planning? This module will present the basic principles of urban ecology and ecosystem design theory applied to urban environments. If we are able to understand the city as our natural ecology in terms of the relationship between its form and processes, between its urban structure and metabolism, between its built elements and natural flows, we are able to find new ways of incorporating this knowledge into urban design. In this module we will focus on the role of design in the study of ecological processes and urban systems as joint built-natural environments, re-centering landscape planning around the goal of designing ecological infrastructure systems rather than creating luxury and artificial landscape images. In the combination of introductory lectures and practical design tasks, this course brings together a series of different theories, strategies and measures towards a more ecologically sensitive, adaptive and resilient approach to designing our built environment. ●
was actually an enormous wetland. To understand the evolution of the city Anahúac valley, where over 2450 m.o.s.l.is located the Texcoco Lake,wich the historic periods are divided in 3: Prehispanic, Colonial , Revolutionary was actually an enormous wetland. To understand the evolution of the city and contemporary. the periods are divided in 3: Prehispanic, Colonial , Revolutionary 59historic The Aztecs, founders of the first city on the wetland, Tenochtitlan, and contemporary. developed systems to use the water on their side, serving as the main Urban Ecology and Design I source The Aztecs, founders of theEcosystem first city on the wetland, Tenochtitlan, of food, energy, transportation and communication, during almost 400 yedeveloped systems to use the water on their side, serving as the main source ars. of food, energy, transportation and communication, during almost 400 ye After that, the arrival of the Spanish colonizers stablish a new city, ars. called New Spain, with the main goal to turn the city stablished on a wetland After that, the arrival of the Spanish colonizers stablish a new city, into an ‚European style‘ city, they started drying out the existing wetland. called New Spain, with the main goal to turn the city stablished on a wetland into an ‚European style‘ city, they started drying out the existing wetland. (1) MEXICO CITY AND THE TEXCOCO LAKE - TIMELINE (1)
For the contemporary tmes, the idea turn into a necessity because of the gromind, and the impulse was nearly impossible to stop. wing city and its need for expansion. For the contemporary tmes, the idea turn into a necessity because of the growing city and its need for expansion. CURRENT SITUATION // CHALLENGES Due to the overpopullation and now the lack of water natural stockpiles, CURRENT SITUATION // CHALLENGES the methods to supply the whole city and its metropolitan area are getting Due to the overpopullation and now the lack of water natural stockpiles, more expensive erevy year, and the over explotation of the aquifers are the methods to supply the whole city and its metropolitan area are getting causing the city to sink. more expensive erevy year, and the over explotation of the aquifers are Adding to this the poor water recycle systems in the city, the problem is causing the city to sink. getting more and more unsustainable. Adding to this the poor water recycle systems in the city, the problem is getting more and more unsustainable.
MEXICO CITY AND THE TEXCOCO LAKE - TIMELINE (1)
MexicoMexico- Tenochtitlán Tenochtitlán in in 1543 1543 (2) (2) MexicoTenochtitlán in 1543 (2) MexicoTenochtitlán
‚La ‚La Viga‘ Viga‘ cannal cannal in in 1939 1939 (3) (3)
‚La Viga‘ cannalcanal in 1939 in (3) ‚La Viga‘
Aerial Aerial view view of of Mexico Mexico city city in in 1979 1979 (4) (4)
‘Central ‘CentralTransmitter’ Transmitter’ ‘Central Transmitter’ Drain system Drain Drainsystem system
‘Central Transmitter’ Drain system
‘West ‘WestTransmitter’ Transmitter’ ‘West Transmitter’ Drain Drainsystem system Drain system
in 1979 ‘West Transmitter’ Drain system
‘Los ‘LosRemedios’ Remedios’river river ‘Los Remedios’ river
‘Tecamachalco’ ‘Tecamachalco’river river ‘Tecamachalco’ river ‘Tacubaya’ ‘Tacubaya’river river ‘Tacubaya’ river ‘Becerra’ ‘Becerra’river river ‘Becerra’ ‘Sanriver Joaquín’ river
Re-Opening of the Old Acequia Real in Mexico City Downtown – Regeneration of the River by Jesús Martinez & Semegnish E.Gizaw
‘Mayor Canal’ Drain system
Aerial view of Mexico in 2002 (5)city Aerial view ofcity Mexico PROJECT LOCATION in 2002 Large Scale: Mexico city Historic Downtown. PROJECT LOCATION
Small Scale: Alhóndiga Plaza, in Roldán street. Aims of the Project: PROJECT DESCRIPTION
‘La ‘LaPiedad’ Piedad’river river ‘La Piedad’ river
‘Churubusco’ ‘Churubusco’river river ‘Churubusco’ river
‘Mixcoac’ river ‘Tecamachalco’ ‘Mixcoac’ river river ‘Mixcoac’ river ‘Barranca Muerto’ river ‘Tacubaya’ ‘Barrancadel del Muerto’river river ‘Barranca del Muerto’ river ‘Tequilazgo’ ‘Becerra’ stream river ‘Tequilazgo’ ‘Tequilazgo’ stream stream ‘San Angel’ river ‘San ‘SanAngel’ Angel’ river ‘Mixcoac’ riverriver ‘San Jerónimo’ river ‘Barranca delJerónimo’ Muerto’ river ‘San ‘San Jerónimo’ river ‘Tequilazgo’ stream ‘Magdalena’ river ‘Magdalena’ ‘Magdalena’‘San river river Angel’ river ‘Eslava’ river ‘Eslava’ ‘Eslava’ river ‘San Jerónimo’ riverriver
‘Mayor ‘MayorCanal’ Canal’ ‘Mayor Canal’ Drain system Drain Drainsystem system
Medium Scale:Mexico Roldáncity street pedestrian passage. Large Scale: Historic Downtown. Small Scale: Plaza, in Roldánpassage. street. Medium Scale:Alhóndiga Roldán street pedestrian
‘Consulado’ ‘Consulado’river river ‘Consulado’ river
‘Los Remedios’ river ‘San ‘SanJoaquín’ Joaquín’river river ‘San Joaquín’ river
Aerial Aerial view view of of Mexico Mexico city city in in 2002 2002 (5) (5)
Aerial view view of Mexico in 1979 (4) Aerial ofcity Mexico city
●● Reuse of rainPROJECT waterDESCRIPTION to minimise the use of Located on the pedestrian passage in Roldán fresh water comming from the city wells. street, the project will include the plots next to the Located on the pedestrian passage in Roldán to intervine with a new water cycleinto to chactual drainage ●● Separate thepassage street, the project will include system the plots next to the ange the water use culture in the area of Mexico passage to intervine with a new water cycle to chgrey water and black water. city Historic Downtown. ange the water use culture in the area of Mexico ●● Infiltrate the city run-off water into the city aqCurrent Situation – Challenges Historic Downtown. Re-open an old river now piped and under the Mexico City Mexico City Mexico City City Mexico City City Mexico City Mexico City uifer to avoidstreet overexplotation. DueMexico to City overpopulation Mexico and now the lack ofMexico to change the marginal state of the passaOrography. Orography. Orography. Rivers Sewage Rivers and and water water bodies. bodies. Sewage system. system. Rivers and water bodies. Sewage system. Re-open an old river now piped and under the Mexico City General slope General slope in in CHCM CHCM General slope in CHCM Mexico City Mexico Cityfor entrance exits ge and return a piece of history to the new downGeneral entrance to to CHCM CHCM Main exits for CHCM CHCM General entrance to CHCM Main exits for CHCM natural water reserves, General supplying the met-Main street to change the marginal state of the passaOrography. Rivers and water bodies. Sewage system. town. General slope in CHCM General entrance to CHCM Main exits for CHCM ge and return a piece of history to the new downropolitan area with water is becoming more town. To locate bio-pond in the square the create a new expensive every year, and the over explotation space for gatering with a new city-nature connecTo locate bio-pond in the square the create a new of the aquifers are causing the city to sink. tion. space for gatering with a new city-nature connec‘Canal Nacional’ river ‘CanalNacional’ Nacional’river river ‘La Piedad’ river ‘Canal ‘Churubusco’ river
‘Xochimilco’ ‘Xochimilco’WETLAND WETLAND ‘Xochimilco’ WETLAND
‘Canal Nacional’ river
‘Chalco’ ‘Chalco’LAKE LAKE ‘Chalco’ LAKE
‘Tláhuac’ ‘Tláhuac’WETLAND WETLAND ‘Tláhuac’ WETLAND
‘Amecameca’ ‘Amecameca’river river ‘Amecameca’ river ‘Chalco’ LAKE
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AIMS OF THIS PROJECT: -RE use of rain water to minimize the use of AIMS OF THIS PROJECT: fresh water comming from the city wells. -RE use of rain water to minimize the use of
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CHAPULTEPEC CHAPULTEPEC PARK PARK CHAPULTEPEC PARK
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RE Located on the pedestrian passage in Roldán RE fresh water comming from the city wells. street, the project will include plots next to the -SE the actual drainage system into SE parate passage to engage with a new water cycling grey water and black water. -SE parate the actual drainage system into SE grey water and black water. system, in an effort to change the water use -IN Mexico Cuauhtemoc Mexico Mexico City City Cuauhtemoc District District Mexico city city Historic Historic Downtown Downtown Mexico City Cuauhtemoc District Mexico city Historic Downtown IN filtrate the run-off water into the city aqui culture historic 8 hab city 851 080 080in hab Mexico city’s Mexico Mexico city historic historicdowntown. (CHCM) (CHCM) fer to avoid overexplotation. 88 851 851 080 hab Mexico city historic (CHCM) -IN Mexico City District Cuauhtemoc District Mexico citystreet Historic Downtown Cuauhtémoc downtown (CHCM) 516 Pedestrian Roldán Cuauhtémoc District downtown (CHCM) 516 00 00 hab hab Pedestrian street Roldán Cuauhtémoc District downtown (CHCM) 516 00 hab Pedestrian street Roldán IN filtrate the run-off water into the city aqui The8 851 plan was to open anMexico oldcityriver Gizaw,Semegnish // Martínez,Jesús 080 hab historic now piped (CHCM) Gizaw,Semegnish Martínez,Jesús Task fer to avoid overexplotation. Task II II -- Page Page 1/6 1/6 downtown (CHCM) 516 00 hab andCuauhtémoc under/District the street to change the marginal Pedestrian street Roldán Gizaw,Semegnish Martínez,Jesús Task II - Page 1/6 Potential plaza for intervention: Plaza Aguilita, state of the pasage and return a piece of history source: flickr.com to the new downtown. A bio-pond was placed in the square, aimed at creating a new space encouraging a closer citynature connection.
core core module: module: urban urban ecology ecology and and ecosystem ecosystem design design --- seminar: seminar: ecology ecology & & design design --- ws ws 2014/15 2014/15 --- university university stuttgart, stuttgart, ilpö ilpö --- prof. prof. antje antje stokman, stokman, moritz moritz bellers bellers core module: urban ecology and ecosystem design seminar: ecology & design ws 2014/15 university stuttgart, ilpö prof. antje stokman, moritz bellers core module: urban ecology and ecosystem design - seminar: ecology & design - ws 2014/15 - university stuttgart, ilpö - prof. antje stokman, moritz bellers
60 Landscape Large Scale
Analysis Area â€“ Historic Downtown Mexico City (CHCM)
Current parks and plazas where natural infiltration could occur
Location of project
Possible connection streets for future project application.
the only green park in the Historic Center (Alameda).
The historical centre of Mexico City is provided with fresh water from wells utilising underground water. Both grey and black water are sent to a large treatment plant that follows the path of the river. Rain water and surface runoff from the pavement is also sent to the river through an enclosed pipe to the plant. As a Âresult, the city (built on a wet land/lake) is sinking. This very linear use of water is not doing anything to replace or refill the underground water reserves. Circular water usage
Creating a circular system and separating black water from grey water.
By proposing to change the use of water into a circular usage pattern, this proposal aims to regenerate the ground water and fight the problem of sinking. By harvesting the rain water, the amount of water that is needed to be drilled in the first place will be decreased. Opening up the river that was enclosed and piped, the river will be brought to its original nature and add to the ecological comfort and aesthetics of the district and its inhabitants.
61 Urban Ecology and Ecosystem Design I Medium Scale
Analysis Area – Roldán pedestrian passage.
Possible connection streets for future project application
Location of project: Roldán street.
Main streets crossing the intended project area
The entire district has a water system that is linear i.e. water from the main supply is utilized by the households and businesses and then sent to the sewer system which is linked to the river along with the rain water. This main water supply is charged by the underground and water as a resource is not reused. The usage is no different for the plaza, the particular intervention area. Moreover the water demand is expanding as there are more activities and people around the plaza.
Proposed water usage
The proposal contains two systems that attempt to create a loop: System A – Rain water harvesting
Instead of discharging rain water along with the sewage to the plant, it can be harvested and feed the water supply so more nonpotable but usable water can be obtained.
System B – Purification system
In this loop the enclosed river is opened up creating a space for light treatment of the grey water to take place, and infiltration of the ground water is facilitated. Using plants that have phytodepuration, the river can also be used as a green corridor in the future.
ROLDÁN RIVER Re opening of the old Acequia Real in Mexico City downtown. / Regeneration o 62 Landscape
Analysis Area – Alhóndiga Square, end of Roldán passage
Potential green roofs for rainfall harvesting in the square
Location of the intervention
Plots adjacent to the square and connected to the intervention
Light treatment for grey water is provided using plants with purification properties. By slowing the speed of the greywater that comes from the district, primary sedimentaion takes place. It is possible to clean the sediments by removing the wire mesh that covers the sedimentation tank which could be a plastic container. Rain Water Harvesting
Using a simple cistern to collect the rain water creates an alternative for water use. The harvesting cistern also provides a surface area for infiltration to the ground water instead of going to the river with the sewage.
Contributions to the urban Ecosytem Cultural
The strip was already active because of the existing shops and activities. The strip is made even more active now, and this could be applied to the entire city giving back the people SECTION 01
In this section the plaza drainage system is connected to the sewage system to protect the bio pond of heavy pollution due to the commercial use of the plaza.
SECTION 01 - ALHÓNDIGA SQUARE PURIFICATION
Ditch to catch the first sediments coming from each house hold connected to the proposed system. It will be registrable for an easy cleaning and capable to hold also sediments from the run-off street water.
SECTION In this se connecte bio pond al use of SEDIMEN Ditch to each hou tem. It w capable street wa
SECTION Since the
63 Urban Ecology and Ecosystem Design I
Analysis Area – Alhóndiga Square, end of Roldán passage
Plazas and gardens collenting and infiltrating water after proposal
Streams collecting and infiltrating the water after proposal.
their interaction to the river. What is now en closed and nonexistent to the population would in this proposal become part of their everyday. Biotic
With a more functional and usable greenspace, the biodiversity of the district is enriched more beyond the existing trees. The opened-up river also provides a more favorable environment for natural diversification to take place.
Water –The major contribution of the proposal to the water system is to regenerate the gound water by techniques of infiltration. Soil – The very loose soil that is underneath the entire district is sinking and the proposed infiltration keeps the soil stable and prevents the landmass from sinking. Climate – The open water and the smooth surface provide cooling by induction to the previously sealed surface of the city. ●
Intervention type 01 on CHCM plazas and gardens. Source: In.Situ Atelier©
Intervention type 02 on CHCM plazas and gardens. Source: In.Situ Atelier©
GeoDesign Elective, SS 2015 Dr.-Ing. Hans-Georg Schwarz von Raumer, ILPÖ Dipl.-Ing. Johannes Jörg MSc. Mohammed Alfiky, ILPÖ
Geodesign denotes a methodological field, which brings together creativity and knowledge based constructiveness in a model and communication driven design process of meso-scaled planning tasks. Both technical and communication challenges must be tackled and a lot of them still are unsolved: How to install a direct man-machine feedback loop? What are the restrictions for the designer’s degree of freedom in creativity, choice, and finality? How to tackle uncertainty and ambiguity of model results? Which limits do exist with respect to tool interfaces and IT-skills expected? Do we need an optimised collaboration between designers/planners and IT-specialists/ modellers? The seminar provided a visit in an interactive virtual environment at the High Performance Computing Centre Stuttgart (HLRS) and a lecture, which drew the basic lines and illustrated solutions of geodesign approaches. Moreover, to get a common background every student took a GIS course. In the second part of the seminar we worked on the redesign of the relationship between agriculture and urban development at the urbanrural fringe of Stuttgart. By combining design
techniques and GIS tools and models for an iterative geodesign process, the workshop task was to develop scenarios for four case study areas on the Filder plateau. The groups had to respect two preconditions for the integrated development scenarios: (1) No decrease of the total urban area. (2) No decrease of the total agricultural profits. On their way to an integrative design, the groups should follow the idea of improving the performance of the urbanlandscape pattern in terms of ecology (biotope networks, habitat quality, nitrogen leaching, etc.) and recreation (aesthetics, bike routes, park structures etc.). The students achieved: ●● a deeper understanding of geodesign approaches and the problems related to their implementation ●● knowledge and skills with regard to the inclusion of adapted and ecological aspects in urban-landscape development thinking ●● experience and ideas concerning collaborative work practices and workflows as a core item in geodesign. ●
IUSD SO.2015- Geodesign 2015
Zone 2 - Density and Connectivity Mai Adel // Jesús Martínez // Bilal Nemer
CURRENT LANDUSES Settlement - Housing Settlement - Primary Sector Settlement - Public Facility Settlement - Recreation Settlement - Supply Infrastructure Tertiairy Sector InSettlement order to -better understand
Settlement Waste Infrastructure and analyze- the current situation, the map was divided into Settlement - Cemetery three main categories :
- settlements area (housing, facilities, ...) High Habitat Quality
- forest area (woods, high habiConiferous Forest tat quality area, parks, ...) Decidious - Mixed Forest
01 - Understanding of the situation
- Wood agricultural lands (arable Sportgrasslands, - Parks lands, ...)
This analysis shows us visually the proportion of each landuse, the position on the site, and their organization.
Arable Land Garden Land Grassland
Vineyards - Orchards
TU UL IC
R AG GIS-layers
Density and Connectivity by Mai Adel, Jesús Martínez, Bilal Nemer Zone 2 - Plieningen – Ostfildern – Nellingen Current Land Uses
In order to better understand and analyse the current situation, the map was divided into three main categories:
●● settlements area (housing, facilities, ...) ●● forest area (woods, high habitat quality area, parks, ...) ●● agricultural land area (arable lands, grasslands, ...) This analysis shows us visually the proportion of each land use, the position on the site, and their organisation.
66 Landscape MID-DENSITY - CURRENT SITUATION
The medium density characteristic of the settlements surroundings the main cities in Germany create a repetitive layout where the centre and surrounding settlements can only be connected via automobile.
This land use creates detachment from the ‘outside’, the agricultural land.
• Same land use for all the settlement • Low diversity of building types. • No or minimun food production, not countable for the local production. Agricultural Land
• Only dedicated to production, no distinc tion between local and state production. Industries
• Workforce and main job provider for the settlement
DENSITY - PROPOSAL
The project aims to use density, together with design and mixed land use to protect environmentally sustainable settlements. As mentioned in the Vancouver Submission to UBCM community excellence award, density is key to adressing climate change and the city’s environmental impact.
One of the key points of incrementing density is to reduce or minimise tautomobile reliance and drastically reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The second aspect to focus on is the efficient use of infrastructure, as in mid-density settlements. ● Urban Settlement Type
• The most densify type settlement of all, it will contain public buildings, offices and apartments, enriched with some green interventions Suburban Settlement Type
• Keeping the density of settlements, including more public parks and allotment gardens to promote food production & increase climate stability PeriurbanSettlement Type
• Lowering the density of the settlements, promoting the local production by inserting agricultural land mixed with housing Rural Settlement Type
• It will focus on the state production but integrating the whole settlement by combining recreational activities.
67 GeoDesign RURAL LAND TYPE
RU RURAL RAL RU RAL RU RAL RU RAL RU RAL RU RURAL RAL
-7m Natural road (stone/sand) with a 3m buffer of proLAND LANDTYPE TYPE LANDTYPE TYPE LAND ductive fruit trees assigned to the closest farmer. LAND TYPE LAND -7m Natural road (stone / TYPE sand) with a 3m buﬀer with -7m Natural road (stone / sand) with a 3m buﬀer with 65% Arable Land. Agricultural fields state production LAND LAND TYPE -7mNatural Natural road (stone / sand) withafor a3m 3m buﬀer with -7m road (stone / TYPE sand) with buﬀer with productive fruit trees assigned the closest farmer. productive fruit assigned to the closest farmer. road (stone /trees sand) with buﬀer with -7mNatural Natural road (stone / sand) withato a3m 3m buﬀer with 20% -7m Garden Land. Community gardens with fruit trees productive fruit trees assigned to the closest farmer. productive fruit trees assigned to the closest farmer. 65% Arable Land. Agricultural fields for state production. 65% Arable Land. Agricultural fields for state production. -7m -7m Natural Natural road road (stone (stone / sand) / sand) with witha a3m 3m buﬀer buﬀer with with productive fruit trees assigned to the closest farmer. productive fruit trees assigned to the closest farmer. 65% Arable Land. Agricultural fields for state production. 65% Arable Land. Agricultural fields for state production. 05% Orchard. Trees for state production 20% Garden Land. Community gardens with fruit trees. 20%Arable Garden Land. Community gardens with fruit trees. productive productive fruit fruit trees treesassigned assigned to to the the closest closest farmer. farmer. 65% Land. Agricultural fields for state production. 65% Arable Land. Agricultural fields for state production. 20% Garden Land. Community gardenswith with fruittrees. trees. 20% Garden Land. Community gardens fruit 04% 65% Grassland. Integrating recreational functions 05% Orchard. Trees for state production. 05%Arable Orchard. Trees for state production. 65% Arable Land. Land. Agricultural Agricultural fields fields for forstate state production. production. 20% Garden Land. Community gardens with trees. 20% Garden Land. Community gardens withfruit fruit trees. 05% Orchard. Trees forstate state production. 05% Orchard. Trees for production. 04% 20% Forest. Mixed forest 04% Grassland. Integrating recreational funtions. 04%Garden Grassland. Integrating recreational funtions. 20% Garden Land. Land. Community Community gardens gardenswith with fruit fruittrees. trees. 05% Orchard. Trees for state production. 05% Orchard. Trees for state production. 04% Grassland. Integrating recreational funtions. 04% Grassland. Integrating recreational funtions. 04% Forest. forest. 04%Orchard. Forest. Mixed forest. 02% 05% Housing. 1 Mixed Storey houses. All withfuntions. renewable 05% Orchard. Trees Trees for forstate state production. production. 04% Grassland. Integrating recreational 04% Grassland. Integrating recreational funtions. energy 04% Forest. Mixed forest. 04% Forest. Mixed forest. 02% Housing. 1 Integrating Storey house /200m2. AllAll renewable energy. 02%Grassland. Housing. 1Integrating Storey house /200m2. renewable energy. 04% 04% Grassland. recreational recreational funtions. funtions. Mixed forest. 04% Forest. Mixed forest. 02%Forest. Housing. Storey house/200m2. /200m2.All Allrenewable renewableenergy. energy. 02% Housing. 1 1Storey house 04% 04% Forest. Mixed Mixed forest. forest. 02% Housing. 1 1Storey house 02%Forest. Housing. Storey house/200m2. /200m2.All Allrenewable renewableenergy. energy. 02% 02%Housing. Housing.1 1Storey Storeyhouse house/200m2. /200m2.All Allrenewable renewableenergy. energy.
pe ypecurrent currentview view ypecurrent currentview view pe e current pe currentview view pe e current currentview viewPERIURBAN LAND TYPE
PE PERIURBAN RIURBANLAND TYPE PE PE RIURBAN RIURBAN PE RIURBAN PE RIURBAN PE PERIURBAN RIURBAN
LAND TYPE -5m Interlocked road with 2m buffer of grass and shading LAND LAND TYPE TYPE LAND TYPE LAND TYPE trees. -5m Interlocked road with 2m buﬀer ofof grass and shade trees. -5m Interlocked road with 2m buﬀer grass and shade trees. LAND LAND TYPE TYPE -5m Interlocked road with2m 2mbuﬀer buﬀer offor grass and shadetrees. trees. -5m Interlocked road with offor grass and shade 35% Arable Land. Agricultural fields local production. Local 35% Arable Land. Agricultural fields local production. 35% Arable Land. Agricultural fields local production. Local -5m Interlocked road with offor grass and shade -5m Interlocked road with2m 2mbuﬀer buﬀer offor grass and shadetrees. trees. 35% Arable Land. Agricultural fields local production. Local 35% Arable Land. Agricultural fields for local production. Local farmer interacting with community (can beshade integrated farmer interacting with community (can be integrated -5m Interlocked Interlocked road road with with 2m 2m buﬀer buﬀer of of grass grass and and shade trees. trees. Local -5m farmer interacting with community 35% Arable Land. Agricultural fields for local production. Local 35% Arable Land. Agricultural fields for local production. Local farmer interacting with community (can be integrated farmer interacting with community (can be integrated with housing) with housing) 35% 35%Arable Arable Land. Land. Agricultural Agricultural fields fieldsfor forlocal local production. production. Local Local 30% Housing. 1-2 Storeys with gardens for production. farmer interacting with (can be farmer interacting withcommunity community (can beintegrated integrated with housing) with housing) 30% 1-2 Storey h.with with garden forfor own production. 30%Housing. Housing. 1-2 Storey h. with garden own production. farmer farmer interacting interacting with community community (can (can be be integrated integrated with housing) with housing) 20% Garden Land. Public parks and allotment gardens 30% Housing. 1-2 Storey h. with garden for own production. 30% Housing. 1-2 Storey h. with garden for own production. 20% Land. Public parks and allotment gardens with 20%Garden Garden Land. Public parks and allotment gardens with with withhousing) housing) 30% 1-2 h.as garden for production. 30% Housing. 1-2Storey Storey h.with with garden forown own production. with fruit trees. Harvesting a communal activity 20%Housing. Garden Land. Public parks and allotment gardens with 20% Garden Land. Public parks and allotment gardens with fruit trees. asas an activity fruit trees. Harvesting an activity 30% 30% Housing. 1-2 1-2Harvesting Storey Storey h.parks h.parks with with garden garden for forown own production. production. 20% Garden Land. Public and allotment gardens with 20%Housing. Garden Land. Public and allotment gardens with 10% Grassland. Integrating some recreational funtions. fruit trees. Harvesting as an activity fruit trees. Harvesting as an activity 10% Grassland. Integrating some recreational funtions. 10%Garden Grassland. Integrating some recreational funtions. 20% 20% Garden Land. Land. Public Publicparks parks and and allotment allotmentgardens gardens with with fruit Harvesting assome an activity fruittrees. trees. Harvesting as an activity 10% Grassland. Integrating recreational funtions. 10% Grassland. Integrating recreational funtions. 05% Agro Landscape Park. 05% Agro Landscape Park. 05% Agro Landscape Park. some fruit fruit trees. trees.Harvesting Harvesting asasan anactivity activity 10% 10%Grassland. Grassland.Integrating Integratingsome somerecreational recreationalfuntions. funtions.
05%Agro AgroLandscape LandscapePark. Park. 05% N’ type BAN’ typecurrent currentview view05% 10% Grassland. Grassland. Integrating Integrating somerecreational recreationalfuntions. funtions. Landscape Park. 05%Agro Agro Landscape Park. some AN’ N’ type typecurrent currentview view10% 05%Agro AgroLandscape LandscapePark. Park. N’ type AN’ typecurrent currentview view05% AN’ N’ type typecurrent currentview view
SU SUBURBAN BURBAN SU BURBAN SU BURBAN SU BURBAN SU BURBAN SU SUBURBAN BURBAN
LAND TYPE 02% Private Gardens. LAND TYPE LAND TYPE LAND TYPE -5m Interlocked road with LAND 1m buffer with shade trees. TYPE LAND TYPE -5m road with 1m buﬀer with shade trees. -5mInterlocked Interlocked road with 1m buﬀer with shade trees. 04% Green Space LAND LAND TYPE TYPE 70% Housing. 2 Storey houses appartments with -5m Interlocked road with 1mor buﬀer withshade shade trees. -5m Interlocked road with 1m buﬀer with trees. 70% Housing. 2 road Storey house or appartments with gardens. 70% Housing. 2road Storey house or appartments with gardens. 4% Agro Landscape Park. -5m Interlocked with 1m buﬀer with shade trees. -5m Interlocked with 1m buﬀer with shade trees. 70% Housing. Storey house appartments with(herbs gardens. 70% Housing. 2 2Storey house oror appartments with gardens. gardens 15% Garden Land. Medium size allotment gardens / / 15% Garden Land. Medium size allotment gardens (herbs -5m -5m Interlocked Interlocked road with with 1m 1m buﬀer buﬀer with withshade shade trees. trees. 70% Housing. 2 2road Storey house or appartments with gardens. 70% Housing. Storey house or appartments with gardens. 15% Garden Land. Medium size allotment gardens (herbs 15% Garden Land. Medium size allotment gardens (herbs // 15% Garden Land. size allotment gardens flowers / size fruits). flowers /Storey vegetables /or fruits). 70% 70% Housing. Housing. 2/Medium 2vegetables Storey house house or appartments appartments with with(herbs gardens. gardens. 15% Land. Medium size allotment gardens // 15%Garden Garden Land. Medium allotment gardens (herbs flowers / vegetables / fruits). flowers / vegetables / fruits). (herbs15% /08% flowers / vegetables / fruits). 08% Grassland. Parks Grass with non-productive trees, non Grassland. Parks Grass with non-productive trees, 15% Garden Garden Land. Land. Medium Medium size size allotment allotment gardens gardens (herbs (herbs / /non flowers / vegetables / fruits). flowers /Parks vegetables / fruits). 08%Grassland. Grassland. Parks - Grass withnon-productive non-productivetrees, trees, non 08% - Grass with non shadow shadow trees. 08% Grassland. Parks - Grass with non-productive trees, flowers flowers /trees. /vegetables vegetables / /fruits). fruits). 08% Parks - Grass with non 08%Grassland. Grassland. Parks - Grass withnon-productive non-productivetrees, trees, non shadow trees. shadow trees. 08% Agro Landscape Park. 08%Grassland. Agro Landscape 08% 08% Grassland. Parks Parks - Park. Grass - Grasswith withnon-productive non-productivetrees, trees,non non 08% Agro Landscape Park. shadow trees. shadow trees. SUBURBAN LAND TYPE
1010 ‘RURAL’ type view ‘RURAL’ typeproposed proposed view RURAL • proposed viewview 10‘RURAL’ ‘RURAL’ typeproposed proposed view 10 type 1010‘RURAL’ ‘RURAL’type typeproposed proposedview view 1010‘RURAL’ ‘RURAL’type typeproposed proposedview view
1111 ‘PERIURBAN’ ‘PERIURBAN’type typeproposed proposed 1212‘PERIURBAN’ ‘PERIURBAN’type typeproposed proposedview view 1111‘PERIURBAN’ ‘PERIURBAN’type typeproposed proposed 1212‘PERIURBAN’ ‘PERIURBAN’type typeproposed proposedview view PERIURBAN proposed PERIURBAN • type proposed 1111 ‘PERIURBAN’ 12 ‘PERIURBAN’type typeproposed proposed 12‘PERIURBAN’ ‘PERIURBAN’ typeproposed proposedview view 90% Housing 1111‘PERIURBAN’ ‘PERIURBAN’type typeproposed proposed 12view 12‘PERIURBAN’ ‘PERIURBAN’type typeproposed proposedview view
08%Agro AgroLandscape LandscapePark. Park. 08%
shadow shadow trees. trees.Park. Landscape 08%Agro Agro Landscape Park. UR BAN LAND08% TYPE 08% 08%Agro AgroLandscape LandscapePark. Park.
N’ AN’type typecurrent currentview view AN’ typecurrent currentview view N’ type N’ type AN’ typecurrent currentview view AN’ N’ type typecurrent currentview view
1313 ‘SUBURBAN’ ‘SUBURBAN’type typeproposed proposed ‘SUBURBAN’type typeproposed proposed 1313‘SUBURBAN’ 1313‘SUBURBAN’ ‘SUBURBAN’type typeproposed proposed SUBURBAN 1313 ‘SUBURBAN’ ‘SUBURBAN’type type typeproposed proposed proposed
UR URBAN BANLAND LANDTYPE TYPE UR BAN UR BAN UR LAND UR BAN LANDTYPE TYPE 08%BAN Grassland -5m Interlocked road with TYPE no buffer. UR URInterlocked BAN BAN LAND LAND TYPE -5m road with nono buﬀer. -5mInterlocked road with buﬀer. LANDTYPE TYPE URBAN LAND TYPELAND
08% Agro Landscape Park.
1414 ‘SUBURBAN’ ‘SUBURBAN’type typeproposed proposedview view 02 D ‘SUBURBAN’type typeproposed proposedview view 1414‘SUBURBAN’ 1414‘SUBURBAN’ ‘SUBURBAN’type typeproposed proposedview view SUBURBAN • proposed DENSITY DENSITY 14 14‘SUBURBAN’ ‘SUBURBAN’ type type proposed proposedview view
70% Housing DENSITY DENSITY DENSITY DENSITY
15% Garden Land only with 90% Housing. 3-5 Storey appartment -5m Interlocked road with nobuﬀer. buﬀer. buildings -5m Interlocked road with no 90% Housing. 3-5 Storey appartment only with 90% Housing. 3-5 Storey appartment buildings only with -5m Interlocked road with no buﬀer. -5m Interlocked road with no buﬀer. buildings ground floor non-productive gardens. 90% Housing. 3-5 Storey appartment buildingsonly onlywith with 90% Housing. 3-5 Storey appartment buildings ground floor non-productive gardens. ground floor non-productive gardens. -5m -5m Interlocked Interlocked road road with with no no buﬀer. buﬀer. 90% 3-5 Storey appartment buildings only with 90%Housing. Housing. 3-5 Storey appartment buildings only with 04% Green Space. Parks and/or covered plazas with ground floor non-productive gardens. ground floor non-productive gardens. 04% Green Space. Parks and/or coveredplazas with garden 04%Housing. Green Space. Parks and/or coveredplazas with garden 90% 90% Housing. 3-5 3-5Storey Storey appartment appartment buildings buildings only only with with ground floor non-productive gardens. ground floor non-productive gardens. garden boxes for aesthetic view. 04% Green Space. Parks and/or coveredplazas withgarden garden 04% Green Space. Parks and/or coveredplazas with boxes for aesthetic view. boxes for aesthetic view. ground ground floor floor non-productive non-productive gardens. gardens. with 04% Space. Parks and/or coveredplazas 04%Green Green Space. Parks and/or coveredplazas withgarden garden boxes for aesthetic view. boxes for aesthetic view. 04% Agro Landscape Park. 04% Agro Landscape Park. 04%Green Agro Landscape Park. 04% 04% Green Space. Space. Parks Parks and/or and/or coveredplazaswith withgarden garden boxes for view. boxes foraesthetic aesthetic view.coveredplazas 04% Agro Landscape Park. 04% Agro Landscape Park. 02% Private Gardens. Rooftop Gardens, balcony gardens 02% Private Gardens. Rooftop Gardens, balcony gardens 02%Agro Private Gardens. Rooftop Gardens, balcony gardens boxes boxes for for aesthetic aesthetic view. view. 04% Landscape Park. 04% Agro Landscape Park. 02%Private PrivateGardens. Gardens.Rooftop RooftopGardens, Gardens,balcony balconygardens gardens 02%
04% 04% Agro Landscape Landscape Park. Park. 02% Private Gardens. Rooftop 02%Agro Private Gardens. RooftopGardens, Gardens,balcony balconygardens gardens SU BURBAN LAND TYPE pe current type currentview view 02% 02%Private PrivateGardens. Gardens.Rooftop RooftopGardens, Gardens,balcony balconygardens gardens
1515 ‘URBAN’ ‘URBAN’type typeproposed proposed ‘URBAN’type typeproposed proposed 1515‘URBAN’ 1515‘URBAN’ ‘URBAN’type typeproposed proposed 1515‘URBAN’ ‘URBAN’type typeproposed proposed
ypecurrent currentview view pe pe ypecurrent currentview view pe ypecurrent currentview view
0909 ‘RURAL’ ‘RURAL’type typeproposed proposed RURAL ‘RURAL’type typeproposed proposed 0909 ‘RURAL’ type proposed 0909‘RURAL’ ‘RURAL’type typeproposed proposed 0909‘RURAL’ ‘RURAL’type typeproposed proposed
URBAN type proposed
05% Agro Landscape Park. 35% Arable Land
1616 ‘URBAN’ ‘URBAN’type typeproposed proposedview view ‘URBAN’type typeproposed proposedview view 1616‘URBAN’ 1616‘URBAN’ ‘URBAN’type typeproposed proposedview view 04 A 1616‘URBAN’ ‘URBAN’type typeproposed proposedview view
URBAN • proposed view
20% Garden Land
Detailing concept - ‘Land Types’ appearance – example for the Periurban Land Type
04% Forest 20% Garden Land
65% Arable Land
68 IUSD Yearbook 2014/2015
04 Integrated Research & Design
70 Integrated Research & Design
Integrated Research and Design Module I Core Module, WS 2014/15 Prof. Dr. Astrid Ley, SI Prof. Antje Stokman, ILPÖ Dipl.-Ing. Moritz Bellers, ILPÖ M.Arch. Marisol Rivas Velasquez, SI
The „Integrated Research and Design Module“ aims at expanding students’ understanding of the roles and responsibilities of professionals involved in the process of shaping our cities, buildings, and urban environment. It links research and design skills in terms of applying ecological knowledge, up to date technologies, and shaping built form to research and design skills in terms of collaborative forms of project development and organisation. Students are asked to creatively and strategically assemble new alliances and relationships among various stakeholders. These alliances are seen as the basis for innovative environmental, urban, and architectural design and research. This course is designed to prepare the next generation of urban practitioners to integrate new modes of research and design practice. The term “Learning Assemblages” coined by Colin McFarlen (2011) in his book “Learning the City: Knowledge and Translocal Assemblage” refers to the translocal spaces through which the city is learned. Here learning is situated not as individual process of acquiring knowledge but as a non-stop activity “intervening and generating the composition of different relations”.
During the winter semester we focused on the relation City – Knowledge. Our focus was not constrained to formal educational facilities, but also included informal exchanges of information in the City. We searched for tactical learning strategies used to assemble and negotiate everyday urban life. From self-organised educational and leisure facilities like playgrounds, skate parks and allotment gardens to urban mobilization and other forms of spatial engagement. ●
71 Integrated Research and Design Module I
Refugees in Germany
The cooking classes taking place at the PBV suffered from some problems that are frustrating the instructors and therapist and causing them to consider stop the cooking activity. The main problem is the distance between the institut and the kitchen. Another is the small space they have.
Cooking as a method for integration
1980 Owned by Bastian Pfeiffer, the school as mentioned be2007 19.164 fore is targeted at participants from a high social class. s translated „ProtesAs explained in the diagram below, participants learn by no connectiwatching, listening, doing and interacting. The class itself Learning Through Cooking – Creating a ﬁnances on to other is divided into 4 stages. l church in Stuttgart. institutions Network for Refugees in Stuttgart Actors involved in this activity are the participants, the help in every possible chefs (instructors) and the who himself also an by Dina Alowner, Najjar, JuliaisSchloz for refugees, trauma instructor.
effective – investigating refugee situation satisfaction in Stuttgart. interest of location therapy of refugees society Later, we were able to develop strategies for achieving our goal.
ch Verfolgte und Our Ver- approach The PBV Cooking r victims of political The activity is usually done in small groups consisting of The project started by investigating the process Evangelische Gesellschaft (EVA) – „Prot6-8 participants. The therapist is usuallyThe observing the ourse as a part of the activity, and(BP in some cases is the involvedestant in the activity Academy). Association“ – is a non-profit organisaion of therapists.of The learning through cooking Friedenskirche 3D as an instructor or oganizer. denskirche basement First it included a private cooking run by the evangelical church in Stuttgart. The targeted group is academy patients sufferingtion from different (eating disorders, disabilties, targeted at upper class problems people. Our focusautism, waslearning They strive to help any person in need in any depression, anxiety, disadvantaged children).
on how and what could people learn through possible way they can. They offer psychological group cooking activities. Then we moved to the assistance for refugees, trauma victims, homePBV institut working (under the EVA), another less people, abused children etc. institution which uses cooking as a method of The Psychologische Beratungsstelle für 5/20 IUSD - IRD - 2014/15 treating traumatized refugees. politisch Verfolgte und Vertriebene (PBV) – Comission Funds Different methods were used to gather and “Psychological Counseling Center for Victims analyse our data: interviews were carried out of Political Persecution and Displacement” – BV with some stakeholders, and online research particoffers the cooking course as part of therapy for Beratungsstelle für ipants Friedenskircheobservations conceptual plan and personal were used. Com- traumatized refugees, under the supervision of bene“ er David chefs*therapists. The cooking classes are currently parative studies and analysis were conducted t& Psychologist to reach conclusions. taking place at the Friedenskirche basement über den Tellerrand schauen acis owner**** Jamie Olivers Fifteen project ofkitchen therapy is a program in Our interest then moved from the cooking floor. assia psycho- kinder an initiative founded in 2013 in fers refugees and migrants the Toronto specializing on deprestivity itself to the question of how we can use herapist logist garden Berlin where cooks offer cooking possibility to learn a profession sion and post war trauma therapy private classes for both refugees and Gerthrough cooking through cooking it to help integrate refugees into German socimans 9/20 IUSD - IRD - 2014/15 ety. Here, we took our research to a new level g Class Theatre Therapy
Friedenskirche conceptual section
IUSD - IRD - 2014/15
72 Integrated Research & Design V. e.
am tel Platz ler ra nd
no proposal Our
connection finances location to other Our proposal includes three strategies involving cookinstitutes
ing, that are not only aimed at healing traumatized refugees, but also at integrating the refugees into the German society. The three strategies are inter-linked, an individual can BP go Cooking back and forth between them depending on his need.
Owned by Bastian Pfeiffer, the school is taron at each case individually. geted participants from the upper class. ParThe level of integration varies in each stage, depending ticipants learn by watching, listening, doing on the participantsâ€˜ situation and ability to integrate. and interacting. The class itself is divided into 4 stages. Actors involved in this activity are the participants, the chefs (instructors) and the owner, who himself is also an instructor. We noticed that the activites differ from one class to another, however the learning process remains the same. The learning outcome differs according to the participantsâ€˜ backgrounds and aims of learning.
Private Cooking Therapy
Analysis chart of the proposal
Cooking as a Method for Integration
The activity is usually done in small groups consisting of 6-8 participants. The therapist is usually observing the activity, and in some cases is the involved in the activity as an instructor or oganizer. The targeted group is patients suffering from different problems (eating disorders, autism, learning disabilties, depression, anxiety, disadvantaged children).
Special Public Events
Refugee Cooking Cafe
interes of society
Although the duration of each phase varies from an institut to another, the learning process is very similar.
Urban Gardening Wagenhallen Flohmarkt Karlsplatz Educating around the world
satisfaction of refugees
73 Integrated Research and Design Module I
The EVA offers different programmes and opOur proposal includes three strategies involv- erates various organisations within Stuttgart. ing cooking, that are not only aimed at heal- Via the PBV eight therapists mentor and help ing traumatized refugees, but also at integrat- traumatised refugees through different proing the refugees into the German society. The grammes such as drawing, 1-on-1- meetings three strategies are interlinked, one can switch or cooking therapy. The cooking is the private between them depending on his need. A spe- method of integrating refugees. Refugees and cific duration for each phase is not set as it de- therapists come together to cook and talk. It is pends on each case individually. The level of more a medical method than a social one. integration variesActors in each&stage, depending on stakeholders participant’s situation and tostands inteThe PBV is part of theability EVA which for EvangeliActors &the stakeholders sche Gesellschaft which is the operating arm of the Evangrate. The PBV is part of the EVA which stands for EvangeliOur Proposal
sche Gesellschaft which is the operating arm of the Evanoperates various organisations within Stuttgart. One of gelican church. The EVA offers different programs and them isOne theofPsychologische Beratungsstelle für politisch operates various organisations within Stuttgart. The EVA Cooking Therapy them is the Psychologische BeratungsstelleVertriebene für politisch short PBV. Eight therapists mentor and Vertriebene short PBV. Eight therapists mentor and suchprograms as drawing, 1-on-1- meetings or cooking therapy. help traumatized refugees through different The cooking such as drawing, 1-on-1- meetings or cooking therapy. is our private method of integrating refugees. Refugees The cooking is our private method of integrating refu- and therapist come together to cook and talk. It is and more a medical method than a social one. gees. Refugees and therapist come together to cook talk. It is more a medical method than a social one.
The centre at the Rosenbergstraße offers therapy for traumatized refugees through specialised therapists. The cooking activity as discussed before instruction, and is supervised by the therpapistsSitethroughout. However, the A Site A EVA therapy centre is rather far fromcooking the Friedenskirche EVA therapy cooking where the cooking event takes place. This has become frustrating for the instructors, as the transportation is not funded for the patients, which means they have to walk to the church everytime. Moreover, the church is not close to landlord landlord refugees do refugeesmarket where the refugees the downtown their shopping. Therefore, considered therapist the therapists have therapist stopping this activity due to this site related limitations. EVA EVA
Site B mobile kitchen
Site B mobile kitchen
shoppers am te lle Platz rr an d
refugees am te lle Platz rr an d
IUSD - IRD - 2014/15 EVA
Joint EVA cooking event, source: www.unhcr.ie IUSD - IRD - 2014/15 EVA
Site C Integration Center
74 Integrated Research & Design
Site B mobile kitchen
The shoppers Mobile Cooking Caravan Actors & stakeholders
This activity has a high integration level with German society. The audience is not controlled BP Cooking here. This activity involves renting a small KaT e.V. place at public markets; like the Flohmarkt in Stuttgart, where the refugees have their own EVA mobile cooking caravan. They cook and sell food to the shoppers there. The caravan prochoir Discussions vides a sense of security and limits the physical kids club drawing interaction with the Cooking shoppers. However, they Parties can communicate with them, through talking as they sell them the food.
The actors are probably the same as the ones involved in refugees the previous activity, however, as mentioned before, the local participants are chosen differently each time and are therefore controlled audience. am te lle Platz rr an d
e.V the landlord
refugees Actors & stakeholders Site C Integration Center
This event is organized by the Kochen am Tellerrand therapist e.V. The EVA is also involved here, through providing
KaT e.V. team. The actors involved here are the Kat e.V team, the EVA team, the refugees themseleves and the Karlsplatzmarket shoppers. University
refugees are probably the same as the ones The actors involved in the previous activity, however, as KaT e.V. organizers mentioned before, the local participants are chosen differently each time. Karlsplatz University V. e.
am tel Platz ler ra nd
Site B mobile kitchen
Wo es Essen gibt, kommen Leute zusammen. z am tel ler Plat ra nd
am te lle Platz rr an d
am tel Platz ler ra nd
KaT e.V. EVA
IUSD - IRD - 2014/15
m Tellerrand e.V.Integration Center
Kochen am Tellerrand e.V.
s feed Stuttgart
Refugees feed Stuttgart
am tel Platz ler ra nd
V. e. am tel Platz ler ra nd
HEUTE: Samosas mit Salsa-Dip KaT e.V.4,50 Euro aus ERITREA
HEUTE: Rindereintopf aus Irak organizers 4 Euro
HEUTE: Rindereintopf aus Irak 4 Euro
KaT e.V. 19/20 Concept for the food caravan
IUSD - IRD - 2014/15
IUSD - IRD - 2014/15
75 Integrated Research and Design Module I
Actors & stakeholders shoppers
The actors are probably the same as the ones involved in
refugees Center Kochen am Tellerrand Integration the previous activity, however, as mentioned before, the am te lle Platz rr an d
The centre each location is local proposed participants integration are chosen differently time and Bad Cannstatt. Thisaudience. location was chosen as are therefore controlled BP Cooking most of the refugees live in this area. The long KaT e.V. rectangular building is one of the buildings accomodating over 100 refugees families. Meaning the building has around 300 refugees living here. Marked in yellow EVA on the map above is the proposed location of the integration centre. This allows the refugees easy access to the activity Site C where they feel more safe since the cenIntegration tre is closeCenter to their new homes. The site is also very close to the market and public transportation system. In this centre, the audience is controlled with special groups being chosen from the German community each time (e.g, housewives, school teachers, etc.). This acitivity has probably the local highest intergation level between refugees and participants the German community as they either cook, or refugees share meals together.
am tel Platz ler ra nd
The Design Concept KaT e.V. The centre is designed in a way that provides organizers
garden. This nature element is also known to be soothing and very helpful in any treatment. On the south part of the building, the administration also has glazed wall in order for them to monitor the events closely without being physically involved at all stages.
mmen. gibt, kommen Leute zusa Accessibility V. e.
View into garden Group Cooking Kitchen View onto the events
z am tel ler Plat ra nd
both sense of security and facilitates socialisation and interaction. The black concrete walls KaT e.V. security issues. are enclosed in a way that meets Glass walls between the facilities â€“ marked in yellow â€“ allow the refugees to see the particThe design concept pants before interacting physically with them, The center is designed in a way that which makes the process easier to approach. provides both sense of security and The cooking space is facilitates open tosocializing an edible and garden. interaction. The concrete walls in black are This nature element is also known to be n Esse essoothenclosed in a wayWo that meets the ing and very helpful security in anyissue. treatment. Onwalls the And the glass between the facilities, marked in south part of the building, the administration yellow, allow the refugees to see the has a glazed wall in order to monitor the events particpants before interacting physically with them, which makes the closely without being physically involved at process easier for them. The cookall stages. â—? ing space is also open to an edible
am tel Platz ler ra nd
Dining and Events
IUSD - IRD - 2014/15
76 Integrated Research & Design
Integrated Research and Design Module II Core Module, SS 2015 Prof. Dr. Astrid Ley, SI Prof. Antje Stokman, ILPÖ Dipl.-Ing. Moritz Bellers, ILPÖ M.Arch. Marisol Rivas Velasquez, SI
In 2014 fifty million people worldwide have left their homes as a response to climate change and conflict. This represents the highest number since the Second World War. German cities are called upon to accommodate more and more asylum seekers as well as refugees from civil war countries. The same is true for the city of Stuttgart that not only faces up to the task to accommodate refugees, but moreover sees it also as a challenge for integration policy. Accordingly, the „Stuttgart Model“ seeks to avoid large-scale placements. In this context integration becomes a challenge in society as a whole and many Stuttgarters are already engaged in the surroundings of hostels. In this spirit this IRD seminar is interested in understanding where and how refugees are living in the host city. During this IRD project „Urban Refugees Stuttgart“ we concern ourselves with international, national and particularly local conditions in Stuttgart influencing the topic. An overview was undertaken: relevant legal conditions, important actors, sort and location of accommodations, supporting programmes, political debates, etc. were analysed.
In parallel we studied literature e.g., through migration studies on concepts like multicultural societies as well as analysis of national and international case studies. These studies are meant to generate ideas. Based on this indepth analysis, strategies for improving the existing situation were developed in collaboration with local actors. Cooperation is ensured amongst others with the NGO „Arbeitsgemeinschaft Dritte Welt e.V.“ to ensure that our approach is sensitive and our concepts close to real needs. We are interested in how people use, perceive and maybe even change the sites, as well as how they contribute to the city with their culture. A key concern is illustrating the creative potential and integration achievements of refugees themselves. The first step was implemented jointly with local participants. The outcomes are presented in an exhibition at the end of the term. ●
77 Integrated Research and Design Module II
1. Shared Living
by Paul Vogt, Verena Vollath, Christiana Weiß, Junjao Gan
The acceptance of refugees, refugee housing and their integration into society is currently a widely debated topic in Germany. The increasing number of refugees is a great challenge for politicians, the administration, and society. Even though the aim of the city of Stuttgart is to accommodate the refugees in decentralised houses, the asylum-seeker homes are developing more and more towards mass shelters on the outskirts oforganization the city. The declared goal, to General of life allow the refugees to participate in society to rements for residents encourage integration is often not met, neither
Age: 18-30 years
Requirements for residents
ents - 1/2 refugees
ge: English and/or compatible foreign language
d guideline for orientation
General organization of life
Number: 30-50 people Age: 18-30 years Requirements for residence:
state: no extreme mental problems/ traumata/ dependencies
cts of everyday life
during the temporary accommodation nor during the final accommodation. If the oft-used term „multicultural society“ should become more than just a phrase, integration must be realised in a practical and profound way. Therefore we propose a housing project where the refugees would live in shared accommodation with students. Students are mostly young, energetic adults who are looking for new experiences and desperately need living space in the city. We want to meet the needs of refugees and students by creating a place in the city where they can live, make friends, and socially engage in society. ●
> compatibility with organisational structure > definition of certain important criteria
• > 30-50 people at the age of 18-30 years 1/2 students - 1/2 refugees • 1/2 students – 1/2 refugees language: English and/orand/or compatible foreign language English compatible language • > language: • > no extrem mental state: mental no extremeproblems/traumata/dependencies mental problems/ traumata/ dependencies Aspects of every day life:
• compatibility with organisational structure > compatibility with definition structure of certain important criteria • organisational > definition of certain important criteria
• provided guideline for orientation • basic organizational structure of everyday life aid/ assistance • Aspects > provided guideline for orientation > basic organizational structure Analsysis by the authors > aid/ assistance
make up one WG, the smalest social unit Cafe the smal size secures privacy Room for interaction 78retreat room for with the public
location for events orgaIntegrated Research & Design nized by the residents space for social engagement
General organization for interaction WG: BathroomRoom + Bedroom of space General organization with the public 3 Bedrooms and one bathroom
General Organization of Space : Cafe
WG: Bathroom + Bedroom
location for events orga• Three+Bedrooms make up one WG, the smalest social unit WG: Bathroom Bedroomand oneone bathroom nized by the 3residents Bedrooms and bathroom make up privacy Workshop the smal size secures Public make up one WG, smalest social unit onethe WG room for creativity engageroom for retreat space for social the smal size privacy social unit possibility of earning • secures The smalest ment
room for retreat the small size secures
money/learning a trade cooperations with local craftsmen
privacy room for retreat
Kitchen + Living room
• Room for social interaction between the residents • About 12 residents per kitchen creating group Workshop identity Kitchen + Living roomroom for creativity • Organization of social life iving room room for social interaction betpossibility of earning • Responsibility for duties ween the residents interaction bet-
Cafe Room for interaction Room for interaction with the public with the public location for events orgalocation for events organized by the residentsnized by the residents space for social engageCafe space for social engagement • Room for interaction ment
with the public • Location for events organised by the residence space for social engagement
money/learning a trade
about 12 residents per kitchen with local craftsmen creating a groupcooperations identity organization of social life responsibility forWorkshop duties
• Room for creativity • Possibility of earning money/learning a trade • Cooperations with local craftsmen
ents nts per kitchen p identity social life or duties
Concept Diagram :
room for creativity possibility of earning money/learning a trade cooperations with local craftsmen
room for creativity possibility of earning money/learning a trade cooperations with local craftsmen
making friends learning new things engage actively in social activities
• New chapter in life new start • New orientation
Refugee new chapter in life Output new start • A home for students new orientation
• New episode in life • New challenges • Building up a new social new episode in life, circle
new challenges, building up a new social circle
Concept graphs for „Sharde Living“
as well as for refugees where they live togethter like normal flatmates • Students supporting refugees ( in learning german, about local customs, ...) • Refugees sharing their stories and skills with the students • A place where lots of social events are happening, organized together by refugees and students Living Exchange A home for the students• as wellcultural as for the refugees where the
togethter like normal ﬂatmates. Students supporting refugees (learning german, learning customs, ...) and refugees sharing their stories and skills with students
79 Integrated Research and Design Module II
the_cooperation The cooperation activities:
2. The Unity in Contain’t / Bad Cannstatt
by Marie Haibt, Diane Stein, Ashraf Abozeid, Ceravollo, Greta Colle, Bilas Nemer by contain’t pictures by contain’t The Unity is pictures a space developed, built, and run with young refugees, to express themselves in the urban context of Stuttgart. It constitutes the possibility to escape the viscous cycle of isolation and condemnation to wait and do nothing in refugee accommodations. The goal is to empower young people to develop upon their potential in an informal way, through acting and interacting in a productive and creative environment. Integrated in an existing community of young Stuttgarter creatives in Bad Cannstatt, The Unity constitutes an added value to the cities cultural vividness. ●
the_cooperation_activities Food Sharing
pictures by contain’t
pictures by contain’t
picture by contain’t
pictures by contain’t
The Cooperation – compoiund of Contain‘t, source: Own Elaboratio
picture by contain’t
80 Integrated Research & Design Concept:
Phase 1: Participatory Design and Building
forming a team to develop and the_compound build the UNITY ensures identification with the project
white: existing blue: comming from August on The Compound white: existing blue: from August on
Phase 2: Integration
use the UNITY to bring asylum seekers, creatives and civil society together, involving all of them in common activities
Phase 3: the UNITY grows
use the new networkto spread the concept of the UNITY. Encourage to create other UNITies elsewhere.
81 Integrated Research and Design Module II
Netz | Werk | Stadt
by developing space asset
Learning exchange for in Heumaden best results
by enhangins the standard of living & providing income
The aim was to create a space where refugees could share and develop personal and professs of Place sional Makingskills and knowledge. It allows local people to participate and strengthens the connection to the refugees. This room (container) will be used as a welcoming and information COLLABINVITE CONSULT ENPOWER ORM ORATE centre on the part of the local society as well as for common activities. It offers the opportunity Creating to switch the passive into an active integration a Place Community Place-based system. An urban gardening project reinforces Development Orientation the concept. ● by enhangins the by developing
ME CO IN
by Melanie Kupferschmid, Svenia Schäfer, Anna Buchmann, Cady Nasr, Bora Bayrakçi
by enhangins the built environment for cultural expression
Netz | Werk | Stadt
INTERACTION BETWEEN REFUGEES AND RESIDENTS
G IN ID OV PR
quality of life
space asset hitects/Urban Designers Community leaders - Children - Refugees’ Residents - Urban Designers/Architects Cultural
Creating enhangins the a abyPlace Place standard of living & providing income
Learning exchange for best results
Architects Architects + + Urban Urban Designers Designers
Place-based Place-based Orientation Orientation
by enhangins the by enhangins the quality quality of of lifelife
byby developing developing space asset space asset
Cultural Cultural Development Development
Economic Economic Development Development
by enhangins the built environment for environment for cultural expression cultural expression
by enhangins the by enhangins the standard of living & standard living & providingof income
Process of Place Making by enhangins the built
Economic Development Creating
Learning exchange for for Learning exchange best results best results
Refugees Refugees CA PA CIT Y
by enhangins the built Community environment for Community cultural expression Development
Architects + Urban A SENSE OF HOME Designers
CA TH PA E C CIT OM Y MU
Netz Stadt Netz || Werk Werk || Stadt
WASTE WAT RAIN WATER HARVESTING
COMPOSTING COMPOSTING RAIN WATER HARVESTING
G IN ID OV PR
Process of Place Making
Process of Place Making
A SENSE OF HOME
Architects/Urban Designers COLLABINVITE leaders - Children - Refugees’ Residents - Urban Designers/Architects ENPOWER INFORM CommunityCONSULT ORATE
INFORM Process of Place Making
CA PA CIT Y
Cultural Economic 3. Nest |Werk|Stadt|Garten Development Development
N TIO UC OD PR
ns the life
Architects + Urban Designers
CA PA CIT Y
Creating a Place
T EN TM EA TR
G IN ID OV PR
G IN ID OV PR
A SENSE OF HOME
Stuttgart – Students from tragttutS the IUSD and other programs initiating the Integrated Research and Design Project in July 2015, together with local refugees, the neighbourhood and teching staff – building, gardening, chilling, and finally celebrating all together. ●
| kreW | zteN
msinabrU detargetnI ngiseD elbaniatsuS &
Stuttgart â€“ The students of the 4th intake are discovering Stuttgart at the Urban Safaris. The buddies in preparing the first welcome routes, and after all the students presenting their discoveries. â—?
Germany & France â€“ Two Earthworkshops took place for the students of the 4th IUSD intake: two days at the Wagenhallen in Stuttgart in Nov 2014 and five days in Villefontaine in the Summerterm, where students learned how to create sustainable material on their own. â—?
Berliner Symposium –
IUSD students of the 4nd intake are participating in the final HuP – „Zwischen Hörsaal und Projekt“ – Symposium at GIZ villa in Berlin. ●
Teambuilding and Intercultural Workshop –
The 4th IUSD Intake getting creative, showing themselfs and forming groups together with Gerd Lüers at Stuttgart University. ●
Berlin Module â€“ IUSD students on tour getting to know Berlin, gaining political, historical and urban planning points of view, enjoying some spare time, and exchanging with other students from GAMP. â—?
IUSD at ‚Kirchentag‘ – A stand was designed and set up for representing the MSc IUSD at the important Christian fair, supported by IUSD students and Alumni. ●
IUSD Excursion „Structural Change“ to Rhein-Ruhr-Area – Bicycle excursion through different areas affected by post-industrial change, guided by Moritz Bellers, our local expert. ●
IUSD on tour â€“ The new IUSD-Bags, fairtrade and eco-friendly, with the eyecatching IUSD-logo are travelling around the world, starting in Stuttgart University through Berlin, Hombroich and at the ariport, waiting for the next journey. â—?
Integrated Case Study, Cairo â€“ The implementation phase was full of exchange with inhabitants while informing and activating the people, young and old, to participate and change their view to their own neighbourhood.â—?
Integrated Case Study, Cairo â€“ Istabl Antar the students of the third intake passed through an extensive field work and desktop research to develop ideas for the development of Istabl Antar area. â—?
SIWA Workshop – The students passed a one week crash course module in Siwa to develop an eco-neighborhood, and design a sustainable house – this week was full of much work, yet also full of fun time. ●
102 IUSD Yearbook 2014/2015
05 Integrated Case Studies
104 Integrated Case Study
Istabl Antar Core Module, WS 2014/15 Prof. Dr. Mohamed Salheen Dr. Marwa Abdellatif Dr. Hassan ElMouelhi M.Sc. Aya Elwagieh M.Sc. Mohammed Alfiky
The Integrated Case Study Module is designed to address new conditions and prepare the next generation of professionals to be leaders in the development of new modes of research and design practices. This module aims at expanding students’ understanding of the roles and responsibilities of professionals involved in the process of shaping our cities, buildings, and urban environments. It links research and design skills in terms of applying ecological knowledge, up to date technologies and shaping built form, and beyond that it uses research and design skills through collaboration between development and organisation. Students are asked to creatively and strategically assemble new alliances and relationships among owners, clients, builders, consultants, NGOs etc. who lay the groundwork for innovative environmental, urban and architectural design and research. Each year, a case study with a particular focus is selected, where students work over a semester to understand the complexity of urban systems and develop their understating into strategic and integrated developments and projects.
This year’s study area is Istabl Antar. It is located on the Eastern bank of the Nile river; the Ring road passes through it, dividing it into two parts. The area is located over Zahraa’ hill and surrounded by newly established Fustat city and Kom Ghorab from the North, and Dar Essalam from the South. Istabl Antar contains a large monument called “El-Gabakhana”. In addition, it contains some parts that are classified by the ISDF (Informal Settlement Development Facility) as unsafe. The area is has interrelated issues of governance, socioeconomic aspects as well as with the built and natural environment. Such complexity requires design projects with an integrated approach. To develop design projects, the Integrated Planning process is divided into five main phases: ●● Phase 1: rethinking the process of informal areas development in Egypt ●● Phase 2: preparing an integrated site and actor analysis ●● Phase 3: preparing design briefs for fast track interventions ●● Phase 4: developing action plans ●● Phase 5: implementation
105 Istabl Antar
Phase 5 ICS Phases Flow Chart
Istabl Antar area within Cairo
The first phase is extensive research in different areas of Cairo, so as to understand the process of informal area development in Egypt, and to rethink the roles of different actors involved. The second phase is conducting an integrated site and actor analysis. By the end of the second phase, a list of prioritised issues for interventions is formulated. These issues serve as the input for the third phase where design briefs for potential projects are prepared. These design briefs help to select the final design projects for developing. In the fourth phase, action plans for the final projects are developed, finalize the projects for implementation in the final phase of the module.
106 Integrated Case Study Phase 1: Rethinking the Process of Informal Area Development in Egypt
We attempted to rethink the process of informal area development in Egypt (Cairo) in order to understand government policy, civil society, and activists’ activities. In order to achieve this, extensive research took place on six places in Cairo with different typologies: Squatted Areas ●● Ezbet Elhaganna ●● Istabl Antar ●● Ezbet Elnasr ●● Ezbet Bekhiet Informal Areas on Agricultural Land ●● Ezbet ElLamoon Formal into Informal ●● Ain Alsira
6-Case Study Areas
Phase 2: Preparing an Integrated Site & Actor Analysis for Istabl Antar
The second phase aimed to conduct intensive research on Istabl Antar area grouped under the following aspects: ●● Building and Land Issues; ●● Urban Infrastructure Issues and ●● Socio-economic Aspects to verify and update the issues related to their respective theme within the study area and develop a site and actor analysis. It was crucial to study the role of government on the three themes. The topography of the area needed to be addressed as well. By the end of the second phase, a list of prioritised issues for intervention was formulated. These issues served as input for the third phase where design briefs for potential projects were prepared.
107 Istabl Antar
Top-Down approach to relocate the Iwa‘at inhabitants in Ain Alsira
the final design projects to be fully developed in the following phase of the ‘Action Plan’. The students developed nine projects with a fact sheet for every project and the stakeholders were invited to vote for only four projects. Afterwards, these selected projects were further developed by the students to design ‘Action Plans’ ready for implementation.
Phase 3: Preparing Design Briefs for Fast Track Interventions
Students developed the design briefs to address important issues in Istabl Antar (identified in phase 2). The design brief is an important tool for easing communication between the designer and the various stakeholders. Based on these briefs, stakeholders (i.e. residents, representatives from NGOs, representatives from the state and other experts) selected
Ministry of Informal settlement
Ministry of Education
The Local Municipality Of Misr El Qadima
Rouh El Shabab
Ministry of Housing, Utilities and Urban Communities
Gh Ga ada br
SOHBET KHIR Al Rabwa Al Rooki
AL KHABAR SAAR Al Anba Moussa
Ministry of Electricity and Energy Ministry of Antiquities and Heritage
ssa Mou Anba urch Ch
Ministry of Social Solidarity
Khir w Baraka
fin Si h u rc Ab hu C
AL NOOR Tawasol for Developing Istabl Antar Food Afak Bank
The French Archeological Institute
108 Integrated Case Study
Pedestrian Pedestrian& Vehicles Transportation zones
Accessibility zones The ring road from barrier to city connector fact sheet
Phase 4: Developing Action Plans
In this phase, the design strategies for the final projects were developed, making the projects ready for implementation. Four projects where selected for further development:
Physical barrier Accessibility and topography
Developing Istabl Antar Improving Public Health
Enhancing the Accesibility to and in Istabl Antar
Solid Waste Management
Enhancing Open Spaces
Building Capacities (Educatioin / Training)
Activation of Istabl Antar through “Gabakhana”
Introduction Activating “Gabakhana” The Ring Road from Participatory Cultural of Waste Barrier to City ConnecUpgrading of Open Centre Transpor- Communal Spaces tor Trough a Ramp tation System Improving Urban Introducing Garbage Education (Pulleys) Design For Public Introducing Bus/MicroImplementation “Gabakhana” as a Project Safety of Temporary Media Production Site bus Stops along the From Waste Markets in Open Vocational Training (e.g. for Studios) Ring Road to Wealth Pushing Spaces Centre Productive Participatory Widening the Inner Landscape Allocation for Streets of the Area Enhancing Market Dump Sites Agenda among NGOs An Uphill Access Road from Al Zahraa to Istabl Antar Dynamic/Static Clinics
Self Urban Management
Developming the Cliff
Legalization of Tenure
Rooting a Local Cooperative Body (LCB)
“The Cliff” ... Istabl Antar Corniche
Internal Relocation Initiative
Promotion of Active Networks Between Residents and NGOs MoU Between Maadi Company and Residents
Building Densification Manual (Tool Box) Land Ownership Transfer: Participatory Land Legalization and Division (PLLD)
The Ring Road from Barrier to City Connector through a Ramp
From Waste to Wealth
From Neglection to Attraction: "The Cliff"...Istabl Antar Cornishe
Internal Relocation Initiative
Land Ownership Transfer: Participatory Land Legislation and Division (PLLD)
Rooting Local Cooperative Unit (LCU)
Vocational Training Centre
El Gabakhana as a Cultural Centre
Communal Spaces Upgrading Project
109 Istabl Antar
Dr. Ali AlFaramawy Dr. Ahmed Darwish Mr. Khaled Hamooda Mr. Hany Salah Mahrous
Mr. Mohamed Samir Ms. Souzan Elia Eng. Nagwa Raouf
Resident International Agencies
Mr. Gamal Abdel Nasser Eng. Mohamed Abo Samra Ms. Safa Ashoub Laila
Total no. Of Voters Votes %
11 8 72.7%
2. Participatory Upgrading of Open Communal Spaces in Istabl Antar 2. Participatory Upgrading of Open Communal Spaces in Istabl Antar
1. Activation of Istabl Antar through “Gabakhana”
4. Enhancing the Accessibility to and in Istabl Antar
3. Rooting a Local Cooperative Body (LCB): Mobalization of Istabl Antar Local Community for Self-Urban Management
110 Integrated Case Study Activation of Istabl Antar through â€œGabakhanaâ€? by Ahmed El Bakry, Charlotte Watermann, Gregor Schopf, Jude Al Issa Zada, Tayseer Khairy, Yasmine Halawa
establishing parking for outsiders
connecting to the Ring Road
flexible market for local residents
preserve & maintain El-Gabakhana Entrance
preserve & maintain El-Gabakhana sides & maintaining the underground floor
Phase 2a Preparing the surroundings
Phase 2b Preparing the Entrance
Phase 2c Preparing the Wings
Phase 2d Preparing the Center
preserve & maintain ElGabakhana core building
111 Istabl Antar Scenario for a full activation for Gabakhana
Combination of • Handcraft exhibitions • Small cultural events • Discussions • Selling of local food and products • Gardening • Childrens‘ entertainment
Strengthen Gabakhana as a cultural platform or a cultural plateau, which acts as magnet to attract people interested in culture. Revitalising and paying attention to Gabakhana in this context, will raise a sense of belonging of residents in the area - it will spark change. Gabakhana as a cultural space, hosting outsiders and local residents together for more mutual learning and intellectual exchange, will be the starting point of change. By creating simple urban changes to the space, we can have a wide impact, and the place could be prepared to host cultural events.
Explaining the project to officials
These changes could be flexible, allowing easy rearrangement for different cultural purposes and functions. The physical changes will include provisions for maintaining Gabakhana as a historic monument. In order to use Gabakhana in a properly, an analysis and holistic vision must be had. Other logistics like the evacuation plan and emergency management must be taken into consideration, alongside preparing large plots for parking purposes.
112 Integrated Case Study
Preparing for the event
As part of our aim to activate Gabakhana, weorganised a kick-off event. This event aims to facilitate further cooperation, raise awareness of cultural heritage and promote and advocate the economic and cultural assets of Istabl Antar. This included inviting locals and externals to an ‘open day’ event that simulates upcoming projects, helping us measure the success of further events. The point of the event was to generate a participatory process including several discussions and informal brainstorming sessions with some of the local residents of Istabl Antar. Through this process we gained support from the local community and the active NGOs and CBOs in the area. Any profit generated from this event will return to the area’s inhabitants through the currently active NGOs. ●
sat jan-17 2015, 10am-6pm soccerfield in front of the gabakhana in istabl antar Come, have fun and take part in the activation process! Concerts · talent show· football match · local food · kids‘ area · a corner for documentary films on informal settlements · area tours www.facebook-gabakhanafestival.eg Initiated and organised by:
Promotional poster for the festival
Explaining the project to DAAD scholarship holders
113 Istabl Antar Rooting a Local Cooperative Body (LCB): Mobalization of Istabl Antar Local Community for Self-Urban Management by Aly Elsayed, Friederike Thonke, Maram Shaâ€˜ban, MennatuaAllah Hendawy, Razan Al-Shadfan, Stefanie Wladika Previous Lessons Learned
We know from previous lessons learned in informal areas of Cairo that locals are usually excluded from identifying their areaâ€™s needs and implementations despite being the knowledge base of the area. This could be why most developmental projects provide limited benefit, are not sustainable, and are not socially/physically/economically profitable for the community. The Need for a Representative Local Body
Connecting the local community and civic society entities together with the government has become a considerable need. Istabl Antar is becoming a potential target for future funds, and requires local representation. Attempts at establishing representative bodies for informal areas have occured over the years. So far, the vast majority of them have not succeeded in fulfilling their objectives due to lack of resources or a defect in methodology.
Workshop with the residents
The Need for Urban Management
Istabl Antar is a critically located informal area in Cairo. The area can be observed sprawling on two different levels, above and below the cliff. This has led to many urban issues due to lack resources and poor planning. Internal relocation from the unsafe areas (on the cliff to other parts of the settlement), security, sufficient infrastructure, and open spaces are all needs in the area. A Local Body for Self-Urban Mangement
Rising from the urgent need for urban management, and a local trained body that can Âaddress these issues, the idea of founding a local cooperative body (LCB) was derived. Objective of the LCB
The main objective of this body is to mobilise the residents of Istabl Antar for self-urban management. LCB will empower the community, so that it can determine and prioritise its needs. It will become the voice to negotiate internally, and with external forces and stakeholders.
114 Integrated Case Study
Local Community Body
local community local space
Theoretical framework of the Local Community Body
The Gradual Development of The LCB
The establishment of the LCB has three stages. Each phase aims to mobilize a part/s of Istabl Antar local community and help them organise themselves for managing their urban issues. The LCU is perceived as a mature organ that has been formed from the clustering of several cells/tissues together. Each cell/tissue here represents a group of locals in one neighbourhood who share mutual needs or issues. The three phases of this gradual development will need an external facilitator who coordinates the beginning of the process. The facilitator will provide the technical support for the self-organised groups, and support them with the proper skills and guidance for initiation. A potential facilitator could be the research team from Ain Shams University that is already conducting research work in the field. Driving Force and Fitched Aim
Processing a self-organized group in a neighborhood demands a driving force or an issue that people can negotiate about. This means that each phase of the three will have its driving force, timing, and aim. The first phase will come about through people who will be relocated from the unsafe area. The objective of this phase is the mobilisation of the local resources in the neighbourhood.
Phase two will replicate the process of the small scale self-organisation but in other zones in Istabl Antar. These zones will be selected according to dwellersâ€™ need for security of place, and other urban/infrastructure needs. Five other zones where identified in the area as a potential parts of phase II. The objective of this phase is the mobilisation of the local community in the identified areas up the cliff and the remaining part below the cliff. The third phase objective is developing representation of the local community and prioritising of (social and urban) needs/issues in the area. The need of tenure legalisation will become the main driving force for the last phase (phase III). That means that all the cells/tissues will form one entity, the LCB. The Three Phases Outputs
The outputs of the first phase are a secured research fund, establishment of a volunteer base in the unsafe area, creation of database of the unsafe area residents, and a group of trained locals and representatives. Creation of GIS profile, group of trained locals, representatives of the other remaining zones are the expected outcomes of phase II. For phase III, the outcomes are mainly about having legal establishment of the LCB, trained local volunteers from all Istabl Antar, a comprehensive GIS profile
115 Istabl Antar DRIVING FORCE PHASE 1
Urgent Need Unsafe Area Imminent Eviction
FETCHED AIM Management
urgent need based neighbourhood
Data-Base A2 Internal Relocation Approach
neighbourhoods in other areas
Urban Issues / PHASE 2 Infrastructure
Technical Team Support
GIS-Based Local Problem Analysis
geographical based neighbourhood LCB
Mutual Urban Issues Legalization
Technical Team Support
Owned Urban Profile
local community based body
Driving force and fetched aims
of all Istabl Antar, and additionally having a prioritised list of needs for the area based on local input. Timeline and Estimated Budget Plan
The time planned to process the LCB can varies between 2-2.5 years. Including contingency allowance, the total funds needed is estimated to be 100,000 L.E if the wages of the facilitator along with the GIS consultancy and license expenses are excluded. In case not, the total fund needed to conduct such a procedural intervention would reach around 600,000 L.E. Phase I is planned over 6.25 months, where the estimated budget is around 18,000 L.E. (if the wages of the facilitator are excluded). Phase II is planned over 7 months and the estimated budget is around 40,000 L.E. (if the facilitator wages are excluded and the university offers the GIS license and consultancy). Phase III which is the end of the process, will cost an estimation of 25,000 L.E. (if facilitator wages are excluded). Phase III is planned to go on for 6 months. The Kick-off Event
The first implementation is designed to take place with the relocated people in the unsafe area of Istabl Antar. A round table will be organised to gather local invitees from the Âunsafe
area with locals from other zones in Istabl Antar to negotiate the issue. This round table aims to demonstrate the model of relocation. It also aims to test the driving forces and aims behind the project. Some logistics will be needed to achieve this action including a budget that will not exceed 3,000 L.E in addition to securing a space within Istabl Antar area. The action is planned to take place on the 17th of January, 2015 in the Gabakhana. The event is financially supported by the IUSD. This support will only secure the kick-off of the intervention. Processing LCB for self-urban management is the eventual aim. â—?
116 Integrated Case Study Participatory Upgrading of Open Communal Spaces in Istabl Antar by Balsam Madi, Dina Mahdy, Lisa Gansbauer, Teresa Fellinger
El Hagana Street
Main Goal: The participatory upgrading of open communal spaces in Istabl Antar, increases the socioeconomic value of Istabl Antar.
●● Improving the physical conditions of the streets and main nodes ●● Increasing communication between different user groups of inhabitants in the sense of reinforcing inter-relations ●● Creating a sense of belonging to the place ●● Higher levels of skills to negotiate, raise funds and proceed with the development process themselves through meetings and gatherings with users, beneficiaries, and funding organisations ●● Decreasing social fragmentation between upper and lower residents ●● Introducing a sustainable participatory mechanism for upgrading ●● Increasing economic activities in upgraded areas and motivating micro-economy
Midan Moh. Hassan
Midan al Mahatta Midan Alhaj Fadeel Nodes of Upgrading Upgrading extention
Phases of upgrading Elhaganna street
117 Istabl Antar
link between the upper and lower Haggana residents promoting integration. The second phase of the intervention will extend to the adjacent streets and stairs. The third phase will start after the activation of the squares the upgrading will then focus on the streets, alleys, and stairs to reach the level of upgrade envisioned. Scope
Mohamed Hassan Square before renovation
The project addresses the gathering nodes and communal spaces as tools for improving the social and economic activities in the area. Empowering the inhabitants can occur through upgrades to the surrounding environment through workshops, fund raising, training sessions, and investing in existing man power. The communal spaces in the area include the streets, public nodes and “points”, stairs, and semi-public spaces in front of houses. The streets include the main Zahraa Street, the secondary Haggana Street (main connection to Gabakhana). Scale
The scale of the project focuses on the Haggana Street through an incremental upgrading strategy. The project will begin by upgrading one central communal node “Mohammad Hassan Square” along Haggana Street. This central node was chosen due to its existing high activity and interaction levels, this could forward the economic activity on the node and supposedly influence the adjacent streets. The chosen node is considered a vital
The intervention falls under the capacity building category. It empowers the residents through collaborations and workshops with existing upgrading initiatives to gain the upgrading expertise. The collectively upgraded communal spaces would thus foster their sense of belonging and ownership, also ensuring stable ground which could facilitate the transport of goods and thus enhance the economy. Part of the upgrading maintenance could include existing urban structures such as street furniture, lighting units, and common bins for garbage collection. In addition the project encourages the planting of productive landscapes, which raise the recognition of nature and also acts as a source of income. Round table meetings are needed between either between local community member or representatives from the NGOs and CBOs in the area, which are included in the project. Actors and Beneficiaries
The beneficiaries are the house dwellers and shop owners since they are the closest in proximity to the streets targeted for upgrade. The second group will include women and unemployed youth/men who can carry out tasks of continuous maintenance and care, which might provide a source of income for them. The last group are the initiatives that will work together with the community and contribute either by providing materials or by organising workshops.
118 Integrated Case Study Expected Outcomes
Clean communal spaces, even ground, increased integrated street furniture, increased lighting fixtures, painted steps, increase in trees, decreased social fragmentation, increased collaboration among residents, increased ownership of communal spaces, increased self-worth and pride in area, increased social interaction, and increased economic activity. Implementation Process
This process follows an incremental spatial approach, by focusing on different scales throughout the different phases. The first phase will be through a kick-off event that aims to activate a sense of upgrading the environment in colaboration with experts, locals, students and NGOs. This phase includes meetings and agreements on long term planning for the next phases of upgrading. The starting point will be the Mohammed Hassan square and Due to its location at the middle of the Hagana Street, considered a vital linkage between the upper and lower divisions of the area. The second phase will include colouring stairs as activation points in their surroundings which will encourage shop owners and users to be involved either physically of financially. The whole street is the final aim of the second phase, which will be upgraded overall through revitalisation of its nodes.
Stairs painted by â€šColoring Grey Citiesâ€˜
119 Istabl Antar
Mohamed Hassan Square
Entrance Square • 1A
Mohammed Hassan Square • 1
Gabakhana Square • 1B
Cleaning, fixing existing elements and furniture
Cleaning, fixing existing elements and furniture
Cleaning, fixing existing elements and furniture
Light Plants Pavement Garbage Bins
Furniture Light Plants Shading Elements Pavement Painting Garbage Bins
Furniture Light Pavement Painting Garbage Bins
Approximately 4,000 LE
Approximately 7,000 LE
Inhabitants (garbage collectors) Initiatives (color a gray city) Moatasem NGO
Inhabitants (garbage collectors) Initiatives (color a gray city)
Inhabitants (garbage collectors) Initiatives (color a gray city) Noor NGO
Inhabitants (Builders and craftsmen) Initiatives (color a gray city) IUSD (students) workshop sessions
Inhabitants (Builders andcraftsmen) Initiatives (color a gray city) IUSD (students) workshop sessions/design
Inhabitants (Builders and craftsmen) Initiatives (color a gray city) IUSD (students) workshop sessions/design Noor NGO
Inhabitants (Builders and craftsmen) Initiatives (color a gray city) Moatasem NGO CSR (philips, sipes)
Inhabitants (Builders and craftsmen) Initiatives (color a gray city) CSR (philips, sipes)
Inhabitants (Builders and craftsmen) Initiatives (color a gray city) CSR (philips, sipes) Noor NGO
NGO Inhabitants (local natural leaders) IUSD (temporary in the beginning)
NGO Inhabitants (local natural leaders) IUSD (temporary in the beginning)
NGO Inhabitants (local natural leaders) IUSD (temporary in the beginning)
Implementation plan of communal spaces
120 Integrated Case Study Enhancing the Accessibility to and in Istabl Antar by Adham Sannaa, Ahmed Abayazeed, Nada Jouni, Mohamed Fawzi, Maroua Ennouri Existing Issues and Problems
After several visits to the area, through observation by members of the team, and based on interviews and discussions with inhabitants of Istabl Antar, these issues as deduced: ●● Lack of accessibility to and in the area (cars, emergency, public transportation) due to the topography of the area and the presence of the Ring Road which blocks and split Ezbet Khairallah into two parts. ●● Un-Vitalized or deactivated streets which represents an unused asset for the future development of Istabl Antar.
●● Introducing three bus/microbus stops along the Ring Road within Ezbet Khairallah boundaries. (initial cost of introducing three stops: 2,290,000 LE) ●● Enhancing and widening the inner streets of the area. The long term part is the up-hill road connection to El Zahraa. GOVERNMENT
The project is divided into two parts, the short term part is enhancing the public transportation to and in the area through two phases:
DONORS AND FUNDERS
The upper bus/ micro-bus stop The Ring Road
Shops (rented to people living in the area ) Stairs
The Ring Road wall
Tuktuk station 4m
Bus Stop Proposal
121 Istabl Antar The Stakeholders
Governmental Stakeholders ●● Ministry of Renewal and Informal Settlements MOURIS ●● Ministry of Transportation ●● The general authority for roads, bridges and land transport (GARBLT). ●● The Central department of Bridges and Maintenance. ●● The Central department of the ring road and its axes. Civil Society ●● Non-Governmental Organizations– NGOs ●● Community-Based Organization – CBOs ●● Individuals ●● Donors and Funders ●● International Organizations. ●● Individuals and companies. The Intervention
Organising a graffiti workshop to involve the community by inviting a number of local children to participate in graffiti drawing on the Ring Road wall (from inside). This may increase the sense of belonging of the inhabitants in the area and change the previous perception about the Ring Road wall as an ugly concrete dull object in the area, into a beautiful and attractive place for introducing the bus/microbus stops. ●
122 IUSD Yearbook 2014/2015
Selected Topics on Urbanism Elective, WS 2014/15 Prof. Dr. Mohamed Salheen Asc. Prof. Dr. Yehya Serag Asc. Prof. Dr. Marwa Khalifa Prof. Dipl.-Ing. Ingo Helmedag
The outline of the elective this year was designed to include contributions from several staff members. The themes that were explored this year were: Impact of Politics on urbanism, and was held by Dr. Yehya Serag, in which issues like planning for control, Urbicide, Planning and sovereignty of the state as well as urban fabrics and revolutions were introduced to the students; Planning policies and the city growth in Cairo, was introduced by Prof. Mohamed Salheen in the form of analytical case studies to the students; Upgrading of slums and informal areas in Cairo, was introduced by Dr. Marwa Khalifa, also in the form of cases from Cairo and also an overview of the current policies for intervention and; Postwar reconstruction approaches were taught by Prof. Ingo Helmedag who tackled the concept through the German experience with rebuilding the city of Dresden in Germany. At the end of the course, students were asked to each select a case in light of the topics discussed and reflect on it using their particular skills. â—?
125 Selected Topics on Urbanism The Relationship of Urban Built Environment and Obesity by Teresa Fellinger 1. Introduction
“When Jem and I raced each other up the sidewalk to meet Atticus coming home from work, I didn‘t give him much of a race. It was our habit to run and meet Atticus the moment we saw him around the post office corner in the distance ...” – (Harper Lee 1960) This quotation from Harper Lee’s book To Kill a Mocking Bird describes a typical neighborhood before World War II (WWII). The father Atticus is walking home from work, children running independently in the street, having services like the post office close by in walking distance. A lot has changed since this time. The technological advances of the last decades have had a huge impact on the design and development of buildings, the methods of communication, transportation, and how populations are fed (Giles-Corti et al. 2010). Since 1980, obesity rates have been rising rapidly among both children and adults. In 2014, more than 1.9 billion adults, 18 years and older, were overweight (Body mass index (BMI) ≥ 25). Of these over 600 million were obese (BMI ≥ 30). Additionally 42 million children under the age of five were overweight or obese in 2013 (WHO). Once considered a high-income country problem, excessive weight and obesity are now problems on the rise in lowand middle-income countries, particularly in urban settings. This essay aims to elaborate the link between the urban built environment and obesity. Giving definitions of built environment and obesity. 2. Definitions 2.1 Built Environment
The term built environment is very broad and can mean many things to scientists from dif-
ferent disciplines. “The built environment itself consists of all the many features that have been constructed and modified by humanity” (Lopez 2012). By one definition, the built environment consists of the following elements: land use patterns, the distribution across space of activities and the buildings that house them; the transportation system, the physical infrastructure of roads, sidewalks, bike paths, etc., as well as the services this system provides; and urban design - the arrangement and appearance of the physical elements in a community (Handy 2002). Not long ago, public health research broadened the definition of “built environment”. As of only recently the term has included healthy food access, community gardens, “walkability”, and “bikability”, sustainable development which aims at smart growth (Lee et al. 2008). Other “environments” like the social and physical environment have to be considered while writing about built environment; e.g. physical environment like the prevailing climate and social environment like crime and safety. Physical and social environment characteristics may arise from features of the built environment (Lopez 2012). 2.2 Obesity – A Worldwide Epidemic: Prevention Efforts Urgently Needed!
The World Health Organisation (WHO) defines overweight and obesity “as abnormal or excessive fat accumulation[s] that may impair health”. The first time obesity was highlighted as a major global concern by the WHO was in 1997. Subsequently the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) had been formed to understand and fight obesity. Usually overweight and obesity are classified using body mass index (BMI). This is a simple index of weightfor-height. It is defined as a person’s weight in kilograms divided by the square of their height in metres (kg/m2). A BMI greater than or equal to 25 means a person is overweight, a BMI greater than or equal to 30 means a person is obese (James et al. 2010). One disadvantage of this categorisation is that the BMI does not
give any information about why patients are overweight or obese. It does not distinguish underlying conditions. Obesity creates a number of serious public health problems with negative physical, social, and mental health consequences (Pearce & Witten 2010). The major health risk developing out of excessive fat accumulations are type 2 diabetes, various cancers, cardiovascular disease and hypertension. Worldwide obesity causes around 2.8 Million deaths each year (WHO). The fundamental cause of obesity and overweight is an energy imbalance between calories consumed and calories expended. Globally, there has been an increased intake of energydense foods that are high in fat and an increase in physical inactivity due to the increasingly sedentary nature of many forms of work, changing modes of transportation and increasing urbanisation. Given the detrimental health consequences of obesity and the rapidly rising rates, successful prevention efforts are urgently needed (WHO), as obesity is preventable. The built environment can play a major role in “influencing obesity by creating a climate that promotes increased energy consumption and a reduction in energy expenditure” – (Papas et al. 2007). 3. Relationship of Urban Built Environment and Obesity 3.1 History
It seems that Henry Ford‘s dream to make motor vehicles affordable for the masses, “nurtured people‘s evolutionary drive to conserve energy expenditure and, as a c`tonsequence, appears to have contributed to our ever-burgeoning waist lines” (Giles-Corti et al. 2010) and to the redesign of cities. The affordability of private transportation transformed society and had an effect on where and how we live (Giles-Corti et al. 2010). At the beginning of 1800s, cities were characterised as follows: densely settled, high land
use mix, clear distinction between urban and rural area, transportation was limited to foot or animal power, and services and work were in walking distance to reduce time (Falconer & Giles-Corti 2008 & Newmann 2009 in Giles Corti et al. 2010). However, the model of the compact city was needed at the start of industrialisation. Separation between residences and the polluted and noxious land was needed. At this time planners and public health officials recognised the need for “segregation compared with agglomeration of land uses” (Falconer & Giles-Corti 2008 in Giles Corti et al.2010) due to health reasons of the inhabitants living in cities. Consequently zoning of land uses was introduced. This practice created a distance between residences and their workplace as well as their daily needed services and therefore increased travel times. By the 1900s, zoning had become an important element of planning strategy (Hall & Porterfield 2000 in Giles-Corti et al. 2010) and urban sprawl and suburbs emerged in the USA and European cities. Protecting the public from environmental contamination, zoning has contributed to an increased need for private transportation. With good intention, housing density within a suburb was constrained, but planners at that time did not recognise the inadvertent consequences for walkability and physical activity (Giles-Corti et al. 2010). With the increase of private motor vehicle ownership “the pressure grew to design communities to improve motor vehicle mobility, at the expenses of pedestrians and cyclists and related infrastructure” (Giles-Corti and King 2009 in Giles Corti et al. 2010). Only now it is recognized that the design of neighbourhood environments has a direct and indirect influences on health. Several studies prove that “adults are more likely to walk for transport in compact, pedestrian-friendly neighbourhoods characterised by connected street networks, access to mix use planning, the presence of destinations and higher densities” (Transportation Research Board 2005 in Giles-Corti et al. 2010). Incidences of
127 Selected Topics on Urbanism
overweight are positively associated with living in urban sprawl (Black & Macinko 2008, Papas et al. 2007, Booth at al. 2005). But the vehicle ownership is not the only technological revolution which limits our daily physical activity. Home labour saving devices like washing machines and tools of communication like mobile phones and computers made our lifestyles more sedentary. It seems that the technological revolution brought major societal changes fuelling the obesity epidemic (Giles-Corti et al. 2010). 3.2 The Body and the City
Let‘s start with a simple comparison between bodies and cities. Obesity causes illnesses like heart problems and diabetes, by analogy, sprawling (fat) cities suffer traffic congestion and inner-city problems, disproportionate concentrations of poverty and crime; so fat cities have “heart” problems. As a fat body has to circulate blood through pounds of useless tissue, in a fat city power is wasted through e.g. traffic jams (Sui 2003). Another example, sewer blockages and overflows in cities across the world are becoming more frequent because restaurants often pour cooking residue into drains and because local governments lack the resources to monitor grease disposal and enforce the relevant regulations. There are even more ironic parallels between the metabolism of fat in human bodies and the capacity (or incapacity) of city waste systems to handle the increasing volumes of fat wastes (cf. Marvin & Medd 2006). Back to history, the ancient Roman military engineer Vitruvius (31 B.C.–A.D. 14) debated the “relationship between the body and architecture in [...] architecture, a persistent and recurring theme has been to reflect the human body as the measure of all things in Western philosophy and urban planning” (Sui 2003). Nietzsche, Kafka, Foucault as well as Gilles Deleuze argued persistently “that bodies should be considered primary objects of inscription surfaces, on which values, morality, and social laws are inscribed” (Sui 2003).
Further statements from Short (1996) “the phallic symbolism of high-rise tower blocks; the modern skyline of many big cities is often a solid metaphor for male virility and masculine strength” or Pile “the body and the city are mirrored one in the other” imply that the human body has acted as a powerful template for imagining the city. Grosz (Soja, 1995) goes even further by arguing that “the city is made and made over into the simulacrum of the body, and the body, in turn, is transformed, ‘citified’, urbanized as a distinctively metropolitan body.” For a deeper understanding of why the body and the city have such an intimate relationship, a closer look at the theoretical approaches of the body and space is helpful. 3.3 Theoretical Approaches – The Body and the Space
The answer for defining the relationship between the body and the city lies in the body‘s complex ties to space, place, and society. As space is limited, some broad contours display how the body and the city are connected with each other via space, place, and society. This helps to explore more broadly and deeply the social and cultural causes of the obesity epidemic and of sprawling cities (Sui 2003). First, Lefebvre (1974) argues from the perspective of the body and space, the body is spatially produced and space is bodily created: “There is an immediate relationship between the body and its space, between the body‘s deployment in space and its occupation of space. Before producing effects in the material realm (tools and objects), before producing itself by drawing nourishment from that realm, and before reproducing itself by generating other bodies, each living body is space and has space: it produces itself in space and it also produces that space.” Second, according to the philosopher Casey (2001) the perspective of body and place, each body has its place, and each place is embodied: “But the body not only goes out to reach places, it also bears the traces of the places it has known. These traces are continually laid down
in the body, sedimenting themselves there and thus becoming formative of its specific somotagrophy. A body is shaped by the places it has come to know and that have come to it – come to take up residence in it, by a special kind of placial incorporation that is just as crucial to the human self as is the interpersonal incorporation so central to classic psychoanalytic theory. The reverse is also true: places are themselves altered by our having been in them.” Casey (2001) argued further “thanks to the inscriptive tenacity and expressive subjection of the body, places come to be embedded in us; they become part of our very self, our enduring character, what we enact and carry forward … they (places) are in us – indeed, are us – thanks to their incorporation into us by a process of somatization.” Aren‘t these philosophical justifications enough to link obesity and urban form? Third, from the perspective of the body and society, the body is socially produced, and social practices are inscribed in the body. Societies, especially in the developed world, have been characterised by heightened attention to the body, expressed in the changing relation of individual identity to health, sexuality, and bodily image (Synnott 1993). The rise of “body” in consumer culture as a bearer of symbolic value has been reflected in the emergence of embodiment as a fundamental issue for both society and the academy (Turner 1996). The sociologist, Turner (1992) even coined the term “somatic society” to describe how in modern social systems the body has become the principal field of political and cultural activity. Lowe (1995) stated, “the body, a historical materiality, is neither a body-in-itself for a body-for-itself, but always an embodied beingin-the-world, constructed and realized within social practices to satisfy changing needs.” He argued further that “this body referent is in the fact that the referent of all referents, in the sense that ultimately all signifieds, values, or meanings refer to the delineation and satisfaction of the needs of the body”.
Most of these approaches seem to be abstract, lost in the space of social construction and tend to that the theories of the body are utterly disembodied. But by relating the obesity epidemic to these bodily based theories, it is perhaps possible to bring these theoretical approaches back to reality. Apparently “bodies cannot be reduced to either the social or the natural, rather they are simultaneously symbolically constructed and real” (Sui 2003). Understanding the phenomenon of the fat city, both an essentialist and a constructionist approach are useful, as both shed light on different aspects of the problem of the complexity of urban planning and obesity. 3.4 Complexity of Obesity: Interdisciplinary Research Field
Until now the challenge to fight obesity was clearly framed as a medical problem, since obesity is linked with many medical consequences. Only recently, a growing recognition has developed that a more holistic approach is required to successfully combat the rise in obesity. The Foresight Obesity System Map (Fig.1) highlights the complexity of the obesity issue. It suggests seven clusters that should be considered in the obesity epidemic. These seven clusters arise from interrelated issues from sub-themes. Many people tend to blame the individual for being fat. Certainly the individual psychology and behaviour as well as genetics play a major role for one’s weight. But when two third s of the American population is overweight or obese, you can hardly put the blame on the individual (Demers 2006). Walker Posten, a nutrition specialist from the Baylor College of Medicine in Houston, Texas, claimed in 1999: “Obesity is an environmental issue… Obesitypromoting behaviours are controlled by factors outside the individual and obese individuals cannot be expected to have total self-control over their weight in an environment that promotes weight gain by reinforcing overeating and inactivity any more than they can control their genes” (Demers 2006). However, the
129 Selected Topics on Urbanism
Fig. 1: Foresight Obesity System Map showing thematic clusters. source:Townshend et al. 2010
dynamics of the currently happening obesity crises is complex and still little understood. The following chapter will try to shed some light on the role of different built environments regarding obesity. 4. Built Environment Characteristics and Obesity
There are a number of built environment characteristics at a range of spatial scales that potentially influence food consumption (energyintake) and physical activity (energy output) (Fig.2). For each environmental characteristic regarding bodyweight a large number of position papers have been written (Turell 2010). Three major characteristics will be covered in the following text.
4.1 Food and the Built Environment
Food environment is one of the four major areas of the Obesity System Map developed by Foresight. The term food environment can be widely conceptualised. It includes any opportunity to access food. This definition of food environment can implicate â€œphysical, sociocultural, economic and policy factors both at micro and macro-level. It includes food availability and accessibility on addition to food advertisement and marketingâ€? (Lake & Townshend 2006 in Townshend & Lake 2009). Cummins & Macintyre (2006 in Townshend & Lake 2009) described two pathways to obtain food; firstly, food for home consumption, i.e. from supermarkets and grocery shops and ready-made food from home; secondly out-ofhome consumption, i.e. from restaurants and
Geographical level Macro
Food consumption (energy intake)
Physical activity (energy output)
Global food production
Globalisation and structural adjustments to employment opportunities
National food advertising regulations
Urban design initiatives (e.g. mixed land use, street connectivity, transportation)
Neighborhood availability of healthy and nutritious food
Neighborhood access to parks and greenspaces
Promotion of healthy or unhealthy products in local supermarkets
School-based physical activity initiatives
Micro Fig.2: Examples for environmental characteristics. source: Pearce & Witten 2010
take-aways. Glanz et al. (2005) describe four features of the food environment: ●● community environment (type and location of food outlet) ●● consumer nutrition environment (availability of healthy options, price, promotion and nutritional information) ●● organisational nutrition environments (home, school, workplace) ●● information environment (media and advertising) According to Glanz et al. (2005) especially the community and consumer environment need much further investigation, both of which are a feature of the built environment. In parallel to the exponentially increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity, a rapid shift can be observed in the structure of
society in terms of the food environment, which changed e.g. rapidly in the UK over the last 20 years (Burgoine et al., in Townshend & Lake 2009). Until now only little research has been done about the relationship of food accessibility and obesity as an outcome compared to research on physical activity and the environment (White 2007 in Townshend & Lake 2009). Giskes et al. (2007) claim that a stepwise approach is needed to understand pathways and mechanisms by which the environment influences food behavior and can then be related to weight problems. Meanwhile studies of ‘food deserts’ defined as “populated urban areas where residents do not have access to an affordable and healthy diet” (Cummins and MacIntyre 1999 in Townshend & Lake 2009) did not show any positive association between
131 Selected Topics on Urbanism
neighbourhood retail food provision and individual diet (Wrigley et al. 2003 & White et al. 2004 in Townshend & Lake 2009). Many studies examine the impact of the availability of fast-food and take-aways. The outcomes of this research is still unclear. Studies have tended to use the local retail food environment as a single exposure variable (Ford & Dzewaltowski 2008 in Townshend & Lake 2009), there has been a body of work emerging around the influence of the ‘out-of-home‘ food environment; e.g. Cummins et al. (2005 in Townshend & Lake 2009) express, the “higher the level of neighbourhood deprivation in Scotland and England the more likely the neighbourhood was to be exposed to McDonald restaurants”. On the contrary, a research in Glasgow found no association between area of deprivation and access to take-away outlets (Macintyre et al. 2005 in Townshend & Lake 2009). Travel distance to fast-food branches were found to be twice as far for the least socially deprived neighbourhood compared with the most deprived neighbourhood in New Zealand (Pearce et al. 2007 in Townshend & Lake 2009). Similar distance pattern was observed in branches where healthy food could be purchased such as supermarkets and smaller food shops. It is from importance that all aspects of the food environment are explored and not just the fast-food environment. Several understudied environmental factors have been pointed out by Giskes et al. (2007) which include fast-food/convenience stores, marketing fun healthy foods and availability of larger portions. For understanding the complex relationship between the whole food environment, food behaviours and ultimately overweight, there is the need to move beyond exploring local retail food environments. If this is done there will be a great potential for developing interventions, policies and lasting solutions‘ to address the social phenomenon of obesity (Wang et al. 2006 & McLaren 2007 in Townshend & Lake 2009).
4.2 Understanding Local Physical Activity Environment and Obesity
Much more research has taken place on the relationship of physical activity and the built environment, rather than eating behaviours and the built environment. The most important drivers for physical activity comprise physical provision of appropriate spaces, accessibility, and urban design. Studies in Australia and the US showed that peoples‘ willingness to exercise is greater, if the perceived aesthetic of a neighbourhood is high (Carnegie et al., 2002 & King et al., 2003). Especially in traditional mixed-use neighbourhoods, physical activity of the inhabitants seems to be much higher. These neighbourhoods include local shops and services, school and employment opportunities, which are easily accessible within walking distance of people’s home. Nowadays car-oriented housing with minimal provision of services is popular. Another issue related with the notion of convenience is that of equity and household income. In Norwich, UK e.g., “people in low income households, who were most likely to adopt low levels of physical activity, were likely to be the least well served by affordable facilities which would enable them to become active” (Panter et al. 2008 in Townshend & Lake 2009). A further social characteristic which encourages people, especially women and minority groups, is perceived safety in the neighbourhood. Women in England who were worried about safety during daytime in their neighbourhood were nearly 50% less likely to take a walk during the day than those without concerns; though there was no association with men (Foster et al. 2004). In Ireland a linkage between the perceptions of the physical environment with perceptions of sense of community was discovered. The outcome of the study is that there is need for routes perceived as aesthetically pleasant in order to encourage walking. Moreover it emphasised the role of psycho-social influences in determining whether people took exercise or not
(Burgoyne et al. 2008). Neighbourhoods with low socio-economic status (SES) tend to have less physical activity resources than medium to high SES neighborhoods (Gordon-Larsen & Reynolds, 2006). Studies from Australia have associated proximity to recreational facilities, like beaches and rivers as supporting exercise (McCormack et al. 2006). Almost all of these studies have measured three key factors: urban sprawl and/or residential density, connectivity of street networks and land-use mix. Most of these studies research took place in US or Australian. Many have examined positive associations between higher densities, greater connectivity and greater land-use mix and exercise in terms of walking. Nevertheless there has been an inconsistency in approaches, methods and results (Oliver et al. 2007). As childhood obesity is rapidly increasing as well, another study field is the relationship of children‘s physical activity and the built environment. In Australia researchers suggested that micro-urban design environments, such as the quality of pedestrian realm and public crossings, can also be important environmental characteristics whether parents allow their children to walk to school (Timperio et al. 2006 in Townshend & Lake 2009). Access to outside play space is another key aspect of the built environment that has attracted research, however, not just traditional parks and playgrounds. Moore (1987) found out that streets close to a child‘s home are actually more significant, since they are readily accessible and are more exciting than specifically set aside play areas. Another approach in research is to bring neighborhood perceptions together with objectively measured observations. A cross-sectional comparison of two urban areas in the US looked at whether road conditions (highspeed traffic, lack of crossings and sidewalks) hinder physical activity (McGinn et al. 2007 in Townshend & Lake 2009). Only little agreement between recorded perception and objective measurements was found. Moreover, the study concluded that perceptions of speed and
volume were not associated with physical activity outcomes, though a perception of having places to walk was associated with higher physical activity, particularly walking. 4.3 Urban Design Factors and Built Environment
It appears that neighbourhoods which lead to a healthy and active lifestyle combine following positive attributes: high residential densities, good levels of street-connectivity, great levels of land-use mix, pavement provision, and areas that are perceived to be aesthetically pleasing and safe to occupy. These principles of urban planning were more often implemented in pre-war environments. Contrarily, modern car- dominated neighbourhoods are characterised by resultant large tracts of single-use land patterns; few or no local shops or services combined with housing; largely disconnected development, i.e. ‘cul-de-sac’ layouts; poor levels of pavement provision and monotonous, uninteresting views which discourage people from physical activity (Townshend & Lake 2009, p.912). The most widely cited study, which proves that urban form and health is linked, was carried out in Atlanta, Georgia. A significant correlation between the obesity of white males and the residential density of where they lived was detected; decreasing from 23% to 13% from the least to the most-dense neighbourhoods (Frank et al. 2005). Another key measure to prove the link between obesity and built environment is population density. A recent study of residents across residential neighbourhoods in New York explored a clear correlation between more dense urban environments and the relationship between urban form and obesity. “Individuals living in neighbourhoods with higher population density, greater access to public transport and a greater mix of land uses had significantly lower BMIs compared to groups living in neighbourhoods that did not display these characteristics; though the study found no correlation to measurements of connectivity” (Rundle et al. 2007 in Townshend & Lake 2009, p.912).
133 Selected Topics on Urbanism
Only a small number of studies examined the role of objectively measured green space with physical activity of adults. A study of eight European countries figured out that level of landscaping within neighbourhoods correlates with more physical activity and can be a solution in encouraging for more exercise (Ellaway et al. 2005). In Seattle it was discovered that the quality and quantity of greenery in a neighbourhood can be associated to obesity. This study reports that in “areas with good access to local shops and services, with high objective measures of natural vegetation, BMI was lower than in areas where there was a higher level of access to local shops and services” (Tilt et al. 2007 in Townshend & Lake 2009, p.912); whereas a study in Cairo could not prove a positive relationship between obesity and distance to greenery (Mowafi et al. 2012). Hundreds of more studies have been written about the relationship of environmental characteristics and built environment. Therefore, as already mentioned different approaches and methods were being used and diverse outcomes were achieved. Nevertheless, enough evidence exists to witness that there is a relationship between built environment and overweight and obesity. 5. Take Action Against the “Fat City”
This essay clearly points out the linkages of built environment and obesity. The conclusion of the Foresight review (2007) highlighted that a major change is needed of the physical activity, urban design and food-related environment in an attempt to support more healthful behaviors. It seems that cities built after WW II are obviously not helpful in these aspect, which can be read in the paper “The McDonaldization of society” (Ritzer 1995), which discusses the irrationality of rationality (efficiency, calculability, predictability etc.) in our societies. As much more it is now important that urban planners understand that they have the power to improve or harm health. Still many planners see their actions as health neutral or irrelevant to environmental health issues. But there is
enough evidence which shows that development of urban forms can mitigate health risks and therefore planning decisions should be part of what is known about the built environment and health (Lopez 2012). As fat people try to bring their body into better shape e.g. through exercise or diets, the role of the urban planners is to introduce different approaches to bring the city into a better shape through infrastructure and proposals for policies to fight obesity, because a “healthy city is not just a city where people are healthy, but rather a city where the impulse to escape has been counterbalanced by social cohesion, so that city life still means movement rather than the virtual movement of the automobile” (Sui 2003). The WHO (2010) has developed several guidelines, which provide an excellent guide for societal action like the “Framework for the implementation of the Global Strategy on Diet, Physical Activity and Health in the Eastern Mediterranean Region.” Currently places in which we can walk, the human habitat shrinks. Consequently we constrain ourselves to the private sphere and social interaction lessens. Of course, some might argue that alternative possibilities for physical activity are available, e.g. gyms. But these can be seen as sort of “wildlife preserve for physical exertion” (Demers 2006); a preserve which “protects species whose habitat is vanishing elsewhere. The gym accommodates the survival of bodies after the abandonment of the original sites of the bodily exertion. The gym is the interior space that compensates for the disappearance of outside and a stopgap measure on the erosion of the bodies” (Demers 2006). Moreover visiting the gym is not affordable for all social classes. Another benefit of physical activity within the neighbourhood or the city is apart from preventing diseases and restoring health, reducing traffic accidents, air pollution and mitigating global warming. Furthermore it enhances road safety, increases a sense of community and social equity and last but not least saves money. It is helpful to go back and have a look at the dual root meanings of the word
“city” – urbs (buildings) and civitas (people). The term fat city has inherited the dual meanings of the word city. Fat city has been used in the scholarly literature as a metaphor to denote the city‘s ever-expanding boundaries (urbs). As most of the cities are too big, obesity-related research has given fat city a more literal connotation: “the expanding waistlines of its residents (civitas)” (Sui 2006). Perhaps Shakespeare wrote it best in Coriolamus (Act III): “What is the city but the people? True, the people are the city” (Sui 2006). But at the moment most of the cities are not built for the people. Let‘s shape the cities in the right way, because later on the cities will shape us. Gehl (2010) provides in his book “Cities for people” a toolbox and key principles, which can help to transform urban environment around the world based on his research into the ways people actually use - or could use - the spaces where they live and work. Up to now, most of the research has taken place in Europa, North America and Australia. But especially in the less developed part of the world, where the most rapid urbanization is taking place and obesity is emerging drastically, cities should be planned from beginning on for the people to avoid mistakes of the past. ●
Booth, K., Pinkston, M., & Posten, W. (2005): Obesity and the built environment. In: Journal of the American Dietetic Association. Burgoyne, L., Woods, C., Coleman, R. & Perry, I. (2008): Neighbourhood perceptions of physical activity: a qualitative study. In: BMC Public Health. Carnegie, M, Bauman, A., Marshall, A., Mohsin, M., Westley-Wise, V. & Booth, M., (2002): Perceptions of the physical environment, stage of change for physical activity, and walking among Australian adults. In: Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport. Casey, E. S. (2001): Between geography and philosophy: What does it mean to be in the placeworld? Annals of the Association of American Geographers. Demers, M. (2006): Walk for your life! Restoring neighborhood walkways to enhance community life, improve street safety and reduce obesity. Vital Health Publishing. Ridgefield. Ellaway, A., Macintyre, S. & Bonnefoy, X. (2005): Graffiti, greenery, and obesity in adults: secondary analysis of European cross sectional survey. In: British Medical Journal. Foresight (2007): Tackling Obesities: Future Choices — Project Report. Government Office for Science. London.
Foster, C., Hillsdon, M. & Thorogood, M. (2004): Environmental perceptions and walking in English adults. In: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health. Frank, L., Schmid, T., Sallis, J., Chapman, J. & Saelens, B. (2005): Linking objectively measured physical activity with objectively measured urban form: findings from SMARTRAQ. In: American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Gehl, J. (2010): Cities for people. Island Press. Washington. Giles-Corti, B., Robertson Wilson, J., Wood, L. & Falconer, R. (2010): The Role of the Changing Built Environment in Shaping Our Shape. In: Geographies of Obesity. Environmental understandings of the obesity epidemic. Edit: Pearce, J. & Witten, K. Ashgate. Surrey. Giskes, K., Kamphuis, C., van Lenthe, F., Kremers, S., Droomers, M. & Brug, J. (2007): A systematic review of associations between environmental factors, energy and fat intakes among adults: is there evidence for environments that encourage obesogenic dietary intakes? In: Public Health Nutrition. Glanz, K., Sallis, J., Saelens, B. & Frank, L. (2005): Healthy nutrition environments: concepts and measures. In: American Journal of Health Promotion.
135 Selected Topics on Urbanism Gordon-Larsen, P. & Reynolds, K. (2006): Influence of the built environment on physical activity and obesity in children and adolescents. In: Handbook of Pediatric Obesity: Etiology, Pathophysiology, and Prevention. Grosz, E. (1995): Space, Time, and Perversion: Essays on the Politics of Bodies. Routledge. New York. Harper, L. (1960): To Kill a Mocking Bird. Haraway, D. J. (1991): Simians, Cyborgs, and Women: The Reinvention of Nature. UK: Free Association Press. London. Handy, S., Boarnet, M., Ewing, R. & Killingsworth, R. (2002): How the built environment affects physical activity: Views from urban planning. American Journal of Preventive Medicine. James, W., Jackson-Leach, R. & Rigby, N. (2010): An international perspective on obesity and obesogenic environments. In: Obesogenic Environments. Complexities, perceptions and objective measures. Edit: Lake, A., Townshend, G., Alvandies, S. Wiley-Blackwell. Oxford. King, W., Brach, J., Belle, S., Killingsworth, R., Fenton, M. & Kriska, A. (2003): The relationship between convenience of destinations and walking levels in older women. In: American Journal of Health Promotion.
Lee, V., Mikkelsen, L., Srikantharajah, J.& Cohen, L. (2008): Strategies for enhancing the built environment to support healthy eating and active living. Oakland, CA: PolicyLink, Healthy Eating Active Living Convergence Partnership. Lefebvre, H., 1991 (1974): The Production of Space. Oxford, UK: Blackwell. Lopez, R. (2012): The built environment and public health. Wiley. San Francisco. Lowe, D. (1995): The Body in Late-Capitalist USA. NC: Duke University Press. Durham. McCormack, G., Giles-Corti, B., Bulsara, M. & Pikora, T. (2006): Correlates of distances traveled to use recreational facilities for physical activity behaviors. In: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity. Marvin, S. & Medd, W. (2006): Metabolism of obecity: flows of fat through bodies, cities and sewers. In: Environment and Planning A. Moore, R. (1987): Streets as playgrounds. Edit: Moudin, A. In Public Streets for Public Use. Van Nostrand Reinhold. New York. Mowafi, M., Khadr, Z., Bennett, G., Hill, A., Kawachi, I. & Subramanian, S. (2012): Is access to neighborhood green spaces associated with BMI among Egyptians? A multi-level study of Cairo neighborhoods. In: Health & Place18.
Papas, M., Alberg, A., Ewing, R., Helzlsouer, K., Gary, T. & Klassen, A. (2007): The built environment and obesity. In: Epidemiologic Reviews. Vol. 29. Pearce, J. & Witten, K. (2010): Introduction: Bringing a Geographical Perspective to Understanding the â€šObesity Epidemicâ€˜. In: Geographies of Obesity. Environmental understandings of the obesity epidemic. Edit: Pearce, J. & Witten, K. Ashgate. Surrey. Oliver, L., Schuurman, N. & Hall, A. (2007): Comparing circular and network buffers to examine the influence of land use on walking for leisure and errands. In: International Journal of Health Geographics 6/1.41. Pile, S. (1996): The city and body: Psychoanalysis, space and subjectivity. Routledge. London. Ritzer, G. (2000): The McDonaldization of Society: An Investigation into the Changing character of Contemporary Social Life. Thousand Oaks, CA: Pine Forge. Short, J. (1996): The Urban Order. Blackwell. Cambridge. Sui, D. (2003): Musings on the fat city: Are obesity and urban forms linked? Urban Geography 2003. 24. Synnott, A. (1993): The Body Social: Symbolism, Self, and Society. Routledge. New York.
Townshend, T. & Lake, A. (2009): Obesogenic urban form: Theory, policy and practice. In: Health & Place. Townshend, T., Ells, L., Alvanides, S. & Lake, A. (2010): Towards transdiciplinary approaches to tackle obesity. In: Obesogenic environments. Complexities, perceptions and objective measures. Edit: Lake, A., Townshend, T. & Alvandies, S. Wiley-Blackwell. Oxford. Turner, B. (1992): Regulating Bodies: Essays in Medical Sociology. Routledge. New York. Turner, B. (1996): The Body and Society: Explanations in Social Theory. Sage. Thousand Oaks. Turrell, G. (2010): Understanding the local physical activity environment and obesity. . In: Geographies of Obesity. Environmental understandings of the obesity epidemic. Edit: Pearce, J. & Witten, K. Ashgate. Surrey. p. 151 - 174. WHO (2010): Framework for the implementation of the Global Strategy on Diet, Physical Activity and Health in the Eastern Mediterranean Region.
137 Design Projects
Design Projects Elective, WS 2014/15
The ‘Design Projects’ module 2014/2015 was held at Siwa Oasis Island, as part of the elective modules hosted by ASU (in the second year of IUSD. This year, the module focused on two scales: the architecture scale and urban planning and infrastructure scale. The two scales were run in the form of two parallel actions oriented one week crash courses. Students were free to choose from the two groups according to their preferences. The teaching staff included four professors and four teaching assistants from ASU. As part of this module, IUSD-ASU organised the second ‘Integrated Design’ workshop in December, as part of the ‘Design Project’ module, in cooperation with IUSD Cairo Lab. The workshop aimed at studying the direct and indirect, positive and negative influences of architectural and urban projects on the environment, whether economic, social, cultural or aesthetic, as a means of avoiding dissipating natural resources, polluting the environment and endangering the ecological system. This workshop also dealt with
environmental considerations in the design phase and the construction phase, with respect for the site and the users, using whole design process, the evaluation of local and international experiences to avoid the negative impact of projects on the environment and identifying the approved rates for the compatibility of the projects with the environment. A fact-finding visit was conducted to investigate the current status of the architecture and urban design in Siwa. The team paid a number of visits to city council and solar power plant project in siwa to understand both current situation and future vision for siwa. In addition, several interviews were conducted with local community members. The fact-finding mission provided the IUSD team with updates and extensive knowledge on the current status of Siwa, as well as a closer look at the context of Jabal Al-Dakrour area, the proposed study area for the workshop. ●
Design Projects: Architecture Track Elective, WS 2014/15 Prof. Dipl.-Ing. Ingo Helmedag M.Sc. Rasha Abodeeb
The local community of Siwa had developed their traditional building materials and techniques over the centuries. However, contemporary building materials and techniques have replaced the traditional materials and techniques. It has been repeatedly reported the negative environmental impacts of the contemporary techniques. On the other hand, these techniques have prevailed in contemporary Siwan houses, due to their convenience for the prevailing urban life style in the oasis. Consequently there are some attempts to develop alternative building materials and techniques for sustainable houses in the oasis. This module, aims at understanding the traditional and conventional building designs, materials and techniques. It attempts to develop different proposals for sustainable design of houses as well as new design expressions and new construction details for different building elements such as walls, roofing, lintel, and sill details for openings.
Fieldwork Site Analysis
Site analysis phase started with exploring the wider scale of Siwa context to realise the relationship between the old and new settlements and the transition between different construction practices. Afterwards, students focused on the study area of Jabal Al-Dakrour Mountain where the sustainable house design is proposed and will be implemented. Findings and Design Guidelines
During the workshop the students developed certain guidelines based on their analysis and investigation, which included Siwaâ€™s average temperature during the year, prevailing wind, humidity, and sun path. Furthermore, they investigated the available local materials and identified pros and cons for using such materials for new constructions.
139 Design Projects – Architecture Track Fieldwork: Implementation with Kersheef
A small construction element was developed for use with “karsheef”so as to understand the material’s properties, and was constructed under supervision of a local builder in Siwa. This experiment provided students with an appropriate knowledge of “kersheef”. Then, the students developed new construction details and finalised two design proposals that were presented to the community in a presentation that involved different members from the local community and city council. ●
140 Electives Design Concept #2 by Adham Sanaa, Ahmed Abayazeed, Maroua Ennouri
The main idea is to combine the old techniques with the modern ones to be used in developing the new Siwian house, and to have this tecnique accepted by the Siwian society. After analysing the site, we used what we can call, “the string concept”. The idea is to create the house from 2 parts (2 strings) and move these parts to create openings exposed to the desired directions. By combining the site analysis with the string concept we reached our final design decisions. The main entrance for men is put on the main street, which is integrated with the entrance area built on site by our two groups. The house entrance leads to the Matlola (the entrance hall in the Siwian house). It has a direct connection to the Marbou’aa (the sitting area for men in Siwian culture), and also to the toilet created for men sitting in the marbou’aa to use by passing by the Matlola. We put all the services (the toilets and the kitchen) in the west to act as a buffer zone protecting the inner spaces from the sunrays coming from the west direction. The women’s entrance (according to the Siwian culture entrances for male and female are separated) leads to the living area and the services (the kitchen, the toilet and the storage) and the stairs leading to the upper floor where the bedrooms and the private areas are located. Shades are put on the east and the south facades for sun-protection. ●
Design proposal – facade
Design proposal – model
Design proposal – floor plan
141 Design Projects
Design Projects: Urban Design Track Elective, WS 2014/15 Prof. Dr. Mohamed Salheen Dr. Marwa Abdellatif Dr. Hassan ElMouelhi M.Sc. Aya ElWagieh M.Sc. Merham Keleg M.Sc. Mohammed Alfiky Eng. Ahmed Osama
The Siwa oasis has been isolated for centuries, then suddenly it became a booming eco-tourist destination. Eventually, the oasis became the focus of attention, attracting many developments. These projects brought along changes in the socio-cultural, economic, and natural environment of the oasis. But not all projects respected the special natural characteristics of the oasis. In this module, we aimed to develop various design proposal for an area nearby Jabal AlDakrour. The design proposals should try to follow the principals of Eco-Neighbourhood, as an attempt to anticipate lines for future sustainable urban design and urban planning projects. In order to develop the design proposals, the students passed through three stages: 1. Understanding the wider context of Siwa: The students were given a presentation on Siwa and its special characteristics by a Siwan artist “Yusuf Ibrahim”. Also, they had a guided tour around Siwa showing the old and the new urban development in Siwa.
Site Analysis: The students visited the site almost everyday during the workshop to collect all needed data for their design proposals. The students were asked to investigate the following aspects in order to develop an Eco-Neighbourhood: ●● Water management system ●● Energy System ●● Solid Waste Management System ●● Landscape and Biodiversity
●● Urban Form ●● Land use Scheme ●● Mobility Scheme Students spoke with the residents of the area to gather some of these data. They also gathered some data from the city council, and interviewed various stakeholders. They interviewed experts in the fields of sewage and electricity. They visited the first PV-cells power plant in Egypt, recently opened in Siwa. Developing design Proposals: The students started drafting their design proposals after their first visit to the site. They developed their proposals based on direct interaction with the residents of the area, and based on knowledge gained and data collected from the experts. ●
143 Design Projects â€“ Urban Design Track Agobbar: The Siwan Dates Village by Mohamed Fawzi, Mennatullah Hendawy, Tayseer Khairy Idea
Agobbar is about turning the temporary activation of Aldakrour area during the October festival into a permenant productive place. This is proposed through establishing a permenant market for dates in the area and asigning places which support its production, sales, and marketing.
agriculture land residential buildings small factory commercial spine
The main design concept is inspired by existing opportunities, and capitalises on them to reach a balanced sustainable development.Throughout the previous phases and after analysing the existing development pattern; it was discovered that one of the main activities in Aldakrour area is the temporary commercial strip on both sides of the road. The commercial strip is supported by adjacent productive residential
paved main road local road public space
Schematic concept diagram
units. On the outer layer a small local factory is proposed, as well as wetlands and a bio gas plant which just acts as a separator/connector between the urban and the agricultural.
Proposed small scale factory
Proposed wetland basin and biogas plant
(Semi-)shaded public spaces Permanent commercial activitiy
paved main road Master Plan
144 Electives Conclusion
By taking an aerial view upon Siwa Oasis, and by comparing the study area near Al-Dakrour Mountain, to the old centre near the Mountain of the dead, which developed around the famous Fortress of Shali. It is clear that both areas have similar morphologies and characteristics. First of all, both areas are distinguished by the two most famous mountains in the Oasis, Aldakrour Mountain and the mountain of the Dead. In Addition to this, both areas have a large areas of nearby agricultural land full of palms. This triggered various questions regarding the future of Aldakrour area, as well as the urgency for a balanced development in the oasis. Accordingly, the idea of proposing a permanent market for the Siwan dates near Al Dakrour Mountain, in the study area, is derived from the fact that Siwa has 200 different types of dates, and by reflecting on the concept of development and conservation. On the conservation side, “Agobbar” aims to protect the natural resources of agriculture, palm trees and dates. While from the development perspective, “Agobbar” aims to maximise the potential within producing dates on bigger scales. ●
Presenting the concept to the community
Research Methodology Elective, WS 2014/15 Prof. Dr. Mohamed Salheen Dr. Marwa Abdellatif
The ‘Research Methodology’ module is designed to enable students to prepare and write scientific research reports, and proposals. In particular, this module aimed to support students in their preparations for the master’s thesis colloquia. Through a series of interactive classes, students were able to develop their research proposals. Topics covered in the module included different types of research approaches, methods of data collection and preparations of field surveys. In addition, a two day workshop on statistical analysis was organised. The workshop was designed and delivered by a statistical analyst to provide the students with the fundamentals of qualitative and quantitative analysis, descriptive and inferential statistical analysis. At the end of the module, students were asked to submit their final master’s thesis exposés. ●
146 Electives Urban Spaces in Informal Areas in Cairo: Towards Understanding the Relation Between the Physical Settings and the Activities by Ahmed Abayazeed Background/Context
Most of the construction and urban growth in the world today is not in the hands of professionals, but mostly produced by unskilled, low income, and poor people. Most of the cities in the Global South are expanding rapidly through the growth of informal areas (GARCÍA, 2013). In the Egyptian context, it is found that the form and the nature of Egyptian cities were reshaped over the last decades by informality. This will continue into the future although a range of policies and legislation have been adopted by the Egyptian government to slow or limit the growth of informal areas (Tadamun, 2013). Due to the wrong governmental policies and the mismanagement of the housing sector, a gap between poor and upper classes has emerged. Upper classes have their own spaces, parks golf courses within their gated communities, while in poor areas which are mostly informal people treat the streets and open spaces as an extension of the home, secure space where they can leave their children playing and women can sit in the afternoon and exchange conversation (SHEHAYEB, 2009). Open public space may be more important for the poor majority who live at high density and make use of available urban spaces for recreation, work, and everyday social activities. Gehl (2001) mentions that when the physical environment of outdoor areas are of poor quality, only strictly necessary activities occur. This could work within planned areas but in the case of informal areas where the physical environment is mostly of poor quality, social activities also take place because people have no other option. We might reimagine the relationship between the physical environment and activities in urban spaces in informal areas.
Informal areas in general are characterised by dense urban patterns due to huge competition for resourses. Although open spaces are limited, it is considered a vital element in people’s daily lives since people living there use them heavily and they have their own ways to produce, use, modify, and interact with them. Knowledge of how people deal with their open spaces in informal areas is missed in the planner’s perspective. Although research into this area is important, limited reseach has been done. There is a missing link between the activities/physical setting in informal areas, and physical settings created by planners to host the same activities. Reasons for Choosing the Topic
●● Lack of researches dealing with urban spaces in informal areas of Egypt despite its impotance as an urban fabric. ●● Urban spaces play an important role in enhancing sense of belonging for inhabitants and shaping the main character of the community. By understanding the dynamics taking place in these spaces and taking this into connsideration, we could enhance positive influences. ●● Personal interst in the topic.
The relation between activities & the physical settings in informal areas
The physical setting created by the urban designer to host activities
147 Research Methodology Main Reseach Questions
●● What are dynamics behind the production of urban spaces and the activities taking place in urban spaces in informal areas? ●● What are the relations between the activities and the physical setting in informal areas? Reseach Objectives/Aims
●● Identifying the physical and social factors affecting the production of urban spaces in informal areas. ●● Mapping activities of urban spaces in informal areas. ●● Mapping the landscape elements (hardscape/softscape) used in these spaces.
●● Understanding the physical and the social dynamics behind developing of these spaces. ●● Examining different actors involved in the tranformation processes of the urban spaces in informal areas. ●● Explaining and discussing the implemented plans for open spaces made by planners. ●● Mapping uses and additions added by the inhabitants – who used to live in informal areas before – in the open spaces within planned areas. ●● Reaching findings/conclusion/principles to put in consideration when developing open spaces in informal areas.
Literature Review / State of Art
Urban space structure Physical setting
Space composition furniture/elements
Built area housing unit components/ available facilities
Findings & Conclusion
Urban space structure Physical setting
Space composition furniture/elements
Findings & Conclusion Outline of the Research Design/ Initial Structure
Built area housing unit components/ available facilities
Analysis of Urban Spaces in Planned Areas - Case Study: Zeinhom Housing Project
Main Findings / Conclusions
Analysis of Urban Spaces in Informal Areas - Case Study: Ezbet Awlad Abo-Alwafa
148 Electives Types of Required Data and Data Collection Tools
Types of required data: ●● Primary: Qualitative and quantitative collected data from the site through data collection tools. ●● Secondary: Qualitative collected data from books, papers ..etc. Through literature review, a ‘theoretically ideal framework’ will be defined. ●● Comparative analysis of the case study 1 with case study 2 using the ideal framework concluded from the literature review. Data collection tools: ●● Main tools: Semi-structured interviews / Observations (How many-Who-Where-WhatHow long) ●● Topic specific tools: (counting-mapping-tracing-looking for traces-photographing- keeping a diary-test walks) - source (Gehl, 2001).
General Principles for the physical settings of urban spaces for each different outdoor activity taking place in the informal area. Location of the Case Studies
Two case studies were initially chozen within the same area which are : Zeinhom Housing Project - Cairo as an example of housing project designed for reallocation of people lived in informal area. Ezbet Awlad Abo-Alwafa - Cairo as an example of housing projects designed for reallocation of people living in informal areas. ●
ElMouelhi, H. (2014) Culture and Informal Urban Development: The case of Cairo ‘Ashwa’eyat (Informal settlements). Berlin: DAAD. García, J. H. (2013) Public Spaces in Informal Settlements. Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars Publishing. Gehl, J. and Svarre, B. (2013) How to Study Public Life. Second Edition. Washington: Island Press. Gehl, J. (2001) Life between buildings: using public space. Fourth Edition. Copenhagen: Arkitektens Forlag, The Danish Architectural Press.
Madanipour, A. (2010) Whose public space?: international case studies in urban design and development. Oxon: Routledge. Shehayeb, D. (20o9) Advantages of Living in Informal Areas. In: Howeidy, A. et al. (eds) Cairo’s Informal Areas Between Urban Challenges and Hidden Potentials. June 2009. Cairo: GTZ. Tadmaun, (2014) Coming Up Short: Egyptian Government Approaches to Informal Areas, www.tadamun.info Wlodarczyk, D. (2005) Structural analysis of urban space in residential areas. In: VESTBRO, D. U. et al. (eds). Methodologies in housing research. Tyne&Wear: The Urban International Press.
149 Research Methodology
Location of case study areas
Site visit / Case Study 2
Work Plan/Phases of the Research/Timetable
Intermedite follow up
Site visit / Case Study 1
The informal area : Ezbet Awlad Abo-Alwafa
Colloquium 3 Presentation of the final draft
The planned area : Zeinhom Housing Project
150 IUSD Yearbook 2014/2015
07 Master Theses
152 Master Theses
Integrating Local Ethnic Groups in the Process of the Regional Planning: The Case of the Nubian Village of Kostol-Komombo, Egypt
which leads to understanding, until it reaches final conclusions and recommendations. The research lies between two levels; the local and the regional. This addresses regional planning from a new local perspective, and integrates the ethnic groups in the process. ●
When dealing with the Nubia region, a set of complex issues is intermingled. Migrations and forced displacements took place in the community at several successive times for different reasons, yet mainly for water control, building dams and reservoirs. These government-forced migrations had great implications on the community affecting their identity, the spatial structures of their villages, and thus the future of Nubian urbanism. We focus on the migration of 1964 which had the most massive implication on Nubians who left their villages to be submerged under the Nile water of Lake Nasser as a consequence of constructing the High Dam. 39 Egyptian Nubian villages were relocated to a new city. Nubians suffered much due to the relocation process, feeling wronged, politically marginalised. Nubians were not compensated for properly, their land, or houses and palms. Since the problems commenced, many Nubians have returned to their own lands. The research focuses on understanding the socio-cultural consequences for Nubians between the displacement and re-displacement. The research tackles and investigates the return process for the Nubians by the Nasser Lake and its feasibility, and how their aspirations and needs can be considered in the regional plans. Following the study, better planning decisions might be made in the future. The research consists of empirical field studies on Kostol village as a prototypical Nubian example. The thesis is constructed with three complementary parts and set of chapters, each tackles a certain issue
Innovation and Refugee Camps: The Role of Innovation in Developing the Humanitarian System with Special Focus on Al Zaatari Refugee Camp, Jordan
by Ahmed Osama Abd Elhamid Bakry supervised by Prof. Dr. Mohamed Salheen, Prof. Dr. Yehya Serag, Prof. Dr. Astrid Ley
by Adham Sannaa supervised by Asc. Prof. Dr. Yehya Serag, Prof. Dr. Astrid Ley “Humanitarian innovation” is the new trend evolving and expanding in the Humanitarian field. Borrowed originally from the private sector, the concept aims to develop the way the system works by introducing new partnerships, technologies and policies. It claims to have practical, sustainable, durable solutions that help refugees living in urban and camp contexts. Scholars, universities and independent organisations adopted the term of “Humanitarian innovation” and started to participate in the discussion to crystallise and conceptualise the idea. tSupporters of this “movement” claim that innovation is currently working on two levels, the top-down: by transforming the humanitarian systems and structures and the bottom-up level: by supporting refugee’s ideas and skills to create innovative, sustainable solutions. Nevertheless, practical examples show that refugee’s opinions are frequently marginalised, their needs are usually assumed, and their skills are disregarded. In many cases the use of technology leads to more dependency rather than self-sufficiency. The interest of the private sector raises questions of accountability. The involvement of many actors challenges ethical constraints,
damages local power dynamics, and increases cultural sensitivities. In order to have a better understanding of humanitarian innovation we examine the case of Al Zaatri, the biggest Syrian refugee camp. Since 2012 this camp started to witness innovations on a daily basis which made it an example of change. This research aims to investigate what role innovation plays in Al Zaatri camp, and how can innovation find solutions for the current, complex challenges in the region. â—? The Urban Poor within the Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) Agenda: (The Cairo Urban Deprivation Index as an Alternative Operationalization)
by Charlotte Watermann supervised by Prof. Dr. Mohamed Salheen, Prof. Dr. Heba El Leithy, Prof. Dr. Astrid Ley This thesis claims that the emerging problem of urban poverty has been underrepresented in scientific research and by international organisations. The current debate on Sustainable Development Goals does not consider the increasing urbanisation of poverty. This work follows the call of urban scholars such as David Satterthwaite (2014) for a local operationalisation of the Sustainable Development Goals Agenda and suggests an approach that emphasizes the situation of the urban poor. This is done by building on the capability approach of Amartya Sen (1999) and by using a local scale to develop a multidimensional urban deprivation index. The work uses the case of Cairo to operationalize parts of the suggested Agenda. Finally it shows that the alternative urban deprivation index is more adequate in capturing the situation of the urban poor in Cairo. â—?
Dynamics of Development in Rural Egypt to New Desert Communities: The Case of the Basaisa
by Dina Samir Ahmad Mahdy supervised by Prof. Dr. Mohamed Salheen, Prof. Dr. Hamed El Mously, Prof. Antje Stokman Nearly 57.2% of the Egyptian inhabitants live in rural areas, where most of the labour force works in agriculture (CAPMAS 2015 ). Village in Egypt is defined according to the number of inhabitants which varies from 1,000 to 15,000 inhabitants. However villages can be categ orised as small minor villages that neighbour and belong to a central village, which is called the mother village, which has basic services provided by the government. The satellite villages (qurah tabeâ€™a) are not provided with governmental institutions such as hospitals, administrable services, and schools. Accordingly life is mainly dependant on agricultural activities (Amin 1994), next to trading and investment activities. Nevertheless the policy of regional development planning was more directed to the role of rural areas by empowering the economical growth and involving industry within agricultural activities (Singer 1943). This subsequently lead to openness on the national level, reducing emphasis on agriculture, leading to the deterioration of rural areas. Such policies encouraged the transfer of resources and raw materials, and internal migration from rural to urban areas seeking better resources, income and job opportunities (Unwin 1989). The previous phenomenon lead to intensification of migration to urban cities and resulted in clusters around major cities either in formal or informal areas. However, there is an attempt from the government to construct new satellite villages in the desert. This research aims to study the development of rural urban villages in Egypt through a
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socio-cultural and economical study focusing on the main factors of development that lead to the creation of new communities adopting the twining (mirror communities) concept. The Basaisa is a rural village in Sharkeya governorate which was chosen due to its transformation and development to form a twin new community in the desert of south Sinai as the new Basaisa village. The development started in 1974 when a team from the American University in Cairo lead by Prof. Salah Arafa decided to carry out an integrated educational participatory development project with the villagers aiming at rural development. The research is based on studying the case of the Basaisa as a model for rural development that lead to creating a twin village in the desert in attempts to find recommendation and proposals for future desert development strategies. First: Carrying out a socio-cultural and economical profile of the origin Basaisa village through different time intervals to measure the level of development through time reaching the point when the development started to grow to initiating a new twin community in the desert. Second: A detailed study of the new Basaisa village to understand the founding process, social structures and its relation t context, as a model for Sustainable new community (in relation to internal migration, employment problems, resources,services and infrastructure. This contributes to understanding the dynamics of development that took place and the role of all the involved stakeholders leading to the generation of a new community. As a result the documentation of both the origin village and the twinning process of the new desert community will provide adequate data for future research and strategies for the construction of new cities. ●
Branding Cairo (Un)Intended: Influences on the German Tourist‘s Perception of Egypt‘s Capital
by Gregor Schopf supervised by Prof. Dr. M.Tamer El Khorazaty, Dr. Mona Helmy, Prof. Dr. Astrid Ley
Nowadays places face the urgent need to brand themselves in order to compete with other places for talent, labour, investment, experts or tourists. Egypt is a country that relies strongly on tourism. Consequently, attention is paid to the branding of the place. Unfortunately, the recent political crisis har med the tourism heavily and caused a severe decline in visitor numbers. Obviously, the brand of Egypt and Cairo was weakened by the unrest. This research focusses on the official branding of Cairo, and highlights the additional aspects contributing to the brand. Although these aspects become part of the place brand, they are free of any branding intention – the unintended branding influences are an important drive and a critical dimension for any place brand. Egypt’s and Cairo’s brand seems to have been affected negatively by them, which hightens its importance. ● Place Attachment of Different Influx Groups in West Amman, Jordan: The Case of Palestinians and Iraqis
by Jude Al Issa Zada supervised by Prof. Dr. Mohamed Salheen, Prof. Dr. Astrid Ley This thesis aims to investigate the influx groups that live in west Amman and their attachment to the city. It concentrates on three of the influx groups which are: Jordanian nationals who were displaced from Palestine in 1948, Jordanian nationals who were displaced from
the West Bank in 1967, and Iraqi refugees who were displaced as a result of the Iraq War between 2003 and 2007. This topic is of importance because of the political security of Jordan in its geographical context it has been welcoming several waves of immigration flows into the country in the past few decades; thus causing quick and unnatural changes in the country’s demography at a large scale and in social and community ties on a smaller scale. The assumption is that with each of these influx groups arriving at different points in time, holding different economic, social and emotional levels, they have developed different bonding and attachment levels with their host environment. In this research, this bond is investigated according to Scannell and Gifford’s (2010a) tripartite framework which studies the person, process and place aspect of attachment. It was concluded that these influx groups and residents of Amman do have attachment to Amman with slightly different extents. 1948 Palestinian refugees rank the highest attachment between the influx groups. Attachment seems to be affected by different factors such as age, length of residency, legal status, memories, scale and type of place that they are attached to. ● Towards a Water Sensitive Development Strategy for Siwa Oasis
by Lisa Gänsbauer supervised by Prof. Dr. Mohamed Salheen, Prof. Antja Stockman The past years have witnessed a rapid urbanisation process impacting on water-resources and the environment. With regard to Egypt, cities and villages are facing problems of water scarcity and wastewater, boosted by rapid population growth, urban sprawl and missing strategic planning. Tackling these problems,
this master’s thesis aims at outlining a Water Sensitive Development Strategy, which is a strategy that considers the water cycle in a holistic way and integrates the cycle within the urban environment. Developing the strategy, the thesis considers the theories of Water Sensitive Urban Design, Integrated Urban Water Resource Management, Green Infrastructure, Commons and community- based knowledge. To explore the opportunities of water sensitive, bottom-up solutions and setting up a Water Sensitive Development Strategy, Siwa Oasis serves as a case study. On-site, local stakeholders in interdisciplinary stakeholder workshops propose water related development challenges, principles for future development and important measures to take. The proposals are complemented with expert interviews, literature reviews and site visits. A catalogue of exemplary measures is set out to help Siwa in overcoming challenges and move towards a more sustainable development. The study demonstrates that interdisciplinary stakeholder workshops are a valuable methodology for gathering local experts, exchanging knowledge and engaging the community in an important discourse. They facilitate outlining well-needed, feasible and socially acceptable solutions as well as raising awareness about challenges and opportunities. It is expected that local stakeholders can benefit from the methodologies introduced and measures proposed in this thesis. Further, they can offer valuable knowledge and guidance for other arid urban landscapes. ●
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Ruins Of Urbanity: Rethinking the Prospective of Urban Voids for a Sustainable Urban Development with a Special Focus on Tunis
Connecting Urban Policy Making and Implementation: Case of Maspero, Cairo, Egypt
by Maroua Ennori supervised by Prof. Dr. Ghada Farouk, Prof. Antje Stokman
by Mennatu Allah Mohamed Hendawy supervised by Prof. Dr. Youhansen Eid, Asc. Prof. Dr. Marwa Khalifa, Prof. Antje Stokman
This dissertation explores how to rethink the prospective of urban voids as a pressing and growing issue in order to achieve development, sustainability and liveability in inner urban fabric. The research is presented in a form of a series of international and local case studies and two main cases to develop in the focus area. In a first phase and in order to have a clear vision about the discussed issue, the research tried to understand the phenomenon of urban voids through defining the void and understanding the forces and reasons that contribute in the regeneration of urban voids and in certain cases hinder the development of those vacancies. Urban voids redevelopment scenarios are a subject that stimulated many researches and experiences through the world. In the second phase of the following study, the focus was the analysis of three international case studies: the case of Philadelphia, the case of Bab el Faraj in Aleppo and Karlsruhe in Germany. However, in this phase the focus is mainly the documentation of the strategies and ideas developed during the different cases. On the level of Tunis as the focus study area, previous scenarios that dealt with urban voids was explored through two case studies: El Hafsia and Oukalas,. The strategies were assessed according to circles of sustainability, considered as an important factor in any future vision. The extracted conclusions contributed in the reflection on the urban voids in Tunis, in two different locations (La petite Sicile and El Kherba) and the elaboration of a process for the revitalisation in Tunis. â—?
If those in power claim to be concerned with sustainable urban development, then why is the urban condition not improving? The missing link between policies at the national level and practices in Egypt, triggered this research. This research aims to explore the relationship between urban policy making and implementation in order to identify how a connection can be established, taking the case of the deteriorated historical inner city area of Maspero in Cairo. The research follows a qualitative exploratory approach answering the following sub-questions (1) why is it important to connect urban policy making and implementation? (2) What is the relationship between urban policy making and implementation, and what happens in Egypt and Maspero? And (3) what makes urban policies implementable and sustainable? The research is derived by the notion of â€˜beneficial knowledgeâ€™ in Islam, a cyclic research methodology is adapted to enhance the credibility and deliverability of the research findings. This thesis starts with a general review of worldwide literature leading to conceptual framework, and a suggested model to understand and analyse roles and relationships in urban policies. Afterwards the Egyptian context is studied and the case of Maspero is analyzed. Processes are studied through notions of urban policies, while outcomes are evaluated by witnessing the impact of policies in reality; either development or deterioration. In the end, lessons and recommendations are presented leading back to the research goal.
Maspero presented a controversial case, not only that it mirrors different political agendas over time but also, it reflects the struggle of residents to stay in the area no matter what. The relationship and influence of national and local levels on each other, demonstrated the need to revisit the current processes of development, if Maspero is to be taken as a best practice. ● Host Communities between Solidarity and Hardship: The Trends of Housing Transformation in Border Cities Hosting Refugees: The Case of Mafraq City
by Razan Alshadfan supervised by Asoc. Prof. De. Yehya Serag, Prof. Dr. Astrid Ley Eighty Kilometres to the North of Amman lies the Za’atari camp, which appears as a white strip across the horizon from the Jordanian city of Mafraq. Being the first city after the Jordanian-Syrian border, Mafraq has become the city of arrival to thousands of Syrian war refugees (Buryan, 2012). As Za’atari camp was created around three years ago in a dustfilled border zone lacking the basic services to host the refugees, the vast majority of Syrians decided to reside outside the camp and were hosted by the local community of Mafraq. Unable to cover its own people’s needs, Mafraq was overwhelmed with the newcomers, thus leaving both the locals and the new Syrian inhabitants with social tensions, housing shortage poor services, unemployment and unbearable living expenses (Ali et al., 2014). In 2014, REACH declared, in one of its reports, that the housing issue is a major driver of tension between the host and refugee communities, and stated that the main incentive for social tensions is the lack of affordable housing. Consequently, this research attempts to add to this line of inquiry by investigating, assessing and
mapping the trends of housing transformation in the host city of Mafraq after the Syrian crisis. It attempts to accomplish that through joining what has been mentioned in secondary data analysis regarding the Syrian crisis and the housing problem in Mafraq with the field findings, observations, and interviews. This is achieved by analysing the crosscutting challenges and underlying drivers of tension, evaluating the Syrian crisis response programs, and revealing the influencing factors behind the housing crisis. This research will further inspect the foreseen risks posed by the housing problem on the host country, in an attempt to identify and allocate some access points for future interventions in the area. ● Rethinking Relocation in the Context of Informal Areas: Critical Analysis of Processes and the Quality of Life: The Case of Istabl Antar (Cairo)
by Friederike Thonke supervised by Prof. Dr. Mohamed Salheen, Prof. Dr. Dina K.Shehayeb, Prof. Dr. Astrid Ley Relocations occur worldwide with increasing frequency. However, if they are not planned as complete resettlements, they tend to end up as forced evictions, which are internationally considered as violation of human rights. One possible reason that can make a relocation inevitable is a natural disaster, like the one which happened in 2008 in an informal settlement in Cairo, where a rockslide killed more than 110 people. Following that accident, several other areas, located in similar hazardous locations on cliffs, have been classified as unsafe and life threatening. The present thesis investigates the process of relocation, which followed thereafter, by interviewing stakeholders involved, ranging from different governmen-
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tal institutions to civil society organisations to affected inhabitants. Obstacles faced by all these groups and their partially contradictory aims and intentions were analysed and compared. After this step of examining the process before and during the eviction/evacuation, the living situation of both the already relocated people and the ones still awaiting relocation from the selected case study area, Istabl Antar (district of Old Cairo) was evaluated by performing a Quality of Life (QoL) study. The resulting findings revealed among others, an insufficient supportive legislative system, scarce material and human resources, a hindering institutional configuration, a distracting compensation system, and an absence of independent monitoring. According to international guidelines, these factors lead to a classification of the conducted process as forced eviction. The focus was therefore set on the reasons and root causes for these shortcomings and deviations by contextualising and examining them. The QoL study suggested a possible influence of urban planning on the tendency of inhabitants to leave or to stay in the relocation site offered. Based on the analysed shortcomings and deviations initial acupuncture-like interventions are proposed, that could help to bring future conducted evictions and evacuations closer in line with international human right standards, as acknowledged by Egypt. ● “Kafr Wahb” Village as a Case of Social Innovation: Understanding Social Innovation in Rural Community Development in Egypt
by Tayseer Khairy supervised by Prof. Dr. Mohamed Salheen, Dr. Marwa Abdellatif, Prof. Dr. Astrid Ley As a fact, rural Egypt has been struggling with many challenges varying from social, economic,
ecological levels. Traditional approaches of r ural community development focuses on only agricultural, as the economic base to enhance living conditions in such areas. Social innovation as an alternative approach in development attracts many researchers, since by its nature is a multi-disciplinary. – It cuts across many sectors and diverse fields of action. The research aims at identifying social innovation as an alternative approach in rural community development, Identifying its contribution, actors and processes. In addition to its limitations and constraints in both internal and external environment. By using a case study approach, the research investigates the social innovation approach in “Kafr Wahb” - the Egyptian satellite village in Delta Egypt, which was promoted recently as a successful model for self-help development. The study suggests that adopting social innovation approach in development of rural areas is crucially needed and provides the potential of sustaining the process of development. Building on social capital and social structure of rural areas enhancing the chances of wide spreading this approach within support of new policies and programmes that embedded social innovation. However, the study conducted here is for one village proves success of local community and grassroots in developing innovative ways of service provision and generates new ideas of projects in particular yet it remains on a small scale. The research revealed multiple constraints to generalize that’s why its relevant to encourage more exploratory researches on both theoretical and practical analysis for further understanding and for more deep analysis to investigate both possibilities and limitations of scaling up. To identify how Egypt can take advantage from open and cooperative networks of, active citizens and communities. The research findings recommend that social
innovation needed to be developed more incoherent strategies for more proactively environment where social innovation operates regarding encouraging entrepreneurship programmes and building capacities in non-profit sector. In the meantime, the research also recommends that conducting social innovation contribution in rural areas research is highly needed to develop social innovation interpretations into more practices in real context for further understanding. ● The Relationship between Built Environment and Obesity: An Assessment of Cairo’s Obesogenic Environment
is being designed. Therefore, it is critical for this thesis to assess if the built environment is a determining factor in the obesity epidemic in Cairo or not. After an intensive literature review on the relationship of the built environment and obesity, different methods, which measure Cairo’s built environment, are applied on four different Shiyakha of the Cairo governorate. The measured outcomes are correlated with the obesity data from the Urban Inequity Study (Social Research Center of the AUC) and interpreted. Research results show that a relationship exists. ●
by Teresa Maria Fellinger supervised by Asc. Prof. Dr. Abeer Elshater, Prof. Antje Stokman
Resistive Urbanism in the Spatio-Genesis of Self-Awda: Spatial and Non-Spatial Variables of IDPs’ Self-Repatriations to Palestinian Depopulated Villages
This thesis is fed by two different, but equivalent parts. The first objective is to develop a theoretical framework in order to prove that a relationship between obesity and the built environment exists as well as to define parameters to be able to measure this relationship. The second objective is to examine the relationship between Cairo’s built environment and obesity based on the parameters defined in the theoretical framework. Nearly 70% of Egypt’s adults are overweight or obese with a significant difference between urban and rural populations. Physical inactivity and consumption of unhealthy food are the main reasons that the weight status of many Caireens is out of control. At the same time, Cairo city seems to be out of control as well: overcrowding, high-volume traffic, poor air quality and lack of recreational facilities. The consequence of these conditions is the absence of the opportunity for any form of exercise. It has been established that some diseases can be moderated by how our human environment
This thesis broadly addresses Self-Awda in terms of speculative expressions of collective and alternative self-organized spatial patterns and usages developed by Palestinians to realize their right of return. Despite their legitimate right to return to their depopulated localities, Palestinian refugees and internally displaced Palestinians (IDPs) are yet banned to perform Al-Awda [return] due to Israeli legislative and spatial employed power. Inside the green line (i.e. present-day Israel), empirical forms of different types and levels of ‘self-repatriations’ are emerging in multiple Palestinian depopulated villages. It is true that these token, other more deliberate, self-repatriations appear only in few depopulated localities. Nevertheless, since IDPs remain a core issue with regards to the right of return and struggle of Palestinian existence, these self-repatriations could be
by Maram Sha’ban supervised by Prof. Dr. Mohamed Salheen, Dr. Fatima M.Al-Nammari, Prof. Dr. Wolf Reuter
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seen as a new form of civil spatial resistance in the context of Palestinians. In light of this, the research attempts to explore relevant literature and news that covered the self-repatriation scene. It explores these self-repatriations seeking to understand the reasons behind having only a small number of ‘active’ depopulated villages out of a total of 531 other ones. This is achieved through investigating and identifying self-repatriation variables by taking Galilee and Haifa as a case. In other words, the aim of this research is to understand possible incentives for IDPs’ self-repatriations through the identified variables. The milestone of this research lies in the thematic framework it attempts to offer with regards to the identified variables while it opens doors for future research. Along with the variables and incentives associated with self-repatriation, self-repatriation ladder and two paradigms are offered as main outputs from this research. ● Processes Behind Regional Planning in Lebanon’s Hinterland: The Case of the Union of Municipalities of Jezzine and the Union of Municipalities of Tyr
by Balsam Madi supervised by Prof. Dr. Mohamed Salheen, Prof. Dr. Astrid Ley Lebanon has been described as a merchant economy where “communitarianism and market- friendly policies are embedded in the heart of social and political institutions and the economic system”. Considering this socio-political context the research questions presented in order to gain an understanding of Lebanon’s alternative governance and its implications on the alternative urbanism are: (1) What tools can be used to understand Lebanon’s alternative governance and urbanism in its macro and micro levels? (2) How can these
tools help reach a standardisation of what appears to be ad-hoc development? (3) Where do these tools fall in today’s bottom-up approaches to developing complex territorial contexts? (4) How is Lebanon’s alternative urbanism best identified by two case of regional planning in South Lebanon’s hinterland? (5) If the planning processes of territories are depicted and analysed through a narrative tool could this allowfor the adoption of more suitable responses for the management of development of a territory? By answering these questions this thesis aims to fulfill the overall aim of informing the responses considered in Lebanon’s future planning policiesand practices. Today’s city has been described as “a loose agglomerate of quasi-autonomous socio-spatial entities, each evolving “independently”. This indicates that entities are continously evolving as they are affected at their different dimensions,political, social and spatial. Thus the responses in managing a territory should take into consideration its dynamic state and emerging actors to avoid fragmentation. Moreover, the series of responses adopted for a particular territory define the planning processes. ● Towards Multifunctional Water-Harvesting Landscapes – The Case of Akoura
by Nada Jouni supervised by Prof. Dr. Ghada Farouk Hassan, Prof. Antje Stokman One of the most fundamental natural resources in the world is water. And for ecosystems to survive and function properly, the presence of water plays an enormous role. Further, since the whole world is facing water scarcity and crisis in most of the countries already, harvesting rainwater is an approach to using wasted water that is abundant and not let go of it.
Lebanon has water more than the rest of the Middle Eastern countries; it rains on an average of eight billion cubic meters in Lebanon a year. For centuries Lebanon has been undergoing sustainable traditional practices such as having rainwater-harvesting ponds. Nonetheless, this lacks awareness and encounters major challenges within water policies in the country. The biggest potential out of promoting rainwater harvesting is using the ponds not only for irrigating agricultural crop, but also in creating socio-cultural landscapes. It is significant generating both multifunctional purposes and spaces, benefiting of the existence of several landscape layers that would also promotes the development of such purposes. ● Port Said - No Future without the Past Integrated Rehabilitation Concept for the Urban Heritage
by Stefanie Anna Maria Wladika supervised by Prof. Dr. Mohamed Salheen, Prof. Dr. Dalila ElKerdany, Prof. Dr. Astrid Ley Port Said, a former colonial city located at the edge between the Mediterranean See and the Suez Canal at the north coast of Egypt, is struggling between new urban development and urban heritage preservation. A fight between nostalgic memories and modern life style dreams, between feared responsibility and aimed economic benefit, and between lost urban identity and appreciated globalisation, amongst others. This research identifies the threatened urban heritage of Port Said, its current conditions and the reasons behind the on-going urban development processes - seemingly out of control - before discussing a possible integrated rehabilitation approach for the threatened urban heritage of Port Said. Detailed in selected
s cenarios, regulating the future development and proposing a new urban vision for the entire city based on the historic city centre and its unique urban heritage. In order to understand the complexity and various layers of on-going processes within the historic urban landscape of Al-Afranq and Al-Arab Quarter in Port Said a theoretical framework towards urban rehabilitation in the context of city and community is developed. Based on the meaning of historic urban areas towards the urban identity of its inhabitants and threats due to on-going urbanisation processes and increasing influences of globalisation. Urban heritage and rehabilitation within the context of historic cultural landscapes and the ‘Operational Guidelines’ of the UNESCO as a conceptual backbone for the development of an individual urban rehabilitation concept for Port Said. Ending in the outlook, if Port Said is unique in its outstanding value or if the combination with the Suez Canal, its cultural landscape, including Port Said is the outstanding international monument, representing the historic abilities of Egypt. ●
162 IUSD Yearbook 2014/2015
08 IUSD Lab
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Our vision is to jointly develop the IUSD programme into a self-sustainable German-Egyptian centre for graduate teaching, research, training and dialogue in Stuttgart and Cairo – the “Integrated Urbanism and Sustainable Design Laboratory”– the IUSD-Lab.
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Its thematic focus will be on sustainable urban development of Egypt and the MENA region in close relation to international approaches. IUSD-Lab will establish itself as a joint, cross institutional centre at Stuttgart University and Ain Shams University, involving several faculties and departments within these universities. It will closely cooperate with a broad range of partners from different academic, governmental and private institutions around the world. â—?
Meetings, Discussions and Working sessions in different rooms, cities and countries â€“ from Stuttgart to Cairo
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Lecture by Ahmed Dorghamy, 2014 on „Sustainable Mobility and Paratransit in Greater Cairo“
IUSD Lectures 2014-2015
IUSD once again organised its lecture series, this time called “IUSD Lectures”. Several national and international lecturers were invited to Stuttgart to provide an experience based insight into the reality of being a professional and researcher in urban development and cooperation, urban landscape design and sustainable architecture. In the winter term 2014/15, IUSD Stuttgart has invited international lecturers to present their practical and academic work on differing cultural, professional, educational values. Some lectures took place within the core modules and seminars of IUSD and were open to an interested audience within the faculty and beyond. All events were video-conferenced to Cairo and made available on our IUSD YouTube channel (https://www.youtube.com/user/IUSDmsc). In September 2014 our first lecturer, landscape architect Henrik Schultz (Hanover), elaborated on “Why Walking? – Designing Urban Landscapes Through Walking”. The event was part of the introduction weeks for our fourth IUSD intake. In October 2014, IUSD welcomed Ahmed Dorghamy (CEDARE, Cairo)
for an IUSD lecture on “Sustainable Mobility and Paratransit in Greater Cairo”. In November, Uwe-Jens Walther (TU Berlin, IRS Erkner) gave a lecture on “Discourse(s) on inclusion: Potential and Pitfalls for Urban Planning and the Architectural Profession”. Later, in December 2014, Dr. Mohammad Refaat (Cairo University, Egypt) presented his research on “Egyptian Landscape Architecture Experience: From Rich and Famous to Landscaping for the Poor”. Furthermore. Mr. Stefan Brückmann (Atelier Dreiseitl) presented his thoughts on ”Innovative Blue and Green Infrastructure”. Within the urban planning context, Manal El Shahet (SI, Uni Stuttgart & UDPP, ASU, Cairo) presented her community based experiences in Cairo “Bottom-up policies: the Case of Ezbet Abu Qarn, Cairo”. In addition to that, Dr. Sonja Nebel (TU Berlin) discussed the “Resource Efficient Urban Management – The case of Muscat/ Oman”. In January 2015, Dr. Nina Gribat (Habitat Unit, TU Berlin) shared her thoughts on “Towards Just Cities”. Lenka Vojtova presented her involvement in the GIZ project on “Municipal Development and the Rehabilitation of the Old City of Lviv/Ukraine”. In February 2015, Nicolas Coeckelberghs (Brussels) talked about “Library in earth bricks in Burundi’ and Wayne Switzer will speak about the ‘Earth Pavillon in Ghana”. German freelance architect and former researcher at SIIS (Uni Stuttgart) Claus Bantel (Sao Paulo) presented his work experience on “Social Housing and Urban Upgrading Projects in Sao Paulo”. In June 2015, Prof. Dr. Annalinda Neglia (Politechnico Bari University, Italy) presented her research on “Process Typology as a Tool for Urban and Landscape Design: Strategies for Cultural Heritage Sites Redevelopment”. The IUSD Lectures were complemented by an input by Raafat Majzoub on “Is Architecture a Tool or a Toolbox? Is a Text Any Less Architectural Than a Room?”. The Lebanese architect, author and artist Raafat Majzoub present his work in February 2015, starting from his
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academic projects in architecture, passing through opening his design studio, closing it, making a magazine, experimenting with narrative journalism, and writing a novel – an autobiography of the Arab world – through performing its alternative reality. This additional lecture was organized by the students from the fourth intake of IUSD and was facilitated by the IUSD team. We thank all guests and the audience for mutually sharing and exchanging their experiences. This makes us looking forward to more IUSD lectures in the upcoming academic terms in Cairo and Stuttgart. ●
Lecture by Raafat Majzoub, 2015
Lecture by Manal El Shahet, 2014
Lecture by Henrik Schultz, 2014
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Workshop on Green Infrastructure Considering Integrated Urban Water Management December 10-12, 2014, Stuttgart hosted by the IUSD-Lab Background
Implementing green infrastructure in cities is mainstream thinking along urban and landscape planners worldwide and a major pillar for many urban development concepts. It is used strategically in order to protect and enhance open spaces and their multiple ecosystem functions. A prerequisite for “greening” the cities or keeping them “green” is in all cases a sufficient water supply. The conditions for a water sensitive green infrastructure, however, are very different depending on the natural setting and cultural background as well as economic and legal conditions. Thus, developing water sensitive green infrastructure concepts as well as processes, requires the consideration of integrated urban water management, which combines the management of water supply,
groundwater, wastewater and stormwater, and takes into account the roles and interactions of the various institutions involved in management of the urban water cycle (Fletcher et al. 2014). The topic is of relevance for any geographical region: the temperate zones with potentially sufficient water, but stormwater events and temporary shortages in summer, as well as the arid and semiarid regions, which depend heavily on irrigation. It is important to explore the conditions for a water sensitive green infrastructure in different contexts. Besides, an interdisciplinary approach is necessary, since the topic is manifold: Social aspects (creating livable cities; environmental / water justice), environmental aspects (urban resilience in the face of climate change; (urban) agriculture; developing sustainable (urban) landscapes) and technological aspects of sanitation, water purification and treatment, irrigation, storage, (stormwater) management, and steering are considered important when it comes to water sensitive green infrastructure.
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The workshop was organised within the activities of the IUSD-Lab Cairo and the IUSDLab Stuttgart under the guidance of Prof. Dr. Mohamed Salheen and Prof. Antje Stokman. It was held at the Faculty of Architecture and Urban Planning, University of Stuttgart. The aim of this workshop was to bring together experts of different fields and countries in order to define the research fields along and around the topic of water sensitive green infrastructure taking into account environmental, socio-economic and technological challenges, and to facilitate the preparation of coordinated proposal activities. Participants of the workshop come from various disciplines, belong to academia and practice and have all a special interest in integrated water resource management, or green infrastructure, or both. During the two days, the topic was discussed from different perspectives in small groups resulting in research questions and statements. Besides, potential work packages for an exemplary research project were considered. â—?
Workshop participants, 2014
170 IUSD Lab Development Priorities in Informal Areas: Planning, Realization and Local Perceptions 2015-2017, Cairo in cooperation with TU Berlin, Prof. Dr. Phillip Misselwitz, funded by: GERF
Starting January 2015, the project was aiming at covering the theoretical background for the discourse in the field of urban development and intervention, as well as the changing development priorities of urban upgrading for informal areas since 25 Jan 2011. This was held through a deliberate comparative analysis of governmental institutions, (international) development cooperation and grassroots initiatives. Furthermore, the project aimed at examining of the development priorities formulation process in urban upgrading, in two neighborhoods; Manshiet Nasser and Istabl Antar. For the theoretical background, both teams (ASU&TU-Berlin) carried out extensive desktop research. Besides, a workshop with experts in the field of informal development in Egypt was help in February 2015, to enrich the background. Also, this workshop served in better understanding of the status of the two case study areas, where the project’s team did field work to develop mapping for implemented projects, initiatives and stakeholders for the two areas. ●
ASU Team and TU-Berlin Team, held a workshop with experts in the field of informal urban development.
172 IUSD People Dr. Marwa Abdellatif
obtained a B.Sc. in Urban Planning and Design (Ain Shams University, Cairo, 2000) and a M.Sc. in ecotourism in the Western Desert of Egypt (ASU, 2006), and received her PhD on the topic of ‘Paradigms for Spatial Planning – Transformations in the Planning System of Egypt’ (ASU, 2013). She currently holds the position of an assistant professor at the Department of Urban Planning and Design, Ain Shams University. She is particularly interested in exploring new pedagogical approaches for education of spatial planning. She participated in a number of workshops in Egypt and Germany on higher education. In 2011, she co-founded ‘Letaarfo’ initiative to deepen the understanding of the interwoven relationships of people and places. She is programme coordinator of the MSc. IUSD at Ain Shams University, Cairo. Msc. Rasha Abodeeb
is currently a researcher at IUSD Cairo Lab, at Ain Shams University, working on the Sustainable House project, funded by STDF which aims at developing an energy efficient and sustainable building prototype. She got her master‘s degree in sustainable architecture (2014), after graduating from the Architectural Engineering at Cairo University (2004). Previously, Rasha has a total of seven years of professional work experience. In 2006-2007, she worked as a member of the community architects at the Egyptian Earth Construction Association (NGO) in Al Darb Al Ahmer project. In 2008-2009 she was part of the Wadi El-Gemal
project, a joint project between ECCA and MADA Architects design office. It won the Hassan Fathy Award for Architecture in 2009. Later in 2010, she joined MADA Architects design office. Throughout her professional career, Rasha focused in particular on Community participation, sustainable designs of residential and commercial buildings. Eng. Abdulmoneim Alfiky
received his B.Sc. in Urban Planning and Design in 2001 from the Faculty of Engineering – Ain Shams University, where he subsequently became a teaching assistant in the Dept. of Urban Planning and Design. In 2008 he received his M.Sc. on the topic of Urban Environmental management from Ain Shams University. His professional experience focuses on strategic and regional planning in rural areas of the Egyptian Nile Delta. He actively participated in several TEMPUS project between Ain Shams University and various European universities. Currently he is working on his PhD on effects of urban and rural sprawl on agricultural land in the Nile Delta, under joint supervision from Ain Shams Uni & Uni Stuttgart and recently joined the coordination team of the MSc IUSD programme. MSc Mohammed Alfiky
urban planner, GIS expert, graduated from Ain Shams University department of Urban Planning and Design in 2011. Obtained the MSc IUSD in 2014 entitled “Community Based Security of Tenure: Initial Framework for Squatted Areas in Cairo”. Since 2014, he is working for the
IUSD-Cairo as a researcher on “Development Priorities in Informal Areas: Planning, Realization and Local Perceptions” besides being a teaching assistant for the Integrated Case Study module in the IUSD. In April 2015, he joined the Institute for Landscape Planning and Ecology (ILPÖ) in Stuttgart University as a co-lecturer for GeoDesign. Prof. Dr. Ayman Ashour
holds the chair of a Professor of Architecture and Urban Planning and is the Vice Dean for Graduate Studies and Research at the Faculty of Engineering, Ain Shams University. Combining educational and technical experience between academic and professional work enriched him with a sense of specialized consulting experience and made his theoretical guidance settled and valuable with a future aspiration for a generation that carries the heritage and legacy of the past to the rapid developing world of the future. His work focuses on projects of technical engineering, comprehensive planning providing integrated consultancy services in Master Planning, Urban Design, Landscape Design, Architecture and Interior Design as well as Project Management and Construction Supervision. He is the Director of Admission of the MSc IUSD and supervises various master theses within the IUSD at Ain Shams University. Eng. Nouran Azouz
Nouran Azouz received her B.Sc. in Urban planning and Design in 2009 from Ain Shams University, Cairo. Nouran is M.Sc. Candidate at Ain Shams University; her on-going Master thesis is on the
“Good Urban Governance of Informal settlements in Metropolitan Areas”. She attended several courses and workshops through the CNRD student exchange program in Cologne, Germany. She also participated in “Tadamun” project, which is under the partnership of the AU of Washington and Ford Organization, as a researcher on the issues of Urban Governance in Egypt in correspondence to Global Models. Dipl.-Ing. Moritz Bellers
After completing a Diploma in landscape and open space planning at Leibniz University Hannover in 2008 and landscape architecture at Universiteit Wageningen, NL he worked for jbbug – landscape architects in Cologne from 2009 to 2011. Since July 2010 he teaches and researches at the Department of Landscape Planning and Ecology, Faculty of Architecture and Urban Planning at University Stuttgart. His research interests focuses on performative landscape techniques, process driven designs and ecological engineering. Moritz is teaching in the “Urban Ecology and Ecosystem Design” Core Module and the “Integrated Research and Design Project” Module within the IUSD at University of Stuttgart. Dr. Bernd Eisenberg
completed a diploma in Landscape and Open Space Planning at TU Hannover and worked in the field of GIS based planning in Hamburg and Stuttgart. He obtained his PhD on the topic of “Park metrics – quantification methods for spatial potentials of green open spaces with regard to
173 IUSD Staff recreational uses” at the University of Stuttgart. Bernd is involved in ongoing research activities of the Institute of Landscape Planning and Ecology (ILPÖ) related to sustainability and resilience of cities (projects LiWa and TURaS) and international educational cooperations. Since October 2010, he is programme coordinator of the MSc IUSD. Dr. Hassan Elmouehli
Urban planner, designer and architect, PhD in Architecture-International urbanism from the Habitat Unit, Berlin Technical University, Germany, entitled: “Culture and informal urban development: A case study of Cairo’s informal settlements”. He participated as an expert in several conferences, international workshops and seminars about informal urbanism in Germany, Egypt, India, and Tanzania. Currently he works as a research associate at Habitat Unit, on the research project: “Development Priorities in Informal Areas: Planning, Realization and Local Perceptions” in partnership with IUSD-Cairo, Ain Shams University. He joined as a co-lecturer at IUSD- Cairo for the integrated case study course in informal areas. He works also as a lecturer at Urban development master program, Campus EL-Gouna, TU Berlin. Eng. Nashwa Emad
Nashwa Emad received her B.Sc. in Urban Planning and Design (Ain Shams University, Cairo, 2012); she holds the position of a teaching as¬sistant at the Department of Urban Planning and Design, Ain Shams University where she is currently enrolled
as M.Sc. Candidate at Ain Shams. Nashwa is interested mainly in the role of landscape in the urban development of public open spaces and its impact on the viability of the city. MSc. Aya El-Wagieh
graduated from Ain Shams University department of Urban Planning and Design in 2011. Afterwards, Aya worked for the integrated development Group (IDG) as a researcher and designer, and then got a position as a teacher assistant at the university. Believing that getting exposed to different cultures and schools widens a person’s scope and perception, she participated in different multidisciplinary workshops and summer schools focusing on both informal areas and Siwa oasis. In 2014, she obtained her MSc. IUSD from Stuttgart University and Ain Shams with special focus on development in remote areas. Since then, Aya has been working again at the Urban Planning and Design department in Ain Shams University and joined the IUSD-Cairo team as a teaching assistant and researcher. Prof. Dipl.-Ing. Ingo Helmedag
studied architecture at Hanover University and at Graz University of Technology. After graduating from Hanover University he worked as an architect in a number of projects. Starting in 1993, he has taught as an assistant professor for Building Construction and Design at Dresden University of Technology. For the Faculty of Architecture, he established the European Erasmus Program and
furthered worldwide University exchange. In 1998, he was a visiting professor at the UBC, Vancouver. After joining DAAD in 2008, Ingo Helmedag became professor for Building Techniques and Design at the German Jordanian University (GJU) in Amman, where he remained until his transfer to Cairo’s Ain Shams University (IUSD Master Program) in September 2012. His focus and research interest is on building technique and sustainable design. Dipl.-Ing. Raoul C. Humpert
studied at the École Nationale Supérieure d´Architecture de Montpellier and the University of Stuttgart, where he received his diploma of Architecture and Urbanism. His interest in the multidisciplinarity of architecture strengthened while working in different architectural disciplines. He participated in different international workshops for mudbrick constructions, walkable cities and public schoolyards. He taught at the University of Innsbruck, is doing his Phd research and is part of the MSc IUSD program Coordination team. Merham M. Keleg
studied architecture at Faculty of Engineering, Ain Shams University, where she gained her BSc in 2011 with distinction. She was appointed as a teaching assistant at Urban Planning and Design Department at Ain Shams University. Since June 2012 she has been working as a research assistant at the ‘IUSD’ Cairo Research Lab, where she took part in writing several research proposals, conducting desktop
researches, assisted in writing scientific papers, as well as organizing workshops. She is a member of the organization committee of the Eco Cities World Summit 2015, Abu Dhabi, mainly appointed with highlighting the Arab Region. Merham has several publications in international conferences mainly focusing on the relation between the urban settings and people’s perceptions and engagement. Meanwhile working on her Master’s Thesis entitled ‘Accessibility as a main factor for the livability of public spaces – Cairo Districts as a case study’. Dr. Marwa A. Khalifa
obtained her B.Sc. & M.Sc., “Urban Planning” specialisation from Ain Shams University, while her PhD was a joint supervision between ASU and the University of Sheffield, UK. She has a major interest in environmental assessment, strategic planning, upgrading of informal settlements and participatory planning approaches. She combines both the theoretical backgrounds and practical experiences. She has been teaching and supervising multidisciplinary topics and is currently Associate Professor at the Department of Urban Planning and Design. Simultaneously, she provided consultancy services to both national and international organizations such as UN-Habitat. She participated and coordinated several international cooperations projects with universities in EU, Latin America, South Asia and MENA Region related to higher education reform in the field of participatory planning and natural resources management.
174 IUSD People Dipl.-Ing. MSc Franziska Laue
holds a Diploma in Architecture from TU Berlin and a M.Sc. in Integrated Urbanism and Sustainable Design (IUSD) Stuttgart/Cairo. Since 2003 she was engaged as a freelance advisor in projects in Germany, Syria, Burkina Faso and Egypt. From 2007 until 2011 she worked for the GIZ Urban Development Programme (UDP) in Aleppo. Since 2008 she was involved in local and international conferences, exhibitions and publications on local identity, informal urban development in the MENA region. Recently, Franziska was member of exhibition and publication teams for “Aleppo Archive” (DOC Aleppo) on urban heritage conservation and archiving as well as “Space Time Dignity Rights” (DAZ Berlin) on refugee camp improvement strategies. She has published on a long-term research on informal urban growth in Damascus, Syria. Since October 2013 she is research assistant and part of the IUSD Course Coordination Team at University of Stuttgart. Prof. Dr. Astrid Ley
studied architecture and urban design at RWTH Aachen and the Università degli Studi di Firenze in Italy. She holds a degree in architecture and urban design from RWTH Aachen and a P.hD from TU Berlin. Her professional life started as a project coordinator at the “Bundesweite Servicestelle Lokale Agenda 21” in Bonn before joining Habitat Unit, TU Berlin, as a teaching and research staff member. In 2010 she had a DAAD lectureship position at the School of
Architecture and Planning, University of the Witwatersrand in Johannesburg, South Africa. Recently, she held a position as urban development research analyst at the German Advisory Council on Global Change and as a Post Doc researcher in a research project on “Housing for the Urban Poor” at Habitat Unit, TU Berlin. Since October 2014 she is chair for international urbanism at the Institute for Urban Planning and Design, University of Stuttgart, and as course director of the MSc. IUSD programme. In her understanding it needs the development of a changed role of built environment practitioners as process designers in order to be able to include a network of actors. This will be central to develop solutions in complex problem constellations such as apparent in the international urban development context. M.Arch. Marisol Rivas Velásquez
studied architecture at the Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey Mexico (B.S. 1998) and received the Master of Excellence in Architecture at the Berlage Institute, Postgraduate Laboratory of Architecture (2002). She collaborated with several offices in Mexico and Belgium, among them the renowned offices of Teodoro González de León/ Mexico City, Ricardo Legorreta/ Mexico City and Stéphane Beel/ Ghent. She is a founding partner of the Ulm based practice “Architecture, Urbanism + Research Agency”. Marisol has been Visiting Professor at the ITESM Monterrey, Lecturer at the University of Technology, Munich and
Assistant Professor at the Institute of Design Studio1 of Leopold-FranzensUniversity in Innsbruck. Since 2010 Marisol is Assistant Professor at the Department of International Urbanism were she has been teaching and coordinating studies and research projects. In both her professional and academic practice Marisol’s research interest evolve on the topics of culture conflicts, tourism and informal urban development with special focus on African and Latin American cities. Prof. Dr. Mohamed Salheen
obtained his BSc in Urban Planning and Design in 1993 from Ain Shams University, Cairo. He was appointed as teaching staff at the department and later received a PhD scholarship to obtain his PhD in Urban Design from Edinburgh College of Art, UK in 1997 with a thesis on “Comprehensive Analysis Approaches in Urban Settings”. From 2001 until 2014 he acted as an assistant and associate professor at Ain Shams University teaching and supervising multidisciplinary topics. Developing a clear research line in the field of Integrated Planning and Design, he then became the first professor of Integrated Planning and Design in Egypt. To develop this research field Salheen had to develop various research lines at different levels ranging from Architectural Design to Regional Planning with diverse topics ranging from spatial Analysis to socioeconomic and cultural aspects, yet all focused on the intermediate gaps and Integrated Solutions. He has coordinated several international cooperation
projects with Universities in Germany, Sweden, Austria and Denmark. He is a member of the EU Higher Education reform Experts (HEREs) Team, contributing to various workshops and seminars on internationalisation and harmonisation of Higher Education. Salheen is also active in practice and consultation working with GIZ, UN-Habitat, UNEP and UNDP as well as other national and regional organizations in the fields of strategic, environmental and integrated planning and design. Prof. Dr. Yehya Serag
received a Bachelor‘s degree in Architecture with a major in Urban Planning and Design from Ain Shams University, Cairo. He, then, obtained his MA in human settlements (PGCHS – Catholic University of Leuven) as well as a Post Graduate Certificate in spatial and regional planning after completing the European Module for spatial development and planning (NewCastle University). He graduated with a PhD on the topic “Networking and networks as tools for regional development and planning: Human settlements’ development potentialities in the Western part of Egypt” from the department of Architecture, spatial planning and landscape (Catholic University of Leuven). Since April 2014, Serag holds the position of an associate professor of urban and regional planning at the Department of Urban Planning and Design at Ain Shams University. Starting from December 2010, he coordinates the MSc IUSD. He is currently interested in the impact of politics on
175 IUSD Staff urbanism as a new line of research, as well as , urban and regional strategic planning and development. Prof. Antje Stokman
is the chair of the Institute of Landscape Planning and Ecology at the University of Stuttgart and founding partner of the practice “osp urbanelandschaften” in Hamburg. She studied landscape architecture at Hanover University and Edinburgh College of Art. After graduation she gained practical experiences as a landscape architect in many international projects and was Associate Professor in Hannover University from 2005– 2010. She was awarded the Topos Landscape Award in 2011, the Lower Saxony Science Prize in 2009 and is member of the German national advisory council on spatial planning since 2010. In 2009, she co-initiated the MSc IUSD and now acts as Director of Admissions and teaches in various courses within the IUSD. Dipl.-Ing. Ines Wulfert
received her diploma of Architecture and Urban Planning at the University of Stuttgart in 2014. During her studies she developped a strong interest in projects with a social and ecological approach, which at the same time were not only planned, but also practically implemented in different cultural and spatial contexts. For that purpose she joined several international summerschools, in Southafrica, Egypt and Peru. During an internship in a well established grassroots organisation in Rwanda, she gained deep insights in the fields of architecture
and infrastructure planning as tool for sustainable development aid. Since September 2014 Ines started to work as a research assistant at the Institute for International Urbanism and was part of the IUSD Course Coordination Team at the University of Stuttgart.
Staff from other institutes involved in teaching:
Prof. Dr. Youhansen Y. Eid
Dipl.-Pol. Gerd Lüers
was involved in teaching on the elective Selected Topics On Urbanism.
Dipl.-Ing. Victoria von Gaudecker, SI
is teaching in the Core Module “Sustainable Architecture” of IUSD.
Dipl.-Ing. Dominique Gauzin-Müller, SI
is an architect and critic, specialized on sustianability. She teaches the core module “Sustainable Architecture” and is involved in teaching at the IUSd since 2012. Dr.-Ing. Mona Helmy, SI
offeres the elective course on “City Branding”since SS 2014. Dr. Hans-Georg Schwarzvon Raumer, ILPÖ
offered an elective on “Geodesign” in SS 2015. Dr.-Ing. Dietlinde Schmitt-Vollmer M.A., ifag
offered the elective “War Destruction and Reconstruction” in SS 2015. Dr. Anette Gangler
a private architect and urban planner, holds a master’s degree and Ph.D. from University of Stuttgart and offered the elective “Urban Cultural Heritage“ in SS 2015 .
is an expert in project monitoring and evaluation, change management and institutional capacity building; he delivers regular workshops for the MSc IUSD such as teambuilding and project management. Prof. Dr. Claus Peter Haase
is a muslim scientist and professor at the FU Berlin and publisher on islamic art history; he was involved in teaching the elective “Berlin Module” in SS 2015. Prof. Dr. Matthias Weiter
is coordinator at the DAFG e.V., professor for geography at the HU Berlin and the former head of the BMZ; he was part of the elective “Berlin Module” in SS 2015. Prof. Dr. Wolf Reuter
is professor at IWE, University of Stuttgart. Since 2012 Prof. Reuter is teaching in the IUSD Core Qualification Module “Master Thesis Exposé” at the University of Stuttgart.
176 IUSD People
environmental consultant, Lebanon
Heba Hatem Aggour
Dina Al Najjar
landscape architect, Turkey
177 IUSD Students 2014-2016
Juan Sebastian Alvarado Vargas
178 IUSD People
political scientist, Germany
architect & urban planner, Egypt
communication designer, Germany
Ahmed Hassan Abayazeed
architect & urban designer, Egypt
179 IUSD Students 2013-2015
Jude Al Issa Zada
landscape architect & agriculture engineer, Lebanon
180 IUSD People
urban planner, Egypt
Dina Noseir Abdelrashid
urban planner, Egypt
urban planner, Egypt
civil engineer, Lebanon
181 IUSD Alumni 2014
urban planner, Egypt
Mahy Mourad Nowier
urban planner, Syria
182 IUSD People
landscape architect, Germany
urban planner, Egypt
urban planner, Egypt
political scientist, Germany
Ebtihal Zakaria Rashad
urban planner, Egypt
urban planner, Egypt
Mohamed Amer Mahmoud Hegazy
planner/civil engineer, Syria
183 IUSD Alumni 2013
Mohammed Abdel Aziz Ibrahim
urban planner, Egypt
Mona Farouk Elkabbany
Insaf Ben Othmane Hamrouni
Graduation in Cairo, September 2014 â€“ After two years of hard studies, the 2nd intake celebrated their Graduation becoming MSc IUSD in Cairo with great moments, dance & laughter. â—?
186 IUSD People
IUSD Alumni Network
Since alumni relations are viewed as an important asset that contribute to the sustainability and continuity of the program, the IUSD management has developed a concept on how to strengthen the network with its graduates and ensure that the future graduates can be incorporated into the alumni activities of both universities, Ain Shams University and the University of Stuttgart.
187 Alumni Network
Alumni at the GAMP meeting at the DAAD premises in Cairo, Sept 2014
Hence, it was proposed to elect two representatives from each intake in a yearly voting process. Two elections for the graduate groups of the year 2012/13 and 2013/14 have already been carried out in 2013 and 2014. Besides ensuring the networking among alumni, the representatives’ tasks are to communicate ideas, and requests developed and posed by the graduates within themselves regardless of where they are and within IUSD management. Since IUSD is a part of the GAMP (German Arab Masters Programs) network, the current Alumni representatives are regular participants at meetings of GAMP in Cairo to exchange ideas between graduates of the GAMP from Germany and the Arab world with the aim of establishing a sustainable network between them. In order to keep in touch with fellow students and establish new professional contacts, both our IUSD Alumni group as well as our joint GAMP group, located on the online plat- form “AlumniPortal Deutschland”, are steadily growing. On the one hand this facilitates the tracking of whereabouts of fellow students and
networking with potentially interesting contacts. On the other hand, GAMP Alumni have successfully established joint Webinars via the “Alumniportal Deutschland”. So far, three webinars were conducted. In addition, IUSD is a member of the AGEP, and its alumni workshops and activities keep posing a possibility for the IUSD Alumni to be actively involved in. Alumni are also encouraged to take part in a number of the activities and events set forward by the IUSD program. Examples of such activities and events, which encourage the input and expertise of the IUSD Alumni are the “IUSD Lectures”, the “IUSD Salon”, and the “IUSD Lab”. In December 2014, IUSD Alumni were among the expert invitees for the international workshop on water sensitive urban design at Stuttgart University. IUSD Alumni were also present during Stuttgart’s Evangelischer Kirchentag, a major event for German Christians. ● Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org
188 IUSD People Webinar Series “GAMP Academy on Sustainability” (2014 – today)
The webinar series was established in 2014 and is running under the name “GAMP Academy on Sustainability”. It was initiated by the coordinators of the M.Sc. degree programs IUSD (Integrated Urbanism and Sustainable Design) and REMENA (Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency for the MENA Region). The Webinar is a new teaching and communication format for most GAMP programmes; with the exception of the IWRM programme, which has used it as part of the study curriculum before. Such online tool has several advantages. Among other, GAMP Webinars can be a complementary tool interconnecting one GAMP program with the other programs. As students who are studying in one program might have an interest into the specific expertise taught in one of the other programmes, the exchange could be beneficial. This new webinar series aims to target GAMP students, alumni, and potential GAMP applicants who are interested in studying in one of the five Master’s Programmes (REMENA, IUSD, EMEA, INEMA, IWRM) in order to achieve sustainability of resources, management and
Our Second Webinar in Kassel. Photo by Franziska Laue
planning, and soft skills needed to work successfully in international development projects. It addresses the program objectives, requirements and links participants to the intended learning outcomes (ILOs) and exposes them to views of Alumni on potential job markets. All Webinars are virtually available in the GAMP Alumni Group at the Alumniportal Deutschland. Everyone (from all over the world) is invited to join the webinar and participate with questions and contributions in the chat. Webinars
Our first online GAMP Webinar titled “GAMP Alumni and the International Job Market – Experiences and Reflections”, took place 4 December 2014. This event was jointly organized by IUSD and REMENA, DAAD and GIZ dealing with the topic. GAMP Alumni, students and friends were invited to join this live streaming session online to join the exchange of the experiences and employability of GAMP graduates. The webinar was held in English and was streamed live from Eschborn, Kairo, Kassel and Stuttgart. Mohamed Amer Hegazy, Franziska Laue, Mohamed AlFikky and Mahy Murad shared their experiences as IUSD Alumni.
189 Alumni Network
Our First Webinar. Photo by Franziska Laue
Our second Webinar on “The Role of Renewable Energies and Energy Efficiency in Achieving Sustainable Communities” was jointly organized by IUSD and REMENA 17th February 2015. This time The first lecture, titled „Moroccan National Energy Strategy Reviewed from a Meteorological Perspective“ was presented by REMENA Alumni Alla Hamwi. The second lecture on „The Role of Energy Efficient Buildings in Reducing the Loads on the Electric Grid“ was jointly presented by IUSD Alumnus Mohamed Amer Hegazy and REMENA Alumnus Mohamed Shalaby. Finally, IUSD Course Director Prof. Mohamed Salheen and IUSD Alumna spoke about applicabilities of „Biogas as a Model for Urban Environmental Quality in Informal Areas in Cairo“. Finally, the third webinar was organised by our GAMP partners: On May 27th, students, staff and alumni of the German-Arab Master’s Program “Economics of the Middle East” (EMEA) and “International Education Management” (INEMA), together with GIZ, conducted a webinar on the topic “The Role of Education for Sustainable Development”. Subjects were: “The Role of Parallel Education in Sustainable Development”, “Hidden Costs of the MENA Region Brain Drain:
Declining Quality of Education”, “Education For All 2.0? From Dakar via Maskat to Incheon – next steps in the global education agenda”, “Sustainable Development: The Development Cooperation Perspective”, and „The Pan African University – Sustainability over borders“ to highlight the role of higher education in a pan-African context. The IUSD team gladly thanks Anke Aref (MSc. REMENA), Marc Selig (MSc. REMENA), as well as Werner Wassmuth (GIZ), Hanna Labonté (GIZ), and Emily Andres (GIZ), Stefanie Altmann (DAAD), Dominique Roth (buero für neues denken GmbH, Berlin), and everyone else involved, for their energy and positivity to bringing the Webinar series to life. ●
190 IUSD Lab
IUSD Advisory Board
Advisory Board members in deep thoughts at the annual meeting at Ain Shaims University in September 2014
In this yearbook we would like to introduce you to the IUSD Advisory Board. The IUSD Advisory Board in its composition reflects the practiceoriented nature of IUSD and includes representatives of international development organizations, networks, academia and the private sector.
191 IUSD Advisory Board
In this yearbook we would like to introduce you to the IUSD Advisory Board. The IUSD Advisory Board in its composition reflects the praxis-oriented nature of IUSD and includes representatives of international development organisations, networks, academia, and the private sector. Both members and the IUSD team and students gather once a year on the occasion of the annual IUSD week in Stuttgart or Cairo. Besides their reflective role, members also give valuable input to the IUSD master’s theses. Members of the first Advisory Board, which was active from 2011 until 2014, consisted of Prof. Dr. Julio Dávila (DPU London), Prof. Dr. Galal Elgemeie (Egyptian Ministry of Higher Education), Dr. Mohamed Hamza (Egyptian Ministry of Higher Education), Dr. Michael Harms (DAAD Cairo), Dr. Muhammad Kadhim (UN Habitat), Regina Kipper (GIZ Cairo), Roland Lindenthal (German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development, BMZ), Joan Parpal (MedCities Barcelona), A. Prof. Hans Skotte (Norwegian University of Science and Technology, NTNU Trondheim), Prof. em. Han Verschure (KU Leuven), and
The IUSD Advisory Board members, September 2014
Peter F. Webers (German Federal Ministry of Education and Research, BMBF). In 2014 the first funding phase for the IUSD and with it the term of the Advisory Board has ended and we would like to thank the Advisory Board members in the starting phase of the program. They have made a great difference through their sincerity and support, ideas, input, and enthusiasm. The advisory board has assisted us in making valuable improvements to our program. Their contribution enabled us to develop the programme structure and methodology, implementation of academic and educational aspects of IUSD. With the second funding phase we are now welcoming the new members of our IUSD Advisory Board: Prof. Dr. Leslie Forsyth (University of Sheffield), René Hohmann (Cities Alliance), Alexandra Linden (GIZ, Advisor to BMZ), Prof. Dr. Tanja Winkler (UCT, Cape Town), Prof. Dr. Abdelhamid El Zoheiry (EMUNI), and Dr. Mohamed Seoufi (UNHabitat). We are looking forward to a continuously fruitful collaboration in the coming years. ●